EuroProB2 Web Course Book | Part Of Speech | Employment

EuroPro B2

Web Coursebook

introduction unit 1 - short texts unit 2 - paragraph headings unit 3 - scan reading unit 4 - multiple choice reading unit 5 - short conversations unit 6 - making notes unit 7 - meeting unit 8 - transactional writing unit 9 - extensive writing unit 10 - dictation unit 11 - muliple choice gapfill unit 12 - modified cloze unit 13 - dialogue unit 14 - summary unit 15 - letter unit 16 - interview unit 17 - presentation unit 18 - transactional dialogues unit 19 - collaborative speaking unit 20 - CEFR

Web Coursebook

EuroPro B2

EuroPro B2 Coursebook - Introduction

Page 1

Introduction to EuroPro B2 Web Coursebook
About this book This coursebook is intended to prepare students for the EuroPro Examination at B2 (Vantage) level. The EuroPro coursebook is primarily intended for classroom use, but can also be used by those working alone or with a tutor. The book has twenty units; one for each task in the examination (reading 4 tasks, listening 3 tasks, writing 2 tasks, grammar and vocabulary 3 tasks, mediation 3 tasks and speaking 4 tasks); and finally a unit containing the CEFR criteria and extra classroom activities. Each unit, except the last, follows a similar structure: first vocabulary related to a particular business or professional topic is introduced; second, students meet and work with a reading text; third, examination skills for that task are practised, and fourth, there is a practice task for the examination. Throughout the unit there is a continuity of topic. The teaching time for each unit will, of course, depend on the students’ level and needs as well as the teacher’s method of presentation. However each until should provide for three hours teaching. The book is, therefore, best suited to a 48-50 hour course. Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) The CEFR of the Council of Europe (language division) is a set of can-do criteria which enable all language examinations in Europe to be related to a common framework of standards. The criteria are designed positively, i.e. through establishing what a student can do, and not focussing on what the candidate can’t do yet. As the criteria for examinations are based positively and on communication competence, those examinations which are related to the framework are practical and non-threatening. This coursebook and the EuroPro Examination are fully related to the CEFR. As a result both the student’s successful preparation using this book and the anticipated successful examination result will establish him/her at B2 (Vantage) level. The achievement will be recognised across Europe. Euro Examinations At present Euro Examinations are offered at three levels B1 (Threshold), B2 (Vantage) and C1 (Operational Proficiency). The examinations are in two systems: The EuroExam for general learners of English, and the EuroPro for business and professional learners. In addition to coursebooks, teachers’ books and sound recordings, the Euro Examination Centre also publishes sample sets of examination papers, diagnostic tests and mock examinations. Distinguishing the format of the EuroPro from the EuroExam The EuroPro and the EuroExam differ in format in just two of the tasks. In the speaking tasks the EuroPro features a presentation whereas the EuroExam has a picture story, and in the listening tasks the EuroPro has a business meeting and the EuroExam has a radio/TV programme. The format of the remaining seventeen tasks is the same for both exams.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre.

The Reading Units (1 . business emails) The principles of ‘scientific’ management Unit 2: The Restructuring of Business task name task description skills tested real life link topic for task in this book Reading test.4) Unit 1: Organisation in the Workplace task name task description skills tested real life link topic for task in this book Reading test. notices. The rights and options of workers who are made redundant Unit 3: The Private Lives of Business People task name task description skills tested real life link topic for task in this book Reading test.g.Introduction The Structure of the EuroPro B2 Coursebook Page 2 The EuroPro examination has nineteen tasks. The answers and tapescript (if relevant) are contained in the unit. such as proposals. Reading for gist. with one of seven possible responses (pictures. letter or narrative. The constitution and rules of a club for wealthy businessmen Unit 4: Work-Related Conflict task name task description skills tested real life link topic for task in this book Reading test. part 3: scan reading You read four texts on a single topic and eight statements containing information from one of the texts. instructions. but only have to understand what the text is about and not for detailed information. You will often have to read long texts.). Your task is to decide which text each statement comes from. An example is provided. etc. part 1: short texts You match five short texts (hand-written notes. part 4: multiple choice reading You answer seven multiple choice comprehension questions based on a single text of 350-450 words. . short advertisements. scan reading and reading for detailed information It is important to understand the meaning in context of notes and other short texts (e. titles. directions. normally an article. An example is provided. Skim and scan reading plus reading for detailed information Some documents. need to be understood fully in professional life. Scan reading You often have to find key pieces of information in a longer text. or excerpts from a leaflet).EuroPro B2 Coursebook . An example is provided. part 2: paragraph headings There are six paragraphs for which you must find the most appropriate heading from a choice of eight paragraph headings. The Grenberg miners’ strike Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. Skim reading. definitions. notes. Each task has one teaching unit. Two headings are not needed.

email extracts. maps. timetables) providing a context and information for the task. Listening for specific information. (e. Achieving a transactional outcome within the correct genre with written language accuracy.g. Listening for gist. Boring talk at meetings. We often need to understand a situation from small pieces of speech. Most of your letter and email writing is to realise specific purposes. Unit 7: People Changing Jobs task name task description skills tested real life link topic for task in this book Listening test. . In meetings you will often have to listen and take down key points in notes. which contains nine gaps. Each gap requires a piece of information. The legal procedure affecting a person who is declared bankrupt.Introduction Listening Units (5 – 7) Unit 5: Business Talk and Chatter task name task description skills tested real life link topic for task in this book Page 3 Listening test. whilst listening. part 1: transactional writing You read several pieces of written or diagrammatic text (leaflets. part 2: making notes You listen twice to an extended monologue. presentation and speaking skills Unit 6: Personal Bankruptcy task name task description skills tested real life link topic for task in this book Listening test. You are asked to write a ca. advertisements) Listening for gist and specific information to enable matching. letters. You answer ten multiple choice questions while listening. specific information and detailed information Understanding what is being said in a meeting is vitally important in business The rules for fair and unfair dismissal of employees Writing units (8 – 9) Unit 8: Formal Letters task name task description Writing test. email or message using the information provided. which you must write in no more than three words. part 1: short conversations You listen twice to six short recordings made in the same location. a list. part 3: meeting You listen twice to an excerpt from a formal meeting. notes. Letter terminating a contract of employment skills tested real life link topic for task in this book Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. and match them with eight pictures or eight short pieces of text. There are notes based on the text. 200 word transactional letter.EuroPro B2 Coursebook .

200 word text within the genre specified. meaning in context. a proposal. There are breaks between units to allow time for writing. the task is to choose the correct word from four options. a descriptive or narrative composition. You must write a ca. A report on the office Christmas dinner Grammar & Vocabulary Units (10 – 12) Unit 10: Social Welfare task name Grammar and vocabulary test. . part 2: extensive writing There are three tasks from which you choose one.g. part 1: dictation You listen to a recorded extended monologue of 85-120 words. You have to write the text down word for word. or a discursive essay. Etiquette at a formal business dinner Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. The type of text could be an article. part 2: multiple choice gap-fill You receive a written text of 150-200 words with ten gaps where a single content word has been removed. the task is to write in a correct word. e. Producing a relevant text within a given genre with written language accuracy.EuroPro B2 Coursebook . emails and other texts you often need to find the correct word to express yourself clearly. letter and other texts. Levels of work satisfaction among women workers Unit 12: Business Etiquette and Ceremony task name task description skills tested real life link topic for task in this book Grammar and vocabulary test. Grammatical structure and meaning in context. collocations and phrasal verbs When writing a letters. Spelling. once all the way through with no break. Vocabulary. part 3: modified cloze You receive a written text of 150-200 words with ten gaps where a single grammar word has been removed. a letter of complaint.Introduction Unit 9: Formal Reports task name task description Page 4 skills tested real life link topic for task in this book Writing test. The text is then heard again broken down into small units with each unit repeated once. grammatical accuracy. When writing emails. you need accurate grammatical structures to ensure your meaning is clear. You need to be able to write in different genres. For each gap. For each gap. a report. a report. vocabulary and detailed listening skills Sometimes you need to write down exactly what someone has said in a meeting The rules for paying social welfare benefits task description skills tested real life link topic for task in this book Unit 11: Work Satisfaction task name task description skills tested real life link topic for task in this book Grammar and vocabulary test. The text is heard three times.

cinema. hobbies. part 1: interview The interlocutor will ask you one introductory question. emails and other documents Work experience Speaking Units (16 – 19) You are examined in pairs.EuroPro B2 Coursebook . There are two examiners: one an interlocutor. . news and current affairs and the environment. Topics include travel. housing. relationships. written in five paragraphs. language functions.g. part B1: summary You receive a text in English of 200-225 words.Introduction Mediation Units (13 –15) Page 5 Unit 13: Doing Business Abroad (incomplete) Mediation test. Turn taking. skills tested You may have to mediate speakers of Hungarian and English. job interviews. part A1: dialogue task name You hear a dialogue of six turns between two participants. education. Professional associations and trade unions Mediation test. Translation from and to particular genres You may have to translate letters. One of the speakers may be an official working in the public sphere. You have ten minutes before the test for preparing Task 2. Reading for gist in English and choosing a summary in Hungarian. For each paragraph you are given three summaries written in Hungarian. a Hungarian (speaking in Hungarian) and an English speaker (speaking in English). task description You write down the main points of the conversation in the opposite language to the one you hear. Two examples are given. You will often have to read long texts. Unit 16: Interviews at Work task name task description skills tested real life link topic for task in this book speaking test. They involve preparation and communication skills. work. the other an assessor. e. real life link topic for task in Doing business abroad this book Unit 14: task name task description skills tested real life link topic for task in this book Unit 15: task name task description skills tested real life link topic for task in this book Mediation test. family. Interviews are important. but only have to understand what the text is about and not for detailed information. sport. and then two questions on another topic. Listening for key points and writing them down in another language. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. part B2: letter You receive a personal or semi-formal letter of about 80 words written in Hungarian. non-electronic) dictionaries. You may use printed (i. detailed listening skills Interviews are common in the world of work.e. You have to translate the letter into English. You must choose the most appropriate summary.

prioritising You will have to negotiate and agree plans with others in your professional life The expansion of a software company task description skills tested real life link topic for task in this book The Common European Framework of Reference for languages and extra lesson activities Unit 20: EuroPro. part 4: collaborative speaking You receive a topic card which contains a debatable point or question. The card describes a situation. what are some of the problems of living in a foreign country?) First you and your partner think of issues which answer the question or contribute to the debate. You speak.EuroPro B2 Coursebook . You may make notes in the preparation stage but should not read aloud from a prepared script. Understanding a situation. charts. or you may give in-house presentations You may have to give a presentation of your firms product or service. .g. appropriateness of style and register Being asked questions and responding to them effectively is a key skill in business life The language of power and inequality at work skills tested real life link topic for task in this book Unit 19: Expanding a Company task name Speaking test. negotiating. graphs. Before meeting the examiner. figures) to be used in the presentation. part 3: transactional dialogues You receive a cue card.g. Then you discuss. the interlocutor gives a scripted reply and then you respond to the reply. (2 minutes) You may have to give a presentation of your firms product or service. You will have three cue cards. part 2: presentation You receive a set of information (e. the CEFR. your role and gives you an instruction. use of language functions. you have ten minutes to prepare. or you may give in-house presentations Is all the behaviour of managers in firms directed towards the maximisation of profits? skills tested real life link topic for task in this book Unit 18: Status at Work task name task description Speaking test. expand on and prioritise these issues.Introduction Page 6 Unit 17: Business Profits task name task description Speaking test. Task 4 is the only task in the speaking test where you talk to your partner. (e. (3 minutes) turn-taking skills. You and your partner will alternate in doing this task. and Extra Activities (incomplete) CEFR criteria Extra activities All skills plus grammar & vocabulary All skills plus grammar & vocabulary Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre.

g. Nominal root words refer to things (e. She listened to John.g. either in part or in whole. Lexical words have nominal. attributive or action roots. pronomination. there are three themes that permeate every exam task. Dependent prepositions indicate nominals connected to the headword (e. to bet on horses) Discourse markers are supra-sentential and relate one part of the text to another (e.g. A Recognising and producing genre texts Every text in the exam. • What is the genre of the text? • What is the purpose of the text? • What information is. to time and place: i. the format and layout of the text? • How is the information (to be) sequenced into paragraphs? • What kind of language is appropriate for the text? B Recognising lexical and grammatical words The distinction between lexical and grammatical words is central not only to the grammar and vocabulary tests. etc. consequently) Conjunctions syntactically link words. whose. They may also be distinguished negatively. Let us examine this definition in a little more detail. (e. however.e.g. All reference words serve a cohesive function. walk). strength. strong. included? • What is.g. stone. The major classes of grammatical words are listed below in non-exclusive categories: • • • • Pronouns: substitute for nominals (e. although. The number of lexical words in the language is potentially infinite. e. Cohesion is a more general concept in which words connect different parts of the text. whether nominal. stone. and/or relate the text. The candidate needs to be able to recognise genre for reading and listening and be able to produce in the correct genre for speaking and writing. lexical words form a paradigmatic open set) Grammatical words create reference and cohesion. and. committee).e. hit). the genre of a letter of complaint.g. phrases. as non-lexical words. i.g. or should be. clauses. strong.g. of a humorous narrative. the book on the table) force. beautiful). Reference words substitute one word for a word or phrase: i.g.g.Introduction Recurrent skills in the exam Page 7 While each exam task tests a particular language skill. attributive or active at root. to strengthen) All lexical words. committee. be it receptive/productive or visual/aural. those) and thus create either intra or extra-textual reference. (i. are capable of transformation into nouns and possess a clear meaning when standing alone (e. walk. their.e.e. Prepositions front phrases with either adverbial (e. deixis. She lived in France) or adjectival (e. she. Though their root may be of one kind. but is an important part of decoding texts in the receptive skills as well as playing a role for the candidate in producing coherence and cohesion in the productive skills.g.EuroPro B2 Coursebook . and action root words to actions (e. . Much is at stake here. The following genre related issues will arise repeatedly throughout the course and in the exam. sub-skill or aspect of the language systems of English.) Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. Let us examine this definition in a little more detail. or should be. words can transform into other classes (e. is written in a particular genre. of a joke. largely lack meaning when standing alone and are definite in number. strength. attributes refer to qualities (e. have meaning when standing alone and their number is infinite. but.g.

could.Introduction • • • • • Page 8 Determiners qualify nominal phrases: articles for definiteness (e. recognising the distinction between lexical and grammatical words and acknowledging the wide application of top-down decoding enable teachers to prepare students for the EuroPro B2Exam. and second.g.g. might). has does). In conclusion. all) Reference adverbials: these contain a pronominal function (e. to tidy up) or are components in phrasal verbs (e.g.g.EuroPro B2 Coursebook . In this way the candidate establishes an outline meaning of the whole text. grammatical words form a paradigmatic closed set) C Using top-down decoding For every receptive task the issue of top-down decoding is necessarily applicable. a.g. to put up with) Auxiliaries indicate time and aspect (e. is. as invariably any model speech or piece of writing is introduced using a top-down decoding system.e. which then becomes a tool for determining detailed and specific meaning within the text. the). as a tool for organising the staging of receptive lessons. Even productive task units in the book do not escape its grip. (i. . which is achieved by looking at the task title and any appended picture and then skim reading the whole text by concentrating on the lexical words. and quantifiers (e. as a tool for candidates approaching tasks in the exam. likewise/in that way). The number of grammatical words is fixed in the language. Grammatical words are often called functional words because they bind with lexical words to form propositional meaning and textual coherence. should. some.g. now/at this time. or a pure relational function (e. Modals establish the mood of a clause (e. more coffee) Adverbial particles indicate the perfective aspect (e. Top-down methodology is doubly important: first. there/in that place. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. The skill requires the reader/listener to establish as a first step the topic and genre of the text.g. For students these skills make possible their success in the exam. Grammatical words cannot be transformed into nouns (being and having excepted) and have little meaning when standing alone. was. a sound grasp of genre. Having established the topic and genre the candidate needs to call up his/her knowledge of the topic and genre.g.

The bosses want the highest profits for (themselves and) their shareholders. Because there are always many unemployed people. crockery Meeting language – real-life phrases I’d like it noted in the minutes that… I’d like to propose that… On a point of clarification… Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. to duplicate. nor does he want to 6 the free market in any way. believes that it is _1_ that shareholders want large _2_. identical. Only strong trade unions and left-wing governments can help ordinary working people. What was Taylor’s main message? 1 Efficiency is to the benefit of everybody 2 Employees should be made to work harder 3 Wage rates don’t reflect efficiency Summarise each paragraph in one sentence. He believes everyone is a _3_ in the market and thinks that nobody is _4_ to anything from society. look at these words in Mr Bibby’s notebook and work out the meaning. How do you know it was written in the past? Look again at the text quickly. Arnie Fischer. to stand in line. He doesn’t _5_ anybody their wealth. dividends. Thinking and Writing Look at the opinion in the box below. to be entitled to. United Workers Union. to monitor. . Give your opinion with reasons. mutual relations. contrast Arnie Fisher’s view with that of Frederick Taylor. B F G H Before moving on. There is no doubt in my mind that the relationship between employers and workers is one of conflicting interests. All profits for the bosses come from the workers who work in the factories or organise production distribution and exchange in the offices. to modify. In one continuous piece of writing (not notes). to be coupled with. self-evident. to begrudge. literacy. to giggle.Unit 1. except the protection of their property. D E Look quickly at the text on the next page.Reading: Short texts Page 1 1 Organisation in the Workplace In this unit you will… • meet expressions about relationships and roles in the workplace • read an article about ‘scientific management’ • write up the minutes of a meeting A What makes a workplace efficient? Do you think your workplace is efficient? What could be done to make your workplace more efficient? What do the words and phrases in the vocabulary box mean? prosperity. to chat. a competitor. a free-market thinker. and the workers want the highest wages for the well-being of their families. class. Mr Jenner. You may need to adapt the word. C Put one item from the vocabulary box into each gap. the workers are in a difficult position.

throughout the industrial world. we believe that prosperity for the employer cannot exist in the long term unless it is accompanied by prosperity for the employee. should see that a more liberal policy toward their men will pay them better. Maximum prosperity also requires giving that man. More importantly. coupled with the maximum prosperity for each employee. It is possible to give the workman what he most wants high wages. that is. when he is turning out his largest daily output. They are wrong to say that the capital invested in the business should yield little or nothing. (8) The truth of this fact is also perfectly clear in the case of two men working their broad sense . Those employers whose attitude toward their workmen has been that of trying to get the largest amount of work out of them for the smallest possible wages. (3) In the same way. Additionally. and vice versa.Unit 1. so that he can do the highest grade of work for which his natural abilities fit him. while your competitor and his workman are making only one pair. whenever possible. It is clear that after selling your two pairs of shoes. this type of work to do. on the contrary. There will still be enough money left over for you to have a larger profit than your competitor. (4) It would seem to be so self-evident that maximum prosperity for the employer. . It is sadly the case that perhaps the majority on either side do not believe that it is possible so to arrange their mutual relations. coupled with maximum prosperity for the employee. a large part of the organisation of employers – as well as employees – is for war rather than for peace. And yet there is no question that. they should be led to modify these views. has for its very foundation the firm conviction that the true interests of the two are the same. I suggest a change of opinion from those workers who feel that all of the fruits of their labour should belong to them. Page 2 (6) It is hoped that some at least of those who do not sympathise with these views may be led to modify their opinion. you can pay your workman much higher wages than your competitor – who produces only one pair of shoes – is able to pay his man. (5) The majority of these men believe that the fundamental interests of employees and employers are necessarily opposed. and the employer what he wants a low labour cost. however. Efficiency helps prosperity to become permanent. Scientific management. To illustrate: you and your workman have become so skilful that you and he together are making two pairs of shoes in a day. So. ought to be the two leading objects of management. maximum prosperity for each employee means higher wages than are usually received by men of his class. that even to state this fact should be unnecessary. (7) No one can be found who will deny that in the case of any single individual the greatest prosperity can exist only when that individual has reached his highest state of efficiency. (2) The words maximum prosperity are used . that their interests become identical. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre.not just to mean large dividends for the company or owner. it also means the development of each man to his state of maximum efficiency. Those workmen who begrudge profit to their employers should realise that such profits are not against their interests. ‘Maximum prosperity’ also refers to the development of every branch of the business to its highest state of excellence.Reading: Short texts The Principles of Scientific Management Frederick Taylor (1911) (1) THE principal object of management should be to secure the maximum prosperity for the employer.

Exam tip: in the exam there are two ‘titles’ which you don’t need. Make sure you know place. When you have finished. Exam tip: all the notes are on a related topic and take place in one location. 6. Miss Gold. 5.B. check each other’s work. 2. You should work out the exact relationship between the notes and the title. The selection is so bad. so resolved to purchase another photocopier. I feel quite sick when I look at it. Look at this dust everywhere in my room. 7. Finally. and endless giggling from the young female trainees. Write up the minutes of the meeting for the other issues on the agenda. topic and gist of the notes. the office manager. Did these trainees ever go to school! 3. N.e. believes that). The firm believes that this constitutes an inefficient use of work time. and (iii) finally states what the meeting resolved. has written the minutes of the meeting. Exam tip: the titles are designed to mislead you. B Here is an agenda for the firm’s monthly meeting. Look at these documents.Reading: Short texts Exam Skills A Page 3 Mr. 4.Unit 1. All this chatting in the corridors. There are a number of things which annoy him around the office. some of which he has made notes about. who tries to guess the heading. . When you find the unnecessary titles check that they do not apply to any of the notes. Match the agenda items with Mr Bibby’s complaints above. (ii) states the policy of the firm (i. Bibby’s Notebook 1. C. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. What is annoying him in each case? Mr. Bibby is a partner in a leading firm of management consultants. I nearly cut my lip when drinking my coffee this morning. read each item (without the heading) to a partner. It’s ridiculous my having to wear a jacket indoors in winter. Which item do you not need? a b c d e f g h New photocopier Control the work done by cleaner Renew the office furniture Include literacy test in recruitment process Office manager to monitor employee behaviour Change lunchtime sandwich delivery service Call the heating engineers Reserve special crockery for the senior partners.: Miss Gold (i) notes the facts. Here is her report for item a. Mr Bibby noted that the photocopying of documents took over five minutes because of the formation of a queue at the photocopier. I don’t expect to queue when I need a duplicate of a document.

shorts and sandals. typist. you haven’t much choice. production is down by over 10 per cent. The parking situation needs immediate attention. photocopying assistant. Often the assembly line starts up to twenty minutes late. so space is not used rationally. the managing director.’ Emma. factory-floor supervisor and hourly-paid packer look at these problems? Look at the comments by workers in the first box (A-H).’ Sally. Ex Staff are insufficiently punctual. Often the foreman’s late and even he can’t start it for mechanical reasons. and bring any comments to the Works Council meeting on Thursday. Often it is hard to reach the front entrance. factory foreman ‘Well. Office meetings have been made impossible because of the noise. To all company employees: Please take note of the following points. Plastic cups from the coffee machine litter every available space. factory worker.’ Stephen. Most of what they’re buying is rubbish and you can’t work with it. In summer office staff have taken to wearing tee-shirts. secretary ‘Holiday’s are important. (The Answer is C) 1. While this may be fine on the factory floor for certain jobs. There are no markings in the car park. and has listed in the second box (1-5) some points for discussion by company workers. Match these with the workers’ comments. The problem is they always buy the cheapest they can get. It’s the bosses who arrive first and block the entrance to the building.Unit 1. factory worker ‘It’s not our fault at all. much of the problem lies with the poor quality of what we purchase. 2. but they should install air-conditioning in the office. and the machinery is so loud. in the office it has the effect of conveying an unprofessional image. 5 There is no objection to music on the factory floor. scientific officer. factory worker. and they’ll just have to learn to accept that. 4.’ Deirdre. 7 May.’ Lisa. have you?’ Becky. While some of this is undoubtedly due to poor workmanship on the assembly line. It’s really basic. What can go wrong in the following? • bad workmanship • untidiness • staff parking • staff clothing • music and noise How would a manager. as I’ve never managed to get in at all.’ Terry. as far as I’m concerned the whole problem is that they’re not prepared to pay for the office to be cleaned. but the volume of this music has become a matter of serious concern. There are two comments you do not need.Reading: Short texts Exam Practice: Software Company in Dire Straits A Page 4 B C D Imagine a poorly organised computer software company. The extensive practice of double parking means that early arrivals are blocked in. ‘It’s boring enough working in the factory all day. 3. What are they talking about? Do their opinions seem reasonable? Mr Grice. They should meet elsewhere. A B C D E F G H ‘It’s all very well for them to talk like that. clerical assistant ‘Well that’s rich. As a result. The office area is unnecessarily dirty. All of this serves to make a very poor impression on visitors to the company and has an adverse effect on profits. . is dissatisfied with several aspects of his company. Over 20 per cent of our manufactured products are defective in some way.’ Gary. EXAMPLE ‘If you’re a smoker. so we have little choice. Staff appearance has also become a major source of concern. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre.

etc. Individual prosperity is based on individual efficiency. 1) C 1. self-evident. 3E. 4) D 1H. Efficient use of labour means high wages. Managers and workers have the same basic interest.) (p. 5a. e. 7f..g. 4. 1) E No. Both employers and employees should modify their views. gender specific language (e. 4A. (p. 7. (p. 5B Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. 3. 1) D the photograph / language. 1) F 1. Prosperity should be maximized for everybody. 2. 2F. 3) B 1e. 6g. modify (p. workman.Reading: Short texts Unit 1: Organisation in the Workplace (p.’ Page 5 (p. competitor. entitled.g. begrudge. 8. . ‘Efficiency is to the benefit of everybody. 2. 3h. 5. 1. Not everyone can see that prosperity for everyone is a good aim. 4b. ‘Maximum prosperity’ means the highest development of business. dividends.Unit 1. Efficiency leads to higher profits which can be shared. 4. 6. 3. 5. 6. Agenda item c does not correspond to any of Mr Bibby’s notes. 2d.

Half the class should write headings for or briefly describe the purposes of paragraphs 1. a representative. A Have you (or somebody you know well) changed jobs? Why did you/he/she do it? If you did.3.g.Unit 2 . informing her of her rights. an establishment. (100 – 150 words) Formal notification – real-life phrases I hereby give notice that… I am writing on behalf of… I regret to inform you that… F G H I Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. You have a friend.7. Find the word or expression in the box above which fits these definitions: • a factory • to reduce the negative effect of something • a person who speaks for somebody else • when a group of workers negotiate together • to tell somebody else some new information Look at the article written by Professor Otto Slovo. or do you know anyone who has been? How do people feel when they have been made redundant? What do the words and phrases in the vocabulary box mean? collective redundancy. Sara. to dismiss a worker.9 and 11. Discuss the headings in class. a fixed term contract. who is about to be made redundant. a civil servant. to consult. to mitigate. a statute. . was it easy to do? What does to be made redundant mean? Who of the following are more likely to be made redundant? Why? • a policeman • a teacher • a factory worker Have you ever been made redundant. a shop steward. the other half should do the same for the remaining paragraphs.Reading: Paragraph headings Page 1 2 The Restructuring of Business In this unit you will… • meet words and expressions about losing your job. to notify. collective bargaining. Write her a letter.5. B C D E For all the verbs in the vocabulary box. an unfair dismissal claim. Where might you find this article? How do you know? There are twelve paragraphs in the article. • read an article about redundancy rules. Use the information in the article to help you. write the derived nouns. a plant. a threshold. to consult / consultation. an obligation. e. • learn to write and practise writing organised paragraphs.

