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FOUNDATIONS
.STABILITY
·249
Worked Example 8.1
Vertical loading
A rectangular foundation 2.5 m wide and 3.5 m long is to be placed at a depth of 1.7 m. below ground level in a thick deposit offirm saturated clay. The water table is at 1.2 m below ground level. Determine the gross and net ultimate bearing capacities for (a) undrained and (b) drained conditions. Investigate the contribution made by including depth factors. The soil parameters are c'
Cu
'tsat = 21.5
= 3 kN/m2
= 65 kN/m2
kN/m3
¢u = 0° ¢u = 2r
(a) Undrained condition Without depth factors for¢=O° Nc=5.14 Nq=l N y =0 Po = 21.5 x 1.7 = 36.6 kN/m2 From equation 8.9, gross quIt = cuNcsc + Po = 65 x 5.14 x 1.14 + 36.6 = 417.5 kN/m2 net quIt= 417.5  36.6 = 380.9 kN/m2
From Table 8.6, se 1 + 0.2 x 2.5/3.5 = 1.14
Assuming a factor of safety of 3 the net safe bearing capacity is Y3 x 380.9 = 127 kN/m2 With depth factors D = B gross 1.7 = 0.68 «1) From Table 8.7, de = 1 + 0.4 x 0.68 = l.27 2.5 quIt= 380.9 x 1.27 + 36.6 = 520.3 kN/m2 net quIt= 520.3  36.6 = 483.7 kNfm2
(b) Drained condition Without depth factors Assume the soil to be incompressible :. no reduction of strength parameters is considered. Using equations 8.8 and 8.13: From Table 8.5, for ¢'= 27° Nc = 23.9 Nq = 13.2 N, = 9.3 From Table 8.6, 2.5 13.2 2.5 2.5 sc=I+x=1.40 sq=I+tan27°=136 sy=10.4x=0.71 3.5 23.9 3.5 3.5 Po' = 36.6  0.5 x 9.8 = 31.7 kN/m2 "/ = 21.5  9.8 = 11.7 kN/m3 gross quIt= 3 x 23.9 x 1.40 + 31.7 x 13.2 x 1.36 + 0.5 x 11.7 x 2.5 x 9.3 x 0.71 + 9.8 x 0.5 = 100.4 + 569.1 + 96.6 + 4.9 = 771.0 kNfm2 net quIt= 771.0  36.6 = 734.4 kN/m2 If the foundation supports a net applied pressure of 127 kN/m2 the factor of safety in the long term would be 734 F==5.8 127
250·
SOIL
MECHANICS

PRINCIPLES
AND
PRACTICE
With depth factors D "8=0.68«1) FromTable8.7 1  121 de = 1.21~~~~ 23.9 tan 27° = 1.23
dy = 1.00
gross
quit
= 100.4 x l.23 + 569.1 x 1.21 + 96.6 x 1.00 + 4.9 = 913.6 kN/m2
net
quit
= 913.6  36.6 = 877.0 kN/m2
I Worked Example 8.~
Effect of compressibility
For the foundation in Example 8.1 assess the effect of compressibility on the bearing capacity values. Ignore depth factors. (a) Undrained condition Assume the clay is incompressible for the undrained case so the bearing capacity is unchanged. (b) Drained condition The soil is assumed to be compressible so reduced strength parameters are used. From equations 8.19 and 8.20 c* = 0.67 x 3 = 2 kN/m2 ¢* = tan' (0.67 x tan 270) = 18.80 Consider the case without depth factors only. for ¢ = 18.8° Nc = 13.7 Nq = 5.7 N; = 2.4
Sc
2.5 = 1+ 3.5
x 
5.7 13.7
= 1.30
Sq
= 1+ 
2.5 3.5
tan18.8° = l.24
Sy
= 0.71
gross quit = 2 x 13.7 x 1.30 + 31.7 x 5.7 x 1.24 + 0.5 x 11.7 x 2.5 x 2.4 x 0.71 + 4.9 = 35.6 + 224.1 + 24.9 + 4.9 = 289.5 kN/m2 net quit = 289.5  36.6 = 252.9 kN/m2 252.9 The factor of safety in the long term would be F = ~~ = 2.0 127 Since the clay at shallow depths is of a firm consistency it is likely to be overconsolidated so the effects compressibility are probably overstated.
