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Epa.corrosion Caused by h2s

Epa.corrosion Caused by h2s

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United states

Environmental Agency Protection

Office of Water (WH-595)

September 1991

832891100

&EPA

Hydrogen Sulfide Corrosion: Its Cc)nsequences,
Detec:tion and Control

.G. > . Inc. Consulting Engineers. Principal authors were Robert P. detailed report entitled.' Cover: UnexpectedStr~et Collaps~Due t~ Sewer Corr~si'on (photo courtesy of Instituform. Technical review and graphical support was provided by Eugene Donovan and the staff at HydroOual. Bowker and Gerald A. Smith & Associates. . " Detection. and Compliance." Mention of trade. Office of Wastewater Enforcement and Co m pl iance . Inc.. Randy Revetta with EPA's Center for Environmental Research Information. Lam Lim with th~ C?ffice of -Wastewater Enforcement.. and Correction of Hydrogen Sulfide Corrosio'n in Existing Wastewater Systems. Inc .M. EPA staff who provided technical guidance and review include Irene Suzukida. Omission of certain products from this document does not reflect a position of EPA regarding product effectiveness or applicability. and J. and. 'Control.Acknowledqements Material in this document w~s prepared under EPA .Contract 68-C8-0023 by HydroQual. . The information in this document is a summary of the larger.) . formerly with EPA's Office of Water. Smith & Associates.. names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement by EPA.Audibert of J.M.

-has occurred. . 1990. and many communities will spend millions' of' dollars in the next few years to correct corrosion problems. Severe corrosion experienced in Los Angeles County and municipalities throughout the United States prompted Congress to direct the U." . The cost to repair or replace pipes. Unfortunately.. Environmental Protection Agency to conduct a national assessment of the problem. Introduction' Is undetected hydrogen sulfide corrosion. equipment and structures deteriorated byhydrogen sulfide corrosion may exceed by many times the cost to control the corrosion and avoid infrastructure damage. I Sewer. recognize corrosion problems until extensive damage. the cost to repair corrosion damage by hydrogen sulfide is in the billions of dollars.1. resulting in the Report to Congress: Hydrogen Sulfide Corrosion in Wastewater Collectio"n and Treatment Systems in and Correction of Hydrogen Sulfide Corrosion in Existing Wastewater Systems. . replacement can be a vei'}' costly proposition. . . such as a sewer collapse or equipment failure. This brochure. . \ -. . . many municipalities do not.S. Control. \ ' 'Chapter 1 . Nationally. .especially in urban areas.. As a follow-up to that work. causing steady deterioration of your sewerage system? Will 'you be faced with costly sewer replacement or rehabilitation projects in ten or twenty years even though the design life of the system may be fifty years or more? . provides an overview of that document. 'a technical handbook was prepared entitled Detection.

The report further states that if the additional 500 miles of sewers were to be severely damaged by corrosion.. toxic gas. Hydrogen sulfide corrosion in wastewater systems often results in costly. . Electrical and mechanical equipment with an expected source life of 20 years has required replacement in as little as five years .such as a sewer collapse resulting in street cave-in. Sulfide Corrosion? • Conseq. the City of Houston currently estimates the cost of its sewer rehabilitation program at $477 million.. instrumentation. Hydr.uences of H2~ Corrosion • Social and Economic Costs .ogen sulfide is an odorous. to detect. It is clearly evident that a means. Seventy percent of the problem is attributed to hydrogen sulfide corrosion.sewerp:' An additional $35 million may also be required to repair or replace 16 miles with moderate corrosion unless it can be controlled. Sewers designed to last 50 to. Sewers" pump stations. 100 years have failed due to hydrogen sulfide corrosion in as little as 10 to 20 years. process equipment. deaths result from exposure of workers to hydrogen sulfide gas in confined spaces. scale. . their replacement' cost would be $1 billion. In addition to direct costs associated with planned sewer repairs and replacement. tankage and ventilation systems can be affected.S. existing wastewater systems is the preferred alternative to premature replacement of system components. Although difficult to quantify'. :c '.: ~ ' . and it is rarely brought to the attention of t~e public until a catastrophic event oC$curs.~~ -'. On a national. A 1989 study conducted by the Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County' estimated that over $-150 million is currently needed to repair or replace 25 miles of extensively damaged . control and correct hydrogen sulfide corrosion in. premature replacement or rehabilitation of ' systemsused in the transport and treatment of wastewater. unplanned replacement costs resulting from sewer collapse 'and the increase in preventative maintenance costs are similarly very high.. 'treatment facilities.' I . Similarly. . E:1Chyear. In the U. these costs are substantial. and . ".. . sewer rehabilitation alone is estimated to cost $6 billion. the problem 'is not limited to warm climates.. including electrical controls. .The presence of hydrogen sulfide can lead to rapid and extensive damage to concrete and metals used in the construction of wastewater co l l e ct io n and treatment systems." . -I What Ar~The Impllcatlons Of Hydrogen. Odor complaints result from neighbors living near wastewater handling systems Who are exposed to low levels of the gas. The economic implications of hydrogen sulfide corrosion are staggering.

