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Workover Operations

Workover Operations

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WORKOVER OPERATIONS

LECTURE NOTES ±NOVEMBER 2009
PROF. SUSHANTA SARKAR

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION

THE PHASES AND SEQUENCE OF AN OPERATION VARIES FROM ONE JOB TO ANOTHER. ANOTHER. IT MAINLY DEPENDS ON THE EQUIPMENT ALREADY INSTALLED IN THE WELL AND THE CONDITION IT IS IN. IN. IT ALSO DEPENDS ON WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE AND HOW THE OPERATION IS GOING TO PROCEED IN PRACTICAL TERMS. TERMS. WE DISCUSS BELOW THE DETAILED STEPS WHICH ARE GENERALLY INVOLVED IN ALL THE WORKOVER OPERATIONS

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION
1. PREPARATION OF THE WELL PRIOR ARRIVAL OF THE WORKOVER UNIT TO THE

THIS MAINLY MEANS : CHECKING THE STATUS OF THE WELL BY WIRELINE TECHNIQUES (CHECKING THE TUBING, PROVING THE HOLES, TAGGING SEDIMENTS, TO CHECKING THE PERFORATIONS WHETHER THEY ARE OPEN OR NOT). NOT). CHECKING THE WELL INTEGRITY (PRESSURE TESTS OF CASINGS) OPENING A CIRCULATING DEVICE DOWNHOLE (SLIDING SLEEVE, BLANKING PLUG OR DUMMY FROM SIDE POCKET MANDREL)

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION

CHECKING THE INTEGRITY OF VALVES OF THE X-MAS TREE (PRESSURE TESTING OF VALVES) CHECKING AND PREPARING THE APPROACH ROAD TO WELLS FOR MOVEMENT OF THE WORKOVER RIG. RIG.

PRECAUTION-CUMSHOULD ALSO INVOLVE ALL THE NEARBY WELLS THAT MIGHT BE AFFECTED WHEN THE SERVICE/WORKOVER UNIT IS BEING SET UP. PUTTING THE WELL UNDER SAFE CONDITIONS (BEFORE RIGGING UP THE SERVICE/WORKOVER UNITS) THIS SAFETY PRECAUTION-CUM-OPERATION. . WELLHEAD. UP.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION 2. IN FACT. THE OPERATION CONSISTS ESSENTIALLY IN ISOLATING THE SURROUNDINGS FROM THE WELL PRESSURES AND KEEPING THEM UNDER OPTIMUM SAFE CONDITIONS WHILE INSTALLING THE SERVICE/WORKOVER UNITS OVER THE WELLHEAD.

ONE.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION THERE ARE 3 BASIC WAYS OF ACHIEVING THIS: THIS: BY INSTALLING PLUGS IN THE LANDING NIPPLES IN THE TUBING. BELOW THE PACKER. BY SETTING A BACK PRESSURE VALVE IN THE TUBING HANGER . BY CLOSING THE SUBSURFACE SAFETY VALVE. IF THERE IS ONE. PACKER. WHICH ARE GENERALLY AT THE BOTTOM OF THE WELL.

NEARBY EQUIPMENT. THEY CAN BE DISMANTLED. IF NEED BE. DEPRESSURISED. ISOLATED. . THE VARIOUS LINES CONNECTED TO THE WELLHEAD ON THE SURFACE SHOULD BE BLED OFF ANY PRESSURES AND/OR ISOLATED. 2 OUT OF THESE 3 BARRIERS SHOULD NORMALLY BE IN PLACE. THAT MIGHT BE SHOULD BE COMPLETELY DEPRESSURISED. DISMANTLED. DAMAGED.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION AT LEAST. PLACE.

