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Hvac Energy Saving

Hvac Energy Saving

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Sections

  • 8.1.1.1Fans
  • 8.1.1.2Coils
  • 8.1.1.3Air Washers
  • 8.1.1.4Air Cleaners
  • 8.1.1.5Humidifiers
  • 8.1.1.6Controls
  • 8.1.1.7Distribution System
  • 8.1.2Psychrometry
  • 8.1.3Computation
  • 8.1.4.1Operate Systems Only When Needed
  • 8.1.4.2Eliminate Overcooling and Overheating
  • 8.1.4.3Eliminate Reheat
  • 8.1.4.4Economizer Cycle
  • 8.1.4.5Minimize Amounts of Makeup and Exhaust Air
  • 8.1.4.6Minimize the Amount of Air Delivered to a Conditioned Space
  • 8.1.4.7Recover Energy
  • 8.1.4.8Maintain Equipment
  • 8.1.5Terminology
  • 8.2.1.1Reducing Capacity by Fan/Pump Slowdown
  • 8.2.1.2Maximize HVAC Savings
  • 8.2.2.1Outline
  • 8.2.2.2ASHRAE Standard 90-1980
  • 8.2.2.3From the Comfort Chart
  • 8.2.2.4Comments and Observations
  • 8.2.2.5Factors Affecting Comfort
  • 8.2.2.6Standard Conditions for Comfort
  • 8.2.3General Types of Building Heating and Cooling
  • 8.3.1Introduction
  • 8.3.2.1Room Air
  • 8.3.2.2High-Temperature Exhaust
  • 8.3.2.3Air -Water Mixture
  • 8.3.3.1Shut off Fans
  • 8.3.3.2Reduce Volume
  • 8.3.3.3Reduce Temperature
  • 8.3.3.4Recover Heat
  • 8.3.4.1Rotary Heat Exchanger
  • 8.3.4.2Sealed Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger
  • 8.3.4.3Plate Heat Exchanger
  • 8.3.4.4Coil-Run-Around System
  • 8.3.4.5Hot Oil Recovery System

HVAC: AIR CONDITIONING

8

HVAC

8.1 AIR CONDITIONING Air conditioning controls the working environment in order to maintain temperature and humidity levels within limits defined by the activity carried out at the location. The environment can be maintained for people, process or storage of goods (food is just one example). An air conditioning system has to handle a large variety of energy inputs and outputs in and out of the building where it is used. The efficiency of the system is essential to maintain proper energy balance. If that is not the case, the cost of operating an air conditioning system will escalate. The system will operate properly if well maintained and operated (assumption was that it was properly designed in the first place, however, should sizing be a problem, even a relatively costly redesign might prove financially beneficial in a long run). Air conditioning is the process of treating air to control its temperature, humidity, cleanliness, and distribution to meet the requirements of the conditioned space. If the primary function of the system is to satisfy the comfort requirements of the occupants of the conditioned space, the process is referred to as comfort air conditioning. If the primary function is other than comfort, it is identified as industrial air conditioning. The term ventilation is applied to processes that supply air to or remove air from a space by natural or mechanical means. Such air may or may not be conditioned.

8.1.1

Equipment

Air conditioning systems utilize various types of equipment, arranged in a specific order, so that space conditions can be maintained. Basic components consist of: • • • • • • A fan to move air. Coils to heat and/or cool the air. Filters to clean the air. Humidifiers to add moisture to the air. Controls to maintain space conditions automatically. A distribution system to channel the air to desired locations, including dampers to control the volume of air circulated, as shown in see Figure 8.1.

Within each basic component there are different types and styles, each with their own operating characteristics and efficiency, method and materials of construction, and cost, all of which greatly affect the initial design and resulting operating economics of the system. While this manual is directed principally to conservation with existing installations, ideally energy conservation should start during the initial design and equipment-selection stages of the system.

Modern Industrial Assessments

8-1

HVAC: AIR CONDITIONING

8.1.1.1

Fans

The centrifugal fan with a backward-curved impeller is the predominant fan used in “builtup” type air conditioning units, while the forward-curved impeller centrifugal fan is used in “package” type air handling units.

8.1.1.2

Coils

Coils are used in air conditioning systems either to heat or cool the air. The typical coil consists of various rows deep of finned tubing. The number of fins per inch varies from 3 to 14. The greater the number of fins per inch and row’s depth that a coil contains, the greater its heat transfer rate will be. An increase in heat transfer surface results in an increase in heat transfer efficiency and also in increased airflow resistance which will, in turn, require increased fan horsepower. Heating coils will use either steam or hot water as a heating medium. The primary purpose of the coil depends upon its location in the air handling system. A preheater is the name given to a coil located in the makeup outdoor air duct. The preheater’s purpose is to raise the temperature of makeup air to above freezing. The heating coil doing the final heating of the air before it enters the conditioned space is referred to as a reheater. Its purpose is to maintain satisfactory space temperature by adding heat to the supply air when it is required. The general solution of cooling coils is similar to that of the heating coils described above except that the purpose of cooling coils is to cool the air. The cooling medium used is either chilled water, brine, or refrigerant in a direct expansion-type coil. Direct expansion-type coils are used on small systems when a chilled-water system is not economical. Chilled water is used on all other systems when the air temperature required is above 50˚F. When the air temperature required is less than 50˚F, a brine solution is used as the cooling medium because of its exposure to subfreezing temperatures in the refrigeration machine.

8.1.1.3

Air Washers

A spray-type air washer consists essentially of a chamber or casing containing a spray nozzle system, a tank for collecting the spray water as it falls, and an eliminator section at the discharge end for removal of entrained drops of water from the air. An air washer can be used either to humidify or dehumidify the treated air depending upon the temperature of the spray water. Air washers will also do some cleaning of the air. The efficiency of an air washer is increased by increasing the volume of spray water circulated. When spray water is used for humidification purposes, it is recirculated with only sufficient makeup to satisfy evaporation losses. When spray water is used for cooling, it is a mixture of recirculated water and chilled water. The amount of chilled water is controlled to provide desired results. The use of air washers in the comfort air conditioning field has been gradually replaced by the use of cooling coils. Some industrial air conditioning systems, particularly in the textile indus-

8-2

Modern Industrial Assessments

HVAC: AIR CONDITIONING

try, still use air washers.

Preheat Coil Damper

Cooling Coil Filter 55 F

Reheat Coil Fan Humidifier

50 F

Distribution System Controls (Typical)

T
Return Air 75 F

H
50%

Outlet (Typical)

Conditioned Space

= Conditioned Space = System = Instrument Piping

T H

= Temperature = Humidity

Figure 8.1: Air Conditioning Equipment

8.1.1.4

Air Cleaners

Air cleaners (filters) are used to reduce the dirt content of the air supplied to the conditioned space and to keep equipment clean. The type of air cleaning equipment required depends upon the requirements of the conditioned space, the amount of dirt to be removed from the airstream, and the size of the dirt particles to be removed. The smaller the particles size to be removed, the harder

Modern Industrial Assessments

8-3

HVAC: AIR CONDITIONING

and more expensive the air cleaning job. The three operating characteristics that distinguish the various types of air cleaners are efficiency, airflow resistance, and life or dust-holding capacity. Efficiency measures the ability of the air cleaner to remove particulate matter from an airstream. The interpolation of air cleaner ratings for efficiency and holding capacity is complicated by the fact that there are three types of tests, along with certain variations, employed for testing filters. The operating conditions that exist are so varied that there is no individual test that will adequately describe all filters. Air cleaners used in the comfort air conditioning field fall into three broad categories: fibrous media, renewable media, and electronic. Various combinations of these types can be used. Air cleaners for industrial applications fall into five basic types: gravity and momentum collectors, centrifugal collectors, fabric collectors, electrostatic precipitators, and wet collectors. The installation cost and the operating cost of an air cleaning system vary over a wide range. Therefore, an economical installation is one in which the air cleaning unit(s) provides only the degree of cleaning required to satisfy the conditioned space should reflect the actual space requirements and not those of an arbitrarily excessively clean environment. The pressure drop to which the air cleaning devices subject the air system varies from a low of 0.1 inch of water gauge (inches W.G.) to 10.0 inches W.G. in industrial air conditioning systems. In comfort air conditioning, generally, the higher the air cleaner efficiency, the higher its pressure drop will be. Fan horsepower is required to overcome pressure drop.

