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FARMING OF TILAPIA
Breeding Plans, Mass Seed Production and Aquaculture Techniques
G.FARMING OF TILAPIA Breeding Plans. PhD Aquaculture Genetics (Stirling. UK) Director. Bangladesh iii . Research & Planning Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute Mymensingh 2201. MSc Aquaculture & Management. Hussain BSc Fisheries (Hons). Mass Seed Production and Aquaculture Techniques M.
Hussain Printed by Momin Offset Press.G. Dhaka. Mass Seed Production and Aquaculture Techniques First Edition 2004 M. Mymensingh 2200 Bangladesh ISBN 984-32-1839-6 Cover and other photos by M. M.G. Hussain 2004 Hussain. mass seed production and aquaculture techniques.FARMING OF TILAPIA Breeding Plans. 149 p.G. 2004. Farming of tilapia: Breeding plans. Bangladesh Price: Taka 300 (Three Hundred) Outside Bangladesh: US$ 15 iv . Published by Habiba Akter Hussain 55 Kristawpur.
patience. kindness and encouragement this book could never have been completed v .Dedication The author dedicates this book to his family. especially to his wife Habiba Akter Hussain and sons Sazzad Hussain and Ali Hussain without whose love.
3 3.3 Chapter 2 2.4 Chapter 4 4.2 3. female and male population Genomic status and determination of sex vii 18 19 20 30 31 31 .2 1.2 2.1 3.1 2.Contents List of figures List of tables Preface Acknowledgements Chapter 1 1.1 Introduction Importance and potential of tilapia species in aquaculture Tilapia species introduction in Bangladesh Performance and potentials of the GIFT strain of Oreochromis niloticus General and reproductive biology of tilapia Taxonomic classification Generic groups of tilapias General biology of Nile tilapia Breeding and reproductive biology of Nile tilapia x xiv xv xvii 1 1 2 3 9 9 9 10 11 Brood stock replacement and breeding plans for 18 tilapia hatchery stocks Brood stock management to avoid genetic stock deterioration Brood stock replacement techniques Breeding plan and genetic stock improvement of tilapia Maximizing the effective population size (Ne) Ploidy manipulation and production of all sterile.1 1.4 Chapter 3 3.3 2.
4 Chapter 7 7.2 5.4 Chapter 6 Production of genetically induced all sterile population 4.3 4.4.2 Induction of mitotic gynogenesis Production of genetically induced all male population Protocols for chromosome karyopyting Body colour inheritance and development of purebred strains of red tilapia Inheritance of body colour in commercially available strains Importance and problems associated with the present stocks Mechanisms of progeny testing to develop purebred strains of red tilapia Maintenance of purebred brood stock for seed production in the hatchery Development and operation of mixed sex commercial tilapia seed production systems Mixed sex tilapia seed production in ponds Mixed sex tilapia seed production in concrete tanks Mixed sex tilapia seed production in hapas Mixed sex tilapia seed production in rice fields Development and operation of monosex commercial tilapia seed production systems Sex reversal technique for the production of monosex fish fry viii 32 32 38 38 39 42 42 45 45 46 48 51 53 6.2 6.3.3 6.1 Induction of polyploidy Production of genetically induced all female population 18.104.22.168 Induction of meiotic gynogenesis 4.5 Chapter 5 5.1 53 56 59 61 63 63 .2 4.1 5.1 6.3 5.4 4.
1 8.1 9.1 Hatchery design and operation of monosex seed production systems 7.2 Tilapia culture in raceways Diseases and parasites of tilapia and their control measures Marketing of tilapia Strategies and prospects of frontier development of tilapia aquaculture 63 66 78 86 86 87 90 91 93 102 102 103 107 108 110 113 121 126 130 134 144 Chapter 8 8.3.3 8.2 8.4 8.3.2 All male monosex seed production through inversion of sexes in tilapia 7.2.3 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Glossary References Index ix .2 Production of YY males and operation of monosex all male seed production system Development and operation of semi-intensive tilapia culture systems Tilapia culture in seasonal ditches and ponds Tilapia culture in rice fields Polyculture of tilapia with carps Tilapia culture in pens Tilapia culture in ponds under commercial farming management Development and operation of intensive tilapia culture systems The suitability of tilapia for intensive culture Tilapia culture in cages Tilapia culture in tanks and raceways 22.214.171.124 Chapter 9 9.1 Tilapia culture in tanks 9.2 9.
b. Oreochromis mossambicus Nile tilapia. for the discharge of fecal waste. medium type of trays connected to the recirculating system Floy tagging underneath the scale below the dorsal fin and above the lateral line of tilapia Plastic numbered tags with nylon thread PIT tagging into the visceral cavity of tilapia x 4 4 5 5 13 6 16 7 16 8 25 9 10 11 28 28 29 . where egg passes through Histological section of an ovary shows various stages of development at peak maturation of female Oreochromis niloticus Histological section of a testis shows various stages of development at peak maturation of male Oreochromis niloticus A simple tilapia egg incubation system having a. where the milt and urine are excreted and the anus.List of figures 1 2 3 4 5 Mozambique tilapia. Genital papilla of female Oreochromis niloticus having three openings. Oreochromis niloticus Red tilapia strain Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) strain a. plastic water bottles and b. the urogenital opening. Genital papilla of male Oreochromis niloticus having two opening. the anus. the urethra for urine passing and the oviduct.
b.5 L vessel capacity pressure apparatus Thermostatically regulated 50 L capacity water bath A schematic diagram of inducing two types of gynogenesis (meiotic and mitotic) in Oreochromis niloticus using pressure. a. c. triploid (3n = 66). niloticus using pressure. diploid (2n = 44). heat and cold shocks Metaphase chromosome of Oreochromis niloticus. d. heat and cold shocks 1 – 1. haploid (n = 22). aneuploid metaphase (hyperhaploid or hypodiploid) Purebred red tilapia Impure blotched type tilapia of red phenotype Tilapia fry holding hapas Low cost tilapia breeding and fry rearing tanks Tilapia egg incubation and hatching system model Typical modern monosex tilapia seed production hatchery system in Thailand Tilapia breeding hapas in pond Gathering tilapia breeders at regular intervals for egg collection purpose in the breeding hapa Plastic vowels placed in a bamboo frame for separating the collected fertilized eggs having different colours (based on different age groups) 33 35 35 38 16 44 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 52 52 57 57 68 68 73 73 74 xi .12 13 14 15 A schematic diagram of inducing polyploids in O.
26 27 28 29 30 31 32 A series of round bottom plastic jars and flat trays for incubating the fertilized eggs/hatched fry with yolk sac Separate flat trays where hatched larvae are kept until their yolk sac resorption stage is over The protocol for preparation and application of hormone mixed feeds for sex reversal of Nile tilapia fry Automatic hormone feed mixing machine The technique of application of hormone mixed feeds to the first feeding fry in the transitory hapas Manual counting of tilapia fry a. b. Hapas can be installed and fixed with RCC frame made over the pond for feeding hormone mixed feeds The protocol for feeding of hormone mixed feeds The technique of application of hormone mixed feeds to the early fry in the nursery hapas The protocol for sex identification in tilapia fry The protocol of producing all male monosex population through the indirect method of sex reversal The monk in a pond A typical layout of a fish arm View of a commercial fish farm 74 75 75 79 79 80 80 81 81 82 82 85 100 100 101 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 xii . Hapas can be installed in the pond and fixed and tied to nylon ropes and bamboo poles for feeding hormone mixed feeds.
40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51
Simple paddle wheel type of aerators set in the ponds for aeration of water to add more oxygen The floating rafts with net cages for intensive tilapia culture The cemented tanks for intensive tilapia culture Race ways for intensive tilapia culture Abdominal dropsy in tilapia Protozoan parasite Chilodonella sp. Protozoan parasite Trichodina sp. Fish lice Argulas sp. Washing of harvested live tilapias in the holding tank with the inflowing cool water before marketing Tilapias in the retailing fish market for the consumers Tilapia is a fish of the decade Tilapia is a good food fish
101 106 109 111 116 117 118 119 123 123 129 129
List of tables
1 Serum calcium concentration and steroid hormone levels in mature female and male O. niloticus. All values are mean ± SE estimated from an equal number (n=10) of fish in each category Inbreeding resulting from some matings between closely related individuals Correlation between effective population size (Ne) and rate of inbreeding in a hatchery Polyploidy induction in various Oreochromis spp. using pressure, heat and cold shocks Gynogenesis induction in various Oreochromis spp. using pressure and heat shocks Formulated feed for feeding tilapia fry in rearing hapas and nursery ponds Formulated feed for feeding tilapia under semi-intensive system in the grow out ponds Available data on tilapia cage culture in different countries Available data on tilapia culture in tanks in different countries 17
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
19 30 37 41 61 98 107 110 112
10 Available data on tilapia culture in raceways in different countries
In the context of declining trends both in inland and marine capture fisheries, aquaculture is the most promising option for increasing fish production. In addition to earning profits, aquaculture can improve the livelihoods and nutrition of the resource-poor rural people in the region. In fact, promotion of aquaculture of Indian and Chinese major carp and shrimp species has taken place for many years in the developing countries of this part of Asia, like Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Although production was promisingly increased especially for carps through adoption of improved technologies, but these could not be diversified out of freshwater areas. On the other hand, mass involvement of rural people in carp and shrimp culture was found difficult due to their limited water resources and financial incapability in many cases. Like Thailand and Vietnam, recently farming of riverine catfish (Pangasius sutchi) has dramatically increased in Bangladesh. However, feed crisis and low market prices have severely damaged the progress of farming of this fish in the country. On the other hand, improved extensive shrimp culture is in collapse due to disease outbreaks in recent times. Under such conditions, a large number of commercial catfish and shrimp producers are looking for alternative species to culture in their farms to maximize the production. Of the available farmed species, tilapias are among the best candidates to overcome the situation due to their desirable characteristics like ease of seed production, high yield, disease resistance and efficiency of growing well with organic and agricultural wastes and low cost feeds. In spite of the promising future of tilapia farming in Bangladesh, it took a long time to realize the fact, due to some negative attitudes of the respective organization(s) and decision makers. Although the best tilapia farming species like Nile tilapia (Oreochronis niloticus) was introduced in this country in 1974, but it was not clear that the species is highly potential and productive for suitable water bodies until the Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute (BFRI) discovered the truth through introduction of GIFT strain (1994) and subsequently conducted intensive research and developed the super strain of GIFT. Tilapia farming is gaining popularity day by day in Bangladesh and a number of entrepreneurs have already initiated its hatchery development
I have tried my best to invest my knowledge on the subject in compiling the best information on tilapia farming in this book. Chapter 10 and Chapter 11. Detailed development and operation of semi-intensive systems. This book highlights the importance of tilapia species in aquaculture. Chapter 9. general and reproductive biology of tilapia. which I believe will be useful as a guide to hatchery operators. progressive farmers. intensive systems of tilapia culture. It has been felt that very little readily available information on farming practices of tilapia is available in Bangladesh and elsewhere in this region. a note on future strategies and prospects of frontier development of tilapia aquaculture is highlighted. mass seed production and various aquaculture techniques of the fish in Bangladesh and elsewhere in Asia where tilapias are being used for promotion of aquaculture. Therefore. All these chapters are designed for progressive fish farmers and entrepreneurs. disease and parasites of tilapia and their control measures and marketing of tilapia are presented respectively in Chapter 8. brood stock replacement and development of outbred and genetically improved hatchery stocks of tilapia in the Chapter 1. M. female and male populations in tilapia and production of purebred red tilapia strains are detailed in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 . Chapter 2 and Chapter 3. In Chapter 6 and Chapter 7. stock improvement. researchers and planners developing programs for simple breeding. an attempt has been made to prepare a comprehensive handbook and publish it initially in English for the national and international readers.G. entrepreneurs. special emphasis has been given to simple techniques for design and operation of mixed and monosex mass seed production systems.for commercial mixed and monosex seed production and farming in different parts of the country. Simple classical biotechnological tools to develop genetically induced all sterile. the performance of the GIFT strain of Oreochromis niloticus. Finally in Chapter 12. Hussain xvi .
E. M. Karim. Dr. M. A. Dunham. Muktagacha Fisheries. who provided a wealth of information and critically reviewed and improved the first draft of the manuscript. E. Dr. R. Gupta. Thailand guided me to collect information and design of monosex tilapia hatchery from private tilapia hatchery entrepreneurs of several provinces in Thailand.H. All the assistance and support from the tilapia hatchery and farming entrepreneurs of Bangladesh viz.I. I owe my greatest debt to my lovely wife Habiba Akhter Hussain (Koli) for her continuous support and encouragement until the completion of this book. are greatly acknowledged. Stirling University.M. Janssen. Prof. Managing Director of PKPS Farm Mart. Dr. David J. A. Dr. Scotland. Dr. B. C. Pullin. Ponzoni. who have provided information. S. M. Dr. Dr. materials and photographs for use in this book. R. Fish Genetics and Reproduction Research Group. J. Dr. R. These persons are: Dr. Drs. Above all my thanks go to Dr. A. Dey. Islam.W. NIRIBILI Group. xvii . Mair.V. Sarder. Special thanks are due to Dr. Yong Kim Thai. Dr. Wahab. M. M.Acknowledgements The author wishes to acknowledge the kindness of all of his good friends and colleagues. Malaysia for his kind permission to use some of his farm photographs in this book. She also provided a number of her diagrams and photographs for this document. National Aquaculture Genetic Research Institute. the former Director. Dr. Shubra Hatchery Group.V. Dr. Kohinoor and Mr. Director General of Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute for his kindness to allow me for using many materials from the institute library and stations including his valuable suggestions and encouragement. I am also indebted to Mr.J.J. G. McAndrew.S. Poultry and Dairy Farms Ltd. Nuanmanee Pongthana. Mazid. Selangor.M.A. Eknath. Bismillah Hatchery Group. Hoq assisted and formulated the overall design of the book. Penman. Dr. R. and Riliance Aqua Ltd. Institute of Aquaculture. Dr.A. Alam.
In the central African countries. SE Asia.647 mt).1 Introduction IMPORTANCE AND POTENTIAL OF TILAPIA SPECIES IN AQUACULTURE Tilapias are a group of “Cichlid” fish native to African countries. Although the important natural tilapia genetic resources are in Africa. 500 mt in 1950 to 1. While widespread introductions have provided the mechanism for expansion of tilapia culture. commercial farming of several species of tilapia has become a common practice in aquaculture throughout several regions of the world such as China.724 mt). 265.Farming of Tilapia 1 1. Africa. Galilee tilapia (Sarotherodon galilaeus). macrochir). Indonesia (86.899 mt tilapia were produced in Asia in 1999 of which 62. Philippines (99. After that the tilapia species were spread over most of the tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world.930 mt) and Sri Lanka (31. the major aquaculture industries at present are in Asia. USA and Latin America/Caribbean (Vannuccini 1998). Other countries like. effective management of reproduction is the primary factor that has been instrumental in the realization of their aquaculture potential in the later half of the 20th century (Shelton 2002). andersonii). 450 mt) are the major tilapia producing countries in Asia (Guerrero 2002). three spotted tilapia (O. 800 mt in 2000. In the early days of the 20th century. A total of about 70 species of tilapia have been so far listed as native to Africa (Anon 1984). About 989. Only a few species are suitable and popular for farming in ponds and other culture systems. Thailand (151. According to FAO. farming of tilapias in ponds was introduced after Second World War. aureus). Mozambique tilapia (O. longfin tilapia (O. blackchin tilapia (S. Blue tilapia (O. the total world production of tilapias (wild and aquaculture) has increased from 37. tilapias were wild fish in the great lakes and rivers of that continent.6% came from China. which include Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). In recent years. . mossambicus).
While the former is still used to produce hybrids. 1. Mozambique tilapia. he suggested concentrating research efforts on the Blue tilapia and Nile tilapia. Tilapia has also been described as the important aquaculture species of the 21st century. O. There are also some genetically improved strains such as Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT). The fish did not flourish and proved to be a pest due to its early maturation and prolific breeding habits in the ponds.2 TILAPIA SPECIES INTRODUCTION IN BANGLADESH Among tilapias. which was introduced into Bangladesh from Thailand in 1954.Farming of Tilapia melanotheron) and redbelly tilapia (Tilapia zillii). mossambicus (Figure 1) was the first species. Above all. Israel) Drs. niloticus) has taken the lead as the principal species (cited by Shelton 2002). once considered a low value fish. only suitable for the ethnic market. producers 2 . Vannuccini (1998) stated “Tilapia. It remains to be seen whether the “food fish of the 21st century” will surpass production of the carps in aquaculture during the new millennium (Fitzsimmons 2000). Pullin (1983) compared the attributes of various species with culture potential. red tilapia strains and hybrids. Nazareth. has in recent times gained wider consumer acceptance and is now considered an attractive menu item in chain restaurants”. it has been effectively left behind as the Nile tilapia (O. It is believed that in the future it may become the most important fin fish in the world”. O. In the First International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture (May 1983. niloticus has been recognized as the prime domesticated species for farming in a wide range of aquaculture systems from simple waste-fed fishponds to intensive culture systems (ICLARM 1991). Liao and Chen concluded that “Tilapia is no longer an African fish but an International fish. which being grown on commercial farms in 100 countries of the world from extensive to super-intensive. As a result.
a red mutant tilapia (Figure 3). formerly FRI) initiated the second introduction of the fish in this country. niloticus.Farming of Tilapia and consumers regarded the fish as “nuisance fish”. 1993). also from Thailand. In on-station trials. Philippines. a promising farmed species. In 1988 Drs. Under the Dissemination and Evaluation of Genetically Improved Tilapia in Asia (DEGITA) project of WorldFish Center (Formerly ICLARM). was developed in Taiwan and introduced into Thailand. Thailand and Vietnam under the auspices of a WorldFish Center's project entitled "Dissemination and Evaluation of 3 . mossambicus x O. Overall performance of Nile tilapia and other fast growing tilapias have proved that they are no longer pests but have come to be known as “aquatic chicken”. M. niloticus (Eknath et al. O. O. During the 1970’s a renewed interest in tilapia culture developed in some Asian countries including Bangladesh with the introduction of Nile tilapia. China. In 1974. was introduced in July 1994 from the Philippines. The Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute (BFRI. in 1987. Thailand. Hussain and S. the Chitralada strain of Nile tilapia. the synthetic GIFT strain was reported to show on an average 60% faster growth and 50% better survival at harvest than the most commonly farmed strain in the Philippines. Dewan brought a batch of this red strain of tilapia to Bangladesh from the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT). another promising Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) strain (Figure 4).G. a research project was initiated in Bangladesh. the 'Israel’ strain (Eknath 1992). For evaluating this strain in other countries of Asia. Bangkok. niloticus (Figure 2). Meanwhile. a hybrid between albino O. was introduced into Bangladesh from Thailand through UNICEF.3 PERFORMANCE AND POTENTIAL OF THE GIFT STRAIN OF OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS The GIFT strain was developed by the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM) through several generations of selection from a base population involving eight different strains of Nile tilapia. a synthetic strain of O. 1. niloticus.
5558)".Farming of Tilapia the Genetically Improved Tilapia in Asia (DEGITA. Fig 2 Nile tilapia. Oreochromis mossambicus. Oreochromis niloticus. 4 . Fig. Asian Development Bank (ADB) Technical Assistant Grant Project: RETA No. 1 Mozambique tilapia.
5 . Fig.Farming of Tilapia Fig. 3 Red tilapia strain. 4 Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) strain.
e. greater climatic variation. niloticus strains was assessed in five test environments (i. the mean final weights of GIFT and existing strains were 134. at harvest. Trishal. the GIFT strain appears to be about 10-15% superior to local strains in terms of growth (Dey 1996). The growth performance expressed as least square mean (LSM) values of body weight at harvest of individual strains across different environments revealed that GIFT was consistently better performing than the existing strain. Paikgacha. In on-station ponds. in on-farm conditions.411 and 2.3±2. and therefore. Total yield of the GIFT was significantly higher (57% more. China.05) higher (52%) than that of the existing local strain. In multi-locational on-farm trials in ponds. Manikganj. respectively. comparative growth and production potential of GIFT and existing Nile tilapia strains (O. niloticus) was evaluated both under onstation and on-farm conditions.1 Growth and production performance In Bangladesh.Farming of Tilapia 1. where there are longer histories of tilapia farming. Thailand and Vietnam. in on-station conditions.4±2. 6 .3. 15 to 20% higher yield than that of the Chitralada strain of Thailand. the GIFT strain gave about 15 to 25% higher yield than the other strains like ‘1978’ introduced. On the other hand.05) than that of the existing strain.4 g and 85. cisterns. Indonesia.966 kg/ha/6 months. respectively.e. Chandina. P<0. hapas. Jessore Sadar and Mithapukur) respectively under on-station and on-farm conditions (Hussain et al. the possibility of both natural and artificial selection of local strains to their environments.4 g. In other DEGETA countries viz. ‘1988’ introduced and hybrid strain of China. the average production of the GIFT strain per unit area in the on-farm conditions was also found to be significantly (P<0. The average gross production of GIFT and existing strains were estimated at 4. and 18 to 40% higher yield in comparison to the local strains of Vietnam. 2000). nursery systems. Comparative production performance of GIFT and existing O. net cages and growout ponds) and six multi-locational sites (i.
9% cumulative weight gain. 12.3. meanwhile. The F2. proved to be very suitable fish for aquaculture in Bangladesh and other DEGITA countries. Subsequently. A 5.Farming of Tilapia 1. further stock improvement has also been initiated using selective breeding technique.3. F3 and F4 selected generations attained 2.0 % genetic gain in growth performance was attained by the F1 generation over the non-selected control group. Nuanmanee Pongthana.9%. Evaluation of growth performance was carried out through comparative trials between selected and non-selected average control (existing stock of GIFT) groups. respectively. personal communication).2 The suitability of GIFT strain for seed production and aquaculture The GIFT strain has.5% and 6. The weight gain values of 4th generation of 7 . The average gain per generation across four generations of selection for growth performance in weight was estimated 6.3 Further genetic selection and development of superior strain BFRI has been maintaining the gene pool of pure GIFT strain since its introduction and has enhanced the stock by introduction of new generations from the Philippines in 1996.8%. over three generations. 1. The desirable characteristics of this genetically improved strain are as follows: • • • • • • • High yielding Excellent breeder Efficient converter of organic and agricultural wastes in to high quality protein Resistant to disease Very hardy Tolerant to over crowding conditions Able to grow in either fresh or brackish water The GIFT strain of O. niloticus is being presently widely used for mono sex seed production in a large number of tilapia hatcheries in Thailand (Dr.
