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Anca-Andreea BALOG


U.T. PRESS Cluj-Napoca, 2011

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Director: Daniela Manea Consilier editorial: Ing. Călin D. Câmpean

Coperta discului: ing. Călin Câmpean

Copyright © 2011 Editura U.T.PRESS Reproducerea integrală sau parţială a textului sau ilustraţiilor din această carte este posibilă numai cu acordul prealabil scris al editurii U.T.PRESS. Multiplicarea executată la Editura U.T.PRESS. ISBN 978-973-662-650-0 Bun de tipar: 12.07.2011 Tiraj: 100 exemplare

Geology for engineers


Laboratory 1 Laboratory 2


pag.1 pag. 20

Laboratory 3 Laboratory 4

pag. 37 pag. 45

Laboratory 5

pag. 58

Laboratory 6 References

pag. 68 pag. 75

Geology for engineers- 1st Laboratory- Mineral properties and identification

1st Laboratory

Minerals combine to form rocks, so learning the common minerals and their properties will make the rock identification easier. A mineral is a naturally, inorganic substance with crystalline structure, a characteristic chemical composition, and characteristic physical properties. The optic proprieties of the minerals form a mode of quick and precise determination in the practice of mineralogical research (are microscopic determinations). This is one of the most important elements that are taken into consideration while indentifying the minerals. The study of optic proprieties is being done, in thin sections (of 0,002-0,04 mm in which the crystals become transparent), at the polarized microscope (with two nichols) or with the chalcographic microscope (in case of opaque crystals). The two fundamental characteristics of a mineral that together distinguish it from all other minerals are its chemical composition and its crystal structure. Chemical analysis can aid the identification of minerals, but physical properties (which reflect chemical composition) are more generally used in identifying minerals. Obs. No two minerals are identical in both respects. Mineraloids lack crystalline structure, they are amorphous. Ex. Opal and limonite are mineraloids. Minerals are composed of atoms arranged in a very orderly three-dimensional structure, a crystalline structure called crystals. Different minerals have different properties, and these can be used to distinguish one mineral from another. In laboratory we use the hand specimens to identify an unknown mineral. You should first determine its physical properties by observation (visual inspection) and testing, then match the properties with the appropriate mineral, using a mineral identification key (such as Table 1.2). The physical properties of minerals are those that can be observed generally in all minerals, directly and by undestroyed methods: external crystal form, twins, colour, streak, luster, diaphaneity, cleavage, fracture, hardness, specific gravity and tenacity.

Geology for engineers- 1st Laboratory- Mineral properties and identification

Other properties are those that are found in only a few minerals. These include taste (halite obviously taste salty), odor (an “earthy” smell is characteristic of some clay minerals when they are moistened), feel (the impression gained by handling or rubbing it- such as a soapy, greasy, smooth, rough, and so forth), chemical reaction with acid and magnetism.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Crystal form is the external, geometrical appearance of a perfectly crystal. The flat external surfaces of the crystal are called crystal faces. The form makes the exterior aspect of the crystal and it is the result of the process of crystallization, being a consequence of the internal structure of the atoms’ and molecules’ arrangement in network system. So, crystals can be: -idiomorphs- crystals are delimitated by specific crystallographic faces (calcite, pyrite, sphalerite) -hipidiomorphs- partial delimitated by specific crystallographic faces (feldspar, amphibole, quartz of rocks etc) -xenomorphs- the form of the granules is irregular (quartz of plutonic rocks, nefeline from sienites etc) The habitus means the relative development in space of the crystals (on the three specific crystallographic directions). The habitus can be: isometric- is characteristic for the minerals that crystallize in the cubic system (magnetite, pyrite, halite) and of some minerals from the rhombohedra system (calcite, dolomite) elongated on a certain direction- prismatic (feldspar), columnar (quartz), acicular (stibnite), fibrous (asbestos, gypsum) elongated on two directions- tabular (barite, gypsum), lamellae (mica, chlorite), sheets (graphite, talc) of transition- between the three basic hatitus (corundum, calcite)




Diaphaneity is the ability of a thin slice of a mineral to transmit light.

Geology for engineers- 1st Laboratory- Mineral properties and identification

If a mineral transmits light freely and an object viewed through it is clearly outlined, the mineral is said to be transparent (quartz, feldspar). If light passes through the mineral but the object viewed is not clearly outlined, the mineral is translucent. If a mineral allows no light to pass through it, even in the thinnest slices, it is said to be opaque (magnetite, pyrite). Colour is the first thing notice about a mineral, the colour or lack of color may be diagnostic in some minerals but is also the most ambiguous of physical properties. In some minerals, the colour varies (Ex. quartz can be colourless, violet, white, pink, grey, blue, green, red, yellow, brown, and more). The colour of the minerals is the result of the process of selective absorption of the light rays, being influenced by the reticular structure of the crystal and by its chemical composition. The colourless crystals (ex. the quartz) let the whole quantity of light to pass through them (they are clear and transparent), the white ones (ex. gypsum) fully reflect the light, the ones coloured absorb different the light and the light pass across it, the white crystals (ex. gypsum) reflect the light entirely, to the coloured crystals. The colour varies due either to a slight difference in chemical composition or to small amounts of impurities within the mineral (Ex. pyrite-yellow, sapphire- blue, fluorite-green). In some minerals, however, colour is a useful property: muscovite mica is white or colourless, and ferromagnesian minerals (such as biotite, hornblende, and olivine) are either green or black. Most minerals do have a common colour. Streak is the colour of a mineral’s powder. The streak is determined by rubbing the hand specimen on a piece of unglazed porcelain- streak plate. The colour of the powder remaining on the plate is the streak. Some minerals have a streak that is the same as the colour of the hand specimen, other have a streak that differs in colour from the hand specimen. For instance, hematite always leaves a reddish brown streak though the sample may be brown, red or silver. Obs. Unfortunately, few of the silicate minerals leave and identifying streak because most are harder then the porcelain streak plate. Luster is manner (the quality and intensity) in which the surface of a mineral reflects light. Luster is either metallic or nonmetallic.

