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Hydrogen Power Energy - HHO Generators

Hydrogen Power Energy - HHO Generators

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Hydrogen-onDemand technology has become a very sustainable solution to our ever-polluting engines. This HHO Generator technology which produces hydroxy gas on demand is deemed safe and has many benefits to our environment and our overall fuel consumption.
Any engine (diesel or gasoline alike) can be converted to run on this "Hydrogen-on-Demand" technology which automatically transforms the engine into a hybrid unit -- using its existing fuel in conjunction with hydrogen.
Learn more about this awesome and environmentally-friendly technology through the eBook "Hydrogen Power Energy," which is a free source courtesy of the website: http://www.AlternativeFuelEnergy.net
Hydrogen-onDemand technology has become a very sustainable solution to our ever-polluting engines. This HHO Generator technology which produces hydroxy gas on demand is deemed safe and has many benefits to our environment and our overall fuel consumption.
Any engine (diesel or gasoline alike) can be converted to run on this "Hydrogen-on-Demand" technology which automatically transforms the engine into a hybrid unit -- using its existing fuel in conjunction with hydrogen.
Learn more about this awesome and environmentally-friendly technology through the eBook "Hydrogen Power Energy," which is a free source courtesy of the website: http://www.AlternativeFuelEnergy.net

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Published by: Diagnostic OBD2 Scanner on Jan 24, 2012
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06/18/2013

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This eBook is the SOLE Propriety of Alternative Fuel Energy Propriety

http://www.AlternativeFuelEnergy.net

Chapter 1 Introduction:---------------------------------------------------------------- Page 3

Chapter 2 Hydrogen Power Energy Terminology:------------------------------- Page 10

Chapter 3 Hydrogen Booster History:---------------------------------------------- Page 28

Chapter 4 Hydrogen Generator Developments:--------------------------------- Page 30

Chapter 5 Hydrogen Generator Limitations:------------------------------------- Page 34

Chapter 6 Main Parts Of The Hydrogen Generator:---------------------------- Page 37

Chapter 7 Function Of HHO Generators:------------------------------------------ Page 39

Hydrogen Power Energy by http://www.AlternativeFuelEnergy.net

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Chapter 8 Trying Your Skills At Building A Dry HHO Generator:------------ Page 48

Chapter 9 Challenges In Liquid Hydrogen Technology:------------------------ Page 51

Chapter 10 Less Fuel Consumption Through Hydrogen Power:--------------- Page 55

Chapter 11 Our Environmental Impact Using Clean Energy:------------------- Page 58

Chapter 12 When To Use An Electronic Fuel Injection Enhancer:------------ Page 60

Chapter 13 The Art Of Fine-Tuning Your HHO Generator:---------------------- Page 64

Chapter 14 Conclusion & Essential Online HHO Generator Resources:----- Page 67

Hydrogen Power Energy by http://www.AlternativeFuelEnergy.net

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Chapter 1 - Introduction
Welcome to this exquisite topic of Hydrogen Hydrogen-on-Demand using Hydrogen Demand Generators. Disclaimer: This eBook is now FREE. Do NOT purchase this from anyone in digital format as I, the author, decided to remove it from the market as a sellable download. It used to sell for $14 before I took a decision to give it away to anyone who anyone, requests this information. This is my contribution to a healthier environment. I grant the permission for this book to be shared by anyone interested in the subject, as long as it remains unaltered in any way or form. The author does not sell any physical HHO D.I.Y. guides or HHO kits and any recommendations are from third third-party developers. The author expresses a NO LIABILITY policy through the use of this book. The book was created through various self experiments and testing during our free d self-experiments time, and is only geared towards self education. There are many varying factors self-education. which are out of the author’s control, like the individual skill set variation from one person to another, safety precautions taken by individuals and much more. Please always use common sense and if in doubt ask for expert help. Do not try any guess work. You are responsible for your own actions!

Author of Hydrogen Energy Power “Hydrogen “Hydrogen-on-Demand”

Steve Jones website: http://www.AlternativeFuelEnergy.net Hydrogen Power Energy by http://www.AlternativeFuelEnergy.net

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This book started out from a group of like-minded enthusiasts who are experienced in different sectors of the automobile industry. Between all of us we accumulate around 46 years of automotive experience. I decided to write this book after extensive research and education, including many trial and errors we encountered till we finally found the best products available. Luckily for us we started out on a cheap budget and so we were forced to build our own hydrogen generators. We sifted through many piles of designs and plans we found through library archives and electronic downloads. Needless to say we still went over our tight budgets over the course of the years but gained massive first-hand experience. This enabled me to enter the D.I.Y. (Do It Yourself) Hydrogen-on-Demand Industry as a tester to check out some of the best current available D.I.Y. guides on the market. I ended up only choosing five D.I.Y. products over all the others we tried, together with two complete kit systems — which only need installation.

The Initial Journey One of my existing clients likes to run on optimum, but O.E.M. factory specification engines. He doesn't understand my need for more speed, torque, BHP and engine noise. According to him I am a mental internal combustion engine maniac. He certainly is not into seeking maximum torque and BHP on a rolling road session, and does not understand one’s need to modify extensively the internals of an engine. For him it is just a waste of that hard earned cash. A rolling road only makes sense to him to tune the engine to O.E.M specs. The rest is simply "Fuel Wastage" according to him! To a certain extent he is right. But everyone craves on something different. That's what creates diversity in us human beings.

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Well one day he came up to me with an old classic BMW E24 — M 635 CSi, which was pretty sound and well kept body wise. The interior was much better; it seemed that it was never used. But the engine was running really badly and it needed some extensive tuning and fettling with. Not that the engine was neglected — it was the contrary because it was hardly ever used. To make matters worse it was used by an elderly couple who traveled short distances and rarely passed through any highway to stretch the engine's muscles. This caused all sorts of grief in such a high performance engine, mainly due to excessive carbon blockages in the catalytic converter. The sensors were contaminated and the injectors became mushy. We decided to strip the top end and do a thorough service. This included cleaning all the ports, check the valve seats, valves and valve guides for any wear, replace all top end seals and gaskets. For safety measures we decided to change the water and oil pump while we were at it. The injectors were sent of for ultra sound cleaning and recalibration too.

In the meantime the owner was browsing a car related forum and found someone with a classic Mustang, who said he had cured excessive carbon without stripping the engine. “Oh, yeah” he said to himself, but still kept on glued to his post. After reading the whole post he heard about a new phrase "HHO Generators." He started investigating it through Google (his favorite search engine) and got addicted on what he was finding. He ended up saving a whole bunch of 22 different sites in his Favorites Folder on his browser. Next day he came up to me while we were installing the mufflers back to his reconditioned top end and insisted that we find some time to check this HHO thing on the internet with him. He didn't even trust me alone, so he invited me to his house after work! Hydrogen Power Energy by http://www.AlternativeFuelEnergy.net

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We ended up on a free site which gave a very primitive, but well executed wet HHO system. We decided to give it a try on one of my old V8 test-beds, which I had lying around. If it did work well and even save fuel, with documented proof he wanted one on his Beemer.

My first HHO system was very primitive in design and could barely work well continuously. I was building it without any proper plans and instructions. After many hours fettling with it and inviting my buddies for some extra help, we managed to get it at a decent working level. Needless to say, my Beemer client got hooked and started to chat about it all day according to his wife! So we decided to build an improved version, and tried to implement some safety features in the design, especially in the electrical department, as there was not even a fuse in our first testing design. Never copy this madness. I decided to call team of people to help me out for the second one. These were my brother, my friend, who is an electrician, and me. We decided to build it as a hobby after my own working hours in our workshop. The second version was improved slightly in all areas. But mostly the simple, yet lacking features in the electrical circuit were now done professionally, with safety constantly in mind. After a week of constant testing we decided to sell it off for a small profit to my Beemer client. To say he was happy was an understatement. He kept calling me with impressive increase in mpg every few days. Mr. Beemer became like a kid who discovered a new toy. Better not mention what his wife thought of him!

The Beemer guy started spreading the word and we had many curious individuals asking us about this system, also asking us if it was possible that Hydrogen Power Energy by http://www.AlternativeFuelEnergy.net

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they built one themselves. Knowing that while the site we found did manage to get us in the direction and guidance of building one — which actually worked well, after some extensive fettling on our test bed, my brother and I were aware that they were not safe enough for the road, both in the mechanical department and faring much worse in the electrical department. We didn't want to be responsible for any accident which might happen — like a burned car, so we kept our mouths shut on this site.

We were convinced to build two others by our friends and clients, so we did the same exact replica we had done on the BMW. My brother really got into it and ended up doing research after work for a whole nine months, trying to find something ready to install or a good quality kit assembly.