s:
I Worked Example 8.3
Eccentric loading
The rectangular foundation in Example 8.1 is 0.5 m thick and backfilled with soil of unit weight 19.5 A column transmitting a vertical load of 850 kN is placed 0.6 mfrom the centre of the foundation on t long axis. Determine the bearing capacity and factor of safety against general shear failure. Unit weight of concrete is 25 kNlm3 Weight of backfill = 2.5 x 3.5 x 1.2 x 19.5 = 204.8 kN
SHALLOW
FOUNDATIONS

STABILITY·
251
ight of foundation = 2.5 x 3.5 x 0.5 x 25 = 109.4 kN erticalload = 204.8 + 109.4 + 850 = 1164.2 kN tricity eL = 850 x 0.6 1164.2 = 0.44m B' =B=2.5 m
L' = 3.5  2
x 0.44 = 2.62 m
Undrained condition out depth factors 2.5 = 1 +0.2 x 6= 1.19 2. 2 gross = 65 x 5.14 x 1.19 + 36.6 = 434.2 kN/m2 1164.2 applied pressure =  177 7 kN/m2 2.5 x 2.62 .
quIt
net
quIt
= 434.2  36.6 = 397.6 kN/m2
=_
applied pressure = 177.7  36.6 = 141.1 kN/m2' 397.6 or of safety= ~ = 2.8
Drained condition .nnout depth factors z: 1/>' = 27° Ne = 23.9 Nq = 13.2 Ny= 9.3 2.5 13.2 2.5 2.5 =1+ x = 1 53 Sg =1+ 6 tan 27° = 1.49 sy=l 0.4 x 6 = 0.62 :: 2.62 23.9' 2. 2 2. 2 puss quit = 3 x 23.9 x 1.53 + 31.7 x 13.2 x 1.49 + 0.5 x 11.7 x 2.5 x 9.3 x 0.62 + 4.9 = 109.7 + 623.5 + 84.3 + 4.9 = 822.4 kN/m2 quIt = 822.4  36.6 = 785.8 kN/m2 tor of safety
= 
785.8 141.1
= 5.6
Compared with Example 8.1 the net bearing capacity has increased slightly but the net applied pressure has o increased. If the column load had been placed at the centre of this foundation the factor of safety would given by: et applied pressure = 1164.2 2.5 x 3.5  36.6
= 133.1  36.6 = 96.5 kN/m2
a) Undrained condition
380.9 actor of safety = 96.5 = 4.0 b) Drained condition 734.4 actor of safety = = 7.6 96.5
Worked
Example 8.4
Eccentric and inclined loading
A horizontal load of 80 kN is applied 1.5 m above ground level to the column in Example 8.3 inlion ofthe short side. Determine the bearing capacity and factor of safety against general shear f; .. 80 x 3.2 eccentricity eB = = 0.22 m 1164.2 B' = 2.5  2 x 0.22 = 2.06
111
(a) undrained condition Without depth factors 2.06 sc = 1 + 0.2 x = 1.16 2.62 The inclination of the load is in the direction of the hort side 2.06 2+2.62 = 1.56
ic = 1
0
mB
2.06 1+2.62 gross quit = 65 x 5.14 x 1.16 x 0.93 + 36.6 = 397 kN/m2 net quit = 397  36.6 = 360.4 kN/m2 1164.2 ? Gross applied pressure = = 215.7 kN/m2.06 x 2.62
(b) Drained condition
=
1.56 x 80 2.06 x 2.62 x 65 x 5.14 = 0.93
s =1+x=143
c
206
13.2 23.9
2.62
s =1+tan27°=1.40
q
2.06
2.62
s =10.4x=O.69
y
2.06 2.62
i=
q
[J 
80 ] 1164.2 + 2.06 x 2.62 x 3 x cot 27°
1  0.90 3.
l.56
= 0.90
iy = 0.9332.56 =
o.
ic = 0.90  2
9
tan 27
° = 0.89
From equation 8.8 and 8.13 gross quit = 3 x 23.9 x 1.43 x 0.89 + 31.7 x 13.2 x ].40 x 0.90 + 0. x l l. = 91.3 + 527.2 + 65.0 + 4.9 = 688.4 kN/m2 net quit = 688.4  36.6 = 651.8 kN/m2 651.8 Factor of safety = = 3.6 179.1 Factors of Safety  Summary Load case Short term Vertical, central load 4.0 Vertical, eccentric load 2.8 2.0 Eccentric and inclined load Long term 7.6 .6 3.6
Norked Example 9.10 ethod
Total settlements  elastic drained
Aflexible rectangular foundation, 4 rn. wide and 8 I1l long is to be constructed 2 m below the surface of a layer of firm overconsolidated clay, 10 m thick and will support a uniform pressure of60 kNlm2. The drained modulus increases from 10 MNlm2 at ground level to 20 MNlm2 at the base of the clay. Determine (he maximum total settlement. The modulus at foundation level, E/ = 12 MN/m2 From Figure 9.2 the settlement at the corner of a quarter foundation is obtained: B=2m H=]_=4 B 2
From Equation 9.14, k= 20 ;12 xt=0.167 1 Enter the charts, Figure 9.12, at B
H
= 1.2 x 4 = 4.8 = 0.92
= 0.95
15 . mm
1= 0.44 (Note: nonlinear interpolation)
S= 4 =0.5
D
2
From Figure 9.13 FD From Figure 9.14 FB
PT 
 60x2x0.44xO.92xO.95x4xlOOO 12 x 1000
b~ (= .~~oundation, i!!!._wide is placed at 2 m below ground level in a 0yered sand and applies a uniform or~sspl:es'{ure of 140 kNlm2. The bulk unit weight of the sand is 18 kNlm3 and the water table lies at ground l~. The cone e~tance of the layers is given on Figure 9.24. Determine the immediate and longterm settlement of the foundation.