Geology for engineers- 1st Laboratory- Mineral properties and identification

A metallic luster gives a substance the appearance of being made of metal (like silver, gold or copper). Nonmetallic luster is more common. Terms used to describe luster include: - Earth - not bright or shiny -Glassy (also called vitreous), like glass or porcelain, most silicate minerals have this characteristic - Pearly - like a pearl - Waxy - like a candle - Resinous – appearance of resin. Cleavage is the ability of a mineral to break along preferred planes because the bounding between atoms is weaker there. Each different set of cleavage planes has an orientation relative to the crystalline structure, are always parallel to crystal faces or possible crystal faces and is referred to as a cleavage direction. Perfect cleavage describes cleavage planes that are very smooth and flat. Mica has a single cleavage, and its quality is perfect. Excellent cleavage in micas results from splitting of the crystals between weakly bonded sheets. Other descriptors such as good, fair and poor are used to describe cleavage surfaces that are less well defined. Some minerals are characterized by one, two (the feldspars, the amphiboles, and the pyroxenes), three (calcite = “rhombohedral cleavage”, halite -all at 900 to each other = “cubic cleavage”), four (diamond), six (sphalerite) or more cleavage directions. The quality can range from perfect to poor. Determining cleavage is frequently the key to identifying a mineral. Obs. Cleavage fragments of minerals such as halite, calcite, and gypsum are often mistaken for crystals. This error is made because the cleavage fragments of these minerals have the same geometric form as the crystal. Fracture surfaces are non-planar, nonparallel surfaces along which substances break because of the absence of cleavage. The breakage forms a surface with no relationship to the internal structure. Obs. The break occurs in a direction other than a cleavage plane. Some minerals, such as quartz and volcanic glass are example of conchoidal fracture (the fracture surface are smooth and exhibit fine concentric ridges); asbestos is characterized by fibrous fracture. Other terms often used are: hackly, uneven

Geology for engineers- 1st Laboratory- Mineral properties and identification

(rough), even (smooth), earthy (dull but smooth fracture surfaces), splintery (like wood) and irregular (like concrete) fracture. Some minerals have both cleavage and fracture. An example is feldspar which has two directions of cleavage at nearly right angles, plus a fracture direction. Twins are two or more crystals of some minerals that may be grown together in such a way that the individual parts are related through their internal structures. The external form that results is manifested in a twinned crystal Some twins appear to have grown side-by-side (plagioclase), some are reversed or are mirror images (calcite), and some others appear to have penetrated one another (fluorite, orthoclase, and staurolite). Hardness (H) is a measure of resistance to scratching. Substances can be compared to Mohs’ hardness scale, which consist of ten common minerals arranged in order of their increasing hardness (the hardest mineral has a hardness of 10 (diamond) and it must be able to scratch on a smooth (the softest mineral has a hardness of 1 (talc) (Table 1.1) Table 1.1
Mineral talc Mg(Si4O10)(OH)2 gypsum CaSO42H2O calcite CaCO3 fluorite CaF2 apatite Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl) orthoclase K(AlSi3O8) quartz SiO2 topaz Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2 corundum Al2O3 diamond C Assigned hardness 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Rather than carry samples of the ten standard minerals, a geologist doing field work usually relies on common objects to test for hardness. A fingernail usually has a hardness of about 2.5. A mineral that scratches glass will be considered “hard” and one that does not scratch glass will be “soft”. If you can scratch the smooth surface of a mineral with your fingernail, the hardness of the mineral must be less than 2,5.

Geology for engineers- 1st Laboratory- Mineral properties and identification

Ordinary window glass generally has the hardness slightly greater than 5,5. A geologist uses the glass to distinguish between softer minerals, such as calcite, and harder minerals similar in appearance, such as quartz. Striations appear as straight “hairline” grooves on the cleavage faces of some minerals. Obs. We use the striations of the plagioclase to distinguish it from the potassium feldspar. - Plagioclase feldspar have striations: straight parallel lines or grooves that can be seen on the faces of one cleavage direction, and are parallel to the faces of the second cleavage direction. - Potassium feldspar may have lines on their surfaces that resemble striations, but they are thin, discontinuous, sub parallel lamellae of plagioclase. Terms used to describe the tenacity: Brittle- like glass; malleable- like modeling clay; flexible- like a plastic comb; elastic- like a rubber band. Specific gravity (SG) is defined as the ratio of the weight of a substance to the weight of an equal volume of water. To determine the specific gravity of the mineral in the laboratory, it is sufficient to utilize a simple “heft” test by lifting the hand specimen. Compare the heft of two specimens of about the same size but of contrasting specific gravity. For example, heft specimen of graphite SG=2,2 g/cm3 in one hand, and a similar sized specimen of galena SG=7,6 g/cm3 in the other hand. Ex. quartz has SG= 2,65 g/cm3; the gypsum SG=2,3 g/cm3; the feldspar range from 2,56 g/cm3 to 2,76 g/cm3; magnetite SG= 5,2 g/cm3; galena with a SG= 7,6 g/cm3; gold with a SG= 19,3 g/cm3. Tenacity This property is an index of a mineral’s resistance to being broken or bent. It is not to be confused with hardness. Some of the terms used to describe tenacity are: - Elasticity - the mineral bends without breaking and returns to the original shape when stress is released - Flexibility - the mineral bends without breaking but does not return to its original shape when the stress is released.