Due to excellent performances for growth and other relevant traits (survival. 8 . tilapias have yet to be farmed widely in Bangladesh.3% superiority over the non-selected GIFT control. The new super strain is gaining popularity day by day in Bangladesh and a number of entrepreneurs have already initiated its hatchery development for commercial mixed and monosex seed production and farming in several regions of the country. To date.Farming of Tilapia the selected group showed 27. because interest in tilapia farming is growing due to its success in other Asian countries and increasing consumer acceptance (ADB 2004). fecundity and disease resistance) the new strain can be termed as Super Strain of GIFT (ie. BFRI Super GIFT).
Dr. Trewavas. 9 . According to Trewavas (1983) the three main distinct generic groups of tilapias are as below: • Genus Tilapia: Includes those species which are substrate spawners and do not keep the eggs in the mouth for incubation.g. a Senior Tilapia Taxonomist of British Museum (Natural History) made a thorough review of natural history of African cichlid species in her book “Tilapiine Species” and showed the basis for distinguishing Tilapia. zillii. T. Sarotherodon and Oreochromis as genera.2 GENERIC GROUPS OF TILAPIAS The fishery scientists and taxonomists change the generic names of tilapias from time to time on the basis of research on their various characters but mainly by spawning and breeding behaviors. e.1 Tilapias are predominantly freshwater finfishes often some species characterized with nest building and surface or mouth brooding habits. The taxonomic classification of the Nile tilapia is given below: Phylum: Subphylum: Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Common name: Chordata Vertebrata Osteichthyes Perciformes Cichlidae Oreochromis Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus Nile tilapia 2. E.Farming of Tilapia 2 General and reproductive biology of tilapia TAXONOMIC CLASSIFICATION 2.
The numbers of gill-rakers are 20 –26. e. pH 6. which is brighter in male. S. covered with moderately large scales. O. Unlike other cichlid fish. Caudal fin covered with narrow vertical stripes. melanotheron. Genus Oreochromis: Includes those species which are exclusively maternal mouth brooders. In this group the males construct and defend a mating territory in an arena with other males in adjacent terrirories. the upper margin of dorsal fin black or gray. In particular. Number of dorsal spines are 17. and females come to find spawning partners. galilaeus. e. Scales in lateral line series are 30-34. usually these scales remain around 31-33. is a very hardy fish and can thrive a wide range of aquatic ecological conditions from purely freshwater to brackish or semi saline waters. S.g. aureus.1 Distinguishing characters Body elongate and deep.3.5 – 8.0.Farming of Tilapia • Genus Sarotherodon: Includes those species which are mostly paternal mouth brooders and sometimes eggs and hatched larvae are brooded by both parents. Both sexes at breeding time show red flush on the belly and lower flanks. niloticus. • 2. O. 2.2 Tolerance to ecological conditions The Nile tilapia.g. O.3 GENERAL BIOLOGY OF NILE TILAPIA 2. the dorsal and caudal fin margins of the males become bright red. mossambicus. .3. the body colour of the males is more attractive than females. which are available just on the lower part of the first arch. The suitable ranges of water quality parameters under which the fish can survive well are: • • 10 Water temperatures 12 to 35 oC.
0 – 8. actively pursuing copepods.4.3. 2.25 ppt. It is reported that the males become 20 – 30% heavier in weight in comparison to the females (Hussain and Kohinoor 2003). niloticus is capable of using a wide range of food materials from tiny plankton (phytoplanton and zooplankton) to macrophytes. Lowe-McConnell 1958) recorded maximum sizes of 61. The young fry are omnivorous. the Nile tilapia can grow to 150 – 250 g in 4 to 6 months. It grows well on artificial feeds.3.4 Food O. In the great lakes of Africa.1 Breeding habit and natural spawning (a) Sexual dimorphism Sexual dimorphism is common in Nile tilapia. 11 . 2.Farming of Tilapia • • Dissolve oxygen 2. 4 BREEDING AND REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF NILE TILAPIA 2. hydracarines and various insects. several scientists (Worthington and Ricardo 1936. weights 4-7 kg.3 Growth In tropical pond waters under semi-intensive culture management. 500 to 800 g in 10 to 12 months and 2 – 3 kg in 2 years.0 mg/l. 2.64 cm. both aquatic larvae and terrestrial insects that fall on the water (Trewavas 1983). Salinity 3 . The males are larger than females.
The female spawns in the nest after a short mating ritual. The female has a flatter and shorter papilla with 3 openings. During the spawning the female shows the movement of touching the bottom of the nest and the 12 . for the discharge of fecal waste (Figure 5a).1 to 0. (d) Nest building for natural breeding For natural breeding males build nests on the substratum in shallow regions of stagnant water bodies/ ponds to attract the females for spawning. where eggs pass through (Figure 5b). when it attains a body weight of around 40 – 60 g (Hussain 1989). the anus. They choose partners of more or less same age group. the urogenital opening. erection of fins and body colour patterns) to attract the females. In Bangladesh. (c) Sexual maturation of brood fish The Nile tilapia sexually matures at the age of 3 months. the urethra (for excretion of urine) and the oviduct. it breeds from February to November when water temperatures remain around 22 – 30 oC. where the milt and urine are excreted and the anus. In particularly the males are more active to exhibit their secondary sexual characteristics (i. (e) Mating and spawning activity In most of the tilapia species. the selected female is allowed to enter to the nest. It is also recorded that the nest is about twice the length of the male making it (Hussain 1989).3 meter in diameter and 0.Farming of Tilapia (b) Morphology of sexual organs The genital papilla of male is larger than that of the females and has 2 openings (Velasco 2003a).e. prespawning courtship behavior between males and females is observed.2 to 0. The nest has a circular shape with a depression from 0. When a mating partnership is finally settled.3 meter deep.
The male ejects milt over the eggs to effect fertilization immediately after deposition of each batch of eggs by the female (Chen 1976). the urogenital opening. b a Fig. Ova deposition and fertilization activities occur over a period of up to 2 – 3 hours. where egg passes through.Farming of Tilapia erected conical genital papilla fully descends to deposit the ovulated ova (unfertilized eggs) in batches (30 – 60 eggs/batch). It is reported that the females subsequent to ovulation attract the partner males through releasing sexual pheromones (Velasco 2003a). the urethra for urine passing and the oviduct. In view of mouth brooding the female picks up the fertilized eggs in to her mouth. Genital papilla of female Oreochromis niloticus having three openings. where the milt and urine are excreted and the anus. Genital papilla of male Oreochromis niloticus having two opening. b. the anus. 5 a. for the discharge of fecal waste. 13 .
12 – 14 days a. The fecundity fluctuates widely from a few hundred to several thousand eggs.f. Hatching of eggs take place after 70–90 hours in the mouth at 28±1oC and the female holds the hatched larvae and gives parental care until the swim up stage. (g) Mouth brooding and development of fertilized eggs and embryos The Nile tilapia is maternal mouth brooder.f. a. so the female immediately takes the fertilized eggs into her mouth for incubation.Farming of Tilapia (f) Fecundity The colour of ripe and fertilized eggs is pale yellow orange.0-2. The weight of first feeding tiny fry of Nile tilapia is about 0. and 2.f. which might need another 6–10 days. 6-10 days a. It means that absolute fecundity in this species is inversely correlated with the weight of sexually mature females (Velasco 2003a). In O.5-3. niloticus embryonic development there are five easily observed developmental stages (Hussain 1992): • • • • • Morula stage: Pigmentation stage: Hatching stage: Yolk sac resorption stage: First feeding stage: 6-8 hrs. depending on the size and age of the female.3 – 2.f. It is reported that as the weight of GIFT strain O.f.8 mm in length.) 45-50 hrs. 70-90 hrs. a. the number of eggs decreases. they are ovoid in shape and the size ranges between 1. 14 .0 mm x 1.0 mm in diameter.01g and after this stage they are able to take natural or artificial feeds and move easily in the surrounding waters and do not need any parental care. niloticus increases to a range of 180 – 498 g. after fertilization (a.
2 Process of gonad development In Nile tilapia development of gonadal products (eggs and sperms) is a short process. are also controlled by these sex steroid hormones. 2.3 Endocrine hormone profiles In the process of sexual maturation and gonad development in the fish including tilapia.Farming of Tilapia 2. Sumpter and Bromage 1987). Various stages of germ cell development are visible in testicular section at maturation (Figure 7). testosterone. In the female fish. 11-ketotestosterone etc.4. early egg development starts with the oogonia. which is synthesized by the liver. During the pre-ovulatory period. released into the blood and finally sequestered by the oocytes by means of a receptor-mediated endocytotic process (Tyler. The process of sperm development starts in the males with the spermatogonia. testosterone 15 . spermatogonia develop to primary spermatocytes. The secondary oocytes complete such yolk deposition by the process of vitellogenesis and remain as mature oocytes in the ovary for a variable period of time until their final maturation or ovulation. niloticus (Figure 6). 17β-oestradiol. Development of secondary sexual characteristics such as bright and shiny body colour. Normally in female fish egg yolk is derived from a precursor of lipophosphoprotein-calcium complex called vitellogenin. then primary oocytes which give rise to secondary oocytes.4. vitellogenin production is normally stimulated by 17β-oestradiol hormone). The yolk precursor is believed to be synthesized during the vitellogenesis phase of ovarian growth under the influence of oestrogenic control (ie. high-energy yolk (vitellogenin) deposition occurs in the growing oocytes. A histological section of an ovary shows various stages of development at peak maturation of female O. prominent urogenital papilla etc. each of which gives rise to secondary spermatocytes and then to spermatozoa or mature sperm. On the other hand. bluish fins with reddish margins. the most vital role is played by the endocrine hormones like vitellogenin.
6 Histological section of an ovary shows various stages of development at peak maturation of female Oreochromis niloticus.Farming of Tilapia Fig. 16 . Fig. 7 Histological section of a testis shows various stages of development at peak maturation of male Oreochromis niloticus.
54±2. vitellogenin and all other sex steroid hormones have interlinked functions to regulate oocyte maturation. niloticus.1 82.3 16.012.07±7. 1995) and the data are presented in Table 1.5 17-β-oestradiol (ng ml-1) 0.07±17.5 Testosterone (ng ml-1) 39.4 Sex ratio In normal O. niloticus have been determined respectively by using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry and radioimmunoassay techniques (Hussain et al.28±6. Ultimately.0 Hussain et al.0 37. Sexes Female Male Serum Ca++level -1 (mg 100 ml ) 34. (1995) 2. 17 .45±12.2 11-ketotestosterone (ng ml-1) 0. Table 1.Farming of Tilapia hormone acts as precursor in oestrogen synthesis. In small fish (3-5 g size) where manual sexing is not possible. niloticus brood stock and fish larger than 20-30 g. In this species the overall sex ratio does not generally differ from the expected 1:1 ratio.46±0.3 0. examining their urogenital papilla can easily differentiate sex. an alternative aceto-carmine squash technique can be used (see Chapter 7). All values are mean ± SE estimated from an equal number (n=10) of fish in each category. semen and sperm). Serum calcium concentration and steroid hormone levels in mature female and male O.4. Similarly in male fish sex steroid hormones also regulate more or less the sexual maturation and development of testicular products (ie. Serum calcium concentration (index of vitellogenin) and sex steroid hormone levels in sexually matured female and male O.
Therefore. The most detrimental problem associated with the growing population. Inbreeding tends to increase the homozygosity across all loci fixing some alleles while others are lost (Mair 1999). Inbreeding depression makes a stock having the characteristics of reduced growth rate. a good brood stock management practice in a hatchery or seed production system of tilapia is essential to avoid inbreeding and other related genetic stock deterioration aspects. 18 . On the other hand. loss of fecundity.1 As it is an established fact that the main drawback of all the existing commercial tilapia strains is their precocious maturation and short cycle habit of reproduction in pond conditions.Farming of Tilapia 3 Brood stock replacement and breeding plans for tilapia hatchery stocks BROOD STOCK MANAGEMENT TO AVOID GENETIC STOCK DETERIORATION 3. A short generation time and essentially uncontrolled reproduction make tilapia susceptible to inbreeding. Such genetic stock deterioration will undoubtedly be a critical problem for tilapia seed production. in a small-scale seed production system of tilapia inbreeding will be common because of the mating of close relatives as in most cases female and male breeders are chosen from the finite population. as they rapidly become poor genetic material due to inbreeding of stocks for poor brood stock management. Such uncontrolled inbreeding often leads to the loss of genetic variability and other deleterious consequences known as inbreeding depression. increased incidence of deformities. poor survival etc. which ultimately leads the subsequent generations to become stunted and undesirable.
5 12.5 0. A pair of female and male breeders (1:1 ratio) are stocked in each breeding hapa. The steps of the protocol is furnished below: • • • • Required numbers of founder stock need to be collected from a known source (either from BFRI or from it’s regional stations/sub-stations) and reared in the holding tanks/ponds until maturity. Brood stock should be transferred and kept separately by sex in two transitory hapas (size 8 m x 2.5 6.Farming of Tilapia Table 2. Ne)” supported by standard reference stocks/strains will be the main principle of the tilapia breeding plan in a hatchery. personal communication).0 3. A tilapia hatchery operator should maintain at least 500 brood fish (more or less equal number of females and males) per generation as a standard population size for breeding. The mating protocol should be devised in such a way that will reduce the chances of declining genetic variation between pairs. Mating between breeding stocks Full sibs Parent offspring Half sibs Uncle-niece First cousins Unrelated Inbreeding rate at 1st generation (%) 25.5m x 1 m). Inbreeding resulting from some matings between closely related individuals (Dr.0 12. 19 . Before stocking at least 80 to 100 breeding hapas (size 1 x 1 x 1 m) need to be set in a pond.0 25.2 BROOD STOCK REPLACEMENT TECHNIQUES Use of a high ‘effective population size (ie. Raul Ponzoni. For brood stock replacement a simple protocol should be developed and maintained to ensure that each pair of breeders will contribute only once to the next generation.
hybridization. This will be done to ensure the equal contribution of each breeding pair to brood stock replacement as well as to maximize the effective population size (Ne). a number of advanced genetic techniques are presently available viz. From each progeny group at least 5 females and 5 males should be selected as reference stock by manual sexing and shifted them for brood stock replacement. mouth checking is not necessary. 3. In a well-designed 20 . first feeding fry stage (in farmer’s condition. gene transfer and selective breeding.3 BREEDING PLAN AND GENETIC STOCK IMPROVEMENT OF TILAPIA In view of enhancing productivity of aquaculture species including tilapia. Fry need to be grown up to 30 – 40 g size in the same hapa by reducing their numbers 40 – 50 fingerlings/m3. in that case. sex reversal (including YY-male technology). cross breeding.Farming of Tilapia • • • • • • • It is necessary to check the mouth of all the stocked fish in each hapa 10-14 days interval to collect the fertilized eggs/larvae with yolk sac in view of their artificial incubation. chromosome manipulation. None of these techniques are suitable for continuous improvement of desired traits of a population except selective breeding. if the egg/larvae incubation system is not available.e. Selective breeding is a long-term continuous strategy to improve the production performance and quality of tilapia (WorldFish Center 2004). the larvae are shifted to a series of trays and kept until their yolk sac resorption stage i. Subsequently. at least 200 fry from each progeny family will be transferred to separate nursery hapas (size 1 x 1 x 1 m). Fertilized eggs/larvae with yolk sac that have been collected from the mouth of each female fish will be kept separately and incubated family wise in plastic jars. alternatively fry produced in the hapas can be collected at fortnightly interval by scooping them from the inside or lifting up the bottom). Immediately after hatching.
therefore. Through adopting brood stock replacement program as described above. 3. survival and disease resistance of commercially important tilapia species/strains. The base population requires a large effective population size with a large number of breeders. fecundity. the rate of selection response. 21 .Farming of Tilapia selective breeding program the pedigree of brood fish can be monitored to increase the accuracy of selection and to restrict inbreeding. Such superior and outbred stocks may be of benefit to breeding and aquaculture by increasing growth rate. outbred and broad genetic base in the population at the beginning of the selection program. which needs to have high additive genetic variation. The success of this phenomenon is dependant on the base population. In this way. genetically superior individuals can be developed per generation. the tilapia hatchery operators have a chance to collect and maintain superior brood stock and mate them accordingly.3. In the process of selective breeding. If the selective breeding technique can be added with brood stock replacement program. which might need to develop or maintain huge tilapia reference stocks. The rationale of this stock development/maintenance is to form a heterogeneous. heritability and genetic variability of all traits can be increased to a maximum level and inbreeding depression can be kept to a minimum (Hussain and Mazid 2001). depends on the additive genetic variation present in the breeding population and the intensity of selection (WorldFish Center 2004).1 Development of the base population It is worthy to mention here that a breeding population has every chance of attaining genetic gain every generation if they are produced through a planned selective breeding. then it will be wonderful to improve a stock with desirable traits and high genetic variation.
growth. shape and colour) that are recorded on the living fish. (b) Family selection and (c) Combined selection.0%) over the non-selected control group. (1996) an assumed heritability for body weight of about 0. Hussain et al. According to Bentsen et al.Farming of Tilapia 3. Eknath et al. Similar performance was also attained by Super Strain of GIFT (derived from pure GIFT strain through several generations of genetic selection) in Bangladesh. viz. Mass selection as an initial method of choice is described below: (a) Mass selection This is a relatively simple selection strategy where breeding candidates are selected on the basis of individual performance. where the weight gain values of fifth generation of the selected group showed 31. Mass selection is normally used to improve phenotypic traits (e. (1998) showed about 15% additive genetic gain in the GIFT strain though five generations of selection. (2002) reported that in silver barb the average gain per generation across two generations of selection for growth performance in weight was 7.2%. (a) Mass or individual selection.g. any one can be followed for genetic stock improvement.2% superiority (average genetic gain per generation across four generations of selection was 6. as shown in many fish species. the genetic gain in the progeny should be about 15 to 17% per generation compared to the mean of parent generation.3 and assumed coefficient of variation of 30%. Schom and Baily (1986) reported that mass selection of brood stock in subsequent generations improves the chances of genetic gains through the accumulation of favorable alleles/traits with high genetic variability in the population. The most important step to be considered by the hatchery operators in mass selection strategy is that in every generation at least 5-10% bestselected breeders should be collected and used for breeding program for 22 . Several authors found this to be a useful selection strategy for genetic improvement of commercially important fish stocks.2 The selection methods In tilapia breeding program among three selection methods.3.
3. The selected breeding candidates can become more related to each other. the brood stock are maintained by proper feeding. sexing and maintenance of brood stock During the month March/April. good growth and healthy appearance (Hussain and Mazid 2001). and a consequent accumulation of inbreeding. Individual selection of the breeders is followed based on empirical assessment of best size and weight.Farming of Tilapia the production of next generation. Such inbreeding reduces the genetic variation and the potential for further genetic improvement in the breeding population (WorldFish Center 2004). the best females and males are chosen (weighing between 100-150 gm each) and kept separately by sex in two transitory hapas (size 8 m x 2. During this transitory period.3 Initiate breeding and testing programs (a) Selection. when the Nile tilapia brood stock derived as base population become sexually mature. If large families are naturally produced or stocked in the test environment. In this situation either family selection strategy or combined selection strategy can be followed as described in the manual entitled “Gift technology manual: An aid to tilapia selective breeding” published by WorldFish Center (2004).3. maternal and age effects) may easily result in a disproportionately high contribution of individuals from just a few parents to the next generation. It is also reported that when using a mass selection method. A pair of female and male breeders (1:1 ratio) is stocked in each breeding 23 . (b) Setting of breeding hapas and stocking of breeders At least 80 to 100 breeding hapas (size 1 x 1 x 1 m) are prepared and set in breeding ponds and fixed and tied to nylon ropes and bamboo poles. after several generations the accumulation of inbreeding can be a major problem.g.5m x 1 m) set in a pond until they are used for the planned selective breeding program. the wide genetic variation and common non-genetic effects (e.
(c) Collection of fertilized eggs/larvae The female fish normally holds the fertilized eggs in her mouth for natural incubation. 24 . So. Fertilized eggs/larvae with yolk sac that have been collected from the mouth of each female fish are incubated separately in this system. in that case. first feeding fry stage. The bottles and trays need to be set over the designed concrete platform and connected to the recirculating system. the larvae are shifted to a series of trays and kept separately until their yolk sac resorption stage i. where fresh water (28±1 oC) comes directly from a header tank by gravity (Figure 8). Artificial feeds having 35% crude protein can be fed @ 3 . Rather these eggs should be allowed to hatch and incubate in the mouth of the female(s). Immediately after hatching.0 liter capacity empty plastic coca cola or drinking water bottles and medium type plastic trays (30 x 25 x 8 cm). it is wise not to remove the fertilized eggs from the mouth of the female breeder(s). Note: If there is no facility for artificial hatching and incubation system (s).e. In that case only first feeding or advanced fry can be collected by using a scoop net for their separate nursing in the other series of hapas.Farming of Tilapia hapa. it is necessary to check the mouth of all the stocked females in each hapa twice a week to collect the fertilized eggs/larvae with yolk sac in view of their artificial incubation.4% per estimated weight of biomass 2-3 times daily. (d) Development of incubation system and hatching of fertilized eggs/larvae A simple tilapia egg incubation system can be developed using 2.
8a A simple tilapia egg incubation system having plastic water bottles. 8b A simple tilapia egg incubation system having medium type of trays. 25 . Fig.Farming of Tilapia Fig.