8.1.1.5

Humidifiers

Humidifiers are devices that add moisture to the airstream, thereby raising the relative humidity of the conditioned space. In most comfort air conditioning systems and in many industrial air conditioning systems, humidifying devices are commonly sparging steam or atomizing water directly into the airstream. Since the advent of energy conservation, the standards for comfort air conditioning systems have been reviewed and revised. One of the revisions eliminates the control of humidity as a comfort air conditioning system standard, since controlling humidity requires humidity requires additional energy year-round. In industrial air conditioning systems which employ humidity control, it is recommended that this need be reviewed and be reduced to the lowest degree the process will permit.

8.1.1.6

Controls

The control system of an air conditioning system contains various control loops which automatically control selected functions of the air conditioning system operation. The control system can be very simple or very complex depending upon the size and complexity of the air conditioning system, the extent of operation, and the degree of sophistication desired.

8-4

Modern Industrial Assessments

2 Psychrometry Psychrometry deals with the determination of the thermodynamic properties of moist air and the utilization of these properties in the analysis of conditions and processes involving moist air. airflow. heat) (∆t) Btu/hr = (lbs/hr) (sp.000 feet. controls must be maintained. dew point temperature (DP).92 inches Hg). Low-pressure (low-velocity) systems are designed with duct velocities of 1.3 Computation The following formulae and factors are used in the air conditioning field: Btu = (lbs) (sp.500 feet. These properties can be found by using a typical psychrometric chart. is an invaluable aid in illustrating and solving air conditioning problems.000 fpm for industrial air conditioning systems. Since the properties of moist air are affected by barometric pressure. registers. Air conditioning deals with changing the properties of air to provide desired results in the conditioned space.000 cfm) up to 6. humidity. and specific volume (V) in cubic feet per pound. duct pressure. These systems are operated either pneumatically or electronically. Higher duct velocities result in higher duct system resistance (pressure drop) which results in increased fan horsepower.500 feet.500 fpm on small systems (1.300 fpm or less for comfort air conditioning systems and up to 2. 5. Their calibrations should be routinely checked along with the proper operation of valves and dampers. The psychrometric chart. For the most economical operation of the air conditioning system. High-pressure (high-velocity) systems employ duct velocities from 2.1. 7. wet bulb (WB) temperature.1. Also. specific enthalpy (h) in Btu per pound. specific humidity (W) in grains per pound. corrections must be made when installation is done at other than sea level (29. relative humidity (RH) in percent. or a combination of both can be used.000 to 3. The design of the distribution system greatly affects the amount of pressure drop (resistance) it adds to the total system. sound alarms.1. 8.000 cfm). The properties of moist air shown on a psychrometric chart are dry bulb (DB) temperature. 8.1. and provide data to remote locations. charts are available for different temperature ranges.000 fpm on large systems (40. 8. Psychrometric charts are available for elevations at sea level. 2. grilles) for distribution of air within the conditioned space. heat) (∆t) Btu/hr = (lbs/hr) (hg .000 to 60.000 feet. and 10. A description of these terms is listed under the Terminology section.7 Distribution System The distribution system is a network of ducts which transports the air between the conditioning equipment and the conditioned space(s). The system consists of outlet and inlet terminals (diffusers. and dampers (automatic and manual) for control of air volume.HVAC: AIR CONDITIONING Control systems could control temperatures.hf)* Modern Industrial Assessments 8-5 . a graphical representation of the thermodynamic properties of moist air.

8./7. Btu/hrstd. 2. Eliminate reheat.24) (∆t) = (cfm) (1.054) (grains diff. heat) (∆t) = (cfm) (4. Operate systems only when needed. 3. Variation in value for different conditions will be small. Eliminate overcooling and overheating.350)(fan efficiency)] hpwater = [(gpm)(∆P)] / [(3. Minimize mechanical cooling and heating.) = (gpm) (lbs/gal) (min/hr) = (gpm) (8. 4. 3. air Lbs/hrwater = (lbs/hr) (hg -hf) (grains of moisture diff.HVAC: AIR CONDITIONING Lbs/hrstd. air = (cfm) (lbs/cf) (60 min/hr) = (cfm) (0.08) (∆t) cfm = SH / [(1.960)(pump efficiency)] where ∆t = temperature difference ∆P = pressure difference * (hg -hf) = 1.1.supplied air temperature)] LH. Btu/hrstd.33) (60) = (gpm) (500) hpair = [(cfm)(∆P)] / [(6. 5.5) (1.054 Btu/lb represents the heat of vaporization at 70°F.5) = (lbs/hr) (sp.4 Energy Conservation The potential for energy conservation in the air conditioning field can vary greatly depending upon the following: 1. 2.000) = (cfm) (0.000 grains/lb) = (cfm) (4. Design of systems Method of operation Operating standards Maintenance of control systems Monitoring of system Competence of operators The techniques to optimize the energy requirements of air conditioning systems are discussed under the following headings: 1.075) (60) = (cfm) (4. air SH./7.5) (0.68) (grains diff. 8-6 Modern Industrial Assessments . 4. 6.08)(room temperature .

3.4.HVAC: AIR CONDITIONING 5. Minimize amounts of makeup and exhaust air.1 Operate Systems Only When Needed Air conditioning systems. It is not uncommon for systems to operate continuously. area : 5.. Examples of various energy-saving methods used in the following discussion are based on a facility having the following characteristics: 1.8 9. inclusive) < 67.052 hrs/yr 38.000 cfm 3.220 (65˚F).0˚F. ft.000 cfm @ 3. such as that for an office building is a good example of excessive operation of equipment.0˚F = Avg.000 cfm 4. Equiv. ft. 7. Reducing operating hours will reduce electrical.5˚F WB. should be operated only when areas are occupied (for comfort air conditioning systems) and when processes are operating (for noncomfort air conditioning system). : summer = 95˚F DB. 62. hrs/season refrig.m.543 hrs/yr 33. < 40˚F. to 5 p.000 cu. 3. and heating requirements. Continuous operation during normal working hours of 8 a. pumps. 6.100 (50˚F) 14. : winter design = 95˚F 10. winter temp. 2. 6. volume : 55. temp. 78˚F WB. Modern Industrial Assessments 8-7 . Design outdoor degree days : 5.162 hrs/yr 15. 50% RH 5. : 41. Minimize the amount of air delivered to a conditioned space. Design outdoor temp.1.500 sq. Space. Supply fan capacity : 10. Recover energy. Outdoor air : 30% = 3. Maintain equipment. 55.000 Btu/hr/(sensible heat) : winter = 216. 7. to Apr. : summer design = 65˚F. 3.) 11. and cooling tower systems.m. cooling. Room loads : summer = 108.4˚F (Oct.0 in S. cfm/sq.8 bhp 2. at full load : 750 hrs 8. Design on cooling coil load : 364. including refrigeration machines. supply air temp. Room temperature : 75˚F DB. five day per week.0˚F = Avg. 2. 8. Design preheater load : 162. winter 0˚F 13. Space..000 Btu/hr/(sensible heat) 6. Space. Return air : 70% = 7.P.0˚F DP. 8.000 Btu/hr = 169 lbs/hr (based on 50˚F disc. : 1. ft.500 Btu/hr = 30 tons 12.100 (55˚F). Space. Design outdoor avg. < 50˚F.

274 Total = 8.50) / 168}($0.075 lbs/cu. sys.000)] / [(75 .720 537 410 607 $3. $/MM-Btu) x{(hrs/week off) / (hrs/week current on)}(allowance for heat up) = {[(24)(5.25){(168 .08)* (design disc. temp. $/hp-hr) (allowance for cool down) = (30) (750) (1.outside T]}(stm. < disc.4. cost. .24 / 106}{(168 . heat x 60 min/hr Savings from Reduced Cooling Operation = (design cooling oil load.) x (hrs/yr temp.041) (0. temp.8) ($360) [(168 . load.5) = $537/yr Savings from Reduced Preheater Operation of Outdoor Air = (cfm) (1. temp.1.720/yr Savings from Reduced Space Heating Operating = {[(24)(deg day)(design htg.08) (50 . tons) (equiv. load. temp.000) (1.38) (3. cost.543) {$4.50) / 168}(0.HVAC: AIR CONDITIONING § Example One Find the savings by reducing operating hours from 168 hours per week to 50 hours per week Savings from Reduced Fan Operation = (Supply fan bhp) (Cost.220)(216. $/MM-Btu) x {(hrs/week off) / (hrs/week current operation)} = (3.75) = $607/yr Summary of Total Annual Savings Fans Space heating Preheater Space cooling = = = = $1. x 0.2 Eliminate Overcooling and Overheating Eliminating overcooling and overheating normally requires revising operating standards 8-8 Modern Industrial Assessments .) x (stm. hp/ton) {(hrs/week off) / (hrs/week current operation)} x (cost.0)]}{$4.08 = 0.24 / 106}{(168 . hrs/season @ full load) x (refrig.50) / 168} = $410/yr * Factor of 1. Btu/hr)] / [room T . < disc. ft. $/hp-yr) [(hrs/wk shut off) / (hrs/wk current operation)] = (6.50) / (168)] = $1.24 sp.avg.