Geology for engineers- 1st Laboratory- Mineral properties and identification

- Brittleness - the mineral shatters when struck with a hammer or dropped on a hard surface. OTHER PROPERTIES • Reaction to acid differs among minerals. A few minerals effervesce (fizz) when acid is dripped onto them. The mineral calcite, as well as some other carbonate minerals (those containing CO3-2), reacts with a weak acid to produce carbon dioxide gas in the process. The common carbonate mineral calcite effervesces (“fizzes”) when a drop of such dilute hydrochloric acid (cool, dilute 1-3% HCl) is applied to one of its freshly exposed surfaces, indicating that CO2 gas is being formed. The dolomite is another carbonate mineral that will effervesce in dilute HCl , but only if it is powdered first. Obs. Vinegar contains acetic acid, and can be used for the acid test (without dilution) when HCl is not available. • Some minerals are fluorescent, or glow, under ultraviolet light. Ex. Fluorite (calcium fluoride) and calcite • Uranium minerals are radioactive. • Magnetism The test for magnetism requires the use of a common magnet or magnetized knife blade. Usually magnetite (an iron oxide, with high iron content) is the only mineral (in our collection) that will be attracted by a magnet. • Double refraction occurs when light pass through the crystalline structure of some minerals. Calcite is the most common mineral that displays double refraction: if you place a calcite crystal over an image on paper you will see two images. This phenomenon is caused by light splitting into two components when it enters some crystalline materials.


Geology for engineers- 1st Laboratory- Mineral properties and identification

Ca, F Phosphate Hexagonal

-nonmetallic; vitreous-sub-resinous; greenish, yellow, blue, green, brown, purple, white; cleavage poor; fracture conchoidal; streak- white; -crystals common, massive or granular forms -important source of phosphorus -nonmetallic; vitreous; greasy or wax like in massive varieties, silky when fibrous; colour variable: shades of green more common; cleavage none; streak white; -occur in massive, platy, and fibrous forms


Hardness =5

ASBESTOS (Serpentine)
Mg, Al Silicate Monoclinic

SG= 2,5-2,6

Hardness =2-5

Ca, Mg, Fe, Al Silicate

-nonmetallic; vitreous; dark green to black; cleavage good (2 planes~ 90 ); streak white to grey; -eight- sided prismatic crystals, often granular masses



Hardness =6

Monoclinic -is the most important ferromagnesian mineral in the igneous rocks- it is a member of the pyroxene group

K, Mg, Fe Al Silicate

-nonmetallic; vitreous to pearly; dark green to brown, or black; cleavage perfect basal, SG=3
forming elastic sheets; streak white to grey; -sheets, granular crystalline masses, or crystals as pseudohexagonal prisms

Hardness =2,5-4

Monoclinic -common accessory minerals in igneous rocks; also important in some metamorphic rocks;


-nonmetallic; vitreous; colourless and transparent or white when pure, wide range of colours possible; cleavage perfect rhombohedral; streak white to grey; -crystals common, also massive, granular, oolitic, or in a variety of other habits;

SG= 2,7

Hardness =3



Geology for engineers- 1st Laboratory- Mineral properties and identification

-effervesce in cold dilute HCl, strong double refraction in colourless variety -common mineral in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks


-metallic; opaque; brass yellow, often tarnished to bronze or purple; cleavage none; fracture uneven; streak greenish black; -usually massive; may occur as small crystals

SG= 4,3

Hardness =3,5-4


Mg, Fe, Al Silicate

-nonmetallic; vitreous to earthy; green to green-blue; cleavage perfect basal forming SG= 2,7-3,3
flexible nonelastic sheets; streak white to pale green; -occurs as foliated masses or small flakes

Hardness =2,5

Monoclinic -common in low-grade schists and as alteration product of other ferromagnesian minerals


-nonmetallic; adamantine to vitreous; colour varies, yellow, brown, green, purple; SG=4
cleavage none, parting common with striations on parting planes; streak white; -gem varieties sapphire (blue) and ruby (red)

Hardness =9

Trigonal -barrel-shaped crystals common, frequently with deep horizontal striations

CaMg (CO3)2

-nonmetallic; vitreous to pearly; colourless, white, grey, greenish, yellow-brown, other colours possible; cleavage rhombohedral; streak white;; -crystals common; twinning common; fine grained, massive and granular forms


Hardness =3,5-4

Trigonal -distinguished from calcite by fact that it effervesce in cold dilute HCl only when powdered


Geology for engineers- 1st Laboratory- Mineral properties and identification

-occur in sedimentary rocks

CaF2 Cubic

-nonmetallic; vitreous transparent to translucent; colourless when pure; occur in a wide variety of colours: yellow, green, blue, purple, brown, and shades in between; cleavage perfect octahedral (4 directions); streak white; -twins fairly common -common as a vein mineral


Hardness =4

PbS Cubic

-metallic; lead-grey; cleavage perfect cubic; streak lead-grey; -easily identified by cleavage, high SG, and softness


Hardness =2,5

Fe, Mg, Ca, Al Silicate Cubic

-nonmetallic; vitreous to resinous; dark red and reddish brown; white, pink, yellow, green, black, depending on composition; cleavage none; streak white or shade of mineral colour; -crystal common but also granular masses -gemstone varieties are pyrope (red) and andradite (green)



C Hexagonal

-metallic to dull; dark grey to black; cleavage perfect basal; streak black; -greasy feel, marks easily on paper; insoluble in acid; crystals uncommon, usually as foliated masses; -common metamorphic mineral


Hardness =1-2


-nonmetallic; vitreous to pearly; some varieties silky; colourless to white, grey, SG=2,32
yellowish orange, light brown; cleavage good in one direction; fracture conchoidal in

Hardness =2


Geology for engineers- 1st Laboratory- Mineral properties and identification

Ca SO4 ·H2O Monoclinic

one direction, fibrous in another; streak white; -crystals common and simple in habit; twinning common; -varieties: selenite-coarsely crystalline, colourless and transparent; satinspar- parallel fibrous structure; alabaster- massive fine grained gypsum -occur as sedimentary rocks


-nonmetallic; vitreous; transparent to translucent; colourless, also white, grey, yellow, red; cleavage perfect cubic; streak white;
-crystals common also massive or coarsely granular