Mechanism of Sulfide .. iron .' : . anaerobic bacteria Hydrogen sulfide corrosion can occur by two . ' . Anaen.Slim..e Layer (typically 1mm thick) . . while Figure 2 dep icts the process by which hydrogen sulfide corrosion causes sewer failure. released from solution as a gas and . mechanisms: 1) acid attack resulting from the biological conversion of hydrogen sulfide gas to sulfuric acid in the presence of moisture. .sulfide in the anaerobic slime layer on the submerged pipe wall. Hydrogen.' . . .. non-submerged surfaces. enters the sewer atmosphere H S +20 2. .' Sulfide Corrosion? • Mechanism of Sulfide Corrosion . _: tv. Acid attacks concrete. The principal mechanism by which sulfide generation and corrosion occurs in sewers is illustrated in Figure 1. ~... ~ .Generation and Corrosion Sewers in aerobic Thiobacillus bacteria living on moist. .: Chapter 3.ent used in the transport and treatment of wastewater..Causes . . while the second can cause premature failure of electrical and instrumentation systems.)bic.' '. and 2) direct chemical reaction with metals such as copper.cclianism is the one which is the principal cause or' internal sewer corrosion. What. . causing corrosion (C) H2S is oxidized to sulfuric acid by . 2 . H ~O aerobic' bacteria :t' 4 Corroded Moist Pipe SlIrface Figure 1. (A) Sulfate is biologically reduced to . (S) H2S formed in the wastewater is ' . and mechanical equipm.an ds ilver with hydrogen sulfide gas. The first m.

~~.can be caused by .~:(~~i:'('~..~~.~'fl>O. other confined space is dependent upon the sewage pH.:..' Process of Sewer Failure Due To !/ydrogen Sulfide Corrosion -t_". Finally.f~~..~ ~~ . '\ ' .~~U~. 2. -~.of -Sewcrs in order f~r Four condi tions must b e~satisfied' hydrogen sulfide corrosion.1'>~:'. the rate of corrosion is governed by the temperature. 4: Absence or very low levels of dissolved oxygenin the wastewater. and the material's inherent resistance to acid attack.T~q".~~. and 2) direct attack of metals such as iron and copper by hydrogen sulfide.. '~'.-: .:. extent of turbulence and wastewater temperature.f. .two mechanisms: 1) acid attack as described above..and temperature. detention time '.. damage.Y.-~::~::-:-i:~.: 'f'"'". nutrients and temperature.< :.:~~~·{:. Presence of moisture on the material to be corroded Material which is subject to corrosion by sulfuric acid attack.In wastewater treatment plants.~"" -~. " DIssolved oxygen depletion is affected by sewage velocity.. - Figure 2. ~. The subsequent release of hydrogen sulfide gas to the atmosphere of a sewer. . ~(.. wastewater characteristics. 3. t. Generation of sulfide in the wastewater and release of hydrogen sulfide' gas from solution . When the dissolved oxygen is depleted.. the quantity of hydrogen . (C) Backfill continues to wash into sewer eventually leading to sewer blockage and/or street collapse.:::~" ~.sulfide available to be biologically converted to sulfuric acid.__..~. to take place in sewers: 1. the' rate of .Street • Factors Affecting Corrosion. . ~~~ ~'.:"'~ : :.~lfide generation iscontrolled by the concentration of organic materials..'i:'l.~~:·' ~t:~~:' '~~'p~~~:-.:! t\'!':fr""E':~)k:':':: '-4. - ~ ~". wet well or .~~ .''': n.""~.: ".\'~. .~~.