000)(1.summer average temp. mos. of course. Room heating load at 75˚F = 216.1 shows a single zone system with a simple control system which results in overcooling and overheating. the more energy efficient standard allow the temperature to fluctuate within a dead-band range.000]}(1. Instead of maintaining a constant temperature.41.2 shows this system with a modified control system which would eliminate simultaneous cooling and heating.220)(216.040 $6. Heating should be used only to keep the temperature of the conditioned space from going typically below 68˚F to 70˚F and cooling should be used only to keep the temperature from exceeding 78˚F to 80˚F.) / (75˚F . Find the savings during the heating season if the coils were controlled in sequence as shown in Figure 8.winter average temp.41.210 Modern Industrial Assessments 8-9 . During unoccupied periods. Process requirements may.24 / 106} = $1.0)]}{$4. cost.outside T]}(stm.08)(temp. season. Savings from Eliminating Excessive Cooling = {[(cfm)(1. Assume that the mixed air temperature entering the cooling coil is 68˚F.08)(68 . These conditions apply only during normal hours of occupancy. diff.2. load.040/yr Total Annual Savings Cooling Reheating Total = = = $3070.1.25) ($360)(7/12) = $3.000)] / [(75 .)] = ($1.800 Btu/hr Annual Cost = {[(24)(deg day)(design htg. 3. $/MM-Btu) Annual Cost75˚F = {[(24)(5. Room heating load at 68˚F = (216. and the heating season is seven months long.000 Btu/hr 2.4) / (75 .530 Annual Cost68˚F = (annual cost at 75˚F) [(68˚F . Figure 8. Btu/hr)] / [room T . Given: 1.530)[(68 . § Example Two The cooling coil and reheat coil are controlled as shown in Figure 8./12) = {[(10.4)] = $1. dictate maintaining special conditions. Figure 8.HVAC: AIR CONDITIONING and modifying air conditioning system controls.)] / [Btu/ton]}(hp/ton) ($/hp-yr) (htg.000)(68/75) = 195.110 § Example Three Find the savings resulting from changing the room thermostat setting from 75˚F to 68˚F during the heating season--only if it saves energy.50)] / [12. the standard should specify minimum conditions necessary to protect the building’s contents.

2: Modified Air Conditioning System Controls 8. 8-10 Modern Industrial Assessments .$785 = $205 Heating Coil Cooling Coil Filter Heating Coil Outdoor Air 9-13 psig 4-8 psig T Room Thermostat = Conditioned Space = System = Instrument Piping T = Temperature Figure 8.4.3 Eliminate Reheat When humidity control is required.1. the conventional method is to cool the air to the required dew point temperature to remove the excess moisture and then reheat the air to deliver it at the desired humidity and temperature (see Figure 8. The cost of reheat for humidity control is not considered justified in today’s energy situation for comfort air conditioning systems.2).HVAC: AIR CONDITIONING Note: Difference in cost is proportional to temperature difference maintained with ambient temperature Total Annual Savings = $990 .

When the outdoor DB temperature is less than set point temperature. When the outdoor enthalpy is greater than the enthalpy of the return air. when the outdoor DB temperature is above the set point temperature. In the enthalpy switchover method. the enthalpy control senses DB temperature and relative humidity in both the outdoor air and return airstreams and feeds these values into an enthalpy logic center. When the outdoor enthalpy is less than the enthalpy of the return air.4 (dry bulb method). The switchover point of an economizer cycle is usually done by one of two methods--sense outdoor dry bulb (DB) temperature or sense outdoor and return air enthalpy (heat content). Figure 8.4. Therefore. Likewise. no system should operate in a manner that requires it to heat and cool at the same time. and Figure 8.HVAC: AIR CONDITIONING The inclusion of a humidity standard is not recommended for normal air conditioning comfort standards and should be discontinued. An economizer cycle will eliminate or reduce mechanical cooling when the outdoor air is cooler than return air.1.3. When outdoor air is warmer than return air conditions. Figure 8. The mechanical refrigeration load on these systems can be reduced by modifying the system to utilize outdoor air--up to 100 percent of its supply airflow--when outdoor air is cooler than return air. The logic center compares the enthalpy (heat content) of each airstream and allows outdoor air to be used whenever its enthalpy is less than that of the return air. Many systems do not have an economizer cycle and fail to take advantage of its potential savings. The process of cooling and then reheating is inefficient. the dampers are in their normal position--outdoor damper closed to minimum air inlet flow position and return air damper fully open. DB temperature alone is not a true measure of the air’s heat Modern Industrial Assessments 8-11 . the dampers are maintained in their normal position--outdoor damper closed to minimum air inlet flow position and return air damper fully open in the same manner as the outdoor temperature switchover method.5 illustrate the two methods of economizer control. At any given instant the system should be either heating or cooling--never both. only the minimum amount of outdoor air required for fresh air supply is used. whether for humidity control or because of system design. In the outdoor DB temperature switchover method. The enthalpy of air is a function of both the DB temperature and its relative humidity (or wet bulb temperature). the dampers are also modulated by the temperature controller. The energy switchover method is more efficient because it is based on the true heat content of the air.4 Economizer Cycle Many air conditioning systems operate with a fixed minimum amount of outdoor air. This is referred to as an economizer cycle. 8. the dampers are modulated by the temperature controller.

On the other hand. since the enthalpy switchover method determines the use of outdoor air on its enthalpy.HVAC: AIR CONDITIONING content. the switchover point will vary and normally occur at a higher outdoor DB temperature than the DB temperature typically selected for the outdoor DB switchover method.4: Economizer Cycle (Outdoor Temp.3: Economizer Cycle (Outdoor Temp. Switchover. Under certain conditions. Control) Cooling Coil Minimum Outdoor Air Maximum Outdoor Air 8-11 psig 12-15 psig Return Air From Controller Figure 8. air with a higher DB temperature can have a lower enthalpy than air with a lower DB temperature because of differences in humidity. which ensures the enthalpy of the outdoor air is always less than the enthalpy of the return air. Chilled H2O Control) In the method shown in Figure 8. The outdoor DB temperature switchover method utilizes a single conservative DB temperature between 55˚F to 60˚F. the makeup air 8-12 Modern Industrial Assessments . Cooling Coil Minimum Outdoor Air Maximum Outdoor Air Return Air From Controller Figure 8. which is found in many installations.3. Consequently. Switchover. Mixing Temp. less mechanical cooling is required than with the outdoor DB temperature switchover method.