Farming of Tilapia (e) Nursing and rearing of fry/fingerlings At least 200 fry from each progeny family will be transferred to a series of separate nursery hapas (size 1 x 1 x 1 m) for rearing for 21 – 24 days. (g) Tagging of fingerlings .60 days. (f) Record keeping/data collection The tilapia hatchery manager/operator must maintain a record book and keep all the necessary family wise data of the hapa breeding and fry/fingerling rearing. Floy fingerling tags with different colours have been found to be convenient for external tagging to uniquely identify each one of the large numbers of experimental fish (WorldFish Center 2004). Before stocking tilapia fingerlings for any desired communal testing. For producing sufficient number of fingerlings and standardizing the rearing conditions of all full-sib families such records are essential. The Floy tag having two plastic protection discs. Several types of tagging materials are available in the market presently but not all are found suitable. Fry need to be grown up to 8 – 10 g (taggable size) in the same hapas or another series of similar size of hapas by reducing their numbers to 80 – 100 individuals/m3 and reared for another 40 . During incubation. he should record the number of eggs/larvae per jar/tray and their survival. During fry/fingerling rearing. the number of fry stocked in each nursery hapa. tagging with suitable materials is essential. He should note the body weight and length data of individual male and female stocked in each hapa including the date of eggs/larvae collection. and the fingerlings shifted to rearing hapas should also be recorded. all nursery hapas should be installed in the same pond. which are fixed through its thread 26 . To reduce environmental differences between families.
cemented tanks. standard length and tag number of the fingerlings should be recorded. the fish should be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7 @ 3% per estimated body weight. Stocking density needs to be calculated as per recommended numbers for each test environments.Farming of Tilapia either side with the needle carefully inserted underneath the scale below the dorsal fin and above the lateral line (Figure 9). sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate. The earthen ponds. Feeding intensity should be at least 2 times daily. Before stocking. the body weight. An electronic scanner is used to read out the digital number at the time of sampling and harvesting. comparatively longer shaped plastic numbered tags with nylon thread (Figure10) can be used by fixing them at the dorsal fin or tail region of the tilapia fingerlings. Another type of flat. Throughout the entire grow-out period. secured and permanent identification of experimental fish (both for fingerlings and breeders). Every 30 days. 27 . For tilapia the most convenient is digital tagging by Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags (Figure 11). cages and rice fields as common farm environments should be made ready for communal stocking of all full-sib groups. (h) Testing in common farm environments Communal testing of fish in common farm environment might be essential for evaluation of growth and other performance traits as well as estimating the breeding values for any desired selection strategy(s) in each generation. A few equal numbers of tagged fingerlings per full-sib group can be stocked in the selected environments for a full grow-out period (3 – 5 months). which provide a safe. After tagging all the representative number of fingerlings from each family should be shifted to a holding tank or hapa. The capsulated PIT tags are implanted within the visceral cavity of the fish.
10 Plastic numbered tag with nylon thread. 28 .Farming of Tilapia Fig. 9 Floy tagging underneath the scale below the dorsal fin and above the lateral line of tilapia. Fig.
sexual maturation condition. 29 .4 Continue selection program(s) to produce next generation(s) For the production of the next generation. 11 PIT tagging into the visceral cavity of tilapia. parent-offspring. Closely related individuals (i. sex. standard length. the very best individuals in terms of individual weight for mass selection/breeding values for other selection strategies should be used. All the test fish should be captured as carefully as possible and the individual tag numbers. full-sibs. should be recorded. But a compromise needs to be maintained between selection intensity and effective population size (WorldFish Center 2004). halfsibs. body weight.Farming of Tilapia Fig. uncle-nice and cousins) mating should always be avoided to prevent inbreeding depression in further genetic improvement program of tilapia. 3. Fish can be harvested when they attain the weight about 100 – 150 g. body width. body depth etc.e.3.
In a well designed breeding program. “Ne” can be calculated by using the following formula: Ne = 4 x F x M / (F + M) where F = number of female & M = number of males Effective population size is inversely related to the rate of inbreeding (F). The rate of inbreeding per generation in the range of effective population size (Ne) 50 to 1000 using the above formula is furnished in Table 3.5% 0.4 MAXIMIZING THE EFFECTIVE POPULATION SIZE (NE) “Ne” should be maximized to minimize the loss of genetic variation and inbreeding. Effective population size (Ne) (Sex ratio 1:1) 50 100 250 500 750 1000 Rate of inbreeding (F value) per generation 1% 0. Table 3.2% 0.Farming of Tilapia 3.07% 0. which is shown as: F = 1/2Ne It is worthy to mention here that the rate of inbreeding depends on the skewed sex ratio.05% 30 . “Ne” will be made by collecting very few but equal numbers of individuals from each progeny group (ie.1% 0. In a well planned breeding program. Correlation between effective population size (Ne) and rate of inbreeding in a hatchery. the effective population size (Ne) should be maintained >50 up to 1000 to keep the estimated level of inbreeding less than 1% per generation. individuals produced by each pair of breeders) from maximum number of broodstock and maintaining a 1:1 sex ratio (Mair 1999). In a breeding population where random mating is done.
the offspring that are produced from the fertilized eggs having XX (homogametic) set of sex chromosomes become females. the two haploid genomes or gametes form a zygote and this complement is termed as diploid. female and male population GENOMIC STATUS AND DETERMINATION OF SEX 4. Various techniques have been developed so far to interfere with normal functioning of the metaphase spindle apparatus during cell division in eggs using several causal agents. In this case. As a result. nitrous oxide and freon). therefore. Each genome in this species of tilapia contains 22 chromosomes. niloticus has an XX/XY sex determining system. Ploidy or chromosome manipulation has become popular research in this fish since 1980s for the generation of genetically induced sterile and mono-sex (either all female or all male) populations. endomitotics) and anesthetics (i. 31 .e. the methods of controlling sex have become easier.e.e. such as physical shocks (temperature and hydrostatic pressure). niloticus. Here. while those are produced having XY (heterogametic) set of sex chromosomes become males. As the mechanism of sex determination is known in Nile tilapia. a zygote has a diploid genomic status having a total of 44 chromosomes. sperms and eggs) are produced by the male and female O. each haploid set of chromosomes in the egg contains a single X sex chromosome and in the sperm it contains either an X or a Y sex chromosome. the gametes (i. having a haploid set of chromosomes).e. A single gamete can be termed as genome (i. At fertilization of mature egg and sperm.Farming of Tilapia 4 Ploidy manipulation and production of all sterile. chemicals (i. O.1 Like other finfish.
2. because of promising future of large-scale production of genetically induced sterile fish from mating of normal diploid and viable tetraploid individuals. Triploids are produced directly by blocking of second polar body extrusion during second meiotic division shortly after fertilization of fish eggs using various physical shocks and chemical treatments.2 PRODUCTION OF GENETICALLY INDUCED ALL STERILE POPULATION Genetically induced sterile populations can be produced by the induction of polyploidy (triploidy and tetraploidy) in the developing eggs of Nile tilapia. where control of reproduction and population is desirable. The production of tetraploids might have tremendous impact.1 Induction of polyploidy There are two types of polyploids. But until now no viable tetraploids in tilapia have produced except the 32 . Tetraploid individuals are generated by the disruption of the first mitotic division shortly prior to formation of cleavage furrow of developing fertilized eggs using several agents both physical and chemical. Triploid individuals are expected to be functionally and endocrinologically sterile due to their meiotic inhibition of gametogenesis and lack of essential steroid hormone levels to support gonadal growth (Hussain 1998). 4.Farming of Tilapia individuals with differing genomic status can be produced in a population as below: • • • Polyploids (triploid and tetraploid) Gynogenetics (both meiotic and mitotic gynogenetics) Androgenetics (embryonic development with chromosomes) paternal 4. Such sterility in both female and male fish can be of benefit to aquaculture. i) triploids and ii) tetraploids.
A schematic diagram of inducing polyploids in O. niloticus brood stock including improved GIFT strain are to be collected from a known source and attention to be given for their special maintenance in ponds or tanks and feeding with protein rich artificial feeds. niloticus using pressure. 33 . aerated and temperature controlled (28±1 oC) water supply in a wet laboratory. heat and cold shocks (Hussain 1996). 12 A schematic diagram of inducing polyploids in O. In these aquaria the fish need to be fed with commercial pellets (at least 40% protein) at the rate of 2-3% body weight per day. A single male and female are accommodated in each aquarium but are kept separate by a sheet of Perspex. For artificial breeding in view of chromosome manipulation works. heat and cold shocks is shown in Figure 12. sexually mature fish are maintained under at least 12-h photoperiod and transferred into a series of 120 L glass aquaria provided a recirculated.Farming of Tilapia embryos. niloticus using pressure. Methods for triploidy and tetraploidy induction (a) Collection and maintenance of brood stock Sufficient numbers (>100 pairs) of purebred O. Fig.
1-0. The stripping is done by applying gentle downward pressure with the thumb and index fingers from just below the pectoral fins up to the genital opening of the fish.2 ml pre-collected dry sperm per batch of eggs (ca.5 L vessel capacity pressure apparatus (Figure 13) and thermostatically regulated 50 L capacity water bath (Figure 14) are used. The urine is first ejected and the genital papilla dried with a paper towel and the milt is sucked into a micro-pipette by capillary attraction when it is placed at the opening of the urethra. 34 . (c) Egg collection and artificial fertilization Under experimental conditions sexually mature female O. Fertilization is carried out in vitro by mixing 0. she can be held in a scope net for up to 2 hrs. For short storage undiluted milt is held at 4 oC in a refrigerator can be used to fertilize eggs until 3-4 days. To avoid the female prematurely releasing her eggs. The ripe female is removed from the aquarium and the ovulated eggs are obtained by manual stripping. The eggs are collected in a clean and sterile Petri dish. Milt contaminated with urine or water is always eliminated. motility of sperm is always examined under microscope. Readiness of females to spawn is ascertained by examining the degree of swelling of the urogenital papilla and by the pre-spawning behaviour of the fish. niloticus is collected by manual stripping. 100-200 eggs) followed by the addition of 10-20 ml of 28±1 o C water. for water hardening before using for further treatments or transfer to the incubation system. niloticus spawn at approximately 14-20 day intervals. After that fertilized eggs are left in the Petri dish for 2-3 min. heat and cold shocks) to induce both triploidy and tetraploidy. (d) Application of shock treatments For applying physical shock treatments (pressure. Before any milt is used for fertilization. while the experiment is being prepared.Farming of Tilapia (b) Collection and preservation of sperm Milt of sexually mature male O. both 1 – 1.
Farming of Tilapia Fig. 13 1 – 1. Fig. 35 . 14 Thermostatically regulated 50 L capacity water bath.5 L vessel capacity pressure apparatus.
36 .. 1991) are as follows: • • • Pressure shock: 8000 psi.000 – 0 psi).000 – 9. 2 min duration to be applied 40-50 min a.f.f. range 0 to 100 oC capable of maintaining ±0. The optimal pressure and heat shock parameters to suppress the first cleavage or mitotic events of cell division in the fertilized eggs in the Nile tilapia (Hussain et al. Eggs are held in individual uncapped vials and. 3.000 psi taking a further 10 sec. The induction of triploidy and tetraploidy has already been carried out in various Oreochromis spp. niloticus (Hussain et al. is shown in Table 4.5-30 min a.5 duration to be applied 27. 3.1 oC) needs to be filled with clean water and allowed to heat the water up to required temperature. 30 min duration to be applied 7 min a. heat and cold shock parameters for the induction of triploidy in O. the vessel and hydraulic pump reservoir are first filled with 28±1 oC clean water. the eggs are removed from the vials and transferred directly to incubating jars. The optimal pressure. after the vessel is sealed and purged of air.Farming of Tilapia For pressure shocking the fertilised eggs. 2 min duration to be applied 9 min after fertilization (a. After the pressure treatment. Pressure is released by gradually opening the valve and so the pressure dropped typically over 30 sec (9.f. Heat shock: : 41 oC. 1993) can be used for the induction of tetraploidy are as below: • • Pressure shock: 9000 psi.f.f. The time is taken to raise the pressure level from ambient to 8.000 psi typically in the region of 30 sec with the passage from 8000 10. pressure was applied gradually by a manually operated hydraulic pump. Cold shock: 9 oC. For thermal (heat and cold) shocking the fertilized eggs. the pressure release valve is closed.).5 min duration to be applied 5 min a. Heat shock: 41 oC. the water bath (temp.
5 C o 11 C for 60 min o o Induction widow 9 min a.f.5 min o 41 C for 3. The numbers of normal and deformed fry at hatch are also need to be recorded.5 min 9 C for 30 min 11 C for 60 min 7000 psi for 7 min + o 7. using pressure. Table 4. For detailed protocol of chromosome karyotyping see section 4.f.000 µWsec/cm2) and there should be a provision so as to ensure gentle movement of the developing eggs at all times (Rana. 5 min a. (1991)) Valenti (1975)) Myers (1986) Don & Avatalion (1988) (f) Determination of ploidy status The ploidy status of all treatment and control groups can be determined by chromosome preparation of sub-samples of new hatched or 1 day old larvae (Hussain and McAndrew 1994). 37 . pigmentation and hatching stages (see section 2. 7 min a. the water is sterilized through a UV sterilization unit (ca. treated and controlled eggs are identically incubated in a series of round bottom plastic jars (750 – 1500 ml capacity) connected to the warm water (28±1 oC ) recirculating system. 62.f.f. Polyploidy induction in various Oreochromis spp. The triploid and teraploid metaphases in O. 92 min a. 57-60 a. niloticus are composed of three (3n=66 chromosomes) and four (4n=88 chromosomes) sets of genomes respectively.2.5 of this chapter. 1986).3). (1991)) Hussain et al. Species Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis aureus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis aureus Causal agents PS HS CS CS PS + CS CS Intensity level 8000 psi for 3. (1991)) Hussain et al. Additionally. 15 min a.f.f. heat and cold shocks. Ploidy status Triploidy Triploidy Triploidy Triploidy Tetraploidy Tetraploidy Authors Hussain et al.Farming of Tilapia (e) Incubation of eggs Fertilized. namely: morula. The survival rate in treated and control groups is checked at three development stages.
Farming of Tilapia 4.3.3 PRODUCTION OF GENETICALLY INDUCED ALL FEMALE POPULATION Genetically induced all female populations in fish can be produced by artificial diploidization of the maternal chromosome complement either by retention of the second polar body or inhibition of first cleavage using physical and chemical treatments. 4. Fig. 15 A schematic diagram of inducing two types of gynogenesis (meiotic and mitotic) in O. A schematic diagram of inducing two types of gynogenesis (meiotic and mitotic) in O. heat and cold shocks (Hussain 1996). embryonic development proceeds with the inheritance of only maternal 38 . So two types of gynogenetic individuals can thus be generated through the induction of meiotic or mitotic events of fertilized eggs. eggs are fertilized with UV irradiated sperm and then are exposed to a variety of physical shock or chemical treatments. heat and cold shocks is shown in Figure 15. which suppress the anaphase stages of second meiotic division by disruption of metaphase spindles. niloticus using pressure. niloticus using pressure. As a result.1 Induction of meiotic gynogenesis In the process of meiotic gynogenesis.
Hussain et al. (1991) suggested that using meiotic gynogenetic diploids. It has commonly suggested that meiotic gynogentic induction coupled with sex inversion such that functional XX males could be produced (Nagy 1987. induction of diploid gynogenesis by inhibition of first cleavage at mitotic division of a zygote might be more promising method for producing inbred lines. 1981. 4.3.Farming of Tilapia chromosome set(s). The main rationale of mitotic gynogenesis induction in fish has been its potential for generating rapidly inbred lines. 39 . putative gynogenetic progeny derive by the artificial diploidization of the maternal chromosome complement due to prevention of mitotic cleavage. Han et al. which will be homozygous at every gene locus (Chourrout 1984. Streisinger et al. Therefore.2 Induction of mitotic gynogenesis In this process. even when reproduction is repeated for several generations would never produce homozygous inbred lines. Such sex-reversed males are thought to be useful in cross breeding experiments to produce all outbred monosex female population. 1995). At present there are few direct applications of meiotic gynogens in aquaculture because the fish partly or mostly are inbred and have reduced variability compared to normal diploids. 1994). Pongathana et al. Thorgaard and Allen 1987. where the growth rate of females is superior to males. 1998). Despite the first generation of mitotic gynogenetics have limitations to use them directly for culture but they are potential and valuable as completely homozygous brood stock to produce second generation of clonal lines in fish including tilapia (Hussain et al.
their maintenance.1.1 of this chapter. sperm/egg collection and fertilization The true breeding O. eggs are at all times incubated at 28±1 oC.5 ml diluted (with modified Cortland’s solution) UV irradiated sperm. niloticus brood stock collection.Farming of Tilapia Methods for induction of meiotic and mitotic gynogenesis (a) Source of brood stock. stripping of sperm/egg collection and fertilization protocols are described in section 3. After fertilization. (b) Ultraviolet irradiation of sperm Milt samples required for UV treatment are checked for motility and irradiated with an ultraviolet lamp set using a radiometer (Ultra-Violet Products Inc. (c) Application of shock treatments The same protocols for the application of both pressure and thermal shocks treatments can be followed as described in the section 4. Irradiation is carried out in a 5 cm diameter Petri dish at 4 o C to give a dose of 300-310 µW/cm2 for 2 min with a sperm concentration of 2. 1991) can be applied for the induction of meiotic gynogenesis as follows: 40 . The optimal second polar body retaining pressure and heat shock parameters (Hussain et al.4 – 0. 2. All treatment batches of eggs except the UV control are exposed to elevated hydrostatic pressure and heat shocks.05 ml of modified Cortland’s solution (Hussain et al.2.1.). All the treatment batches of eggs are fertilized by mixing 0. 1993). when not being submitted for shock treatments. their maintenance.5x107 ml-1. un-irradiated sperm from the same pool is used to fertilize a portion of eggs as a control.
(1993) Mair (1988) 41 . Table 5. 3. Determination of ploidy status can be performed as explained in the protocols in section 4.f.f. To interfere with the first mitosis for the induction of mitotic gynogenesis the recommended optimal parameters of pressure and heat shocks (Hussain et al.). (1991) Mair (1988). (1993) Hussain et al.5 min 41 C for 3.1.7 C for 3 min 9000 psi for 2 min o 41 C for 3. Heat shock: 41 oC. Species Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis mossambicus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis niloticus Causal agents PS HS HS PS HS HS Intensity level 8000 psi for 3.5 min duration to be applied 5 min a. 1993) can be used as below: • • Pressure shock: 9000 psi. 3. (1991) Varadaraj & Pandian (1990) Hussain et al. Gynogenesis induction in various Oreochromis spp. 25-35 min a.2.f. Ploidy status Meiotic gynogenetic Meiotic gynogenetic Meiotic gynogenetic Mitotic gynogenetic Mitotic gynogenetic Mitotic gynogenetic Authors Hussain et al.f.f. Table 5 shows a brief review of suppression of meiotic and mitotic events of cell division in the fertilised eggs to produce meiotic and mitotic gynogenetics in various Oreochromis spp.5-30 min a. Egg incubation and checking of survival rates of embryos at various developmental stages can be done as described in the protocols in section 2.f.5 min 41. Hussain et al. 32-54 min a. 2 min duration to be applied 40-50 min a.5 min o 41 C for 3.f. 2 min duration to be applied 9 min after fertilization (a. Heat shock: 41 oC.3.Farming of Tilapia • • Pressure shock: 8000 psi.5 min duration to be applied 27. 27.1.5 min o o Induction widow 9 min a.5. using pressure and heat shocks.f. and 3. 5 min a.5-30 min a. 40-50 min a.f.f.
For the commercial production and application of genetically induced males need further research. 1990) and later in Nile tilapia (J.005% colchicine solution (freshly prepared or stored for 4 . 4. • For each group (ca 100) 15 . which is important as egg and embryo cryopreservation has not yet been succeeded. Androgenesis is a genome manipulation technique. The first androgenetic diploids were produced by the suppression of first cleavage of inactivated eggs in salmonids (Parsons and Thorgaard.5 PROTOCOLS FOR CHROMOSOME KARYOPYTING Hussain and McAndrew (1994) developed an improved technique for chromosome karyrotyping from embryonic and soft tissues of tilapia.Farming of Tilapia 4. the reverse to gynogenesis. The resulting embryo develops with entirely paternal chromosomal inheritance without any contribution from the maternal chromosomes. May et al. 1988. The eggs can be inactivated successfully by gamma or x-rays including UV irradiation.6 hrs at 28oC). 42 .M.10 ml of 0.002 . Another possible application of genetically induced males lies in recovering genotypes from cryopreserved sperm. 1985. Thorgaard et al. Myers personal communication). The protocol for chromosome preparation from embryonic tissues is as follows: • Embryonic tissues need to be collected from newly hatched or 1 dayold larvae of treatment groups. which involves a genetically inactivated egg fertilised with normal sperm.0.4 PRODUCTION OF GENETICALLY INDUCED ALL MALE POPULATION The induction of androgenesis is the alternative method of producing genetically induced all male population in tilapia and other selected fish species to replace hormonal sex reversal.20 embryos are placed in a small Petri dish containing 8 .
three to four drops of cell suspension are dropped from a height of 30 .12 min.acetic acid at 4oC. The slides are rinsed in distilled water. of Xylene wash. 43 .90 days. Metaphase spreads of chromosomes are to be checked and chromosome number noted by observing the slides under x400 and x1000 (oil immersion) magnifications. • The are placed overnight (10-12 hours) in a plastic container with aerated 0.12 seconds leaving a fine and clean ring of cells using a single micro-hematocrit dropper.0) for 15 .40 cm onto a clean glass slide on a warmed hot plate (44 . with a compound microscope. • Slides are prepared according to the same technique described for chromosome karyotyping from embryonic tissues. The tissues are then immersed in a fixative of 4:1 methanol . The protocol for chromosome preparation from soft tissues is as follows: • Soft tissues like gill epithelia and the soft edges of the caudal fin are collected from 25-30 day old (after hatching) fry.20 min.75% saline solution under a dissecting microscope by removing their heads and yolk sacs and putting these in distilled water (hypotonic solution) for 8 . Slides are air dried and stained with freshly prepared 10% Giemsa stain (prepared in 0. respectively. placed in the cavity of a Perspex slide with two to three drops 60% glacial acetic acid and minced for 1 min. After 15 . • Tissues are collected with fine scissors and forceps then transferred immediately to distilled water for 10-20 min before being fixed in 4:1 methanol-acetic acid (two changes) and stored at 4 oC up to 30 days..Farming of Tilapia • • • • • • Tissues are obtained from the embryos in chilled 0. the tissues are removed from the fixative and.01M phosphate buffer pH 7. with a glass rod to allow sufficient dissociation of epithelial cells. After two changes the tissues are stored in the fixative for 30 .48oC) and withdrawn within 8 .01-0. The temperature of the solution is maintained 28±1 oC.02% colchicine solution. later blotting out the excess fixative. To prepare the slides. air dried and mounted with DPX after 10 min.20 min.