Hardness =2,5

Cubic -characteristic taste of table salt

Fe2O3 Trigonal

-metallic (in form known as specularite and in crystals); submetallic to dull in other varieties; steel grey in specularite, dull to bright red in other varieties; cleavage none; basal parting fracture uneven; streak red-brown; -may occur in crystalline or earthy masses -nonmetallic; vitreous; dark green, dark brown, black; cleavage perfect (on 2 planes); streak green or pale green; -six-sided crystals common; colour usually darker than other minerals in amphibole group -nonmetallic; dull to earthy; white, often stained by impurities to red, brown, or grey; cleavage perfect basal but rarely seen because of small grain size; streak white;


Hardness =56; apparent may be as low as 1

HORNBLENDE (Amphibole)
Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Al Silicate Monoclinic


Hardness =6



Hardness =2


Geology for engineers- 1st Laboratory- Mineral properties and identification

Hydrous Alumosilicate Triclinic

-found in earthy masses -normally it is not possible to distinguish the various clay minerals on the basis of their physical properties -other clay minerals include montmorillonite (smectite), illite, vermiculite

Fe3O4 Cubic

-metallic; black; cleavage none; some octahedral parting; streak black; -strongly magnetic, some specimens show polarity (lodestones); -usually in granular masses; occur in a variety of rocks -nonmetallic; vitreous to silky or pearly; colourless to shades of green, grey or brown; cleavage perfect basal yielding thin sheets that are flexible and elastic; may show some parting; streak white; -usually in small flakes or lamellar masses; occur in many rocks


Hardness =6

K, Al Silicate Monoclinic


Hardness =2,5-4

(Mg, Fe)2Si O4 Orthorhombic

-nonmetallic; vitreous; olive-green to yellowish; cleavage distinct; streak white or grey; SG= 3,2-3,4
-nearly pure Mg-rich varieties may be white (forsterite) and nearly pure Fe-rich varieties brown to black (fayalite) -usually in granular masses, crystals uncommon -is a mineral of basic and ultrabasic igneous rocks

Hardness =6,5-7

K(AlSi3 O8)

-nonmetallic; vitreous; colour varies, white, cream, or pink; cleavage two planes 0 (~90 ); streak white; -crystals not common, glossy appearance; absence of twinning striations


Hardness =6

Monoclinic -sanidine variety may be colourless; microcline variety may be white, green, pink


Geology for engineers- 1st Laboratory- Mineral properties and identification

Ranges in composition from Albite -Na Al Si3 O8 to

-nonmetallic; vitreous; white or grey, reddish, or reddish brown; some varieties show play of colors; cleavage two planes at close to right angles; twinning common; streak white; -crystals common for Na-rich varieties, uncommon for intermediate varieties, rare for anorthite -twinning striations common on basal cleavage surfaces, useful to distinguish from orthoclase -metallic; brass-yellow, may be iridescent if tarnished; cleavage none, conchoidal fracture; streak greenish or brownish black; -crystal common, usually cubic with striated faces; massive granular forms


Hardness =6

Anorthite -Ca Al2 Si2 O8 Triclinic

Fe S2 Cubic


Hardness =66,5

-marcasite (Fe S2) is orthorhombic, usually paler in colour, and is commonly altered known as “fool’s gold”

SiO2 Trigonal

-nonmetallic; vitreous; colourless or white, but almost any colour may occur; cleavage none; conchoidal fracture; streak white but difficult to obtain on streak plate; -prismatic crystals common with striations perpendicular to the long dimension; also a variety of massive forms -color striations lead to varieties called smoky quartz, rose quartz, milky quartz and amethyst -common mineral in all classes of rocks


Hardness =7


-usually nonmetallic, some varieties submetallic, most common resinous; yellow, 0 yellow-brown to dark brown; cleavage perfect dodecahedral (six directions at 120 ) and common; streak brown to light yellow or white; -crystals common as distorted tetrahedral or dodecahedral; twinning common, also


Hardness =3,5-4


Geology for engineers- 1st Laboratory- Mineral properties and identification


massive or granular -nonmetallic, pearly to greasy or dull; usually pale green, also white to silver–white or grey, cleavage perfect basal, massive forms show no visible cleavage; streak white; usually foliated masses or dense fine grained dark grey to green aggregates (soapstone) -crystals extremely rare; soapy feel is diagnostic SG=2,82 Hardness =1

Mg Silicate Monoclinic

Mineral; chemical lustre; colour;cleavage; streak; SG; crystals form; composition; crystal structure.

Specific gravity


Table 1.2.


Geology for engineers- 1st Laboratory- Mineral properties and identification


Geology for engineers- 1st Laboratory- Mineral properties and identification


Geology for engineers- 1st Laboratory- Mineral properties and identification


Geology for engineers- 1st Laboratory- Mineral properties and identification


Geology for engineers- 1st Laboratory- Mineral properties and identification


Geology for engineers- 2ndLaboratory- Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks and processes

2nd Laboratory


A rock is any natural aggregate of minerals, mineraloids, glass, or organic particles. Ex. The granite is a rock composed of several minerals; opal is a rock composed of the mineraloids opal; obsidian is a rock composed of volcanic glass; coal is a rock composed of organic particles. With the majority of rocks of all types, even if individual mineral grains can be seen, it is hard to examine in detail the grain shapes, internal characteristics of individual crystals, and so forth. Geologists therefore rely to a special microscopic examination of thin sections (paper-thin slices of rock, to a thickness of about 0,03 millimeters, mounted on glass slides), using polarized light, to learn more than they can from looking at a chunk of rock unaided. 2.1. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS are rocks that are formed from : (1) lithification (cementation and compaction) of sediments (2) precipitation from solution (3) or consolidation of remains of plants or animals Sediment is the collective name for loose, solid particles or fragmented materials that originate from: weathering and erosion of preexisting rocks chemical precipitation from solution, including secretions by organisms in water

Obs. These particles usually collect in layers on the earth’s surface These different types of sedimentary rocks are called, respectively (1) clastic, sedimentary rock; (2) chemical sedimentary rocks; (3) organic sedimentary rocks.


