Engineering Geology

2 hours Course /2 weeks 2 hours Laboratory /2 weeks

Titular of course: Senior lecturer Dr.Eng. geologist Anca- Andreea Balog

1. Introduction to Geology. The Earth¶s interior. 2. Mineralogy notions. 3. Igneous, Metamorphic and Sedimentary Rocks and Processes. 4. Geologic structures. Tectonic Forces, Folds, Fractures in Rocks. 5. Earthquakes, Mass Wasting, Karstic Phenomena. 6. Ground water. 7. Geological research for buildings.

Introduction to Geology. The Earth¶s interior.
Geotechnics -study the rocks as foundation ground, as regards to their
locations, giving the necessary data for designing and making the buildings, and as construction materials. The foundation ground can consist of dense rocks or of soils (soft or weathered rocks) geotechnic object of study geology object of study

The foundation ground is the zone located at the Earth µs surface were, due to the construction of the building, changes are taking place, given the previous situation, and where the building actions effect is felt.


Foundation The foundation ground

The geology is the science which study the Earth as a whole: the origin, the structure, the composition and history, as well as the processes and the phenomena involved in all these aspects. In building it gives the dates concerning: -the geological structure -the tectonics of the region -the petrophysical characteristics of the rocks -the possibility of their modification in time under the external factors (and of the buildings) -ensure the natural building stones The technical-geology research methods are based on : -mineralogy, petrography, tectonics, hydrogeology, geophysic, geochemistry, vulcanology and earthquake-science elements, next to dates given by other sciences: physics, chemistry, mathematics, strength of materials

The planets: Vulcano (small, between Mercury and Sun), Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluton The Solar System

1. The Earth¶s size and shape The surface = 510,10 mill.km2 The volume = 1083 mld.km3 The equatorial radius = 6378,14 km The polar radius = 6356,75 km The equatorial length = 40076,59 km The meridian length = 40009,15 km 2. The atmosphere of the Earth -nitrogen (N)- 78%; oxygen (O)- 21%; other gases (Argon, Hydrogen, Neon, Helium, Krypton, Xenon),water vapor, dust, smoke, industrial gas products which are corrosive and attack buildin materials - 1%, Pear shape ± The average surface of the seas and oceans unaffected by the tides and their extension under the continents

2. Earth¶s motions
Movement of revolution ± around the Sun in 365 days and 6 hours
(at a speed of 30 km/s)

Consequences: -The seasons (the axe inclination with 23027¶ from the elliptical plan -of the orbit) 21 March (equinox) 22 June (solstice) 23 September (equinox) 22 December (solstice)

The Sun

Rotation ± around its axis -within 24 hours Consequences: -the alternation between day and night

3. Physical properties of the Earth
Geomagnetism ± orientated magnetic field due to the faster rotation of the nucleus comparing with the external layers Gravity (9,81 m/s 2) Pressure ± due to the own weight (vertical)= geological pressure - orientated (horizontal) = Stress Ex. Orogens pressure Earth¶s crust mountains - Sun¶s energy - thermic energy from the Earth¶s core -the depth of frost in Romania -0,60- 1,15 m -the geothermal gradient- The temperature increase with depth , with 10 C for each 30-40 m depth The Heat Density ± The mass of volume unit of the material wich Earth is compose of. The average value - 5,527 g/cm3 - to surface 2,7-2,8 g/cm3 - to the core 12 g/cm3

Df ± foundation depth The total load given by -the building and -it¶s own weight are transmited to the natural ground through the foundation

Monolayer ground

= = h1




2 = h1 3 = h1

+ h2 + h2 +h3

-unit weight of the layer h-thickness of the layer Layered ground

Foundation ground, active zone
Df ± foundation depth Z 0 ± the depth of active zone Active zone ± the depth were the pressure given by the foundation, decrease under 20% of geological pressure Foundation ground
0,20 Foundation pressure = Geological pressure =f( , Z) The depth considered The width of foundation sole

Coefficient (from table)


Pn = Pef Net pressure at foundation sole

i Df
Effective pressure transmited by the foundation


= 1 - In foundation sole

-Cross section through the Earth

THE EARTH¶S CRUST (to 80 km depth) Is thinner beneath the oceans than beneath the continents:-Continental crust - 20-80 km thickness (Granite, schist, gneiss, sedimentary rockcover) -Oceanic crust - 10-20 km thickness (Basalt, gabbro in lower crust) The boundary that separate the crust ± from the mantle (beneath it) is called the Mohorovicic discontinuity MANTLE (to 2900 km depth) Litosphere (= the Earth¶s crust and uppermost mantle, together) - to 100 km - solid rock Astenosphere (upper mantle) - to1400 km - the rocks are close to their melting point (viscous) - magma formation The boundary is Gutenberg-Wiechert discontinuity


The Crust - Si, Al The Mantle - Si, Mg-upper -Cr, Iron, Si, Mg, Ni, Mg- lower THE CORE (about 3400 km radius) The Core -Ni, Iron - a liquid outer core and a solid inner core

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