The only difference in law is whether or not there is a collective redundancy. (6) When workers who may be affected by the proposed redundancy action are represented by a trade union recognised for collective bargaining purposes. One is when some of the workers are no longer needed.Reading: Paragraph headings Page 2 employer must inform and consult other appropriate representatives of those workers.Unit 2 . (11) The consultation is to include ways of avoiding the redundancy situation or dismissals. the other is when a business is closing down. or when an employer no longer needs as many workers to carry out a particular task. This may be a shop steward or a district union official or a national or regional official. These may be either existing representatives. (9) The employer must begin the process of consultation in good time (and in any event at least thirty days before the first of the dismissals takes effect) in a case where between twenty and ninety-nine redundancy dismissals are proposed at one establishment within a ninetyday period. (12) I hope this brief set of guidelines will make the situation clearer for workers. (8) In non-union cases. however. (5) Employers are under no specific legal obligation to inform and consult workers’ representatives in cases falling below the twenty-redundancy threshold. The only class of workers who have no rights under redundancy law are people on fixed-term contracts of less than three months. the police and some civil servants. or new ones specially elected for the purpose. people can be made redundant in two situations. • • What are your rights if you are made redundant? Professor Otto Slovo provides some guidelines (1) Generally speaking. for example. (2) Redundancy law covers most people except the military. but the employer must consult in good faith with a view to reaching agreement. (4) There are a number of requirements which fall on employers in all cases. including the period over which the dismissals are to take effect. or of reducing the number of dismissals involved and mitigating the effects of the dismissals. An employer is required to inform and consult trade unions or other representatives of workers who are being collectively made redundant. the numbers and descriptions of workers it is proposed to dismiss as redundant. when a business or plant closes down. the employer must provide the following information in writing: the reasons for the proposals. • the proposed method of calculating any redundancy payments –. • the total number of workers of any such description employed by the employer at the establishment in question. other than those required by statute – that the employer proposes to make. (7) Where there are workers who may be affected by the proposed redundancies. (10) Before the consultation. In both cases the law is pretty much the same. the employer must inform and consult an authorised official of that union. but may do so voluntarily if desired. be at risk from successful unfair dismissal claims if they fail to inform and consult individual workers who are to be dismissed. so all the workers have to go. They may. The legislation does not require agreement to be reached. • the proposed method of selecting the workers who may be dismissed. taking account of any agreed procedure. where affected workers fail to elect representatives – having had a genuine opportunity to do so – the employer concerned may fulfil their obligations by providing relevant information to those workers directly. • the proposed method of carrying out the dismissals. The employer is not required to inform and consult any other worker representatives in such circumstances. A trade union may be recognised for one group of workers. A ninety-day period must be allowed for before the first of the dismissals takes effect in a case where one hundred or more redundancy dismissals are proposed at one establishment within a ninety day period. This might occur. the Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. It is the employer’s responsibility to ensure that consultation is offered to appropriate representatives. The employer is also required to notify the Ministry for Industry of the proposed dismissals. (3) A collective redundancy situation arises where an employer proposes to make twenty or more workers redundant within a ninety-day period. This means dismissal for a reason unrelated to the individual workers concerned. but not for another. .

under the pressure of globalisation. Page 3 Exam tip: The topic of a paragraph can often be in the first sentence. First. Work out the topic of the paragraph and then write and organise it into a coherent paragraph. new investment in machinery can lead to a reduction in the workforce. Today. Look at the information below. In addition. Consequently. then inform workers individually. Give the paragraph a title. The gist is a summary of the history. What is the connection doing? DISCOURSE – connectors / reference Danny Noble only spent one day. A second cause of redundancy is when a business ‘downsizes’ and decides it needs fewer workers. If only one person made redundant. you won’t find the sentences of a paragraph ‘thrown down’ in a disorganised manner.Unit 2 . so everybody loses his or her job. That afternoon the closure of the factory was announced. Exam tip: some paragraphs are organised chronologically. a whole factory may be unprofitable and the bosses decide to close it. . Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. • • • • • More than 20 workers = collective redundancy (in 90 days) Inform the trade union (if there is one) if collective redundancy situation. and was given a job putting the shoes into boxes.Reading: Paragraph headings Working with gist – paragraph building A Look at the paragraph below. so let the structure of the paragraph help you. Can you find the topic easily? What is the structure of the paragraph? One hundred years ago there were no laws protecting workers in the event of redundancy. as he had only worked one day. working in the shoe factory. he was told that that he had no job from the following day. Sometimes the paragraph title is only a re-wording and/ or summary of that first sentence. then possibility of unfair dismissal. If no trade union. All the highlighted words in the paragraph below make sense by joining the sentences and sentence parts to make meaning. one hour late. Most manual workers had only a daily contract and could be dismissed with only a few hours notice. workers rights are again being threatened. Exam Tip: in the exam. C. Redundancy applies to everybody with more than 3-month contract. Can you find the topic easily? Where is it in the text? What is the structure of the paragraph? Redundancy can be the result of several causes. Thirdly. he was not entitled to any redundancy benefits. Explain to what each highlighted word is connected. trade unions had to struggle hard for the law to be changed. Redundancy rights didn’t come easily. He went in at nine that morning. B Look at the paragraph below and give it a title. Monday 3rd February.

Why did Kenning’s ice cream factory close.’ 4 In the mid-nineties Consumer Review produced a damning report. In the 1950s Jack Kenning himself appeared on cinema advertisements eating an ice cream the size of a football. and a majority of respondents actually said that the ice cream had a horrible chemical taste. a depressed area. to plummet. to exploit. Capitalising on that trend. You can’t go on only making just two flavours of poor quality ice cream. with a string of factory closures adversely affecting consumer purchasing power and house prices. and cleverly exploited it. will be joining an ever-growing dole queue in the area. ‘I’ve spent twenty-two years packing ice cream in that darn factory. Employment prospects are grim. 5 So next month the factory will close. to fall on deaf ears Read the article. John Pizzy. ‘It’s all that foreign ice cream.Reading: Paragraph headings Page 4 Exam Task: Ice Cream Factory Goes to the Wall A Why do factories close down? What are the main reasons? • production is too expensive • we buy things from China these days • wages are too high • factories pollute the environment What are the social effects of factory closures? What do the following mean? proletariat. but sales have declined or plummeted on a yearly basis since then (depending on the year). 2 The 1950s were the heyday for Kennings. The government ought to ban it to help people like me. BAD PUBLICITY THE DOMINO EFFECT ADVICE FALLING ON DEAF EARS ORGANISING A STRIKE FALLING SALES CHANGES AT THE COMPANY MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION REDUNDANCIES B C D E A B C D E F G H Last lick of Kenning’s ice cream Saul Denman reports on the closure of a historic icon of English ice cream. In a 1985 interview Jack Kenning said. and the proletariat liked to eat ice cream. In the area the Kenning family had a virtual monopoly. and Kennings ice-cream will be licked no more. Kennings came bottom. streamlining. a leading management consultant who worked with the company in the 1980s. (Title I) 1 From the 1930s onwards Kennings operated a fleet of yellow ice-cream vans which played a catchy ragtime tune to attract customers. if you have a product that isn’t selling. ‘As I always told them. The industrial base in the area has taken several blows recently. In their case. the workers?’ 6 The area around Meckham has been officially described in a government report as ‘depressed’. Find a title in the box for the paragraphs below. and to service the urbanised and industrial Midlands. What is there for me? It’s OK for Kenning. Isaac Coupland opened an ice-cream factory in Meckham in the 19th century. . monopoly. so why should they sell theirs here?’ 3 Hector Jenner. diversification and streamlining was the answer. I EARLY HISTORY OF THE FIRM EXAMPLE 0 The Industrial Revolution created a proletariat. All of this came on top of a Health and Safety Inspectors’ report which stated that the standard of hygiene in the factory fell below legal requirements. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. Of all the ice creams on the market. We’ve never thought of selling our ice cream in Italy. which was sold on to the Kenning family at the turn of the century. Yet that’s exactly what they did. you’ve got some important questions to answer.Unit 2 . thinks otherwise. one of forty employees. diversification. who’ll retire on a big pension. But what about us.

wider consultation. The paragraph then goes on to give instances of the topic. ‘In addition’ establishes that the current sentence is additional information to the previous sentence(s). 2E. 9. workers can’t buy products for themselves). the aim of the consultation. 5H. 4) E 1G. low spending power. 6B Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. The topic sentence is the first. suppliers go out of business. ‘the’ in ‘the shoes’ refers to the shoes the factory produces implied in the previous sentence. who is covered by redundancy law. 8. to tell somebody else new information / to notify It is from a trade union magazine or a workers’ advice centre. 3) A (p. Suggested title: Employers’ duties in the event of redundancy DISCOURSE: ‘in’ refers to ‘into the shoe factory’ in the previous sentence. information to provide before consultation. ‘that’ in ‘That afternoon’ refers to the afternoon of Monday 3rd February in the first sentence. when consultation must start. 1) H (p. to mitigate / a mitigation a factory / a plant. 3) (p. employer requirements in cases of collective redundancy. 1) F (p. 3) B (p. 3) C (p. to consult / a consultation. 11. consultation with workers’ representatives. 4. We know this because the article is addressed to employees. collective redundancy. ‘the’ in ‘the factory’ refers to the shoe factory.Reading: Paragraph headings Unit 2: The Restructuring of Business (p. unemployment. someone who speaks for somebody else / a representative. what happens when there are no workers’ representatives. 12.4) D (p. (p. 3C. 5.g. poverty. 1) E Page 5 to dismiss / a dismissal. 2. 1) G (p. 6. 4A. The paragraph is organised chronologically. to notify / a notification. purpose of the text. 10. 4) B (p. . to reduce the negative effects of something/ to mitigate. 1.Unit 2 . as ‘4’ but for making fewer than twenty workers redundant. the situations in which redundancy arises. social breakdown They produced a single low quality product and faced competition from elsewhere. ‘Consequently’ means that the whole previous sentence is the reason for the sentence. the knock-on effect on other companies (e. 3. when a group of workers negotiate together / collective bargaining. Suggested title: The causes of redundancy. 7. Suggested title: The history of workers’ redundancy rights.

Unit 3 - Reading: Scan reading

Page 1

3 The Private Lives of Business People
In this unit you will… • meet words and expressions about meetings. • read the rules and constitution of an organisation. • learn the structure of a meeting agenda. A Are you a member of any clubs (e.g. a tennis club)? What are the rules? How much do you have to pay? Match words from the vocabulary box in section C with the following definitions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C the head of a club s/he looks after the club money a group of people elected to make decisions a document showing money coming in and going out a change to the rules


What do the other words and phrases in the vocabulary box mean?
to be eligible for, to exceed, a chairman, a secretary, a treasurer, an annual general meeting (AGM), a committee, to expel, an obligation, to cease, conduct, to deem something, to be, to audit, a balance sheet, to submit a document, premises, to be liable for, on behalf of, a debt, to sue, an amendment, to convene, to vest in somebody or something.


Find a word or expression from the vocabulary box to fit each gap. (You may have to alter the words or expressions slightly.)
Mr Bibby is _1_ of the club and keeps order at meetings. He is helped by the _2_ and the _3_ as well as the members of the _4_. Last week Mr Bibby voted to _5_ a member from the club at a general meeting he had _6_ for that purpose. The _7_ of the member had been unsatisfactory. Mr Bibby is _8_ for club _9_, which if not paid could lead to his being _10_ in court.


Look quickly at the club constitution on the next page and answer this question: Is the Businessmen’s Circle easy to join? Why (not)? Are these statements true, false or not stated? If they are incorrect, correct them.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. One purpose of the club is to provide its members with education. At present the club contains 60 members. The officers of the club are elected annually. The management committee of the club controls the property. A new member must be approved by the chairman. The management committee can change the membership fee. A member who has resigned has no further obligations to the club. Nobody can go to the club in the morning. The accounts are audited by the treasurer. Changing the constitution is only allowed if all the members agree.



Find three paragraphs in the constitution of the club which you disagree with. What is wrong? Pool your ideas and vote as a class on changes to be made. Re-write the club constitution with the necessary changes. Meeting talk – real-life phrases May I call the meeting to order! I declare the motion carried/defeated. I’d like to put…to a vote.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre.

Unit 3 - Reading: Scan reading

Page 2

1. The club shall be Businessmen’s Circle’. called ‘The 10. A member may tender his resignation in writing at any time, but shall remain liable for any obligations incurred by him while he was a member. After resignation he shall cease to have any interest in the property of the club or exercise any rights in the club. 11. If the conduct of any member shall – in the opinion of the committee or of any ten members of the club – be deemed injurious to the club, a specially convened general meeting of the club may expel that member with a three quarters majority of those who vote. 12. The club shall be open to its members between 18.00 and 5.00 seven days a week, unless otherwise determined at a special general meeting. Any member of the committee (including the chairman, secretary and the treasurer) shall however be entitled to visit the club premises at any hour. 13. The accounts shall be audited annually, and the annual balance sheet shall be submitted to the members at least fourteen days before the Annual General Meeting. 14. A member shall be entitled to invite not more than two guests onto the club premises at any one time, but such guests shall not be entitled to be present at any general meeting. The names of invited guests shall be written into the guest book. 15. A member shall not be personally liable for goods supplied to, or any obligation incurred by, any officer of the club on behalf of the club, but the property of the club may be demanded in settlement of debts. The management committee shall be entitled to sue, and be liable to be sued in the name of the club. 16. Amendments to this constitution may only be made by a majority of threequarters of the members present at a general meeting specially convened for the purpose of its amendment.

2. The aim of the club is to provide the members of the club with a common meeting place, for the purposes of recreation, entertainment and discussion. 3. Only businessmen earning over EUR 20,000 a month shall be eligible to be members of the club. 4. The total number of members of the club shall not exceed fifty, unless in a special general meeting this number is altered by a three-quarters majority of the members present. 5. The chairman, secretary and treasurer shall be elected for one year at the Annual General Meeting of the club, to be held in the month of April each year, or as early as possible thereafter. 6. There shall be a management committee consisting of seven members in addition to the chairman, secretary and treasurer. The three longest serving members of the committee shall retire each year, and their replacements shall be elected at the Annual General Meeting. 7. The property of the club shall be vested in the management committee, and in the event of any members of the committee dying, being expelled or otherwise being incapable of carrying out their duties, the property shall be vested in the remaining members. 8. A new member of the club must be proposed by five existing club members, and then must be approved by the management committee. 9. Each member shall pay a monthly subscription of EUR 500, which is subject to alteration at an Annual General Meeting, provided at least three-quarters of the members present vote for such an alteration.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre.

Unit 3 - Reading: Scan reading
Exam skills A

Page 3

What is the difference between the reading sub-skills skimming and scanning? When scanning, which is better (i) reading the statements first, or (ii) reading the text first? Exam Tip: it is important to know what ‘scan reading’ is and how to do it.


The following are items on an agenda. What do they mean? In what order would you expect to find them? If you don’t know, put the agenda items in a logical order. A B C D E F G H I J Any other business Approval of minutes Approval of new members Chairman’s opening address Minutes of previous meeting Resolutions Secretary’s report Time and date of next meeting Treasurer’s report Matters arising from the minutes (easily confused with E)

Exam Tip: when you are asked to find items in a text, read all the items, as it will tell you a lot about the content of that text. C On the next page is the agenda of a meeting of the Businessmen’s Circle. Under which item are each of the following relevant? a b c d e f g h i Only small items of business should be raised here. A proposed change to behaviour in the club. The secretary talks about another meeting A financial discussion A non-controversial part of the meeting to be enjoyed Fifty per cent of the members need to agree Five people have put forward a proposal Changing regular meeting times Members are asked to do some homework

Exam Tip: it is important to understand the structure of a text. Use your background knowledge and skim read before you scan. Supplementary Task Divide into two groups with at least three people in each group. Each group should prepare seven questions about the Businessmen’s Club (from the constitution and the agenda). Test the other group with your questions. The other group has only thirty seconds to look at the material before answering.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre.

It is helpful if the secretary is notified of major issues before the meeting. which is now overdrawn by EUR 50. Please make yourself fully conversant with the report before the meeting. proposed by Mr Wilf and seconded by Mr Aspad: ‘The main lounge should be a no smoking area. 6. Rene.Reading: Scan reading Dear Members.’ 9. 7. Page 4 I enclose the agenda for next month’s management committee meeting. Matters arising from the minutes Members are reminded that under this heading only issues directly related to the minutes of the previous meeting may be discussed. Relf and V. 5. Resolutions One resolution has been submitted to the meeting. Aspad. . 1. Minutes of previous meeting The minutes are attached to this agenda. E. unless otherwise agreed. He anticipates a major discussion on the cash flow account. Styn has raised an issue over the accuracy of the recording of the discussion under Item 7 of last month’s meeting. 8. F. Chairman’s opening address Mr Bibby’s short opening address will be: ‘Being a businessman: a pleasure or a burden?’ It is very much hoped that members will come on time for the meeting and not miss this short but pertinent speech. Reninson has been proposed as a new member by Messrs R. to be held in the meeting room at the club on Thursday 17th of next month. Hent. 2. Meredith (Secretary) Enc. Approval of new members Mr C. K. 4. so they can be included on the agenda. Wilf. Approval of minutes You are reminded that a simple majority of members is sufficient to approve the minutes of the previous meeting. Time and date of next meeting According to the standing orders. I note this to answer a point raised in a letter to me by Mr S Guth. P. 10. Secretary’s report My report is attached to this agenda.000. 3. Please note that I have attached a list of possible other times and dates on which to hold this meeting.Unit 3 . Mr D. Minutes of previous meeting Report of the Secretary Report of the Treasurer Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. Treasurer’s Report Mr Rene’s report is attached to this agenda. Any other business Please do not raise any major matters under this section.

as I can’t drive – as my late father once said. . it’s the bus for me. as a senior management consultant with clients to meet. but I don’t drive to work – I just simply haven’t the patience. After washing and dressing.Unit 3 .00 and both my wife Sarah and I get up promptly. (C) Mr Hector Jenner My approach to the morning is to get what needs to be done completed as efficiently as possible.30. I’m an office manager.. I thought. I can’t always show my irritation with things. I am very particular about how my coffee is made – not too strong or too weak. my coffee and chocolate croissants are uppermost in my mind. I normally arrive at about 8. and I get up and go to the bathroom. and I am alone. when I was asked to write this piece – what strange questions journalists ask and what strange things people are interested in these days.C or D. I always fold my night clothes and make my bed. S/he uses public transport for environmental reasons. At work. and he makes my breakfast. I immediately go to the gym we have in our house for a twenty-minute workout. My taxi comes at 8. For several years now we have adopted the practice of laying the breakfast table before we go to bed. but I usually get up around eight. I am usually more irritable in the morning than at any other time during the day. then who am I to make recommendations to others? Our alarm goes off at 6. S/he drives him/herself to work. but the sound of the vacuum cleaner – well I couldn’t tolerate that. Now. I have a driving licence. Saul Denman. Series editor. I am a senior management consultant. Whose character is most likely to create a successful businessperson? Why? Example: This person thinks it odd that journalists cover this topic – text A Wake up.30.45 with fresh croissants. I’m not a married man. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (A) Miss Rebecca Gold Oh dear.00. B. S/he is not in a good mood in the morning. I still feel it is important to be tidy and live properly.Reading: Scan reading Page 5 Exam Practice: Waking Up A B Do the task by finding the information below in texts A. as my mother taught me. Well. (B) Mr Ralph Bibby To be perfectly honest. consisting of tea. my little alarm clock goes off at 6. Summarise the characters of the four people. so keeping things tidy at work is very important and. S/he tidies her/his house him/herself. Breakfast is a simple affair. The alarm goes off at 7. it’s morning Most of us know the feeling of rushing to work in the morning. For the last couple of years I’ve had a fellow who comes in at 7. Although other people hardly ever come into my little house. He also does the cleaning after I’ve left for work – I need order and cleanliness. and I believe that if I can’t organise my own affairs. toast and jam – a delicious plum and apple jam made by Miss Pinkerton from my church group. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. unless I have a friend staying over.45.30 most mornings. although I live alone. S/he has academic interests. We S/he is driven to work. ‘Who would ever trust you behind the wheel of a car?’ So. going to work is a bit of a jolly old trek. Underline the information in text which gives you the answer. But what is it really like for other people? Every day this week you will read about four people in the town. Now. I try to keep everything in order at home too. before most people arrive at 9. S/he has few visitors.

I call the period until eight my ‘quiet time’.00. ‘Jump. My father used to say. the little boy jumped.’ ‘The workers united will never be defeated. Look at the personalities above and decide who you think might have said them? How true do you think these sayings are? 1 2 3 4 5 ‘Money makes the world go round. Kant. I used to drive to work.’ ‘Business knows the price of everything and the value of nothing. ‘Why are you standing there. C Look at the five quotations below.35. He fell onto the floor and bumped his head.’ ‘The market knows no morality.’ his father replied. I usually get to my office at about 9. I am the regional secretary for the United Workers Union. ‘Dad. I am normally the first to arrive at the office at 7. jam. and I’ll catch you.30. why were you so horrid to let me fall?’ ‘I’m not horrid. ‘Don’t waste the morning. has her own car and usually leaves twenty-three minutes after me.’ ‘Principles – what I want to know is their buying and selling price. cereal and tea. who is partially disabled.’ More confident now. sleeps on till eight.30 or so. son?’ the father asked. I am up at 5.Reading: Scan reading Page 6 have a simple breakfast of toast. but his father made no attempt to catch him. into the house. (D) Mr Arnie Fischer In the last few years I have had problems sleeping. and I believe in the market. ‘I’ve just taught you the most important lesson in life: “Never trust anyone.’ replied the boy. the problem is they’re not united.Unit 3 . and I like to be well underway with my work by 7. My wife Barbara. But even if I don’t get to bed until one. We live some distance from the town. when I go downstairs and read. who is an accountant. rolls and cheese – and we usually have it on Barbara’s bedside table. so I need thirty minutes to drive to work. Sarah. with meetings often going on into the small hours.’ his father reassured him. and my work follows irregular hours. the cleaner. I decided my conscience required me to do my bit and go by tram. and you won’t waste the day’.’ Short Story A wealthy businessman returned from work one day to find his three-year-old son standing on the stairs. I’ve recently finished a major work on the philosopher. I make a simple breakfast for myself and Barbara – coffee.”’ Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. but in view of the early morning congestion in the town. She tends to wait to let Mrs Hardie. and there’s so much to do I don’t know where to start. Through his tears he asked his father. ‘Don’t worry. ‘I’m afraid to jump. .

1. 2. 1) D s/he looks after the club’s money / a to go over the maximum the head of an organisation/club the officer in an organisation who carries out its decisions the officer in a organisation who controls the finances a yearly meeting which has special powers. the head of a club / chairman. 8. a debt to sue an amendment to convene to have the right to apply for s. convened. 2.b else to take civil legal action to make a change in the content of a motion to call a meeting (p. 1) F (p.b out of an organisation something which must be done to stop behaviour a person or an organisation holds s.b else money that is owed to s. students should read the information sought before searching the to do for s. In a scanning task. False: the officers and members of the committee may visit the club in the morning. 9 debts. 3. False: the number of members cannot be over fifty. A document showing money coming in and going out / a balance sheet. False. False Skimming is fast reading the whole text for gist. 6. 5. (p. False. 1) C (p. 3. treasurer. 2. A change to the rules / an amendment Vocabulary to be eligible for s. committee. 10. 10. 9. chairman. secretary. 1) E (p.Unit 3 . True. liable. conduct. 7.Reading: Scan reading Unit 3: The Private Lives of Business People (p. 4. a group of people who exercise power as a group to throw s. to exceed a chairman a secretary a treasurer an annual general meeting (AGM) a committee to expel an obligation to cease conduct to deem to be to audit a balance sheet to submit a document premises to be liable for s. 5. group of people elected to make decisions / a committee. 3. 4. 7. . irrespective of whether it is true or not to control the finances an account sheet which shows income and expenditure to officially give a document a building (used legally) the have to pay the costs or bills for s. True. 3) A Copyright 2007 Euro Examination on behalf of s. 4. 6. scanning is fast reading to find specific information. 8. 5. as a new member needs to be proposed by five existing members. False.b. 1) B Page 7 1. sued The club is seemingly hard to to be true. Not stated (this is not in the text: accounts are audited by an independent auditor). False. expel.

obedient). arrogant). Mr Jenner (direct. b 8. c 5. i 6 1B. (p. Fischer (2 and 5). 4J. Mr Bibby (selfish. g 7. 3B. 5) B 1D. e 1. 2D. h 10. intellectual) Mr Jenner would probably make the most successful businessman. 5C. 6I. 3) C (p. 7C. d 6. 3) B (p. There is no right answer. 10H a 9. 9A. . organised). 5G. 4D. 2E. f 3. the most likely person to say the others is Jenner.Unit 3 . 8F. 6) C Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. 7A. 6A. Page 8 Miss Gold (loyal.Reading: Scan reading (p. 3B. 5) A (p. Mr Fischer (sensitive.

and there were _8_ with the police. a renowned and fiery orator What do the following words and expressions mean? to declare. a tactical error. hostile. generally support the miners? Summarise each paragraph of the main article in one sentence or in a title. and what do they do? a political activist. to impoverish. Invent a scenario/short story involving all of the items in the vocabulary box above. ‘The right to strike is a basic right. Professor Otto Slovo. crucial. Reaching ‘breaking-point’ at work – real-life phrases I’ve just about had enough of this… That was the last straw! Right. The security service _11_ his phone. to concede defeat. national prominence. leader of the United Workers Union. There were both _4_ and national _5_ and a strike was _6_. Match each word/expression to its definition 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 a ballot a picket a breakaway party a confrontation a historical re-enactment to concede defeat Phone-tapping A B C D E F G To admit that you have lost a fight When two sides directly oppose each other – sometimes violently A striker who stands outside his/her workplace urging other workers not to break the strike When somebody secretly listens to your telephone calls When there is a vote A political party which is created from a split in an older one When actors make a play out of a historical event C D E Work with a partner. funds. He sent _7_ to talk to workers around the country. counter subversion F Fill each gap with vocabulary items which you have met up to now in this unit. so the union had no money. the polls. . The government _9_ the _10_ of the trade union. I’m walking! Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre.Reading: Multiple choice reading Page 1 4 Work-related Conflict In this unit you will… • meet words and expressions about strikes • read an article about a strike • practise detailed reading of a text A B What happens during a strike? What was the most famous strike in your country? When are strikes justified? These words and expressions are about things which can happen during or after a major strike. to reveal. G H I J Look quickly at the article on the next page.Unit 4 . He came to _3_ when he led a national strike some years ago.’ Do you agree? Write a list of reasons for your opinion and discuss it with others in the class. local. Arnie Fischer. Does the writer. to seize. is a _1_ and _2_ speaker. What are the following. Write a summary of the article in not more than 100 words.

He soon became a left-wing political activist. joining the Young Communist League. His breakaway party has had little success in the polls. Landau did not call a ballot for the Grenbergwide action. just north of Grenberg. (3) Crucially. (2) Strikes broke out across the area. but later joined the Social Democrats as the influence of the Communist Party in the town waned. (7) The rights and wrongs of the strike and the behaviour of the state authorities still divide Grenberg. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. Northern Coal PLC announced that it would break an agreement reached with the Grenberg’s miners in 1984. head of the Ministry of the Interior’s secret service. Hector Jenner. defeat for the miners in this strike was followed by a split in the union. and the following day pickets from Meckham appeared at pits in the villages south of Grenberg (one of the areas least threatened by pit closures). His book. which included the tapping of trade union leaders' phones. the son of Harold. points to the lasting divisions and high unemployment in Grenberg. This confrontation between striking miners and Ministry of the Interior police became known as the Battle of Traunt. and in 2001 was elected President of Grenberg’s miners. In December 1995 he founded the Socialist Labour Party. on the grounds that they represented illegal public disturbances. Jack Landau was born in 1938 in Meckham. and rose to national prominence during the 1994 Grenberg miners' strike. ‘Defeating the miners. and ordered a strike across the whole Grenberg coalfield. It was the subject of a historical re-enactment for television in late 2005. a small village east of Grenberg on 18 June 1994. 2004 and the Grenberg Miners’ Strike will be published later this year. Prof. and many communities around Grenberg would lose their primary source of employment. Arnie Fischer.Reading: Multiple choice reading Page 2 Jack’s strike Professor Otto Slovo outlines one the most famous strikes in Grenberg’s history. with a minority – mostly in the villages to the south of Grenberg – forming the anti-strike Union of Democratic Grenberg Mineworkers. (6) Rueben Stein.Unit 4 . The police were mobilised to deal with picket lines. The miners received no wages and were denied state benefits. On 12 March 1994. (5) The strike ended on 3 March 1995 – nearly a year after it had begun – when Landau conceded defeat. strikes began on 5 March following a local ballot. . He bitterly opposed the industrial policies of several governments. The young Landau became a miner himself after leaving school. ‘The tactics used by the government were a disgrace. the 1994 miners’ strike led by Jack Landau. was a great gain for business in the area.’ says an angry Councillor Fischer. faced as he was with an impoverished membership and overwhelming state power. published an autobiography in late 2005. and thereby breaking the power of the trade unions in the area. after criticising what he saw as a further move to the right by the Social Democrats. (1) In 1994. In this he revealed the extent of the service’s ‘counter-subversion’ exercises against Landau and the striking miners. (4) One of the most famous clashes of the Miners' Strike took place in Traunt. This tactical error made it easier for the Ministry of the Interior to bring the full weight of the law down on the striking miners and the union. Twenty thousand jobs would be lost. Jack Landau – President of the Mineworkers’ Union – declared the strikes official. He is renowned as a fiery and effective orator. a miner and member of the Communist Party. Local management consultant. In 1981 he was elected leader of the Meckham miners.’ But local councillor. believes. but they were strongest in those pits most heavily affected by the job losses. the company intended to close twenty pits. I welcome it. although there was widespread support for the strike amongst mine workers. Otto Slovo lectures at the University of Grenberg. The union’s funds were seized on 24 October 1994. The stage was set for conflict. In the Meckham pit. The miners were also split.