THE EQUIPMENT IN THE SITE SHOULD BE SET UP IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE SAFETY RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE REGULATORY BODY. PUMPS. THE X-MAS TREE IS NOT YET REMOVED TO BE REPLACED BY THE BOP¶S . CAN BE SET UP . HOWEVER. THE SERVICE/WORKOVER UNIT AND IT¶S ACCESSORY EQUIPMENT LIKE TANKS. BODY. INSTALLING THE SERVICING OR WORKOVER UNITS ONCE THE WELL AND IT¶S SURROUNDINGS HAVE BEEN SAFELY SECURED.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION 3. ETC. WORKSHOPS ETC.

KILLING THE WELL A WELL IS CONSIDERED TO BE PERFECTLY KILLED WHEN THE WORKOVER FLUID. TOTALLY FILLS UP THE WELL . IS APPROPRIATE SP. THE TUBINGTUBING-CASING ANNULUS AND THE SPACE BELOW THE PACKER IS FILLED WITH THE WORKOVER FLUID. THIS IS GENERALLY 3 TIMES THE TOTAL VOLUME OF THE WELL. AMOUNTS.GR.GR. THE WORKOVER FLUID IS PREPARED IN SUFFICIENT AMOUNTS. FLUID. . FOR THE RESERVOIR PRESSURE. THIS MEANS THAT THE INSIDE OF THE TUBING. WELL. WHOSE SP.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION 4.

NOT TO DAMAGE THE FORMATION. PLANNED. CONTROL BY IT¶S TO CARRY UP CUTTINGS IF DRILLING OR MILLING IS PLANNED. PRESSURE. NO FLUID LOSS IN THE FORMATION . FORMATION.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION THE PROPERTIES REQUIRED OF A WORKOVER FLUID IS AS FOLLOWS: FOLLOWS:     TO KEEP THE WELL UNDER HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE.

IS CARRIED OUT BEFORE THE RIG IS INSTALLED. STABILITY. SOMETIMES. KILLING OF WELL. THE NEXT SET OF OPERATIONS ARE PERFORMED AS BELOW: BELOW:  THE PLUGS THAT WERE SET IN THE TUBING PRIOR TO THE MOVEMENT OF THE SERVICE/WORKOVER RIGS. OUT.     .GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION WITH THE SERVICE/WORKOVER RIG IN PLACE AND THE WORKOVER FLUID READY. THE WELL IS THEN PUT UNDER OBSERVATION FOR STABILITY. THE WORKOVER FLUID IS PUMPED INTO THE WELL TO DISPLACE THE TUBING CONTENTS. THIS IS DONE EITHER BY CIRCULATION OR BY SQUEEZING. SQUEEZING. INSTALLED. CONTENTS. HAVE TO BE PULLED OUT.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION 5. KILLING BY CIRCULATION  EXCEPT IN SPECIAL CASES. USUALLY. CONSIDERATIONS ON KILLING THE WELL THE WORKOVER FLUID USED TO KILL THE WELL. SQUEEZING. CIRCULATION PREFERRED WAY TO KILL THE WELL. IS THE . DISPLACES THE WELL CONTENTS BY EITHER CIRCULATION OR BY SQUEEZING. WELL.

BY VIZ. SLEEVE. EITHER: EITHER:  THROUGH A CIRCULATING WIRELINE. VIZ. BUT ABOVE THE PACKER.   DEVICE OPERATED BY PULLING OUT A DUMMY FROM THE SIDE POCKET MANDREL OR BY OPENING THE PORTS OF A SLIDING SLEEVE.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION  THE FLUID IS CIRCULATED AS DEEP AS POSSIBLE IN THE TUBING.  OR THROUGH PUNCTURED HOLES IN THE TUBING OPENED UP BY ELECTRIC CABLE SHAPED CHARGES. . CHARGES.