Farming of Tilapia Counting the chromosomes of as many karyotypes as possible per slide carries out the karyological examination. haploid (n = 22). In fact only one pair large marker chromosomes are recognizable and remaining 21 being similar in size and acrocentric morphologically. diploid and triploid metaphases. 44 . The haploid. niloticus consisting of 22 pairs with no morphologically distinct sex chromosomes. two (2n=44 including two large marker chromosomes) and three (3n=66 including three large marker chromosomes) sets of chromosomes are shown in Figure 16 a-c. a. triploid (3n = 66). 16 Metaphase chromosome of Oreochromis niloticus. c. which are composed of respectively one (n=22 including one large marker chromosome). b. diploid (2n = 44). The karyotypes of O. Aneuploid metaphase (hyperhaploid or hypodiploid) is composed of more than 22 and less than 44 chromosomes in this species (Figure 16 d). Fig. aneuploid metaphase (hyperhaploid or hypodiploid) (Hussain 1995). d.
white. many geneticists working with various plants and animals have since conducted an immense number of experimental works. These crosses were made between phenotypic individuals such as red. The red strain in the Philippines was introduced from Singapore in 1978 and the breeding characteristics of various crosses of different phenotypes 45 . mossambicus and O. Commercially available red tilapia strains are mostly hybrids and products of cross breeding involving as many as four different species in which O. the red heterozygous and the wild type homozygous recessive.1 After the discovery of Mendel’s theory of heredity or inheritance. Meanwhile. niloticus by Kuo (1969. brown and wild type: colour segregations occurred in all crosses. The Taiwanese red tilapia has been reported as a hybrid between albino O. niloticus are predominant (McAndrew et al. studies have also been made particularly to determine the genetics of body colour inheritance in a limited number of commercial and experimental populations of fishes including tilapias. mossambicus and O.Farming of Tilapia 5 Body colour inheritance and development of purebred strains of red tilapia INHERITANCE OF BODY COLOUR IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE STRAINS 5. but after several years of continued selection and hybridization trials using F1 progeny. The pink phenotype was homozygous dominant. the proportion of red phenotypic fry was increased from 30% in 1969 to 80% in 1974. Initially the founder hybrid strain did not produce a high frequency of red fry. Later further genetic improvement of such red tilapia was made through cross breeding (Kuo and Tsay 1988). 1988). 1988) and Liao and Chang (1983).
Among all red. niloticus. fast growth. hornorum and O. the pink phenotype seemed to be homozygous dominant. strains of hybrid red tilapias. Israel. the first one derived from cross breeding involving O. the red body colour was inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in presence of wild type (McAndrew et al. hornorum and red O. mossambicus (Sipe 1979) and the second strain a red-gold colour mutant hybrid between O. His results demonstrated that red body colour in these two mutant strains is controlled by a single autosomal dominant “R” gene. Brazil. Thailand. Indonesia. In an Egyptian strain of O. 1988). Among U. These strains are commercially cultured in many tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world such as Taiwan. grey. Tave et al (1989) demonstrated that black body coloured fish were homozygous dominant. black spotted and albino) were subsequently investigated (Galman et al. gold fish were homozygous recessive and bronze fish were heterozygotes. 1982). the red/gold body colour of O. 5. Malaysia. the authors stated that red-gold colouration was dominant and controlled by two or three gene pairs in this strain. O. Hussain (1994) also observed similar pattern of colour inheritance both in Egyptian and Thai red strains.Farming of Tilapia (ie. Observing several generations.2 IMPORTANCE AND PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRESENT STOCKS Red tilapia strains have become increasingly popular to fish farmers and entrepreneurs for their characteristic body colour. mossambicus has been determined and it was revealed that the mutant phenotype was inherited as a Mendelian recessive (Wohlfarth et al. Jamaica and USA.S. the Philippines. mossambicus (Behrends et al. Although the Thai red strain was introduced into Bangladesh in 1988. Greece. extensive farming practice of this fish has not yet 46 . The frequency of blotchy pattern in these strains further indicated that blotched phenotype are heterozygotes (Rr). pink. which might be epistatic to the “R” gene and expressed only in its presence. 1988). tasty flesh and high demand in the market. Guam. 1990). In Israel. aureus. pink and albinos.
including Thai red strain. Thailand in 1987. McAndrew and Dr. mossambicus was introduced from Malaysia in 1949. pers.2. mossmabicus and O. and heterozygous “Rr” individuals that do not (Hussain 1994). which are not as valuable to the consumers as the pure red individuals. the red strain will also take a place in aquaculture soon due to its commercial importance and high demand in the international markets. Thus. progeny testing is a valuable method for maintaining the production of all pure red progenies of Thai and other mutant strains. An Official of Thai Government informed the meeting that red tilapia was found in a pond in northern Thailand. Despite the commercial importance and development of several red tilapia strains in many regions of the world.Farming of Tilapia flourished. 5.1 Genetic status of Thai red strain The origin of the Thai red strain is less certain and its origins were discussed for the first time in a workshop on “Tilapia Genetic Resources for Aquaculture” held in Bangkok. It is expected that like the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia. B. niloticus alleles were present (Pullin 1988. In this case.J. It has been experimentally proved that the existing stocks of Thai red strain are a mixture of both homozygous “RR” that breed true. communication). Another problem associated with the appearance of varying proportions of blotched types (presence of black spots on the skin) of fish in each generation. one major problem of these mutant strains is that the majority of them do not breed true. Prof. where O. Red mutant brooders can be made as true breeders when they will be fixed 47 . niloticus. Electrophoretic analysis of Thai red tilapia samples showed that both O. this fish was assumed to be a hybrid between O. It will be difficult to maintain or improve the quality and development of pure breeding red populations of the present stocks until the mode of body colour inheritance is well understood by tilapia hatchery workers and researchers. P. Sodsuk. mossambicus and O.
Farming of Tilapia as all homozygous at the “R” allele. The brood stocks of these strains need to be maintained separately initially in the earthen ponds and subsequently in a recirculated water system ie. stripping. During all the phases of growing period of brood stocks. .3 MECHANISMS OF PROGENY TESTING TO DEVELOP PUREBRED STRAINS OF RED TILAPIA 5.3.3 Parental cross breeding (a) Red x Red parental cross • • • 48 A number of red females can be used to cross with red males. 5.1. stripping. No females in these crosses are used more than once and males can be used several times with different females. to allow the undesirable “r” allele to be selected out. 5. egg fertilization and incubation protocols to be used for progeny production will be similar to section 4. 5. in mini tanks or glass aquaria.1 Collection of red and wild brood stock Both red and wild type pure O. fertilization and incubation of eggs Fish breeding. the fish should be fed with formulated or commercial feeds having at least 30% crude protein at recommended rates. Stripped eggs of each red female need to be fertilized with freshly collected milt of red males and incubated separately.2.3.2 Fish breeding. niloticus stocks should be collected from a known source or from a tilapia reference collection maintained at the research institute(s).3.
(b) Red x Wild type parental cross • • • • • • A number of red females or males can be used to cross with wild type males or females. F1 progenies produced in these crosses need to be reared for few weeks in the nursery hapas until the fry develop distinguishable body colour. It is expected that body colour segregation of progenies of all these crosses will be all red. • 49 . From this test crosses. . 100% red progeny producing parental stocks (RR genotype) can be isolated to develop purebred red strains (Figure 17) for commercial breeding purpose. It is expected that body colour segregation of F1 progenies of all these crosses will be either 100% red or 50% red plus 50% wild type. In these crosses it will be difficult to identity the true breeding parental stocks to develop purebred red strains for breeding purpose until the F1 progenies are used for sib crosses.Farming of Tilapia • • • • F1 progenies produced in these crosses need to be reared for few weeks in the nursery hapas until the fry develop distinguishable body colour. No females in these crosses are used more than once and males can be used several times with different females. Thus it can be presumed that the parental red stocks will be either “RR” or “Rr” genotypes or combination of both. Thus it can be presumed that the parental red stocks will be either “RR” (where F1 progenies are 100% red) or “Rr” (where F1 progenies are expected 1 red:1 wild) genotypes or combination of both. Stripped eggs of each female (red or wild) need to be fertilized with freshly collected milt of corresponding males (red or wild) and incubated separately.
3. To determine the observed ratio of colour segregation. 100% red progeny producing F1 stocks (RR genotype) can be isolated to develop purebred red strains for commercial breeding purpose. Stripped eggs of each red female need to be fertilized with freshly collected milt of red males and incubated separately. F2 progenies produced in these crosses need to be reared for few weeks in the nursery hapas until the fry develop distinguishable body colour. From this test crosses.Farming of Tilapia 5. Thus it can be presumed that the parental red stocks will be either “RR” (where F2 progenies are 100% red) or “Rr” (where F2 progenies are expected 3 red:1 wild) genotypes or combination of both. Only F1 or F2 progenies can be categorized into full red (approximately <10% body surface with melanophores) and blotched types (approximately >10% body surface with melanophores).3.5 Scoring of progeny phenotypes Progeny phenotypes in all the crosses can be categorized as “red” (including blotched type) and “wild” type (those normally pigmented and completely different from those of red phenotype) of the same strains. of survivors) x 100 50 . of progeny of a given phenotype / Total no. • 5. No females in these crosses are used more than once and males can be used several times with different females. It is expected that body colour segregation of F2 progenies of all these crosses will be either all red or 75% red plus 25% wild type. the proportion of progeny phenotypes are calculated as: (No.4 Sib cross breeding • • • • • • A number of F1 red females can be used to cross with F1 red males. 1988). although both types together are designated as “red” (McAndrew et al.
Farming of Tilapia
MAINTENANCE OF PUREBRED BROOD STOCK FOR SEED PRODUCTION IN THE HATCHERY
For purebred red brood stock development, fingerlings (20 – 30 g in weight) of “RR” genotypes could be produced or collected and stocked at the rate of 3-4 fish/m2 in the small and medium type brood stock rearing earthen ponds ranging from 1000 – 1500 m2 with the depth of 1.0 to 1.5 m. During all the phases of growing period of brood stocks, the fish should be fed with formulated or commercial feeds having at least 30% crude protein @ 3-10% body weight. During 1st and 2nd week of rearing the fish can be fed @ 10%, during 3rd and 4th week @ 5% and during 5th and 6th week onwards @ 3% body weight. Care should be taken not to contaminate with wild type or impure red blotched type Rr genotypes (Figure 18) in the rearing ponds. Brood stock replacement and stock improvement protocols and monosex production techniques for red strains will be the same as described respectively in Chapter 3 and Chapter 7.
Farming of Tilapia
Fig. 17 Purebred red tilapia strain.
Fig. 18 Impure blotched type tilapia of red phenotype.
Farming of Tilapia
Development and operation of mixed sex commercial tilapia seed production systems
MIXED SEX TILAPIA SEED PRODUCTION IN PONDS
Mixed sex seed production through controlled natural spawning in small and medium earthen ponds is a common practice for tilapia breeders. This system consists of three basic components as follows: i) ii) iii) Brood stock collection and maintenance. Fry production through natural spawning. Rearing of fry in nursery ponds.
6.1.1 Brood stock collection and maintenance
For seed production, the brood stock should be collected from the regional stations and sub-stations of BFRI or any other reliable known sources, who are maintaining outbred and improved stocks of O. niloticus. For brood stock development, fingerlings (20 – 30 g in weight) could be collected and stocked at the rate of 3-4 fish/m2 in the small and medium type brood stock rearing earthen ponds ranging from 1000 – 1500 m2 with the depth of 1.0 to 1.5 m. During all the phases of growing period of brood stocks, the fish should be fed with formulated or commercial feeds having at least 30% crude protein @ 3-10% body weight. During 1st and 2nd week of rearing the fish can be fed @ 10%, during 3rd and 4th week @ 5% and during 5th and 6th week onwards @ 3% body weight. If formulated feeds are not available
Feeding of brood fish during low temperature and rainy days should be avoided to minimize the loss of resources.S. If this is not possible.2 Fry production through natural spawning (a) Pond selection and preparation • • One or two ponds having an area of 400 – 800 m2 with inside slope about 1:3 and average water depth of 1. Seven days after liming. Ponds should be limed @ 250 – 300 kg CaO /ha. 6. then ponds need to be poisoned by using rotenone @ 10 – 12 kg/ha. manuring and fertilization of each pond should be made respectively with cattle dung @ 800 – 1000 kg/ha and Urea plus T.P (25 + 25 kg/ha). (c) Feeding • Supplementary feeds with a mixture of 60% rice bran and 40% mustard oil cake or 75% rice barn or 25% fish meal can be given at 3-5% biomass 2 times a day.1. All the predatory fish and animals are to be completely eradicated by dewatering and drying of ponds before stocking of fish.. • • (b) Stocking of brood fish • Sexually matured breeders weighing 80 to 100 g each should be stocked @ 2-3 fish/m2 with a sex ratio of 1 male to 3 females.0 meter need to be selected for the purpose of natural spawning. 54 .Farming of Tilapia alternatively a mixture of 60% rice bran and 40% mustard oil cake can be given at 5 -10 % biomass 2 times a day.
the first feeding fry can be stocked @ 500 – 600 per m2.Farming of Tilapia (d) Collection of early fry • Three to four weeks after stocking of brood stock. advanced fry can be reared further by stocking @ 100 – 200 m2 in a series of well prepared nursery ponds for 40 – 60 days. 55 . Rearing of tilapia fry to stockable size can be made following the two stages technique as follows: (a) Primary stage • • • • In well prepared nursery ponds. The growing fry need to be reared for 21 days in these ponds to attain an average weight about 1 g each. (b) Secondary stage • In view of producing better stockable size..1.3 Rearing of fry in nursery ponds The size and preparation of nursery ponds should be more or less the same as brood stock ponds described above. Early fry can be fed with powdered feeds as a mixture of rice bran and mustard oilcake (1:1 ratio) at the rate of 12 – 15% initial body weight 3 –4 times per day. when early fry are found schooling near the shore of spawning ponds. the available fry can be sold directly to the buyers or reared in another series of nurseries by reducing their stocking densities. At this stage. 6. the available fry should be collected regularly in the early morning with a fine-mesh seine net and transferred to holding hapas (Figure 19) set in the ponds prior to stocking in the nursery ponds.
4-6 m diameter circular tank is also most economic size and self cleaning for tilapia seed production.0 – 10. rectangular or oval Rectangular tanks are suitable and the size of individual tank may vary from 2. 6.0 – 4.0 m wide with a depth of 0. The fingerlings are expected to attain the average body weight about 8 – 10 g each. 6.0 m.8 – 1.2 MIXED SEX TILAPIA SEED PRODUCTION IN CONCRETE TANKS Concrete tanks are often useful for tilapia seed production. Shape of the tanks can be either circular. 56 . 2. Low cost breeding and fry rearing tanks might not have access to water flowing or recirculation system but can be facilitated for irregular water flashing for cleaning the tanks once a week (Figure 20).1 Tilapia breeding in the tanks (c) Design of the tanks • • • • • Tilapia breeding tanks are generally simple and smaller in comparison to the fattening tanks normally used for intensive culture systems. Tanks can be constructed at any places including the towns and cities. square.0 m long.Farming of Tilapia • • Fry can be fed formulated feeds (Table 6) and feeding rate can be reduced to 8 –10% biomass 2 – 4 times per day.2. which do not need much surface land area.
20 Low cost tilapia breeding and fry rearing tanks. 57 . 19 Tilapia fry holding hapas. Fig.Farming of Tilapia Fig.
2. using a fine meshed dip net the first schooling fry should be collected. they do not actively take artificial feeds. the stocking of fry will be 1000 – 1200 per m2 and feeding will be made with high protein powder feed (at least 35% crude protein) @ 15-20% of biomass 4-6 times per day. (d) Early fry collection • • • At the 12th to 15th day from stocking of the breeders. (c) Feeding • • Supplementary feeds with a mixture of 60% rice bran and 40% mustard oil cake or 75% rice barn or 25% fish meal can be given at 3-5% biomass 2 times a day. reducing the feed may lessen water quality deterioration in the tanks. 6.2 Fry/fingerling rearing of in the nursery tanks • • For one week.Farming of Tilapia (b) Stocking of brood fish • • Sexually matured breeders weighing 80 to 100 g each should be stocked in the breeding tanks @ 3-4 fish/m2 with a sex ratio of 1 male to 3 females. counted and stocked in a series of nursery tanks. In this case. Breeders need to be replaced when they attain an average weight of 250 g or more. 58 . the density should be reduced to 500 – 600 per m2 and feeding rates will be 12-15% of biomass. Fry collected from the breeding tanks need to be graded. After a week. Every alternative week the fry collection needs to be repeated. The females while mouth brooding.
Farming of Tilapia • • • • After second week.8 meter. Fry will be ready to sell when they will be >1 g each. The fry/fingerlings can be harvested in the tanks by netting or draining the water. the density will be 300-400 per m2 and feeding rates will be 10-12% of biomass. Advanced fry can be reared further by stocking 100 – 150 2 individuals/m by feeding formulated feeds (Table 6) for 40 – 60 days. 59 . The marginal or small-scale farmers with one or two earthen ponds having an area of 1500 – 2000 m2 each can follow a simple and efficient method. 6. Water depth of the nursery tanks can be kept 0.0. For healthy growth of fry/fingerings.3 Overall maintenance of tilapia breeding and nursery tanks • • • • Breeding tanks should be cleaned manually or by water flashing fortnightly. water in the tanks should not be too green or foul in odor.2. Partial water change in nursery tanks can be done depending on the water quality.6 .3 MIXED SEX TILAPIA SEED PRODUCTION IN HAPAS A commercial mixed sex seed production system in fine meshed hapas (net cages) can be operated easily for large-scale production of tilapia seed for aquaculture where monosex tilapia culture is not preferred. 6.
the stocking of fry will be 1000 – 1500 per m2 and feeding will be made with high protein powder feed (at least 35% crude protein) @ 15-20% of biomass 4-6 times per day. 6. schooling of tiny fry will be visible in each hapa. Breeders weighing more than 250 g should always be replaced with new batches. During the first week. .2 Fry/fingerling rearing of in the nursery hapas • • • • • 60 Prior to capture and transfer of fry from breeding hapas another series of nursery hapas having the size of 8 m x 2.5m x 0. their density should be reduced to 500 – 700 per m2 and feeding rates will be 12-15% of biomass. (b) Stocking of brood fish • • • Sexually matured breeders weighing 80 to 100 g each should be stocked @ 2-3 fish/m2 with a sex ratio of 1 male to 3 females. At least 0. The hapas can be covered with fine meshed nets or kept uncovered.3.3. The breeders need to be fed with supplementary feed consisting of 60% rice bran and 40% mustard oil cake or 75% rice barn or 25% fish meal. The feeds can be given at 3-5% biomass 2 times a day. Fry can be collected by using dip or push net or by lifting the hapas and transferred to nursery hapas. During the second week.8 m need to be set in the same pond(s) or other pond(s).25 m of top side of the hapas should above the waterline.Farming of Tilapia 6.5 m can be set in the pond(s) by fixing them to bamboo poles by nylon thread.1 Tilapia breeding in the hapas (a) Setting of breeding hapas • A series of breeding hapas having the size of 2 m x 1 m to 12 m x 3 m with depths of 1. About 10 – 15 days after stocking of breeders.
Farming of Tilapia • • • During third week.S.00 Rice polish 37.00 Total 100 Cost per kg feed: US$ 0. manuring and fertilization of rice plot should be made respectively with cattle dung @ 800 – 1000 kg/ha and Urea plus T.3 times per day.20 4.00 Wheat bran 10. 2003) .00 6. the density will be 300-400 per m2 and feeding rates will be 10-12% of biomass.00 Mustard oilcake 20. FCR: 2. Fry will be ready to sell when they will be >1 g each.50 1. mixed sex tilapia fry weighing 1 – 2 g can be stocked @ 0.80 7. advanced fry can be 2 reared further by stocking 100 – 200 individuals/m in nylon hapas (8 m x 2.5m x 0.P (25 + 25 kg/ha). In view of producing better stockable size.2 million/ha for 30 – 40 days. Immediately after sowing rice seedlings.8 m) by feeding formulated feeds (Table 6) for 40 – 60 days. Table 6. Seven days after liming. Proportion (%) Fish meal 28.0 Feed ingredients Crude protein (%) 16.4 MIXED SEX TILAPIA SEED PRODUCTION IN RICE FIELDS Rice fields are the ideal place for rearing tilapia fry either at the time of rice cultivation or after rice harvesting.25 (Taka 15). • • • • • Land can be prepared by using lime CaO @ 250 – 300 kg /ha. 61 . Formulated feed for feeding tilapia fry in rearing hapas and nursery ponds (Hoq et al. Fry can be fed rice polish and feeding rate should be 5 –8% per estimated body weight of biomass for 2 .1 – 0.50 30.00 Molasses 5. Water depth in the rice plot should be at least 20 – 25 cm during fry rearing period.
62 . Enough care should be taken to protect any incidental escaping of fry/fingerlings from the rice fields to the surrounding canals/water bodies.Farming of Tilapia • • The fingerlings are expected to attain the average body weight about 8 – 10 g each at end of rearing period.