2 At PKZ Engineering. Negotiators need to spend time with management. to make things more difficult. E Look at the following ‘sentence heads’: unfinished sentences which can be completed by one of four multiple-choice options (here the multiple-choice options for each are not shown).Reading: Multiple choice reading Exam Skills A Read the following paragraph. and work out in which of the two following paragraphs the answer can be found. Strikes are often harder work than going to work. The strikers threw stones because… The police arrested the three women when… Mary’s husband thought that… The conflict became worse when Mary’s husband… Exam tip: Reading all the sentence heads for the multiple-choice questions (not the multiple-choice options) will tell you what the text is about. Unemployment in the region has now passed two million. . Why can’t the answer be found in the other paragraph? Write a question which has its answer in the other paragraph. C D Exam tip: Read the questions and work out exactly the kind of answer required. A major order from Saudi Arabia boosted production. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. conditions have actually improved in the last year. F Look at the following question (without multiple-choice options).Unit 4 . should choose to end the profit-sharing agreement worked out last year. Protest and unrest are now common. Where is the topic sentence in the paragraph in A? Exam tip: you need to read the text very quickly to work out what kind of text it is and what it is about. as is getting the message across to the public. Collecting money is important. Often. Work out the topic of the text. Why did Mr Fischer call a strike? 1 Conditions for workers in the whole region have been getting worse for several years now. where I represent over half the workers. B Which of the following is the best title for the above text? • Strikes can be fun • Organising a strike • How to end a strike Think of further appropriate titles for the text. Debate with your partner which is the best and why. and little money has been put into education. Who do you think wrote it? Page 3 You need to get pickets at the factory gate to stop the workers going in. because most of the media is against the strike. there is a real problem of getting the message through. In these circumstances I found it strange that the managing director. who may be having difficulties because of the strike. The number of houses built by the local council for ordinary working people has declined. profits and employment levels in the factory. Mr Grice.

Unit 4 - Reading: Multiple choice reading

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Read the following paragraph, written by Arnie Fischer, and answer the multiplechoice question. Give reasons for the correct answer and explain why the ‘distractors’ are incorrect. The strike… A B C D was supported by all the members of the executive committee. received Mr Fischer’s vote. was supported by a majority of the members of the union. was opposed by a minority of those who voted.

‘Whether the strike would go ahead or not was not decided till the last minute. The executive committee of the United Workers Union, of which I am chairman, voted eight to four in favour of a strike, but then there had to be a vote of all the workers. We sent out voting papers for a postal ballot, but less than half the members returned the ballot papers. Of those who voted, 59% voted for the strike, and the executive committee then endorsed the strike seven to five.’

Exam tip: work out why the distractors are wrong before choosing the correct answer. Extra Task Read the pieces of speech below (1 to 6). Which of the following people (A to F) do you think said each one? A. Jack Landau – the miners’ union president B. a police officer from the Ministry of the Interior C. a miner on the picket line D. the mayor of Grenberg E. Rueben Stein – state security service F. Hector Jenner – management consultant (1) ‘We were running like hell. Mrs Green at number 47 opened her front door. We thought we were OK, but then the whole door was knocked in.’ ‘Well, we have people everywhere. We have a unit at the telephone exchange, and of course we get information from the odd miner – but we pay “under the table” for that. Then we have people in the media.’ ‘We get our orders. We have shields and batons, of course. If we use gas, we need masks.’ ‘Trade unions get in the way of profit-making and the market. I welcome anything which weakens their power.’ ‘It’s not just a question of the miner’s jobs, but the whole community is dependent on the mining industry.’ ‘What is terrible is that all this is happening in the first place. We’ve already had two deaths, and the effects will be felt in Grenberg for many years to come.’






Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre.

Unit 4 - Reading: Multiple choice reading Exam Practice: Everybody Out!

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When workers get angry with pay and conditions, what (apart from leave!) can they do? What do the following mean? go slow, work-to-rule, industrial dispute, line manager, negotiation, non-contractual work,


Which forms of industrial action are most successful and why? Read the following letter from Arnie Fischer. Why is he writing? Do the task. Dear Colleague, You will by now be in receipt of the letter from Regional Office, outlining the latest revised view concerning the current pay dispute. It has come as some surprise to me, as it is mistaken and is now superseded by this letter. To help you understand the events leading up to the present situation, I will endeavour to explain them. Last month the union decided that we would begin a work-to-rule protest. In other words, we would only do what our contracts require of us and no more. The ‘work-to-rule letters’ which all members were asked to send to their line managers came to the attention of the company manager, Mr Edgar Grice. In response, Mr Grice declared that he had withdrawn from negotiations, and wrote to me indicating this, also questioning the legality of the branch taking industrial action against the company. I contacted the Regional Officer to request direction from national officers. Their immediate response was unequivocal: we were in dispute, and the dispute was legal for the reason in the following paragraph. The company was informed of the pay claim and the intention to ballot the membership for strike action on 24 April 2003. No challenge was received. The ballot was conducted following all legal requirements. I read this statement to Mr Grice at the last industrial works council, and there was no protest made at the time. Following a meeting of the regional committee of the United Workers Union on 9 May, the regional officer (Ms O’Brien) circulated a letter to members in this branch, stating that the latest advice from National Office was that we would have to be excluded from the action in November. I understood there was now some doubt over our legal position, and that National Office did not want to risk the integrity of the entire national ballot. In consequence of the above, I must further advise you that this branch of the United Workers Union and its members are in dispute with employers in pursuance of the national pay claim. The industrial action on 5 November will proceed as originally planned. The work-to-rule is also to proceed with immediate effect as part of the national industrial action. This has consequences for all non-contractual work, including the Open Day on 9 November. Advice regarding action on Open Day can be viewed on the branch website. Yours fraternally, Arnie Fischer United Workers Union, Branch Chair

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre.

Unit 4 - Reading: Multiple choice reading

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This letter… A B comes from the Regional Office of the union. is the first that members have heard of the industrial action. corrects an earlier letter. confirms an earlier letter.


Ms O’Brien… A B C D wrote to the members of the branch. opposed a national strike. ignored the advice of the national officers. believed the national ballot would have to be held again.

C D 2

The Union will ask its members… A B C D to go on strike. to break their contract with their employers. to break company rules. not to do any work not specified in their contracts. 6 The latest position is… A B as Ms O’Brien described it. that the branch will not join the national industrial action. that the national union is not in dispute. that the branch will start a ‘work-to-rule’.



Mr Grice… A refused throughout to negotiate about the pay claim. thinks a ‘work-to-rule’ isn’t an industrial dispute. has told Mr Fischer that he has finished discussing the issue. doesn’t know the details of the industrial dispute.


Most of the letter is about… A B C D the history of the industrial dispute. what members of the branch should do. Ms O’Brien’s opinions. the national officers of the United Workers Union.




About the ballot… A B C D Mr Grice questioned it from the beginning. Mr Grice was given notice of it. It was organised illegally. Mr Fischer and Mr Grice discussed it before it was held.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre.

3) A (p. 3) B (p. 3) C (p. 3 B. 7. 6 A/D to clarify the status of the strike to branch members 1C. 3F. (possible answers) 1. as we have no idea how Mr Fischer voted. 4 F.Reading: Multiple choice reading Unit 4: Work-related Conflict (p. The correct answer is D. 41% of those voting) opposed the strike. 3) D (p. The first paragraph talks about the social decline of an area. 4. 6. The article. 11. 6D. local. because it states a possible reason for the strike. the start of the strike. pickets. 2 E. 1 C. The answer can be found in the second paragraph. 5) D (p. 7D Page 7 political activist: somebody who engages in political activity. declared. Many things to do in strike… arguably the last one: Strikes are often harder work than going to work. 1) H (p.Unit 4 . seized. . present-day opinions on the strike a trade union organiser organising a strike A strike is hard work. 8. 3) E (p. 4B.1) B (p. fiery: adjective related to fire (here it means ‘passionate or hot-tempered). renowned. 6. 3) G Extra Task (p. 4B. Mary’s husband is involved in violent confrontations during a strike. 10. tapped. 6A. A is incorrect because the votes at the executive meeting were split. (p. fiery. 7A. 5 A/D. 2C.1) D 1E. the role of the secret service. 3. a renowned and fiery orator:– renowned: well-known. 5. 1.1) G (p. the reasons for the strike. confrontations. largely explains the strike from the miners’ point of view. 9. 4. 3) F (p. ballots. funds. 5G. 3. the politics of the strike. a minority (i. orator: a public speaker.and antistrike people. the end of strike. The article is mainly factual and includes comments from both pro. however. C is incorrect. national prominence.1) F (p. usually unpaid (not a politician). as a majority of the members of the union didn’t vote. 2. 5) E Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. 5A. The Battle of Traunt. 2. For B there is no evidence. 3C.e. 5. 7. 2D.

Remember. a slide. and I’m really worried that things will go badly again. It’s absolutely terrible. but _5_ all the time. to hire a venue. Which is the most important? Do you agree with everything Mr Bibby says? You have received the following letter from a colleague and friend. He wants to keep his listeners _7_. Wayne Shatner runs a small catering business. to detract from. a tip D Fill in the gaps with a word or expression from the vocabulary box. Last week I gave a presentation to some managers in the catering business and they just looked bored all the way through. E Look quickly at the article on the next page. Who wrote it. Hi there. What is Mr Jenner’s main point? Make a list of the most important pieces of advice from Mr Bibby. But nobody laughed. he has a _4_ which is boring to listen to. I thought I had very interesting Power Point slides. Have you got any advice for me? Jane B C F G H Being clear in public – real-life phrases Good Morning. Next week I have to give them a second presentation.Listening: Short conversations Page 1 5 Business Talk and Chatter In this unit you will… • meet words and expressions about public speaking • read an article on boring presentations • role-play situations during a presentation A Do you like listening to business talks and presentations? What makes them interesting or boring? What are PowerPoint presentations? What advantages do they have? Do you like them? What do the following words and phrases mean? Which are connected to presentations? Power Point. and who is likely to read it? Where would you find it? Read the article again quickly. Write a reply. so he tells bad jokes. . You may need to adapt the word. and I kept talking and had a good stock of jokes. umming and erring. to point the finger of blame. He never pauses. Unfortunately. you are writing to a friend. a monotone voice.Unit 5 . Could I have your attention please… In this short talk I want to make three points… To to be onside. to come down to s. He has a _1_ presentation which uses twenty _2_. my key message is… Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. assorted expenses. which _6_ from his message. Look again at Mr Bibby’s advice in the text. He _3_ through the local business college for his presentations.

Meetings are about talking.’ Bibby.Listening: Short conversations Page 2 Boring presentations Hector Jenner. Yet the sad truth is that boring meetings cost business millions of euros each year. ‘A year ago I heard someone give a speech about the history of pensions and he held the attention of a hundred people for over an hour. I suppose. Why should we have to waste time sitting there listening to somebody else’s bad humour and stupid jokes?’ says Bibby. The ability to use metaphor. do we get such poor value for money? My colleague Ralph Bibby. with thousands attending presentations from which they are getting little or no benefit. By the time the typical business presentation comes to an end the interest levels of the average listener will have disappeared. I would add to that the financial cost of wasted time and effort. ‘In a lot of organisations it's not regarded as a proper presentation unless there are slides. has pointed the finger of blame at slide shows. So this self-defeating cycle continues. explains his anger at boring and unprofitable talk in meetings and presentations. also focuses on the voice. They need to learn to pause’ ‘Another problem is those who insist on telling bad jokes in a desperate attempt to keep the audience on-side. only boring speakers. And wasting money on orange juice and sandwiches doesn’t make the meeting any more interesting or profitable. But.’ says Bibby.’ he says.Unit 5 . It’s time it stopped. People might as well go away and read a book. ‘Relying on "visuals" restricts a speaker's eye contact with the audience. And effective communication is necessary for profit. natural ability’ Bibby has a few tips for those who want to improve their speaking skills. Nobody wants to sit there watching a series of slides. a professional public speaker. if there must be meetings. I am fed up with this army of PowerPoint-crazed middle managers. ‘Listening to people speaking in a monotone voice and “umming and erring” – well. management consultant. who teaches public speaking techniques to business people. And the nervous speaker uses them as a support. One study suggested that these boring meetings cost businesses more than EUR 8m a year. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. nothing is more important than the speaker believing that his speech will communicate a message that will make money. Bad jokes really irritate me. The extraordinary thing is that even people who don't like being on the receiving end and can see the waste when they're sitting in an audience still use the same slide-dependent approach when making presentations themselves. It all comes down to training and. storytelling and rhetoric helps keep up interest levels. I would add. Include preparation time. and the figure is even more. as it’s a waste of money. the cost of providing refreshments. travel and other assorted expenses. Talking should be about effective communication. ‘There's no such thing as a boring subject. they shouldn’t be public speakers at all until they’ve had lessons. hiring venues and equipment. . Why then.

I couldn’t find it at all. Yes. poor guy. Wow. B Look at the following dialogues between two participants. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. Well. Two participants… • • • • • meet before the presentation. though. and work out what the highlighted pronouns might be referring to. but have not met for some time. One spills orange juice on the other. It was quite funny to see Mr Bibby holding it and waving it around like that. They know each other. In each. participants can’t hear the presenter. C Listen to the following dialogues. You will have to listen carefully to work out what it is. Exam tip: you will need to listen to the full text to understand what is happening. . are at the buffet table. he kept asking all those questions And nobody shut him up. who have met at the presentation exchange telephone numbers. Exam tip: all the conversations occur in one place. Quite. discuss the presentation. you’d think they’d tell you at the start of the day. it saves having a whiteboard-pointer He does have a bad leg. Wayne Kevin Wayne Wayne Kevin Wayne Wayne Kevin Wayne Wayne Kevin Wayne My God. he was boring. Working with a partner. write a three or four-turn dialogue of not more than sixty words for one of the following situations. Yes. determine what the speakers are talking about. It’s daft. It was what was in them that was awful. other class members must guess which situation. the presenter can’t hear him/ her.Unit 5 . Exam tip: often you will hear an object referred to by pronouns. They must have been made yesterday.Listening: Short conversations Exam skills A Page 3 A presentation is being given at a firm of management consultants. or involve one topic. they were disgusting. which occur at a business presentation. Role-play the dialogue to the class. having people wondering around the building looking for it. When one complains.

In each conversation you will hear Mr Jenner talking to a person in the firm. Miss Schlick Personal Secretary to Mr Jenner D. . Explain it to somebody else in the class. A. Match each conversation with a person in the office structure diagram below. Mr Anders Senior International Consultant Partner Mr Jenner Senior Partner and Executive Director B. Mr Bibby Senior Partner and Chief Consultant C. Miss Fletcher Trainee Management Consultant G.Listening: Short conversations Exam practice: The Garden Party A What is a garden party? What do you think business executives talk about there? Would you feel comfortable there? Look at the structure of the management consultancy Bibby and Jenner. Miss Gold Consultant and Office Manager F. F Make a diagram of the hierarchy in a real firm that you know – or otherwise an imaginary one. Mr Pringle Consultant and Assistant to Mr Bibby E. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. Mr Strapling Part-time Consultant E Make a list of as many job positions in a company you can think of. What kind of job does each person do? Which job would you most/least like? Read the instructions and remind yourself of the structure of the firm. Listen again. What additional information can you remember about each person? Page 4 B C D Mr Hector Jenner – senior partner in the firm of management consultants Bibby and Jenner – and his wife Sarah are holding a garden party for members of the consultancy. Mr Watergeist Management Consultant H.Unit 5 . Do the task. There are two people you will not hear.

now I’ve been wanting to talk to you about the Seattle-based Liebermann Corporation. I think. Of course. I wasn’t sure that you were back in the UK. the (PowerPoint) screen 1B. (possible answers) a participant in a seminar. given your position in the firm. should use metaphor. 1) E (p. sandwiches. 6 detracts. We’re supposed to be enjoying ourselves. I wanted to catch you. Yes. Hector. That comes to around £600. 2. they should avoid bad jokes. who has attended many business presentations. You might find it as a general feature in a magazine for professional people. story. I’m expecting you to bear half the cost. His main point is that money is being wasted on ineffective presentations relying on visuals is a mistake. I suppose these types of occasions are necessary. 2A. 3.Unit 5 . they need to pause. 5. Hector. there you are. If we’d paid a little more we would’ve been able to get higher quality French cheeses. 4) C Unit 5: Business Talk and Chatter Conversation One Mr Jenner Ah. Monotonous voice. when I sent out the invitations. speakers need training. PowerPoint. 1) D Page 5 1. 2. the room. Ralph Mr Jenner Ralph Conversation Two Mr Jenner Hello. 6C. 3) B (p. hires a venue. slides.. . onside Written by Mr Hector Jenner. so I’m not exactly over-excited by spending my Saturday afternoon with them. Ah. 4. any subject can be made interesting. This cheap stuff is murdering my palate. Felix. 3) C (p. Just one thing. nervous people shouldn’t use slides as a support. 1) G (p.Listening: Short conversations Unit 5: Business Talk and Chatter (p. rhetoric. 3E. an experienced management consultant. 5H. speakers should concentrate on subjects that they believe will help people to make money. Felix. Yes. We see these people every day in the office. ums and ers. a walking stick. 7. (p. Hector. the toilet 1. 1) F (p.telling. This party’s creating a massive amount of good will in the firm. 4D. Next week. intonation. 3. the seats. Felix Mr Jenner Felix Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. I flew in from the States yesterday.

Anyway. You know me. Mr Jenner. I like the tie. Yes indeed. And I bet now. So I can see. Good Heavens! We wouldn’t want any misunderstanding. Well to tell the truth. Lorna Mr Jenner Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. there. Mr Jenner – but I only drink in extreme moderation. I’m not wearing perfume. May I pay you the compliment of saying your perfume smells as if it were made in Heaven. I didn’t know that you drank red wine! Are you enjoying it? Yes. middle-management can be quite fascinating. Oh. Rebecca Mr Jenner Conversation Four Mr Jenner Gavin Mr Jenner Ah. After twenty years with the firm I’m still at the bottom of the pile. my dear. there are serviettes.Listening: Short conversations Conversation Three Mr Jenner Rebecca Mr Jenner Page 6 Hello there. Yes. so you don’t have to wipe your hands on your jacket. you know. it’s a present from Mr Bibby. Laurence Mr Jenner Laurence Conversation Six Mr Jenner Hello. Mr Jenner. Mr Jenner. Yes. I’m just being my dirty old pig-like self. that even here you’re still keeping an eye on people as if you were at the office.Unit 5 . . Not bad for you. let’s change the subject – more wine? Conversation 5 Mr Jenner Hello. And perhaps you’re standing just a little too close – and Mrs Jenner’s looking at you. Mr Jenner. would we? It can easily happen. strange things happen. My life’s my work. well. well I suppose if you have a close one-to-one working relationship with your boss. You’re as well-dressed as usual. I miss your appalling manners since you’re only in the office a couple of mornings a week now. eh? – if you can survive on the money. young man. Oh. it’s fine. when two people work so closely together.

a partnership. She had many debts. Who is ‘you’ in the text? Look at the article again quickly. a lump sum cash payment. .th. Write to her and tell her that she will become a bankrupt. Remember. a will B Leah Bash owned a large business which failed. The court appointed a _6_. or summarise it in one sentence. Put one into each gap below. You may have to adapt the word. Talking about debts – real-life phrases We’re in the red. a creditor. an asset. bankruptcy. so she _4_ a court for _5_. which she had received in her grandmother’s _10_. A friend has just sent you an e-mail saying that she owes EUR 5 million which she can’t pay. and what will happen to her. a settlement. you are writing to a friend. a debtor. so she was a _1_ and had many _2_ who wanted to be paid. In which paragraph can you find the following? a b c d e how the public finds out that somebody is bankrupt a bankrupt can keep some furniture a bankrupt must visit the receiver who can become a bankrupt organisations which are told about a bankrupt person F G Give each paragraph a title. to disclose. a receiver.having no money) The business has a cash flow problem. to comply with s. D E Look quickly at the article on the next page. (having debts – particularly a firm) I’m skint / broke (?) at the moment (slang. a redundancy payment.Unit 6 – Listening: Making notes Page 1 6 Personal Bankruptcy In this unit you will… • meet words and expressions about closing down a business • read an article about bankruptcy • practise listening for specific information A What does it feel like when you have no money? What happens to you when you can’t pay your debts? Check you understand the words and expressions. C What do these words and expressions mean? Which ones are connected to bankruptcy? to impose restrictions. She had to_8_ bankruptcy laws and hand over a _9_. The mail should be no longer than 150 words. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. to commit a criminal offence. a procedure. No _3_ with her creditors was possible. to petition. a utility supplier. who informed the electricity company and other _7_ .

stop using your bank. There are different insolvency procedures for dealing with companies. table. and has to report to your creditors. The receiver may request that you visit his or her office for an interview. inform the receiver of any property which becomes yours during the bankruptcy – such property includes lump sum cash payments that you may receive (for example redundancy payments. who will then decide whether you can keep them. chair and cupboard. Bankruptcy will involve the closure of any business you run and the dismissal of any employees. insurance policies and other papers relating to your property and financial affairs. Enquiries will also be made of banks. hand over to the receiver all documents relating to your home. (2) Bankruptcy is a way of dealing with debts you cannot pay. clothing. This can either be presented by yourself (debtor’s petition). Trying to do so after the bankruptcy order has been made is both difficult and expensive – and money is something you don’t have! (5) Once the bankruptcy order has been made. or by one or more creditors to whom you owe at least EUR 750 (creditor’s petition). so it can be sold. (4) A bankruptcy order can still be made even if you refuse to acknowledge the proceedings or refuse to agree to them. and you will lose your house or flat. (6) The receiver is also responsible for looking into your financial affairs for the period before and during your bankruptcy. a bed. so you can make a fresh start in five years time. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. bank statements. you must comply with the receiver’s request to provide information about your financial affairs. you should try and reach a settlement before the bankruptcy petition is due to be heard. it is advertised in the leading newspapers to inform everybody that you are a bankrupt. • • • • • • (10) You can keep the following items unless their individual value is more than the cost of a reasonable replacement: work tools up to a value of EUR 2000. Anyone can go bankrupt. Being a bankrupt will also impose certain restrictions on you. utility suppliers and the Land Registry. hand over to the receiver any pay or salary you receive from work – you will be allowed to keep a minimal amount for living. hand over all your assets to the receiver together with all your financial records.Unit 6 – Listening: Making notes Page 2 I’m bankrupt! What does going bankrupt mean? Sara Liebermann explains. (3) A court makes a bankruptcy order only after a bankruptcy petition has been presented. (8) When a bankruptcy order has been made. He or she has responsibility for administering your bankruptcy and protecting your assets from the date of the bankruptcy order. The receiver must also report any matters which indicate that you may have committed criminal offences in connection with your bankruptcy. and details of what you owe and to whom. bedding. building society. You will have to give up any possessions of value. credit card and similar accounts straightaway. or that your behaviour has been dishonest. which you must fill in fully and accurately. . property or money left in a will). A receiver is appointed by the court to deal with your case. mortgage. pension and insurance companies. (9) After being declared bankrupt you must do the following: • give the receiver a full list of your assets. If you dispute the creditor’s petition. and landlords. He or she may report to the court. Bankruptcy can free you from overwhelming debts. including individual members of a partnership. It also ensures that your assets are shared out fairly among your creditors. You must co-operate fully once the bankruptcy proceedings have begun.. Before the interview you will be sent a questionnaire. (1) Bankruptcy is a serious matter. All personal items must be disclosed to the receiver. not obtain credit of EUR 500 or more from any person without first disclosing the fact that you are bankrupt. (7) The receiver will give notice of the bankruptcy order to local authorities.

Predict what information will fill each gap. . (NB the exam task will be gapped) From childhood Leah Bash formed a strong interest in cosmetics. Discuss with your partner which one is the best. She became very _5_ because she _6_ and now she 7 . C Look at the following text. This will help you to understand the recording when listening to it. 2. Leah opened a business… 2. Exam tip: predict the information for the gaps. 3. Look at them quickly and correct them. and a _4_ was appointed to manage her affairs. When she left university she borrowed some money from her father and opened a small shop. She employing more than eighty peoples. You can put up to three words in each gap. E Finish each of the sentences below in not more than three words. read them through quickly to get the gist of the text. You may be wrong. 1. By April 2004. However in 2004 people stopped buying her cosmetics because of a bad review in a newspaper. What is the significance of each term in the text? cosmetics – university – borrow – eighty – a newspaper review Exam tip: when you hear the text you will have to listen for factual pieces of information to fill the gaps. Leah could no longer pay her _1_. At first the business… 3. Exam tip: when you first see the gapped notes. but at least you know what you are listening for.Unit 6 – Listening: Making notes Exam Skills A Page 3 Look at the following paragraph and give it two possible titles. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. A newspaper published… Exam tip: remember not to put more than three words into each gap F Each of the sentences below has one or more grammatical mistakes. so she was able to open several more outlets and after five years had a staff of eighty. B The following are all in the paragraph above. as long as the meaning is clear. D Listen and check your answers. He business quickly grown. Leah was always interesting in cosmetics. 1. Many women sought her advice and bought her products. She went to court to petition for _3_. Exam tip: in this task spelling and grammar do not matter. if necessary. Soon she had debts which she couldn’t pay and went bankrupt. Her shops weren’t able to open because she couldn’t afford to buy _2_.

• Soon his company _8_ . who has not been successful in his business life. • For his girlfriends he bought _5_ • and _6_ . Read the notes and try to guess what should fill the gaps.Unit 6 – Listening: Making notes Page 4 Exam practice: ‘I just threw it all away’ A B C What can happen when parents hand over a successful business to their children? Write down all the words you know about a business getting into trouble (e. bankrupt). After a year. What does the future hold for Lionel? Working with a partner. discuss what Lionel should have done. D E What are Lionel Metcalf’s problems? Morgan Fletcher of Business World Magazine is interviewing Lionel Metcalf. a/an _7_ F G H Make a list of all the mistakes which Lionel Metcalf made. . he was given benefits. 1 2 3 4 5 A A A A A scheme bank money rent benefit B B B B B benefit welfare bankruptcy means employment C C C C C expenditure scheme welfare spending rent Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. As a trainee journalist. because during his working life he had paid into the _2_. • Their income comes from _11_ . choose one option (A. Listen and fill each gap with not more than three words. Lionel was entitled to unemployment _1_ for a year. Lionel applied for _3_ benefit. Like Son • Godfrey Metcalf established company. He was given a _4_ test to see what income and assets he had. • They live together in _10_ . to pay for his _5_. A Youth Spent in Vain/ A Wasted Youth • When he was young he liked to _3_ • and have a/an _4_ .g. For each gap. As he had neither. you are taking notes. The Present • Both father and son lost their _9_ . Like Father. • which Lionel inherited in _2_. He also receives money from the local council. An unsuccessful businessman The Beginnings • Lionel Metcalf’s father had a/an _1_ . B or C) When Lionel became unemployed he had no income.