THIS METHOD ENSURES THAT OIL AND GAS ARE THOROUGHLY DISPLACED. TUBING. DISPLACED. WELL. WELLS. WITH DIRECT CIRCULATION. FLUID IS PUMPED INTO THE ANNULUS WITH RETURNS THROUGH THE TUBING. THER IS NO CERTAINTY AS TO THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF THE WORKOVER FLUID THAT IS LEFT IN PLACE IN THE WELL AND AS SUCH. ACCORDINGLY. THERE IS NO CERTAINTY REGARDING KILLING OF THE WELL. THE LIGHTER OIL AND GAS TEND TO MIGRATE IN THE HEAVIER WORKOVER FLUID WHICH IS LOCATED ABOVE THEM. IN OTHER WORDS.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION  A REVERSE CIRCULATION IS USUALLY THE OPTION CHOSEN FOR GAS WELLS OR HIGH GOR OIL WELLS.    . THEM.

WITH DIRECT CIRCULATION THE OVERPRESSURE EXERTED ON THE PAY ZONE BY PRESSURE LOSSES IS MINIMIZED.   .GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION  HOWEVER. AFTER A VOLUME CORRESPONDING TO THE TUBING VOLUME HAS BEEN PUMPED IN THROUGH THE ANNULUS ± AND THEREFORE AFTER OIL AND GAS HAVE BEEN PUMPED OUT OF THE WELL ± DIRECT CIRCULATION IS USED TO HOMOGENIZE THE FLUIDS PRESENT IN THE TUBING AND ANNULUS. ANNULUS. SINCE ANNULAR PRESSURE LOSSES ARE GENERALLY LOWER THAN TUBING PRESSURE LOSSES. HENCE PROBLEMS OF LOST CIRCULATION AND PLUGGING ARE ALSO MINIMIZED. IN CONTRAST. MINIMIZED. MINIMIZED.

TAILPIPE. THE CHOKE IS APPLIED ON THE RETURNS TO KEEP THE BOTTOMHOLE PRESSURE HIGHER THAN THE RESERVOIR PRESSURE ALL THROUGHOUT THE OPERATION. FORMATION. HOWEVER. KICKS. KILLIN IS ONLY PARTIAL. PARTIAL.    . SOME OIL & GAS IS EXPECTED TO REMAIN TRAPPED IN THE ANNULUS UNDER THE PACKER AND THE TAILPIPE. NOT ALL THE FLUIDS LOCATED BELOW THE CIRCULATION DEVICES HAVE BEEN REPLACED BY THE KILLING FLUID ± SO. WHEN THE CIRCULATION IS FINISHED. THEREBY PREVENTING ANY KICKS. KILLING CAN BE IMPROVED. IF INJECTIVITY IS FAIR. AFTER CIRCULATION.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION  WHETHER CIRCULATION IS REVERSE OR TOTALLY DIRECT. BY SQUEEZING THE OIL AND GAS STILL REMAINING BELOW THE CIRCULATION DEVICE INTO THE FORMATION.

ESPECIALLY IF IT GETS COVERED WITH DEPOSITS. CIRCULATION. DEPOSITS. HOWEVER THERE IS UNCERTAINTY REGARDING WHETHER THE PLUG CAN BE PULLED OUT.   . TUBING.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION  SOMETIMES. THE WORKOVER FLUID IS CIRCULATED AFTER SETTING A PLUG IN THE LOWER END OF THE TUBING. AS A RESULT THERE IS NO RISK OF LOST CIRCULATION INTO THE FORMATION DURING CIRCULATION.

THE TUBING SHOE IS VERY LARGE ETC. WHEN THERE IS A HOLE IN THE TUBING NEAR THE SURFACE.  .GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION KILLING BY SQUEEZING THE SQUEEZE TECHNIQUE IS USED:  WHEN THE CIRCULATION METHOD CANNOT BE USED . ETC. VOLUME BELOW FISH. WIRELINING IS IMPOSSIBLE BECAUSE OF A COLLAPSED TUBING OR BECAUSE OF A FISH. WELLS. SURFACE.FOR EXAMPLE. WHEN INJECTIVITY IS VERY GOOD ± THIS IS TRUE ESPECIALLY FOR GAS WELLS.