We tested over 12 of these D.I.Y. kits after being convinced that they should work. We only could come up with 4 top quality wet cell designs which we build successfully and found them consistent in flow, well designed from their authors (most were well advanced in their technical background) and which we deemed safe to built for any of our clients, should they ask for one.

We then came across the Dry System offered by Punch HHO and were blown away. Nothing could stand as close as this dry system.

Compact, very well constructed by the author, materials used were all high grades and the layout of the guide and extra videos were nothing we could compare with the other systems. We also came across another dry system but this was an installation kit.

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The whole generator was built up and assembled and all external parts, plastic tank, wiring, ammeter, fuses and fuse holders, crimping wire end connections, screws, washers, nuts and brackets. It was a truly well executed kit which functioned to perfection.

This is when we decided to build a website (my brother actually) and I maintained the speeches (writing) as he simply hates it. We build our site across the genuine review page of our final #5 products, in D.I.Y. which were 4 wet types, and the only dry type in D.I.Y. form that we found. Another dry one that we found is not even worth mentioning. So that leaves us with one dry type.

So my final recommendation would be split in two categories. Category #1 — for any DIY build-it yourself guide & Category #2 — for those who want a Complete Kit which is built using modern machining process and accuracies one cannot match by hand.

My preferred end results would be: For Category #1:- DIY guide — Punch HHO V5.0 an improved version over the one we tested V3.0 & For Category #2:- Ready-made Kit Pro HHO Direct only installation is required

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If you would ever have to choose, I can safely say these are the ultimate results we found to date. Spend your hard earned once and do it right, first time. We did all the testing for you and are sharing our own experiences and results for you other folks out there. You are lucky we were the guinea-pigs! This enables you folks to take this advantage from our own research and experiences — no need to go through all the testing grieves we did.

Hydrogen Power Energy by http://www.AlternativeFuelEnergy.net

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Chapter 2 - Hydrogen Power Energy Terminology
I sincerely hope that you will not become overwhelmed with the technical terminology, but as every subject in life, specific terms are formed from humans, which often intimidates the layman. By the end of the book you will probably remember all these technical words or phrases as they will be used extensively. My promise to you is that by the time you finish this course, you will know more about this fascinating subject than 95% of the world! A bold claim — I know, but it’s true.

Technical Terminology: Water Electrolysis This is when an electric current flows between two metal plates, or wires (called the electrodes) that are immersed in water, the water is broken down into its basic molecules: Hydrogen and Oxygen. The metal plates are connected in such a way that there are two poles; Positive (+) and Negative (-) for the complete current flow cycle. For this to work the current must be direct current (DC), the same as found in our vehicles. As pure water is a poor conductor of electricity, we need some additive to start up the conduction process.

Catalyst This is something added to the water to start the electrolysis process of separating the hydrogen from the oxygen. There are various types of catalysts, but a good example is baking soda. When the catalyst is mixed up with water, in a dissolved form - the end result is called the "electrolyte."

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Tip: You can safely try this simple experiment at home Experiment:Find a 9 volt battery and attaching a small wire to each lead, then immersing those wires in a clear glass with tap water and 2 teaspoons of baking soda dissolved into it. Remove about an inch of the wire insulation ends before immersing them in the water. Keep the wires close together, but not touching. You will immediately see bubbles coming off the two wires — Oxygen will gather on one wire, while hydrogen gathers on the other wire.

Anode The positive electrode which gathers (attracts) oxygen on it during the circulating current process. The anode surface is attacked by the oxygen (known as oxidation) and will eventually have to be replaced.

Cathode The negative electrode. This gathers hydrogen on it during the circulating current process. The cathode surface lasts a lifetime as it is damaged by hydrogen.

Brown's Gas The final output mixture of hydrogen and oxygen produced from the electrolysis process and is the end result produced from the electrolyzer. Brown’s Gas was named after Professor Yull Brown but also has other various names like “Rhode’s Gas” for example. These all contributed heavily to today’s accepted name of HHO gas (Hydrogen-Hydrogen-Oxygen).

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Brown's Gas is great not only for supplemental fuel for engines but is also used for cutting metal, soldering and brazing (joining metals at high temperatures), as well as the welding of various metals inexpensively (compared to the commonly used welding with acetylene). When separating water into its Brown's Gas state, each Gallon of water expands into gigantic proportions — 1,860 Gallons of highly combustible gas! When ignited (by spark, flame or compression), Brown's Gas implodes. An implosion of that amount would result in the release of 1,859 parts of vacuum energy. 99.95% of Brown's Gas turns into energy upon ignition.

CNG - Compressed Natural Gas Methane Gas in a compressed format.

Methane This is a natural gas and can also be in a compressed format — like CNG.

Hydrogen-on-Demand This is a self created expression from experimenters and enthusiasts. Hydrogen generators (HHO generators) only produce hydrogen while the car is running, hence the name. This is why these systems (wet and dry) are safe because no hydrogen is stored in the vehicle, unlike pure hydrogen cars.

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Hydrogen Generator — HHO Generator This is where the water exchanges its “energy” due to the break-down of its molecules. Pure water by nature consists of hydrogen and oxygen (chemical symbol H2O) This is the complete unit described above (experiment) which produces the HHO gas. Through the water electrolysis process the finished result would become: 1 Hydrogen Atom + 1 Hydrogen Atom ____________ HH & __________________________ + 1 Oxygen Atom ______________________________ O

They are mainly categorized in two: • Wet Cell type And • Dry Cell type The main difference is in the construction; both will eventually produce the same HHO gas.

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Wet Cell The wet cell has both of the electrode surfaces immersed in the electrolyte solution. The electrical wires for the circuit (12 volts in our case) are connected at each end of the electrodes to form a cell, in this case one positive electrode and one negative. Additional electrodes can be configured and wired in a way to form multiple cells.

Dry Cell The dry cell differs because only a small portion of the plates meets the electrolyte. The configuration is sealed in closed chambers through gaskets and the electrolyte travels by gravity into the chamber. These have lower maintenance schedules and the plates last longer. They are also favored in many cases because of their compact dimensions making them perfect for modern vehicles were space is limited. The best Dry Cell D.I.Y. guide we found till now is the Punch HHO System. It comes complete with exact scale templates and is the one which produces consistent results.

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The diagram below is a pictorial explanation of the above format.

WET Type HHO Generator (Single Cell Diagram)

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Bubbler

A bubbler is simply a safety-enhancing device, or part of a device that vents air through water in an electrolyzer. It could either be a standalone device, or incorporated in the design itself, eliminating a standalone device.

Hybrid Engine An engine which works on more than one simple form of energy is considered a hybrid. Mopeds, electric bicycles, and even electric kick scooters are a simple form of a hybrid, as power is delivered both via an internal combustion engine or electric motor and the rider's muscles. Hydrogen-on-Demand is also considered a hybrid engine as the engine is performing on the originating fuel (gasoline or diesel) in addition to hydrogen gas.

Check Valve This is a device that allows a flow of gas or liquid in one direction only, usually through a hose or piping system. It closes automatically when the flow stops or is reversed.

DEMSE – Dual-Edge MAP Sensor Enhancer A dual-knob device that is capable of adjusting the air-to-fuel ratio in the mixture.

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EFIE – Electronic Fuel Injection Enhancer nic The EFIE is a device to correct the stoichiometric level programmed into a car in order to accommodate Hydrogen Hydrogen-on-Demand technology. These are manufactured by Eagle Research of FuelSaver-MPG.

Exothermic The energy release of a chemical reaction or compound, usually in the form of heat. In layman’s terms it is known as "outside heating."

hydrogen Oxyhydrogen − oxy-hydrogen This is simply another name for Brown's Gas.

PCV Enhancer

A device to clean the blow-by gases so they do by not re-enter the engine.

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Pot – Potentiometer A variable type resistor which can be found in the form of a rotatable or slide adjustment. Regardless of its shape and apart from its resistance, that's different from one to the other, pots come in two electrically different versions. There's the nonlinear "logarithmic" type which is good for audio amplifiers use. However, for the MAP Sensor Enhancer we want the LINEAR type, which means the resistance is spread evenly as you turn the adjuster knob.

Potassium Hydroxide – NaOH This is more known to the layman as “lye.” A common catalyst used in electrolyzers. This is a very corrosive and toxic substance which can be replaced by more user-friendly alternatives such as Baking Soda and Sodium friendly Citrate.

PWM − Pulse Width Modulator This is a device that controls the amount of power delivered to an electrolyzer. The PWM is also used for controlling electrical motors and other devices. The main reason for using one is to change the ratio of ON time to OFF time, thus creating an effect of reduced overall energy delivered to the electrolyzer. Another good reason to use PWM in HHO production is to excite the eason electrodes many times a second, resulting in a more efficient, less heat producing electrolysis.