8 went bankrupt. d2. Lionel Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. I suppose I had a good start in life. 3. utility suppliers. bills. 6. 3. Debtors or creditors can petition for bankruptcy 4. receiver. 4) H Unit 6: Bankruptcy and Starting up Again Listening – making notes Morgan Well. newspaper review: bad and went bankrupt 1. Bankruptcy is made public 6. e7. 2. …after leaving university. debtor. 3C. 1 electronics business. Notices and inquiries 8. 4. The debtor’s duty to provide information 9. borrowing: from father to open shop. . 7. creditors. settlement. 1) E (p. 5. petitioned. b10. 7 computer . lump sum cash payment. 5C (p. 4) E (p. 5 dresses. What you can keep Possible titles From Success to Failure or The Ups and Downs of Business. It’s sad to say. (suggested answers) 1. 3. …prospered. 4B. receiver. The obligation of a bankrupt 10. 2. 9 houses. would lose everything (p. 3 drive expensive cars / spend money. Her business grew quickly / quickly grew. You can’t hide from bankruptcy 5. sadly your business career has not been successful. 7. Mr Metcalf. Bankruptcy is about dealing with unpayable debts 3. 1) D (p. 8. comply with. Would you like to tell us about it? Well. 3. 1) F (p. Leah was always / had always been interested in cosmetics. eighty: had a staff of 80. 3) B (p. 6. 3) A (p. any cosmetics. bankruptcy. 2 1950. will the person who might be going bankrupt a5. 4 luxury flat / expensive car. which I inherited when he died in 1950. 10. had hard. university: after that she set up in business. She employed more than eighty people. cosmetics: Leah always had an interest. bankruptcy. c8. but it’s true. 2. The truth is I wasted all my money. depressed. 5. 2. Bankruptcy is a serious matter 2. 10 a small flat. 9. to tell you the truth my life in business was a complete and total disaster. 11 welfare payments. It was far more important for me to drive expensive cars and have a luxury flat in London. The receiver investigates and reports 7. 1B. 2C. 3) E (possible answers) 1. 3) D worked (p. 1) B Page 5 1. …a bad review 1. My father had built up a successful small electronics business. 4. 3) F (p.Unit 6 – Listening: Making notes Unit 6: Personal Bankruptcy (p. 6 bracelets.

Father and son. I also spent too much money.Unit 6 – Listening: Making notes Page 6 Back in the 1950s. couldn’t you buy me that dress. Of course. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. everything started to go wrong with the company. we are now both in the same position. Well. In the end I spent twice as much as the company was making in profit. The situation at the company went from bad to worse.’ And he kept running up huge debts and in the end that brought him down. not driving around the countryside. I would tell him. Bankruptcy was just around the corner. ‘Well. I would drive along in my new sports’ car. We lost our houses in the bankruptcy proceedings. I really should have been running the business.’ Like a fool I would buy them what they wanted just to keep them happy. He set up a small computer firm on borrowed money in the boom of the 1980s. inevitably. too. . Godfrey. you can’t run a race and tie up your shoelaces at the same time. when I was young. Well.’ or ‘I really must have that bracelet. I also set a bad example for my son. The company could not pay its creditors. and we were rapidly becoming insolvent. The local council rent us a small flat. but the company went bankrupt. and we live there now on welfare payments. Lionel. ‘Oh. son. The girls would say.

under Mr Slovo’s article. a qualification. You may need to adapt the word. to be habitually late. What do the following words and expressions mean? to resign. Have you ever changed your job? Check you understand these words: employer. He will find it difficult to get another job as he has no _5_. G Complete the table. bad things that happen at work. a fixed term contract. and John Pizzy. was made _1_. Employment – real-life phrases They took her on (informal) He got the sack/boot / was fired/sacked/ thrown out/kicked out (informal) To give notice VERB ADJECTIVE procedural B C D F I J Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. to give notice. Which syllable is stressed in the words in each box? Does the stress change when the word is converted ot another type of word? NOUN qualification compensation dismiss H Look quickly at the following article by Professor Otto Slovo. Put one item from the vocabulary box into each gap. redundant. The ice cream factory closed. financial compensation. to dismiss Make a list of all the reasons an employer might want to dismiss an employee. neither/don’t a right of appeal. 3 Meckham Community Post Look at Professor Otto Slovo’s article again quickly. an employment tribunal. Which of the following magazines do you think the article is from? 1 Management Consultants’ Review. to be dismissed on the spot E Put the words and expressions from the vocabulary box into one of three columns: good things that happen at work.. who had worked there for many years. . to be entitled to s. an verbal warning. When can an employee be fairly dismissed? Write a short leaflet (not more than 100 words) informing workers about the law on dismissals. 2 Workers’ Briefing. Use the structure on the opposite page. He knew about the closure because he was given three months _2_. employee. and is _4_ to unemployment benefit. He also received EUR 300 in _3_. a disciplinary procedure.Unit 7 . conduct.Listening: Meeting Page 1 7 People Changing Jobs In this unit you will… • Meet words and expressions connected to employment contracts • Read an article about fair and unfair dismissal • Practise listening for detailed information A Think of five reasons why people change their jobs.

then that is automatically unfair. or intends to do so. but the employer must also act reasonably. . and closes. then your days in the job could be numbered. So even if you are habitually late for work and you get dismissed on the spot. This usually involves a verbal warning. you can take your case to an employment tribunal. and the employer has acted ‘fairly’. you can take the case to an employment tribunal. then you can be thrown out. if your employer dismisses you because of your race. A dismissal for redundancy will be unfair if you have been selected unfairly for redundancy. You are also dismissed in law if you resign because the employer has broken the contract of employment. Now. Even if you are fairly dismissed you may still be entitled to a redundancy payment. Fourthly. you might still have a case. Dismissal is only fair if it was for one of the reasons listed below. So if you are a singer in a choir and can’t sing. a written warning and then a dismissal with a right of appeal. First. It doesn’t matter if the employer gives you notice or not. it is not just a case of the employer having a good reason to dismiss you. It doesn’t matter how long you have worked for the firm. so if you are new to a job you are in a pretty weak position. So you may have been illegally dismissed without knowing it! Dismissals may be fair or unfair. Dismissal is defined as the ending of a contract of employment. The correct disciplinary procedures must be followed. you can be dismissed if your conduct is unacceptable – so if you are a waiter and you throw soup at the customer or steal the money from the till. You should know. however. If you think your employer has dismissed you unfairly.Unit 7 . Thirdly. This is when you are no longer needed to do the job that you do. Finally. for example when a factory making ice cream no longer has any customers. religion or gender. your employer can say goodbye to you! And if you’re working as a doctor without ever having been to medical school. you can be dismissed if you are incapable of doing the job or don’t have the correct qualifications. there is redundancy. in law you are dismissed if you have a fixed term contract and that contract comes to an end. Secondly. Have you been sacked unfairly? You might have been. Let us look at the reasons for fair dismissal. which has the power to recommend that you get your job back or to give you financial compensation. if: • • • What can YOU do you about it? • • Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. that you can only claim unfair dismissal before an employment tribunal if you have worked for the employer for at least one year.Listening: Meeting Page 2 Fair and unfair dismissal Have you ever been dismissed from your employment? Was it fair? Read Professor Slovo’s article and find out.

Unit 7 . Mr Jenner avoids employment court cases because… A he is worried about losing the case B the company doesn’t have the ability to fight the case C they are expensive for the firm D he needs to employ lawyers Exam tip: When you are looking at the questions. (i) Why does Mr Jenner often offer dismissed employees money? (ii) What rights do dismissed employees have? (iii) What does Mr Jenner want to avoid? Now look at the extract from the exam script and find answers to the questions. even if we believe we were right to dismiss the employee.Listening: Meeting Exam Skills A Page 3 Mr Jenner is the senior partner in the firm of management consultants Bibby and Jenner. procedure. D Fill in the text below with the following words: appeal. Any employee who is dismissed has the right of _6_ to the managing directors. then a written warning and finally _5_. Compare your answers with a partner. First. When you cannot hear a word try to guess what it means from the context. If a staff member does not perform satisfactorily s/he will go through a disciplinary _4_. Bibby and Jenner is a management consultancy which requires a very high _1_ of conduct from its employees. Mr Jenner believes that it is important to present a professional _3_ to clients. Predict the answers.’ Exam tip: you may not hear every word of the recording. so we don’t have to dismiss inefficient or otherwise useless people. that employee has the right to take the case to an employment tribunal. dismissal. Questions are often answered wrongly because the question itself has been misunderstood. The important thing is to employ good people in the first place. we end up _3_ good people. If the employee decides to go down that road. Mr Jenner and Mr Bibby. it helps to predict the answer and listen to see if you are correct.’ Exam tip: At the beginning of the ‘meetings’ task you are given one and a half minutes to read through the multiple choice questions to decide what each question is asking for. But if we overdo it. Mr Jenner… ‘Now of course when we terminate a contract by dismissing somebody. Look at the questions below and discuss in pairs exactly what information is being asked for. the problem for us is the amount of time it takes us to prepare the case and attend the court proceedings For us. an oral / a verbal warning is given. B Look at the following multiple-choice question. There is a strict dress _2_ too. time is money. It makes financial sense. ‘Very often people have to leave the firm because the pace of work causes _1_. code. We usually get round this problem by offering the dismissed employee some money to leave without taking the matter to court. . Obviously we need our people to work as _2_ as possible to maximise our profits. which is of no benefit to us. image. C Fill in the gaps in Mr Jenner’s speech. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. In pairs decide on the correct answer and the three ‘distractors’. standard. Find evidence for your choice in Mr Jenner’s speech.

The meeting between Ralph Bibby and Hector Jenner was… A. How does Hector Jenner treat Ralph Bibby? A. he should not be involved D. D. but has no right to see the senior partners. Miss Gold has done her job correctly. to pacify him. Which of the following would best describe Ralph Bibby’s behaviour? A. Compare Mr Jenner and Mr Bibby’s approach to the issue. wants to hear what Fiona Fletcher has to say. D. What does Hector Jenner lie to Fiona Fletcher about? A. has the option of meeting the senior partners. Dismissively B. C. Ralph Bibby thinks … A. C. 7. he should not be involved. friendly 5. 4.Unit 7 . takes a balanced view of the matter. Miss Gold’s conclusions are unreasonable. the result of a note from Mr Bibby. is amused by the circumstances. B. B. impatient D. Concerning Fiona Fletcher’s dismissal. 10. Ralph Bibby… A. . 9. is grateful. B. 3. What is your opinion? 1. set up by phone. formal C. Hector Jenner suggests that Ralph Bibby has some tea… A. C. believes Miss Gold’s report. doesn’t see the complaint as serious. C. Ralph Bibby… A. B. B. Miss Gold is incompetent. Concerning the complaint against Fiona Fletcher. What issues will concern the managing directors? Which ones will not? What is the procedure for dismissing an employee in a properly organised company? Read the first lines of the questions and glance over the options looking for key words. What do you think the listening text is about? Listen and do the task. because he always drinks the same tea. is irritated. B. B. Mr Jenner should deal with the matter alone. D.Listening: Meeting Exam practice: Saying Good-bye to Miss Fletcher A B C D E Page 4 Imagine a firm with over fifty people. Fiona Fletcher… A. one of their regular meetings. On the question of her dismissal. Mr Bibby knowing the full facts of the case. D. D. Hector Jenner and Sarah Fletcher. because Mr Jenner is thirsty too. the matter is not important. You will hear Ralph Bibby. B. leaves it with Fiona Fletcher. called by Mr Jenner. the matter will take the whole morning. can ask. Rudely Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. With humour D. cannot question a decision made by Miss Gold. Concerning Fiona Fletcher’s dismissal. D. Miss Gold having recommended her dismissal. Mr Bibby being pressed for time. the senior partners giving the matter their full consideration. C. Hector Jenner feels… A. 8. When his tea arrives. C. C. because he is thirsty. self-controlled B. is required to meet the senior partners. C. D. With understanding C. 6. 2.

I did. Option D: while ‘D’ may be true. 9C. Miss Gold’s made a full report of the incidents involved. not that it does not have the funds. 3) A (i) Mr Jenner offers to dismissed employees money in compensation because it costs the firm money to fight a dismissal case. 5. Option C: the correct answer. 5A. (ii) to take their case to an employment court. standard. 3. the office manager.Listening: Meeting Unit 7: People Changing Jobs Page 5 (p. 2C. to institute) a procedure to compensate (Ooo) to dismiss (oO) ADJECTIVE qualified /-ing (Ooo – ooOo) procedural (oOoo) compensatory (rare) (ooOoo) dismissed (oO) (p. It would appear that Fiona Fletcher – whom we appointed at the last minute in January. 2. 10B Unit 7: People Changing Jobs Listening – meeting Mr Jenner Ah. 1) H A trade union journal. 4. (p. Workers’ Briefing (it is easy to understand. .3) C (possible answers) 1. 4) D 1D. I believe – fully discussed the matter with Fiona Fletcher.3) B Option A: Jenner never mentions this. stress/illness/dissatisfaction/discontent/friction. (p. 5. hard/much. dismissal. Miss Gold has recommended her dismissal – and has communicated the fact to her. image. redundant. qualifications. it is not the reason given. 3. 4B. 2.1) G NOUN a qualification (oooOo) a procedure (oOo) compensation (ooOo) a dismissal (oOo) VERB to qualify (Ooo) to (e. notice. 1) F 1. I see you got the note I left on your desk about the probable dismissal of one of our new young recruits. 3. 1) I inability to do the job. 3A. 3) D 1. Mr Bibby Mr Jenner Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. no qualification. Miss Gold prepared the report. (iii) spending money on fighting a case at an employment court (p. oriented to the worker’s point of view) (p. code. procedure. and has . appeal (p. redundancy (p. Ralph. if you remember – has been playing up. What’s all this about exactly? I certainly hope it won’t be too timeconsuming. 6B. he assumes his dismissal is justified. 2. come in. 7B/A. Yes. 8A/B. financial compensation. On the basis of that discussion. 6. unacceptable conduct. 4. losing (p. Option B: Jenner implies that the firm is unwilling to devote the funds to the case.Unit 7 .g. entitled to.

used the firm’s phone for private calls and been rude to Miss Gold. as you know. What do you want? The Darjeeling tea? (loudly) Lorna. Now. your tea seems to be here. .Listening: Meeting Mr Bibby Page 6 I fully understand. (irritated) Ok. but why on earth does a matter of this kind require the attention of both senior partners in the firm? What do we employ Miss Gold for. The heart of Miss Gold’s case against you is that you’ve come in late on average three times a week. Last week. but with understanding) Ralph. come in and sit down. I’ll take it off you – and for heaven’s sake don’t let us waste any more time. that’ll be the Fletcher girl now. but… But I’ve got so much to do with the re-writing of the management contracts for PLZ Engineering. Sir? Yes. Hector. Miss Fletcher? Could I just say… ‘Could I just…’ Who on heaven or earth do you think you are. calm down. under clause 27 of her employment contract she has the right of final appeal to us. Let’s get on with things. you’ve wasted time while at work. Mr Bibby and I’ve had the opportunity to familiarise ourselves with Miss Gold’s report on the matter in hand. if I understand correctly. be so good as to make Mr Bibby a Darjeeling tea. you were given a final warning by Miss Gold. These little tempers of yours are beginning to affect profits. Yes. Ralph. Ralph. if you would. (loudly) Come in. Hector. KNOCK AT THE DOOR Ah. sit there where we can see you.Unit 7 . Where’s Miss Gold anyway? Why are things all over the place at the moment? (irritated. if she can’t sort out this kind of matter herself? Oh. Mr Jenner Well. because I know the answer. What I’ll do is have Lorna make you one of your teas. Hector. Miss Fletcher. Mr Bibby Mr Jenner Miss Fletcher Mr Jenner Shall I sit here. Now. Is all that correct. It’s just that I’m really very annoyed about having to give up a whole morning to listen to the Fletcher girl. Miss Fletcher. It doesn’t help us make money directly. but the offending behaviour since that time has continued. What’s that you’ve got in your hand? Is it Mr Bibby’s tea? Ralph. don’t answer me. Miss Fletcher? Do you think we are running some kind of hotel or holiday camp here? If I could just say… Miss Fletcher Mr Bibby Mr Jenner Miss Fletcher Mr Bibby Miss Fletcher Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. I think so.

Miss Fletcher? What I want to say is that I’ve found another job. let her comment. . and I’m leaving at the end of the week.Listening: Meeting Page 7 Mr Bibby Mr Jenner Miss Fletcher The point is… Ralph.Unit 7 . now what do you have to say. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. Yes.

Compare the internal structure of paragraphs 3 and 4. _5_ or _6_. There is more than one possibility for some. redundancy. alienating. poor performance. at your fingertips. vindictiveness. (gross) misconduct. In many cases the formalities were not followed. ‘If you decide to go to court. . (a piece of) evidence. malicious. The official reason for the _2_ of their _3_ can be _4_. a victim. Summarise each paragraph in a sentence or title. Sara Liebermann helps workers who have had _1_ bosses. to delay. a liability D Use one item from the vocabulary box to fill each gap.’ she says. What are the topic sentences of each of the two paragraphs? Is there a difference between the topic sentence and the theme of the paragraph? G H Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. E F Look quickly at the article on the next page. and have all the information _9_. libel. to have sth. I tend to see most of these workers as _10_.Writing: Transactional writing Page 1 8 Formal Letters In this unit you will… • meet words and expressions about formal procedures • read an article about the legal steps for dismissing an employee • write a letter dismissing an employee A B Do you enjoy writing formal letters? Why? Why Not? Match the types of letter described on the left with the extracts on the right 1 2 3 A letter telling you that you’ve been successful in a job interview A letter dismissing you from a job A letter to a friend about your job A B C It’s really great…what I have to do is… We are pleased to inform you…We look forward to… In relation to clause 8 of your contract of employment… C What do the following words and phrases mean? Which words have a negative connotation? employment termination.Unit 8. defamation. an appeal. Who is Mr Jenner advising? What is the purpose of the first paragraph? (You can include the text in bold as part of the first paragraph. and most of the workers weren’t given a chance to go to an _7_ at work.) Each paragraph has a function and makes a point. vengeful. You may need to adapt the word. it is important to have _8_.

Shatner Catering.Unit 8. not the worker. Is the letter logically ordered? Re-write it. Hi I hope you are feeling better than I am. Advise Wayne on the what steps he would have to take to make the dismissal legal. When he gets back in a minute. but only because it can cause problems for the employer. How are things with you? Wayne. Jenner writes entirely from the employer’s point of view. 7-11 Park St. Jenner’s article reveals everything which is wrong with management consultancy today. He is completely partisan. For Jenner the purpose of keeping records is solely to empower the boss. Wayne Shatner. .Writing: Transactional writing I Page 2 Look at the following paragraph from a review of Mr Jenner’s article. This new chap has just borrowed one of our company vans to go off and get himself some lunch. Giving formal notification – real-life phrases I hereby give notice that… I have been asked to inform you… (writing for somebody else) With reference to clause 4 of your contract… Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. not because it hurts the employee. 3830 Meckham. J Reply to the following email in not more than 150 words. He says bosses should avoid vindictiveness. I’m going to call him a fool and an idiot and sack him on the spot.

Management consultant Hector Jenner provides some advice. Poor performance may or may not be the fault of the employee. Letters should concentrate on the facts of the situation. s/he might be doing his/her best but his/her best is simply not good enough. Further to our meeting held earlier today. give reasons for the proposed dismissal to the employee in writing. negative treatment can prompt them to be vengeful. and meetings must be at reasonable times and venues. hold a meeting with the employee to explain the reasons and give the employee the opportunity to explain his/her position. . (4) There are basic steps that need to be followed properly. irrespective of the circumstances and process of the dismissal itself. which carry potential legal liabilities for the employer. Assuming you have mastered proper business style. Nothing could be worse than getting into the middle of a dismissal process and finding basic facts and figures are lacking. Also. After any appeal meeting the employer must confirm the appeal decision in writing. always try to part as friends. (5) The above process means a minimum of three official letters. (2) Employers must use proper employment termination and dismissal procedures to ensure that the process when an employee leaves is professionally and legally correct. there is no money to be made from it. I regret to inform you that your employment with Bibby and Jenner is terminated with effect from Friday 14 June. by keeping employment termination and dismissal letters positive you avoid the risk of libel or defamation.Writing: Transactional writing Page 3 Good-bye Letters Writing letters terminating employment contracts is not easy. not handled properly. An essential part of a properly run firm is the keeping of accurate day-to-day records on every aspect of an employee’s conduct. not enemies. here I will concentrate only on the content. avoid vindictiveness. Dear Miss Fletcher. which does nobody any good at all. (6) Even in cases of gross misconduct. for whatever reason. (7) As a matter of good practice. and invite the employee to make an appeal and attend an appeal meeting. misconduct or poor performance. and the clear evidence to support these facts. The central principles for dealing with all three of these situations are broadly similar. and give the employee a reasonable period during which to consider the facts and his/her response. Second. The employer must also not unreasonably delay any of the stages in this process.Unit 8. and unnecessary hostility may cause management problems later. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. There are severe costs to the firm if employment termination is. Third. A manager of proper authority must attend meetings. give the employee your decision in writing (whether to proceed with the dismissal or other action). First. (3) Employment termination by the employer normally falls into one of these categories: redundancy. Nothing is gained by alienating people who already see themselves as victims. after the meeting. Having facts and figures at management’s fingertips requires good record-keeping. Any subsequent legal review process will not look kindly on any aspects of malicious behaviour used in the employer's handing of a dismissal. (1) Whenever you write any kind of official letter there are two things that it is vital to get right: the style and the content.

Using the template below. Discuss how effective the letter is. the recipient’s name and address.e. Exam tip: you do not need to reproduce addresses in the exam.. for example: Thank you for your past efforts and all the best for your future endeavours.Unit 8. C What is the function of the pieces of formal language highlighted in the text? Exam tip: you need to use appropriate register in formal letters. On a separate sheet of paper.) (6) (Optional sign-off.) (3) (Employer must clearly state previous warnings – informal. and any other leaving administration issues. .Writing: Transactional writing Page 4 Exam Skills A Look at the letter template below. and return copy of this letter.) (5) (Clearly state actual leaving date. B Look at the letter template again. requirement or otherwise to serve period of notice.) (4) (Clearly state requirements regarding return of documentation. the position of the sender’s name and address. Your letter should look authentic. (2) As stated at our meeting. but be realistic. equipment. the date and the reference). D You are Mr Jenner’s assistant. submission of final expenses claims. Name.) Yours sincerely. name and position (Optional section requiring person to sign. reference Dear Mr/Ms/Mrs ………. Invent details. written etc. holiday pay. but you need to recognise who the letter is from and who it is to. – the circumstances for each warning and the person's response and subsequent behaviour/performance. and other pay and pension details. the trainee management consultant. write out the formalities: letterhead and closure (i.. through logical paragraphing. (1) Further to our meeting of (date).) E Swap your letter with a partner. I (regretfully) confirm that your employment with us is terminated with effect from (date)/with immediate effect. the reason(s) for terminating your employment with us is/are as follows: (Employer must clearly state reasons – transgressions and relevant policies if applicable. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. address. car. and check for spelling and punctuation. date. write a letter dismissing Miss Fletcher. confirming receipt. formal. salutations. What is the purpose/function of each paragraph? Exam tip: your letter in the exam needs a clear structure.

Miss Gold. a noisy circus seemed to be going on outside in the corridor. as Mr Bibby From hjenner@bibbyandjenner. Senior Partner. Bibby and Jenner. What information should go into a warning letter to an employee? Read Mr Bibby’s letter. Take any other steps you think necessary to deal with this matter. D E F Write a letter to Miss Jowell. Bibby and Jenner. coming to work in jeans). Miss Jowell. and mention clearly the standards that Bibby and Jenner expects from its employees. If a matter needs placing on the agenda. spilling a fair proportion of it into the saucers. by 13. who: • was shouting to her colleagues (I can never stand the shrill sound of young women’s voices when they are shouting) • was using language which was vulgar • brought in our coffee at 11am. Ralph Bibby. H. I’m too busy to give it any more time. To assistant@bibbyandjenner. notify the office manager.00 on Tuesday.Unit 8. (Tasks E and F are not examination tasks) Copyright 2007 Euro Examination I am so angry that I can hardly write this e-mail!!! This morning I had a meeting in my room with representatives from a very important client of ours. (About 200 words) Write an email to Miss Gold. To assistant@bibbyandjenner. Bring it to me for signature when you’ve finished. As Mr Bibby’s personal assistant you have received the following emails.00. The main culprit was undoubtedly the new trainee in the There will be a senior staff meeting on Thursday at 9. . (About 50 words) Write the full agenda for the senior staff meeting on Thursday. What kind of person is Mr Bibby? Bibby and Jenner are a leading firm of management consultants. Jenner.g. Please draft an official warning letter to Miss Jowell. Throughout. Senior From rbibby@bibbyandjenner. giving a short explanation of the matter as an item to be included in the senior staff meeting agenda. and banged it down on the table.Writing: Transactional writing Exam Practice: Mr Bibby gets angry with Miss Jowell Page 5 A B C List behaviour which is acceptable (and unacceptable) in an office which deals with high-paying professional clients (e. Act it out in groups of three.

employment.1) I This paragraph identifies the topic/thesis at the beginning. a liability. then proves/illustrates/exemplifies it in the body of the paragraph.1) F (p. vengeful. This is a suggested format for a formal letter (p. Keeping records and evidence. (=reformation of specific thesis) He says bosses should avoid vindictiveness. to delay 1. 7. A possible correction could be: Jenner’s article reveals everything which is wrong with management consultancy today. 7.Writing: Transactional writing Unit 8: Formal Letters (p. 9. 4. 2.1) C (p. victims employers to establish the topic of the article (i. 3. He should try not to part with the employee on unfriendly terms. A dismissal letter will be more formal and legalistic in style than a letter of appointment which will probably have an optimistic tone.1) E (p. details one aspect and then finishes with a transitional sentence linking to the next paragraph. But your letter to Wayne will be informal. 10. 3) A Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. poor performance (in any order). .1) B Page 6 1B. 4. (= main thesis statement) Jenner writes entirely from the employer’s point of view. (= example and illustration of thesis) For Jenner the purpose of keeping records is solely to empower the boss. 6.1) H (p. Detailed steps of a dismissal. defamation. poor performance./5. 3 is informal. at your fingertips. The letter to the employee should be written in a formal style. Avoid vindictiveness. malicious. alienating. Getting the style and content right. Try to part on friendly terms In both 3 and 4 the topic sentence is the first. 2. 3. after the topic sentence. (= another example and illustration of thesis) (p./6. misconduct. redundancy. not the worker.e. details a procedure chronologically. (gross) misconduct. (p. termination. vengeful. libel.1) J The letter should remind Wayne of the correct procedures if he wishes to dismiss an employee. the correct contents of a letter of dismissal) 1. but only because it can cause problems for the employer. malicious. (= further specification of thesis) He is completely partisan. The sentences in the paragraph do not follow a logical order. vindictive. not because it hurts the employee.Unit 8.1) G (p. after the topic sentence. Normal paragraph structure moves from the general to the specific. evidence. 2C.1) D (p. redundancy. 3A Letters 1 and 2 are formal. Types of dismissal. 8. Paragraph 3. Paragraph 4. a victim. appeal. Use correct procedures. employment termination. vindictiveness. 5.

Mr Bibby appears to be intolerant. history of the case to date. .3) B 1. 6. 4.3) C (p. further details of termination. what will happen next. bad tempered and impatient. Re: your employment contract I am writing to inform you… Yours sincerely. Schlick Management Consultant 12 Green Rd. 2567 Meckham Dear Mr Schlick. (p. Jenner Senior Partner (p.4) C Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre.Writing: Transactional writing Page 7 Bibby and Jenner Management Consultancy 436 The Grenberg Ring 2318 Grenberg 12 February 2007 Mr G. announcement of employment termination. 3.Unit 8. final comments on termination These are formulaic pieces of writing used to structure the information in the letter. reasons for termination. H. 5. 2.

