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Basic Philosophy Human beings are basically determined by psychic energy and by early experiences. Unconscious motives and conflicts are central in present behavior. Irrational forces are strong; the person is driven by sexual and aggressive impulses. Early development is of critical importance because later personality problems have their roots in repressed childhood conflicts. Normal personality development is based on successful resolution and integration of psychosexual stages of development. Faulty personality development is the result of inadequate resolution of some specific stage. Anxiety is a result of repression of basic conflicts. Unconscious processes are centrally related to current behavior. To make the unconscious conscious. To reconstruct the basic personality. To assist clients in reliving earlier experiences and working through repressed conflicts. To achieve intellectual and emotional awareness. The classical analyst remains anonymous, and clients develop projections toward him or her. Focus is on reducing the resistances that develop in working with transference and on establishing more rational control. Clients undergo long-term analysis, engage in free association to uncover conflicts, and gain insight by talking. The analyst makes interpretations to teach clients the meaning of current behavior as it relates to the past. In contemporary relational psychoanalytic therapy, the relationship is central and emphasis is given to here-and-now dimensions of this relationship.

Key Concepts


Therapeutic relationship

Key techniques are interpretation, dream analysis, free association, analysis of resistance, analysis of transference, and understanding counter transference. Techniques are designed to help clients gain access to their unconscious conflicts, which leads to insight and eventual assimilation of new material by the ego. Application of Candidates for analytic therapy include professionals who want to become therapists, the Approach people who have had intensive therapy and want to go further, and those who are in psychological pain. Analytic therapy is not recommended for self-centered and impulsive individuals or for people with psychotic disorders. Techniques can be applied to individual and group therapy. Contribution to It's focus on family dynamics is appropriate for working with many cultural groups. Multicultural The therapist's formality appeals to clients who expect professional distance. Notion of Counseling ego defense is helpful in understanding inner dynamics and dealing with environmental stresses. Limitations in It's focus is on insight, intrapsychic dynamics, and long-term treatment is often not Multicultural valued by clients who prefer to learn coping skills for dealing with pressing daily Counseling concerns. Internal focus is often in conflict with cultural values that stress and interpersonal and environmental focus. Contributions of More than any other system, this approach has generated controversy as well as the Approach exploration and has stimulated further thinking and development of therapy. It has provided a detailed and comprehensive description of personality structure and functioning. it has brought into prominence factors such as the unconscious as a determinant of behavior and the role of trauma during the first 6yrs of life. It has developed several techniques for tapping the unconscious and shed light on the dynamics of transference and counter transference, resistance, anxiety and the Limitations of mechanisms of ego defense. therapists and much time and expense for clients. The Requires lengthy training for Techniques the Approach model stresses biological and instinctual factors to the neglect of social, cultural, and interpersonal ones. Its methods are less applicable for solving specific daily life problems of clients and may not be appropriate for some ethnic and cultural groups. Many clients lack the degree of ego strength needed for regressive and reconstructive