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Sodium Bicarbonate Commonly known as Baking Soda in layman’s terms. This has become a very popular catalyst for electrolyzers, as it is non toxic (used in food, dental health, etc.) and is a user friendly alternative to other catalysts.

Sodium Citrate Another optional catalyst which can be used in hydrogen generators (electrolyzers). It is also non toxic and can be found in food ingredients like in ice cream and cream cheese and is a user friendly alternative to other catalysts. This is not as cheap as Sodium Bicarbonate (baking soda) but keeps the electrolyzer cleaner.

Sodium Hydroxide – NaOH This is commonly known as either lye, or caustic soda. A common catalyst used in Electrolyzers. Very toxic and corrosive which has other user friendly alternatives, such as Baking Soda and Sodium Citrate.

SPDT - Single Pole, Double Throw A type of switch type that can switch one circuit — that is why the term "single pole." It is capable of making an electrical connection in each of its "throws" — sides of its motion.

DPDT − Double Pole, Double Throw This is a type of switch that can switch two circuits separately, that's the "double pole" and is capable of making an electrical connection in each of its "throws" (sides of its motion). Hydrogen Power Energy by http://www.AlternativeFuelEnergy.net

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Spiral A coiled shape, similar to a thread screw, or better compared to the shape of a coil spring. The difference between “coil” and “spiral” is that a coil can be winding upon itself, but a spiral is spread out through space. When an electric current is flowing in a spiral conductor (wire), it creates a magnetic vortex — rapid spinning flow, similar to a whirlpool effect.

Stoichiometric This describes the fuel to air mixture of "proper" proportions. According to automotive conventional technology and development, it should be in a ratio of 14.7:1, but in actual fact these are arbitrary numbers. A car can drive just as nicely on 25:1. In fact, if you were to design it in a slightly different way. Ignition and valve timing are playing a major role in this numbers game. The new "Stoichiometric balance” would now become the new normal ratio of 25:1.

Thermal Runaway This is a situation which might occur in an electrolyzer and refers to a situation where an increase in temperature changes the conditions that causes a further rise in temperature, leading to a destructive result.

Vaporization The physical change of going from a solid or a liquid into a gaseous state.

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Vaporizer A device that adds water vapor to the air/fuel mixture of a vehicle's engine in order to boost its power, improve combustion (and in many cases also fuel economy) and reduce harmful emissions.

Electrolyzer Many different names are given by various inventors, especially now that Hydrogen-on-Demand systems are being copied and developed further by entrepreneurial minded people. This has also more to do with new name brands for “semi-commercial” purposes, as advertisement goes. Some common names are: Water fuel cell Hydrogen generator HHO generator Hydroxy fuel cell They all mean the same thing, as they are a type of device or machine that splits water into hydrogen and oxygen, ultimately producing Brown's Gas or HHO gas.

Joe Cell A type of electrolyzer named after the inventor. It consists of a series of stainless steel tubing, one inside the other. It is quite powerful but relatively expensive and hard to replicate, especially given the accuracy needed. Some people such as Bill Williams claimed to have run a vehicle exclusively on a Joe cell.

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PCV Valve − Positive Crankcase Ventilation Valve A simple one-way valve that ensures continual re-circulating of this “junk” keeps trapped in a specialized container from an internal combustion engine's crankcase.

Carb or Carburetor Mechanical system that regulates the fuel and air mixture to the engine’s intake manifold.

EFi – Electronic Fuel injection Modern fuel passes through sophisticated high pressure injectors which are controlled electronically from the engine’s PCM (Powertrain Unit), or ECU (Engine Control Unit).

I.C.E – (Internal Combustion Engine) All fossil fuel engines are internal combustion engines, meaning the explosion formed from the burning fuel is done in a sealed chamber.

On-Board Diagnostics – OBD This is a generic term referring to a vehicle's self-diagnostic and reporting capability. OBD systems give the vehicle owner or a repair technician access to state of health information for various vehicle sub-systems. We refer to it as a generic term for the entire "program" running the vehicle, including its usage of energy in various conditions. While there are differences between vehicles, OBD-I generally refers to pre-1996 vehicles, while the more advanced and pervasive system OBD-II refers to models 1996 and newer. In Hydrogen Power Energy by http://www.AlternativeFuelEnergy.net

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some newer models OBD-II is replaced or supplemented with what is called CAN (Controller Area Network) where on board devices can communicate with each other without going through the ECU.

ECU – Engine Control Unit' or PCM – Powertrain Control Module Modern engines are controlled by computerized electronics. In other words it is the heart of the engine management system in any modern vehicle, collecting many inputs from sensors around the vehicle and controlling all functions of the engine. Fuel injection control and heat management are key areas of monitoring and control.

PCM for OBD II Management System

Oxygen sensor − O2 sensor This is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the output gas (exhaust) being analyzed. Modern vehicles have a small sensor inserted into the exhaust system, sometimes before and after the catalytic converter to measure the concentration of oxygen remaining in the exhaust gas. This allows the PCM to control the efficiency of the combustion process in the engine. A "side effect" of oxygen sensors is that they can disrupt fuel-saving technologies that create a lean fuel-air mixture. If the engine burns too lean due to any modifications (such as adding oxygen from an HHO generator), the sensor will detect the mixture as being too lean, and the engine computer will adjust the injector pulse duration, so that the airfuel mixture continues to stay within the stoichiometric ratio of 14.7:1 on a typical vehicle.

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There are ways that the oxygen sensor can be overcome. Sometimes, a device (EFIE) can be inserted inline with the sensor, which tricks the engine computer into thinking the mixture is stoichiometric, when actually it is either rich, or lean, and therefore, this modification will not be automatically corrected by the oxygen sensor.

PCV − Positive Crankcase Ventilation This is a design in the engine’s to evacuate "blow-by gases" and moisture from the crankcase of an internal combustion engine. The blow-by gases are a combination of burnt and un-burnt fuel, oil escaping from the cylinder — past the piston rings [much more on a worn-out engine — piston rings] during a piston's power stroke, and into the crankcase. These byproducts of combustion form acid and sludge in the crankcase and cause “exhaust smoke.” Naturally they do not help mileage when the PCV system re-circulates this junk by-product back into the intake manifold, which is the breathing part of the engine. The air entering the engine should NOT have sludge added to it! It must breathe clean air in order to work properly.

Ping – Pinging Commonly known as "knocking" in the mechanic’s trade. This is a banging noise in the heard in the engine, while running and is caused by improper combustion.

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MAP Sensor Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor is used in modern engines to determine the pressure in the intake manifold of a modern OBD equipped engine.

MAF − Mass Air Flow sensor This is a sensor which registers the mass of air. One of many inputs the PCM takes into consideration when determining the amount of fuel to be injected into the engine.

Diagnostic Scanner This is an electronic device which can either be hand-held, or stationary which reads and is capable of clearing up engine error codes — “Check Engine” light.

Short Circuit Electricity taking a "shortcut" due to a reduced resistance, compared to the proper path. This results in very high, uncontrolled electrical current. Any severe short circuit ends up in vehicle fire, causing severe damage.

Engine tuner A qualified auto mechanic that specializes in tuning vehicles and engines for best performance, maximum fuel efficiency, or better still, finding a balanced medium in optimal performance and fuel efficiency.

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VAC − Volts Alternating Current The voltage used in domestic and industrial places. Usually supplied as 120 Volts AC or 240 Volts AC, depending on country.

VDC − Volts Direct Current The direct current voltage used in automotive vehicles. Can be anything from 6 Volts DC to 24 Volts DC. Old motorbikes used to have 6V DC and 24V DC is found on very large commercial vehicles. Most automobiles use 12V DC as standard.

Watt(s) A measurement unit of electrical power; not potential power (voltage), but the actual work done. The Watts expresses how many electrons flow in a given unit of time. To find the "wattage" — electrical power we multiply Volts by Amps. The formula is expressed as: W= V x I

Xylene Many people associate this with paint thinner or cleaning thinner and is normally bought at your paint depot. Quoting FireNet International (UK), they say it is actually part of gasoline: "Dimethylbenzene. An aromatic compound having the formula C6H4(CH3)2. Xylene is a major component of gasoline."

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NOx These are gases that consist of one nitrogen molecule and a varying number of oxygen molecules. Nitrogen oxides are produced in the emissions of vehicle exhausts and from power stations. In the atmosphere, nitrogen oxides can contribute to formation of photochemical ozone — “smog” which impairs visibility and have health consequences. According to the EPA they are considered pollutants.