Do you think he is right in his recommendations? The report is over 500 words long. a committee. more free time 2. anonymous. but he is not _6_ at paying for his or her food. Arnie has a _5_ that not everybody who comes is really a trade unionist.Writing: Extensive writing Page 1 9 Formal Reports In this unit you will… • meet words and expressions about office consultation • read a report about a Christmas party • write reports. essays and articles A Do you ever have to write formal reports in your job? What is easy/difficult in writing a report? Give three reasons why reports are written. and here they are. to re-think the Christmas party Look quickly at Gavin Pringle’s report on the next page. to let your hair down C Put one item from the vocabulary box into each gap. . Dear Staff. I hope everybody is looking forward to our Christmas feast this year. Summarise in one sentence Gavin’s recommendations. a (prior) engagement. D Very quickly read Mr Bibby’s e-mail on the next page. Well.’ he says. You will be thrilled to know that this whole question of the staff Christmas party has come up again. The guests eat. What are the four parts into which the report is divided? Summarise in one sentence the findings of Gavin’s survey of the staff. resentful. The beginning and ending of the letter have been given to you. What does he want? 1. All trade unionists are _2_ to attend. and can have a good time and _3_. sent round. ‘If an _7_ person wants to be with us.Unit 9 . _4_ and talk. What do the words and expressions in the vocabulary box mean? suspicion. then so much the better. Gavin Pringle. a grant. Senior partner B E F G H H Reports – real-life phrases Report for the attention of… I/We found/discovered that… I/We recommend that… Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. Many of you will have filled in the questionnaire that my assistant. WRITE THE NEW ARRANGEMENTS HERE Well. You may need to adapt the word One _1_ not to be missed every year is Arnie Fischer’s New Year Ralph Bibby. decisions have been made. to be entitled to s. to cancel the Christmas party 3. a questionnaire. Write a letter to the staff telling them of the new arrangements for the Christmas party (add details to Gavin’s recommendations). Reduce the report to one of about 200 words (the length you will have to write in the exam) Imagine you are Mr Bibby. to mingle.

3 A concern of a large minority (45%) was that staff had to be ‘well-behaved’ at the party due to the attendance of senior management. The party would start at 21. 5 A major concern for a slight majority (55%) was the timing of the party on the last working Friday before Christmas. Of these. Subject: Possible changes to Bibby and Jenner’s Christmas Party Background 1 Every year since the foundation of the firm in 1970. Many in the firm would have preferred to attend other engagements on that evening. and would be an opportunity for the staff to ‘let their hair down’.Writing: Extensive writing Page 2 To assistant@bibbyandjenner.Unit 9 . A large majority (90%) felt that the speeches were too long. Report for the attention of Mr R. Bibby. Bibby and Jenner have held a Christmas party which has been free for all full-time members of staff employed at the company’s head office. A clear majority favoured a simpler. I have no time to deal with the problem. Report by Gavin Pringle Submitted to Mr Bibby: 14 October Copyright 2007 Euro Examination From rbibby@bibbyandjenner.00. even if they had prior engagements on that evening. and an informal Christmas party at another location. Attendance at this event would still be ‘expected’. Method 1 I wrote a questionnaire (attached). Nobody seems to enjoy it. Eighty per cent of staff returned the questionnaire. beginning at 19. 5 I propose that the guest fee be abolished. . The format has been speeches. Attendance has grown so that in the past three years between 50 and 70 persons have been present. Everybody just sits there looking bored and miserable. Each full-time member of staff has been entitled to bring one person as a guest for a fee (last year EUR 50). 2 The formal dinner would begin at 18. but a substantial minority (39%) did not. 4 The current cost of bringing a guest to the party (EUR 50) was a problem for a substantial minority (47%). a five-course dinner. Senior Partner. Ralph. Write me a full report and have it on my desk by a week Wednesday.000 for the firm’s Christmas party. All subsequent information about staff attitudes is based on the returned questionnaires. The Committee would be given a small grant for this purpose. Bibby and Jenner Management Consultants. Anyway. Results 1 A large majority (85%) felt that they were obliged to attend the party. 2 A majority (55%) enjoyed the speeches. Recommendations 1 My main recommendation is to create two events instead of one: a formal end-of-year dinner with speeches in the Grand Hotel. and this limited their enjoyment. so my suspicion is that it is money down the drain.00 and running until 23. This feeling was strongest among the younger staff members (78%).com I’m completely fed up with signing cheques of / paying over EUR 7. The questionnaire could be completed and returned anonymously. and then after-dinner speeches and mingling. 3 The informal party would be organised by the Staff Committee. with a maximum of 45 minutes devoted to speeches (Mr Jenner and Mr Bibby only). The formal dinner would end at 20. The most common reasons cited were that the speeches focused only on the concerns of senior management. 2 The party in recent years has been held in the Grand Hotel in the centre of Grenberg.00. cheaper and more open party (72%). 4 Both events would be held on the Thursday of the last full working week before Christmas.30. 82% felt resentful at having to attend. seeking the opinion of staff on the Christmas party. and the rate of return did not vary significantly between departments. The party has been held on the last working Friday before Christmas. which affected their enjoyment of the evening.00.

for instance. where is the thesis modified? Exam tip: good essays are more than simple lists. D An argument in an essay can have every point simply contributing to strengthening the thesis of the essay. In the example essay below. E What is the difference between the content of the introduction and the conclusion? Exam tip: A conclusion should be based on the argument of the essay. C Look at the exam essay below. they are not appropriate in every case. its remit. (4) Reports are not appropriate for conveying certain types of information. ‘Reports are the best means of communicating formal information’: discuss. or it can have points which modify or qualify the initial thesis.Unit 9 . (3) Reports are also effective because they require the use of formal language. B How many sentences are there introduction? What is its purpose? in a typical Exam tip: write short and clear introductions.Writing: Extensive writing Exam skills A What is a discursive essay? What is the purpose of a discursive essay? Page 3 Exam tip: No piece of writing will be effective and successful unless you know the purpose of the text. (5) In conclusion. A resolution to be put to a meeting. F Now write the following essay: ‘Writing reports is fun’: discuss Exam practice: To what extent do you agree with this statement? Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. Reports suggest a hierarchy. The first type can often be a simple list. What is the function of each paragraph? What is the function of the text in italics? Exam tip: In an essay there is a structure both within paragraphs and between paragraphs. . (1) Reports are formal documents for conveying information within and between organisations. The structure allows the information to be assimilated easily. with a subordinate reporting to his/her superior(s). As a rule formal language leaves less room for ambiguity. which fails to reflect the complexity of a particular issue. facts/findings and recommendation(s). will have a different format. and can be understood more easily when a report is read by someone with a different linguistic or ethnic background. e-mails) will probably be more appropriate. while reports have a key role to play in organisational communication. Don’t put information into the introduction which belongs in the body of the essay. (2) Reports have a structure that can easily be recognised: who commissioned the report. They are a vital form of communication. so where no such relationship exists other forms of communication (letters.

(ca. In my Dad’s opinion…. Additionally…. (ca. Write a report for the managing director of the company on the effectiveness of the campaign. article. A lot of people say…. (22 words) Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. Choose one of the topics below and write a plan. and give it to your partner to improve. All other objectives in the majority of cases are subordinate to the drive for profits. on a day-to-day basis.… F The following essay has been given an introduction and a conclusion. As a result…. In other words….’ To what extent do you agree with this statement? Write an essay. report. . Businesses. however. It has been argued that…. 200 words) You have been asked to write an article for a national newspaper on the economic situation in your town. Imagine you work for the company that produces that product.Writing: Extensive writing Page 4 A B C D Which of the tasks below would you choose? How important is the topic? How important is the genre? Discuss in groups. First. 200 words) E Which of the following would you use in an essay? Why? What are their functions? In conclusion…. check it. and the main motivation of their owners is to maximise profits. (28 words) In conclusion. ‘The only motivation of business is to maximise profit. 200 words) Think of an advertising campaign for a product which you have seen. have a range of objectives. Complete the essay. Write an article. I don’t know much about this…. Discuss your plan with a partner. ‘Economic growth is the solution to all social problems.’ To what extent do you agree with this statement? Businesses operate in a commercial environment. businesses exist to make profit.Unit 9 . Note down some important features of the following genres: essay. (ca. I think…. Write a report. On the one hand…. However. You have 150 words for the main part of your essay. Write your text.

Writing: Extensive writing Unit 13: Formal Reports (p. bullet points. to provide the basis for action. 3) E (p. 3. opens and closes with powerful points. Report: formal. stating the arguments for and against it and finally coming to a reasoned conclusion. results/findings 4. engagement. Essay: formal register. the conclusion establishes what has been proved in the paragraphs of the essay. 4) B (p. As a result…. On the one hand…. suspicion. anonymous Option 3: Mr Bibby wants his assistant to suggest ways to stop EUR 7. 5. recommendations The staff felt that the current party was too formal and expensive. 6. method 3. 1) F (p. to show that a matter is of some importance. 1) A Page 5 Purposes of reports: to collect together information. argumentative. 3) D (p. 4 modifying the thesis.000 being wasted on a Christmas party that nobody enjoys. mingle / let their hair down. The introduction sets out what is to be proved in the essay. and then following that an informal party organised by the staff committee. In other words…. 1) G (p. resentful. It has been argued that…. informative/argumentative. 4) E Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. to provide a clear and logical record. 1 introduction. 7. Additionally…. There should be two parties: firstly a formal dinner. entitled. . The first is an orientation statement (which puts the matter in context). 1) D (p. 1) E (p. An introduction in a short essay should consist of no more than two sentences. 3 ditto. 1. the second is the thesis (the argument you are making across the whole essay). 2. An discursive essay is about taking a statement. However… (p. 5 conclusion The essay modifies the thesis in the fourth paragraph. 3) A (p. logical and standard structure./4. impersonal Article: formal or informal. 1. clearly signalled parts. and not held at the best time.Unit 9 . economic use of language In conclusion…. 3) B (p. 2 illustration of essay thesis. 1) C (p. background 2. 3) C (p. logically structured.

‘I am 17 and still go to school. poor Maria only has one leg.Grammar & Vocabulary: Dictation Page 1 10 Social Welfare In this unit you will… • meet words and expressions about social welfare for people • read an article about social welfare for people with no money • practise writing down exactly what you hear A Look at the quote below. You may need to adapt the word. (colloquial – unemployed) I can’t make ends meet. (register as being unemployed) F G Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. She also needs help with her _5_ because she still owes the bank EUR 10. individual circumstances.’ Rachel ‘I’m 16 and still at school.’ Colin Benefits – real-life phrases She’s on the dole. management consultant B C What is it like being unemployed? What benefits should be given to the unemployed? Which of the following words are connected to money? a benefit. but my parents moved to Australia last year and send me no money. Some extra money comes in because of her _6_. a supplement. Maria is unemployed.000. What kind of magazine do you think the article comes from? Look at the article on the next page again. maternity benefit. Do you agree with Mr Jenner? ‘Unemployment is certainly a problem for the unemployed person. but my husband has a full-time job. E Look quickly at the article on the next page. Advise them on the basis of the Sara Liebermann’s advice. As a _1_ she receives a _2_ to her social welfare _3_. invalidity. But it’s not a problem for me. a lone parent.’ Hector Jenner. rent. . She is now eight months pregnant. so she is on _4_. an orphan D Fill in the gaps in the text below with a word or expression from the vocabulary box. and nor should the government be concerned with it.’ Joan ‘I can’t find a job. work ten hours a week and can’t pay the mortgage on my big house. I live at home with my parents. She lives in a small flat with her young son. (not enough money to live) I’m going to sign-on. mortgage payments.’ Martin ‘I live alone. What kind of person would receive the highest social welfare payments? The following people all want social welfare benefits.Unit 10 .

the more savings you have. you may be able to get Income Social Welfare Benefit while you are on your course if you are a lone parent. do not have any income and have nearly nothing in savings then you are entitled to Social Welfare Benefit. However. Students are generally not entitled to Social Welfare Benefit. how much will you get? The rules for benefits mean that your individual circumstances (age. So. Savings of over EUR 500 affect how much Social Welfare Benefit you can get. The amount paid is dependent on how many children you have. earn less than EUR 500 a month and have savings of under EUR 3. husband or someone you live with) who works an average of 24 hours a week or more. their earnings will usually affect the amount of benefit you can get. If you are studying. or if you are blind. You will be able to get Social Welfare Benefit if you or your partner are not working because of parental leave. You can also get a supplement to your Social Welfare Benefit if you are caring for elderly relatives. and if you are over sixty then you should apply to the Pension Bureau. If you do not fully own your own home and you are entitled to Social Welfare Benefit. But you can apply by phone or letter if you are a lone parent. you are separated from your parents for reasons that cannot be avoided and nobody is looking after you in their place. you cannot usually get Social Welfare Benefit. To apply. If you have a partner (wife. or registered blind.Grammar & Vocabulary: Dictation Page 2 Do you need welfare payments? Are you unemployed with no money? Sara Liebermann tells you whether you can get benefit. You will be considered an orphan if: you are not living with or not in touch with your parents and not being supported by them.000. If you have a partner who works an average of less than 24 hours a week. Social Welfare Benefit is for people who are under sixty. You should check with your social security office. sick or disabled. if you are unable to work because you are caring for someone. Pregnant women and people with children under five get free milk and vitamins in addition to their welfare benefit. or you are an orphan. If you are ill you should apply for Invalidity Benefit. housing cost. you need to go to the Social Welfare Benefit Division at the Social Security Offices. and you must show proof of the rent or mortgage payments that you make. As a general rule if you are unemployed.Unit 10 . This means you will not always be able to easily work out exactly how much you are entitled to. If you are aged between 16 and 18 and still at school or college you cannot get benefit for yourself unless you are looking after your own child. you may receive extra money to help towards rent or mortgage payments. the lower your benefit will be. You can usually get extra money for your family. and dependants) will affect the amount you can receive. Basically. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. . a welfare officer has to issue a certificate that the size of your house is reasonable for your needs. and their ages.

You must write it word-for-word with the correct spelling. D Don’t look at your book. It will help you to predict and guess words. Welfare benefits are paid out on Wednesday. C Look at the text below and for each gap work out the class of the missing word. She needs to claim b___ to buy food and p___ the loan on her flat. Exam Tip: In the dictation. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. What’s the Exam Task? You will hear a tape recording of a text read in separate pieces (or ‘chunks’). The welfare officer that works in that office is quite helpful. There are different types of b___ she can claim. If you know your sentence grammar you can often work out the correct word. Tell your partner all you can remember about Maria. . She receives a sup___ because of her s___. You can’t receive both unemployment and invalidity benefit. Maria is i__ her flat alone with her s__. She is en___ to inv___ and unem___ payments. She sat on a bench and waited to see a welfare officer. B Which of the above highlighted words can contain a schwa when said in a sentence at normal speaking speed? (A schwa sound is the sound at the start of the word about and at the end of the word better. She’s looking for a job. She picked up the form yesterday and needs to return _5_ to the social welfare office _6_ the town centre tomorrow. Maria has _1_ long form to fill _2_ before she _3_ get invalidity _4_ unemployment benefit. it is often difficult to hear these small grammar words.Unit 10 . They won’t pay us any benefit until next month. Then find a suitable word for each gap. At his age he might not find another job. Now fill in the gaps. You need this form to complain. She w___ a job. adverbial particle article auxiliary verb conjunction (demonstrative) pronoun modal auxiliary preposition (personal) pronoun relative pronoun He has been unemployed for three years now. Often in connected speech short grammar words change their pronunciation and have a schwa sound. but she can’t find o__. Exam Tip: In the dictation look at the title and picture and think about all you know on the topic.Grammar & Vocabulary: Dictation Exam Skills A Page 3 Match each grammar term on the left with the highlighted word it corresponds to on the right.) Exam Tip: The dictation task requires you to reproduce every word.

Check what you have done with a partner. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. wanna) are not acceptable H Now mark the four marking chunks in the box below. employment agencies. What do the following mean? a short-term contract. (Each of these is divided into one or more marking chunks). How you finish the story is up to you. redundancies. gonna. Why? danny noble lives in the small town of Meckjham Neighboring Town of Grenberg. Insert suitable grammar words to make the sentences grammatically accurate and meaningful. What is necessary in order to get the point? • You must include all the words. • You must spell every word (except names) correctly. Check what you have written with a partner. evicted. Look at the four following marking chunks in a dictation. There is no right answer.e. Which of them would gain would gain points in the examination. capital letters and any punctuation marks • spelling proper nouns: e. benefits. Listen again to make sure that you have written down the text correctly. What do think her story is? Do the dictation. Read Facts about dictation below. Make sure you only have twenty marking chunks. alternative accommodation The dictation is about the misfortune of someone called Ellen. Now listen and write down every word you hear. i. promotion. . Practise your dictation with someone else in the class.Unit 10 .Grammar & Vocabulary: Dictation Exam Practice: No Hope for Ellen A Page 4 B C D E F G How do people’s lives change when they lose their jobs? The woman in the picture is unemployed.g. Mr Smith. How do you think that she is feeling? You will hear a short text about Mandy Gibbons.g. Now listen to the complete text. an office cleaner. Write down the text as closely to the original as you can. Nearly all of the grammar words are missing. Budapest • whether you use British or American spelling • whether you abbreviate or not (e.g. Compare your answers with a partner. do not or don’t) but slang abbreviations (e. Each marking chunk which is ‘correct’ (see below) gains a point. Facts about the dictation Length: the dictation is between 85 and 100 words. There are between twelve and eighteen reading chunks. What is not important: • punctuation. Discuss any differences between your answer and the text on the tape. The text is divided into parts (or chunks) in two ways: reading chunks and marking chunks. which is now a suberb of the since leaving school the begining of the 1990s I Now finish writing the dictation about Danny Noble. I have or I’ve.

000 who are pregnant or have children under five. relative pronoun (that) has. . 3. poor Mandy was made unemployed when the cleaning was transferred to a private cleaning company. or have rent/mortgages to pay. (p. or are caring for elderly relatives. There are different types of benefit she can claim. 4) F Ellen was employed on a short-term contract by a firm of management consultants. that. auxiliary/modal auxiliary (e. 1) D Page 5 1. or have many children. ‘I now have no income. auxiliary verb (has). Initially. Article / determiner (a).g. conjunction (or). 6. 6. a 1. she replied. modal auxiliary (might). then he is probably entitled to benefit.000. maternity benefit. but poor profits led to redundancies and unemployment for Ellen. She needs to claim benefit to buy food and pay the loan on her flat. She is entitled to invalidity and unemployment payments.’ said a deflated Ellen. It could be an official magazine published by a social welfare office. 4. adverbial particle (out). Martin: not entitled to benefits. object pronoun referring back ( anaphoric reference) (it). Joan: possibly. When asked whether she had found alternative accommodation. benefit. preposition (in). supplement. however. but she can’t find one. 5. People with no income and with savings of under EUR 3. lone parent. (88 words) Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. Maria is in her flat alone with her son. if earning less than EUR 500 a month and with savings of under EUR 3. 5. and. I’ve found a place under a bridge for tonight’. article (a). mortgage payments. 1) E (p. 4.Grammar & Vocabulary: Dictation Unit 10: Social Welfare (p. 3) C (p. 1) F (p. conjunction (and). She receives a supplement because of her son. 3) A (p. ‘Yes. preposition (on). She wants a job. but despite going to several employment agencies. 4) D (p.Unit 10 . adverbial particle (in). 2. failed to find work. us. 3) D (p. 2. For ten years Mandy Gibbons was directly employed by a firm of management consultants to clean the main offices. She received benefits for sixth months. Last week. invalidity A magazine for the unemployed. on (possibly). 1) G (p. (demonstrative) pronoun (this). and I was evicted from my flat this morning. can). a community paper – perhaps any magazine written for people on low incomes. she had hoped for promotion and a comfortable life. 3) B (p. Rachel: not entitled to benefit Colin: if he is not supported by anybody else. 3. personal pronoun (us).

16 ‘I now have no income.Grammar & Vocabulary: Dictation Page 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 Ellen was employed 2 on a short-term contract 3 by a firm of 4 management consultants. Last week. The exam dictation has only 20 marking chunks) (p. poor Mandy was made unemployed when the cleaning was transferred to a private cleaning company. 4) H First Chunk: This chunk gains a point. . 4) F Grammar and vocabulary – dictation Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. 4) B/C First and second reading For ten years Mandy Gibbons * directly employed ** firm ** management consultants * clean * main offices. Fourth Chunk: This chunk does not gain a point. Last week. 5 Initially. loses the point. and the misspelling of Meckham. The unnecessary capitalisation of neighbouring and town are ignored. a common noun. are ignored. 15 failed to find work. 17 and I was evicted 18 from my flat this morning. The lack of capital letters in the name Danny Noble. 23 she replied. I’ve found a place 24 under a bridge 25 for tonight’. however. Second Chunk: This chunk does not gain a point. 4) D Third Reading For ten years Mandy Gibbons was directly employed by a firm of management consultants to clean the main offices. (p. 13 but despite going to several 14 employment agencies. ‘Yes. a proper noun. poor Mandy * made unemployed * * cleaning * transferred * * private cleaning company (p. she had hoped 6 for promotion 7 and a comfortable life. Third Chunk: This chunk gains a point. however. 8 but poor profits 9 led to redundancies 10 and unemployment for Ellen. Unit 10: Social Welfare: tapescript (p. The misspelling of suburb. as is the American spelling of neighbouring. (This dictation has 25 marking chunks.Unit 10 . 11 She received benefits 12 for sixth months. Both the omission of the preposition at and the misspelling of beginning cause the point to be lost.’ 19 said a deflated Ellen. 20 When asked whether 21 she had found 22 alternative accommodation.

She received benefits for sixth months.’ said a defeated Ellen.Unit 10 .’ said a defeated Ellen. I’ve found a place under a bridge for tonight. she had hoped for promotion and a comfortable life.Grammar & Vocabulary: Dictation Page 7 Ellen was employed on a short-term contract by a firm of management consultants. When asked whether she had found alternative accommodation. ‘I now have no income. When asked whether she had found alternative accommodation. she had hoped for promotion and a comfortable life. I’ve found a place under a bridge for tonight. ‘Yes.’ Repeated reading chunk by reading chunk Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre.’ (88 words) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Ellen was employed on a short-term contract by a firm of management consultants. Initially. . ‘I now have no income. ‘Yes. she replied. She received benefits for sixth months. but poor profits led to redundancies and unemployment for Ellen. and I was evicted from my flat this morning. and I was evicted from my flat this morning. but despite going to several employment agencies failed to find work. but despite going to several employment agencies failed to find work. Initially. but poor profits led to redundancies and unemployment for Ellen. she replied.

discrimination. E Look quickly at the article on the next page.’ A Do you enjoy your job? What gives you satisfaction at work? What is boring or irritating? Thinking about job satisfaction. Danny Noble was looking for _1_. What is the main point made in (i) the first three paragraphs.Unit 11 . Management has a very negative and _5_ attitude towards us. so he moved from a job in _2_ (He did photocopying in an office). the dole D Put an appropriate word or phrase from the vocabulary box into each gap. . so I feel _4_. Job satisfaction – real-life phrases I’ve got a dead end job. what is good and bad about these jobs? • a teacher • a factory worker • a call-centre operator • a painter • a management consultant Which of the words below are connected to work? Which can be used to describe a person? the service sector. deprivation. Group A should list the problems identified in the first three paragraphs and suggest solutions. I feel that I’m a victim of 7 . You may need to adapt the word. job enrichment. so I decided to send them 8 . I went to a job _6_ meeting last week. (a job with no prospects) It’s a drag. and (ii) the last four paragraphs? Form two groups. (slang – very boring) She got a 9-to-5 job. I’m back on 9 again. ‘We can’t talk for eight hours because of the noise. narcissistic. the common good. a letter of resignation. Half the members of each group should swap groups. (regular office work) B C F G H Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre.Grammar & Vocabulary: Muliple choice gap-fill Page 1 11 Job Satisfaction In this unit you will… • meet words and expressions about experiences at work • read an article about job satisfaction • find out more about ‘words that go together. consciousness. Group B should list the problems identified in last four paragraphs and suggest solutions. but no promotion for me. to work nights on an _3_. to manipulate. isolated. to invest. In what kind of magazine would you find this article? Who would read it? Look at the article again quickly. an appraisal. hostile. an assembly line. Discuss the problems and solutions with the members of your new group.

working conditions. for their female workers in particular. These days more and more people spend their working days trying to get others to want their products or services. People tend to feel lonely and isolated. particularly the chance to do meaningful work and the opportunity for promotion. Women were approximately twice as likely as men to admit that they would ‘definitely’ or ‘probably’ leave their employment within two years. They hate being part of that kind of a world. says Sara Liebermann As more workers enter the service sector. They thought they were serving ‘the common good’. The reason is not because they are less committed workers. Women suffer particularly. We go to seminars to become the right person to sell. All this means that companies that want to have a solid core of workers at the end of the decade may want to consider starting programmes in career development and job enrichment. We need others to see us as desirable ‘products’. particularly among women. while 22. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. so they had better protect themselves as best they can. In addition. but people had a sense that they were creating products that served some higher purpose other than making money. . underlying performance problems. our way of doing things. I don’t want to romanticise work on assembly lines. They find it increasingly difficult to trust others. or differential treatment in the appraisal process may account for women's dissatisfaction with advancement opportunities. so that they will buy us.2% of the women said they were ready to resign. Among them were job security. Only 12. for them this was an ‘alarming’ finding. researchers measured the workers’ intentions to leave and then examined thirteen possible motives for resignation. increasing numbers are complaining about jobs that provide them with little satisfaction.Unit 11 . This creates selfcentred human beings who know how to treat others as objects. high expectations. and that there is little they can do to change it. but rarely as subjects. In a survey of 595 male and female workers in the civil service and higher education. a new study finds. yet to be realistic they feel they must be part of it. which contradicted previous studies. benefits and paid holiday. and have a higher turnover in employment than men. surrounded by a hostile world. Studies suggest that discrimination. Female workers were far less content than their male counterparts with their chances for advancement and the meaningfulness of their everyday duties.2% of the men indicated an intention to quit. the more they wanted to leave. compels more women than men to hand in a letter of resignation. Most working people have a deep desire to serve some higher purpose or goal other than their own financial needs. our product. wages. It's because they're given far less meaningful work than men. particularly if we work in the professions. A lack of overall job satisfaction. our services. which means investing a great deal of effort in manipulating and controlling the consciousness of others. Sometimes we are selling a product for others to make a profit with. but at other times we are selling ourselves.Grammar & Vocabulary: Muliple choice gap-fill Page 2 ‘I hate my job!’ Levels of job satisfaction are falling. the researchers found that the longer women had worked at their jobs. and the deprivation of this vital need is an important source of their stress.

with the verb to break. but I can look back on a day full of _1_’ A. Give her short text a title. Celeste says. Let’s begin/start the lesson but only Let’s start the car.’ B Look again at the text above and find the correct option for the gap in Celeste’s sentence below.g. Read what Celeste says below and choose an option.’ A. view B. .g. see C. The correct option forms a partnership with of living to produce a collocation. e.B. Most of the day I’m thinking or writing about how to design the insides of people’s houses or offices. so when I design a room I’m doing something really important. a different height and a different purpose. ‘Although money is not the main thing in my life. Just think about it for a moment: every room has a different shape.Unit 11 . stress N. What I think I like most is the challenge of every room being different. boredom B. standard D. however. Without reading the text we could probably discount the negative options ‘A’ and ‘D’ because she says ‘I’m often tired (a negative feature). Determining between options ‘B’ and ‘C’. level B.Grammar & Vocabulary: Muliple choice gap-fill Exam Skills A Celeste Stein is an interior designer. predictability D. but…’ (we expect a positive feature). read the text for gist. To be honest. degree C. Read what Celeste says below and choose an option. ‘Every day I wake up really excited and I _1_ forward to the day ahead. The adverbial particle often changes the meaning of the verb. e. The correct option completes a phrasal verb. C Collocation is about words that can and can’t go together. Celeste says. I broke the vase (non-phrasal) and War broke out. can only be done by understanding the overall meaning of the text. ‘In the evenings I’m often tired. Page 3 ‘I simply love my job. it’s my hobby as well. variety C. my fees give a high _1_ of living’. because no two people have the same needs. A. Exam tip: before you start looking at the gaps and options. glance D. measure D Phrasal verbs consist of a verb and one or two adverbial particles. (phrasal). Never forget that we live most of our lives in rooms. look Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre.