Geology for engineers- 2ndLaboratory- Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks and processes

2.1.1. CLASTIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Most sedimentary rocks are clastic sedimentary rocks, formed from cemented sediment grains that are fragments of preexisting rocks. In most cases the sediment has been eroded and transported before being deposited. During transportation the grains may have been rounded and sorted. Obs. Poorly sorted sediments are composed of many different sizes and or densities of grains mixed together. They are usually angular (have sharp corners). Well-sorted sediments, however, are composed of grains that are of similar size and/or density. They are usually well-rounded grains (the sharpness of corners on a grain; the grains have been abraded and rounded during transportation). Sediment particles are classified and defined according to the size of individual fragments. Grain size is usually expressed in Wentworth classes (Table 2.1)

Table 2.1 Diameter (mm) >2,00 Sediment (unconsolidated) GRAVEL COBBLE 0,063-2,00 0,004-0,063 0,004 SAND SILT MUD CLAY Sedimentary rock (consolidated, cemented) CONGLOMERATE (rounded particles BRECCIA (angular particles) SANDSTONE SILTSTONE MUDSTONE (MARLY) SHALE

Obs. Most silt is quartz. Mud is term loosely used for wet silt and clay. Different types of sandstone: - Quartz sandstone is a type of sandstone in which more than 90% of grains are quartz.

Geology for engineers- 2ndLaboratory- Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks and processes

- Sandstone with more than 25% of the grains consisting of feldspar is called arkose. - Greywacke is a type of sandstone in which more than 15% of the rock’s volume consists of fine-grained matrix.

2.1.2. CHEMICAL SEDIMENTARY ROCKS are those deposited by precipitation of minerals from solution. The rocks formed from them are named, for the most part, on the basis of composition, not grain size. Examples of chemical sedimentary rocks: -formed entirely by direct precipitation (separation from a solution) of crystals during the evaporation of sea water or a saline lake, and they are called evaporites: -rock salt -composed of the mineral halite (NaCl) -rock gypsum -composed of the mineral gypsum (CaSO4 ·H2O) -borates, potassium salts and magnesium salts -the precipitation of calcite (CaCO3) as a solid rock (as a chemical limestone) known as travertine, or a rock made of the calcium-magnesium carbonate mineral dolomite is called dolomite or dolostone. Obs. Some geologists would classify such a rock as a chemical (or biochemical) limestone.

2.1.3. ORGANIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Organic sedimentary rocks are rocks that accumulate from the remains of organisms. Skeletons of calcareous (calcite-secreting) microorganisms can accumulate into sediment from which limestone forms. The bioclastic (or skeletal) limestone takes a great variety of appearances. They may be relatively coarse-grained with recognizable fossils or uniformly fine-grained and dense from the accumulation of microscopic fragments of coralline algae. A variety of limestone called coquina forms from the cementation of shells that accumulate on the sea floor. It has a clastic texture and is usually coarsegrained, with easily recognizable shells and shell fragments in it.

Geology for engineers- 2ndLaboratory- Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks and processes

Chalk is a light-colored, porous, very fine-grained variety of bioclastic limestone that forms from the sea-floor accumulation of tiny marine organisms. Oolitic limestone is a distinctive variety of limestone formed by the cementation of sand-sized oolites (or ooids), small spheres of calcite inorganically precipitated in shallow sea water. Limestone are particularly susceptible to recrystallization, the process by which new crystals (of calcite, the same composition as the original grains), develop in the rock. Recrystallization often destroys the original clastic texture and fossils of a rock, such a rock can be very difficult to determine. Travertines and tufa are non-marine carbonates. Travertine is formed by the contribution of hydrothermal waters of post volcanic activity. Tufa is commonly formed by the precipitation of calcite from normal freshwater in lakes and shallow ponds and even by the contribution of plants. The term dolomite is used to refer to both a sedimentary rock and the mineral that composes it, CaMg(CO3)2. Some geologists use dolostone for the rock.

2.1.4. OTHER SEDIMENTARY ROCKS The chert is a hard, compact, fine-grained sedimentary rock, formed almost entirely of silica, which occur as irregular, lumpy nodules within other rocks or layered deposits. Obs. Cherts can be formed from the silica skeletons of diatoms and radiolarians as organic sedimentary rocks. The coal is a sedimentary rock formed from the consolidation of plant material (such as moss, leaves, twigs, roots, and tree trunks) rich in carbon and usually black.

2.2. METAMORPHIC ROCKS The word “metamorphic” means of changed form. Metamorphic rocks are those that have been altered (changed) physically and/or chemically by intense heat, intense pressure, and/or chemical action of hot fluids. Therefore, each metamorphic rock has a texture clearly different from that of the original rock, a precursor (or a” parent rock”).


Geology for engineers- 2ndLaboratory- Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks and processes

Obs. The mineral content of the metamorphic rock is controlled by the chemical composition of the parent rock. There are two main scales at which metamorphic processes occur: contact and regional. Contact metamorphism occurs locally, adjacent to igneous intrusion or along fractures that are in contact with hot gases or condensation. Regional metamorphism occurs over very large areas, and it result from: 1) major igneous intrusions that form and cool over long periods of time 2) the extreme pressure and heat associated with burial or tectonic movements of rock 3) very widespread migration of hot gases throughout a region. Various mineralogical changes occur in rocks as they are metamorphosed. The most common change is recrystallization – small crystals of one mineral will slowly convert to fewer, larger crystals of the same mineral without melting of the rock. Ex. microscopic muscovite crystals- can recrystallize to a large size as phyllitean even larger size in schist. Mineralogy may also change due to neomorphism: the process whereby minerals not only recrystallize, but also form different minerals, from the same chemical elements. Ex. Shale (composed mainly of clay, quartz and feldspar grains) - may neomorphose to a metamorphic rock (composed mainly of muscovite with garnet). Mineralogy can also change due to metasomatism: the addition or loss of elements, and resulting mineralogical changes, caused by the effects of hydrothermal metamorphism. Ex. Skarn is a metamorphic rock for which the precursor rock was limestone.