000]}(1.5.5˚F on a year-round air conditioning system (continuously operating). The preferred method.000)(1. Savings for different conditions are given in the examples shown below. Cooling Coil Minimum Outdoor Air Maximum Outdoor Air 8-11 psig 12-15 psig Return Air From Controller Enthalpy Logic Center Figure 8. Economizer savings when the outdoor temperature is < 40˚F.5˚F Modern Industrial Assessments 8-13 . which utilizes enthalpy control for switchover.162/8.08)(temp.25) ($360)(2.760) = $800/yr 2. Savings are determined in two steps.56.4 the control system that operates the chilled-water valve also operates the makeup air and return air dampers in sequence with the chilled-water valve. (Above 56.4 is better because it results in a lower load on the cooling coil. In Figure 8.5: Economizer Cycle (Enthalpy Switchover.5˚F.)] / [Btu/ton]}(hp/ton)(refrig.5)] / [12..* = {[(cfm)(1.760)} = {[(10. The temperature of the air entering the cooling coil when the outdoor air is less than 40˚F is 64. however. Chilled H2O Control) § Example Four Condition A--Outdoor Temperature Method Find the saving resulting from an economizer cycle with outdoor temperature switchover at 56. 1. The savings resulting from an economizer cycle vary with the type of economizer cycle control and the type of air conditioning system control.08)(64. Economizer savings when the outdoor temperature is between 40˚F and 56. $/hp-yr) x {(hrs temp < 40˚F) / (8. is shown in Figure 8.5 . The method illustrated in Figure 8.5˚F. diff. hp/ton)(cost. The preheater discharge temperature is controlled at 40˚F.HVAC: AIR CONDITIONING and return air dampers are controlled to maintain a fixed mixed air temperature.

between 40˚F and 56.400/yr Max 56. the average reduction in cooling load using outdoor air with the enthalpy 8-14 Modern Industrial Assessments . The reduction can vary over the range from no reduction when conditions approach 62.5˚F) / 2 = 67˚F Annual Savings for Condition A Outdoor temp.5) (28. For this example. temp. For practical purposes it can assumed an average reduction of approximately one half of the maximum.280 Temperature of air entering coil.) = (7.Enthalpy switchover Method Given the same conditions as the previous example.5)] / [12.hcooling air disc. = {[(10. Therefore. an average outdoor air relative humidity of 50 percent at 56. find the savings from an economizer cycle using the enthalpy method. air . which corresponds to 47. the wet bulb (WB) temperature or dry bulb temperature (DB) and relative humidity are needed.400 $2.5 69. air cfm) (4.5 64.5˚F WB to a maximum reduction when approaching 47.6˚F Total * = = = = = $ 800 = 1.HVAC: AIR CONDITIONING only minimum 30% outdoor air is used.5) (hret. Average = (69. which represents the midpoint between the maximum and the minimum temperature that would occur.0) = 289.15 tons The cooling load when all outdoor air is used is zero.2 . < 40˚F Outdoor temp.08)(67* .19.5 Min 40.0 52.5˚F + 64.5˚F 17.000 or 24.5˚F WB. To determine either enthalpy.25) ($360)[(3. Condition B-.) The average temperature of air entering the cooling coil is approximately 67˚F*. Condition A.052)/(8. The cooling load when all return air is used is: Btu/hr = (ret.5 Outdoor temp. 30% outdoor air 70% return air @ 75˚F Avg. The enthalpy value for the particular condition can be read from a psychrometric chart.5˚F is assumed.0 52. The actual additional reduction in cooling load over the outdoor temperature method will depend on the outdoor air conditions at the time.56.5˚F WB temperature.0˚F 12.760) = $1.000]}{(1.000)(1.000) (4.

the outdoor WB temperature was between 47.HVAC: AIR CONDITIONING switchover method is: Reduction cooling load = 289. the sum of items No.900) / (12.280 1. When this is the case. For this example.000 hours per year.520 8. Satisfaction of exhaust air 3. excessive damper leakage can result in an excessive amount of makeup air.900 Btu/hr Enthalpy remains constant for any given WB temperature irrespective of DB temperatures. Outdoor temperature method Additional savings with enthalpy method Total = = $2.240/yr Total annual savings for the enthalpy switchover method over no economizer cycle include the above savings plus the savings for the DB switchover outdoor temperature method in the previous example.25)($360)[(2.5 Minimize Amounts of Makeup and Exhaust Air The amount of makeup air a system must have depends upon the largest demand caused by the following: 1. hp/ton)(cost. $/hp-yr)[(hrs. The ventilation rate for people can vary between 5 to 20 cfm and sometimes higher depending on the use of the room.4. applicable) / (8.000)](1. Additional annual savings using enthalpy control: = [(Btu/hr saved) / (Btu/ton)](refrig. the amount of air being exhausted should be reviewed to determine if it is excessive.000) / (8.1.760) = [(144. Modern Industrial Assessments 8-15 . Accordingly.760)] = $1. Overcoming of infiltration In many systems.5˚F WB and 62. Also.5˚F WB for approximately 2.800 / 2 = 144.240 --------$3. Minimizing infiltration requires that all openings between conditioned and nonconditioned spaces be closed and that doors and windows fit tightly. 2 and 3 dictates the amount of makeup air required. Ventilation for people 2.. the number of hours for which a given enthalpy existed can be obtained from local weather records of WB temperatures.

it requires heat. the amount of supply air should provide an air change every 5 to 10 minutes.000 (1. The method used in reducing the system’s airflow has a great influence on the amount of horsepower saved.000 cfm of outdoor air to 50˚F. 3. Find the new airflow cfm2 = (cfm)[(air change2) / (air change1)] = 10. Heating and/or cooling load Delivery temperature Ventilation requirements (exhaust-people-infiltration) Air circulation (air changes) The design of both comfort and many industrial air condition systems requires that. and the air change is 5. Reducing airflow will reduce fan horsepower.38) (3.1 minute air change).1/1.6 minutes (1.avg. Fan discharge damper 2. The model that has been used is such a system. $/MM-Btu) = (1. cost./yr. 1. Fan speed change § Example Six Find the savings resulting from reduced reheat and fan horsepower on a year-round air conditioning system when the airflow is reduced from 1. for good air circulation. Find the cost to preheat 1.543) ($4. The design of many systems will be for a 6.1 cfm per square foot (9. 2.HVAC: AIR CONDITIONING § Example Five Excess makeup air in the winter will result in additional heating load.8 cfm per square foot (5.6 Minimize the Amount of Air Delivered to a Conditioned Space The amount of air delivered to a conditioned space is governed by one or more of the following: 1. Excess make-up air in the summer will result in additional cooling load. < 50) (hrs. 4.4.6 minute air change) to 1. Cost = (cfm) (1.26 x 10-6) = $194/yr.08) (50˚F .1.110 8-16 Modern Industrial Assessments . temp < 50˚F) x (stm.to 7-minute change is reached. 000) (1. temp. Total annual savings = $194 + $410 = $604 8.8) = 6. Three methods normally used are: 1.8 cfm per square foot. 10-foot ceiling height). Fan vortex damper (fan inlet) 3.08) (50 . The cost of cooling is estimated to be $410/yr.

[(given room sensible load.000) (1. $/MM-Btu/hr-yr) = (10.249/yr 4.6˚F 3.97 3.560 From Figure 8.34 Cost $/hp-yr ----------360 360 360 Savings** $/yr ----------349 1.08 x 6. Find the new supply temperature: Supplied air inlet temp.110)] = 58. Find the savings from reheat reduction: Cost(1.000)] (100) = 61% 5.100 1.5) [($37.8 Initial hp --------6.08) (T2 .410/yr Cost(1.900/yr 2.410 .08)(cfm)] = 75 .900/yr = = = Total 3.000/yr 4.000) / (1.56.1) = (6.6 .6 Based on continuous operation 6.8 6.100) x 10-6] = $3.T1) (cost.[(108.HVAC: AIR CONDITIONING 2. = room temp. Find the total savings: Method Outlet Damper Inlet Vane Damper Fan Speed Fan hp 349/yr 1.56.900/yr 2.* % ---------14.560/yr $ Savings Reheat 2.08) (65 .100/yr 1.06 4.900 4.08) (58.8 6. Btu/hr]) / [(1.100) x 10-6] = $514/yr Annual Savings (Reheat Reduction) = $3.2 45.0 63.110) / (10.$514 = $2. .5) [($37.110) (1. Find the savings from fan horsepower reduction: Method of Reduction --------------Outlet Damper Inlet Vane Damper Fan Speed * ** hp Red. Find the cfm reduction (in percent): cfm reduction = [(cfm2) / (cfm1)] (100) = [(6.8 Saved hp --------0.8) = (cfm) (1.460/yr Modern Industrial Assessments 8-17 .

1.4.6: Effect of Volume Control on Fan Horsepower 8. depending upon the type of heat exchanger and the face velocity.7 Recover Energy The use of air-to-air heat exchangers permits the exchange of energy between an exhaust airstream(s) and a makeup airstream(s). Filters should be cleaned or replaced as soon as the maximum allowable pressure drop across the filter is attained. 8.1. Many of the exchangers will permit the exchange of only sensible heat while a few will permit the exchange of enthalpy (total heat). The transfer recovery efficiency of air-to-air heat exchangers varies from 55 percent to 90 percent.HVAC: AIR CONDITIONING 100 90 80 Percent Horsepower 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Outlet Dampers Inlet Vane Dampers Variable Speed Percent Volume Figure 8.4. If dirt builds up to a point where the pressure drop exceeds the maximum allowable. the resulting system pressure increase will reduce the fan’s pressure and subse- 8-18 Modern Industrial Assessments .8 Maintain Equipment The physical condition of the air handling unit is important to its efficient operation.