Grammar & Vocabulary: Muliple choice gap-fill Page 4 E Look at the passage below.’ F Look at the four options for the word that is gapped in Celeste’s sentence below. The curtains are all tailor/ individual made.’ A. _1_ by the door of the room. Carpet specialists and manufacturers are also involved/ignored. there is the design of the fittings themselves as well as the technical questions/issues of organising the wiring and the switches. and how the distractor was intending to distract you. stand Exam tip: Don’t just choose what you think is the correct answer. There are of course the furniture makers. but work out why the distractors are wrong. Celeste surveys the beauty she has created. People often don’t realise/take in the complexities of designing and putting/making together even one room. collocation and/or phrasal verbs. ‘Once I’ve designed a room I can’t _1_ up with clients changing their minds. put B. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. take C. ‘Being an interior designer involves/avoids keeping in contact with a large/big number of people. Lighting also makes/constitutes up an important/irrelevant element/part of room design.Unit 11 . and the type and colour of the fabric involves several types of experts. If your guess is indeed among the options. tolerate D. . Which is the correct alternative? In each case decide whether the correct answer involves meaning in context. try to work out the part of speech for the gap and what the word might be. and then fill it in. Find the correct answer and then state why the distractors are incorrect. from whom each item is individually/ collectively ordered according to my design specifications. it is probably correct. but all these specialists have to communicate/get on well together. G Work out the part of speech for the gap in Celeste’s sentence below. Exam tip: Before looking at the options.

fits A. year D.’ I then went to ask Hector Jenner. applies B.Unit 11 . find A. Page 5 Job satisfaction: the modern oxymoron What makes people happy at work? It’s very difficult to find an answer that _0_ to everybody. there’s satisfaction being at _2_ when all the lads are together. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A. week B. jokes D. Give reasons for why the distractors are wrong. week B. . affect D. ‘Work satisfaction for me is pretty simple. investigate D. We often tell _3_ all day. day A. It’s always about money. I call that a tragedy. job D. and that really keeps us going. work is never a(n) _9_ in itself. job A. month C. when a muddle or inefficiency _10_ to financial loss. job C. locate C. ordered B. funs B. He was ready with his answers. Saul Denman called in at a couple of workplaces in Grenberg to _1_ out. a successful management consultant. finish A. what do you think? Wasting eight hours a _6_ in this place doing the same thing. affects D. line A. amusements C. John Pizzy has been packing ice cream into boxes for twenty-three years now. work D. asked A. process B. that can give us a laugh. discover B. Sometimes I am _4_ on taping up the boxes and that makes a bit of a change. put D.Grammar & Vocabulary: Muliple choice gap-fill Exam Practice: Caught in a dead-end Job A B C What does the title of the newspaper article mean? Read the text quickly and find out what John Pizzy and Hector Jenner enjoy in their jobs. given C. develops C. joins C. row C. If the assembly _5_ breaks down for a few hours. leads (‘B’ is correct) Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre.’ And what is unsatisfying about the job? ‘Well. causes B. makes D.’ Is there such a thing as job dissatisfaction in his lexicon? ‘Yes. signals C. end B. year in _7_ out. Work becomes satisfying when it _8_ in financial gain. day A. points D.’ Ex. labour D. Is there any job satisfaction in his work? ‘Well. work B. ending C. Do the task. For me. causes A. results B. workplace C. humours A.

5. get on (a phrasal verb). (p. to invest. The answer is D. 6. 4) A (p. job enrichment. probably a present particle. consciousness. 5. DISTRACTORS: B take up with s. e. an assembly line. 4) B (p.A.g. 1) D 1. D The verbal phrase to stand up with s. an appraisal. It is a participle. 6. discrimination.A. 2. Why Celeste likes her job The answer is B. letter of resignation. Hector Jenner – making money. 1) C Connected to work: the service sector. a square circle. large (big does not collocate with number of). (p. isolated. the service sector. . discrimination. the dole. 9. 8.B. and many want to leave their jobs. makes (makes up is a phrasal verb). but has no idiomatic meaning and is meaningless in the context. The answer is C.Unit 11 .b is possible. a general or women’s magazine 1.b is a phrasal verb.D. involves (avoids makes no sense in context). 4) C 1. 4) G (p. Standing. job enrichment. 2.D. important part (collocates with makes up a(n)). discrimination. 9. 4. 3. e.B. Seated (third form). (p. 1) E (p.B. Sitting.Grammar & Vocabulary: Muliple choice gap-fill Page 6 Unit 11: Job Satisfaction (p. 4) F The correct answer is A. 3) B (p. John Pizzy – when work stops for some reason. isolated. and is therefore inappropriate here. involved (ignored makes no sense in context). individually (collectively makes no sense in context). 8. but it means to form a relationship with. Women feel under more stress than men. 3) A (p. C The verb tolerate cannot be followed with the particle up. 7. The title of the article suggest at satisfaction and employment cannot go together. 3. hostile. narcissistic. tailor (individual does not collocate with made). the common good. technical issues (collocates better) putting together (is a phrasal verb and makes sense in context).D Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. 3) C (p. appraisal. the dole Connected to a person: deprivation. 3) D (p.D. 3) E (p. In the service sector today many people feel that they are doing useless and stressful jobs. 7. a letter of resignation. hostile. 4.g.A. an assembly line. 1) F (p. to manipulate. An oxymoron is the putting together of two words that contradict each other. 2. 10.

_3_ dinner. should you give flowers to your _2_ when you are invited to a five. and formal dinners are a good time to _5_. It’s been a pleasure meeting you. You can _6_ the details later. conspicuous. an honoured guest. When you are abroad and an _1_. Shatner (Shatner Catering PLC) How much do you agree with Mr Bibby? How much do you agree with Mr Shatner? Discuss in groups.Grammar & Vocabulary Modified cloze Page 1 12 Business Etiquette In this unit you will… • meet words and expressions about professional associations • read an article about dinner parties • role play a dinner party A How do you feel in business meetings with people you don’t know? How important are the following in doing business? • knowing the language of your business associate • knowing how to dress for a meeting • knowing how to make appropriate conversation with business associates • knowing the format of a business meeting • knowing what to do at a formal business dinner What do the following words or expressions mean? to negotiate. Wayne Shatner. who runs a catering firm. has read Mr Bibby’s article and has written the following letter to the magazine. W. D Put one of the words or expressions from the vocabulary box above into the gaps. I am a millionaire and have never gone to a dinner like that. E Look quickly at the article on the following page. B C F G Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. What Mr Bibby has written is total rubbish. nor would any of my business associates.Unit 12 . Nobody wants to be _4_. then let him enjoy it. Find three pieces of advice which would not be appropriate at McDonald’s. to cultivate contacts. but it has nothing to do with running a profitmaking business. discourteous. a hostess. a course. Being polite on social occasions – real-life phrases May I introduce…to you? I think we’ve met before. If Bibby enjoys that kind of nonsense. . In what kind of publication would you find it? Who would read it? Look again quickly at the article. Dear Sir.

Everybody has ‘dinner. .’ ‘No. It is not necessary to remain longer than thirty minutes after a dinner if the invitation does not include the whole evening. the remainder of the class are guests. waiter. thank you. offer apologies. Remember to rise from the chair from the left side. the hostess leads the women guests into the dining room. You should avoid seeming in a hurry to depart. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. the students should work together to write role cards of what everyone has to do. Once it has been decided who everybody is. etc. Each person moves to the left of the chair in order to sit. When the waiter holds a dish so that you may serve yourself. though the time is usually eight or eight-thirty. The late guest begins with the course that is then being served. She must always have the seating planned in advance. the principal speaker of the evening. Do not drink while you have food in your mouth. but in any event the waiter moves around the table to the right. What happens The guests arrive and are greeted.Grammar & Vocabulary Modified cloze Page 2 Does success in business come from creating a good impression at dinner? Management consultant Ralph Bibby thinks it does There are few people who reach the top of the business world without having to face a formal dinner. then move the chair to the table with two or three jerks. On the speaker's right sits the honoured guest. are appointed.’ or ‘If you please. speaker. Don't rest your hands or arms on the table. he presents it at your left. look into the glass. followed by the host and the male guests. however. All those at the speaker's table. nor sit too close to the table. your profits. You should arrive at least five minutes before the hour set for the dinner. Each person stands behind his or her chair until the hostess starts to take her seat. Neither lean back in the chair. in order to avoid confusion and delay.’ and talks politely. so that you will not dirty the glass. The speaker's table is placed in a conspicuous part of the room. hostess. the class should discuss how many of Mr Bibby’s rules were broken. Don't sit down. But remember: use the dinner. of course. At the end of the party. Keep your feet on the floor. Who should be served first is a muchdebated question. When it is time to stand. and take your place at the table as quickly as possible. sit on the side of the table facing the room. These days guests are seated wherever the hostess thinks they will be happiest. The guest speaker sits in the middle seat on the side facing the room. Treat the waiter impersonally while you are being served. If you are late for some unavoidable reason. At the start of the dinner.’ in low tones is sufficient. An award should be given to the best and worst guest. Dinner party role -play The tables in the classroom are laid out for a formal dinner: a host. Guests other than the speakers may be honoured by being placed at the speaker's table.Unit 12 . Your feet may be crossed if you wish. The hostess then tells her guests where to sit. The host and hostess sit at opposite ends of the table. Step close to the table and – still standing – pull the chair toward you by taking hold of each side of the seat. Observing the correct etiquette can only enhance your status and. push your chair from the table by taking hold of each side of the seat of the chair. Use the napkin for the fingers or mouth whenever necessary. ‘Thank you. And a very important point about drinking: do not look around the room while you are drinking. On the speaker's left sits the second most important guest. serving each guest in turn. A formal business dinner never begins before seven o'clock. then push yourself up. the time before it and the time after it to cultivate useful business contacts. It is very discourteous for a guest to be late. but not your knees. indirectly.

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Exam Skills A
Working in groups of three or four, try to define the following terms. Give examples of each in a sentence. adverbial particle, article, auxiliary, conjunction, demonstrative, pronoun, modal auxiliary, preposition, pronoun, relative pronoun. B Which are the ‘grammatical’ words in the following sentence? What parts of speech are they? Mr Bibby is a successful businessman who has made a lot of money.

Exam Tip: In the modified cloze task only grammatical words are gapped. C Look at the short comment by Wayne Shatner below. Which part of speech goes in each gap? Fill each gap with a suitable word. ‘I will _1_ business with anyone, and matters of formality are unimportant for me. I’m _2_ the catering business and _3_ met this fellow who was selling cooked beans. He couldn’t speak _4_ write properly, but his cans of beans were good value _5_ money, so we did business. To _6_ honest, I keep business and pleasure _7_.’ Exam Tip: You need to know the grammatical structure of sentences to do this task well. D Read the short article by Wayne Shatner below and give it a title. You will need information from this text for Exercise E. ‘Working in the catering business means that I need to have many meetings, and a large number of those meetings occur over a meal. Of course you feel better talking about business when you have a full stomach. What we mostly do is leave the office around midday and go to a fast food outlet. In most cases I have a burger and a fizzy drink. There is nothing formal in it because we are always on first name terms and just talk to sort out our contractual arrangements.’


Fill in the gap in the following sentence: In his business affairs Wayne Shatner is _1_ formal than Mr Bibby. Exam Tip: To do this exam task you need to understand the meaning of the text, so read the task quickly before you start filling in the gaps.

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Get into groups of two or three. Your teacher will give each group either Text A or Text B. When your teacher tells you to do so, do the following. (Your teacher will give you a text of 100-150 words, probably from the internet.) • Give the text three possible titles; none of them should be silly or irrelevant, but only one of them should be a good title. • Underline all the grammatical words. • ‘Tippex out’ as many of the grammatical words as you can, but remember to leave six words between each blanked-out word. Make a record of the blanked-out words. • Swap your text with one from a group which has the other text. Choose the best title. Try to fill in the gaps. • Hand back your test to the other group for marking.

Exam Practice: Honouring Mr Reninson?
A What can successful business people expect to receive in their lives, apart from money? Do business people like publicity? Read the text, Honouring Mr Reninson. How does Mr Reninson feel about the event and why? What part of speech can fit into each gap? Do the task. Write a short news item on what happened to Mr Reninson.


Fill each gap with ONE appropriate word. The first has been done for you as an example. ‘Well, I left my hometown some twenty years EXAMPLE … ago … to pursue a career in business management in a provincial city. _1_ several years I already had my _2_ company and the profits were pouring _3_. I married, bought a big house and car _4_ started a family. ‘A month ago I received an invitation _5_ my hometown to receive an honour, which _6_ to be presented to me in the town’s arts’ centre. _7_ I had very little time, I decided to go, particularly as a big show was to be put on for me. ‘The auditorium was packed. A full orchestra played a classical piece and then the lights went out. In complete darkness the stage curtains were pulled back and there I was, standing alone on the stage. Suddenly, _8_ single beam of light was projected onto me and the audience burst _9_ applause. I waved, but what was I to do after the applause had died down? I had no microphone, _10_ I just walked off the stage and drove home. It was all very poorly organised.’

A fat, wealthy, self-made businessman decided to move his family from the town to the country, so he bought a large farmhouse, had it renovated, and then moved in. One day, after a business lunch, he was arriving home in his new BMW when he caught sight of his three-year-old son rolling around in the mud in the yard. He pulled up in his car. ‘Ho, what a dirty little boy you are!’ His young son looked at his father, but said nothing. So his father moved a little closer. ‘You are a piglet my son.’ But still his son just stared in silence. The businessman thought his son had not understood. ‘Do you know what a piglet is, son?’ he asked. ‘Yes, Dad,’ his son replied, ‘A piglet is the son of a pig.’
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Unit 12 - Grammar & Vocabulary Modified cloze

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Unit 12: Business Etiquette (p. 1) D 1. honoured guest, 2. hostess, 3. course, 4. conspicuous / discourteous, 5. cultivate contacts, 6. negotiate a magazine for wealthy/pretentious/affected/snobbish people The text is full of examples.

(p. 1) E (p. 1) F (p. 3) A

adverbial particle

article auxiliary verb

conjunction demonstrative pronoun modal auxiliary


pronoun relative pronoun

In form often similar to a preposition: qualifies and sometimes changes the meaning of a verb, e.g. to put up with The determiners (which come before nouns) the a and an. A word (used either alone or with another auxiliary) which qualifies the main verb, either to form a question or negative, or to form continuous, perfect or passive verb forms , e.g. have, do Joins words, phrases and clauses, e.g. and, but A pronoun which ‘points’: this, that, these, those Expresses the speaker’s judgment or opinion related to the main verb, in terms of obligation, possibility, etc. E.g. must, can, would, might Establishes the relationship of a noun phrase to other elements, esp. in terms of time and place, e.g. on, after Substitutes for a noun, e.g. he, them Substitutes for an item in a subordinate relative clause, and refers to the main clause, e.g. who, which

(p. 3) B

The following words are grammar words: is (an empty meaning linking verb called a copular), a (indefinite article) who (relative pronoun), has (auxiliary), a, of (preposition). 1. verb – do; 2. preposition – in; 3. pronoun – I, or adverb – once; 4. conjunction – or; 5. preposition – for; 6. verb – be; 7. adverb – apart/ or adjective separate/ distinct Talking business over a quick meal 1. less 1. preposition – For/After; 2. adjective – own; 3. adverbial particle – in; 4. conjunction – and 5. preposition – from/to; 6. auxiliary verb – had; 7. (subordinating) conjunction – Although/Though; 8. article – /quantifier(one; 9. preposition – into; 10. sentence conjunct /adverbial – so/therefore/and.

(p. 3) C

(p. 3) D (p. 3) E (p. 4) C/D


Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre.

. a constraint.(paragraph 3) To uphold property rights ............ You may have to adapt the words. Find two things that Mr Jenner believes impede business development in the new market economies......... Nothing __4__ business... on the ground... D Look at the article quickly.....................(paragraph 2) Business friendly..(paragraph 7) …addressing important constraints that face firms….......(paragraph 9) G H Translate paragraph 8 into Hungarian........................ an executing agency. macro-economic policy....... • • • • • • • • At the head of the list is concern for… ....... Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre....... field investigations................. A __2__ has removed all __3__and restrictions on firms....(paragraph 2) You may find yourself in a complete mess....(paragraph 3) The policy-related costs shouldered by the firm... persistence........ to cite... Translate them into Hungarian. People on fixed salaries and pensioners have had to __5__cuts in government expenditure........Unit 13 – Mediation: Dialogue Page 1 13 Doing Business Abroad (incomplete) A What possible problems might arise with a company doing business in Albania? Have you ever done business abroad? What do the words and phrases in the vocabulary box mean? B to impede......... a follow-up........... Mr Jenner’s article is written entirely from the point of view of business.. In which paragraph can you find the following: • • • • quantified evidence of slow moving bureaucracy being able to rely on state institutions is important the importance of local implementation discussion of the amount of state involvement E F Look the context of the following... In some countries the __1__ of the government has led to high inflation. to pinpoint C Put one item from the vocabulary box into each gap... ..(paragraph 6) Governments should focus on….........(paragraph 4) The time management has to waste dealing with… ........... An economic study has __6__many specific problems __7__ but a __8__ is required to provide even greater detail.......................................... Would workers in the new market economy have a different opinion? Write a review of Mr Jenner’s article from a workers’ perspective........ a deregulated market........................ to designate........ to shoulder...............

Obviously we would like a completely deregulated market everywhere. regulation and taxation. Serbia. Montenegro and Slovenia and 189 in Latvia. only 12 per cent of firms in Slovenia and Estonia cited changes in government policy as a major constraint. The time managers have to waste dealing with officials of various kinds ranges from 5. In Albania 50 per cent of firms lack confidence in the courts to uphold property rights. The study reviews four core areas: stability and security. (6) The study has highlighted some bureaucratic problems businesses face. . Registering property takes over 950 days in Bosnia and Herzegovina. is the key. (3) A closely related issue is the question of confidence in state institutions. 48 per cent of the Albanian firms mentioned it as a major constraint. At the head of the list is concern for the stability of government policies. significant progress can be made by addressing the problems and constraints that firms face. Confidence in the courts to uphold property rights is vital. (7) Governments should focus on improving the basic foundations of a good investment climate to benefit all firms and activities in the economy. This was in response to a request from the Albanian Government to pinpoint the administrative barriers to investment as part of the country’s programme of change. examines the issue. (8) The Slovo study attempted to improve the investment climate for the private sector. Hector Jenner. Doing business in Albania Management consultant. Serbia. The law may say something. The Albanian Government acted on the study and asked for continued assistance in establishing the necessary institutions and in action planning. and designates specific responsibilities to the relevant ministries and executing agencies. You may find yourself in a complete mess if suddenly the currency is devalued by fifty per cent. (4) The policy-related costs shouldered by firms can also be substantial. Professor Slovo showed that such confidence varies from less than 30 per cent of firms in Moldova. Georgia. The study covered 500 firms and follow-up field investigations by specialists identified the most problematic areas. making many potential investment opportunities unprofitable. not perfection. only 3 days in Lithuania and 47 days in Albania. Sudden changes in macro-economic policy can be disastrous for companies. Montenegro and Albania. In Albania it’s 390 days. (5) While improvements in the investment climate require changes to laws and policies.5 per cent in the Czech Republic to about 15 per cent in Ukraine. Everything does not have to be done at once. workers and labour markets. and by sustaining a process of ongoing improvements. but in reality we have to settle for minimal regulation. Progress requires more than changes to formal policies. The study highlighted the heavy burden imposed by outmoded or illconceived regulation and argued that regulation is part of a larger problem. (1) I think I can safely say that most countries these days see success of their businesses as a precondition for the success of their countries. The Plan specifies reform targets against a timetable. The study led to detailed policy and institutional recommendations. finance and infrastructure. (9) The report emphasises that persistence. In a recent study by Professor Otto Slovo of Grenberg University. Rather. but in many new market economies. you find the local officials apply yesterday’s laws or simply decide things without reference to laws. But that does not mean that overseas there aren’t often all sorts of problems that impede investment and business. (2) There are a number of factors which might worry a company investing overseas. to 70 per cent in Estonia. while 60 per cent did so in Belarus. I believe business is often more concerned with how local officials behave Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. Enforcing a contract can take over 1000 days in Poland. Albania is a particularly difficult case. For us to make profits they need to be reliable and business friendly. for instance.Unit 13 – Mediation: Dialogue Page 2 on the ground.

4. pinpointed.Paragraph 6. follow up/ field investigation. Paragraph 3. page 1 Page 3 1. 6. changes in government policies. local officials being difficult or ill-informed the slowness of bureaucracy poor investment and finances E. eg. Paragraph 4. courts too many regulations. impedes. 8. Paragraph 5. 5. 2.unstable government.Unit 13 – Mediation: Dialogue Answers: C. confidence in state institutions. D. constraints. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. on the ground. shoulder. page 1 possible answers. macro-economic policy. page 1 in order. 7. . de-regulated market. 3.

Sometimes Mr Fisher makes an audio-recording of meetings so there can be no __6__ about what happened. He often has __2__ discussions with business and government officials. D Put one item from the vocabulary box into each gap. The Guild of Management Consultants can confirm a consultants professional ability 3. In the letter inform her of what she can expect. on behalf of somebody. You may have to adapt the words Arnie Fischer speaks __1__ several thousand trade union members.Mediation: Summary Page 1 14 Professional Associations and Trade Unions (incomplete) A What is a professional association? What kinds of things do they do? Do all professions have associations? What do trade unions do? How are they different from professional associations? What do the words and phrases in the vocabulary box mean? a guild. cutting corners. Find three things that the Guild of Management Consultants does. Mr Fischer works hard and doesn’t 10 . He must not__3__ the information. a misleading claim a code of professional conduct. 9. to represent. discredit. a provision. Only members of the Guild are affected by the Code of Conduct 6. All the members of the Guild have to vote to change the code. peer support. E Look at the article quickly. 1. Once a contract has been signed with a client it cannot be changed. Remember you are writing to a close friend. in breach of. The Guild can punish members who break the code of conduct 7. impartial. Management consultants need to keep secrets 10. to abide by something. in contravention of. confidential. Mr Bibby thinks that most people already understand the professional status of management consultants 2. What kind of person does Mr Bibby see as a typical reader of his article? Look at the article again quickly. The Code of Conduct binds all members 4. Members of the Guild can accept any work they want 8. . thorough. 5. to disclose. a subsequent revision. The Guild is not concerned with consultants working methods H A close friend who runs a small perfume business has written to you asking for advice on whether to hire a management consultant. endorsement. B C F G Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre.Unit 14 . Are the following statement about the article true or false. Often business leaders try to __4__ him by making __5__ about what he said in private. Mr Fischer is not __7__ because he__8__ the workers but he agrees __9__ a code of professional conduct for negotiators.

but also that our professional association ensures that we provide the highest standards of service. We must always make certain that our advice. and regulating individual management consultants. Membership of the Guild brings many benefits including peer support and the ability to display an independent endorsement of a management consultant’s skills. employee or other agent acting on behalf of. are management consultants professionals? Do you have ethical standards?’ Of course we do. from time to time. issue further principles. or if they discredit the profession by their conduct. as the professional body for management consultants. Guild members may face action by the Disciplinary Committee of the Guild if they act in contravention of the Code. has a Code of Professional Conduct which lays out duties and obligations which are required of all members. A member failing to make such a declaration may be found in breach of the Code of Conduct.Unit 14 . Members are expected to abide by all such new provisions from the date of their publication. solutions and recommendations are based on a thorough and impartial consideration of all the information available. . A member must agree formally with the client the scope and nature of the services to be provided and the cost before the start of the work. the Guild of Management Consultants – organised at national and regional level . Guild members must not make any misleading claims and will provide references from other clients if requested. That means. Nothing is more irritating than when people ask. argues senior management consultant. One of the most important rules is that a member will only accept work that they are qualified to perform and can provide the client with an effective service. codirector. Everybody should now understand that management consultants are not only members of one of the higher professions. Our professional association. Members may be required to make a declaration in answer to enquiries from the Guild Council concerning their professional conduct. Ralph Bibby. for example. The Guild. rules and notes of the Code apply not only to the members personally. Any subsequent revisions to the agreement must be discussed and agreed with the client. qualifying.Mediation: Summary Page 2 Maintaining High Standards Good management consultancy is about maintaining high standards. we would not accept as we have no experience of working there. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. There can be no room for cutting corners or laziness. Management consultants must hold all information concerning the affairs of clients in the strictest confidence and in no circumstance may disclose information obtained during the course of their work. ‘Oh. but also to acts carried out through a partner.promotes excellence in the profession by supporting. and I hope this article fills a gap in people’s knowledge which has long needed to be filled. the member. In their work members of the Guild give advice to all levels of management and with this comes the obligation to maintain the highest standards of honesty and competence. And finally it goes with saying that management consultants must act to the highest professional standards in their work. All clients expect management consultants to keep the affairs of the client companies confidential. or under the control of. Money and fees are also important. The principles. The Guild Council may. Ralf Bibby is senior partner in the firm Bibby and Jenner and was chairman of the Guild of Management Consultants 2003-04. if our firm were asked for advice in business management in Chad. rules or notes which will be published in our Gazette The Management Consultant.

.Unit 14 . discredit 7. subsequent revision 8. disclose 5. to abide by G. confidential 4. on behalf of 2. 1. misleading claims 6. cut corners 3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 F T T F F (employees too) T F F (it can be changed if both parties agree) T F Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. represents 9.Mediation: Summary Answers Page 3 Page 1 D. impartial 10.

Well I decided to give all that up and work for social services and to help people who have been recently released from prison. You may wonder why I left that field of work. a caseload. the dole office. and my plan now is devote myself full time to my poetry. Danny E F Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre.Mediation: Letter Page 1 15 Work Experience (incomplete) A Is it important for students and unemployed people to get work experience? Have you every done work experience or voluntary work? What do the words and phrases in the vocabulary box mean? an employment agency. You may have to adapt the words. Mr Fischer feels that the social security department in the town is __4__ and social security officers have too big a __5__. After a couple of weeks they were so impressed with my work that I also got an opportunity to do some teaching of criminology and rehabilitation in evening classes. Find the differences between what he says in the letter and what he says in the interview. criminology. People go to the __2__ to collect their benefits and then go to __3__ in the hope of finding work. they have so many vacancies. I am now in the process of writing a book on my experience. You know I have been working full time running a widow cleaning business. When I went into the social services office they nearly begged me to start immediately. How are you. a learning curve. the long-term unemployed. The reason was that I felt the social services department was not doing enough to give me support in my projects to help people recently released from prison. Let me know when you are next in Meckham and we can go out for burger at McDonalds. Best wishes.Unit 15 . probation work. to be on somebody’s back. under-resourced. tantamount. . D Look quickly at the interview with Danny Noble. to feel at home. My motive for taking up community work is purely altruistic. Dear Greta. I was given a permanent post immediately. Greta? There have been plenty of changes in my life. Why did Danny Noble do work experience? Has there been any change in his attitude? Look at the following letter written by Danny Noble. to enhance. Why? B C Put one item from the vocabulary box into each gap. Mr Fischer wants to see the level of social security services in the town __6__ and he believes the current situation is __7__ to social neglect. Arnie Fischer is very concerned about the large number of __1__ in the town. Who would be interested in the article and why? Look again at the article quickly. As you know in the past I have had several of my poems published.