• • • • . Otherwise you may be faced with the high cost of sewer replacement or rehabilitation. • Identifying Potential Problem Areas ' Hydrogen' sulfide corrosion can be detected at many' locations in wastewater collection and treatment systems. _ Chapter 4 . 5 . Corrosion detection and monitoring can be conducted economically. ' .electrical and instrumentation systems Hydrogen Sulfide . low wastewater velocities. and the cost of such programs is only a small fraction of the cost to repair damage 'caused by hydrogensulfide corrosion. ' Treatment facility headworks .• • • • '. and long detention times Manholes and junction chambers' Force main discharges Areas of high turbulence Pump station wet wells. How Do J Know If A Corrosion 'Problem Exi'sts? It is essential that corrosion problems be identified early while the corrosion can still be controlled. Corrosion Can Significantly Reduce the Useful Life of. . Sewers. Primary clarifier effluent channels 'Sludge handling structures and equipment Heating.. structures and electrical controls used in /. and/or premature replacement or reconstruction of mechanical equipment. Sewers with flat slopes'.. Areas where corrosion is likely to be found include the following: . ventilating. wastewater pumping' stations and treatment plants. . Figure} shows a flow diagram of the basic steps involvedin identifying existing' or potential corrosion' problems.

:"'.."" ..' :-". ~... ...':..: .p...:"'~ ~·. .::. .> ..~+g~~~i~~'":' . .'/' . '. :.:.''. ." '" ~ .. ~. " - .:' '.' '. :' ".. . . . ' -. '.~..).~:.: . ..: .AREAS FOR. _".'" \ > .:" ~ .. " > . :':.....~'::~: > ~ ~ -~. "..?p~'·.:.:'::" :::::·:·:t:::·:· • '-.·5·········· . :.: :'.! ··ibfA~~~~~B~~~~1r~~~'M .i!1i.:.' PRC)B:LE:M-AREAS...IDENTIFY 'potENTIAL :::. .:..':' . .':' ':"':".... ~'~?~cW~~1~~!~~~ff~..~~~·s :':. . ~. '""-"'=""..' ._'. .." ·.:'." . ...:~·~·I7·~·:::::::::. _ ~ ~""~ .?\~~::jr}~%...: . ~ -• {!..:..:..' ...!'·F::~m·F.:' !-':.': . : -'Figure 3. . ~.! .... " ' " .:·:..l.:... .~ '1~ " "~...:..... : .:.t:..:.." '!.:.~ .~~~r·~. :' . . "" ... . ::'~ ..~.:.. ..·... to.::":.ts.: :~~.' ~ ". '.: -.'.'..::·.".: ¥a...L • ~~ . " :.. ":... : ' . ' .:·.. '. ':: '.::.. . '.).. .. . Visual inspection.:. . _ _ ~ ~ - '~~~-_"""A::~"""""""~-"'_-'_~"'''' ...:::::.·· .: :.:.::..r insp~~ti:?:~~.-'...t~i~1_[I~~~ii.·::·····?. ~t." .~.~::::... " ':" :.. .:.__ .+."~~l~t"~:.:.'. • > •• ' . '" '.::::<:::.. : :.:~~~. • '..:~.~ : .". :: . .: ..."Odoj q:miplai. -.::-: " . :. : " :" .::: .:~:. _'. .:::. .:.. . ::'MON"f~6t{lN:~U\ND/O~:'¢6 R~:~¢T~~ .~V in'sp~.. "'~: : ". ' .::~:.v:./<:?::::::"":.. :.' .:.:.. .<U~·' /' • ~" ~ ·'.~ . . ..::::~::.'.u..'.':"-:':: ". ..a~p1iiJ...:: . ::.1...:t..:: .'1' ··. .~.0.:>... . ' .' "':" .j.:::.. ': /. I .:..·:·· • N.t~:. -.·:.'. Approach to Identifying Existing and Potential Corrosion Problems .\··::·CZot~:..'..> • .' '..FURTHER-i::....::.g·<i:.E~fIM~f~ :¢ORRO?td.: :.~~~<f.·::.-:(:~:::'::::p.. :'<' .::.:·f=.< 'iepiacementji:~6ab : .:. ' ' :":) ..~.: '~':.PRIORrnZE. '..: t . "..:REVIEW EXISTINGINFORMATION::·:>:····. :··:. . .:..::'::LPcatioris of plP~ ..\~··~·~~~~~fe~... '.~~J:.':.

