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# Machine Design II

Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram

Flywheel

A

flywheel and the

is

an

inertial as a

energy-storage reservoir, is the more

device.

It

absorbs during

mechanical the period releases than the

energy when it

serves of

storing than the of

energy

supply the

energy when

requirement energy is

and

during

period

requirement

more

supply.

Flywheels-Function need and Operation
The main function of a fly wheel is to smoothen out variations in the speed of a shaft caused by torque fluctuations. If the source of the

driving torque or load torque is fluctuating in nature, then a flywheel is usually torque engines called time with for. Many to or machines vary two have the are load patterns that cause the

function one punch

over

cycle. a etc.

Internal typical are the

combustion Piston systems

cylinders rock

example. other

compressors,

presses,

crushers

that have fly wheel. Flywheel absorbs mechanical energy by increasing its angular

velocity and delivers the stored energy by decreasing its velocity
T 2 T m T 1 A ω max ω min C D θ B C D θ
1 CYCLE

A

B

Figure 3.3.1

Cf = ωmax − ωmin ω Where ωavg is nominal angular velocity Co-efficient of speed fluctuation The above ratio is termed as coefficient of speed fluctuation Cf and it is defined as Cf = ωmax − ωmin ω Indian Institute of Technology Madras .ωmin Fl = ωmax − ωmin We can normalize this to a dimensionless ratio by dividing it by the average or nominal shaft speed (ωave) . Design Parameters Flywheel inertia (size) needed directly depends upon the acceptable changes in the speed.Gopinath & Prof.Mayuram Design Approach There are two stages to the design of a flywheel. Then moment flywheel of geometry in a must be defined sized that caters and is the safe required against inertia reasonably package failure at the designed speeds of operation. First. K. the amount must be of energy and required the for the moment desired of degree of smoothening found (mass) inertia needed to absorb that energy determined.Machine Design II Prof. M. Speed fluctuation The change in the shaft speed during a cycle is called the speed fluctuation and is equal to ωmax.M.

20 for 0.01 to 0. angular This velocity.Mayuram Where shaft ω is nominal desired.M. Design Equation The kinetic energy Ek in a rotating system = 1 I ω2 2 ( ) 1 ⎛ ⎞ Im ⎜ ω2max − ω2 ⎟ min ⎠ 2 ⎝ Hence the change in kinetic energy of a system can be given as.05 for like precision crusher machinery applications hammering machinery.Machine Design II Prof. However the smaller this value more smoother the operation of the device It is typically and set as to a high value as between 0. The smaller this chosen value. the larger the flywheel have to be and more the cost and weight to be added to the system. M.Gopinath & Prof. and is a ωave the average parameter or mean to be speed coefficient design chosen by the designer. K. EK = E K = E 2 − E1 ωavg = ( ωmax + ωmin ) 2 EK = 1 I 2ωavg 2 s E 2 − E1 = Cf Iω2 Ek Is = 2 Cf ωavg ( )( Cf ωavg ) Thus system the in mass order moment to of inertia selected Im needed in of the speed entire rotating is obtain coefficient fluctuation determined using the relation Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

Gopinath & Prof. To smoothen or positive or enregy is avalible energy speed fly initially during intermedialty and be absorbtion A out large the negative of punching can stripping magitidue speed fluctuation noted. M.M. K. θ @ ωmax Tl − Tavg dθ = E K ∫ θ @ ωmin ( ) Computing the kinetic energy Ek needed is illustrated in the following example Torque Time Relation without Flywheel A typical torque time relation for example of a mechanical punching press without a fly wheel in shown in the figure. Torque Variation and Energy The required change in kinetic energy Ek is obtained from the known torque time relation or curve by integrating it for one cycle.Machine Design II Prof. In the absence and of fly wheel and surplus enery operations. fluctuation wheel is to be added and the fly wheel energy needed is computed as illustrated below Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Mayuram EK = Is = The Im above equation to can the be 1 I 2ωavg 2 s Ek ( )( Cf ωavg ) obtain change appropriate Ek for a flywheel specific inertia value 2 Cf ωavg used to corresponding known energy coefficient of speed fluctuation Cf.

E@ωmin =(-6 032)-(+20 073)= 26 105 Nmm2 Min & max ω ω min @B @C max Figure 3.Mayuram Torque Area +20 073 C rms Area +15 388 D B A 34 200 A 7 020 0 Average ω min ω max θ Shaft angle time t -34 200 0 Area -26 105 Area -9 202 360 Figure 3.Machine Design II Prof.Time curve From A to B B to C C to D D to A Area= E +20 073 -26 105 +15 388 -9 202 Accumulated sum =E +20 073 -6 032 +9 356 +154 Total Energy= E @ωmin.3. K.3.3 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . M.2 Accumulation of Energy pulses under a Torque.Gopinath & Prof.M.