Ethanol One of the reasons you've been losing mileage in recent years. Also known as ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol or grain alcohol; it is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound. Produced from edible crops such as corn/sugar/maize, it is now used as a fuel additive enforced on drivers across the USA [10% blends], UK [5% — moving up to 10% blends], Brazil [25%], Sweden and others. With only 2/3 of the energy of gasoline, it requires MORE petroleum import for every gallon of ethanol we use.

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Chapter 3 - Hydrogen Booster History
This is going to be an exciting topic towards the end of the chapter as you’ll find out what has been hidden for so long. We will uncover why this secret was kept under lock and key from the rest of the world. Since the discovery of hydrogen gas in 1766 by Henry Cavendish who was a British scientist and later on, in 1766 a Dutch scientist Martinus van Marum, who did a lot of experiments with electricity he finally came with the electrolysis process of creating Oxygen and Hydrogen gas from water.

Fast forward to the 1860s Jean Joseph Etienne built the first car which used electrolysis to produce oxyhydrogen gas. When the gasoline internal combustion engine was introduced, people started experimenting with primitive "HHO generators" and these new internal combustion engines.

The first "Hydrogen Booster" system was patented by Charles H. Frazer in 1918. He invented a system that increased fuel efficiency, used a lower grade fuel and improved combustion of hydrocarbons. Later on in 1935, an electrolytic carburetor was patented that could run just on tap water.

Secret Fact No. #1 HHO generators were also used by the military during the fuel shortages in the Second World War.

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Secret Fact No. #2 NASA also became interested, doing their own research on this subject and had great results. Then in 1990, Stanley Meyer demonstrated that a car can just run on water! It was a 1.6 liter engine installed in a dune buggy. It had on board electrolysis, with no hydrogen tanks. The Equinox TV (UK) featured a program "It Runs on Water" featuring Stanley and his dune buggy. Today HHO generators are commonly used in all sorts of vehicles where internal combustion engines (ICE) are concerned; motorcycles, cars, SUVs, trucks and boats. You try and name it and probably an HHO generator has been installed. The most famous HHO car today is probably the "Ronn motors" Scorpion HX, an economic super-car that uses HHO technology to improve fuel efficiency. At the same time it is capable of delivering stunning performance. It was tested by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger himself! Now calculating some basic math we come to our second surprise if we ask the same question in the beginning of the chapter, and that is:

"How long has this secret was been kept away from our eyes?"

Forgetting about the NASA research and their public documentation in favor of hydrogen, we are left with the year 1990 (I call it the Stanley Mayer year). That is over 20 years of hidden technology because of the dirty politics involved with Fuel tax and the Big Oil Companies!

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Chapter 4 - Hydrogen Generator Developments
HHO Cells for an Optimum Hydrogen Generator The simple definition of a HHO cell is a device that consumes some electrical energy to separate hydrogen and oxygen from water to produce a gas. The cell is enclosed in a container where the electrolyte (water mixed with other substance) resides between the two immersed plates, the anode and the cathode. This whole package is called electrolyzer, but most people are now referring to it as a “Hydrogen Generator.”

A Brief History on Hydrogen Fuel Cells Most probably the first fuel cell was introduced in 1889 by Welsh scientist Sir William Grove who built it from the ground up through his experimentation. He had come to the conclusion that by immersing two platinum electrodes end in sulfuric acid and the other opposing ends of the electrodes in separate sealed containers consisting of hydrogen and oxygen created a constant flow of current (I). Eventually the experiment progressed to several cells connected in series and the end result became what he called a “gas battery.” Various developments of these fuel cells continued through other experimenters for the next 75 years while different scientists discovered new materials for better electrodes, including other different variations and substances as electrolytes. During the 1970s NASA had chosen to use liquid hydrogen fuel cells over the dangerous nuclear energy. This new perspective, which proved itself as more than sufficient in the space shuttle, gave fuel cells a new lens to other engineers who had witnessed NASA’s achievements. Suddenly it came apparent that they could create generators to power up all types of electrical devices. Later on through experimental technology they started adapting them as an alternative fuel resource to fossil fuel energy which was much quieter and the end byproduct was totally clean, something which cannot be related to petroleum energy.

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Water Electrolysis Process from the HHO cell The process of water electrolysis can be described using simple terminology as the “splitting up” of water to convert it into energy. Below a simple schematic text explains more clearly the process from Start (water) to End (steam). The catalyst inside the electolyzer is the combination “mixture” of water and the electrolyte. To clarify the misconception of words we can take a typical example of water added to baking soda: Baking Soda on its own = Catalyst Water mixed with Baking Soda = Catalyst + Water = Electrolyte The catalyst is used to energize the electric current to the separation process of hydrogen and oxygen, producing the resultant HHO gas we need. The reason a catalyst (one safe example is Baking Soda) is dissolved in distilled water is because water alone is unable to conduct electricity. The cathode is the negative electrode through which electric current enters and gathers hydrogen. The current moves onto the anode which is the positive electrode. Oxygen is collected on the anode plate and this is the main reason why the anode deteriorates. Oxygen reacts with the anode plate and oxidization is formed. In the water electrolysis process the resultant hydrogen and oxygen form as gaseous products and bubble from the electrolyte, where they are eventually collected.

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Safety concerning HHO cells vs Liquid Hydrogen Tanks Many car manufacturers have been experimenting and finalizing on various robust materials to store liquid hydrogen in the safest way possible. BMW have even introduced their flagship 7 series model to hydrogen, known as the “Hydrogen 7.”

BMW Hydrogen 7 engine

The only problem is that despite all the safety requirements which they managed to pass through liquid hydrogen is still very unsafe when refilling time comes due. Also storing that amount of liquid hydrogen can have disastrous effects in case the worst of accidents ever happens to that vehicle and the tank ruptures. Hydrogen fueling stations are still deemed unsafe by most authorities globally. Hydrogen produced by HHO cells through electrical current are systems developed to be used when the engine is running only, meaning that the hydrogen produced is used immediately. There is no hydrogen storage and the storage is just the BMW Hydrogen 7 - Hydrogen Powered Hybrid vehicle’s primary fuel (from the factory tank) and another reservoir for water. These systems produce hydrogen on demand ONLY while the engine is running, and cut out when the engine stops. The HHO generators are also known to be called hydrogen-on-demand systems because of their intended design to work only “on demand” from the engine. They aren’t as economical as the liquid hydrogen storage (similar to BMW shown in the picture) but are much more of a safer and viable option Hydrogen Power Energy by http://www.AlternativeFuelEnergy.net

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for most motorists. Another benefit is that these HHO cells can be installed on all engines, old and new and will work well on both gasoline and diesel engines. They are also much cheaper compared to the hilarious prices of liquid hydrogen vehicles. Current developments have made vast improvements on previous versions. In fact the first electrolyzers (HHO generators) were designed on the immersion of the electrodes — the wet cell system. They were also bigger in their design, compared to today’s latest design and developments. The dry HHO generator was produced through various experimentations originating from the wet type. They are more robust, more compact and generally give better performance for the same amount of current withdrawal, which can be an issue if excessive current is withdrawn from the engine’s charging system.

The good thing is that all these developments for both the wet and dry type do not interfere with the engine’s internal components and is simply just a bolt-on accessory.

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Chapter 5 - Hydrogen Generator Limitations
Before deciding to purchase any system, be it a ready-made kit or D.I.Y. building guide, you understand what the expectations of such a system are. This means that you know what the system does, or at least is capable of doing, the expected overall engine performance and the final end results, which usually mean your pocket savings!

Fact #1 HHO generators will NOT supplement your fuel source. You will still have to buy the gas for your SUV, truck, van or car. The difference is you will buy about half that amount less per year.

Fact #2 You are getting better mileage by fully burning your "wasted fuel," which otherwise would have to be burnt through other systems - without actually improving your horsepower ratio; therefore mileage.

Fact #3 Hydrogen is used as an ADDITIONAL supplemental fuel with your existing fossil fuel (gas/diesel).

These three facts above are what you expect the system to do. Overall performance should be increased once the system is fully set up correctly because the primary fuel is now being 99.5% burned, as opposed to the engine’s original “fuel wastage” from unburned fuel.

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Another less logical thing, people find it hard to comprehend is that even the best HHO generator will NEVER increase your fuel economy by 100%. Many things affect how much gas mileage you get out of your vehicle, including your driving style and skill, terrain, humidity conditions, the vehicle's overall mechanical condition, like suspension, wheel bearings, engine wear, just to name a few. Also there's a huge difference whether you are driving in traffic, on the freeway, or on the highway. Another important consideration is that as a fact the Government does not allow manufacturers of these products to make any promises about the amount of increase you will see with your gas mileage, but most people who install these on their vehicles and do not change anything about their driving will see an increase between 80% and 100%.