pH values below 4 are indicative of corrosion problem~ . A low-power scope used in conjunction. should by entered on ' an inspection checklist. Sewer maps should be gath er ed. junction chambers and other Confined spaces is probably the best early warning that a potential or existing corrosion problem exists. Locations ?f potential corrosion problems. Atmospheric H2S is also a useful indicator of ' potential corrosion problems. ' 'Hydrogen Sulfide Corrosion Can Cause Premature Failure of Electrical Systems Used in Pump Stations and Treatment Plants. . and walls of manholes. precautionary measures as directed by OSHA and NIOSH should be carefully followed. Figure 4 shows a typical sewer map with potential troublespots targeted for inspection. highlighted on a sewer J11apfor further investigation.. pH may be 2 or lo:wer. _ . ' J . updated and reviewed alon. Color-se~sitive pH paper can he used to determine. If entry into a manhole or confined spaceis required. Dissolved sulfide concentrations in the wastewater should also be measured. .• Measuring and Predicting Corrosion Several techniques are available to measure the extent of corrosion. odor' complaint logs.' Coring of pipe crowns at corroded and un corroded reaches provides good documentation of corrosion severity. videotapes of sewers. . areas of odor complaints. and plant headworks shouldbe .the concrete surface' pH: New pipe has a pH of about 10 but under corr os iv e conditions. The conditions of the sewer or structure.' '7: _'. j" . such as discharges of force mains. Generally.- . .with a mirror and a light source mounted at the end of a long rod can be used to inspect sewers without entry. . and can be used to estimate depth of corrosion penetration and the thickness of remaining concrete over reinforcing steel. .g with any. maintenance-records and any oth er information so ur ces that are avai lab le.• Conducting Inspections A visual inspection should be conducted wherever possible. Extendable rods ate also used to measure the inside diameter of the sewer. A simple but often inaccurate method is to remove the corrosionproduct down to so~nd concrete and measure the depth of penetration. Measuring pH of pipe crowns.pump stations. as well as other data collected.

If damage is not extensive but the service life has been significantly reduced. invert). The remaining useful lifetime of the pipe can then be estimated based on. ". but it can provide a relative indicator of the severity of corrosion to the trained observer. actual data should be collected to ._ _ 8. . This information serves as a basis for prlor itizing areas for corrective action. For example.S. if s~vere damage has already occurred. confirm and calibrate the predictive equations. the U. Sewer Map Showing Locations of Potential Corrosion Problems A remote method Of measuririg corrosion is the sonic caliper.g. Sonic caliper technology is a relatively new development whereby sonic signals determine the distance from the transmitter to the target (e. replacement or rehabilitation may be necessary. Predictive models exist to allow estimates of the rate of hydrogen sulfide generation and corrosion. average corrosion rate can be calculated by dividing corrosion depth by the age of the pipe or structure. These empirical equations are presented in publications by. Where data are available on depth of corrosion penetration.jmplementation of a corrosion control program may be warranted. _ • Prioritizing Problem Areas Rates of corrosion can be estimated based on physical measurements or predictive models. the American Society of Civil Engineers and the American Concrete Pipe Association.'Figure 4. for example. crown. Television inspection cannot be used to measure corrosion. waterline. Environmental Protection Agency. 'corrosion reaching reinforcing steel. and the anticipated service life of a sewer or structure. I · . As with all predictive models.