The use of monosex populations also eliminates reproduction during grow out in the case of tilapias. Bye and Lincoln 1986) have become a popular practice. For instance. the first feeding fry are treated with male hormones or androgens (ie. 17α-methyl testosterone). 1978.2 ALL MALE MONOSEX SEED PRODUCTION THROUGH INVERSION OF SEXES IN TILAPIA Despite the popularity of tilapia species in worldwide aquaculture. the main drawback of all the existing commercial strains is their precocious 63 . In this technique.1 Sex reversal is a technique of changing of sexes from one sex to another in fish by administering synthetic steroid hormones before and/or during the period of sexual differentiation. Guerrero and Guerrero 1988) and in case of salmonids and cyprinids. treatment with female hormones or oestrogens (17βoestradiol) produces individuals with ovaries and female characteristics in fish. in tilapia males grow faster than females. feminization using oestrogen hormones (Shelton 1987.Farming of Tilapia 7 Development and operation of monosex commercial tilapia seed production systems SEX REVERSAL TECHNIQUE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF MONOSEX FISH FRY 7. 7. where females grow faster than males. The choice of conversion of sexes (either all males or all females) depends on growth performance characteristics of individual sexes of fish species. which develops testes and male sexual characteristics at maturity and on the other hand. masculinization using androgen hormones (Shelton et al. Guerrero 1979.
since 1960 several methods have been proposed and developed to reduce and eliminate uncontrolled reproduction in grow-out systems. where the acceptable market is 150 g or more and tilapias are normally grown in mixed sex culture this has become a critical problem (Guerrero 1982). resulting in undesirable stunting and low yields of harvestable size fish. direct masculinization of tilapias using hormones is the most common method 64 . niloticus x O. genetic impurity of existing tilapia strains and careless maintenance of brood stocks in poor farming conditions made more problematic the method of hybridization for mass seed production of all male tilapia population. Hulata et al. In order to overcome this serious problem. O.Farming of Tilapia maturation in tropical and sub-tropical climatic conditions. The results of Majumdar and McAndrew (1983) indicate that the mechanism responsible for sex determination in hybrids is indeed variable and complicated and that a number of different alleles of different strength are operating in the tilapias as a whole. laborious. On the other hand. mossambicus and male O. mossambicus x O. Majumdar and McAndrew 1983). using female O. 1975. interspecific hybridization and masculinization using hormones and genetic manipulation techniques. niloticus (Kuo 1969. 1983). wasteful and sometimes unreliable at the small fish (<10 g). aureus (Pruginin et al. Hand or manual sexing of tilapia by examining urogenital papilla is a simple technique but it is time consuming. As interspecific hybridization and genetically induced all male seed production in tilapia have proved difficult in practice. After that many others also came forward to initiate similar interspecific hybridization between more supposedly homogametic species involving crosses of O. hornorum. However. This leads to prolific breeding and over-crowding in grow-out systems. Interspecific hybridization of tilapias to produce all male hybrids was demonstrated first by Hickling (1960). In many countries. The main goal of all these methods was to produce monosex populations of tilapias by manual separation of sexes. many of these crosses did not produce the predicted 100% male offspring.
Some concern has been raised that consumption of steroid-treated tilapia (ie. niloticus (Velasco 2003b). Recent studies have demonstrated that exogenous steroids are rapidly cleared from tissue after the end of treatment: no residual can be detected within one month of the termination of monosexing treatment (Rothbard et al. Philippines and Thailand are the two leading countries where commercial mass seed production of all male Nile tilapia using androgen hormones is a popular practice. Guerrero 1979. But there is no evidence for any human health hazard (Green and Teichert-Coddington 2000). 1978. Reliability of 98 – 100% male seed production. Guerrero and Guerrero 1988). A technician or an experienced farmer can run monosex seed production hatchery and nursery systems. male steroids is administered to first feeding tilapia fry so that the undifferentiated gonadal tissue of genetic females develops into testicular tissue. producing individuals that grow and function reproductively as males. 65 . sex-reversed male tilapia using hormones) might be harmful for human health. 1990. In this process. Green and TeichertCoddington 2000). Generally the primal gonadal tissue starts to differentiate into ovarian tissue with 3–4 weeks after hatching in O. Advantages of all male seed production through sex-reversal • • • • • • Technique is simple and economic. Overall input costs are not very high. Monosexing has been the key that has facilitated the development of tilapia culture in the global food fish arena (Shelton 2002). It does not need sophisticated laboratory and equipment. The results of these authors suggest that functional sex-reversal using hormones can lead to the production of all male monosex population in tilapia for aquaculture.Farming of Tilapia for monosex male production (Shelton et al. In Asia. Ensures high production and high net profit.
Enough water supply source either from underground or other surface water source like rivers. hatching and larvae nursing are as follows: • • • • • • • • • • • Hatchery shed should be made by iron angles covered with CI sheets. Transitory nursing tanks. 66 . (a) Design and construction of a hatchery complex Major components and requirements of a tilapia hatchery to facilitate egg incubation. Stable electricity. Cemented hatchery floor. canals or reservoirs.Farming of Tilapia 7. the following factors need to be considered for site selection: • • • • • • Site should be flood free and nearby tilapia grow out farms. Water supply lines (internal and external). Recirculating water system. Water pump (submersible pump). Egg incubating jars and trays with stands.1 Hatchery design and operation of monosex seed production systems Before initiating the construction of commercial monosex tilapia seed production systems.000 liter capacity. Feed preparation and store room. Aeration systems. Road access for all weather for supply of products and services. Nursery ponds for hormone treatment. Market access of products.000 – 20. Overhead water tank of 10.2. Recommended soil type for necessary pond construction.
iii. Storage tank to hold purified water and back to the head tank through the submersible water pump. Filter chamber where used waters from incubation jars and trays are drained and filtered. Bioball chamber through which incoming water is passed from filter for purification. v. iv.5 m x 7 m). vii. Cemented floor: 77 m2 (11 m x 7 m). ii. the following components are essential: • • • • • Hatchery shed structure: 86. (c) Hatchery shed and cemented floor construction For constructing a medium size tilapia hatchery. Nursing trays to hold and nurse the newly hatched larvae. Incubation jars to hold and hatch the fertilized eggs. Header tank to hold enough fresh water to supply the required quantity to incubation jars and trays. CI sheet roofing.25 m2 (11. (d) Setting of incubation jars and trays The incubation jars and trays with the following capacities and numbers need to be set with plastic containers and holding stands properly inside the hatchery (Figure 22): 67 . Beams and column.Farming of Tilapia (b) Model of tilapia egg incubation system Tilapia egg incubation and hatching system model is shown in Figure 21 and essential components are listed below: i. vi. Oyster shells chamber has the similar function to further purify water passing from other chambers (filter and bioball). MS angle truss.
Fig. 68 . Nuanmane Pongthana). 21 Tilapia egg incubation and hatching system model (Courtesy: Dr.Farming of Tilapia Fig. 22 Typical modern monosex tilapia seed production hatchery system in Thailand.
Hapas need to be set 0. 30 x 120 x 20 cm: 30. Steel/iron/wooden stands: 15 (50% for jars plus 50% for nursing trays).4 ha each can be constructed following a well-planned engineering design with the depth of 1.5 m) hapas are to be made by a tailor. It is necessary to stretch the hapas as much as possible to prevent the folding by winds and perform the well setting. (f) Making and setting of breeding hapas Polyetheline or fine meshed nylon netting materials need to be procured from local market and rectangular size (40 m x 3 m with depths of 1. Number of plastic container for holding the trays. The average water depth of each pond should be around 1. Number of trays.5 – 2 m.5 m. 69 . (e) Construction of breeding ponds At least 3 breeding ponds having an area of o. The top edge of the hapas should be 50 – 60 cm above the water surface.5 – 1m apart to allow water circulation.Farming of Tilapia • • • • Number of 2 liter capacity jars: 30. Hapas can be set by using bamboo/wooden or steel bar poles by tying the top and bottom corners into the poles staked into the pond bottom. 28 x 43 x 10 cm each: 60 (50% for jars plus 50% to use as nursing trays). About 8 – 10 hapas are installed in each pond (Figure 23) in the following ways: • • • • Hapas should be checked carefully before installation whether any hole is reaming or not. Ponds should be rectangular size with two bypasses for water supply and evacuation.
Each brood fish is taken by using scoop net and checked carefully to see if her mouth is holding fertilized eggs or yolk sac fry.e. So. (h) Collection of fertilized eggs from the fish mouth Each sexually mature female normally liberates ovulated eggs on average at 2-3 week intervals under tropical pond conditions and subsequently the male partner in the breeding hapa fertilizes the eggs. (Figure 24). If the size of male is not comparable to female. The female fish holds the fertilized eggs in her mouth for natural incubation. True breeding and improved strain(s) of Nile tilapia (eg. Breeders should be almost the same size at stocking. clipping the premaxilla of the male needs to be done (Velasco. it is necessary to check the mouth of all the stocked females in each hapa twice or at least once a week to collect the eggs as described below: • The breeders are checked by gathering them at a place in the hapa using a 4 m long bamboo pole transversely run at the level of water surface from anterior end to other end to concentrate the brood fish at the posterior end of hapa. 1 male to 3 females). Breeders >1-1.1) can be stocked. Recommended densities ranges from 4 – 6 fish/m2.1. 2003b). Formulated or commercial feeds having 30% crude protein can be fed @ 3-4% per estimated weight of biomass 2 times daily.5 years old and >300 g in weight should be replaced by the new batches.Farming of Tilapia (g) Selection and stocking of brood stock in the breeding hapas Stocking density of breeders varies with the size of hapas. Sex ratio should be maintained 1:3 (i. For grading the different age groups of fertilized eggs or near to hatch larvae or yolk sac fry that are collected from mouth of the • • • 70 . which will minimize the biting occurrence leading to skin lesions that can cause stress and even mortality of females. Super Strain of GIFT) weighing 100 – 150 g each either collected from known sources or already reared in separate ponds in the hatchery (section 4. For lifting the hapa and collection of fertilized eggs/near to hatch larvae or yolk sac fry at least 2-3 persons are needed.
At least 3 batches of first feeding fry per month can be produced at water temperatures between 27 .000. iron or bamboo frame (Figure 25). Whitish.000 (24. Estimated number of hatched fry per tray: 24. are incubated in a series of round bottom plastic jars and flat trays connected to the recirculating system (Figure 26).000 x 3 batches). Collected products can be disinfected with 5-7 ppt solution of saline water for 8-10 minutes at ambient temperature. where fresh water (28±1 oC) come directly from header tank by gravity. Estimated total first feeding fry production per month: Approx. Fertilized eggs/hatched larvae can be stocked for incubation in each jar/tray by keeping the numbers given below: • • • • • Estimated number of eggs in each jar: 25. After that the eggs/larvae/yolk sac fry are shifted to the hatchery for incubation. 2. that have been collected from the mouth of female breeders.30 oC. deep yellow and reddish tiny fry with yolk sac) and can be kept in separate plastic bowls placed in a steel. Estimated total first feeding fry per batch: 7.Farming of Tilapia • • females are separated by their different colors (4 colors are normally identified viz. Immediately after hatching. Hatching period: 65 – 72 hours. 71 . first feeding fry stage. the larvae are deposited at the basement of the attached tray and they are transferred to the series of separate trays (Figure 27) and kept until their yolk sac resorption stage is over i. pale yellow.20. Each batch of fertilized eggs needs on an average about 10 –12 days to complete the cycle of development (both embryonic and larval stages).e.2 million (7.000 x 30 trays).20. (i) Incubation of collected eggs and larvae in the jars/trays Fertilized eggs/hatched fry with yolk sac.000.
Excess hormone mixed feeds can be stored at 4oC for a week. The solution is gradually poured into the feeds and mixed for 10 to 15 minutes. The treated feed is left to dry. Hormone mixed dry feeds are stored at room temperature or fridge at 4oC for maximum 7 days Preparation of hormone mixed feeds using stock solution Alternatively a stock solution can be prepared for 100 kg feeds and stored in refrigerator for few weeks for subsequent use (Velasco. MT solution is mixed with 1 kg powdered feed (mixture of 50% normal feed plus 50% fish meal) for 10 to 15 minutes. 1 kg of finely sieved feeds (formulated feed as mentioned in Table 6) is placed in a clean dry mixing bowl.Farming of Tilapia (j) Preparation. 10 ml is further diluted to 100 ml of ethanol and shaken well. The treated feed is left to dry. From prepared stock solution. storage and application of androgen hormone mixed feeds The protocol for preparation and application of hormone mixed feeds for sex reversal of Nile tilapia fry is shown as flow diagram in Figure 28 and briefly explained below: Direct feed preparation of hormone mixed feeds • • • • Hormone dose: 50 mg of 17-α Methyl testosterone (MT) is dissolved in 100 ml Ethyl Alcohol (95%). 2003b): • • • • • • 5 g of 17-α Methyl testosterone (MT) is dissolved in 1 liter Ethyl Alcohol (95%). 72 .
73 . Fig.Farming of Tilapia Fig. 24 Gathering tilapia breeders at regular intervals for egg collection purpose in the breeding hapa. 23 Tilapia breeding hapas in pond.
26 A series of round bottom plastic jars and flat trays for incubating the fertilized eggs/hatched fry with yolk sac. Fig.Farming of Tilapia Fig. 25 Plastic vowels placed in a bamboo frame for separating the collected fertilized eggs having different colours (based on different age groups). 74 .
27 Separate flat trays where hatched larvae are kept until their yolk sac resorption stage is over.Farming of Tilapia Fig. Nuanmane Pongthana). Fig. 75 . 28 The protocol for preparation and application of hormone mixed feeds for sex reversal of Nile tilapia fry (Courtesy: Dr.
Number of tanks: 4. Ponds should be rectangular size with two bypasses for water supply and evacuation. Feeding of hormone mixed feeds to the early fry in nursery hapas At least one pond having an area of 0. Feeding rate: At satiation level. The depth of pond should be 1. For the safety of the workers involved in hormone feed preparation should use hand gloves and face mask. Covered with fine meshed netting materials. Number of required hapas in each tank: 2.5 m x 0.4 ha can be constructed following a well-planned engineering design for setting the nursery hapas. Number of fry in each hapa: 1. Hapa size: 8 m x 2. At the end of transitory period fry are shifted to nursery feeding hapas by estimating their numbers (Figure 31).5 . Duration of feeding: 3 days.50. Water quality of the tanks need to be maintained by regular exchange of fresh cool water (temperature 24 – 27oC). Feeding hormone treated feed is initiated in these hapas. Feeding of hormone mixed feeds to the first feeding fry in transitory tanks The system for feeding of hormone mixed feeds to the first feeding fry in transitory tanks (Figure 30) is briefly explained below: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Size of tank: 17 m x 3 m x 0. Water level in the tank: 60 cm. Hapas can be installed in the pond and fixed and tied to nylon ropes and bamboo poles like 76 .000. Feeding intensity: 4-6 times daily.Farming of Tilapia For commercial operation automatic feed mixing machine can be used (Figure 29).75 m.2 m.6 m.
000 Total number of stocked fry : Apprx.5 m x 0. 3 Stocking density: 400 – 600 individuals/m .2 weeks.Farming of Tilapia breeding hapas or well designed hapa holding frame can be made over the pond using RCC construction as shown in Figure 32a and 32b. 2. Storing: Monosex fry of 21 – 24 days old.10 % per estimated body weight.5 m x 0.8 m. 77 . Rearing period: 1.75 m Number of required hapas: 25 hapas Stocking density of fry in each hapa: 100. The protocol for feeding of hormone mixed feeds is shown in a flow diagram (Figure 33) and technique of application of feeds to the early fry in the nursery hapas is shown in Figure 34. 2 million per month Water quality of the nursery hapa holding ponds need to be maintained by regular exchange of fresh cool water (temperature 24 – 27oC) Monosex fry storage and rearing for sale It is expected that after 21-24 days of feeding hormone mixed feeds to the fry 95 .98% will be sex reversed male. Nursery feeding rate: 8 .5 million Feeding rate: 15-30% per estimated body weight Feeding intensity: 4-6 times daily Duration of feeding hormone mixed feeds: 18 -21 days Monosex all male fry production: Apprx. The well designed fry feeding system for the production of all male monosex fry is summarized below: • • • • • • • • • Hapa size: 8 x 2. At this stage the fry will be reared by feeding normal feeds (Table 6) until selling in separate nursery hapas in an earthen pond and their maintenance will be as below: • • • • • Hapa size: 8 m x 2.
7. YY males) by combining both sex-reversal and/or genetic manipulation of the sex determining system will once be the alternative choice of the commercial seed producers. in that case the indirect method of producing monosex all males (ie. 78 . Then the gonads are examined under the microscope. The collected gonad is placed in a glass slide and a drop of acetocarmine stain is added on the gonad. an aceto-carmine squash technique is used as described by Guerrero and Shelton (1974). The tiny thread-like gonad that lies along the anterodorsal abdominal cavity is removed using fine forceps. A protocol for sex identification in tilapia fry is shown in a flow diagram (Figure 35). The technique of aceto-carmine stain preparation is as follows: • • • Carmine (granular stain): 45% Acetic acid: Boil for 2 – 4 minutes. • • • • A sub-sample of fry are killed and dissected using a sharp pointed surgical scissor. 100 ml.5 g. The gonad is lightly squashed with a cover slip. where the manual sexing is not useful. 0.2 Production of YY males and operation of monosex all male seed production system Direct hormonal masculinization might not appear to be a viable technique in tilapia and might have adverse environmental impacts or consumer reaction in near future. cool and filter. But in case of early fry smaller than 2 g. the male gonad is composed of fine granular like structure of spermatogonia and the female is characterized with the structure of circular oogonia.Farming of Tilapia (k) Sex identification technique in tilapia fry In tilapia fry/fingerlings larger than 20 –30 g.2. sex can easily be identified manually by examining their urogenital papilla.
Fig. 29 Automatic hormone feed mixing machine. 30 The technique of application of hormone mixed feeds to the first feeding fry in the transitory hapas. 79 .Farming of Tilapia Fig.
Farming of Tilapia Fig. 31 Manual counting of tilapia fry. 80 . Fig. 32a Hapas can be installed in the pond and fixed and tied to nylon ropes and bamboo poles for feeding hormone mixed feeds.
Farming of Tilapia Fig. 32b Hapas can be installed and fixed with RCC frame made over the pond for feeding hormone mixed feeds. Nuanmane Pongthana). 33 The protocol for feeding of hormone mixed feeds (Courtesy: Dr. 81 . Fig.
Fig. 34 The technique of application of hormone mixed feeds to the early fry in the nursery hapas. 35 The protocol for sex identification in tilapia fry (Courtesy: Dr. 82 .Farming of Tilapia Fig. Nuanmane Pongthana).
The essential steps of the protocol are as follows: Production of F1 generation The first feeding fry are fed with estrogen hormone mixed feeds at the rate of 15-30% body weight 4 – 6 times daily for at least 21 days in a series of nursery hapas. egg collection. storage and application of estrogen hormone mixed feeds The protocols for preparation. Hormone mixed dry feeds are stored at room temperature or fridge at 4oC for maximum 7 days. It is expected that the sex reversed progeny will be about 83 . incubation and hatching of fertilized eggs are same as described in the section 5. In this case 17β-oestrodiol hormone is used. Feed preparation technique is summarized below: • • • Hormone dose: 50-100 mg of 17β-oestrodiol is dissolve in 95% Ethyl Alcohol.2.1 of this chapter. (c) Protocols for production of all male monosex population using YY males It needs to go up to at least three generations to produce all male monosex population through this indirect method of sex reversal (Figure 36). Hormone solution is mixed with 1 kg powdered feed (mixture of 50% normal feed plus 50% fish meal).Farming of Tilapia (a) Breeding and fry production for hormone treatment The protocols for breeding. (b) Preparation. storage and application of estrogen hormone mixed feeds are more or less the same as the protocol of androgen hormone.
In this case. precautions must be taken for breeding. The genotype ration of the produced generation are expected to be 1XX females: 2 XY males: 1 YY males (75% males and 25% females). Among males. progeny testing and identifying carefully the YY genotypic males and preserved them separately in the system. 84 . The XY genotypic females can be termed as neofemales and need to be identified by progeny testing. Production of F3 generation YY genotypic males can be crossed with normal females (XX genotype) to produce F3 generation of all males (XY genotypes). Production of F2 generation Sexually matured neofemales (XY genotype) can be crossed with normal female (XX genotype) to produce F2 generation of progeny. YY genotypic males need to be identified by further progeny testing at their maturity.Farming of Tilapia 100% female having XX and XY genotypes. Fry will be ready to sell when they will be >1-2 g each. All male monosex fry rearing and sale About 100% monosex male fry produced by using YY males can be reared in the nursery hapas with normal feeding as per recommended rates for 25 – 30 days. True breeding tilapia strains and highly experienced technician(s) are prerequisite for running such system for commercial seed production. Commercial production system of all male monosex population using YY males can be established and operated same as monosex seed production using androgen hormones.
85 . 36 The protocol of producing all male monosex population through the indirect method of sex reversal.Farming of Tilapia Fig.
are highly suitable for mixed or monosex farming of improved strain (s) of tilapia.04 – 0. dead river lagoons. The country has millions of small ponds.8 – 1. .1. seasonal water fieldditches.1 Because of the seasonal river flow and monsoon rains. road side ditches. 34% of the country is considered to be wetlands that remain under water for at least 6 months of the year. where average water depth remains 80 – 100 cm. shallow marshy wetlands. backyard impoundments and ponds. hilly creeks. flooded paddy fields etc. Pond fertilization with urea and triple super phosphate (TSP) @ 50 kg in 1:1 ratio can be used before stocking of tilapia fingerlings. The seasonal closed water areas particularly in the form of small natural depressions. Liming of pond bottom with 250 – 300 kg CaO or CaCo3 per ha.08 ha (ie. 10 – 20 decimal) with average depth of 0. that all have potential for producing increased yields of fish through managed aquaculture practices. Selected ponds should be dried. Dykes should be repaired and free of unwanted vegetation.Farming of Tilapia 8 Development and operation of semi-intensive tilapia culture systems TILAPIA CULTURE IN SEASONAL DITCHES AND PONDS 8. borrow pits. Ponds need to be filled with fresh water and water level can be remained at optimum.1 Pond selection and preparation • • • • • • • 86 Seasonal pond is preferred having an area 0. Cattle dung or poultry manure can be applied on the bottom @ 2000 – 3000 kg per ha. 8.25 m.