But every gain is significant in the long term. Even a poor 10%-15% makes a difference in a whole year. Just try calculating 10% of your annual fuel consumption; you'll see it isn't that small after all, in the long term. They are also NOT maintenance-free. They do have their own wear and tear and they also need preventive maintenance to avoid excessive corrosion and blocking of the system. The electrolyzer (HHO generator) needs periodic checking and topping up of water and needs to be flushed once in a while. When flushing the electrolyte solution from the system, it should be mixed in the correct ratio of the appropriate catalyst, ensuring the optimum electrolyte solution is obtained for the best overall performance.

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Depending on the design, this varies accordingly. Wet cells are more prone to corrosive wear and need more periodic cleaning, but are much easier to perform, unlike the dry cell which needs to be totally dismantled to pieces. This is as a general guide. Every design, be it wet or dry, may differ according to the design, technological developments and material usage. Installation space is another concern. Many think that this is not such a limiting problem unit they find out that they cannot fit the hydrogen generator in their engine bay. Wet cells are larger in design and take up more space, while dry cells are more compact and can be installed I various positions unlike the wet cell. Those are the main issues and limitations for these types of systems. As with anything, correct pre-planning is an important issue before buying.

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Chapter 6 - Main Parts Of The Hydrogen Generator
This chapter covers the main parts used in any type of a HHO generator and their role in the whole process. The "water" electrolyte tank is used to store your electrolyte and feed it to the cell when needed. It can be as simple as a glass jar but it is usually made from high resistant temperature plastic, also used in a modern engine's radiator's expansion tank, or it could be made out of stainless steel.

The electrolyte tank is connected to the cell "HHO generator unit" supplying it with the required electrolyte for the process of electrolysis.

The cell is made of stainless steel plates, usually separated by a spacer. Plates have drilled holes for water intake and gas venting. The cell is connected to the water tank on one side and the bubbler on the other. The bubbler is a safety feature that prevents flames reaching the cell in case the engine backfires (which is very rare), but can happen. The bubbler is filled with water and oxyhydrogen gas from the cell is pumped through it into the engine. In case of an engine backfire, the flames from the combustion chamber reach the bubbler and stop there, preventing cell damage.

The HHO generator is connected to the engine's air intake, mixing the oxyhydrogen gas with air and pumping it into the combustion chamber.

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The connection to the air intake provides the necessary gas at high rpm, while another connection from the vacuum hose provides enough gas at low rpm.

Many people using modern OBD2 engines (On-Board Diagnostics), mainly from all vehicles manufactured from 1996 onwards use an EFIE (Electronic Fuel Injection Enhancer) device to fine tune their engine and HHO generator. This is mostly needed because the Powertrain Control Module (PCM), as known in the States, or the Electronic Control Unit (ECU), European term is programmed to inject more fuel into the engine runs leaner on fuel, which is the exact case when using an HHO generator. The EFIE device is connected between the O2 sensor and the PCM (or ECU) to correct the signal from the O2 sensor enhancing fuel efficiency that way.

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Chapter 7 - Function Of HHO Generator unction Generators
In this chapter we will be using all the bits and pieces of information we have been learning so far to create the whole HHO Generator cycle process; from beginning to end. We already know by now that the cell produces HHO gas from water through simple electrolysis. Water electrolysis is a simple process which is used to separate elements from natural sources using direct electrical current (DC). HHO generators use the vehicle’s supply system — the car's battery (12Volts DC) as its main po power source. We already went through a previous diagram of a wet system using the electrolysis process, but for clarity we will go through it again. The dry cell system works exactly on the same principle through electrolysis, the only difference is that the electrode plates aren’t fully submerged in the he electrolyte. Single Wet Cell Diagram for the Water Electrolysis Process

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Water Electrolysis Cycle When used on pure water, the electrolysis process separates hydrogen and oxygen producing 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom. To split water more efficiently it is best to use the alkaline (NaOH, KOH) for the resultant electrolyte. The vehicle’s supply voltage (and current) flows from the negative (—) terminal — which is the cathode, following the direction of the closed loop circuit to the positive (+) terminal, which is the anode. The electrolyte’s job is to help kick-start the electron flow process, as water isn’t a good conductor of electricity. Once this activation process starts, the molecule particles separate themselves as atoms. At the cathode (— electrode), there is a negative charge created by the battery, which results in an electrical pressure to push electrons into the water at this end. One the other side, where there is a positive charge, the anode (+ electrode) is willing to absorb those electrons. Unfortunately water isn't a very good conductor, so instead in order for the flow of charge to travel through the closed circuit, water molecules near the cathode are split up into a positively charged hydrogen ion (symbolized as H+ in the diagram above). This is just the hydrogen atom without its electron — the nucleus of the hydrogen atom, which is just a single proton, and a negatively charged "hydroxide" ion, symbolized OH. The electrolysis result from pure water would be:

(Water) H2O → H + OH

+

-

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You might have expected that H2O would break up into an H and an OH, meaning the same atoms with neutral charges. This doesn't happen because the oxygen atom attracts the electron in a stronger way from the H electron, meaning it “steals it.” In other words the oxygen atom is more "electronegative" than hydrogen. This theft allows the resulting hydroxide ion to have a completely filled outer shell, making it more stable. But the H+, which is just a naked proton, is now free to pick up an electron (symbolized e-) from the cathode, which is trying hard to donate electrons, and become a regular, neutral hydrogen atom:

H +e →H
This hydrogen atom meets another hydrogen atom and forms a hydrogen gas molecule:

+

-

H + H → H2
Now this molecule bubbles to the surface, and we end up having hydrogen gas. Meanwhile, the positive anode has caused the negatively charged hydroxide ion (OH ) to travel across the container to the anode. When it gets to the anode, the anode removes the extra electron that the hydroxide stole from the hydrogen atom earlier, and the hydroxide ion then recombines with three other hydroxide molecules to form:1 molecule of oxygen and 2 molecules of water:
-

4 OH →O2 + 2 H2O + 4e

-

-

The oxygen molecule is very stable, and bubbles to the surface. In this way, a closed circuit is created, involving negatively charged particles “—” electrons in the wire, hydroxide ions in the water. The energy delivered by the battery is stored by the production of hydrogen.

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Wet Cell System After The Electrolysis Process Continuing describing the wet cell system function, once an electrolysis process cycle is done and in a gasoline engine for this example, the cell is connected through the bubbler and to the both the air intake and the vacuum hose of the engine. By adjusting the valves on the bubbler and the cell the HHO generator can be fine tuned to allow the right amount of oxyhydrogen gas at low and high rpm. The gas is ignited in the combustion chamber by a spark from your sparkplugs. The ignition occurs at about 570° C (1065° F). Once ignited, oxyhydrogen gas produces energy and burns at high temperatures which assist the gasoline to ignite and increase combustion efficiency. As mentioned previously in another chapter, many folks think that those high temperatures could eventually overheat the engine and cause some serious damage, but since its only byproduct is H2O, or in layman's terms, "steam gas" the engine is actually kept cooler. It even runs smoother because of 2 main factors:1. Normal engine working temperature is reduced slightly, thus reducing friction and additional heat stresses on engine components, And 2. The steam "power-washes" your engine from dirty and corrosive byproduct found in fossil fuel, which is the dreaded carbon.

As explained above, from there it is released through the exhaust pipes in the form of water vapor. It helps clean the exhaust system too in the process from this carbon, which prevents it from piling up and eventually blocking the system.

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Main Differences between a Dry HHO Cell vs Wet HHO Cell The most significant difference between a dry HHO cell and a wet HHO cell is primarily in the design, but they ultimately still reach the same goal; that is to produce hydroxy gas. The dry HHO has the plates’ edges and the wiring connections outside the electrolyte solution, while the wet HHO design has the plates enclosed in the electrolyte. The electrical connections are directly connected to the electrode ends.

Wet HHO Cell Disadvantages The wet cell design has the electrode plates fully submerged in the electrolyte solution. The oxygen which gathers around the positive electrode (anode) will start reacting with the metal surface creating oxidization. This will eventually erode the plate and needs to be replaced. Another disadvantage is excess heat generation in the wet type HHO cell as the heat generated from the electrolysis process has no escape route, eventually this will start heating the electrolyte solution the longer it is run. Because of this excessive heat temperature, more steam is produced and mixes with the hydroxy gas.