05 Average 0 360 Figure 3. K. with are a solid and disc of or hub may and of be rim of spoked by construction spokes or like arms As the conventional Small the fly connected circular discs size hollow of the hub cross section.3. Indian Institute of Technology Madras .4 Time t Shaft angleθ Geometry of Flywheel The geometry of a flywheel may be as simple as a cylindrical disc of solid wheels wheels material.M. M. energy requirements changes to flywheel peripheral increases rim geometry by webs central and connected and to hollow wheels with multiple arms.Machine Design II Prof.Gopinath & Prof.Mayuram Torque Time Relation with Flywheel Torque 8730 7020 Cf =0.

as it concentrates the bulk of its mass in the rim which is at the largest radius.Gopinath & Prof.M. M.6 The latter arrangement is a more efficient of material especially for large flywheels. K.3.Machine Design II Prof.5 b D0 D d a Arm Type Flywheel Figure 3.3. Mass at largest radius contributes much more since the mass moment of inertia is proportional to mr2 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Mayuram b b D d D0 D do Figure 3.

the mass moment of inertia I is Im = mk 2 = m 2 2 (r + r ) 2 o i The mass of a hollow circular disc of constant thickness t is m= W γ 2 = π ro − ri2 t g g ( ) Combing the two equations we can write Im = πγ 4 4 r −r t 2g o i ( ) Where γ is material’s weight density The equation is better solved by geometric proportions i. Analogous to a thick cylinder under internal pressure the tangential and radial stress in a solid disc flywheel as a function of its radius r is given by: Indian Institute of Technology Madras . ω= angular velocity in rad/sec. ν= Poisson’s ratio. is the radius to a point of interest.e by assuming inside to out side radius ratio and radius to thickness ratio.Machine Design II Prof. to centrifugal pull it apart. M.M. ri and ro are inside and outside radii of the solid disc flywheel.Gopinath & Prof.Mayuram For a solid disc geometry with inside radius ri and out side radius ro. K. Stresses in Flywheel Flywheel distributed being mass a and rotating attempts disc. stresses Its acts is upon similar its to effect those caused by an internally pressurized cylinder σt = σr = γ 2 ⎛ 3 + v ⎞⎛ 2 2 1 + 3v 2 ⎞ ω ⎜ r ⎟ ⎟⎜ ri + ro − g ⎝ 8 ⎠⎝ 3+ v ⎠ 2 ⎞ γ 2 ⎛ 3 + v ⎞ ⎛ 2 2 ri2 ro 2 ω ⎜ ⎜ ri + ro − 2 − r ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ g ⎝ 8 ⎠⎜ r ⎝ ⎠ γ = material weight density.

K. explode causing of extremely are a dangerous function the of consequences.S (N) = Nos = ωyield Indian Institute of Technology Madras . stress at What that can forces causes point failure flywheel typically and tangential fracture from where resulting the fracture originated fragments Since speed the also. speed can some be calculated to or specified its based operation on a safety this Generally means preclude beyond speed is desirable. maximum which the stresses reach the critical value can be determined and safe operating factor.M. M.O. for example like a governor. Consequently ω F.Gopinath & Prof. the rotational speed at stresses for instead checking stresses. stress Radial stress σr Radius The point of most interest is the in inside a radius is where the stress the upon is a maximum.Machine Design II Prof.Mayuram Radius σt Tang.

M.2 *103 = 21.Mayuram WORKED OUT EXAMPLE 1 A 2.Energy supplied Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 960 rpm motor powers the cam driven ram of a press through a gearing of 6:1 ratio.02. Assume that the maximum diameter of the flywheel is not to exceed 0.2 * 0. Design a suitable flywheel that can maintain a coefficient of Speed fluctuation of 0.Gopinath & Prof.727 = 72% 825 There fore the fluctuation in energy is = E k = Energy absorbed . M. Work done by the press= U = 20 *103 * 0.88Nm 960 2*π* 60 Energy supplied= work don per cycle = 2π * 21.88 * 6 = 825 Nm Thus the mechanical efficiency of the system is = 600 η= = 0.15 = 600Nm Energy absorbed= work done= 600 Nm Mean torque on the shaft: 2. K. Assuming that the cam driven ram is capable of delivering the rated load at a constant velocity during the last 15% of a constant velocity stroke.6m.2 kw.Machine Design II Prof. The rated capacity of the press is 20 kN and has a stroke of 200 mm.

24 + 0. M.4ω2 ( 0.6622 = * 0.ω ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 0.Gopinath & Prof.6622 kg m2 π r 2 2 .6622 = 0.81 3.4125 )( 0.0376 )( 0.244 t 2 9.556MPa or if σ t = 150 MPa 150 *106 = 7961.3 ⎝ 8 ⎠⎝ ⎠ 960 ⎞2 ⎛ σ t = 0.090 )( 0.125Nm Ek I= Cf ωavg 538.M.242 ⎞ .86 = 59.075 ( 21.3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 2 1.8 ro π 78500 2.0445 59.15 ) 538.543* ⎜ 2π * ⎟ 60 ⎠ ⎝ = 55667N / m 2 = 0.88 * 6 * π * 0.Machine Design II Prof.0331) = 0.805t I= ( ) ( ) ∴ t= or 2 .805 45 mm σt = σt = r 2 ⎛ 3 + γ ⎞ ⎛ 2 2 1 + 3γ 2 ⎞ r ⎟ ω ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ r + ro − g 3+ γ ⎝ 8 ⎠⎝ i ⎠ 78500 2 ⎛ 3 + 0.02 ⎜ 2π * ⎟ 60 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ( ) 2 = = 2.304 − 0.3 − ⎟ 9. K.125 960 ⎞ ⎛ 0.t 2 g o r Assuming i = 0.65 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . r − ri .Mayuram 600 − 825 * 0.9 * 0.548ω2 ω = 16544 rad / sec2 N OS = ωyield = 16544 32π ω = 164.

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