2 TILAPIA CULTURE IN RICE FIELDS Rice fields either irrigated or rain fed is the suitable plot.3 Fish harvesting and estimation of production • • After 4 – 6 months of grow out when the fish have the average weight of 150 -200 g.2 Stocking of fry and pond management • • • • • Mixed or monosex tilapia fry of 10 – 15 g weight can be stocked in the prepared ditches or ponds @ 15000 .1. If the ponds are stocked with mixed sex tilapia. which can be used for tilapia fry rearing and culture. harvesting of fish can be made by repeated netting or drying out the ponds. To enhance the status of natural food in pond water.20000 per ha. In that case as many as possible of the fry must be removed by repeated netting (using fine mesh seine net) at 15 days intervals to avoid the problem of overpopulation. Under semi-intensive culture system. • 8. Every month sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate. 8. regular fertilization can be made at 15 days intervals with cattle dung or poultry manure @ 800 – 1000 kg per hectare.Farming of Tilapia 8. Due to application of adequate 87 . Stocked fish need to be fed with rice polish @ 3 – 5% per estimated weight of biomass.1. yields of 2500 – 3000 kg fish per ha can be obtained per crop. undesirable populations of tiny fry will be seen within 3 months of stocking. In well-managed ponds fish can be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7.
when water depth of the plot remains around 20 cm. Super strain of GIFT) should be considered for stocking in the rice fields for better production. 8. the plot will be ready to stock tilapia fry. 8.1 Selection of land • • • • Land should not be flood prone. Improved strain of Nile tilapia (eg. Manures and fertilizers can be used as per recommended doses of rice plot preparation. Land should have irrigation facility. High land should always be avoided.2 Preparation of land • • • • • Dyke around the land should be constructed at the height of 25 – 30 cm. A small ditch (1 m deep) needs to be constructed at the lower part of the land. the available aquatic condition become rich enough in natural food to support fish growth. The ditch size should be 3 – 4% of the rice plots. So. .2.15 g each can be stocked per hectare. 8. About 4000 – 5000 tilapia fry (either mixed or monosex) having a weight of 10 . Water depth in the rice plot should be at least 20 – 25 cm during culture period.Farming of Tilapia quantity of fertilizers and manures in the rice fields.2. in most cases supplementary feeding to growing fry and fish is not a prerequisite. Soil texture should be clay-loamy.3 Stocking of fish • • • 88 15 days after transplantation of rice seedlings.2.
5 Fish harvesting and estimation of production • Fish can only be harvested after sawing the rice from the plots. If necessary irrigation should be made at regular basis. water hyacinth can be spread over the ditches to protect the growing fish. It is recorded that about 300 – 350 kg of tilapia can be produced along with rice per ha of land per crop (Hussain and Koohinoor 2003). During extreme hot weather. During culture period rice plots can be fertilized with chemical fertilizers at recommended doses. 8. all the fish can be captured and yield can be estimated.2.Farming of Tilapia 8. but farmer can apply rice polish @ 2 – 3% per estimated weight of fish 5 days a week in the ditch area. Bamboo screens can be used at some places of the dykes to reduce the excess water level during heavy rainy season. Special care should be taken that growing tilapia or naturally produced fry (in case of mixed sex stocking) cannot escape from the rice plots to nearby water bodies.4 Overall management • • • • • • • • • • Optimum level of water in the rice plots should always be kept during culture period. Normally feeding of fish is not required in the rice plots.2. Care should be taken to protect the incoming source of pesticide mixed water from nearby plots. Either netting or complete dewatering the rice plots. Use of pesticides is prohibited in the rice plots during fish culture. 89 . Dykes should be protected from rat and crab nesting.
Such kind of fish farming operation cannot only increase intake of animal protein for rural people but can also generate income and employment opportunities (Hussain et al. The average weight of fry/fingerlings should be 10 – 15 g each and stocking density should be maintained 20000 fish per ha.1 Pond selection and preparation In this case.3. To initiate polyculture of tilapia with carp species in seasonal ponds and such type of water bodies the steps as mentioned below can be followed: 8. silver barb 20%.1. 8.3. involving low inputs in terms of labour and costs and ensuring high production within a short period (4-6 months) of time (Hussain et al. 2000).2 Stocking of fish and pond management • • Mixed or monosex tilapia fry/fingerlings along with short cycle carp species viz.Farming of Tilapia 8. silver barb 60%. regular fertilization can be made at 15 days intervals with cattle dung or poultry manure @ 800 – 1000 kg per hectare. The species combination should be genetically improved tilapia strain 60%. • • • 90 . To enhance the status of natural food in pond water. pond selection and preparation procedures will also be same as section 8. silver barb.3 POLYCULTURE OF TILAPIA WITH CARPS In a Southeast Asian country like Bangladesh. polyculture of carp species in homestead perennial ponds is a traditional practice but the available small or medium seasonal water bodies also hold tremendous potential for culturing improved tilapia strain(s) along with various desirable carp species. common/mirror carp and silver carp can be stocked in the prepared ponds. common/mirror carp 10% and silver carp 10%. 2000). The fish can be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7. common/mirror carp 10% and silver carp 10% or improved tilapia strain 20%.1.
3. small streams. in that case as many as possible of the fry must be removed by repeated netting (using fine mesh seine net) at 15 days intervals to avoid the problem of over population. Tilapia can be cultured in these types of suitable pens comparatively keeping moderate or high density with or without feeding.1 Site selection and setting the pens • • Large or small open water bodies which are not being used for fish culture can be selected.3 Fish harvesting and estimation of production • Within 4 – 6 months of farming when the tilapia and silver barb will attain the average weight of 200 g. 8. Every month sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate.Farming of Tilapia • • If the ponds are stocked with mixed sex tilapia. is encircled or blocked by using bamboo screens or nylon nets. Selected water bodies can be encircled or screened either by bamboo fencing or net made by knotless polyethylene net materials with a mesh between 10 – 15 mm. it can be termed as a pen. harvesting of fish can be made by repeated netting or drying out the ponds. 91 . • 8. canals. 8. undesirable populations of tiny fry will be marked within 3 months of stocking. hilly creeks etc. Under semi-intensive culture system.4 TILAPIA CULTURE IN PENS When a part of open water bodies like dead river basins. a yield of 3000 – 3500 kg fish per ha can be obtained per crop.4. common/mirror carp and silver carp attain the average weight of 500 – 600 g.
Stocking density can be maintained @ 30 – 50 fish/m3. If the stocking density remains >30 fish/ m3 and the water bodies seem to be productive. It is roughly estimated that under a good management averagely 5-8 kg/ m3 can be harvested. Water depth of the pens should be 1 – 3 m. in that fish might not need artificial feeding. 8. Feeding intensity should be at least 2 times daily.4. Every 30 days sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate.4. 8.Farming of Tilapia • The pen fencing should be fixed with strong bamboo or wooden poles having the enough height above the level of water to withstand wind pressure and water current.2 Stocking of fish • • • All monosex tilapia fingerlings (10 – 15 g size) need to be stocked to avoid the risk of contamination and undesirable reproduction in the water bodies. 92 . 8. Fingerlings should be collected from a known source or a hatchery where pure breeds of Nile tilapia or its improved strain(s) are maintained. which might take 4-5 months.3 Feeding • • • Fish should be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7 @ 3% per estimated body weight.4 Harvesting and estimation of production • • Fish can be harvested when they attain the weight about 150 – 250 g. if any.4.
Any sort of water that will be used for fish farms must not be contaminated with toxic chemicals such pesticides. A slightly depression type of land is ideal where simple dykes can be constructed easily and economically to hold adequate water depth. which might require an inflow of water at least 3 liters per second/ha (Huet 1979). • • • 93 . the important factors to be considered are as below: • Soils: Soils with more than 20% clay are essential to reduce the loss of water by seepage. Water: Any aquaculture operation generally needs a good quantity and good quality of water. irrigation canals. soils containing gravel or sand layers or rock strata formations should be avoided.5 – 7. It is roughly estimated that evaporation of water can reach on an average 2. A neutral pH (6. Topography: Pond construction lay out should be made on the basis of favorable topographical conditions.5 cm (about 1 inch) per day.5) of soil is desirable and acid sulphate soil needs to be avoided.Farming of Tilapia 8. underground). heavy metals and organic matter. herbicides. reservoirs and shallow or deep tube wells (ie.5. Water source might be from rivers. Water loss in a pond through evaporation is a common fact in both tropical and sub-tropical climates.5 TILAPIA CULTURE IN PONDS UNDER COMMERCIAL FARMING MANAGEMENT 8.1 Construction of Commercial Tilapia Farms (a) Site Selection For site selection of tilapia farms.
Farming of Tilapia If the ground is completely flat type.0 m to 1. mechanical excavators etc.5 and on the inside slope about 1:2. For small pond it can be reduced to 1:1. (b) Pond Design After finalization of site selection.0 m 1. which include: • Pond depth: Depth of a pond should be kept on the basis of type of fishes as well as pattern of culture systems. Manual laborers. completely new ponds need to be constructed. Rearing pond for advanced fry/fingerlings: c. The dike must be some 30-40 cm above the surface of water for small ponds and 50-60 cm for large ponds. 94 . ponds can be made both with outlet and inlet by pass facilities for supply and evacuation of water. Generally.0 m The dike construction: Building a solid and seepage protected earthen wall or dike is one of the most important task of pond construction to keep enough water for planned fish production. The slope for outside angle of the dike should be 1:1 to 1:1. A well-designed farm might consist various types of ponds having all essential components. The following principles can be followed to construct an ideal dike: Width of the dike at the top should be equal to its height but should be never less than 1 m wide. bulldozers. Grow-out ponds: • 08 to 1. Nursery pond for early fry: b.25 1. average depth for tilapia farm might be as below: a.5 to 2. In such case. can be used for digging ponds and transporting soils for constructing dikes. the farm area should be marked as per engineering design.
(c) Arrangement of ponds and layout of a farm Most ideal arrangement of ponds of a farm should include one or two or multiple series of parallel ponds having two bypasses. which depends on production target and management system. Typical farm areas might be as follows: • • • Small farm: Medium farm: Large farm: 3 – 5 ha 7 – 10 ha 15 – 25 ha 95 . • Draining installation (the monk): In a pond the monk is a part of dike.Farming of Tilapia When dike construction is complete. The monk is normally built in concrete and should reach at least 30-40 cm above the level of water. quadrangular in shape 40-60 cm wide (also depends on the area of the pond) open on one side of front.2 Operation and Management of Commercial Tilapia Farms (a) Area of farms Area of commercial tilapia farms can vary from 3 to 25 ha.5. and also a vertical branch or so called monk. which regulates the required level of water as well as draining of water at the time of urgency and harvesting period of fish in a pond (Figure 37). Two or three parallel groves are made using “U” shaped iron rod or cutting the concrete for making the placing of screen and wooden boards (20-30 cm high and 4-6 cm thick). The emptying device consists of a horizontal channel or drainage pipe running the full length of the foot of the dike. it can be covered with the topsoil and turf or soft grasses. 8. (Figure 39). Each pond should have its own independent supply and evacuation facilities (Figure 38).
Ponds need to be filled with fresh water and water level can be remained at optimum. In that case as many fry as possible must be removed by repeated netting (using fine mesh seine net) at 15 days intervals to avoid the problem of over population. Pond fertilization with urea and triple super phosphate (TSP) @ 50 kg in 1:1 ratio can be used before stocking of tilapia fingerlings. Fish should be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7 @ 3% per estimated body weight. regular fertilization can be made at 15 days intervals with cattle dung or poultry manure @ 800 – 1000 kg per hectare. Cattle dung or poultry manure can be applied on the bottom @ 2000 – 3000 kg per ha. Feeding intensity should be at least 2 times daily. If the ponds are stocked with mixed sex tilapia.Farming of Tilapia (b) Grow out pond preparation: liming and fertilization • • • • Liming of pond bottom should be with 250 – 300 kg CaO or CaCo3 per ha. 96 . • (d) Water quality monitoring Water quality in tilapia farm should be monitored every week using HACH kit or other electronic equipments. undesirable populations of tiny fry will be marked within 3 months of stocking. (c) Stocking of fry and post stocking management • • • • • Mixed or monosex tilapia fry of 10 – 15 g weight can be stocked in the well prepared ponds @ 25000 – 30000 per ha. To enhance the status of natural food in pond water. Every month sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate.
Under such type of semi-intensive culture system. 8. (f) Culture period • 120 – 180 days.0 to 8.0 to 250. to compensate for evaporation.Farming of Tilapia For good fish growth of tilapias. yield of 4000 – 6000 kg fish per ha can be obtained per crop.0 to 30.0 mg/L 5.0 to 12 mg/L 10.0 to 15. (g) Fish harvesting and estimation of production • • Within 4 – 6 months of farming when the fish having the average weight of 200 g.5 to 9.0 mg/L 25.0 3. harvesting of fish can be made by repeated netting or drying out the ponds.00 ppt (e) Water supply and aeration A regular water supply (twice a week) needs to be available in the grow out ponds just to fill up the level.3 Option for commercial tilapia farming in ponds under the management of high stoking density In commercial farms tilapia can be cultured even under high stocking density provided simple paddle wheel type of aerators are set in the ponds 97 .0 mg/L 50.5.0 oC 1.0 to 100. desirable water quality parameters are: • • • • • • • pH: Dissolved Oxygen: Free Carbon Dioxide: Total Alkalinity: Total Hardness: Temperature: Salinity: 6.
000 kg per ha per crop.00 Total 100 Cost per kg feed: US$ 0.21 (Taka 13). the grow out pond preparation.00 Wheat bran 20. Stocking density of advanced fry/fingerlings should be maintained @ 80.4 Option for commercial tilapia farming in brackish water ponds As tilapia can tolerate salinities up to 25 ppt with gradual acclimation. In that case input cost will be high due to running aerators (the cost the machine and electric bills) but production of marketable size fish can reach up to 15. Under such type of farming management.00 Rice polish 40. A range of at least 0.000 per ha. so the fish can nicely be cultured in brackish water ponds with a salinity range of 10 – 15 ppt without any stress. liming and fertilization procedure will be same as above. 2003).00 Mustard oilcake 15. Alternate cropping of tilapia in shrimp farms has recently been introduced in the coastal belt of Bangladesh as a means of reducing the risk of shrimp disease outbreak. Formulated feed for feeding tilapia under semi-intensive system in the grow out ponds (Hoq et al.0 Feed ingredients Crude protein (%) 12. Farm areas close to the sea and exposed to strong waves should be avoided. 8. under semiintensive culture management.6 meter between mean high tide and mean low tide is necessary to ensure adequate tidal water flow (Guerrero 1997). Proportion (%) Fish meal 20. FCR: 2.000 – 20.90 2. Brackish water enclosures are extremely suitable for tilapia culture either by extensive or semi-intensive type of management.00 Molasses 5.40 4. In brackish water farms.90 25.5.000 – 100. a yield of 3000 – 4000 kg fish per ha can be obtained per crop.Farming of Tilapia (at least two aerators in 1 ha pond) for aeration of water to add more oxygen (Figure 40).00 98 . Table 7.00 5.
• 99 . fry should be grown up to a suitable size (at least 10 – 15 g). good capital investment is a prerequisite for obtaining maximum profits from commercial fish farming and the overall management options as below can be considered: • • A commercial farm should have the opportunity to produce the required quantity of quality fry (both mixed and monosex) in the available nursery ponds or procure such fry from reliable hatcheries Before stocking. feeds and fertilizers. The main inputs needed are good water. The operation of such types of farming is also labor intensive. In high density stocking ponds. quality seeds.5.5 Overall management of commercial tilapia farms Like aquaculture of other commercially important fish species. Therefore. they should be kept for few days in a series of tanks or small ponds for prophylactic treatment. where regular maintenance of the ponds and farms requires various types of manpower but mostly labor. partial harvesting of grow out fish (about 150 g weight each) can be followed to reduce the load of biomass per unit area of ponds. If the fry are taken from other sources. commercial tilapia farming is capital intensive.Farming of Tilapia 8.
100 . 38 A typical layout of a fish farm (Bromage et al. 37 The monk in a pond Fig. 1992).Farming of Tilapia Fig.
Farming of Tilapia Fig. Alam). 40 Simple paddle wheel type of aerators set in the ponds for aeration of water to add more oxygen.J. 101 . M. 39 View of a commercial fish farm (Courtesy: Dr. Fig.
Among the desirable cultivable finfishes. viz. tolerance to wide range of environmental conditions. therefore. ease of seed production. for the international and domestic markets.1 It is mentioned in the first chapter of this book that commercially important tilapia species or strains have some special characteristics. Many entrepreneurs might come forward in near future to initiate developing the high input and high cost systems for tilapia farming in this country. In view of that an attempt has been made to narrate briefly the available techniques of tilapia culture in the cages. Because. tilapias are the most suitable candidates for intensive culture in cages and raceways due to their amenability to intensification. resistance to infectious diseases and poor water quality. 102 .Farming of Tilapia 9 Development and operation of intensive tilapia culture systems THE SUITABILITY OF TILAPIA FOR INTENSIVE CULTURE 9. the aquaculture industry is booming day by day. tilapia has tremendous prospects to be considered as a number one protein food item. which make them feasible for farming under various culture systems. tanks and raceways. The time is not very far off when intensive farming of commercially important fish species particularly tilapias will take the place in aquaculture due to limited land and other resources. efficiency to convert organic and agricultural wastes in to high quality protein and ability to grow well at high stocking and overcrowding situations. Bangladesh has more water resources per capita than most other countries of the world and demand of fish for consumption and export is very high.
Farming of Tilapia
TILAPIA CULTURE IN CAGES
Among intensive culture methods, cage culture is one by which the farmer can stock a large number of fish, control over feeding, minimize unwanted reproduction, harvest easily and obtain maximum profit from per unit area. It permits the more intensive exploitation of a water system with a low capital expenditure. The method can be utilized minimal infrastructural requirements and the ease of management lends the system to intensification (Balarin and Haller 1982). Various materials viz. simple bamboo poles and nylon nets, plastic and steel materials etc., can be used to construct cages for tilapia culture. Very large operations have been developed in the Philippines and Indonesia based on cage culture of respectively tilapias and common carps that provide jobs for thousands as members of cooperatives or employees of companies and food for local consumption and for international trade (Fitzsimmons, 1997). Cage culture of tilapia has also been attempted commercially or experimentally in other countries viz. Brazil, China, Cote d’Ivoire, El Salvador, Guatemala, Israel, Indonesia, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Niger, Sri Lanka and USA. In Bangladesh, Bangladesh Fisheries Development Corporation (BFDC) was the pioneer to initiate experimental cage culture of Nile tilapia in Kaptai Lake, Ragamati some time during 80’s but no production data is available. Subsequently CARE, Bangladesh conducted grow-out trials of GIFT strain in cages at Meghna river lagoon area near Munshiganj during 90’s (Hussain et al. 2000). Even, meanwhile, CARE implemented a CAGES project for more than 5 years with limited success as potential livelihood option in different places of Bangladesh. Recently a number of private entrepreneurs have initiated tilapia cage culture at Meghna river canals near Chandpur. As public water bodies like reservoirs, river lagoons, lakes, irrigation canals, deep borrow pits, estuaries, coastal bays including perennial natural depressions, and village ponds etc. are suitable for cage culture, therefore, small or large scale operation of tilapia culture in cages in these or other selected suitable water bodies has a bright future to play an important role in aquaculture.
Farming of Tilapia
9.2.1 Site selection
• • • • Dead rivers, lagoons, deepwater lakes, protected irrigation canals, creeks, deep ponds, borrow pits, closed coastal bays can be selected. Optimum water depth of a water body should be 4 – 10 m. The site should be free from remains of trees and other debris. The sites should be out of the reach of heavy flood, high tides and cyclones etc.
9.2.2 Construction and setting of net cages (a) Essential materials for constructing a floating net cage
• • • • • • • Bamboo pieces Styrofoam blocks Empty Drums Nylon nets with a mesh size of 15 – 25 mm Wood pieces Plastic ropes Iron nails
(b) Construction of the raft
• Bamboo pieces need to be arranged to make a square raft and drums should be fixed and set underneath of the raft so that drums can float the raft.
(c) Making the net cage
Net materials (mesh size 15 – 25 mm) should be cut and fixed by sewing the ends with plastic ropes to form a square net. Various sizes of net can be considered viz. 1 x 1 x1 m; 2 x 2 x 2.0 m; 4 x 4 x 2.5 m; 6 x 6 x 2.5 m; 8 x 8 x 2.5 m.
Farming of Tilapia
(d) Setting the net cage with the raft
• • • • • The net can be attached to the floating raft by binding the net to bamboo poles fixed at equal distances to the raft. Weights (2 kg) need to be fixed and hung around the bottom of the net to stretch the net into a square. The floating rafts with net cages can be set in one or two series to form a battery of cages for large-scale operation (Figure 41). A wooden or bamboo platform can be constructed along the series of rafts to allow feeding trolleys, sampling equipment/buckets and harvesting nets etc. to be carried. The rafts with net cages finally need to be anchored strongly to the shore or bottom.
(e) Stocking of fish
• • Mixed or monosex tilapia fingerlings weighing 20 – 30 g can be procured for stocking in the net cages. Stocking density can be maintained at 200 – 400 individuals/m3.
(f) Feeds and feeding
• • • Fish should be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7 @ 3% per estimated body weight. Feeding intensity should be at least 2 times daily. Every 2 weeks sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate.
(g) Culture duration
• Duration of tilapia culture in cages should range between 90 – 150 days.