“Now. I felt at home meeting many of people just out of prison. social work is as a profession. Each long-term unemployed person applied for his or her first and second choice and allocation was dependent on availability and demand. I’m 34. I occasionally help a friend window cleaning. I left school at 16 and didn’t pass any exams. writing up reports etc. My interpersonal and communication skills were greatly enhanced. but also that it is a very good career choice as it puts something back into the community that is so desperately needed. What kind of skills did you develop in your work experience placement? I realised that being social worker it is crucial to be able to communicate effectively and coherently at a variety of levels to perform the role properly. Apart from the window cleaning. Have you been looking for a permanent job? Well. my plan was to become a professional poet. and I did a few weeks work through an employment agency once. Well. and I felt I was able to advise and help them.Danny Noble No Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. Well that didn’t leave me with much choice. What qualifications do you have? Not many. and I have found this useful in all aspects of everyday life. social work assistant and as a window cleaner. Maybe I’ll go back as a volunteer.” What kind of work experience did you do? I though long and hard about it. and undervalued by the public. why? It has proven to be of fundamental value. but I’m 34. Mr Noble. we’ll cut your benefits. as the experiences and knowledge I gained on placement should help me get a get a good job in social work. yes I have applied for about twenty jobs. Why did you decide to do a work experience placement? It’s a good question. Then I had the dole office on my back. but so far I haven’t been successful. What did the placement work experience involve? Do you feel you had enough tasks to complete and responsibility in your role? It was a six month opportunity for me to develop an awareness of criminal justice social work such as probation work. I’ve mostly been unemployed since then. developmental experience with no significant problems.Mediation: Letter Page 2 H You are a friend of Greta’s. Do you feel that your work experience was valuable. as communication is crucial to success. I realised just how stressful. and it was very much a case of learning ‘on the job’. but there are problems with that too – or so they tell me. They were saying.Unit 15 . . but in the end I decided to work with the social services department. if you don’t do some work experience. Was the placement enjoyable aside from the work? Were there any problems during the placement? It was a very enjoyable. Oh. I have felt the need to help the community with advice and support” . I wanted to work with people who had recently been released from prison and to help them re-integrate back into the community. I now do voluntary work whereby I take food to old people – and I need to talk to them. Alongside the placement work I also studied criminal justice and criminology one day per week at an evening class What did the work experience make you feel about the job? It was two-fold learning curve for me. “All my life as poet. Write her an email explaining how Danny has lied to her. You know I wrote over six hundred poems but couldn’t get any of them published. I had my own caseload and clients to work with. I know I look younger. Getting Your Foot in the Door Sara Liebermann interviews Danny Noble who has recently finished a work experience scheme How old are you Danny? Well. What was the process for you to get your placement? There were various placement opportunities organised by the Job Centre. under-resourced.

enhanced 7. dole office 3.Unit 15 . under resourced Page 3 2. long-term unemployed 4. .Mediation: Letter Answers Page 1 C 1. caseload Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. tantamount 5. an employment agency 6.

confidence. a social misfit. in a nutshell. She decided to __3__ the job and wrote a new __4__ just for this interview. D You are going to read the article on the next page. management consultancy. Look quickly at the article and decide who ‘I’ and ‘we’ are in the text. __6__ the interview she bought a new business suit and went to the interview looking __7__. ‘Interviews Matter’. a brochure. an asset. G Write five questions which Mr Jenner might ask at an interview. What advice would you give to people going to job interviews? What do the words and phrases in the vocabulary box mean? Which items are connected to job interviews? a curriculum vitae. intelligent and normal because she did not want her interviewer to think she was some kind of __8__.Speaking: Interview Page 1 16 Interviews at Work In this unit you will… • meet words and expressions about job interviews • read an article written by an employer • role-play a job interview A How do you think you would feel at a job interview? Tell your partner about one particular event. . arrogance or confusion? Make notes about what Mr Jenner says on the following topics: the purposes of the job interview preparation difficult questions research into the consultancy dressing for an interview “small talk” Compare your notes with those of a partner. What attitude does Mr Jenner show in his article . to apply for.Unit 16 . to substantiate. well-groomed. C Put one item from the vocabulary box into each gap. You may have to adapt the words. to accomplish. Job interviews – real life phrases What really interests me about this job is… I’ve had a great deal of experience in… I’d be interested to know… Tell the class. Role-play the interview with a partner. She tried to look happy. prior to. to evaluate. because she knew she would have to __5__ every detail she wrote. B E F Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. Fiona Fletcher sent off for a __1__ and other materials from a __2__firm.

and demonstrating a knowledge of interesting facts about the consultancy which he or she has found during research. e. I don’t particularly worry about candidates who are nervous during the interview – this is normal and will be expected. And obviously the candidate will have worked hard and have prepared for days to get an interview in the first place. He or she should always select suitable clothing for the type of organisation. The last thing we want in the office is a social misfit. An interview isn’t meant to be easy. and we will force candidates to address their failures and mistakes to find out what they have learned or would now do differently. We are also working out whether or not it is in our interest to look further into the candidate with a view to employing him or her. . If we can’t. At the very least I expect a candidate to find out as much as possible about the consultancy prior to the interview. This knowledge will also help the candidate decide whether he or she is suitable for employment here. This may seem irrelevant to the position. e. Full information is available on our website. To accomplish this.. The candidate should also be able to relate his or her assets to the position and the consultancy. We are focusing on areas related to his or her position(s). but how the candidate has grown over time in the business world. If these are not good. A candidate needs to demonstrate how and why he or she will be an effective employee. I want to see any point the candidate has made substantiated by detailed information.g. a certain level of maturity and self-knowledge on the part of the candidate is required. We need to evaluate the candidate’s personality and attitudes in terms of the demands of the consultancy and the possible position. Put in a nutshell: if we can make money out of you. The candidate should have asked us to send a variety of materials. Before the interview the candidate should have reviewed their curriculum vitae and be prepared to answer questions about its contents.Unit 16 . This interview process serves several purposes.. but the candidate is already being evaluated.Speaking: Interview Page 2 Interviews matter Management consultant Hector Jenner tells us what he expects from job seekers at interviews Sitting behind this desk. motivation. I see an endless queue of youngsters coming in front of me hoping to get a job in our management consultancy. Candidates should not forget the facts of economic life. it will be much harder during the rest of the interview for them to change our opinion of them. In our case that means conservative business dress. The candidate should use these opening moments to show a positive and business-like attitude. so the candidate has no excuse for not being fully informed. Candidates should recognise that their success or failure in the interview can depend on appearance and first impressions. in-house newsletter and the firm’s magazine. we want you.g. To impress an employer such as myself the candidate must be well prepared and let me know clearly what he or she has to offer. When a candidate comes before me he or she must be familiar with the position they want in the consultancy. clean and well-groomed. we don’t. So what should be said about the job interview? The interview is a mutual exchange of information between an employer and a candidate for a position. We begin the interview with some "small talk" to help the candidate relax. interpersonal/work skills. showing pleasure at speaking with me. brochures. What we want to see in particular is not just the level at which the candidate is currently functioning. We want information about the candidate that is not contained in the curriculum vitae. We will employ people who will work hard in the firm and make the consultancy money. for example our annual report. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. We need to check that the job seeker understands what he or she is applying for and has a sense of direction in his or her career. The candidate should look neat.

B Look at the list of issues below. Ask your partner to find the question for each answer. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Tell me about yourself. What are your short-term goals? What about in 2 and 5 years from now? What is your own vision. “There is more conflict at work these days. or mission statement? What do you think you will be looking for in this job? Why do you feel you will be successful in this job? What other types of job are you looking for in addition to this one? What supervisory or leadership roles have you had? What experience have you had working in a team? What have been your most satisfying/disappointing experiences? What are your strengths/weaknesses? What kinds of problem do you handle the best? How do you reduce stress and try to achieve balance in your life? How did you handle a request to do something contrary to your moral code or business ethics? What was the result the last time you tried to sell one of your ideas to others? Why did you apply to our organisation.Speaking: Interview Exam skills A Page 3 Look at the questions below.Unit 16 . Have the discussion. Write a one or two-sentence reply to any five of the questions below on separate pieces of paper. You should note the arguments in favour of the propositions and your partner should note arguments against. Giving your opinion – real life phrases I have always felt that… In my view… In my opinion… Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. Choose one. and what do you know about us? What are the advantages/disadvantages of joining our organisation? What is the most important thing you are looking for in an employer? What were some of the common characteristics of your past supervisors? What characteristics do you think a person would need to have to work effectively in our company with its policy of staying ahead of the competition? What courses that you have been on did you like the best/least? Why? Exam Tip: in the exam you will be asked a question about your personal work or study experience. . and that you say it clearly and accurately. It is important to have the language to answer it briefly and effectively. It is important that you have something to say.” “People work harder now than they used to” “Computers are making work less interesting” Exam tip: in the exam you will be asked an ‘issue’ question.

Answer each one in about two sentences.Unit 16 . previous jobs. Write it down. fringe benefits). . Do you agree? The worst exam is the driving test. Do you agree? People worry too much about exams. • • • • C Are you a student or do you work? What do you like about your work/college? How long will you stay there? Will you take any further exams? Page 4 B Now take it in turns to role-play the dialogue below.g. (Ask either about exams or pay) Exams A A A B B B Pay A A A B B B How important is money in your life? Which is more important for you.Speaking: Interview Exam Practice: ‘Are you a student or do you work?’ A Prepare a forty-five second speech about you and the world of work. management systems. etc. Do you agree? D Write your own set of three “A” type questions and three “B” type questions on another topic (e. promotion. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. things you like. e. Your partner will ask you the following questions. taxation. THE EXAM SCRIPT First we’d like to find out some information about you. Role-play them in pairs. Are you a student or do you work? (The candidate speaks) Now I’d like to ask about a different topic. Give your speech to your partner.g. qualifications or money? Are you (or will you be) paid enough? What determines how much people get paid? What kinds of people earn too much? What kinds of people earn too little? How do you feel before an exam? Does anybody in your family like doing exams more than you? What was the worst exam you have ever done? Exams are becoming more important these days. The interlocutor asks one ‘A’ question and one ‘B’ question.

. overbearing. Difficult questions: because Jenner needs to find out candidate’s failures and weak points. reports. find out about the position. curriculum vitae Page 5 8. brochure 5. Dressing for an interview: clean.e. Preparation: candidate should review CV. E Mr Jenner has a superior. social-misfit D ‘We’ is the management consultancy. well-groomed 3. apply for 4. ready to answer questions on it. insensitive and ‘one-sided’ (i. prior to 7.Speaking: Interview Unit 16: Interviews at Work Answers page 1 C (suggested answers) 1. substantiate 2. “Small talk”: tells Jenner about the personality of the candidate.Unit 16 . F (only the key points are mentioned below) The purpose of the job interview: a mutual exchange of information. conservative business clothes. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. evaluation of candidate’s personality. newsletters. employer-centred) attitude. well-groomed. management consultancy 6. the management consultant. understands the position applied for. ‘I’ is Hector Jenner. for information not in the CV. Research into the consultancy: study the firm from its website and write off for brochures.

to pursue. In these circumstances the behaviour of shareholders becomes more important. to be divorced from. an implication. to sustain industrial action. 1 2 3 C business company firm A B C an organisation which has legal personality A sole trader or partnership. which believes companies always __2__ strategies for __3__. Such economists look at marginal __4__ and __5__. a trade unionist. __6__ economists look at what groups of people. E Look quickly at the article on the next page. marginal cost. a behavioural economist. usually with no legal personality any profit-based organisation B What do the words and expressions in the vocabulary box mean? Are all the highlighted words specifically related to economics? neo-classical. Some large firms adopt __12__ to drive smaller firms out of the market. an emphasis. and then write My personal view is… a joint statement on your opinions. You may need to adapt the word. a perk.’ How far do you agree Presentations – real life phrases with Mr Fischer? Some people have argued that… Discuss the issue with a partner. (200 The key point here is… words) Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. a predatory pricing strategy. change singular nouns to plural. ‘Businesses know the price of everything and the value of nothing. unfavourable or neutral? Read the article again and give the most complete explanations you can for the following: • • • • • F Profit maximisation Behavioural economists Satisficing Sales revenue maximisation Predatory pricing strategies G Arnie Fischer. Where necessary. . D Put one of the items highlighted above into each gap. an equity and bond market. profit maximisation. Managers have day-to-day control. such as __7__ do. has said. One school of economics is the __1__. What is Professor Slovo’s attitude to making profit – favourable. to identify. a shareholder. but if a company’s __8__ and __9__prices fall. a takeover bid. marginal revenue. a __10__ company may put in a __11__ to buy the company. a rival.Unit 17 .Speaking: Presentation Page 1 17 Business Profits In this unit you will… • meet words and phrases about microeconomics • read an article about profit maximisation • get practice in preparing a presentation A How important is money to you? Do businesses have any goals other than maximising their profits? What is ‘legal personality’? Match each word with a definition. including large corporations. output and economic welfare. For instance.Unit 17 . Professor O. larger firms may adopt predatory pricing strategies by lowering prices to a level that would force any new firms entering the industry to operate at a loss. They point out that any business is an organisation with various groups: employees. There can be little doubt that the long-term ambition of any firm is profit maximisation. any number of different sub-strategies might be followed. While traditional economic theory assumes there is a single goal (profit maximization). if they cannot accurately calculate marginal revenue and marginal costs. the main price and output decisions may be taken at local level by managers. Although profit maximisation might be the motive. but in a complex market. However. The economist William Baumol has argued that managers may follow a strategy of sales revenue maximisation. ‘Maximising’ behaviour may be replaced by satisficing – i. It is often difficult for firms to identify their profit maximising output. Such a situation could arise if there is downward pressure on the share price and there is the prospect of a takeover bid by a rival firm. Head of the Economics Department at the University of Grenberg. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. 3462 Grenberg. Baumol argued that annual salaries and other perks might in fact be more closely connected to total sales revenue rather than profits On the other hand.e. . for example. is likely to have different objectives and goals. Behavioural economics is beginning to cast light on some of this complexity. and customers. behavioural economists argue differently. In other circumstances a firm may be under pressure to reduce prices to consumers if it has made large profits.Speaking: Presentation Page 2 Is it all just about profit? Professor Otto Slovo looks at the role of profit in the economy The standard neo-classical assumption is that a business seeks profit maximisation from producing and selling an output in a market. This would allow larger firms to sustain a monopoly position in a market. His research focused on the behaviour of managercontrolled businesses – where the day-today decisions taken by managers are divorced from the actions of shareholders (the owners of the business). or to improve its image with customers. and be driven out of the market. other strategies have to be pursued to that end. behaviourists argue. with shareholders taking only a distant view of the company's performance and strategy. the equity and bond markets may play an important role in monitoring the performance of managers in a company when companies are under-performing. managers. there are other objectives firms might decide to pursue – at least in the short run – and these have implications for price. and may choose to do this in order to stop an investigation by the Competition Commission. Any number of sub-strategies is possible. The dominant group at any moment in time can give greater emphasis to their own objectives. Maul Ring 34. setting minimum acceptable levels of achievement. Each of these groups. Slovo. A third example is that a firm may reward workers through higher wages in order to stop or prevent industrial action.

Finally. and how you will achieve this. several workers have complained that there is little or no vegetarian food on the menu. but it has problems. First of all. My name is Rebecca Klein. Do not write in full sentences. Exam tip: when you see the input data you will need to brainstorm to give yourself something to say. We should recognise that tastes are changing. this is the one made most often. but feel that in the current financial situation this is not a priority. Consider the following: • • • An introduction of yourself and the topic of your presentation. Add some or all of this language to your presentation notes.Unit 17 . The new company will start work in the New Year. As a result. In conclusion. Second. what you want to achieve. Your conclusion. PLZ Engineering sold a machine to a company which has not paid for it and has recently gone bankrupt. changed the catering company that runs the canteen. Of all the complaints. Write in notes and in ‘parts of sentences’ of not more than about five words. We believe as a company that our workers should have good food. B Write a plan for a presentation outlining your solutions to Mr Grice’s problems. Exam tip: you have ten minutes to plan your presentation. I’m the catering manager for PLZ Engineering. . and not write out your entire presentation. C Look at the following presentation ( which is on another topic). stating that there must be a vegetarian option every day. some workers have complained that the seating in the canteen is uncomfortable. The ‘signposting’ language is in bold.Speaking: Presentation Exam skills A Page 3 PLZ Engineering PLC wants to accept a new contract (worth EUR 2 million). there is a clause in our agreement with the new caterer. We would like to improve the furnishing. I would emphasise the steps we have taken to improve catering in the company. the managing director. Today I want to address the problem of our troubled canteen. there have been complaints that the canteen meals are always cold and are covered in fat. Exam tip: to give order and meaning to your presentation. For each point describe: what the problem is. you need to use ‘signposting’ language. • • • The company has rent arrears on its premises of EUR 71 000 The workers are threatening a strike if they do not receive a 5 per cent pay increase. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. therefore. Look at each problem and think of three pieces of advice to give Mr Grice. We have. You should plan in note form. Three or four points.

Sales 1970 1980 1990 2000 EUR 345m EUR 290m EUR 150m EUR 72m Cost of maintaining plant 1970 EUR 34m 1980 EUR 52m 1990 EUR 134m 2000 EUR 190m Variety of ice cream manufactured 1970 6 types 1980 7 types 1990 5 types 2000 4 types Problem – where is the missing 10 Euro? Three businessmen go out for a business lunch. C As a management consultant you have been asked to give advice in the form of a presentation to Mr Jack Kenning.Speaking: Presentation D Page 4 Give your presentation to a partner. B Plan a one-minute presentation on one of the following topics. consequently. The waiter catches up with the three men. second moreover. Where is the missing EUR 10? Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. the men have each paid EUR 90 for their meal. He quickly hands the waiter five EUR 10 notes. The waiter has kept EUR 20. You may use your dictionary. . hands each of them EUR 10. I’d like to start off by saying…’ A The following are all examples of signposting language. they pay the waiter and walk outside.’ Do you agree? • ‘Free enterprise is always best. and keeps EUR 20 himself. additionally. Satisfied. Now as I see it. All prices are in euros and have been adjusted for inflation. however. and give it to your partner. The joint bill for their meal comes to EUR 300.’ Do you agree? You have ten minutes to prepare for the following presentation. Your partner should take notes. the manager checks their bill and finds that the businessmen have overpaid by EUR 50. therefore. telling him to find the men and repay them. which comes to EUR 290. and prepare three questions to ask you about your presentation Exam tip: to give a good presentation you need to practise aloud many times. Exam Practice: ‘Now. Some details of the firm’s performance over a thirty-year period are presented below. on the other hand. which is EUR 270 in total. Put them in pairs. first.Unit 17 . the managing director of Kenning Ice Cream PLC. After they have left. Use the signposting language presented in A: • ‘Business is organised greed.

pursue. neutral (p. Sales revenue maximisation: basically trying to get as much money as possible from selling your product or service. 1) F Profit maximisation: this means getting as much profit as you can. 4) A first/second.Unit 17 . predatory-pricing strategies. 3. the company is different legally from the people who own it. 5 revenue. (p. therefore/consequently. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. rival. Firm: a commercial organisation which may or may not be a company. neo-classical. equity. costs. 12. 1) B Business. take-over bid. Predatory Pricing Strategies: when a business lowers its prices in order to prevent other businesses selling and driving them out of the market 2. shareholders. (p. . 10. Company: this is a business which has a separate legal identity. maximise profits. 6 behavioural. this refers to any person or group of persons who carry out commercial activity. 7. Behavioural economics: this branch of economics looks at what people actually do rather than predict from economic models. Satisficing: people look to minimum levels and only reaction if the minimum is not reached. 9. however/on the other hand. 4. (p. 11. 1) D 1. 1) C The technical economic terms have been underlined in the text of the article (p. In the article profit maximisation refers to the ideal of this being the motivation of everybody in the firm. bond. i.Speaking: Presentation Unit 17: Business Profits Page 5 (p. 8.e. moreover/additionally. 1) E.

We recommend that …. What is ‘conversation turn-taking’? What did the researchers find out about it? 5. to gaze. and she has never been able to __7__ her feelings. what did they find? 3. to suppress. and what does this cause? E F G You are a member of a trade union which finds such inequalities of power at work unacceptable. When the researchers videoed the same speech given by men and women.Unit 18 . You may need to adapt the word. Reports – real life phrases This report was commissioned by… The author was asked to… We discovered that…. Every day in the office she __8__ her boss that he is the best boss in the world. How do bosses label subordinates. a power move. . conversation turn-taking. She has strong feelings and is __2__ and __3__. to perceive. to be socialised to. Write a report on the situation and make suggestions for dealing with the problem. Her boss likes her __4__ and he calls her a __5__. C Put one item from the vocabulary box into each gap. How many types of power relation are mentioned in the article? 2. submissiveness. emotional. B D Look quickly at Sara Liebermann’s article on the next page.Speaking: Transactional dialogues Page 1 18 Status at work In this unit you will… • meet words and expressions about status • read an article about power relations at work • practise short conversational replies A Do people talk differently to their boss than to their colleagues? At work or at college. to share the back seat. What did the researchers find out about revealing emotions? 4. What type of inequality is she most concerned with? Give each of the paragraphs a title.should… Headings for a simple report Introduction (the report’s audience and scope) Findings Recommendations Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. to reassure. an emotionally-loaded question. docility. Ruby is not a dominant person and often __1__ with other unassertive people. task-oriented. Answer the following questions: 1. She believes she was __6__ to be passive. What does the article say about eye contact? 6. a scatterbrain. how do you speak differently to different people? What do the following words and expressions mean? sensitive.

passivity. passive. Researchers discovered that the students remembered more of. (4) In a recent study. (8) Power corrupts. Not to be forgotten either are the old. (3) The powerful speak a special language and subordinate people listen to them in a different way. lack of initiative and lack of mental sharpness (‘She's so cute – such a scatterbrain!’). patients and doctors. (5) Researchers have found that dominant people suppress emotion. Children and the poor play subordinate roles everywhere. independent – are used to describe men and those people who have power. who were instructed to listen carefully. and subordinates express it. clumsy. men talked at even greater length – trying to establish themselves as dominant. sensitive. Men and women who were judged by testers to be equally articulate were videoed making the same factual speeches. intellectual. and could answer questions better on. cold. dependent. The same is true for the politician and the business executive. On the other hand. while in America. These adjectives are often used to describe women. eighteen women and eighteen men answered ten questions each. The women also looked at the men while they themselves talked. The powerless. (9) We can say with confidence that power relations exist between people in society. The students were then questioned on the facts delivered by the speakers. competitive. They can't afford to let people know that they are scared or confused. When facing another male. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. A successful poker player doesn’t want to show the weakness in his hand. women consistently used facial expressions indicating emotion. inefficient and inferior. but the other five were emotionally loaded. and the uneducated. Yet the women were not any more expressive answering the emotional questions than they were in response to the factual questions – they were simply showing emotion while responding to the questioners.taking. . The tapes were shown to groups of male and female students. on the other hand. while men are ‘conditioned’ not to do so (even when they feel like it). the men's faces became blank. the unattractive. Employees will often come to accept their subordinate role. the speeches given by the men than those by the women. (2) Women of course are not the only people who lack power. Five questions had little emotional content. This was shown by the fact that they revealed some slight facial movement when responding to the factual questions. because ‘holding the floor’ is considered a power move.Speaking: Transactional dialogues Page 2 Language and power at work Sara Liebermann looks at the language of power and inequality at work (1) Warm. the opposite adjectives – aggressive. you reassure the speaker. docility. revealing a need for feedback. dynamic. The researchers concluded that more attention was paid to what the men were saying simply because our society perceives males as more powerful. co-operative. objective. A boss may even reward employees for submissiveness. were controlling their emotions. the sick. task-oriented. are often ignored. supportive and subjective. Women are socialised to express emotion (whether it's there or not). psychologically or socially. emotional. no matter how well they speak. (7) If you gaze at someone while that person is talking. dependence. Researchers found that the women performed this reassurance ‘service’ for the men far more than the men did for the women. and bosses often encourage employees to believe that they are stupid. Perhaps it is time we started to address them. but when the questions focused on emotional areas. (6) It is an interesting question to consider who will be the more dominant when two business people meet. They found that each pair maintained conversation turn. blacks and certain other ethnic groups have long shared the back seat. and that these power relations are reflected in behaviour and language. and the men assumed they were dominant in the male– female pairs. There is no place where these power relations are stronger than at work. In answering the ten questions. but that the men talked longer than the women.Unit 18 . The men. Researchers asked fifty male and fifty female business people to hold a sevenminute conversation with a stranger of the same sex. and students and teachers. in order to make it easier to maintain discipline. and another with a stranger of the opposite sex. Similar tests show the same thing happening in all power relations: conversations between workers and management. but they also describe all those people who don’t have power at work.

5. but do you really know what you’re doing? a b c d e f g h Exam tip: in the transactional dialogues you need to be ready to give an answer to something unexpected. actually. I’m not feeling too good. I’m OK. I am your ex-business colleague. Sorry. I would. Remember the student speaks first. What can I do to help you? Thanks. Well. Can I help at all? Well. I’m sorry to hear about your problems. How are you? Oh. (4) asking permission? Underline the functional language for(1) making complaints. .Unit 18 . here is your first card. but it’s empty. I wish I did. I’m sorry. B Look at following conversation starters. Excuse me. but I’d be in a terrible draught. C Look at the above transactional dialogues. shut it then. Read each card and follow the instructions. Well. 2. Match them with the replies. (3) offering help. I lost my job last week. would you mind if I opened a window? It’s a bit stuffy in here. Do you want a hand sorting out your computer? It’s all right thank you. Wheelchair users like to be as independent as possible. Sorry. if I weren’t carrying so much all the time. Let me hold the door open for you. and I have loads of debts. you’ve found me/ him. 3. How are you? How’s the new job going? • • • Exam Tip: in the transactional dialogues you need to know exactly who says what and when. but I’m in a foul mood today. (2) requesting information. I’m really not too happy about you smoking right next to the window. (3) offering help. I’m looking for the exit too. Which are(1) making complaints. Ben! I haven’t seen you for ages. You wouldn’t by any chance know where his office is. hi. 6. (4) asking permission. 4. Page 3 You meet an old work colleague in the street. (2) requesting information. You can. 8. D Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. Greet him/her and ask about his/her new job. • In this part of the test you must say something that is appropriate to say in a situation.Speaking: Transactional dialogues Exam skills A Who says each of the following lines – the candidate (Ado) or the interlocutor? Put the following dialogue in order. 1. do you know the way out of the building? I’m looking for Mr Jenner. would you? 7. Ado. Could I use your stapler for a second? I’d be really grateful if you could close the door after you.

g. Greet him and ask about the health of his wife. Ask someone in the corridor for help. You now realise you have left your hat in the office. For example: YOU SEE A COLLEAGUE DROP A PEN Candidate Excuse me. check the ‘interlocutor’s’ responses. colleagues) and those of unequal status (boss / worker). Card 1 You go into the reception of a management consultancy. Ask someone. Card 2 You are in the lift. You are not sure where in the building the Bibby and Jenner management consultancy is. manager/secretary. In pairs. I thought you just dropped it. The ‘interlocutor’ should think of an appropriate response to the candidate’s reply and write it down. Candidate But. Interlocutor Sorry. Mark the relationships to show those between people of equal status (e. For example: YOU SEE A COLLEAGUE DROP A PEN Candidate Excuse me.Speaking: Transactional dialogues Exam Practice: ‘I am the person you meet in the lift…’ A B Page 4 C List as many possible business interactions as you can think of in three minutes. Card 6 You are lost in a large office building and can’t find the way out. You just dropped it. . D In the same pairs. Explain your problem to the secretary. Discuss doubtful cases. but I’ve never seen that pen in my life. but here’s your pen. Card 4 You are in the office of a business associate. role-play the transactional dialogues on the cards below. who has been ill recently. E Write your own set of six transactional dialogues and act them out. e. but here’s your pen. but I’ve never seen that pen in my life. Interlocutor Sorry.g. Ask the secretary for either tea or coffee. Ask to speak to Mr Piper. Card 3 You visit your business associate Mr Piper at his office. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. You just dropped it. Card 5 You have just left the office of a business associate. shop assistant/customer. Then get into new pairs and practise the three-turn conversation.Unit 18 .