The fans should be checked for lint.5 Terminology Adiabatic process: A thermodynamic process during which no heat is added to. a substance or system. The process of treating air so as to control simultaneously its temperature. it is the heat required to raise the temperature of a pound of water from 59˚F to 60˚F.Air conditioning for uses other than comfort. dirt. Air leakage due to poor damper operation or condition will result in added loading of the air handling unit. dustrial: Air washer: A water spray system or device for cleaning. or dehumidifying the air. A device used to remove airborne impurities. or taken from. As mentioned in an earlier section.1. Air cleaner: Air conditioning: Air conditioning. humidifying.5924 g. or other causes for reduced flow. with 1 lb = 453. cleanliness. cleanliness. and distribution to meet the requirements of the conditioned space.HVAC: AIR CONDITIONING quently reduce the air handler’s efficiency. dampers should seal tightly. humidity. comfort: Air conditioning. and distribution to meet the comfort requirements of the occupants of the conditioned space. The terminology commonly used in air conditioning is given in the following section. 8. British Thermal Unit The Btu is defined as 778. Modern Industrial Assessments 8-19 . The process of treating air so as to control simultaneously its temperature.177 foot-pounds if it is related to the IT (Btu): (international table) calorie in such a way that 1 IT calorie per (kg)(˚C) = 1 Btu per (lb)(˚F). Approximately. in. humidity (optional).

of water vapor at the same temperature. Formally called by the obsolete names total heat and heat content. V = its volume. The water approaches the wet bulb temperature of the air. Thermodynamic property of a substance defined as the sum of its internal energy plus the quantity PV/j. With pure substances. Dehumidification: Enthalpy: Enthalpy. The ratio of the mol fraction of water vapor present in the air. actually. specific heat exchange of temperature. Heat which is associated with a change in temperature. where P = pressure of the substance. to the saturation pressure or density. respectively. it equals the ratio of the partial pressure or density of the water vapor in the air. in contrast to a heat interchange in which a change of state (latent heat) occurs. relative: 8-20 Modern Industrial Assessments . usually expressed in Btu/lb. latent heat is absorbed or rejected at constant pressure. and j = the mechanical equivalent of heat. A device to add moisture to the air. A regulatory device. Change of enthalpy during a change of state. actuated by changes in humidity. to the mol fraction of water vapor present in saturated air at the same temperature and barometric pressure.HVAC: AIR CONDITIONING Calorie: Heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1˚C. approximately. Mean calorie = 1/100 part of the heat required to raise 1 gram of water from 0˚C to 100˚C The condensation of water vapor from air by cooling below the dew point or removal of water vapor from air by chemical or physical methods. which remains constant during its traverse of the exchanger. The adiabatic exchange of heat between air and a water spray or wetted surface. specific: Evaporative cooling: Heat. used for the automatic control of relative humidity. A term sometimes applied to enthalpy per unit weight. latent: Heat. from 4˚C to 5˚C. sensible: Humidifier: Humidstat: Humidity.

also called humidity ratio. in some cases it is important to treat the whole operation in such a way. In air conditioning. The temperature at which the condensation of water vapor in a space begins for a given state of humidity and pressure as the temperature of the vapor is reduced. An instrument which responds to changes in temperature and which directly or indirectly controls temperature.HVAC: HVAC SYSTEMS Humidity. The volume of a substance per unit mass. to heat the air in advance of other processes. Preheating: Psychrometric chart: Temperature. the reciprocal of density.2 HVAC SYSTEMS In this chapter the HVAC will be treated like a system of different functions put together. by natural or mechanical means. dry bulb: Temperature. specific: Weight of water vapor (steam) associated with one lb. The temperature of a gas or mixture of gases indicated by an accurate thermometer after correction for radiation. can bring the air to saturation adiabatically at the same temperature. Such air may or may not have been conditioned. The process of supplying or removing air. weight of dry air. by evaporating into air. Thermodynamic wet bulb temperature is the temperature at which liquid or solid water. dew point: Temperature. Wet bulb temperature (without qualification) is the temperature indicated by a wet bulb psychrometer constructed and used according to specifications. wet bulb: Thermostat: Ventilation: Volume. However. A graphical representation of the thermodynamic properties of moist air. to or from any space. Modern Industrial Assessments 8-21 . specific: 8. in other words the transparency of individual components might not be very transparent. The temperature corresponding to saturation (100 percent relative humidity) for a given absolute humidity at constant pressure.

8-22 Modern Industrial Assessments . Operating efficiencies of equipment decrease with decreasing load . Design is for a near-extreme weather condition which is very seldom obtained (2-3% of annual hours). Any attempt to conserve energy amplifies the effect of statements above. All HVAC design procedures are conservative. 2. 3. Reasons: 1.HVAC: HVAC SYSTEMS Other 10% Lighting 30% Fans & Pumps 30% Boilers & Chillers 30% Figure 8. 4.7: Energy Use in Buildings 8.1 Equipment Sizing Practices Usually all existing energy consuming systems are oversized. A “Safety Factor” is then applied.2.usually exponentially. Standard equipment size increments usually result in further oversizing.

new hp will be 22% of original.=  --------------.8: Load vs.2. HP 2  CFM 2 or HP 1  GPM 1 3 ---------.HVAC: HVAC SYSTEMS 8. But: Reducing hp output of the motor also reduces its efficiency. HP 2  GPM 2 Thus: If CFM/GPM is reduced by 10%. Efficiency Modern Industrial Assessments 8-23 . the new hp will be 73% of original For CFM/GPM reduction of 40%. 100 % EFFICIENCY 0 0 LOAD 100 % Figure 8.1.=  --------------.1 Reducing Capacity by Fan/Pump Slowdown HP 1  CFM 1 3 ---------.

Flow) Proportioning Valve FLOW 0 PERCENT OPEN Common Operating Range 100% Figure 8. 3.1. Retrofit existing HVAC systems to some form of VAV (Variable Air Volume) systems. Reduce operating time .2 Maximize HVAC Savings 1.HVAC: HVAC SYSTEMS 100% Linear Valve Turn Down (min.9: Control Valve Characteristics 8.2. 2. Reduce fan & pump horsepower .turn it off when not needed. 8-24 Modern Industrial Assessments . Eliminate or minimize reheat. 4.replace motors if necessary.

10: Heating and Cooling Loads Modern Industrial Assessments 8-25 . calibrate & upgrade control systems. Maintain.HVAC: HVAC SYSTEMS 5. OUTSIDE AIR COOLING LOAD TRANSMISSION HEAT GAIN HEAT GAIN SOLAR HEAT GAIN (V ARIES) LIGHTING HEAT GAIN 0 F o PEOPLE HEAT GAIN TRANSMISSION HEAT LOSS 70 F 76 F o o 100 F o OUTSIDE AIR HEATING LOAD HEAT LOSS Figure 8.

34 .8o 20o % 50 RH 26.2. and register design.≥ 15 cfm fresh air per person . How to determine if certain conditions will meet acceptable comfort criteria.HVAC: HVAC SYSTEMS 8. including . Prevalent thoughts on comfort.2.9o 22. “Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. as might be viewed by some.11: Comfort Zone Detail 8-26 Modern Industrial Assessments .1 • • • • • • Outline Determination of indoor conditions and how they affect energy use. Impact upon equipment selection. whether it a company or a private residence.” oC 18. Good working conditions definitely increase productivity. all the comfort should be provided at the minimum expense. besides the indirect benefit of employees’ satisfaction in their workplace.95 . ducting.50 Clo at PPD=6% Figure 8.7 23.Calculation procedures Indoor design conditions Ventilation . However.80 .7 30% RH 5 1.1o 14 VAPOR PRESSURE.ASHRAE Standard 62-1989.7 summe winter r 10 1.2 Design for Human Comfort Providing comfortable conditions for people engaged in the working process is not a superfluous luxury. mm Hg 70 % RH 11.Factors of influence .2. 8.

moist air and cool it and dehumidify it 2.2. etc. cold air and warm it and humidify it 3. Questions • To what temperature? • To what humidity? • What is the impact upon energy cost? 8. Modern Industrial Assessments 8-27 .e. The UNITED STATES approach is to adjust the thermostat (becoming less acceptable to do so). metabolism. Summer • Troom ≥ 78˚F • φroom: Min HVAC energy use • ≥ 0. include effects of heat radiation.2.3 ACH (residential) 8. Summer • Take hot. air motion.2.3 From the Comfort Chart 1.2 ASHRAE Standard 90-1980 “Energy Conservation in New Building Design” 1. clothing.3 ACH (residential) 2. Summer • 73˚F ≤ Tdb ≤ 81˚F • 20% ≤ φ ≤ 60% 2. Winter • Take dry. To minutely quantify comfort is the EUROPEAN approach (reason: they don’t heat their buildings as much). Winter • 68˚F ≤ Tdb ≤ 75˚F • 30% ≤ φ ≤ 70% Most of the work on comfort since about 1970 has been to re-define the x-axis on the comfort chart to be more general (i. Winter • Troom ≤ 72˚F • φroom ≤ 30% • ≥ 0.2.HVAC: HVAC SYSTEMS 1..).