Geology for engineers- 2ndLaboratory- Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks and processes

METAMORPHIC ROCK CLASSIFICATION Common metamorphic rocks can be classified as foliated rocks and nonfoliated rocks. The foliated rocks can be further classified on the basis of their specific texture and mineralogy (Ex. biotite schist versus garnet schist) Table 2.2 Foliated texture contains foliations: parallel planes of platy minerals (ex. mica) that have been aligned secondarily (realigned) due to the effects of pressure and recrystallization. Obs. Some elongate minerals, such as turmaline and hornblende, had a preferred orientation due to directed pressure. The common types of foliated texture are: - Slaty cleavage- a nearly perfect, planar, parallel foliation of very fine-grained platy minerals; is commonly developed in slate; is the product of a low grade of metamorphism; - Phyllitic texture- a parallel foliation of fine-grained platy minerals exhibiting a silky or metallic luster; it is developed best in phyllite; is a product of relatively grade of metamorphism; - Schistosity- a parallel-to-sub parallel foliation of medium-to-coarse-grained platy minerals; it is commonly developed in schists; is the product of intermediate-tohigh grades of metamorphism; - Gneissic texture- a parallel-to-sub parallel foliation of medium-to-coarsegrained platy minerals in alternating layers of different composition; is well developed in gneiss; rocks with gneissic texture (gneisses) are distinctly banded; gneisses are the product of intermediate-to-high grade metamorphism. Obs. Ferromagnesian minerals usually form the dark bands, and quartz, feldspars or carbonate minerals usually form the light bands. Examples of foliated rocks are: slate (very fine-grained rock that splits easily along flat, parallel planes), phyllite (the newly formed micas are larger than in slates, but still cannot be seen with the naked eye), schist (megascopically visible, approximately parallel-oriented minerals, platy or elongate minerals clearly visible to the naked eye), gneiss (platy or elongate minerals in dark layers alternate with layers of light-coloured minerals).


Geology for engineers- 2ndLaboratory- Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks and processes

Table 2.2 Crystal size Microscopic, fine grained very Slate Rock Names Comments Slaty cleavage developed well

Increasing Grade of Metamorphism

Fine- to- medium Phyllite grained

Phyllitic texture well developed; silky, metallic luster muscovite schist chlorite schist biotite schist tourmaline schist Types of schist recognized on the basis of mineral content

Coarse-grained, macroscopic, mostly micaceous minerals; often with porphyroblasts Schists

garnet schist staurolite schist sillimanite schist amphibole schist

Coarse-grained; mostly nonmicaceous minerals


Well developed color banding (alternating bands of different minerals)

The nonfoliated rocks can also be qualified with mineralogical denotations (Ex. graphite marble) Table 2.3 Nonfoliated textures do not have parallel planes of minerals. Examples of metamorphic rocks having nonfoliated textures are marble, quartzite, serpentinite, amphibolites, skarn, and graphite.


Geology for engineers- 2ndLaboratory- Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks and processes

Table 2.3 Precursor rock Quartz sandstone Conglomerate Rock name Quartzite Stretched pebble Conglomerate Basalt or gabbro Greenstone composed of epidote and chlorite; green composed of amphibole plagioclase; coarse-grained composed of pyroxene plagioclase; fine-grained and Comments composed of interlocking quartz grains – Original pebbles distinguishable, but strongly deformed






composed of quartz and plagioclase; fine-grained


Marble/ dolomitic composed of interlocking calcite grains marble Skarn composed of calcite minerals; multicolored and added

Peridotite (ultramafic Serpentinite rocks) Soapstone Bituminous coal anthracite coal

composed chiefly of serpentine; greens composed chiefly of talc; soap feel bright, hard coal; conchoidal fracture breaks with

Anthracite coal


soft, dark gray, with grassy feel

2.3. IGNEOUS ROCKS Is the name given to rocks formed at very high temperature, crystallized from a molten silicate material known as magma.


Geology for engineers- 2ndLaboratory- Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks and processes

CLASSIFICATION OF IGNEOUS ROCKS Igneous rocks are classified using three attributes: - the composition-the minerals they contain - their texture - and colour index The percentage abundance of quartz, feldspar, and ferromagnesian minerals in an igneous rock is the most important mineralogical information used to name igneous rocks Table 2.4 A very silicic magma is silica-rich, iron-and magnesium-poor - produce igneous rocks composed mostly of quartz, potassium feldspar and plagioclase are classified as felsic (light coloured) A mafic magma is rich in magnesium and iron, and poorer in silicon – produce igneous rocks composed mostly of dark-coloured ferromagnesian minerals are classified as mafic (dark); ultramafic igneous rocks are composed entirely or almost entirely of dark ferromagnesian minerals. No feldspars are present and, of course, no quartz. Most ultramafic rocks are composed of coarse-grained pyroxene and/or olivine. Chemically these rocks contain less than 45% silica. there are also intermediate igneous rocks of both felsic and mafic minerals;



Mafic magmas produce rocks rich in the minerals near the top of the Bowen’s diagram; silicic magmas produce rocks that are dominated by the minerals near the bottom and that are poor in ferromagnesians Fig. 2.1


Geology for engineers- 2ndLaboratory- Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks and processes

Fig. 2.1 More resistant to Quartz chemical weathering Muscovite Potassium feldspar

Biotite Amphiboles

(More sodium rich)

Plagioclase Pyroxenes Less resistant to chemical weathering Olivine (More calcium rich)

Fig. 2.1 Bowen’s reaction series The most fundamental division of igneous rocks is made on the basis depth of crystallization (plutonic and volcanic rocks), as reflected texture. The most noticeable textural feature of most igneous rocks is the grain size, the size of the individual mineral crystals. An important control on grain size is cooling rate. Grain size also can be affected by melt composition. Silicic melts are more viscous, or thicker, than mafic ones. Table 2.4 Composition Plutonic (intrusive) Rocks/ texture igneous Volcanic (extrusive) Rocks/ texture igneous