Ben!… I: Well. Taking turns to speak. 9. managers/workers. 7. do you know… You wouldn’t by any Let me… Do you want a hand… Asking Permission: I’m sorry. That people tend to listen more carefully to men than to women. Adjectives to describe power relations. f. a. not old/the old. 8. Power relations at work are reflected in behaviour and language 1. 4. Power. ethnic majorities/minorities. submissiveness. Bosses label them according to the adjectives and nouns in paragraph (8). (p. Dominant people suppress emotion. 7. e.Speaking: Transactional dialogues Unit 18: Status at Work (p. 6. C C (p. Power corrupts. irrespective of topic. about… Requesting information: chance know… Offering help: Offering help: 7. The powerful and the powerless speak and are heard differently. employers/employees. 2 Complaints: I’d be really grateful if you could …. 2. socialised. i. Asking permission: 1.d.1) E gender inequality 5. 5. suppress. Complaints: 3. 3) C 1. Maintaining eye contact during speech reassures the speaker. 8. (p. Different types of power relations. 6. the healthy/the sick. 8. actually… C: I’m Ok. Requesting information: 5. b. 1) F as inferior. I’m sorry… I: Thank you. men/women. (p.e. 4. g. 5. suppress emotions. Men. 2. 6. . 3) B (p. attractive/unattractive people. (suggested answers) 1. those in a subordinate role do this for those in a dominant role. doctors/patients. and their subordinate role. 3. 8. 2. 1) C (suggested answers) 1. would you mind if I… Could I… Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. 3) A I=interlocutor. 6. 3.3) D I’m really not too happy Excuse me. richer/poorer people. 4. 6. Power and the length of speaking turns. employees tend to accept this. reassures. 4. gaze and a reassurance ‘service’. shares the back seat. Page 5 3. 7. h. teachers/students 2. 3. C=candidate I: In this part of the test… C: Oh.Unit 18 . 1) D (p. the educated/the uneducated. emotional. scatterbrain. adults/children. dominant people suppress emotions. (p. Men and women express different levels of emotion in speech. hi. 5. 4. c. that generally men and those who want to be dominant take longer turns. sensitive.

prospective customers. a commitment. to sustain. a drop in the ocean. innovative. cutting edge. a qualification. Underline the stressed syllable in the words. ‘We want __8__ industry in the town.Speaking – Unite 19: Collaborative speaking Page 1 19 Expanding a Company In this unit you will… • meet words and expressions about building up a business • read an article about a company moving into a depressed area • participate in a discussion aimed at achieving an outcome A When a company expands. commercial viability C Put one item from the vocabulary box into each gap. changing the form where necessary: The once __1__ town of Meckham is now developing fast. ‘Upwards for TKN Software’. The council maintains __5__ with __6__ local businesses providing they are __7__. collaborative. what are the advantages? Are there any disadvantages? Is your company (or a company you know about) expanding. a grant. extensive. to launch. NOUN aspiration commitment qualification innovative collaborative ADJECTIVE VERB sustain E F Look quickly at the article on the next page. Mayor Edgar Grice is enthusiastic. What are the quoted opinions of Arnie Fischer and Mayor Landau? Rewrite their opinions in indirect speech. knowledge-based industry sector.ROMBOLO You have just been employed by TKN Software. to secure. and then compare them with a partner. to gather. David Kantor – ZSZ . . Write a short letter (100 – 150 words) to a friend about your new job.’ D Fill in the gaps in box. • Another factor that we need to consider is… • Is there anything more you want to add to… G H Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. run-down. The municipal council has __2__ EUR 30 million through a government __3__ so that the town’s growth can be __4__. What is the good news for Grenberg? Read the article more thoroughly. Make notes on what you know about the following. a link. Talking to achieve a goal – real-life phrases • Would you agree that…. Our __9__ is to build a dynamic local economy with all workers having __10__. contracting or standing still? B What do the words and phrases in the vocabulary box mean? an aspiration.

The aim was to find individual solutions which could then have a general application. TKN Software’s main product is called ROMBOLO. well-paid employment in a cutting edge. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. when it was creating and running the Kranon Internet Service Provider – situated in the Torgut Business Park. It aims to make full use of the fact that the internet enables staff to work globally. and aims to build on successful use of the Graduate Placement Scheme. who is TKN’s technical director.’ The existing staff are all educated to graduate level or equivalent. ‘The company has developed an extensive list of prospective customers and has a tested product to launch in the healthcare sector. said: ‘We are delighted to have received this investment from ZSZ.’ Mr Landau said.Speaking – Unite 19: Collaborative speaking Page 2 Upwards for TKN Software Saul Denman looks at the expansion of the TKN Software Up to ten more jobs could be created in Grenberg with the further development of a local IT company that has aspirations to market software products around the world. TKN Software has built up strong links with Grenberg College. as well as providing a substantial loan secured on the company’s property. and lead to the development of software products that could be used widely. but ten jobs in a town with 8 500 unemployed – well. which will help secure the future of the business and sustain its growth over the next twelve months. which last year enabled the firm to take on a graduate of the college's BSc Computing course. This follows the decision of Grenberg Municipal Council to give the company a grant of EUR 3million if it invests in the rundown eastern area of the city. both at home and abroad. if successful.’ TKN Software already employs a team of five in Grenberg and a further six in the regional capital. and is intending to focus its product development and headquarters staff in Grenberg. Straba PLC. It also wanted to provide management services and develop innovative software that would provide collaborative. It is designed to assist business and management consultants. Harold Landau. They were later at university together. TKN Software was set up in 2001 to provide consultancy services to organisations looking for IT and internet solutions. I believe there are reasonable prospects for commercial viability and additional growth in a sector which has grown gradually in the town over several years. a program which will allow enterprise agencies across the region to use identical approaches to companies looking for assistance. The total expansion project is worth almost EUR 7 million. and also worked for the internet company. ‘Of course we welcome any new investment in the area. Local councillor Arnie Fischer commented. David Kantor. Both David and Ben are former students of the town’s Business Institute. with ZSZ involvement totalling EUR 2 million. managing director of TKN Software. who are both from Grenberg. .000 of shares in the growing company. It will systematically gather information about them and will also allow regular updates as the businesses develop. ZSZ's commitment includes buying EUR 70. said the development of TKN Software would create good quality. it’s a drop in the ocean. said he wanted to find development partners for the projects so that they could jointly finance the research. knowledge-based industry sector. also in Grenberg. David Kantor. and the new posts will demand similar qualifications. the system could be applied to any number of companies in the area. team-workspace solutions. Two of TKN Software’s founders are David Kantor and Ben Sanders. Mayor of Grenberg.

that the economy of Grenberg is driven by low wages and flexibility. Does it? Many cleaning firms have a high turnover. C Look at the following dialogue and note how the speakers disagree. When we are talking about industrial expansion. Exam tip: taking your turn to speak. Come on. If your workers aren’t happy. Andreo Maria Andreo Maria Andreo Maria Well. disagree respond and change the topic. Maria. but the management needs commitment from its workers. you can sell your product. then discuss the question and try to agree on the most important. I think investing in people is important When you advertise properly.Speaking – Unite 19: Collaborative speaking Exam Skills A Page 3 Look at the following conversation and decide what the students are talking about. But aren’t we forgetting the most important thing of all – start-up capital? Exam tip: in the collaborative task it is important in the first minute to mention things to talk about. The fact of the matter is. Advertising can be over half of all expenditure. don’t you? Yes. F What are some of the advantages that business expansion offers to the community ? In discussion with a partner. right? True. properly trained. Andreo. Exam tip: your discussion needs to be cohesive. Andreo Maria Adreo Maria Andreo Maria The management needs a low-paid workforce who will work long hours when needed. with the right qualifications. so commitment just isn’t that important. they won’t work hard. B Underline all the devices used above (a) to agree with a speaking partner. That’s important too. aren’t we? And. and (b) to give a speaking partner an opportunity to speak. Yes. list four or five things. D What is the problem with the following dialogue? Andreo Maria Andreo Maria Andreo Maria Andreo I think advertising is very important. How polite are they? Highlight phrases showing different degrees of politeness. it needs to be ‘linked together’. I think having low taxes is very important. we are not mainly talking about cleaning firms. Well we’re assuming the labour is there and is flexible. before we make a new point. . I agree. I would add. you need to know how agree. but nothing can happen unless there is customer demand. well to that I would add advertising. I agree You’re right. That’s rubbish. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. … Exam tip: in the exam task. responding to what your partner has said and giving your partner an opportunity to speak are important to do well in this task.

4. shortage of skilled labour What qualities do you need to be a good secretary? E. you’re right 1. You have 3 minutes altogether to try and agree. agreeing disagreeing with somebody expanding on what someone has said interrupting inviting an opinion changing the subject B Look at the three topics in the box below. the examiner will give feedback. do you?’ A Page 4 Look at the following expressions.. 5. a Let me get a word in here…. b Just to add to that…. By yourself.g. and the other two will do one of the collaborative tasks chosen by the examiner.. < Pick up the Topic Card but do not give it to the candidates yet. to be polite at all times What factors are important in deciding where to locate a new office? E. Match them with the functionsin the second box. 6. so you think that. and think of a reason why. One person is the examiner.g. > < Read the topic and any instructions out loud to them > • • • First make a spoken list of four or five things. 2. What are some of the things that stop a company from expanding? E. Then switch roles. c Well. > Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. Underline the one you think is most important. the rent you must pay C Get into groups of three. THE EXAM SCRIPT • For the final part of the test. .. I’m just going to listen. discuss which one is the best/ most important. e I don’t quite go along with that.g. 3. you are going to talk to each other about a topic I will give you.Speaking – Unite 19: Collaborative speaking Exam practice: ‘Oh. quickly make a list of things you would say about each topic. Find more than one expression for each function. Remember to give reasons for what you say. All right? < Place the topic card in front of the candidates. At the end. d What is your reaction to the idea that…. if we could move on from that now…. Then. f Yes. when you have done that.

links. (p. Mayor Harold Landau said that the company had developed an extensive list of prospective customers and had tested a product for launching in the healthcare sector. b3. e2. c6.1) F ADJECTIVE aspiring oOo aspirational ooOoo committed oOo sustained oO qualifying/qualified innovative collaborative oOooo VERB Aspire (to) oO commit (to) oO sustain oO qualify innovate collaborate (with) oOoo Up to ten new jobs in the town Arnie Fischer welcomed any new investment in the area. innovative. I agree/ True/ And I would add… (b) I think…don’t you? (and other question tags)/ …right?/ framing the whole of the turn in the form of a question Yes. (a) Yes.1) D – stress is shown where it does not fall on the first syllable NOUN aspiration ooOo commitment oOo sustainability oooOoo qualification oooOo innovation ooOo collaboration oooOo (p. but thought that ten new jobs in a town with 8. (informal)/ That’s rubbish (rude) (p. but… (polite)/ Does it? (neutral)/ The fact of the matter is…(quite formal)/ Come on. knowledge-based. Page 5 7. went to Grenberg Business Institute and University/ worked for Straba PLC /wants to expand his business ZSZ: contributed EUR 2 million to TKN Software/ has EUR 70. secured. 3) D The participants do not seem to be listening to each other.Speaking – Unite 19: Collaborative speaking Unit 19: Expanding a Company (p. 3. Sustained/secured. run-down. 4) A a4. nor are they building on each other’s contributions. 9. 3) C (p. 10. 3) A (p.500 unemployed would be just a drop in the ocean. f1 Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. grant. Also. qualifications. 1) G David Kantor: TKN Software founder/ from Grenberg/ with Ben Sanders.(other answers are possible) (p.000 in shares in TKN/ has made a loan to TKN secured on the property of the company ROMBOLO: a software program which will gather information designed to help management consultants How to start up or expand a business. 3) B (p. He further said he believed there were reasonable prospects for commercial viability and additional growth in a sector which had grown gradually in the town for several years. 5. 4. 6. collaborative. 8. aspiration/commitment. 2. 1) E (p. 1) C 1. (p. . d5. there is repetition of ‘I think…’ It is not clear exactly what they have agreed at the end.

In groups of three. a business reader… can quickly identify the content and relevance of news items. can use a variety of strategies to achieve comprehension. try to remember as much as you can.Unite 20: Extra Activities Page 1 20 EuroPro the CEFR and Extra Activities 1 A Reading at B2 Vantage Level Make a list of all the things that you can read.. and readily grasp the essential meaning. What do the words and phrases in the vocabulary box mean? an idiom. At B2 level (vantage) a business reader… can read with a large degree of …. articles and reports on a wide range of professional topics.g. When you have finished compare your notes with the text. and using appropriate reference sources selectively. Which do you enjoy most and least? Why? Compare your opinions with a partner. instructions.. to grasp. a stance B C Match the words with the comments. contextual clues. In the short texts task. including checking comprehension by using contextual clues. In the paragraph headings task. adapting style and speed of reading to different texts and purposes.’ A way of standing or (metaphorically)– an opinion Hold tightly or (metaphorically)– understand D Read the standards expected at B2 level in the box below. then tell the class about it. ‘That’s not my cup of tea. e. a business reader… can understand correspondence relating to his/her field of interest. . newspapers. Has a broad active reading vocabulary.g. but may experience some difficulty with low frequency idioms. Shut the book. novels. In the multiple-choice reading task a business reader… can understand articles and reports concerned with contemporary problems in which the writers adopt particular stances or viewpoints. deciding whether closer study is worthwhile. 1 2 3 4 An idiom A contextual clue To grasp A stance A B C D Information which helps you understand something E. railway timetables. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre.

• The writer must remain seated. The other students will take notes.g. they will try to find the ‘lies’ and invented information. Your teacher will note the order in which pairs finish. the teacher will tell the runner and the writer to exchange roles. The activity has the following rules: • The runner may not shout but must dictate next to the writer. The runner needs to go to the text. Then compare your work with a student in another group who has the same article. Then write a summary of about 50 words. Students form groups of five. using their notes. When the writer has written it down. Communicative Activity – Business Articles Your teacher will collect five articles of between 150 and 250 words each. Stage 2: Return to your original group of five. from ‘BBC Online’ business pages) Stage 1: Read the article individually. and all the pairs should be (more or less) the same distance from the nearest copy. (The articles can be edited from the internet. • Once or twice during the dictation. the runner should go back to the text and repeat the process for the next chunk. read a chunk of it. e. The text will be about 150 words long. The aim of the activity is for the writer to write down the text as accurately as possible. and. At this stage. present your article and answers questions from the other four students. Stage 3: Your article will now be given to the other members of your group. return to where the ‘writer’ is sitting. The winner is the pair which has made the fewest errors. Page 2 Students should form pairs. The original version of the text is then handed out. and dictate that chunk to the writer. agree to insert three or four things which are untrue – or are not in the article. • The runner may not write anything. and each student in the group will receive a different article. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. and the copies will be attached to the wall around the room so that they can easily be read. and each pair checks the work of another pair. In your presentation remember to include the false or invented information. In the event of a tie the pair which finished earlier is the winner. One member of the pair is the runner and the other is the writer.Unite 20: Extra Activities Communicative Activity – Running Dictation Your teacher will attach to the walls of the room four or five (slightly enlarged) copies of an English text concerned with business. . and extract the main points.

♦ You can’t understand.Unite 20: Extra Activities Page 3 2 A Listening at B2 Vantage Level What do the words and phrases in the vocabulary box mean? a proposition. In the meeting task. ‘He picked it up and put it there. try to remember as much as you can. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. In groups of three. somebody listening in a business context… C can understand the main ideas of propositionally and linguistically complex speech on both concrete and abstract topics delivered in a standard dialect.’ without __5__. can use a variety of strategies to achieve comprehension. and the direction of the talk is sign-posted by explicit markers. including technical discussions in his/her field of specialisation. can follow extended speech and complex lines of argument. a concrete subject. When you have finished compare your notes with the text At B2 level (Vantage). talks and reports and other forms of academic/professional presentation which are propositionally and linguistically complex. somebody listening in a business context… can follow the essentials of lectures. somebody listening in a business context… can understand most radio documentaries and most other recorded or broadcast audio material delivered in standard dialect. Shut the book. In the short conversations task. including listening for main points and checking comprehension by using contextual clues.’ is __3__ many people don’t accept as true. somebody listening in a business context… can understand messages on concrete and abstract topics spoken in standard dialect at normal speed In the making notes task. tone. . a single sentence is not. ♦ He is very easy to understand because he speaks __1__ ♦ Talking about how to get to work in a traffic jam is __2__. extended speech. and can identity the speaker’s mood. Read the standards expected at B2 level in the box below. ♦ ‘All businessmen are nice people. moral philosophy is not. contextual clues B Put one item from the vocabulary box into each gap. provided the topic is reasonably familiar. etc. a standard dialect. ♦ Giving a lecture is an example of __4__ . can with some effort catch much of what is said around him/her.

the other members should ask questions. The rules of the activity are: • the student who starts chooses one of the topics and becomes the speaker • the aim of the speaker is to speak for a minute on the topic without : hesitation (i. starts to speak. When the storyteller has finished.’ says the second. ‘you two were cheated. ‘Do you know. Get into groups of four or five.’ says the third. each group of students should present the story to the full class. Individually. • anybody can challenge if the rules are broken. if the challenger is wrong. the tie is an example of a Giffen Good: as the price rises. I bought mine in Paris and paid EUR 1000 for it!’ In economics. or a new speaker. etc. then the challenger gets a point. think of a story and make some notes. ‘Where did you get yours? I got mine here in Berlin and paid EUR 300 for it’ ‘Ah. As a final stage. • a student who makes a correct challenge takes over the speaking. Money makes the world go round. demand increases – in this case because its value is measured in terms of its cost. The story is imaginary. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. • the student speaking at the end of the minute receives an extra point. Your story should take about two minutes to tell. • the ‘stop-watch’ is stopped during a challenge.Unite 20: Extra Activities Communicative Activity – Just a Minute Page 4 You are going to speak on a business topic You are going to try to talk non-stop for one minute Get into groups of four or five. Each student tells his/her story in turn to the group. one of them notices that they are all wearing the same tie. Time is money. Three very wealthy businessmen are sitting together in an elite business club in Berlin. When the details of the unfinished story have been established.’ ‘Well. Communicative Activity – Business Stories You are going to tell a story about the history of a business. If the challenge is correct. (e. e. Make a list of business topics suitable for a one-minute (slightly humorous) speech. . deviation (going off the topic) or repetition (saying a content word not in the topic title more than once). The other members of the group listen and make notes. the other members of the group should agree an end to the story.e. who may ask questions in order to find out extra details about the story. ‘I got mine in Rome and I paid EUR 500 for it. then the speaker gets a point. or a wealthy man becomes bankrupt).g. and is only started again when the same. Leave your story unfinished. pausing for more than a couple of seconds). Suddenly. Look after the cents and the euros look after themselves. we are all wearing the same tie. a business started by a street seller becomes a multinational. chaps.’ says the first man.g.

and does not make mistakes which lead to misunderstanding. book or play. can vary formulation to avoid frequent repetition. considering the effect on the recipient/s.g. synthesising and evaluating information and arguments form a number of sources. can use circumlocution and paraphrase to cover gaps in vocabulary and structure. When you have finished. try to remember as much as you can.Unite 20: Extra Activities Page 5 3 A Writing at B2 Vantage Level Match up the words with the definitions: synthesise evaluate circumlocution conspicuous hinder to say indirectly. detailed descriptions on a variety of subjects related to his/her field of interest. compare your notes with the text At B2 level (vantage) a writer in a business context… can write clear. can show a relatively high degree of grammatical control. In the extensive writing task. by describing obstruct (make something difficult) observable assess put together B C How many syllables do the words above have? Which is the stressed syllable? (E. though some without hindering communication. can write a review of a film. confusion and incorrect word choice does occur. and can comment on the correspondent’s news and views. or if they have misunderstandings. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. can plan what is to be written and the means to write it. and explaining the advantages and disadvantages of various options. can synthesise information and arguments from a number of sources. can use accurate and correct lexis. using some complex sentence structures to do so. can express news and views effectively in writing. can write letters conveying degrees of emotion and highlighting the personal significance of events and experiences. can write an essay or report which develops an argument. a writer in a business context… can write clear. giving reasons in support of or against a particular point of view. synthesise Ooo) Read the standards expected at B2 level in the box below. led to can give clear descriptions. express viewpoints and develop arguments without much conspicuous searching for words. detailed texts on a variety of subjects related to his/her field of interest. can produce clearly intelligible continuous writing which follows standard layout and paragraphing conventions can spell and punctuate reasonably accurately. but may show signs of mother tongue influence. In groups of three. . can correct slips and errors if he/she becomes conscious of them. Shut the book.

Your teacher will give you e-mails you haven’t seen. Try to improve the content and the English. However. You should write recommendations in the following way: We have noted that…. They should be in the style of an email. the teacher will stop you writing. no more than 60 words. (at least two things) Obviously. and address them to three other members of the class. (your teacher will tell you to whom. or minute and a half. (e. The full report will need hundreds of words. as you have noted a large number of problems in the office. Your teacher will act as a postal worker and will ‘deliver’ your e-mails to their recipients. make a list of other problems which you can think of for the office. lateness. The recipient should write a reply – no longer than 70 words – on the back of the sheet of paper. is necessary for the proper functioning of the office. etc.). You should not write exactly the same thing on any two reports. In pairs. We therefore recommend that….g. We believe that…. You should stop writing immediately and hand the paper to the person on your right. untidiness. your list of recommendations will be long. every minute. and your teacher will then deliver it back to you. You will receive a sheet of paper from the student on your left. who have been asked to find solutions for some problems in a badly run company office. The teacher will then give you a sheet of paper. Discuss your changes with the original writer of the e-mails. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. You should try to make the report as sensible as possible. The subjects of the e-mails are: • • • an offer to sell something a complaint about services received a request for information about the other’s product or service The e-mails should be short. each on a separate piece of paper. each of you should have a pen and a hard surface to write on. Communicative Activity – Improving the Office Everyone in the class is a member of a team of management consultants. The whole class should now sit in a circle. . and should continue writing at the point where s/he stopped.Unite 20: Extra Activities Page 6 Communicative Activity – Business Letters Write three short e-mails. The activity continues until everybody has contributed to every report. so that a few students don’t receive all the letters). money being stolen.

provided the topic is reasonably familiar. pronunciation. the business language user… can deploy a good range of vocabulary for matters connected to his/her field and most general topics. try to remember as much as you can.Unite 20: Extra Activities Page 7 4 A Grammar & Vocabulary at B2 Vantage Level Put the following into two lists. When you have finished. . speaking B Think back to the dictation unit (Unit 14). listening. compare your notes with the text. Which of the following are important if you want to do well in the dictation task? Why? spelling. C What is the difference between what is being tested in the multiple-choice gap fill and the modified cloze? Read the standards expected at B2 level in the box below. the business language user… can produce clearly intelligible continuous writing. and the direction of the talk is sign-posted by explicit markers. including checking comprehension by using contextual clues can spell reasonably accurately (but for the specially selected vocabulary which you need to write for these tasks in the Euro Exam there is NO allowance for error) In the dictation. pronunciation. listening for detail. which follows a standard layout can follow extended speech and complex lines of argument. In the modified cloze. writing. In groups of three. grammar. D At B2 level (Vantage) a business language user… can use a wide variety of strategies to achieve comprehension. vocabulary. listening for gist. What is the difference between your two lists? reading. Shut the book. can understand broadcast audio material delivered in standard dialect can take messages can understand a clearly structured lecture on a familiar subject In the non-dictation tasks the business language user… can read with a large degree of independence can deploy a broad active reading vocabulary In the multiple-choice gap fill. the business language user… can show a relatively high degree of grammatical control Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. reading.

He’d have… Although it had been… But for… Never before had… Rarely… Not wanting… Having opened… AND THREE OTHER SENTENCES OF YOUR CHOICE • • • • • • • When you have written several sentences (your teacher will tell you how many). with your teacher’s help. and others not. discuss in class. You are going to use this as you would in an auction. for a sentence which is grammatically incorrect you receive 1 point. Your aim is to buy as many grammatically correct sentences as possible for as little ‘money’ as possible. Everybody in the class (or every pair) will get the same amount of imaginary ‘money’. You should take care not to use up all your money at the beginning of the auction. At this stage don’t discuss them with other people. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. Try to add to your notes. or give you a printed copy of the text. Communicative Activity – Grammar Auction • Look at the grammar items in the box below. Your teacher will read the text through again at normal reading speed. . Your teacher will read the text at normal reading speed. For a grammatically correct sentence which you have bought you receive 10 points. What do you think the text will contain? Tell a partner The text will be about 100 words long. Note down key words and phrases. Now get into groups of three or four students. either during the reading or afterwards. and ungrammatical ones for even less. When everybody’s money has gone. Your teacher will now read the original text slowly. which sentences are grammatically correct. Together you should try to re-write the text as closely to the original as possible. You should note differences between your version and the original. Write sentences of at least twelve words which start with the following. The teacher will write a selection of the sentences on the whiteboard and then ‘auction’ them. Some of these will be grammatically correct. and discuss these in the lesson. The winner is the person (or pair) with the most points.Unite 20: Extra Activities Communicative Activity – Dictogloss • • • Page 8 • • • Your teacher will give you the title to a text. or when the sentences have run out. Exchange ideas with other students near you. Your teacher may have some sentences which s/he has written. hand them in.

♦ You have to _3_ her to get her to say anything. ♦ He produced a very long _1_. there are few noticeable long pauses can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without imposing a strain on either party In the interview. but they have a _5_ in Paris. C At B2 level (Vantage) a business speaker… give clear. Read the standards expected at B2 level in the box below. a business speaker… can expand and develop ideas with little help or prodding from an interviewer In a presentation. say what they think. a business speaker… can help along the progress of work by inviting others to join in. In a collaborative task. although s/he can be hesitant as s/he searches for patterns and expressions. a stretch of language. . try to remember as much as you can. to impose a strain. a concession B Put one item from the vocabulary box into each gap. to prod. compare your notes with the text. can outline an issue or a problem clearly. systematically developed descriptions within a wide range of subjects related to his/her field of interest. giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options In real life situations. Shut the book. expanding and supporting ideas with subsidiary points and relevant examples can can produce stretches of language with a fairly even tempo. etc. ♦ The main office is in Berlin. In groups of three. and weighing advantages and disadvantages of different proposals Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. ♦ We will have to make a _4_ if we want them to sign the contract. ♦ She has such a strong foreign accent that listening to her _2_ . and make it clear that the provider of the service or customer must make a concession. expanding and supporting his/her points of view at some length with subsidiary points and relevant examples can construct a chain of reasoned argument can expand a viewpoint on a topical issue.Unite 20: Extra Activities Page 9 6 A Speaking at B2 Vantage Level What do the words and phrases in the vocabulary box mean? subsidiary. speculating about causes or consequences. a business speaker… can explain a problem which has arisen. When you have finished. a business speaker… can develop a clear argument.

Move around the room. What is the product? Make a few brief notes. sit down. Move around the room.Unite 20: Extra Activities Communicative activity – The businessperson’s mingle Take a piece of paper and write a name (if you are male write a female name. Communicative activity – Selling your product Imagine that you are in business. talk to all the other ‘business people’ and find out as much information about them as you can. When you have finished. Ask and answer questions about your business. and about selling your product. discuss each of the businesses in turn. ON YOUR PAPER. Introduce yourself and ‘mingle’. Your partner should ask you questions. and have a new product to sell (e. WRITE BRIEF NOTES ON THE FOLLOWING: • the name of your business • how many years you’ve been in business • where your business is • what your business is • how many people you employ • three problems your business has • two hopes you have for expansion • your last business trip • your last holiday • your family Page 10 Now try to remember as much as you can about your new self – but keep your piece of paper to remind you. a new insurance policy). Do not write it down. . Now explain your product – and how you will market it – to your partner.g. a new type of glue. but try to remember it. Consider: • is the product one which would sell? • how much would it cost to set up the business? • who would buy it? • what is the best way to market it? Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. AT THE END OF THE PARTY Sit down and tell your partner about the most interesting person you met. As a class. Your teacher will invite you to a party. as you would in a real party. and you should give answers. if you are female write a male name) NOW YOU ARE THIS IMAGINARY PERSON. and talk to all the other ‘business people’.

2A. 5. 4C 2 Listening at B2 Vantage Level (p. 1) B (p. a proposition. . a standard dialect. hinder: obstruct (make something difficult) (p. 1) A Writing at B2 Vantage Level synthesise: put together. pronunciation – need to listen to the recording. 4. 1) B 1. grammar. minimal role In the multiple-choice gap fill your vocabulary is being tested: do you know the right word? Can a particular word fit into the sentence here? In the modified cloze your grammar is being tested. 3 (p. stretch of language. 1) B evaluate circumlocution conspicuous hinder oOoo oooOo oOoo Oo 4 (p. reading – just need to read the instructions and the title. imposed a strain. i. subsidiary. Many sounds are reduced or elided.Unite 20: Extra Activities Page 11 Answers 1 Reading at B2 Vantage Level (p. vocabulary listening for detail – absolutely crucial. which grammar words go into a gap so the sentence is grammatically correct and makes sense? (p. circumlocution: to say indirectly. 5. contextual clues 3. writing and speaking language knowledge: pronunciation. conspicuous: observable. as the dictation needs to be reproduced word for word spelling – all the words in the chunk must be correctly spelt to get the point. listening. concession. 1) C Speaking at B2 Vantage Level (p. extended speech. 2. 1) 1. prod. 3D. 2. 1) A Grammar & Vocabulary at B2 Vantage Level language skills: reading. 3. listening for gist – in the first reading through you need to listen for gist to work out the topic of the dictation which then helps you to understand the details. and work out written text from the speech. 4. 1) C 1B.e. Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre. evaluate: assess. a concrete subject.

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