4. 3.7˚F (buffer. Olympic athlete 8-28 Modern Industrial Assessments . Biological TSkin Radiation Respiration TCore Convection Metabolism Evaporation TCORE ≈ 37˚C + 1˚C (98. 2.4 Comments and Observations 1. Change in Standards will be difficult unless accompanied by a change in people’s attitudes (psychology). Productivity is a key element.5 Factors Affecting Comfort 1.6˚F) TSKIN ≈ 92.HVAC: HVAC SYSTEMS 8. If you know you are uncomfortable. does not act). ASHRAE is slow and conservative. Not aggressive in implementing energy policy (reacts.2.2. seated at rest ~ 850 W. ASHRAE has done little in the area of transferring knowledge of comfort to design practice.2. adjusts to ambient) Metabolic Heat Generation in an adult male: • • • ~ 100 W.500 W.2. 8. heavy exercise ~ 1. it does little good to know why.

0-4.0-3.2 1.8 2.0 1.4 3.7 0.0-4.0-2.4-4.34 m/s 1.0 1. seated Writing Typing Filing.4 3.79 m/s Office Activities Reading.1 1.0 4.2 1.0 2.4 1.7 2. social Calisthenics/exercise Btu/h-ft2 13 15 18 22 37 48 70 18 18 20 22 26 31 39 18-37 22 33 44 59 29-37 37-63 41 33 37-44 74 74 74-88 44-81 55-74 metb 0.8 2.4 4.6-2.2 1.0 1.8 2. heavy limb movement Machine work sawing (table saw) light (electrical industry) heavy Handling 50-kg bags Pick and shovel work Miscellaneous Leisure Activities Dancing.HVAC: HVAC SYSTEMS Various Activitiesa Resting Sleeping Reclining Seated.89 m/s 1.2 1. seated Filing.2 2.6 3. routine Aircraft.0 Modern Industrial Assessments 8-29 . quiet Standing.8 1.0 4.1 1.0-2. instrument landing Aircraft. relaxed Walking (on the level) 0.0 2. combat Heavy vehicle Miscellaneous Occupational Activities Cooking House cleaning Seated.0 1.8 1. standing Walking about Lifting/packing Driving/Flying Car Aircraft.4 2.

0-8.6-4.15 0. 1 clo = 0. and Webb (1964).6 7.23 0.29 0. b 1 met = 18. short sleeve shirt Three-piece suit Fur Coat Table 8. For additional information see Buskirk (1960). scoop neck (thick) Sweaters Sleeveless vest (thin) Sleeveless vest (thick) Long-sleeve (thin) Long-sleeve (thick) Suit Jackets and Vests (lined) Single-breasted (thin) I/clo 0.88 h-ft2-˚F/Btu • 1 clo ≈ R-1 clo 1/2 1 4 ATTIRE Slacks.13 0. Clothing • Clothing resistance (clo). singles Basketball Wrestling.23 0.03 0.0-7. Passmore and Durnin (1967).36 8-30 Modern Industrial Assessments .25 0.04 0.14 0.08 0. scoop neck (thin) Sleeveless. competitive 66-74 90-140 130-160 3.27 0.33 0.36 0.43 Btu/h-ft2 Table 8.03 0.1: Heat Flux Generated by Various Activities 2.01 0.47 0.14 0.22 0.HVAC: HVAC SYSTEMS Tennis.2: Clothing Resistance Garment descriptiona Underwear Man’s briefs Panties Bra T-shirt Full slip Half slip Long underwear top Long underwear bottom Footwear Ankle-length athletic socks Calf-length socks Knee socks (thick) Panty hose stockings Sandals/thongs I/clo 0.02 0.02 0.155 m2 · ˚C/W = 0.02 Garment descriptiona Dresses and Skirtsb Skirt (thin) Skirt (thick) Long-sleeve shirt dress (thin) Long-sleeve shirt dress (thick) Short-sleeve shirt dress (thin) Sleeveless.16 0.06 0.0 5.20 0.7 a Compiled from various sources.

≤ α ≤ -3 3 Modern Industrial Assessments 8-31 . dress shirt.15 0.19 0. flannel shirt Short-sleeve.57 0. long gown (thick) Long-sleeve pajamas (thick) Short-sleeve pajamas (thin) Long-sleeve.17 0.20 0.42 0. Long-sleeve.31 0.48 0.34 0.03 0.06 0.12 0. scoop-neck blouse Short-sleeve.10 0.08 0. long gown (thin) Short-sleeve hospital gown Long-sleeve.49 Single-breasted (thick) Double-breasted (thin) Double-breasted (thick) Sleeveless vest (thin) Sleeveless vest (thick) Sleepwear and Robes Sleeveless. knit sport shirt Long-sleeve.44 0.30 0. thick Table 8.17 0.34 0.24 0. b Knee-length 0. pile-lined) Boots Shirts and Blouses Sleeveless.28 0. Environmental indices • Operating temperature hr T r + hc T a T o = ----------------------------hr + hc T o = αT r + ( 1 – α )T a where and Tr = mean radiant temperature Ta = dry bulb temperature 1 2 -. short gown (thin) Sleeveless.3: Garment Insulation Values 3.46 0.69 0.42 0. thin fabrics worn in the summer.25 0. short wrap robe (thick) Short sleeve.34 a “Thin” garments are made of lightweight.18 0. “thick” garments are heavyweight.HVAC: HVAC SYSTEMS Slippers (quilted.48 0.10 0. sweat shirt Trousers and Coveralls Short shorts Walking shorts Straight trousers (thin) Straight trousers (thick) Sweat pants Overalls Coveralls fabrics worn in the winter. dress shirt Long-sleeve. short robe (thin) 0. long wrap robe) (thick) Long-sleeve.

044V0.0 100 < V < 400 hc = 0.70 30 < V < 300 0 < V < 30 Table 8.HVAC: HVAC SYSTEMS 1 T r = --N • ∑ Ti i=1 N Convection Equations for Convection Heat Transfer Coefficients Equation hc = 0. 1 met = 18.69 hc = 0.53 Limits 40 < V < 800 0 < V < 40 30 < V < 300 0 < V < 30 100 < V < 400 Condition Seated w/moving air Remarks/ Sources Mitchell (1974) Reclining w/moving air Colin & Houdas (1967) Walking in still air V is walking speed Nishi & Gagge (1970) Active in still air Gagge (1976) Walking on treadmill in V is treadmill still air speed.2.6 hc = 0.43 Btu/h ft2 8. Nishi & Gagge (1970) Standing in moving air Seppeman (1972) hc = (M .67 hc = 0.146V0.55 hc = 0.85)0.2.0.1 < M < 3.90 hc = 0.4: Convection Heat Transfer Coefficients where hc is in Btu/h ft2 V is in fpm M in met units.92V0.068V0.39 1.39 hc =0.60 clo m = 1 met V ≤ 20 fpm 8-32 Modern Industrial Assessments .475 + 0.061 V0.6 • • • Standard Conditions for Comfort Icl = 0.

2.HVAC: HVAC SYSTEMS • • Tr = Ta im = 0.(85% are comfortable) 8.3 General Types of Building Heating and Cooling To Preheat Coil CHR CHS NC Spray Mixed & Preheated Air T Cooling Coil With Eliminators Pump Makeup Water Figure 8.4 (Moisture permeability index) .12: Sprayed Coil Dehumidifier Modern Industrial Assessments 8-33 .