Adlerians pay more attention to the subjective experiences of clients than to using techniques. it is applicable to such varied spheres of life as child guidance. Few attempts have been made to validate the basic concepts by scientific methods. and disclosing mistaken goals and faulty assumptions within the person's lifestyle. group counseling. influence. goal orientation. People are motivated by social interest and by finding goals to give life meaning. Contributions A key contribution is the influence that Adlerian concepts have had on other systems and the of the Approach integration of these concepts into various contemporary therapies. and belonging is congruent with the values of many cultures. and create events. and goal-oriented and that put an emphasis on social and psychological factors. Emphasis is on the individual's positive capacities to live in society cooperatively. Some clients may view the counselor as an authority who will provide answers to problems. person-to-person spirit as a way to reduce social distance. To offer encouragement so individuals can develop socially useful goals and increase social interest. Counseling Limitations in Multicultural Counseling This approach's detailed interview about one's family background can conflict with cultures that have injunctions against disclosing family matters. collectivism. Weak in terms of precision. pursuing meaning in life. by striving toward goals. correctional and rehabilitation counseling. and by dealing with the tasks of life. unified. helping others. Contribution to Its focus on social interest. by inferiority and superiority. Each person at an early age creates a unique style of life. substance abuse programs. It is ideally suited to preventive care and alleviating a broad range of conditions that interfere with growth. importance of family. This is one of the first Limitations of the Approach approaches to therapy that was humanistic. holistic. marital and family therapy. early recollections. which tends to remain relatively constant throughout life. parent-child counseling. and on equality. on mutual trust and respect. To develop the clients sense of belonging. exploring. and brief counseling. personal priorities). sharing interpretations with clients. and empirical validity. and the importance of life goals that give direction to behavior. Some techniques include gathering life-history data (family constellation. and assisting clients in searching form new possibilities. People have the capacity to interpret. Focus is on identifying. on mutually determining goals. Because the application is based on a growth model. the need to view people from their subjective perspective. . testability. Key concepts include the unity of personality. offering encouragement. Therapy is a matter of providing encouragement and assisting clients in changing their cognitive perspective and behavior. individual counseling with all age groups. Goals Therapeutic relationship Techniques Application of the Approach To challenge clients' basic premises and life goals. Tends to oversimplify some complex human problems and is based heavily on common sense. The emphasis is on joint responsibility. which conflicts with the egalitarian. Other key concepts ar striving for significance and superiority. developing a unique lifestyle. Multicultural Focus on person-in-the-environment allows for cultural factors to be explored. and understanding the family constellation.ADLERIAN THERAPY Basic Philosophy Key Concepts Humans are motivated by social interest.

The client has the potential to become aware of problems and the means to resolve them. Applied to individual counseling. This unique approach has been subjected to empirical testing. Mental health is a congruence of ideal self and real self. and more techniques. It is a useful approach for teaching. spontaneity. reflection of feelings. Clients in crisis may need more directive measures. warmth. Approach responses to reflection. Its principles have been applied to couples and family therapy. understanding. and increased spontaneity and aliveness. and nonjudgmentalness . Main strengths are respect for clients' values. To enable them to move toward openness. applicable to who remains passive and inactive. more structure. accurate empathy.PERSON-CENTERED THERAPY Basic Philosophy The view of humans is positive. willingness to be a process. People without advanced training can benefit by translating the therapeutic conditions to both their personal and professional lives. respect. and inner-directedness. Basic concepts are straightforward and easy to grasp and apply. The qualities of the therapist. the client experiences feelings that were previously denied to awareness The client moves toward increased awareness. clarification. The relationship is of primary importance. welcoming of differences. nonjudgmental attitude. or questioning or probing for information. It is an open system. Maladjustment is the result of a discrepancy between what one wants to be and what one is. Techniques This approach uses few techniques but stresses the attitudes of the therapist and a "way of being. some cultural groups will expect . limiting Possible danger from the therapist all therapies. Key Concepts Goals Therapeutic relationship including genuineness." Therapists strive for active listening. This model does not include diagnostic testing. In the context of the therapeutic relationship. Limitations in Some of the core values of this approach may not be congruent with the client's Multicultural culture. To become more selfdirected. It is especially well Approach suited for the initial phases of crisis intervention work. greater trust in self. and human relations training. administration and management. Lack of counselor direction and structure are unacceptable for clients Counseling who are seeking help and immediate answers from a knowledgeable professional. trust in self. we have an inclination toward becoming fully functioning. so that they can To provide recognize blocks to growth and can experience aspects of self that were formerly denied or distorted. parent-child relations and for working with groups of people from diverse cultural backgrounds.and communication of these attitudes to clients . Faith is placed in the client's capacity for self-direction. Clients use this genuine relationship with the therapist to help them transfer what they learn to other relationships. Counseling active listening. and as a result both theory and methods have been modified. Many clients feel a need for greater direction. community programs. interpretation. It is a foundation for building a Limitations of the trusting relationship. to find meaning in life to experience life fully.cultural barriers and facilitating open dialogue among Contribution to Focus is on breaking Multicultural diverse cultural populations. taking a case history. Application of the Has wide applicability to individual and group counseling.are stressed. a safe climate conducive to clients' self-exploration. and "being there" for the client. Contributions of Clients take an active stance and assume responsibility for the direction of the Approach therapy. and prizing cultural pluralism. willingness to allow clients to determine what will be explored in sessions. In therapy attention is given to the present moment and on experiencing and expressing feelings.