NECESSARY TO MODIFY THE SQUEEZE CONDITIONS. MIGRATION OF OIL AND GAS IN THE KILLING FLUID ± GREATLY COMPOUNDED BY THE FACT THAT THE FLOW RATES WITH A SQUEEZE JOB IS OFTEN MUCH LOWER THAN WITH CIRCULATION. PROVIDED THE TOTAL INJECTED VOLUME IS INCREASED. . CIRCULATION. SQUEEZE AT A LOWER FLOW RATE. IT IS    FOR EXAMPLE. IF THE INJECTIVITY TEST IS UNSATISFACTORY. SUFFICIENT. THIS IS BECAUSE OF THE SAME DRAWBACK AS WITH DIRECT CIRCULATION ± THAT IS. INCREASED.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION  SQUEEZING IS DONE ONLY AFTER AN INJECTIVITY TEST ± JUST TO BE SURE THAT INJECTIVITY IS SUFFICIENT. CONDITIONS.

  . FORMATION. PERFORM A SERIES OF SQUEEZES AND BLEED OFFS AT CONSTANT BOTTOMHOLE PRESSURE TO ALLOW THE GAS TO MIGRATE UP TO THE SURFACE WITHOUT FRACTURING THE FORMATION. IT MAY BE NECESSARY TO ACCEPT TO SQUEEZE AT A FRACTURING RATE OR REVISE THE PROGRAMME THOROUGHLY AND USE A TECHNIQUE SUCH AS COIL TUBING OR SNUBBING JUST TO KILL THE WELL OR TO CARRY OUT THE COMPLETE OPERATION. OPERATION. SOMETIMES.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION  FOR A GAS WELL.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION  THS IMPLIES THAT THE INJECTIVITY TEST HAS TO BE PERFORMED LONG BEFORE THE WORKOVER IS DONE. TEST. DONE. KILLING IS NOT COMPLETE WHEN THE SQUEEZE OPERATION IS OVER. JUST AS FOR CIRCULATION. AS OIL AND GAS STILL REMAINS TRAPPED IN THE ANNULUS UNDER THE PACKER AND ALL OF THE ANNULAR FLUID. THE CHOICE OF MEANS TO BE UTILIZED AND THE WORKOVER PROGRAMME DESIGN BOTH DEPEND ON THE INJECTIVITY TEST.   . FLUID.

THERE IS NO ABSOLUTE GUARANTEE THAT THE WELL IS STABLE. . STABLE. THE WAY THE OPERATION ACTUALLY PROCEEDED AND ON OUTSIDE SIGNS OF PHENOMENA SUCH AS EXPANSION.  THERMAL  IT CAN VARY FROM ONE TO SEVERAL HOURS. STABLE. EXPANSION. HOURS. THE WELL MUST BE OBSERVED TO CHECK THAT : THERE IS NO PRESSURE IN THE WELLHEAD. THE TIME DEPENDS ON    THE METHOD USED TO KILL THE WELL. THE LEVELS ARE STABLE. THERE IS NO GAS CUTTING ON THE SURFACE. SURFACE.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION OBSERVING THE WELL     AFTER KILLING BY CIRCULATION OR SQUEEZING.  WHATEVER THE OBSERVATION TIME. WELLHEAD.

MODIFYING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CONTROL FLUID OR USE OF SPACE FLUIDS. KILLING MUST BE STARTED ALL OVER AGAIN EITHER WITH THE SAME METHOD OR WITH ANOTHER METHOD. STABILITY. METHOD. IS QUITE EFFECTIVE. SOMETIMES. EFFECTIVE.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION  IF THE WELL SHOULD PROVE UNSTABLE. THE WELL WILL BE UNDER OBSERVATION ONCE AGAIN FOR STABILITY.   .