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Dry HHO Cell Design

HHO Dry Cell Diagram Explained The name “HHO Dry Cell” mainly came from the most significant difference from the wet cell design, and that is because the outer edges of the plates and the connections are sealed from the “wet area.” Each plate comes with a gasket to seal the outer edges from getting wet. The name might be slightly misleading because this type of dry HHO still uses the same principle of water electrolysis to generate the HHO gas, only with greater efficiency because there is no extra heat energy being produced.

The electrolyte is stored in an external expansion tank, often called the bubbler (similar to radiator expansion tank) and the electrolyte enters the Hydrogen Power Energy by http://www.AlternativeFuelEnergy.net

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HHO cell by gravity. Once the hydroxy gas is produced through the electrolysis process, which is lighter than the electrolyte, it has no other option but to rise back to the top. This continues until the HHO gas reaches the bubbler and rises above the electrolyte storage. The bubbler tank has a dedicated outlet on top so the gas is forced through it. This outlet is connected to the intake manifold by a high temperature resistant hose. The gas is sucked through the inlet manifold by the running engine where the HHO gas mixes with the engine’s primary fuel (gasoline or diesel). The pressure needed is automatically created by the bubbles created during the electrolysis process; therefore no additional pump is needed.

There is no heat build up in the electrolyte as only the required volume enters the dry HHO generator and the electrolyte is constantly being in recirculation. This is also cooled down on its way back to the bubbler, once the HHO gas has been produced. Less amperage is also needed because of the specific volume of electrolyte in the sealed area, which also produces much less heat. In a nutshell this is the complete process cycle in a dry HHO generator which is repeated over and over again while it is active. Dry HHO Cell Advantages Less amperage per cycle is needed to produce the required amount of HHO gas due to the specific electrolyte volume within the sealed area. There is no excessive heat build up being produced as wasted energy, making the process more efficient. The HHO generator design is of a flat type, making it more space efficient and more plates can be added for only minimal thickness.

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The electrical connections are totally isolated to the external body of the generator and less oxidation occurs on the plates because of the limited electrolyte volume per cycle. The same amount of HHO gas or more can be produced with less amperage, which is ultimately driven by the vehicle’s alternator. Electrolyte solution remains cleaner because of less oxidation on the anode plates. The dry HHO generator acts as a self pumping action to the electrolyte solution. The design is more robust and durable by nature. Less maintenance is required for the same amount of working hours, compared to the wet HHO cell design.

Dry HHO generator kit

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Dry HHO Cell Disadvantages There aren’t many disadvantages to mention apart when maintenance comes to play. The dry cell unit has to be totally taken apart for the seals to be replaced It takes up more time in maintenance compared to the wet design.

The good news is that less maintenance schedules are required, as long as there is no excessive heat on the HHO generator. If this happens, the life-cycle of the seals is drastically shortened, as the seals harden and begin to crack. If possible it is ideal to install it in a cool place, ideally where there is less engine heat being transmitted to the generator unit. An ideal place would be in front of the engine’s radiator, as it has a constant air flow surrounding it.

Transparent-sided HHO DIY Cell Demonstrator

Changing o-ring seals for a dry HHO cell

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Chapter 8 - Trying Your Skills At Building A Dry HHO Generator
This chapter is not intended to be a blueprint with all the required measurements and templates to create a dry HHO generator, but more of a guided tour to see if your capabilities reach that far. All I can say is that with determination, basic hand coordinated mechanical skills, some patience and the ability to interpret the intended guided templates and the ownership of some basic hand and power tools you should be able to build any system, wet or dry. As an example I shall take the extraordinary Punch Dry Cell System, as this was the best system we found so far — as a D.I.Y. project. You still need all the specific and technical details which I'm duty bound not to divulge, as it is unfair on the product creator. It's the developer’s own merit and credit should be duly given to the Punch Dry Cell creator. At the time of writing this product has NEVER been promoted on commercials or magazines as far as I'm aware, so the price isn't inflated through advertisement tactics. It is also the best course I've found on building your own HHO Generator from scratch with exactly real D.I.Y. step-by-step style. Also all the templates are accurate and to scale leaving no guess work out of the equation.

D.I.Y. Dry Cell Description The HHO cell consists of stainless steel plates, usually less than 1mm thick, which have a gas vent hole drilled at the top and a small hole at the bottom for electrolyte equalization.

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The bottom holes are drilled in the opposite corner on each plate, that way current leaks are prevented, which also helps in making the electrolyte refilling and equalization process much easier. Two end plates have a small piece welded on to them for electrical contact. The plates are usually sanded to increase the active surface area of the plates which is necessary for high performance. The plates are separated usually by ring-type spacers. The end plates can be made of PVC but it tends to bend under pressure, so a better solution is to use stainless steel plates. Several holes are drilled through the end plates for the stainless steel bolts, which pass right through the whole unit. These clamp each cell compartment together, holding the plates in place which have one hole on each plate where the gas and water valves and hose connectors are glued to the plate. It is best to use epoxy glue and Teflon tape because other sealants may not be compatible with the electrolyte. The end plate is also separated by a spacer. The plates are then stacked on each other using spacers between them. The stainless steel through-bolts are put in place and a rubber hose is slid over them to isolate them from the plates and the electrolyte and to hold the plates in place. When all plates and spacers are in place the other end plate is used and the cell is then clamped using stainless steel through-bolts and nyloc nuts (also known as nylon insert lock nuts or elastic stop nuts). The bubbler is usually made of a PVC tube with an intake and an output valve attached to it. The bubbler intake valve is connected to the electrolyzer and the output valve is connected to the engines air intake.

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The bubbler is filled with water that way preventing the flames from the engine reaching the cells. It can also be filled with slightly acidic water (vinegar) that way neutralizing any residual NaOH vapors in the output gas.

This is all the process to create the Punch HHO Dry Cell System in a nutshell. It also comes with extensive D.I.Y. Instructions, downloadable color coordinated templates, which are exactly to scale and step-by step clear videos as part of the package.

Requirements Needed: Basic Mechanical Skills Capability of following guided instructions Basic Hand Tools — may vary slightly (screwdrivers, spanners, sockets, pliers, etc.) Power Drill — Hand-held or bench-mounted

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Chapter 9 - Challenges In Liquid Hydrogen Technology
Liquid Hydrogen is currently the fuel choice used for space exploration by NASA. Despite early technical failures and high criticism because of their undesired consequences, they finally managed to tame the fierce nature of liquid hydrogen. This is probably one of their most significant technical accomplishments to date. Hydrogen is an extremely light and powerful substance because it has the lowest molecular weight of any known substance and burns with extreme intensity — 5,500°F. Combined with an oxidizer such as liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen yields the highest specific impulse, or efficiency in relation to the amount of propellant consumed of any known rocket propellant, according to NASA. Liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen are both cryogenic, meaning that these gases can only be liquefied at extremely low temperatures, which poses enormous technical challenges. These challenges are made even worse when considering using liquid hydrogen in road vehicles. Just one example of a huge challenge is the storage of this liquid as it must be stored at —423°F and handled with extreme care. To keep it from evaporating or boiling off, the special hydrogen high pressure reservoir must be carefully insulated from all sources of heat, such as engine heat transfer, exhaust heat and air friction at high road speeds. Radiant heat from warm climates is another massive challenge, especially during the summer months, after being parked outside in the sun for a day. When liquid hydrogen absorbs heat, it expands rapidly so venting is necessary to prevent the tank from exploding. Metals exposed to this extreme cold temperate needed for liquid hydrogen become brittle. Liquid hydrogen can leak through minute pores in welded seams. Solving all these problems requires an enormous amount of technical

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expertise, the highest production quality of storage tanks and prohibitive production expenses. All the challenges mentioned till now are only from the vehicle’s manufacturer’s point of view. The same high risk and investment challenges are found on building and maintaining liquid hydrogen fuel stations. Each hydrogen fuel station infrastructure will cost large capital investment and also poses high risks to the public. Having enough stations to cover all areas of the country, like our fuel stations will eventually pose very high hazard risks and massive capital investments. No political leader will likely ever let these stations go through approval across the entire country with these current problems. Maybe if enough technological advancement together with cheaper manufacture, storage and other lower risk solutions are found, liquid hydrogen will probably find its place in our everyday vehicles.

The Liquid Hydrogen Solution The current easy and inexpensive solution is to abandon hydrogen liquid fuel and use something else instead. There is an easy solution available to us which gives similar results with much less expenses, and virtually no hazard risks in fuel storage. This is “Hydrogen-on-Demand” through the water electrolysis process. The electrolyte is our secondary “inert fuel” storage. The only disadvantage is that we have a hybrid performance engine which still requires fossil fuel (gasoline or diesel) to run, as opposed to engines running solely on liquid hydrogen. Many intelligent observers ask a very valid question:

"If Hydrogen-on-Demand is so good, why don't the manufacturers put them in all their cars?”