. The tilapia cage culture information and production data of different countries are summarized in Table 8. Under such intensive system of cage culture expected tilapia production will be 30 – 70 kg/m3 (averagely 50 kg/m3).Farming of Tilapia (h) Harvesting of fish and expected production • • Fish weighing on an average about 200 g can be harvested by using dip or push net or by lifting the cages and transferred to bamboo baskets or plastic buckets.3 Overall management of tilapia culture in floating cages • • 106 Water quality and fish health in the cages needs to be monitored regularly.. Dead and sick fish should always be removed from the cages. 41 The floating rafts with net cages for intensive tilapia culture (Courtesy: Dr. Nuanmane Pongthana). 9. Fig.2.
3 TILAPIA CULTURE IN TANKS AND RACEWAYS Intensive culture of tilapias like salmonids in the recirculating or flow through tanks/raceways is one of the preferred techniques for large-scale commercial production.6 63.64 17.21.0 35-76 68. mossambicus x O. Available data on tilapia cage culture in different countries (Revised after Balarin and Haller 1982) Countries Bangladesh China Philippines Cote d’Ivoire Niger Nigeria Puerto Rico USA USA Species O.aureus no. it is better to stop feeding until the next day. in that case lids made of fine mesh nets can be used over each net cage.niloticus S.9 1.niloticus) O. the nets need to taken out from the raft to remove the algae scum and sun dried before using further.Farming of Tilapia • • • • If the growing fish do not take feed particularly in rainy or cloudy days. Table 8.353.63.7:1 2.7:1 2. (2000) Guerrero (1997) Guerrero (1997) Coche (1975) Mikolasek et al.zillii 0. If the stocked fish show any attempt of jumping out.niloticus Hybrid (O. High water exchange is 107 .5-85 FCR 1.niloticus T.4:1 1.galilaeus O.aureus O. Important processes in such systems are the removal of solids and dissolved metabolites. At every harvest.68 100./m 350 300400 200 215488 264 256 300500 286857 487 3 Duration (days) 120 96 103 92 210 171 70 156 87 Production 3 kg/m 30.63:1 12.niloticus O.niloticus O.aureus O.43 17-23 35-94.2:1 1..9 2. Security of the cages needs to be ensured to avoid poaching and escapement of fish during windy or stormy weather as well as during monsoon months.24:1 Reference Hussain et al. (1997) Ita (1976) Jordan & Pagan (1973) Pagan (1970) Suwanasart (1971) 9. These practices ensure high yield per unit area and/or unit volume of water.30 66.
square. 10 m diameter circular tank (10 t unit) is considered as the most economic size and self-cleaning for tilapia production 108 .0 – 20. 8. canals or reservoirs. Experimental or active rearing of tilapia in tanks has been reported from a number of countries (Table 9) and use of raceways reported from a few countries (Table 10) of the world. • Stable electricity.0 m long. the following factors need to be considered for site selection: • Site should be flood free and nearby tilapia hatcheries. (b) Design and characteristics of the tanks • • • • Cemented tanks are suitable for intensive tilapia culture. In water-limited areas. 1997). • Market access of products. Shape of the tanks can be circular. intensive tank and raceway culture requires water treatment and recirculation (Cole et al. • Enough water supply source either from underground or other surface water source like rivers. In tanks and raceways tilapias are cultured under crowded conditions.1 Tilapia culture in tanks (a) Site selection Before initiating the construction of rearing or growing tanks for commercial tilapia production systems. Rectangular size of individual tank may vary from 10.0 m. generally wider than raceways (Figure 42).0 m wide with a depth of 0.3. These systems are especially attractive in areas that can recover the effluent water from these farm operations to use for field crop irrigation and can be used as good source of fertilizers (Fitzsimmons 1997). rectangular or oval.Farming of Tilapia needed for this purpose. 9. • Road access for all weather for supply of products and services.8 – 1.0 – 50.
K. Thai). (d) Feeds and feeding • • Fish in the grow out tanks can be fed with formulated feeds (Table 7) @ 3% per estimated body weight 3 . Y. The cost and construction complexity of tanks should be low and the system should have access to water recirculation and aeration. 109 . sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate. Fig.4 times daily. so that water can be made useful to maintain a high water quality. a low flow to velocity ratio.Farming of Tilapia • • • An intensive tilapia culture tank is required to have a demand feeder. Every 2 weeks. on growing and fattening of desired numbers of fish. 42 The cemented tanks for intensive tilapia culture (Courtesy: Mr. Tanks should be adaptable to fry rearing. maximize the requirement of oxygen of growing fish and provide rapid expulsion of solid wastes and faecal materials through the central drain (Balarin and Haller 1982). (c) Stocking of fish • For fattening tilapia fingerlings weighing 25 -50 g can be stocked @ 200 – 250 fish/m3 in the tanks in order to achieve the enhanced individual growth to produce larger fish.
9 1.aureus hybrid O. 110 . In both cases.5:1 Reference Melard & Philippart (1980) Balarin & Haller (1979) Guerrero 1989 McAndrew (cited by Balarin & Haller 1982) Sports (1983) Lauenstein (1978) (e) Duration of culture • Fattening of large fish: 120 – 150 days.4 112 16-24 FCR 2:1 2:1 1.Farming of Tilapia Table 9.aureus no.2 Tilapia culture in raceways (a) Site selection • Site selection criteria for commercial tilapia culture in raceways under intensive system are similar like tank culture.5 3 Duration (days) 170-200 150 120 150 150 125 Production 3 kg/m >30 50 30 32. niloticus x O.aureus O./m 100800 200250 23 90 200250 12. 9. Expected production will be around 50 kg/m3. enough water supplies either from underground or other surface water source should be ensured. (f) Harvesting of fish and expected production • • Fish weighing 200 – 250 g can be harvested by using dip or push net or by dewatering the tanks. niloticus O. Countries Beligium Kenya Malaysia Scotland Taiwan USA Species O.3. niloticus Male red tilapia O. Available data on tilapia culture in tanks in different countries (Revised after Balarin and Haller 1982). niloticus x O.
75 – 1. Each raceway should have its own independent supply and evacuation facilities (Figure 43). 43 The raceways for intensive tilapia culture. Size of individual raceway may vary from 15 – 30 m long. Although the capital expenditure will be greater than in some other installations but the maintenance costs will be lower (Stevenson 1980). 111 . in most cases cemented raceways are used for fry/fingerling rearing and fattening of large fish. Fig. In many ways raceways are easier to manage and maintain than tanks. 2. Construction can be made either by concrete or earth. Raceways can be used both for fry rearing and fattening large fish.5 – 3. Most ideal arrangement of raceways should include single or double or multiple series of parallel ponds.Farming of Tilapia (b) Design and characteristics of the raceways • • • • • • • • • Raceways are rectangular in shape having both inlet and outlet facilities.0 m. Continuous flow of water supply need to be ensured for each series of raceways and excess water should be out through the outlet drains fitted with fish protecting screens.0 m wide with a depth of 0. Recirculation system to reuse the available water can minimize the input costs of raceway operation without harming the production of tilapia.
mossambicus O.Farming of Tilapia (c) Stocking of fish • Tilapia fingerlings weighing 25 -30 g can be stocked @ 150 – 300 fish/m3 in the raceways for fattening purpose. (d) Duration of culture • Fattening of large fish: 120 – 150 days.4 times daily. Expected production will be 40 .5 35. aureus O. sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate.6 16-64 35-150 FCR 1./m 10002800 1650 1000 6502500 100400 3 Duration (daya 90 40-50 40-50 60 150 Production 3 kg/m 5.60 kg/m3. (e) Feeds and feeding • • Fish in the grow out tanks can be fed with formulated feeds (Table 7) @ 3% per estimated body weight 3 . fish weighing 200 – 250 g can be harvested. niloticus O. (f) Harvesting of fish and expected production • • By using dip or push net or by dewatering the raceways. niloticus O. Table 10.6 9. Available data on tilapia culture in raceways in different countries (Revised after Balarin and Haller 1982) Countries Hawaii Kenya Kenya USA USA Species O. Every 2 weeks. aureus no.5:1 Reference Uchida & King (1962) Balarin & Haller (1979) Balarin & Haller (1979) Lauenstein (1978) Lauenstein (1978) 112 .
discomfort. erratically swimming. 113 . but when water quality is good and supplementing of artificial feed is adequate. etc. Infected fish also shows other symptoms. there should be doubt about diseases. The presence of parasites may cause the fish to try dislodging them on vegetation. even sufficient to kill the entire crop.1. So.1 Changes in behavior Fish in good health is only seen during the time of feeding or playing but when the fish is found always gasping together at the surface or near the incoming water supply. such as loss of balance.1 OCCURRENCE OF DISEASES IN FISH AND THEIR COMMON SYMPTOMS Diseases and parasites often become problematic when animals are crowded or reared closely in confined places. High production levels and population densities in fish farming ponds might have a chance of increasing the probability of a variety of diseases. In intensive fish farming practice. Observing their abnormal physiological conditions. In this regard for preventing unnecessary death and losses of fish population occurred by epidemic infectious diseases. fish diseases may occur frequently. which are expressed by some symptoms as follows.Farming of Tilapia 10 Diseases and parasites of tilapia and their control measures 10. precaution is the better way of disease control. proper management and care of fishponds are a must. can easily identify infected fish in ponds: 10. marked by heavy losses in fish population. it become less probability to develop sickness and diseases. These diseases can be acute.
A gaunt belly. Otherwise. So. some abnormal physical sign ultimately develop. But sickness in fish may cause to stop feeding themselves. a tight skin over the head. swollen and pale gills. Certain parasitic infections act slowly and may cause emaciation long before death. Using any drug or chemical without following the suggested levels is worthless and in some cases become dangerous to fish health. which is the first step towards control. Because susceptibility of fish to chemicals varies with the species and age of the fish and with the volume of water. it is necessary to identify these diseases accurately. etc. b) knowing about the life history of fishes. inflamed abdomen. bulging and blind eyes. it will usually mean that during this time a lot of money. a long thin body is the sign that the fish have not been feeding well. for instance. body and fins.1.1. muscles or internal organs and lesions on the several part of the body. Treatment must be effective in controlling the suspected parasites and diseases in fish farming ponds. 10. But when they become sick.2 Abnormal physical signs Fish without any infection become physically clean and fresh. valuable energy and a large number of fish might be unnecessarily lost. 114 . c) knowing about the content of toxicity of the chemicals in relation to fish species.excessive mucus over the skin.3 Failure to feed Under good water quality. cysts in the skin.Farming of Tilapia 10. Many of the diseases affecting fish have similar symptoms. After that before beginning any treatment some other essential steps are to be considered like a) knowing the exact volume of water. healthy fish normally feed when food is provided in water. hemorrhagic areas on the head. The above information should be known before the chemicals are applied.
Farming of Tilapia 10.1 Bacterial Diseases (a) Myxobacterial infections Among the diseases caused by bacteria.2. transferred or become wounded or they are reared in crowded conditions. It is also believed that the disease might be caused primarily by the bacterium Aeromonas punctata and secondarily by 115 . The rot starts first at the dorsal or caudal fins. Fish are infected by the disease in a pond. Dip or Bath treatment: The infected fish are treated by dipping them in the solution of Copper sulphate (250 ppm) for one minute or Formalin (250 ppm) for one hour.5 to 1. listlessness and fatigue.05 to 0.1 ppm) or Formalin (25 ppm). then spreads over the body surface. when they are roughly handled. Treatment: Several types of chemicals can be used for the treatment of fin rot infection of fish in ponds. The abdominal dropsy in fish probably arises from the action of both bacteria and viruses. which becomes necrotic and sloughs off gradually. Fish show discomfort. (b) Abdominal dropsy The disease is caused by accumulation of dropsy fluid in the abdominal cavity of carp. Any one of the chemicals should be applied at every alternative day for 3-4 times to control the disease.0 ppm) or Malachite green (0. tilapia and other susceptible species of fishes (Figure 44). the most common myxobacterial infection is “fin rot”. such as Copper sulphate (0.2 THE MOST COMMON DISEASES OF TILAPIA AND THEIR TREATMENT The most common diseases and parasites of tilapia and their possible treatments are briefly described below: 10.
Fig. mostly attached to the gills and skin of the fish. the infected fish generally start to die. discomfort. Treatment: The infected fish can be treated by applying antibiotic Oxytetracycline or Streptomycin or Chlorampheniocol at the rate of 1 mg per 100 g of fish. Among the surgical treatment. The best preventive measure against the dropsy is to liming and drying out the ponds at every alternative year before stocking. 44 Abdominal dropsy in tilapia. The body of the parasite is dorsoventrally flattened. At high water temperature. heart shaped.2 Parasitic Diseases (a) Chilodonella sp.2. the dorsal side is swollen and the ventral side is partially ciliated (Figure 45).Farming of Tilapia viruses. belonging to the genus Chilodonella. erratic swimming. erratically swimming and discomfortness. 10. Diseased fish exhibit extreme inflammation of abdomen. a tendency to stay 116 . pale colour of the gills. Attachment of the parasite is associated with body lesions. This is a protozoan parasite. the fluid of the abdomen can be taken out by a hypodermic needle with syringe. becoming dangerous by growing in number within a very short period and sufficient to kill even plenty of large fish.
Farming of Tilapia
near the incoming water supply and occurrence of a higher rate of fish mortality. Chilodonella sp. is generally active to cause disease in tilapia fry fingerlings at the temperature below 20 OC. Chilodonelliasis is a common parasitic disease in tilapia fry and fingerlings during the cold season (Hussain 1988).
Fig. 45 Protozoan parasite Chilodonella sp. (Sarig 1971).
Treatment: The pond should be treated by Potassium permanganate (3-5 ppm), Formalin (25 ppm), Methylene blue (3 ppm), Malachite green (0.10.15 ppm). Any one of these chemicals should be applied every alternative day for 2-3 times. Dip or Bath treatment: The infected fish may be treated by dipping them in solution of Potassium permanganate (10 ppm) for one hour. For prevention of the disease, every alternative year ponds should be disinfected by liming just before releasing the fish.
Farming of Tilapia
(b) Trichodina sp.
This protozoan parasite belongs to the genus Trichodina (Figure 46). The infections caused by this type of parasite occur at the site of gills and skin, sometimes dangerous to breakdown the normal physiological conditions of the pond fishes, causing a serious anemia to fry and fingerling fish, finally leading to death. The infected fish exhibit irregular white patches, frayed fins, become sluggish and fail to feed. Trichodiniasis is also a common parasitic disease in tilapia fry and fingerlings during the winter season (Hussain 1988).
Fig. 46 Protozoan parasite Trichodina sp. (Hoffman and Meyer 1974).
Treatment: Treatment in ponds can be carried out by applying Malachite green (0.1-0.15 ppm), Formalin (25 ppm) or Sodium Chloride (200 ppm) for only one time. Dip or Bath treatment: The diseased fish can be bathed by Malachite green (1.25-5.0 ppm) or Formalin (250 ppm) for half an hour.
Farming of Tilapia
(c) Myxobolus sp.
These protozoan parasites belong to the genus Myxobolus, which cause infections in gills of susceptible species of fishes. White cysts are appeared in the muscles and below the tissues. Diseased fish develop a thickened epithelium and excessive mucus on the gill regions. Treatment: No treatment is yet been carried out by the chemicals to control the disease. Necessary precautions can be taken for disinfections by liming and drying of ponds.
(d) Argulus sp.
The argulus or fish lice are copepods, and adhere to the body of the fish by means of its suckers and extremities. The parasite has a flattened, often pinkish or reddish disc like body, but lives on the surface of the fish or in the mouth of gill cavity (Figure 47). Infected fish show discomfort, erratic swimming and in the case of a serious infection the fish may stop feeding.
Fig. 47 Fish lice Argulas sp. (Sarig 1971)
Their attachment is associated with hemorrhagic reactions in all surfaces of the body. The parasite resembles a shaft of a small barb inserted into the flesh of the fish. The lernaea or anchor parasite is sometime dangerous to fry and fingerling fish and can cause their early death by leading to an anemic physiological condition.5-1.5%). A preventive measure is to dry out ponds at every alternative year.15-0. Dip or Batch treatment: The infected fish can be treated by dipping in the solution of Potassium permanganate (10 ppm) or Sodium chloride (5%) for half an hour.25 ppm).25 ppm once in a week for at least 4 weeks. Any one of these chemicals may be applied once a week for at least 4 weeks. The parasite cannot be easily removed because of the anchor. The infected fish show discomfort. Treatment: The pond should be treated by Mesoten or Dylox (0. which lead to secondary fungus and bacterial infections. Potassium permanganate (3-5 ppm). Malathion (0. (e) Lernaea sp. grass stems. 120 . Dip or Bath treatment: The infected fish may be bathed in the solution of Potassium permanganate (10 ppm) or Sodium chloride (5%). etc.0 ppm) or Sodium chloride (1.Farming of Tilapia Treatment: For pond treatment Mesoten or Dylox may be applied at the rate of 0. often rubbing their body surface against the bottoms.
In this part of the world. So. they are bound to purchase tilapias and Chinese carp species.1. catfish and other small species as food fish but due to their unavailability and extremely high price in the domestic market. Many consumers prefer live tilapia like catfish.1 Post harvest handling of tilapia In many developing countries of South-east Asia.1 DEMAND OF TILAPIA IN THE DOMESTIC MARKETS Tilapias are becoming popular fish recently among the traders due to their suitability for selling any size (fingerling to adult) in the domestic market of Bangladesh and other South-east Asian countries. In this case. The harvested fish need to be kept alive for washing in the holding tanks with the inflowing cold water before their shifting and processing for the market (Figure 48). It is obvious that rich people always prefer large size and poor people due to their financial incapability go for medium and smaller size for the cheaper price. fish are kept with ice (ice to fish ratio 1:3) in bamboo baskets having inner 121 . 11. who might prefer different size grade tilapia.Farming of Tilapia 11 Marketing of tilapia 11. shrimp. it is essential to handle the fish carefully at harvest to ascertain their freshness and quality for good market price. Pick up vans having fiberglass tanks can be used for live fish transportation. Consumers of this country normally used to like indigenous carps. Crushed ice is used for processing fresh tilapias for market. tilapias are marketed fresh or frozen. Live tilapias can also be shifted in plastic bags with oxygenated water like fish fry/fingerling transportation. there are multi various purchasers of different income levels.
Ministry of Local Government through its municipalities controls only the wholesale and retail markets in most of the cities and towns. there is no particular auction and packing sheds. These centers are unhygienic and poor.Farming of Tilapia side rapped with polythene sheet or Styrofoam boxes for transportation to local markets or distant places. where the brokers are engaged to sell the fish to the small and medium traders by collecting them from the village ponds/farms. 11. Higher Secondary Market: Market at the towns and cities also operated by commission agents and fish are sold to second distributors.3 Present status of domestic wholesale and retail market conditions The overall fish landing facilities and wholesale markets are not well established all over Bangladesh. Conditions of municipal markets are not also at the mark for controlling hygienic aspects of fish. Secondary Market: Market nearby the administrative unit headquarters (ie.1. 11. in Bangladesh tilapias are sold in the domestic markets following the distribution channel of fish trade as below: • • • • Primary Market: Rural market.2 Domestic marketing systems Like other fishes. Final Consumers Market: The second distributors sell the fish to retailers to make them available in the retailing markets for the consumers (Figure 49). Thana Headquarters) operated by the commission agents and fish are sold and packet for shifting to urban markets.1. Private fish traders are the dominant groups who control the major landing centers in the rural and urban areas. 122 . no adequate drainage and cleaning facilities.
Y. 49. Tilapias in the retailing fish market for the consumers (Courtesy: Mr. Fig. Thai). Thai). 48 Washing of harvested live tilapias in the holding tank with the inflowing cool water before marketing (Courtesy: Mr.Farming of Tilapia Fig. K. Y. K. 123 .
only suitable for ethnic markets and their traditional markets have been in Africa and Asia for a long time. Singapore.6 to 1 kg) in Japan. These have become third preferred fish like channel catfish after shrimp and salmon in the United States. Costa Rica. Price of colored tilapia is 1.5 times higher than normal colored tilapias. 2 DEMAND OF TILAPIA IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKETS In most of the chain restaurants. Accurate data on global trade for tilapia are not readily available.Farming of Tilapia 11. Large or medium sized red or blue (Nile tilapia) strains can either be filleted or packet in icebox freshly for export marketing. farmers get less price at the farm gate. Philippines. Israel alone exports more than 60% of total supply to the markets of USA. Many entrepreneurs are coming forward to Bangladesh to initiate commercial tilapia farming and invest money for filleting tilapias for export. But recently tilapias have also obtained consumer recognition in the USA and to some extend in Europe and around the world (Vannuccini 1998). Thailand. In developed countries. Particularly in Japan. In view of this. Jamaica. therefore. There is a growing demand of tilapia fillets produced from large sized fish (0. It is reported that the major exporting countries are Taiwan. Colombia. Israel and Taiwan are the two countries from where majority of tilapias are being exported in the global markets. Bangladesh could be in the same line to export tilapias like shrimp to the world markets. tilapia fillet might be the choice of consumers. . for market diversification both in the country and abroad the following points need to be considered: • • 124 Tilapia farming should be expanded and bank credits need to be provided to the interested farmers/entrepreneurs. USA and Canada. which were once accepted as low value fish. so they are not getting enough profit from tilapia culture. the fillets of the Nile and red tilapias are used for raw fish gourmet dishes as sashimi and excellent substitutes for the high priced red sea bream (Guerrero 1997). Indonesia. Israel. tilapias are recently considered as attractive menu items. Venezuela and Ecuador. As the fish producers ie.