FLUID.  .GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION FINAL KILLING PHASE  WHATEVER THE METHOD USED. ALLOW. THIS VOLUME MUST BE CIRCULATED AS SOON AS THE COMPLETION EQUIPMENT REMOVAL OPERATIONS ALLOW. THERE IS ALWAYS A CERTAIN VOLUME LEFT IN THE WELL WHERE IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO PLACE THE WORKOVER FLUID.

WHICH WILL BE THEN TESTED. APPROPRIATE HANDLING AND HOISTING EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE AND THE WELLHEAD CHECKED ETC. POSSIBLE. THIS OPERATION SHOULD BE COMPLETED AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE. TESTED.    . IT IS IMPERATIVE THEREFORE THAT ALL REQUIRED PERSONNEL SHOULD BE MOBILIZED. ETC. REQUIRED EQUIPMENT SHOULD BE IN STATE OF READINESS.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION REPLACING X-MAS TREE WITH BOP  SINCE THE WORKOVER FLUID IS KEEPING THE WELL STABLE. ONLY ONE MECHANICAL SAFETY BARRIER IS DEEMED NECESSARY ± EITHER THE DOWNHOLE PLUG AND/OR THE SCSSV AND/OR THE BPV THE X-MAS TREE CAN THEN BE DISMANTLED AT THE TUBING HEAD SPOOL AND REPLACED BY THE BOP.

IF THERE IS A KICK WHILE TRIPPING. ITSELF. IT IS NECESSARY TO BE ABLE TO CLOSE QUICKLY NOT ONLY THE ANNULUS WITH THE BOP TUBING RAMS.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION REMOVING COMPLETION EQUIPMENT  THE INSTALLED BPV OR PLUG HAS TO BE RETRIEVED BEFORE THE PULLING OUT OF THE DOWNHOLE EQUIPMENT CAN COMMENCE. COMMENCE. BUT ALSO THE TUBING ITSELF. THE CORRESPONDING SAFETY DEVICE (KELLY COCK VALVE/ TUBING SAFETY VALVE) MUST BE ON THE WORKOVER RIG FLOOR READY FOR USE (THREADS TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH TUBING THREADS)   .

PARTICULARLY IMPORTANT IS THE TYPE OF PACKER ± RETRIEVABLE OR PERMANENT ± TYPE OF CONNECTION BETWEEN THE TUBING AND THE PACKER (SEAL ALONE OR SEAL PLUS ANCHOR). LATCH ONTO THE TUBING AND UNSEAT THE PACKER. THEN. ANCHOR). IT IS OFTEN WISE TO CUT OFF THE TUBING A FEW METRES ABOVE THE PACKER BY CHEMICAL CUTTERS. RUN IN DRILL PIPE WITH OVERSHOT. CONDITION.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION  THE PROCEDURE FOR REMOVING THE DOWNHOLE EQUIPMENT DEPENDS ON THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT AND IT¶S CONDITION. AND ESPECIALLY IF THE WORKOVER IS BEING DONE SEVERAL YEARS AFTER IT¶S SETTING.    . CUTTERS. WITH A RETRIEVABLE PACKER. PACKER.

THE CHECKED. OUT. WHENEVER TRIPPING OUT. FLUID. WHATEVER THE KILLING METHOD. PACKER. THERE IS ALWAYS A VOLUME OF OIL AND/OR GAS TRAPPED UNDER THE PACKER. CARE MUST BE TAKEN TO AVOID SWABBING ± PARTICULARLY WHEN THE PACKER IS BEING PULLED OUT. LASTLY. IT IS IMPORTANT TO CIRCULATE IT OUT AS SOON AS POSSIBLE ± AFTER UNSEATING THE RETRIEVABLE PACKER OR AFTER STABBING OUT OF A PERMANENT PACKER.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION  FURTHERMORE. PACKER. WELL¶S STABILITY MUST FREQUENTLY BE     . THE WELL MUST ALWAYS BE KEPT FULL WITH WORKOVER FLUID. CHECKED. SECONDLY.