Due to buoyancy from the water pressure at the underside of the foundation the resultant gross pressure will be 140  2 x 9.8 = p = 120.4 kN/m2 Po' = (18  9.8) x 2 = 16.4 kN/m2 !::"p = 120.4  16.4 = 104.0 kN/m2
Worked Example 9.11 method
Settlements on sand  Schmertmann's
C,
= 1 0.5 x 104.0 = 0.92
16.4
At 0.5B
= 2 m below
foundation level
CYv'
= (18 
9.8) x 4
= 32.8 kN/m2
From equation 9.24, Iz iax _11 a
= 0.5
104.0 + 0.1 (32.8
)0.5 0.68 =
294 .
SOl
L ME C HAN rc 5 
P R INC
I P L E SAN
D
P RAe
TIC E
Ck (MN/m2)
~ , 2.0 m avo
~
0
2
4 3
6
0.2 2.0m!
0.4
0.6
O.
t ..LLl
CD ®
0
_.
L=)
_.
··········D);~r·
5
..
·3~:1···
:::: .
0.68
~
4
Depth
@
t
t, L';z
qc 0.26 0.21 0.24 0.06
·········:~:.o::~l
FIGURE
9.24
The variation of Iz has been plotted against depth for this value of lzmaxon Figure 9.24. Splitting the ero 'section into suitable layers values of L';z and average values of qc and lz are obtained: Layer
L';z
In
qc MNlm2 3 3
i,
0.39 0.62 0.40 0.11
1
2 3 4
2.0 1.0 3.0 2.0
5
4
L, = 0.77
From equation 9.22, the immediate settlement will be Pi
=
0.92 x 104.0 x 0.77 x 1000
==:::::c::
2.5 x 1000
= 29 mm
For a design life of say, 30 years C2 = 1 + 0.210glo 10 x 30 = 1.5 :. the longterm settlement will be Pt = 29 x 1.5 = 44 mm
rked Example 10.1
_.
Bored piles in clay
·ne the length of a 600 mm diameter pile to support a working load of 1200 kN at a site where two of clay exist. The upper layer is 8 m thick and has an undrained shear strength of 80 kNlm2. The layer is 20 m thick and has an undrained shear strength of 120 kNlm2.
 e top 1 m of the pile does not support load due to clay!concrete shrinkage an adhesion factor of OiS Nc = 9 Q) = 1.0 Factors of safety are 1.5 and 3.0 on the shaft load and base load, respectively _  load in upper layer Qs1 gth of pile in contact with upper layer is 7.0 m
x80 x n x 0.6 x 7.0_= 352 kN 1.5 ~::2]j·OJ·ng load of 1200  352 = 848 kN must be supported in the lower layer load in lower layer Qb 1.0 x n x 120 x 0.6 = 102 kN :lx4 ~g load of 848  102 = 746 kN must be supported by the shaft in the lower layer. Assuming the gth of pile in the lower layer to be L. x120xnxO.6xL =746 kN 1.5 _=9.9 m ~~gth of pile required is 8.0 + 9.9 = 17.9 m, say 18 m +: end beating is ignored or cannot be relied on then  x 120 x n x 0.6 x L = 848 kN 1.5 _=11.25m ..xngth of pile is 8.0 + 11.25 = 19.25
2
m
Norked Example 10.2
Bored piles in fissured clay
Determine the length ofa pile, 1200 mm diameter, to support a working load of 4500 kN in a thick deposit
of fissured clay with undrained shear strength increasing linearly with depth from 55 kNlm2 at ground level
and at 5 kNlm2 per metre depth. The same assumptions as in Example J 0.1 are used but with
Q)
= 0.75 for a
urge diameter pile. At 1 m below ground level ell = 55 + 5 = 60 kNlm2 Let L be the length of pile below 1 m At the base of the pile C~b = 60 + 5L kNlm2 Mean sheaf strength
0 ve.reffective
length
of
shaft L
= 60
I
5L 2
= 60125L
4500 = 9 x 0.75 x n x (60 + 2.5L) x 1.2"_+ 0.50 x n x (60 + 2.5L) x L x 1.2 3.0x4 1.5
giving L2 + 28.05L Check: 9 ~ 0.75
 1383.6 3.0 x 4
= 0 and L = 25.73
In
X!! ~1887_x_I.22 = 26.7
+ 0.5_Q x!!.. ~2:!.:.~ x 25.23 x_j1.