Farming of Tilapia • • • Government should fix the farm gate price of the fish like rice and other food grains. washing. It is obvious that international regulations need to be strictly followed for processing of tilapias for export. in particularly filleting. holding tanks for keeping live fish and nice display facilities need to be created. Ancillary market facilities like road networks. ice packing and canning industries should be encouraged and supported. Appropriate policies and strategies need to be formulated and adopted by the Government for commercial farming of tilapias and their export. 125 . packing and preservation facilities. concrete sheds. Tilapia processing industries.
cage operators and merchants (Smith et al.1 LEARNING FROM THE EXPERIENCE OF OTHER TILAPIA PRODUCING COUNTRIES Tilapia farming has become an important source of additional income and a cheap source of protein for rural communities in the Philippines (Fermin 1985). the following developmental areas and strategies are identified for necessary consideration: 126 . A number of Asian countries like Thailand. 1985). Tilapia technology was successfully adapted and extended to small-scale farmers and large commercial producers. Bangladesh and other countries of this region with appropriate water resources could learn from Philippine and Asian tilapia-producing countries experience and promote tilapia production. The Philippines has recently become one of the largest producers of tilapia in the Asia (Guerrero 1994). 12. In view of taking tilapia as one of the important and potential fish species. the Philippines government selected tilapia for development because of its potential to benefit resource poor farmers as well as commercial growers. grow-out farmers. Researchers developed the technology and overcame the marketing constraints. and Taiwan are presently in the line of developing tilapia aquaculture industry. The steady expansion of tilapia industry has benefited small-scale hatchery operators. Indonesia.2 STRATEGIES FOR TILAPIA AQUCULTURE Tilapia has great potential in Bangladesh as an alternative and additional species of farmed fish.Farming of Tilapia 12 Strategies and prospects of frontier development of tilapia aquaculture 12. According to Guerrero (1994).
127 • • • • . a large number of commercial catfish producers have found tilapia as an alternative species to culture in their farms to maximize the production. therefore.87 m ha).) farming in the country. barrow pits etc. where carp species can not be cultured.Farming of Tilapia • Among the South East Asian countries. No doubt. which retain water for 4-6 months.1 m ha) in the form of ditches. Commercial seed production activities both in public and private hatcheries will enable to create additional employment opportunities for a large group of unemployed people. where improve extensive shrimp culture is in collapse due to disease outbreak. commercial farming of tilapia will be an alternative. tilapia can be a promising candidate for aquaculture in the suitable seasonal water bodies. shallow ponds. In such cases. It is presumed that tilapia farming will largely be expanded both in small and commercial scales. development and operation of commercial tilapia hatcheries will be essential throughout the country.14 m ha) of the country. road side canals. adequate feed crisis and low market price severely damaged the exotic riverine catfish (Panagsius sp. these water bodies have tremendous potential for aquaculture of fish species with short life cycle and characteristics of faster growth rate and require low input support (Hussain et al. Similar aquaculture activities can further be expanded in the suitable brackish water polders and enclosures (0. Recently. In brackish water ponds (0. In Kaptai reservoir (0.07 m ha) and other similar water bodies’ commercial cage culture of monosex tilapia could flourish to boost fish production. Bangladesh in particular abounds with hundreds and thousands of seasonal water bodies (>0. Success of such attempts will encourage the entrepreneurs to come forward for initiating commercial tilapia farming in freshwater ponds and other suitable water bodies. 2000). In that case. so there will be an extreme need for huge number of quality seeds (both mixed sex and monosex).
mass involvement of rural people in carp and shrimp culture was found difficult due to their limited water resources and financial incapability in many cases. the inland and marine capture fisheries have registered a gradual decline due to deterioration of aquatic environments and over fishing. Diversified and frontier aquaculture development with short cycled fish species like tilapias can overcome all the above-mentioned situations and have access to all existing aquatic ecosystems. On the other hand. 128 . Nepal. it can confidently be presumed today that tilapia is a novel and excellent species (Figure 50) for future aquaculture in all the suitable aquatic ecosystems in Bangladesh and elsewhere in South East Asia. Since many years enormous efforts and investments have been made to promote aquaculture of Indian and Chinese major carp and shrimp species particularly in Bangladesh and India. Although per unit area of production was promisingly increased especially for carps through adoption of improved technologies these could not be diversified except into freshwater ponds or related water bodies. Therefore.3 DIVERSIFIED AND FRONTIER DEVELOPMENT OF TILAPIA AQUACULTURE In the recent past all over the Asia. Broadly it can be said “Tilapia is a good food fish (Figure 51) for you and all others. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. India. Thus aquaculture is seen as the most promising option of filling the pending void in the aquatic food supply. the tilapias are among the best candidates for culture because of their desirable qualities (Guerrero 2002). until recently the Governments of these nations have not yet taken it seriously. In spite of bright and promising future of tilapia farming in the developing countries of this part of Asia like Bangladesh. Among the available farmed fish species.Farming of Tilapia 12. which will certainly benefit the nation like ours in providing income for small-scale farmers and large producers and helping the country to alleviate shortfalls in fish production. it is a good cash crop for all the stake holders mainly the poor farmers living in Asia and other developing countries of the world”.
Y. 50 Tilapia is a fish of the decade Fig. K. Thai).Farming of Tilapia Fig. 129 . 51 Tilapia is a good food fish (Courtesy: Mr.
Crossbred individuals are from intraspecific matings. Breeding value: The genetic value of a fish or a population. strains or lines.Farming of Tilapia Glossary Additive genetic variance: The proportion of the total phenotypic variance that depends on the additive effects of the genes. which carry the heredity material. Breed: Group of animals having a common origin and identifying characters that distinguish them as belonging to a breeding group. Combined selection: Combination of both within-family and betweenfamily selection to increase the accuracy of the estimates of breeding values. and prevents any contribution of the female genome to the embryo. 130 . Broodstock: Parent (Female and Male) fish cultivated to provide eggs/milt or fry. consisting of one representative from each of the pairs characteristic of the somatic cells in a diploid species. embryonic development proceeds with the inheritance of only paternal chromosome sets. in terms of its or their ability to transmit certain distinguished features that separate them from other such group. Crossbred: An animal produced by crossing two or more pure breeds. Chromosomes: Darkly staining bodies in cell nuclei. Alleles: Members of a pair of different hereditary factors that may occupy a given locus on a specific chromosome and that segregate in formation of gametes. Alternative form of gene. Crossbreeding: Mating systems in which hereditary material from two or more pure breeds. They occur in pairs in somatic cells with the number of pairs and morphology being characteristic of the species. which involves fertilization of eggs with inactivated maternal nucleus. Androgenesis: Opposite to gynogenesis. As a result. Chromosome set: A group of chromosomes representing a genome. Breeding population: A group fish to be used for planned breeding. and thereby achieve a greater selection response. strains or lines is combined.
Heritability: The proportionate amount of additive genetic variance: h2 = VA/Vp Inbreeding: A system of mating in which mates are more closely related than average individuals of the population to which they belong. most gametes are haploid so that when fertilization occurs the diploid condition is restored. 131 . The complete genetic make up is also referred to as the genome. Gynogenesis: Gynogenesis involves fertilization of eggs with inactivated sperm. ensuring no loss of genetic variation which is a function of the total number of breeding individuals.Farming of Tilapia Diploid: Cells with two members of each pair of chromosomes. This is termed the 2n condition and is characteristic of most fish species. Gonad: Fish organ in which either eggs or sperm are produced. the sex ratio. such type of selection based on deviations from average family performance. sometimes per kg of fish. Gene: The classical term of the basic unit of heredity. Family selection: Selection of the best male and best female fish from a family. As a result. Hapa: Fine meshed rectangular or square structure on which fertilized eggs or larvae are deposited after artificial spawning and hatching. Genotype: Genetic makeup of a fish. embryonic development proceeds with the inheritance of only maternal chromosome sets. sometimes expressed as number per fish. the mating system employed. generally termed as ovary in female or testis in male. that portion which is inherited. Effective population size (Ne): The ideal population size is infinitely large. Haploid: Having one complete set of chromosomes (see also Diploid). and prevents any contribution of the male genome to the embryo. and the variance of family size in the production of fish that are used to produce the next generation. Fecundity: Number of eggs produced.
Sex reversal: Modification of sex using hormonal manipulation. fecundity. Mitotic gynogenesis: Gynogenetic diploids produced by the inhibition of the first mitotic cell division of fertilized eggs. Mass selection: Individual selection or empirical selection of the best male and female individuals from a population. 132 . Phenotypic variance: The variance that is observed or measured for a particular aspect of the phenotype in a population.Farming of Tilapia Inbreeding depression: Decreased performance in growth rate. Tetraploidy: Individuals having 4 sets of chromosomes (4n). Karyotype: The somatic chromosomal complement of an individual or species. Vitellogenesis: The formation of yolk in the developing oocyte.g. Morula: An embryo that consists of a cluster of cleaving blastomeres. Polyploidy: A state where a cell or an individual contains three or more sets of chromosomes: e. and an increased percentage of deformed/abnormal fish that occur due to inbreeding. Triploidy: Individuals having 3 sets of chromosomes (4n). The term is often used for photomicrographs of the metaphase chromosomes arranged in a standard sequence. Pedigree: A fish’s family tree. Progeny: Offspring of any generation. survival. Phenotype: Physical appearance or characteristics of an organism. Selection: A breeding program in which the breeder chooses which fish will be the next generation’s broodstock. based on some predetermined criteria. Monosex population: Production of only female or male fish through genetic manipulation or sex inversion. etc. triploid (3n) or tetraploid (4n). Sexual maturation: Condition of female and male individuals having ripe gonadal materials (eggs and sperm). Meiotic gynogenesis: Gynogenetic diploids poduced by the suppression of the second meiotic cell division of fertilized eggs.
YY male production: Indirect method of producing monosex all males (having YY genomic status) by combining both sex-reversal and/or genetic manipulation technique of the sex determining system in tilapia. produces in tilapia a female. XY chromosome: Heterozygous pair of sex chromosomes. produces in tilapia a male.Farming of Tilapia Vitellogenin: A protein synthesized in the liver of sexually maturing females and incorporated into the yolk spheres of the developing oocyte. XX chromosome: Homozygous pair of sex chromosomes. 133 .
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37 Chromosome karyotyping. 12 . 26-27 Control group. 7. 47 Body weight. 31. 65. 48 All male monosex population. 22 Additive genetic variation. 42 Cold shock. 17 Automatic feed mixing machine.Farming of Tilapia Index Abdominal dropsy. 45. 1 Body colour inheritance. 23. 27 Communal testing. 117 Chitralada strain. 23.. 14. 10 Chichlid. 11 Argulas sp. 42. 23. 98. 27. 54. 70 Blotched type. 108 Clonal line. 11. 18-21 Cage. 23 Commercial tilapia farm. 17. 105 Base population. 103. 83. 21. 92. 78 Additive genetic gain. 8 Asian Development Bank (ADB). 95 Common carp. 20 Artificial incubation system. 115 Absolute fecundity. 39 Closely related individual. 29 Coefficient of variation. 31. 23 Biomass. 116 Chromosome. 1. 58-60. 24 Asian countries. 19. 24 Artificial incubation. 30 Breeding tank. 84 Androgenesis. 103. 44 Anus. Chilodonella sp. 29. 21. 40. 42 Aneuploid metaphase. 86. 3 Atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 56. 22 Combined selection strategy. 119 Artificial feed. 60. 76 Average genetic gain. 18. 23 Breeding hapa. 11 Courtship behavior. 27. 21 Aerator. 7 Copepod. 60. 22 Colchicine solution. 127 144 Breeding behaviour. 37.. 14 Aceto-carmine squash technique. 9-10. 12 Aquatic chicken. 1 Bamboo pole. 103 Common farm environment. 20. 56 Brackish water. 58-59 Breeding value. 96 Caudal fin. 113 Artificial hatching system. 53 Brood stock management. 18 Brood stock replacement. 27. 33 Circular tank. 77 Breeding pond. 97 Aeromonas punctata. 10. 24. 19. 36 Combined selection. 50 Blue tilapia. 33. 22 Blackchin tilapia. 42-43 Chromosome manipulation. 3 Aquatic larvae. 9 Breeding candidate. 115 Allele. 69 Breeding population. 76. 21. 29 Brood stock. 107 Cattle dung. 6 Chlorampheniocol.
Farming of Tilapia Cross breeding. 77 Effective population size (Ne). 19. 24. 40 Egg incubation system. 7 DEGITA countries. 55. 105. 58 First cleavage. 29-30 Egg. 21-22 Genetic variation. 27. 27. 21 Dissolve oxygen. 109. 27. 112 Feeding trolley. 37 145 . 20. 96. 48 Gonad development. 48. 127 Freon. 31. 3-32 Diploid metaphase. 13. 21 Feeding intensity. 70 Fine meshed hapa. 59 Fingerling. 15 Growth performance. 27. 24. 14. 13. 26-27. 37 Generic names. 18 Genetic selection. 23 Fecundity. 26. 105. 58-60. 14. 33. 31 Fry. 59. 26 Earthen pond. 18 Freshwater. 6 Family selection. 22 Grow-out period. 20. 109 Dike construction. 87. 29 Hapa. 31. 18. 20 Genome. 43 GIFT strain. 15 Endomitotic. 22. 21-22 Genetic improvement. 6 Demand feeder. 22 Genetic variability. 34 Fertilized egg. 105 Fertilization. 56. 24 Haploid. 31. 105 Feeding rate. 39 First feeding fry. 43 Glass aquaria. 53. 72. 109. 18 Fish meal. 31 Ethyl alcohol. 53. 54. 31 Haploid metaphase. 66 Egyptian red strain Endocrine hormone. 1921. 95 Diploid. 111 Full-sib family. 36. 103 Gill-raker. 10. 111 Finite population. 20. 22-23. 20. 14. 14 Hatching stage. 56. 26 Formalin. 83 Existing strain. 34 Giemsa stain. 58 Cryopreservation. 10 Glacial acetic acid. 96. 12. 98. 59. 42 Cumulative weight gain.23. 3-7. 11 Dorsal fin. 117 Formulated feed. 56. 20. 105 Floy tag. 44 Hatching. 1 Gametogenesis. 44 Disease resistance. 18. 53. 21. 30 Genital papilla. 71 First mitotic division. 45 Crude protein. 2 Gene transfer. 38. 36. 20. 26 Galilee tilapia. 29 Genetic stock deterioration. 32 Floating raft. 22 Family selection strategy. 32 Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT). 112 Founder stock. 27 Gynogenesis Half-sib. 9 Genetic gain. 10.
45-47 Heterogeneous. 21. 1o3 In vitro. 117 Malathion. 6 On-station. 2 Mustard oilcake. 1 Malachite green. 19 Homogametic. 115 Myxobolus sp. 31 Nest building. 21-22 Heterogametic. 12 Nile tilapia. 14. 21 Intensive culture. 31. 15. 17 Oestrogenic control. 45-48 Hormone mixed feed. 70. 10. 36. 77. 94 Lipophosphoprotein-calcium. 58 Oestradiol-17β. 72 Microscope. 9. 36 Inbreeding.Farming of Tilapia Heat shock. 120 Larvae. 18. 6. 34 Marker chromosome. 55. 6 Longfin tilapia. 11 Hydrolic pump. 26. 11 On-farm. 23 Nursery hapa. 64 Homozygosity. 1. 1-3. 13 Mixed sex. 40-41 Heritability. 3 Larnaea sp. 30 Inbreeding depression. 22-23 Intensity of selection. 23 Maternal mouth brooder. 37 Mouth brooding. 15 Holding tank. 40 Monosex population. 6 Hydracarine. 66 Morula stage. 21 Histological section. 117 Methyl testosterone-17α. 34 Israel strain. 12 Meiotic gynogenesis. 20. 60 Myxobacterial infection. 83 Oestrogen. 27 Liming. 103 Local strain. 34 Milt.. 38 Melanophores. 29 146 Mass selection strategy. 31 Heterozygous. 63. 10. 29 Incubation system. 23. 34 Individual selection. 20. 89 Modified Cortland’s solution. 64 Hybrid strain. 31. 9-12. 56. 15 Livelihood. 120 Manual stripping.. 14 Mating. 119 Natural breeding. 78 Mass selection. 58. 6 . 78 Micro-pipette. 22. 77 Hybridization. 43 Methylene blue. 92 Nitrous oxide. 7 Non-genetic effect. 14-15. 83 Nursery tank. 44 Masculinization. 20 Lateral line. 64. 103. 15 Omnivorous. 50 Metaphase chromosome. 18 Homozygous. 20. 18. 34. 22 Maternal effect. 9 None selected control group. 13 Mozambique tilapia. 44 Methanol-acetic acid. 63-64 Monosex tilapia seed production system. 47. 63.
1. 110-112 Radiometer. 15. 33 pH. 37. 97 Parallel pond. 15 Secondary oocyte. 65. 1 Oreochromis aureus. 27 Paternal mouth brooder. 9-11. 13 Oxytetracycline. 116 Paddle wheel. 10. 1 Oreochromis mossambicus. 21 Perennial pond. 17 Oogonia. 18 147 . 17 Receptor-mediated endocytotic process. 37. 18 Potassium permanganate. 64. 90 Polyetheline. 14. 113 Parental care. 33 Physiological condition. 32. 15 Secondary spermatocyte. 45. 49-50 Raceway. 10 Peak maturation.Farming of Tilapia Oocyte. 122 Salinity. 69. 41. 124 Seasonal pond. 15 Primary oocyte. 24. 99 Purebred red strain. 53. 1. 14 Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag. 10. 112 Outbred stock. 17. 34 Pedigree. 78 Oocyte maturation. 15 Oviduct. 54 Rural market. 86. 33. 112 Oreochromis machrochir. 107.4. 86-87 Poor genetic material. 63 Pressure shock. 38. 45 Phosphate buffer. 31 Polyculture. 32 Pond construction. 120 Poultry manure. 93 Pond fertilization. 10 Sashimi. 58 Rotenone. 40 Radioimmunoassay. 10 Phenotype. 84 Prophylactic treatment. 122 Rice bran. 96 Precocious maturation. 37. 110. 45. 20-21 Retailing market. 47 Reduced growth rate. 47. 2 Red tilapia strain. 10. 102. 107. 36. 90 Perspex. 14. 110. 15 Pectoral fin. 18 Reference stock. 86 Secondary sexual characteristic. 2. 37 Plastic tray. 56. 43 Photoperiod. 98 Sarotherodon galilaeus. 40 Primary spermatocyte. 107 Sarotherodon melanotheron. 112 Oreochromis niloticus. 32 Second polar body. 12. 1-3. 45-46. 18. 90. 95 Parasite. 21 Ovary. 113 Phytoplankton. 71 Ploidy manipulation. 12 Ovulation. 40 Seed production. 40-41. 1. 15 Progeny testing. 15 Oreochromis andersonii. 24. 11. 91 Polyploidy. 107-108. 11 Pigmentation stage. 15 Second meiotic division. 7. 15 Recirculation system. 111 Redbelly tilapia. 54-55. 31.
9 Super Strain of GIFT. 54. 65 Unfertilized egg. 96. 29 Semen. 59 Spawning. 12 Urethra. 37 Triploid metaphase. 30. 2. 37 148 Thai red strain. 60 Tagging. 77. 58. 9.. 15 Spindle apparatus. 8. 17 Semi-intensive culture. 34. 116 Substrate spawner. 92. 12 Sperm. 12 Urogenital papilla. 17 Sex chromosome. 31 Sex ratio. 34. 93-94 Small-scale farmer. 27. 98-99. 11 Sexual maturation. 124 Yolk. 54. 66 Transitory hapa. 72 Streptomycin. 107 Tilapia farming. 15. 22 Site selection. 11 Zygote. 44 Sex determination. 20. 10 Wild type. 49 Silver barb. 1 Tilapia zillii. 118 Solid waste. 78 Sex steroid hormone. 84 Zooplankton. 23 Selection intensity. 19 Steroid hormone. 70 Undifferentiated gonadal tissue. 27. 17. 32 Sodium Chloride. 13 Sib cross. 15. 46-47 Three spotted tilapia. 70 Sex reversal. 15. 11 Tetraploidy. 26 Tank. 55. 34 Urogenital opening. 15. 14 YY male. 64 UV sterilization. 44 True breeder. 7. 126-128 Tilapia hatchery. 11. 22. 78. 32. 107 Taxonomic classification. 91. 34 Water quality. 102. 40 Spermatogonia. 15 Vitellogenin. 19 Standard reference stock. 19 Trichodina sp. 17 Sexual dimorphism. 15. 32. 50 World market. 87. 63. 48. 15.Farming of Tilapia Selective breeding. 9 Terrestrial insect. 39 . 20. 118 Triploidy. 78 Spermatozoa. 105 Stock solution. 20. 70 Supplementary feed. 97. 31 Standard length. 12. 106 Water tempertaure. 109 Stocking density. 8. 17. 17 Sexual pheromones. 48. 34. 17 Water bath. 37 Vitellogenesis. 97 Serum calcium concentration. 27 Standard population size. 15 Yolk sac resorption stage.
He has been internationally reputed as “tilapia geneticist” due to his pioneer works on suppression of mitotic cleavage and production of genetic clones in Nile tilapia and genetic inheritance study leading to gene mapping in red tilapia strains. Dr.Farming of Tilapia About the author Dr. Director. He has also co-authored several books. operation and promotion of tilapia aquaculture. Principal Scientific Officer and Chief Scientific Officer under BFRI (1986-2000).G. Bangladesh on February 1954. He is instrumental in developing tilapia farming in Bangladesh particularly tilapia hatchery and monosex seed production system designing. he has been conferred the prestigious National Fish Fortnight 2003 Gold Medal Award. Bangladesh (1978-1981). M. the recent one is entitled “Genetic improvement and conservation of carp species in Bangladesh”.D. In recognition of such contributions. Geneva posted in Syria (1981-1986). Hussain has published more than 100 peer reviewed journal papers and co-edited several proceedings of seminars and workshops. in Aquaculture Genetics from the University of Stirling. Dr. He earned his Ph. Research and Planning under BFRI (2001-2004). Hussain is currently the Director. UK. he is presently involved with some international and national fish genetic research programs. He has served as Scientific Officer under Department of Fisheries. Admin. As the Team Leader of Fish Breeding and Genetic Research Group of Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute (BFRI). Scotland. 149 . The two most recent outstanding contributions of Dr. UNV Fisheries/Aquaculture Specialist under UNDP. Hussain was born in Mymensingh. and Finance of BFRI. Hussain are: the development of a genetically improved strain of silver barb (Barbods gonionotus) and further improvement of GIFT strain through several generations of genetic selection.
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