HANGER. REPLACE BPV WITH TWCV. TWCV. CABLE.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION WORKOVER PLAN WELLS COMPLETED WITH RETRIEVABLE HYDRAULIC PACKER  OPEN SLIDING SLEEVE OR PULL OUT DUMMY FROM THE SIDE POCKET MANDREL OR MAKE A HOLE ABOVE PACKER WITH ELECTRIC CABLE.       LOCK OPEN SUB SURFACE SAFETY VALVES KILL THE WELL BY CIRCULATING WORKOVER FLUID INSTALL BPV IN THE TUBING HANGER. . BOP. REMOVE X-MAS TREE INSTALL BOP.

BOLTS. TWCV. PULL/ROTATION. CYCLE).GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION  TEST THE BOP BETWEEN THE TWCV AND THE BLIND RAM. STRING. RAM. REMOVE THE TWCV. RAM. CLOSE THE PIPE RAM AGAINST THE TUBING AND TEST THE PIPE RAM. CIRCULATE WORKOVER FLUID (AT LEAST ONE CYCLE). UNLOCK TUBING HANGER BY UNSCREWING ANCHOR BOLTS.      . CONNECT A TUBING IN THE TUBING HANGER. RELEASE PACKER BY STRAIGHT PULL/ROTATION. CONNECT TUBING HANGER WITH TUBING STRING.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION  RECIPROCATE THE STRING TO BREAK THE SEAL TO AVOID SWABBING ACTION. PULL OUT THE COMPLETION STRING. IF IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO RELEASE THE PACKER. RUN IN OVERSHOT WITH BUMPER SUB ON TUBING/DRILL PIPE. PULL OUT COMPLETION STRING. CUT THE TUBING ABOVE THE PACKER.    . OUT. ACTION. STRING. STRING. CATCH THE FISH AND PULL OUT.

HANGER. REPLACE BPV WITH TWCV. BOP.       . TWCV. INSTALL BOP. TREE. REMOVE X-MAS TREE.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION WELLS COMPLETED WITH RETAINER PRODUCTION PACKER  OPEN SLIDING SLEEVE OR PULL OUT DUMMY FROM THE SIDE POCKET MANDREL OR MAKE A HOLE ABOVE PACKER WITH THE ELECTRIC CABLE LOCK OPEN SUBSURFACE SAFETY VALVE KILL WELL BY CIRCULATING WORKOVER FLUID INSTALL BPV IN THE TUBING HANGER.

UNLOCK TUBING HANGER BY UNSCREWING ANCHOR BOLTS.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION  TEST THE BOP BETWEEN THE TWCV AND THE BLIND RAM. PACKER. CLOSE THE PIPE RAM AGAINST THE TUBING AND TEST THE PIPE RAM REMOVE THE TWCV CONNECT TUBING HANGER WITH TUBING STRING INSTALL BPV IN THE TUBING HANGER. BOLTS. DISCONNECT TUBING SEAL FROM PACKER. CIRCULATE WORKOVER FLUID (AT LEAST ONE CYCLE)       . RAM. CONNECT A TUBING IN THE TUBING HANGER. HANGER.

.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS PULL OUT PRODUCTION STRING RUN IN MILLING TOOL WITH CATCHER SUB. MILL THE PACKER AND PULL OUT THE PACKER OR RUN IN MILLING TOOL WITHOUT CATCHER SUB. MILL THE PACKER AND PUSH DOWN UP TO THE BOTTOM.

STREAM. THE BOTTOMHOLE IS USUALLY CHECKED BEFOREHAND BY RUNNING IN A DRILL STRING EQUIPPED WITH A DRILL BIT AND SCRAPER MOVING OUT THE SERVICING OR WORKOVER UNIT IN THE SAME WAY AS FOR INITIAL COMPLETION. COMPLETED.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS DOWNHOLE OPERATION. RECOMPLETION. THE RIG CAN BE MOVED OUT BEFORE OR AFTER THE WELL IS BROUGHT BACK ON STREAM. REPLACING BOP BY THE X-MAS TREE AND START UP THE TECHNIQUES ARE THE SAME AS THOSE USED WHEN THE WELL WAS ORIGINALLY COMPLETED. THE SAME SAFETY RULES AND REGULATIONS ARE COMPLIED WITH (ESPECIALLY SETTING PLUGS) . HOWEVER.