1.5
In,
= 480
+ 4019
= 4499
kN
.'. length of pile is 1.0 + 25.7
say 27 m
I Worked
Example 10.3
Short driven pile in clay
A 250 mm square concrete pile is driven 2.5 m into a very stiff clay with undrained shear strength of 150 kNlm2 Determine the working load of the pile assuming an overall [actor of safety of 2.0 for: (i) oft clay overlyin.g (ii) sand overlying For both case the ba e resistance can be calculated from Qb = 9 x 150 X 0.252 = 84.4 kN i) Soft clay overlying From Figure 10.3, ex = 0.25 Qs = 0.25 x 150 x 4 x 0.25 x 2.5 Working load
=
84.4
i91.8 = 89 kN
= 93.8
kN
ii) Sand overlying From Figure 10.3, ex = J .0 adhe ion = 1.0 x 150 = 150 kN/m2 Assuming a maximum adhesion of 100 kN/ll12 Qs = 100 x 4 x 0.25 x 2.5 = 250 kN Working load ~
=
8jA.± 250  167 kN 2
\ Worked
Example 10.4
Long driven pile in clay
A closed end steel tubular pile, 0.9 m diameter; is driven into a stiff clay with a penetration of 50 m. The undrained shear strength of the clay is 120 kNII/72 and the submerged unit weight is II kNlm3 Determine the working load as uming an overall factor of safety of2.0. Base load is 9 x 120 x :n; x 0.92/4 = 687 ' i) Using the A method Assuming a water table at ground level or submerged conditions mean effective stress = 25 x J l = 275 kN/m2 From Figure 10.6, A= 0.13 ca = 0.13 (275 + 2 x 120) = 67 kN/m2 Shaft load = 67 x :n; x 0.9 x 50 = 9472 kN Working load
= 
687 + 9472 2.0
= 5080
Iu\l
PILE
FOUNDATIONS·
325
ii) U ing the c. 120 (): = 275
From Figure
c
(}u~
ratio method
= 0.44
d = 0.9
L
50
= 55.6
I 0.7, cxp = 0.82 and F = 0.95 haft load = 0.95 x 0.82 x 120 x n x 0.9 x 50 = 13215 kN 687+1215 'orking load = = 695] kN 2.0
Norked Example 10.5
Driven pile in sand
.\ concrete pile, 350 111m square, is to be driven into a thick deposit of medium dense sand with a SPT 'N' 'alue 0/20 and a bulk unit weight of 19 kNlm3 The water table lies at 2.0 m below ground level. Estimate the length of pile required 10 support a working load of450 kN a surning an overall factor of safety of2.5. From Figure to.ll an estimate of the initial angle of friction is 33° From Table 10.1 the angle of friction after driving can be obtaine I '=
13+40
2
=36.5°
or
¢'=3/4x33+
10=34.75°
a critical depth at
Z,
From Figure
10.10, using M yerhof's relationship
 = 10.5 x 0.35 depth, 0 2.0 3.7
In
= 3.7
d
= J 0.5 is indicated
m
(},.'kNII/l2 0 38.0 53.6
From Figure JO.8, Nq = 95 qb = 95 x 53.6 = 5092 kN/1112 Base load (factored)
=
5092 x 0.35' 2.5
=249.5 kN
depth
:. pile must be longer than the critical
From Figure 10.12, Kpn8 = 0.70
haft load from ground level to 2.0 m
= QS1
=9.2 kN
Q
I
=
38.0 x 0.43 x 2.0 x 0.5 x 0.35 x 4 2.5
haft I a I from 2.0 to 3.7 m
= Qs2
=18.7 k
Q2=
(38.0 + 53.6) x 0.43 x 1.7 x 0.5 x 0.35 x 4 2.5
326·
SOIL
MECHANICS

PRINCIPLES
AND
PRACTICE
Length of pile below 3.7 m L= 172.6 x 2.5 53.6 x 0.43 x 0.35 x 4
=L
=
13.4 m
Pile length
= 3.7 + 13.4 =
17.1 m, say 17.5 m
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