. 2) using corrosion-resistant materials and coatings. rate of hydrogen sulfide corrosion.. and 4) conducting routine preventative maintenance. ' 1. Atmospheric hydrogen sulfide levels can be reduced by controlling the amount of dissolved sulfide available in the wastewater. ' 'chlorine or potassium permanganate._ ! Chapter 5 _ . 3) providing ventilation of the enclosed area or sewer. or by the introduction of air or"oxygen. How Do I Control Corrosion? There are several methods f available to control the . These include 1) reducing the dissolved sulfide content of the wastewater. \ 3. Oxidation by add iti o n of chemical oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide. pH elevation through the addition sodium hydroxide (caustic soda). 2. . of I 9 .' • Dissolved Sulfide Reduction Precipitation of dissolved sulfide by the addition of metallic salts such as ferrous chloride and ferrous sulfate . These techniques are discussed below and presented in Table 1. Three basic techniques are used to achieve this goal.

plastic paints include asphaltic/coal tar and polyethylene. ' .' m'o~itored for solids accumulation. further deposition of organic matter occurs. Maintain diss()lved oxygen. As the wastewater velocity decreases. nickel. both in the collection system and at the .g.this technique. Corrosion-resistant . and stainless steel. Ventilation of sewyrs apparently had some success for corrosion control in Austin.The basic goals and treatment levels for the three basic techniques must be developed individually for each system. Keep dissolved sulfide levels below 0. has. . fiberglass reinforced polyesters and other plastics are' becoming more commonplace in . 3) corrosionresistant concrete. wastewater treatment plant. aluminum. This is because accumulations of debris tend to reduce the wastewatervelocity and thus 'increase its detention time within tile sewer.5 mg/l.materials fall under the following categories: 1) metallic coatings. epoxy and silicone resin primers and paints.. Ventilation with clean air can be used to control corrosion in electrical cabinets or rooms housing sensitive electronic equipment. which cures by chemical reaction with a setting agent. . allowing it to become anaerobic. Air discharged from a sewer would normally require .greater than 0. 2) use of calcareous ( e. Deposition of solids is likely due to excessively flat sewer grades cornb ined with low flows" these areas should be . Certain paints and protective coatings canprovide some degree of corrosion resistance. paints include polyurethane and epoxy. The corrosion resistance of concrete can be improved by two ways: 1) use of high alumina or high-silica cement. ' . which is applied hot' and cur~d I' ' • Maintenance Routine sewer cleaning Can be an effective deterrent to the hydrogen sulfide corrosion process. Even adherence to proper procedures may not result in adequate coating performance in corrosive environments" as the success of such 'coatings. and generation of sulfide. ' ' • Corrosion-ReslstantMaterlals Coatings and '.th e wastewat~r field. _.. treatment to control odors. corrosion protection. There is some question regarding the effectiveness and practicality of controlling corrosion by. and 4) plastics. Many of these materials offer excellent corrosion resistance. 10 . concrete pipe can be manufactured with a cast-in-place PVC liner. California and Sydney. but generally the goals strive to meet the following guidelines: 1. Metallic coatings include galvanizing and electroplating systems. Paints can be classified as either thermoplastic. or thermosetting. In cases where corrosive conditions are anticipated. The use of po lyv iny l chloride. and by drying the walls of the pipe or . hydrogen sulfide corrosion by reducing the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the atmosphere. "- 2~ 3. force mains may require pigging. .Angeles. thermosetting'. application and. been highly variable. Increase concrete pH to 4 or greater. limestone) aggregate. 4. curing procedures must be closely followed for any coating system to be successful. ' Another method used to prevent corrosion or control the rate of corrosion is-to utilizecorrosion-resistant materials. or. 2) metal alloys. Texas. The proper preparation. depletion of oxygen. Paints and' protective coatings include vinyl. po lyeth y l ene. Thermo-.. by cooling.structure.3 mg/1. which results in increased biological activity. Metal alloys include copper. Los . The use of such concrete in low-pH environments may still lead to concrete degradation but at a somewhat lower rafe. " Ventilation Ventilati~n of sewers and enclosedspaces can potentially 'reduce. Electrical cabinets can be purged with nitrogen to provide excellent . Maintain atmospheric hydrogen sulfide levels below 5 ppm. Australia. Gravity sewers' should be routinely flushed or pressure-washed.