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This question creates huge debates and controversial conversations from many different angles. A certainly known fact is that fossil fuel has hefty profits for the oil companies and the even the government recoups a lot of money from the fuel tax imposed on the citizens — “fuel consumers.” Anyone with enough intelligence will certainly become aware that sure enough — money is the main cause of exploiting the potential of using Hydrogen-on-Demand in brand new vehicles. From the consumer’s practical view point is that HHO generator systems do require a little amount of “extra” maintenance, with periodic draining, flushing out and refilling with the correct solution of electrolyte. This may be more inconvenient for certain customers who are accustomed to only filling their vehicle with fuel at the pump station and taking their vehicle for periodic preventive maintenance, like oil changes and engine service.

Overcoming Warranty Issues Warranty claims on new vehicles which had an additional professional installation of an HHO generator system should NOT affect the warranty as long as the engine is not altered in any way internally. There is a special Act called the Moss/Magnusson Act that prevents them from not honoring a warranty because of aftermarket parts added on, unless they can prove it caused the damage. This Act was passed through so that any customer who added approved aftermarket products to their cars like headers, high flow catalytic converters high performance mufflers and high flow air filters would not have the whole warranty discarded because they modified it for better performance.

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As long as it isn't the cause for the damage, they HAVE to honor the warranty.

Disclaimer: Just because THEY SHOULD honor the warranty it DOES NOT mean they certainly will. If unsure, check with your dealer first.

My Personal View: Both the wet and dry HHO generators are only additional extras. They do not interfere with the engine internals and can be easily removed without any problem. The engine would run back to its prior installation, probably even smoother because of less carbon caused by the burning of fossil fuel. These systems “steam clean” the engine internals.

My suggestion:- Build or buy a kit, install it, save gas, while cleaning your footprint on the environment. If your car is still under warranty (most expire after 3 years anyway), and you are concerned about the dealer's concept of using an environmentally safe Hybrid Fuel like hydrogen, then just take 10 minutes and remove it before servicing. You don't disconnect anything from the original engine configuration, or in any way harm the existing engine with an HHO generator, meaning it will just revert back to the same settings and mileage you had before you put one in. Once the service or, in the unfortunate event of a warranty claim on the vehicle, reinstall the system again. “That is my take and view on the subject.”

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Chapter 10 - Less Fuel Consumption Through Hydrogen Power
Fuel Consumption Reduction will vary depending on which system you choose and they do vary from one design to another. Speaking through personal experience with different HHO systems, and the information I managed to gather from other HHO users, throughout the years - I can safely say that an HHO Generator can save you up to 25% - 50% of your gasoline expenses, if used correctly. There are people who claim that they have achieved even 60% - 70% better efficiency - but there isn’t enough documented proof or any trusted witnesses like video recordings. Stanley Meyer did prove to us that he ran his dune buggy ONLY on water. It is well documented and can even be found online doing a quick search on “Stanley Meyer.” That is 100% efficiency but unfortunately has not yet been developed enough for semi-commercial purposes, unlike hybrid HHO generators. More power is gained from any engine by using the same amount of fuel and just adding the oxyhydrogen gas (from the electrolyzer — HHO generator) to the combustion process. In most cases it can be tuned in such a way to provide the same amount of power it used to before the installation, but with less fuel consumption. Vast improvements can be noticed in better throttle response, quicker and easier pick-up speed (torque power, not bhp) from the same engine. Engine wear is vastly reduced too from two major factors, less heat (friction) and less harmful carbon which acts like a grinding paste to all moving surfaces, that is both reciprocating and sliding movements.

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A typical hypothetical example of less fuel costs: Taking an average consumption of 20 MPG, and average price for premium is at $3.30, than for every 25.000 miles total fuel costs will be $4,125.00. 20 Miles = $3.30 25,000 Miles = $ ? $3.30 x 25,000 Miles = $4,125.00 20 Miles Assuming that the HHO Kit only manages a 23% on fuel savings, the annual savings would be: 100% (Total Fuel Consumption) = $4,125.oo (In Annual Fuel) 23% (Total Fuel Savings) = $ ? (In Fuel Savings) $4,125.00 x 23% = $948.75 100% If Fuel Savings are $948.75 per year, the New Annual Fuel Bill in total would be: $4125.00 — $948.75 = $3176.25

After the installation of a HHO Kit you will pay about $3,170.00 for the same mileage. That's almost $1,000.00 of pure fuel savings per year, calculated at a hypothetical easy-to-reach 23% efficiency!

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What is the best type of generator to purchase? This depends differently on each person’s particular circumstances. Questions you should be asking yourself are: • “Do I have the necessary skill set and basic tools to accomplish such a project?” • “Do I have enough free spare time to do such a project?”

If one or both of the above answers is NO, the next question should be? • “Do I know anyone who is willing to take such a project for a reasonable fee?”

If the any of the above answer to these questions is YES you can try finding the best suitable D.I.Y. guided project from any reputable source. If on the other side of the coin your answer is NO to all the above questions you might be better off buying a ready-made kit, which only requires installation on your vehicle. Any competent mechanic or auto electrician should do the job if you give them the diagrams and instructions for the full installation process, which are part of the kit.

Helping Guide: You can check out our Best D.I.Y. Product Reviews for both wet and dry cell systems online. For Ready-Made Kits — Ready-to-Install check out: PRO HHO Kits USA.

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Chapter 11 - Our Environmental Impact Using Clean Energy
In the previous chapter we went through the benefits of installing a hydrogen generator, so now we can about the positive environmental impact these systems have in our world. Today car pollution equates to 51% of carbon monoxide in the air, which is an extremely dangerous level and can be fatal in high concentrations. 34% of all volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxide have a huge impact on plant life and also cause severe respiratory problems to the majority of the global population. They might not be typically acutely toxic, but they do have chronic effects on living organisms. There is also around 31% of carbon dioxide in the air which contributes global warming and greenhouse effect. This alone should worry us as human beings living on this Capital of China — Beijing on Wed Oct 28th 2009. planet.
Dense fog and pollution in the air.

Car pollution is known to produce more clouds but less rain, reduces wind power and contaminates our fresh water supply

Hydrogen-on-Demand technology should at least increase fuel efficiency by 20%, being fairly conservative. This means that not only are fuel bills being saved at this rate but the same percentages of toxic fumes are being eliminated from polluting our air space.

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If more people become aware and start believing in such economic systems like the Hydrogen-on-Demand, exhaust pollution might be reduced in half as time passes by. HHO systems decrease pollution further by binding carbons from the engine with water, preventing them from getting into the air we all breathe.

Through extensive use of this technology, oil drilling will be reduced drastically, which is ultimately destroying our planet. According to many of the top environmentalists oil drilling is the main culprit of the ozone problem we are facing. If less oil drilling functions are kept at an annual constant level, every day oil prices will once again reach reasonable price levels too. In a small town of Beloit, Wisconsin, officials have decided to use this technology in their transportation program and have encouraged people to use it themselves. They have managed to reduce pollution significantly in that region. More and more people around the world are becoming aware as the word spreads out. The pace is still slow though, and needs more encouragement from people who are aware of this technology. The positive impacts this Hydrogen-on-Demand technology brings us should help us preserve our global environment for our own health and for future generations.

Conclusion: The lesson from this chapter is that it's never too late to start a positive move towards our health, and this certainly is one of them.

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Chapter 12 - When To Use An Electronic Fuel Injection Enhancer
Modern engines from 1996 onwards in the US domestic auto market, and around 2002 in European vehicles need electronics for the electrolyer (HHO generator) to work correctly. In chapter 2, OBD2 (On-Board Diagnostic V2.0) systems found in modern vehicles was briefly covered, together with oxygen sensors (O2) to compensate for any unburned fuel.

The On-Board Diagnostic’s Role The OBD2 system does not increase mpg, or even performance in most cases. It is just a computer brain with many chips and individual circuits, all connected to various output sensors. These "read" out the data in millivolts or volts or in resistance (ohmage), in turn giving their feedback to the brain PCM (Powertrain Control Module) or ECU (Electronic Control Unit). PCM and ECU mean the same thing. The former is the US language version while the other is the European name. The PCM has a multitude of internal pre-programmed parameters which adjust according to these sensors’ reading. They either lean out the fuel if it is found too rich, or increase the fuel to air ratio if the engine is running lean on fuel. The catalytic converter serves to burn out any unburned fuel vapors and the O2 sensors are there to tell the PCM to lean out the mixture because the fuel isn't being burnt fully.