13: Evaporative Cooling & Air Washer High Signal Selector R T CHR CHS HR HS V3 NC High Limit H Space Stats V2 NC Mixed Air Cooling Coil V1 NO Heating Coil T H RA High Limit Humidifier Supply Fan Figure 8.14: Humidity Control Through Cooling Override 8-34 Modern Industrial Assessments .HVAC: HVAC SYSTEMS Eliminators Spray Nozzles Air Flow Pump Makeup Water Figure 8.

15: Single Zone .HVAC: HVAC SYSTEMS From Supply Fan Starter M inimum Position Switch R1 Relief Air DM 3 DM 1 Outside Air DM 2 T Space Therm.All Direct Control from Space Thermostat Modern Industrial Assessments 8-35 . HR HS CHR CHS NC NC T1 V1 NO HC V2 NC CC High Limit T2 FR Fire or Smoke Detector NO Return Air Filter LLT Low Temp. Safety Supply Fan Figure 8.

HVAC: HVAC SYSTEMS Discriminator From Supply Fan Outside Air HR V1 DM NC T3 Filter Heating Coil R3 RC-2 HS DM T Zone M ixing Box From Other Zones Supply Fan V2 NO Cooling Coil T4 CHR CHS RC-3 Figure 8.16: Dual Duct Air Handling System 8-36 Modern Industrial Assessments .

HVAC: HVAC SYSTEMS Discriminator Relay Reset From Supply Fan Outside Air HR V1 DM NO T3 Filter Heating Coil DM Lowest Highest RC-2 HS R3 From Other Zones Zone Thermostat T To Zone Supply Fan V2 NC Cooling Coil T4 CHR CHS RC-3 Reset Figure 8.17: Multizone Air Handling Unit Modern Industrial Assessments 8-37 .

1 Introduction During the heating season the air must be heated to room temperature by makeup air units or by infiltration and mixing with room air. fumes. All air that is exhausted from the building must be replaced by outside air. gases. or vapors.18: Hybrid VAV Control System 8. excess ventilation results in a loss of energy at all times.3. When process heating is also involved. Negative pressure will lead to a number of 8-38 Modern Industrial Assessments . A common problem during the winter heating season is negative building pressure resulting from attempting to exhaust more air than can be supplied. The most obvious problem encountered with air starvation is difficulty in opening doors. 8.3 VENTILATION Many operations require ventilation to control the level of dust. Excess ventilation for this purpose can add significantly to the heating load.HVAC: VENTILATION EP1 Fan Speed Co ntr l o CHWS CI Ele ctr nic o PI Co ntr le r o Ele ctr nic o PI Co ntr le r o O utsid e A ir CHWR Pr essur e Senso r Relie f Reheat Co il V A V Bo x EP2 Time Swit ch Ele ctr nic o Hig h Sig nal Sele cto r Retur n A ir C2 Ele ctr nic o PI Co ntr le r o Co mpar ato r and Rela y Figure 8.

1. and dust. and other plant equipment that depend on natural draft cannot operate properly under negative pressure and their combustion efficiency drops. 8. Fumes can also be drawn into the plant.2 Losses Losses of air from buildings are inevitable.2. moist air may even condense on manufactured products or mechanical and electrical equipment. housekeeping. Warm. On the other hand. 2. $/Btu Modern Industrial Assessments 8-39 .3. However. Hourly Cost = 1.HVAC: VENTILATION other problems. the resulting higher summer exhaust rate is not a problem.154 x cfm x D x dg x C) / eff. It is a phenomenon one has to deal with. such as with ovens. air stagnation creates concentrations of fumes or odors. Consequently. Without proper exhaust. Heaters. The air which was heated will slowly seep through gaps around windows. Exhaust fans cannot work at rated capacity under negative pressure. 4. Turning up the thermostat causes employees in the middle of the building to roast and offers little help to those near the walls.08 x cfm x ∆t x (C/eff. dirt. doors and ducts. with no adjustment to the exhaust system during the non-heating season when the building pressure is at equilibrium with the outside air. 8.3. and equipment wears out much faster. Workers near the building’s perimeters may be subjected to drafts as the pressure differential between inside and outside draws cold air through doors and windows. where cfm = air volume. the higher exhaust rate will increase the heat loss. Maintenance. ovens. Exhaust air flows are usually established for the more demanding winter conditions when negative pressures may exist. but also could cause condensation and/or pressure inequality in the building with respect to the outside. not only that the total elimination of air leaks would be prohibitively expensive. when process heating is involved. and contaminants in the plant increase. affecting employee health and effectiveness. 5. cfm ∆t = outside temperature . Downdrafts can also occur around ventilation hoods which are temporarily inoperative.1 Room Air The following two equations may be used to estimate makeup air heating costs on an hourly and yearly basis. If new exhaust fans are added without equivalent makeup air capacity. 3. ˚F C = cost of fuel. equipment efficiency suffers. Downdrafts can cause condensation and corrosion. the exhaust rate will be greater. Where no process heating is involved.) Yearly Cost = (0.inside temperature. and operating costs rise.

00/106Btu) x (1/80%) = $1.3. operating 15 shifts per week.500 x ($4. An example of the potential saving for a reduction in exhaust for 1.08 x 10.08 = 60 min/hr x 0.80 for indirect-fired heater D = operating time. 8-40 Modern Industrial Assessments . Pennsylvania For example. given: cfm = 1.000 D = 120 operating hours per week dg = 2. * ** 1.08* x (250˚F .75/MMBtu can be used. the loss is magnified by the higher temperatures of either the dry air or the air-water mixture. New York or 5.848 for New York City.24 specific heat of air If a direct-fired gas makeup unit is used.000 cfm at 250˚F is as follows: 1.500 degree days C = $4.000 cfm with 40˚F outside temperature.930 for Pittsburgh. Cost/hr = 1. the air is heated at nearly 100 percent efficiency. Saving for reduction in process heat load (250˚F .24/MMBtu heat in steam Using the above formula: Annual savings = 0.000 hrs/yr x $4. use 0.65˚F) Annual Saving= 1.080 = $5.2 High-Temperature Exhaust In the case of a high-temperature exhaust.215 Annual Cost = 0.000 x 120 x 4.65˚F) x 6.276/yr Additional saving in fan horsepower is possible if fan speed is reduced.40) x ($3.154 x 10.000 cfm x 1.24/106) = $196/yr 2. as from an oven. assume 10. if unknown. hours/week dg = annual degree days: 4.HVAC: VENTILATION eff = heater efficiency.360 8.2.000 x 120 x 2.848 x ($3.24/MMBh heat in steam** = $5.00/106Btu) x (1/80%) = $3.075 lbs/cu ft x 0.080/yr Total Saving = $196 + $5. During the heating season. Saving for heating outside air to 65˚F.000 x (70 . this loss also involves heating an equivalent amount of makeup air to room temperature before further heating to exhaust temperature in the oven.154 x 1. For an indirect unit an efficiency of 80 percent or $3.

the best practice is to add more makeup air units to supply heated air in amounts equal to that exhausted and distribute it in the region of the exhaust system. Some reduction in existing rates may be possible because: Modern Industrial Assessments 8-41 .3. While this will contribute little to energy conservation.3. Shut off fans when equipment is down.2. 2. it must leak through doors.HVAC: VENTILATION 8. 8. 8.5 Btu per pound.2 Reduce Volume The next best improvement is to reduce exhaust rates to the minimum but adequate amount.3 Balance Air Flows Too often no provision is made to supply sufficient makeup air.3.3. 4. The extent of this loss emphasizes the importance of using minimum exhaust where heated baths are involved. Plant personnel should check all exhausts to determine if losses can be reduced or eliminated. the enthalpy of dry air at 110˚F is 26. Fans can also be left on during periods of no production. Measures than can be taken to reduce exhaust losses are: 1. As an example of the heat loss from an exhaust including water vapor. 8. Some typical examples are spray booths and ovens or dryers. 3.3.5 Btu per pound of dry air. Consequently. it will eliminate the problems associated with negative pressure. Recover exhaust. Reduce temperature. Barring the ability to make sufficient reduction in exhaust to balance the air supply and demand. as occurs with washing or drying.3. and stray openings. windows. such as evenings or weekends. Exhaust fans are often left running even if the equipment they are ventilating is down. the enthalpy of a saturated mixture of air and water vapor is 87.3 Air -Water Mixture The loss is considerably greater when water vapor is included with the exhaust. A high temperature psychrometric chart can be used to determine enthalpies at other conditions. producing undesirable drafts in the vicinity of the leakage. Reduce volume to a minimum but adequate amount to satisfy ventilation needs.1 Shut off Fans The most obvious improvement is to shut off any exhaust fans that are not needed.