-the rocks are those crystallized -the rocks are formed from at some depth below the surface magmas cooled at or near the surface -if magma cools slowly, the resulting rock is coarse-grained -if magma cools rapidly, the rock resulting is finer-grained -a phaneritic texture (the crystals are large enough to be readily - aphanitic texture (the individual visible to the naked eye) crystals may not be seen easily

Geology for engineers- 2ndLaboratory- Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks and processes

with the unaided eye) -in extreme cases of rapid cooling and limited crystal growth, the result is a glassy rock (with no obvious crystals)-hyaline texture or glassy texture - Obsidian

Felsic (light)



>5% quartz; potassium feldspar>plagioclase; 15% ferromagnesian minerals; most commonly colour of rock - light -coloured Intermediate DIORITE ANDESITE

<5% quartz; plagioclase> potassium feldspar;15-40% ferromagnesian minerals; colour of rock - medium-grey or medium-green Mafic (dark) GABBRO BASALT 40%

No quartz; plagioclase≈50%, no potassium feldspar; ferromagnesian minerals; colour of rock -dark grey to black Ultramafic PERIDOTITE

Nearly 100% ferromagnesian minerals; colour of rock-very dark green to black

Obs. the coarse crystals embedded in the finer groundmass are termed phenocrysts, and the smaller, more numerous crystals are called the matrix (or groundmass). Pegmatite- generally refers to a rock of granitic composition. Is an extremely coarse-grained igneous rock (generally larger than 1 cm), attributed to both slow cooling and the low viscosity of the fluid from which they form. The coarse crystals and often unusual compositions of some pegmatite’s make them important sources of gemstones (emerald, aquamarine, tourmaline, topaz). Pyroclasts are fragmented rocky materials that have been mechanically transported during explosive volcanic eruptions. Igneous rocks composed of pyroclasts are said to have a pyroclastic texture.

Geology for engineers- 2ndLaboratory- Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks and processes

They include unconsolidated pyroclasts (fragments of): -volcanic ash (pyroclasts< 2 mm) - lapilli’s or cinder (pyroclasts 2-64mm) -volcanic bombs (pyroclasts >64mm) and consolidated pyroclasts as volcanic tuff (composed of fine-grained pyroclastic particles -ash and dust- fragments <2 mm) and volcanic breccias (composed of larger pieces of volcanic rock -chiefly of cinders, blocks, and volcanic bombsfragments > 2 mm). Obs. Occasionally, lavas contain many vesicles (gas bubbles in a rock), and rock with vesicles are said to have a vesicular texture. Upon cooling, a frothy or cellular texture can result in the formation of scoria (a highly vesicular basalt, actually contains more gas space than rock) or pumice (a frothy glass with so much void space that it floats in water). Obs. Obsidian is volcanic glass, is one of the few rocks that is not composed of minerals.


Geology for engineers- 2ndLaboratory- Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks and processes


Geology for engineers- 2ndLaboratory- Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks and processes


Geology for engineers- 2ndLaboratory- Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks and processes


Geology for engineers- 2ndLaboratory- Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks and processes


Geology for engineers- 2ndLaboratory- Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks and processes


Geology for engineers-3rdLaboratory-Properties of rocks

3 rd Laboratory


The macroscopic and microscopic analysis of rocks is of fundamental importance for a geoscientist, so he can acquire knowledge of most of the characteristics which control the technical and physical data of a rock: the texture, the structure, and the mineralogy of the rocks. The main technical characteristics of the rocks are: -The unit weight (γ) - porosity (n) - the void ratio (e) - the compactness degree (C) - permeability and solubility - homogeneity - the hardness • The unit weight (γ) - is the ratio before the weight of the rock (m) and the volume of the rock (V) γ=m/V γs = 9,81·ρs

3.1. ρs- density of solids particles of the rock 3.2.

• The porosity (n) is expressed as a percentage (%) n= Vp / V V=Vp+Vs 3.3. 3.4.

V= the total volume; Vp= the volume of voids; Vs= the volume of solids particles Ex. pumice (n= 60%); sandstone (n=1-10%); limestone (0,5-5%); marble (n<0,1%) Obs. The porosity of the rock influences the alteration and the fissure of rocks by freezing / thaw cycles and dissolution.

Geology for engineers-3rdLaboratory-Properties of rocks

• The void ratio (e) e=Vp/Vs 3.5.

• Compactness degree (C) is the ratio before unit weight in dry rocks and the unit weight of solid particles of the rock C= γd/ γs Obs. C=1 or C=100% to unvoid rocks, γd= γs • The permeability and the solubility The permeability is related to the void size distribution. Is a parameter which roughly describes the volume of fluids with a given viscosity which can flow through a porous medium under given conditions (pressure difference, diameter of the void, high pressure). The rocks can be: -permeable (Ex. sedimentary unconsolidated rocks -sand, gravel) -impermeable (Ex. clay (sedimentary rocks), igneous rocks, schist (metamorphic rocks) • Homogeneity of the rocks refers to the chemical composition of the rock: -homogeneous rocks- have the same chemical composition in each point of the rock Ex. sedimentary rocks (limestone, sand, clay) -heterogeneous rocks- have different chemical composition (different minerals) of the rock Ex. igneous rocks Obs. The permeability and the chemical composition influence the solubility: insoluble rocks are the silicate • The hardness is a synthesis of all the other physical and chemical properties of the rocks. The strength to erosion decrease from igneous rocks to metamorphic, to sedimentary, to intensely weathered rocks. Obs. The presence of muscovite and feldspars decrease the strength of igneous rocks. 3.6.


Geology for engineers-3rdLaboratory-Properties of rocks

Sedimentary rocks the strength is depending on the chemical composition of the cement, percentage of the carbonate (CaCO3), water saturation, and porosity: -sandstone with a cement clay the strength decrease, and with a quartz cement the strength increase -high percentage of carbonate (CaCO3) - the strength increase; low percentage of carbonate (CaCO3) - the strength decrease -high content of water (gypsum-CaSO4·2H2O) -the strength decrease; absence of the water (anhydrite- CaSO4)-the strength increase Metamorphic rocks- the perpendicular compressive strength is higher as parallel (to clayey schist).