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While there is some slight fuel economy in this system, it is NOT primary there for better consumption but because of MANDATORY LEGISLATION imposed on automobile manufacturers regarding the environmental issues. Despite all this modern technology, our engines are not even capable of utilizing the full fuel consumption into a 100% burn ratio. Most vehicles waste at least 55-73% of the fuel it sucks in! Modern electronic circuits have been invented, known as the EFIE (Electronic Fuel Injection Enhancer), for any cars produced with OBD systems from 1996 in the US and approximately in 2002 for European vehicles. Older vehicle without electronic management PCM/ECU will not need any additional devices such as the EFIE. The EFIE modifies the sensors' readings to a normal and acceptable level so that the fuel in not enriched. When HHO kit produces the resultant hydroxyl gas the engine’s fuel is being burnt at around 99.9% of the fuel volume entering the engine. Through such optimization of fuel efficiency which the engine parameters are not used to, the PCM reads this as a lean mixture. Automatically the program has specific parameters to compensate for lean mixtures in various increments, therefore more additional fuel is added, according to how lean the sensors readings are. The best and most accurate way of compensating the oxygen sensors’ readings is to install the EFIE, even though there are other means you can use to overcome this problem. The only problem with other methods is that accuracy is not an option without the EFIE.

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Oxygen Sensors (O2) The role of an oxygen sensor (02) in conjunction with the PCM is to inform the computer about the amount of oxygen in the system. This is accomplished by providing a voltage on its signal wire. Voltage signals can vary between 0V and 1V. Higher values signal that too much gas is used and lower values mean that the mixture is lean.

When an HHO generator is installed it actually works against the O2 sensor’s principle as less fuel enters the system while more oxygen is present from the hydroxy gas. As less fuel volume is being consumed and out of that volume 99.9% is being fully burnt, the sensors will have a very low voltage reading in the region of 0V, so the PCM adds more fuel into the circulation of the intake manifold. It is not uncommon that modern OBD2 equipped engines without any modification to the oxygen sensors will actually waste more fuel with a HHO generator compared to prior the installation! The reason is because of this reading, NOT because the generator is not functioning. Installing one of these EFIE which is an electronic circuit with 4 wires will correct this and the fuel consumption WILL decrease.

The EFIE function in simple terms By adding voltage to the oxygen sensor it renders the ECU unaware of the additional oxygen used in the combustion process maximizing fuel efficiency.

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This device is capable of varying the resistance automatically in order to obtain a constant voltage reading, regardless of the real voltage output before the sensors. Most cars have oxygen sensors before and after the catalytic converter. The EFIE device needs to be used ONLY on sensors before the converter.

The sensors that come after the catalytic converter are used only to determine when the converter has gone bad and have no role in determination of the air/fuel mixture.

HHO gas also increases gasoline combustion efficiency which increases the amount of oxygen exiting you cylinders and thus making your catalytic converter work less.

Note: In D.I.Y. guides these are not included as mandatory, as obviously not everyone will need them. But they will be mentioned and explained as I did.

So if you need one of these devices, the best reputable company distributing the EFIE device as ready made products, which only need to splice into 4 of the vehicle’s wires, they can be found at: Fuel Saver-MPG Inc.

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Chapter 13 - The Art Of Fine-Tuning Your HHO Generator
Fine tuning an HHO generator beyond the developer’s recommendations is not necessary if the product is good enough and stands behind its reputation. There are exceptions though because all engines are slightly different from each other, especially when they have covered high mileages. These are tips constantly evolving through various experimenters and D.I.Y. enthusiasts who were kind enough to share their "secrets" to us.

EFIE Alternative We spoke about EFIE device in Chapter 12 that is used to manipulate the O2 readings. There is a cheaper alternative, even though I would generally prefer to use the EFIE device. The trick is primitive but effective. All you need is a spacer to add additional sensor tip distance from the O2 tip to the exhaust. This will reduce the O2 readings as the readings become weaker. You just need to screw out your oxygen sensor, screw the sensor into the spacer and put them back in place. When the sensor is out don't touch its head for any reason. You should also remove your spacer if you ever remove your HHO generator. The same thing goes for the EFIE unit if it the HHO generator is uninstalled.

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Remedy for Anti-Freezing Electrolyte in Colder Climates If you live in colder climate areas you will need to keep the electrolyte from freezing. The first thing to do is to install an additional ON/OFF button for your generator. Note: I always recommend it regardless of climate issues. This way you can warm up your engine before activating it. The engine's heat will defrost the electrolyte. This is the inexpensive way of plumbing in additional heater coils.

Another easy solution for lower temperature climate places is to add alcohol to the electrolyte. This keeps it from freezing. Adding about 10% of alcohol will keep your electrolyte from freezing, in any climates experiencing a few degrees below zero. If you are expecting temperatures as low as -15°C you should add about 20% to 25%. The amount of isopropyl alcohol in the electrolyte shouldn't exceed 50%, as this affects the electrolysis process. Amperage may have to be increased to combat the alcohol's resistance. Some experimenters even reported using a tiny amount of antifreeze (engine coolant) to the electrolyte with success.

Servicing Tips When flushing the HHO generator for preventive maintenance, rinse it thoroughly with distilled water.

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If the electrolyte is not pure sodium hydroxide, a black crust will eventually form on the plates. This black crust will block the current flow through the plates, stopping the electrolysis in the process.

When cleaning out the electrodes (plates) try getting hold of the most pure isopropyl (rubbing alcohol) you can get. Anything above 90% will be fine. Rub thoroughly the electrodes surfaces with it when doing your preventive maintenance.

The electrolyte should also be left still for about 30 minutes when using alcohol. This is enough for it to settle down before being switched ON. If this step is neglected, the black crust will reappear on the electrode plates again.

These simple tips and tricks should help you out even more, but remember that each system varies slightly. I highly recommend sticking to the instructions given out by the product manufacturers at first before you start experimenting on any new ideas for better performance.

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Chapter 14 - Conclusion & Essential Online HHO Generator Resources Final Conclusion
This is the final chapter of the “Hydrogen Power Energy” book and I personally want to congratulate you as a reader for getting this far. By now you should have all the basic information you need to make an informed wise decision on your HHO generator purchase. This book is no substitute for building your own hydrogen generator and was never intended to do so. Its main purpose is only to educate anyone on this subject so they will have enough knowledge to decide wisely. My conclusion is simple: “Stick to a reputable source of system that has backed-up proof that their system works as advertised.” That is why we have done such extensive research on the subject and tested many systems before choosing any of our reviewed top 6 products. Many other systems did not stand up to their claims or, were outright underdeveloped and dangerous for a vehicle installation — so we eliminated them altogether. So if you want to be on the safe side any one of the Top #5 D.I.Y. guides are excellent, even though they are rated across various factors. As always there are the best, second best and so on. Truth be told, they all came very close from the second to the fifth product. The only acceptation was the first product which was way beyond any of the other D.I.Y. systems out there. From the ready-made kits we only chose one, and there was a valid reason. Taking many factors into consideration, before even trying these kits we checked for professional manufacture, compactness, stable hydroxy gas output using minimum amperage withdrawal, customer help response and product price ranges.

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At the time of testing we only found one that met all our stringent requirements. The rest were either too pricey, or looked as if they were built from the backyard, or both! My opinion is that if you are going to buy a kit (not guide) it should be b built to last and should be backed up by spare parts. It is better to spend some extra cash initially to buy the best available, as long as the price is reasonable and justifies the manufacture cost.

I, Steve Jones the author of this book encourages you to give a free copy of o this eBook to anybody you know who might be interested and wants to know more about this subject. Please do so ONLY with their expressed subject. permission. Please DO NOT SPAM emails with this eBook — you do not have the right to do so.

Hydrogen-on-Demand Technology Demand For a Better and Cleaner Future through Hydrogen and less dependence on the Earth’s Natural Limited Resource

Steve Jones Hydrogen Power Energy “Clean Energy Made Easy”

Essential Online HHO Generator Resources links on next page →
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Suggested Essential Online HHO Generator Resources
Our site: AlternativeFuelEnergy.net for educational purposes through our articles. You can also subscribe for our Free Article Updates through our RSS Feed so you will be notified automatically if any additional articles are added.

The Best D.I.Y. Guide we found to date is a Dry Cell System: Punch HHO V5.0 (improved over our tested version V3.0)

The Best Ready-Made Kit System to date is a Compact & Powerful Dry Cell System: Pro HHO Direct (only installation is required)

Our Top #5 D.I.Y. Wet and Dry Cell systems Review Guide can be found here.

Modules: Note: Probably will be needed for most OBD2 equipped vehicles. The best EFIE (Electronic Fuel Injection Enhancer) module kit is at: Fuel Saver-MPG Inc. (just needs installation)

The End

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