whereby a .• Excavation and replacement Cured-in-place inversion lining . most disruptive means by which to correct sewer deficiencies. if a similar noncorrosion-resistant material is used in the replacement without other corrective measures taken to decrease the' severity of the corrosion problem.. Insertion renewal Liners Specialty concrete Trenchless. I -" " '. Rehabilitation Using Cured-in-Place Inversion Lining Can Be An Economical Alternative To Replacement of Severely Corroded Sewers (photo 'courtesy of Insituform. The same problem will Iikely redevelop however.) ~ -.Chapter 6.I Have .To Rehabilitate' Corroded Sewers? • Methods Available Various methods are available fbi rehabilitating . One such method is the use -of cured-in-place inversion linings.' 11 . r What Options 0:0 . corroded sewers. flexible "sock" is inserted into the pipeline. . set in place by the addition of water. Inc._ . and these methods continue to be improved.technology is presenting new methods to protect against corrosion. The basic categories are as follows: . . " • • • • . and cured in place. Excavation and replacement is usually the most costly and.

sewer a~d is fo'Howed immediately b~ the new pipe.fiberglass. ' . PVC. !1rpolyethylene ts an effective means of sewer rehabilitation (photo courtesy of Price Bros.12 . / Insertion of a corrosion-resistant liner "fade of..tool which.ewal consists of jacking a pre-formed pipe through the existing sewer.of a deformedpipe which is inserted and then expanded to its final shape. while others involve the use of a. Some' methods involve the use of an insertion pipe of slightlysmaller diameter than the existing 'sewer.x. first breaks aWl\lY existing the .). Inc. Insertion re'u. . Ah alternate method of insertion renewal involves the use.

I . its location. Prefabricated PE or PVC panels are installed onto the existing pipe substrate. number of service connections. These concretes may still be susceptible to . . Specialty concrete and/or aggregates consists of different cements which are more resistant to hydrogen sulfide corrosion than Portland cement concrete. forming a continuous interlocking strip. corrosion. These factors also directly impact the cost to perform the'work.r Liners ca~ be used on larger-diameter sewers. Table 2 summarizes the principal methods of pipeline rehabilitation. In most situations however. though at a reduced rate.making process. • Selecting a Rehabilitation Technique In cases where the wastewater flow within the . sliplining may be the only practical approach short of constructing a new sewer. 13 The rehabilitation method to be used in pipeline repair is dependent upon the actual condition of the existing sewer. both tangible and intangible factors will enter into the decision. surface cover and intended service life. existing pipe cannot be diverted.

regardless of ~ geographic location. corrosion problemsis a sewer collapse or other' catastrophic failure. the cost to correct existing corrosion problems is estimated to be in the' billions of dollars. the first sign of hydrogen sulfide.. 14 . • _. " Chapter 7 .savings accrued by avoiding premature replacement or . age or size..' In some.suspected to occur in over 50% of all wastewater collection and treatment facilities. and allow selection of cost-effective approaches to control corrosion. . The end result be coll~ctio~ systems and treatment facilities that last longer and operate more efficiently. • • • 'will \. shed insight into the causes of hydrogen sulfide corrosion problems. Many communities will need to spend millions of dollars in the near future to address the consequences of hydrogen sulfide corrosion. Establishing a corrosion monitoring plan and conducting corrosion inspections as part of routine operation and maintenance will provide valuable information on the conditions of existing systems. cases. OJ}a national scale. • Hydrogen' sulfide corrosion is . The cost of monitoring and control of 'corrosion will be' easily offset by the . rehabilitation.

the EPA Office afWastewater Enforcement and Compliance. Municipal Technology Branch at (202) 260-7356. the EPA publications listed above may be directred to. Questians 'regarding. and controlling corros ian. Detection. 15 ' .. Addltlonal Intormatlon Several recent publications are available from EPA that address the prob lerns of hydrogen sulfide corrosion.structures. I . : Chapter 8 - Sourc'es of. and methods far rehabilitating corroded sewers and . procedures far detecting. 2) .These and ather relevant publications are listed in Appendix A . and 3) Han d Q 00 k . or to. ane of the EPA Regional Offices . and Correction of _ Hydro-gen Sulfide Corrosion in Existing Wastewater Systems. These include '1) Hydrogen Sulfide Corrosion' in Wastewater Collection and Treatment Systems.. Conirol. Report to Congress.shown in AppendixB.Sewer S y s t em Infrastructure Analysis and Rehabilitation.