This approach can be taken where access is not necessary on all sides. 2. which may be far in excess of normal operation. The required volume varies as the square of the distance from the source. one of the most direct and easiest means to reduce the volume of exhaust air is by proper hood design. 3. Exhaust rates may have been established with a large margin of safety when energy costs were not a significant factor. In general. the less exhaust air is required. Extend the hood vertically on one or more sides. Where production loads fluctuate. Rates are also increased if control is upset by cross drafts in the area. equally effective ventilation can be provided with less exhaust by improving the design of the exhaust hoods. Air requirements can be reduced as much as 25 percent by 8-42 Modern Industrial Assessments .HVAC: VENTILATION 1. the most effective hood designs are those which completely surround the emission source with minimum openings to the surrounding area. the damper setting can be varied with the load when practical. room air is exhausted along with the fumes. The following steps can provide a more complete enclosure. The result is lower fan power consumption and reduced heat loss. Provide a hanging drop cloth or plastic strips that will allow for access when necessary without undue interference with operation. 1. Distance from Source If enclosing the source with side panels is not practical. The exhaust rate may have been increased at one time to resolve a temporary problem which no longer exists. 2. the hood should be as close as possible to the source and shaped to control the area of contamination. § Improve Hood Design Often. Rates may be set to satisfy the most extreme need. Enclosure The more complete the enclosure. In the first case. a simple adjustment of the damper setting to reduce flow may be sufficient. In many instances. Following are some guidelines for optimum hood design. As a consequence. Exhaust hoods are commonly located at a considerable distance from the surface of a tank. Flanging The addition of flanges will eliminate air flow from ineffective zones where no contaminant exists.

a review of conditions may indicate opportunities to reduce temperature in the following areas: • • • Current practice maintains temperature above standard to provide a wide margin of safety. etc. proper capture velocity or volume should be determined to avoid unnecessary exhaust. Modern Industrial Assessments 8-43 . Hoods with this feature will provide more uniform flow over the area to be ventilated and reduce total air requirements. Capture Velocity The air flow past the source must be sufficient to capture the contaminant. However.4 Recover Heat Heat recovery from the exhaust air should be considered after first completing the steps to reduce exhaust loss by any of the above methods. 8.3 Reduce Temperature Process requirements usually dictate the temperature at which the process must be maintained. Heating requirements will.HVAC: VENTILATION incorporating flanges in the hood design. 8.3. However.3. Outside Air The introduction of outside air. The standard was established arbitrarily or without adequate testing.3. The standard was established to handle a worst-case situation which no longer exists or occurs rarely (at which time exhaust rate could be increased). where possible. if no standards or arbitrary standards in excess of needs are used. the hood can be made more effective by incorporating multiple take-offs. at the point of ventilation will reduce the amount of room air exhausted. baffles. be reduced to the extent the exhaust air includes outside air instead of heated room air.3. therefore. Large Openings Where exhaust openings are of necessity large in size. slotted openings.

3. the potential for economical recovery is minimized.4 Types of Heat Exchangers A couple of different design approaches are introduced. It is best suited to a clean airstream since some short circuitries of the exhaust air to the supply side can occur. The plantwide potential for waste recovery should. the potential for heat recovery is dependent on the temperature of the gases. the heat recovery system will be available for this purpose for an even shorter period. including both latent and sensible heat. Any evaluation of savings must reflect the actual hours of use. the recovery system will be in use only during the heating season. especially when a number of sources are involved.4. This heat exchanger has the highest efficiency.2 Sealed Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger The heat pipe operates on the principle that when heat is applied to one end of a sealed tube. if air-toair heat recovery from an oven is planned for heating the building. Where heat recovery from both systems cannot be beneficially utilized. 3. Because air is less dense than water. Furthermore. 4. 1. Although considerable heat may be lost in exhaust gases.HVAC: VENTILATION Precautions Several precautions should be considered in the evaluation of a heat recovery system. This way. 2. a heat recovery system for water is generally preferable to air because of the former’s better payback and lower maintenance. 8. large volumes of air are required to approach the equivalent Btu content of waste water. evaporation of a fluid in the pipe occurs. In this situation. if the oven is not operating continuously.3. some of the energy otherwise lost is used to help achieve desired conditions. the heat exchanger is a device where heat from one medium is transferred into another. the rotor may soon become blocked if it is installed in an airstream containing contaminants. 8.4. The condensed working fluid is then transported by capillary action to the warm end where the cycle is repeated. therefore. The vapor flows to the cold end where it is condensed. When the temperature range is low (200˚F to 400˚F). the fins mounted on the outside of the tube to aid heat transfer 8-44 Modern Industrial Assessments . the ease of cleaning the exchanger is of prime importance. The exhaust gases may contain some contaminants that will foul heat exchanger surfaces. 8.3. recovering 70 to 85 percent of the exhaust energy. be studied first to ensure the design of any installation will be coordinated with an overall plan. As the name indicates.1 Rotary Heat Exchanger Because the matrix in this type of exchanger has fine air passages. In this exchanger. For example.

10 per cfm. pattern. The hot oil passes over exchange coils containing incoming process water and is then recycled. Maintenance is also minimized because there are no moving parts. If the exhaust gases contain oil mists and other contaminants. Installation costs range from 1 to 2. The equipment cost for an air-to-air heat exchanger from one manufacturer ranges from $0. to transfer energy between the two streams. About 70 percent of the sensible heat is recovered by these units. 8. Either a conventional filter or electrostatic precipitator can be considered.4. and no cross-contamination. A coil-run-around unit permits the two streams to be physically separated by using an intermediary fluid. etc. which absorbs most of the heat as well as the high boiling chemicals. The advantages of the heat pipe are: minimal maintenance. This type of exchanger is less likely to become blocked with contaminants and is more easily cleaned.5 times the cost of the equipment. lower flammable limit (LFL) monitoring equipment Modern Industrial Assessments 8-45 .60 per cfm depending on the size. usage.HVAC: VENTILATION may also become blocked with contaminants. 8. The unit recovers 60 to 80 percent of the sensible heat. some form of filter unit may be necessary ahead of the heat exchanger.3. size.4. because it contains no moving parts. 8. exhausts are passed through cool. usage. usually ethylene glycol. Where flammable solvents are used. This type is suitable for either airto-air or air-to-water heat recovery.30 to $3.60 to $1. The ethylene glycol is circulated in a closed loop through heat exchangers in the “hot” and “cold” stream. Heat exchanger efficiency decreases when deposits build up on the surface. In this system.4. Coil-run-around systems recover 60 to 65 percent of the sensible heat between the two streams. An air-towater heat exchanger costs from $1. again depending on efficiency. etc. because the exit and incoming gas streams are completely sealed off from each other.3 Plate Heat Exchanger Heat transfer is accomplished by counterflowing two streams between plates. efficiency.4 Coil-Run-Around System The above three types of heat exchangers require the supply and exhaust stream to be brought together.5 Hot Oil Recovery System This system has the advantages of eliminating heat exchanger fouling and reducing pollution abatement problems. The use of a filtering system and/or periodic cleaning are often necessary to ensure clean surfaces. so keeping the surfaces clean is important. cascading oil.3. airflow.3.

Publication 7436 4. 1972 2. Pergamon Press. 1984 7. Industrial Energy Conservation. 1977 6.. The capital expenditure for an LFL monitor is about $15.A. D. IPC Science and Technology Press. Energy Conservation and Energy Management in Buildings. The self-checking system eliminates much of the periodic need to calibrate and check the function of safety circuits. The Energy Managers’ Handbook.F. ASHRAE Standatd 90-75.. Energy Conservation in the Process Industries. How to Save Energy in Commercial Buildings. Improved LFL systems include self-checking equipment and completed control loops that allow the use of modulated dampers to provide for minimal safe ventilation requirements. 1977 8-46 Modern Industrial Assessments . Kenney. ASHRAE.HVAC: VENTILATION is necessary. Accordingly.F.C. Handbook of Fundamentals. 1976 3. Energy Conservation in New Building Design. Applied Science Publishers.. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers.A. exhaust reduction can be considered for drying ovens containing solvent vapors. Reay. Southern California Gas Company. American Society of Heating. Academic Press. Sherratt. A. REFERENCES 1. W. Payne. G..000. 1975 5.

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