LOSSES AND FORMATION DAMAGE THE FIRST SOLUTION IS TO USE SPECIAL LIGHT FLUIDS. OIL BASE FLUID) EXERT A CONSIDERABLE OVERPRESSURE. FROM 0. ± WELL KICK OFF AFTER OPERATIONS.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS DEPLETED RESERVOIRS DEPLETED RESERVOIRS POSE PARTICULAR PROBLEMS AS SOON AS THEIR RESERVOIR PRESSURE IS SUCH THAT CONVENTIONAL WORKOVER FLUIDS (BRINE.GR. THEN THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS ARE POSED: ± LOSES MUD/ OR FORMATION DAMAGE.1 TO 0.8 RANGE (BETWEEN FOAM TO OIL BASE FLUIDS) .2 TO 0. BUT BESIDES FOAM (SP.GR. FLUID READILY AVAILABLE IN THE MARKET IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF THE 0.2) THERE IS YET NO (SP.

SURFACE. HOWEVER. WITH THE LEVEL SOMEWHERE IN THE LEVEL. THESE ARE USUALLY PRODUCTS THAT ARE UNSTABLE WITH TEMPERATURE OR HIGHLY SOLUBLE IN ACID. THE THIRD SOLUTION CONSISTS IN ACCEPTING TO WORK WITH A ³LOST´ LEVEL. WELL AND NOT ON THE SURFACE. .GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS LOSSES AND FORMATION DAMAGE THE SECOND SOLUTION IS TO PROTECT THE FORMATION WITH ³TEMPORARY´ BLOCKING AGENTS. THE PROBLEM WITH THEM IS THAT THEY ARE NEVER 100% 100% TEMPORARY. TEMPORARY. THAT IS. THIS CAUSES SAFETY PROBLEMS AS IT IS HARD TO CHECK WELL STABILITY CONSTANTLY AND IS INCOMPATIBLE WITH OPERATIONS THAT REQUIRE CIRCULATION. AGENTS. CIRCULATION. ACID.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS THE FOURTH SOLUTION. SUCH AS COIL TUBING OR SNUBBING IF THEY ARE APPROPRIATE FOR THE JOB (CLEANING THE BOTTOM OF THE WELL ETC. WHEN ONLY THE PRODUCTION STRING ABOVE THE PACKER IS INVOLVED. WELL. CONSISTS IN PULLING OUT THE TUBING STRING ONLY LEAVING THE PACKER WITH A PLUG IN THE TAILPIPE INSIDE THE WELL. THE FIFTH SOLUTION MIGHT BE TO USE A UNIT ALLOWING WORK ON A PRESSURISED WELL.) ETC. .

‡ . ONE.GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS START UP PROBLEMS ‡ THE TECHNIQUES DESCRIBED IN INITIAL COMPLETION ARE APPLICABLE AT THIS STAGE EXCEPT THAT THERE IS USUALLY NO AVAILABLE KICKOFF FLUID THAT IS LIGHT ENOUGH. ‡ IN SOME CASES THE PROBLEM DOES NOT CROP UP BECAUSE THE PURPOSE OF THE OPERATION WAS TO INSTALL AN ARTIFICIAL LIFT SYSTEM OR READAPT THE OLD ONE. LIFT. IN OTHER CASES. IT IS VERY COMMON TO USE A COILED TUBING FOR NITROGEN START UP OR TEMPORARY GAS LIFT. ENOUGH.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS .

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS .

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS .

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS .

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS .

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS .

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS .

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