S. Environmen~al Agency. . R. Hydrogen Sulfide Corrosion in Wastewater 'Cotiection and Treatment Systems. 1984 • I 16 . . Washington. Report to Congress.S. pp.A. OR. U. Design Manual. American Concrete j_~ipe Association. J.. 1991.A. DC. Redner.Corrosion in Existing Wastewater Systems. Research. Sulfide and Corrosion Prediction and Control. Caballero. Ching-Lin Chen and J. VA. ~I Progress Report':' Evaluation of Protective Coatings for Concrete. U. . Webster. 69. Smith. 11. 5. Environmental Protection Agency. Bowker. Office of Water. 87-113" Morgantown. Washington. WV. Report to Congress . Off ice of Water. and ConcreteCorrosion of Sanitary Sewers. Sulfide Corrosion in Wasiewate~Collection and Treatinent Systems. 1991. Vienna. and N. July. Ha ndb 0 ok «Sewer System Infrastructure . American Society of Civil EngineersjNew York. Odor and Corrosion Control in Sanitary Sewerage Systems and Treatment Plants.S.S. Study of Sulfide Generation 7.. I 4. DC.J. 1991. . U. R. Center for Environmental Research Information. National Sewer Rehab Projected at $6 Billion. National Institute for Occupational Safety . NY.G. 6. Center for Environmental . 1989. 'APPENDIX A ' 1 - References L Morton. Environmental Protection Agency.P. 1991. 1991..' paper presented at EPA Technology Transfer Seminar on Sewer Sy s te m Infrastructure An a lys is and Rehabilitation. 2. 1989.Technical Report.P. OH. Hsi. CA. and Health (NIOSH). In-hou'se report. Sulfide in Wa~tewater Collection and Treatment Systems. R. 20-24. U.S. ' 8. Office of Water. J. . R.Esfandi. Redner. Cincinnati. ASCEManual No. U. Detection... Civil Engineering. '" 10. A Guide to Safety in Confined Spaces. Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County. 3. No. ' Analysis and Rehabilitation. andE. Control and Correction of Hydrogen Sulfide. . Environmental Protection 'Ag en cy . Cincinnati.'M. EP A-625/691/030. 1991. 1985. Washington.otection Agency. . Whittier. 9. DC.. Environmental Pr.

EPA Region 7 726 Minnesota Avenue ' Kansas City. 75 Hawthorne Street San Francisco"CA 94105 (415) 744-1305 U.s. John F. EPA Region 5 230 South Dearborn Street Chicago. EPA RegionI .4) 347-4727 ' u. CO 80202-2413 (303) 293-1603 u. Philadelphia. NY 10278 (212) 264-2657 U. PA 19107 (215) 597-9800 Connecticut Maine Massachusetts ' New Hampshire' Rhode Island Vermont New Jersey New York Puerto Rico Virgin Island Delaware District of Columbia Maryland Pennsylvania West Virginia Virginia Alabama Florida I Georgia Kentucky Mississippi North Carolina South Carolina Tennessee Illinois Indiana Michigan Minnesota Ohio Wisconsin Region 6 1201 Elm Street Dallas. Washington 98101 (206) 442-5810 ' Region 4 345 Courtland Street NE Atlanta. MA 02203 .Suite 1300 999 18th Street Denver. EPA Region 3 841 Chestnut Street.s. please ask for the program office to obtain' specific information on the issues discussed in this booklet. TX 75270 (214) 655-6444 ' u. EPA Arkansas Louisiana New Mexico Oklahoma Texas.S. Kennedy Federal Building Room 2203 Boston. EPA us.s. (617) 565~3715 Region 2 26 Federal Plaza Room 900 New York.s. EPA Region 8 One Denver' Place .S. KS 77101 (9P) 236-2800 u._ IAPPENDIX B ' . " EP'A Regional Office's .s. EPA u. IL 60604 (312) 353-2000 NOTE: The telephone numbers listed are general information numbers only. . u. Iowa Kansas Missouri Nebraska' Colorado Montana North Dakota South Dakota Utah Wyoming Arizona California Hawaii Nevada Alaska 'Idaho Washington Oregon u.S.s. EPA Region 9 . (40. ' . GA 30365. EPA Region 10 1200 Sixth Avenue Seattle.

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