THE DETERMINATION OF THE GRAIN SIZE COMPOSITION The sedimentary unconsolidated rocks are frequently at the surface of the crust, consisting of mineral grains and represents the structure of the soil, giving it the strength. The grain size of the soil refers to the diameters of the soil particles, making up the soil mass. To obtain the grain size distribution of a soil in laboratory we use the grain-size analysis. Grain size is determined by: - sieving method - using a stack of sieves- for grains with a Ø > 2,00 mm or 0,05 mm <Ø< 2,00mm Obs. The dimension of a particle passing a given sieve opening, are smaller than this opening. -sedimentation method- for the grains with a Ø <0,05 mm Obs. We determine the dimension of the small grains using an analysis based on the velocity of fall of spheres (with the same mass) through a viscous fluid ( the Stoke’s law). -combined method (sieving and sedimentation)- for combined grains (0,05 mm <Ø and Ø <0,05 mm). The classification of the soil after the grain size of the particles (Table 3.1 – Grain size, after SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004)

Geology for engineers-3rdLaboratory-Properties of rocks

Table 3.1 Fraction of the soil Subdivisions Symbols Grain size (mm)

Large Blocks Very coarse soil Blocks Boulders Gravel Coarse Gravel Medium Gravel Coarse soil Fine Gravel Sand Coarse Sand Medium Sand Fine Sand Silt Coarse Silt Fine soil Medium silt Fine Silt Clay

LBo Bo Co Gr CGr MGr FGr Sa CSa MSa FSa Si CSi MSi FSi Cl

>630 630>Ø>200 200>Ø>63 63>Ø>2,0 63>Ø>20 20>Ø>6,3 6,3>Ø>2,0 2,0>Ø>0,063 2,0>Ø>0,63 0,63>Ø>0,2 0,2>Ø>0,063 0,063>Ø>0,002 0,063>Ø>0,02 0,02>Ø>0,0063 0,0063>Ø>0,002 0,002 ≥ Ø

Sieving method Grain size is determined by sieving a quantity of soil (mt= 100÷ 1000 g) through a stack of sieves of progressively smaller mesh openings from top to bottom of the stack. The quantity of soil retained on a given sieve in the stack is termed one of the grain sizes of the soil sample. We weigh the amount of soil retained on each sieve (m1, m2,..., mi). We compute the percentage passing each sieve in the stack and plotting a curve of percent passing versus grain diameter.

Geology for engineers-3rdLaboratory-Properties of rocks

This operation brackets a portion of the soil as being between two sizes namely the size indicated by the particular sieve under consideration and the size of the one immediately above it in the stack. The percent passing is plotted as the ordinate and grain diameter in the abscissa. This usually is a logarithmic plot. The graph has the name grain size distribution curve. Obs. Soils may be uniform or poorly graded when grain size curve contains a vertical portion, being deficient in certain grain sizes. A smooth curve covering a wide range of sizes represent a no uniform or wellgraded soil. An indication of the gradation may be computed numerically from the grain size using the coefficient of uniformity defined as: Cu= d60/ d10 were: Cu- is the coefficient of uniformity d60- indicates the diameter corresponding to the point of 60% on the grain size distribution curve d10- indicates the diameter corresponding to the point on the same distribution curve Cu ≤ 5 very uniform soil Cu = 5÷15 medium uniformity soil Cu ≥15 uneven soil We can use also: - the histogram- grain diameter (logarithmic) in the abscissa - the percentage of the grains between two sizes - and the ternary diagram- is useful to identify the soil giving the name of each o them and to classify the soils (Fig. 3.1) 3.7


Geology for engineers-3rdLaboratory-Properties of rocks

Fig.3.1 The ternary diagram (after SR EN ISO 14688-2 : 2005).



Ϭ gz =geological pressure hi= the thickness of the layer i (m) γi= unit weight of the layer (kN/m3)


Geology for engineers-3rdLaboratory-Properties of rocks

One layered ground (Fig 3.2)

Fig.3.2 Geological pressure-one layered ground Ϭgz1=h1 γ1 Layered ground (Fig.3.3) First layer: Ϭgz1=h1 γ1

Second layer: Ϭgz2= h1 γ1+ h2 γ2 Third layer: Ϭgz3= h1 γ1+ h2 γ2+ h3 γ3

Fig.3.3 Geological pressure-layered ground

Geology for engineers-3rdLaboratory-Properties of rocks

1. PROBLEM A ground with three layers: -sand , h1= -clay, h2= m; γ1= kN/m3 m; γ2= kN/m3

-marl, h3= m ; γ3= kN/m3 Determine the geological pressure to z= m depth

2. PROBLEM Determine the percentage of each grain size and the name of the sedimentary unconsolidated rock, using Shepard’s diagram (Fig.3.4) The sample mass is m=100 g; the sample contains sand, silt and clay: sand= 37,50 g; silt = 47,10 g; clay= 16,40 g

Fig. 3.4 Shepard’s diagram 3. PROBLEM Determine and interpret the grain size curve, for a sedimentary rock (the sample mass is m=100g) with: coarse sand= g; coarse sand = %; silt= g; silt= %; clay= g; clay= %

sand= g; sand= %

Geology for engineers- 4th Laboratory-Geologic maps and cross section

4 th Laboratory


TOPOGRAPHIC MAP A topographic map is a two-dimensional representation of three-dimensional land surface; it shows the relief (topographic variation) and many features common to planimetric maps (such as water bodies, vegetation, roads, buildings, and names of specific locations. Topographic maps are a valuable tool in geological and engineering studies. A scale establishes the ratio by which all real dimensions must be multiplied to determine the corresponding dimensions of the model. In the case of topographic maps, which model the surface of the Earth, the scale factor must be a multiplier, such as the common ratio scale of 1:24000. Using such a fractional scale means that one unit (centimeter, meter) on the map represents 24000 of the same units (centimeter, meter) on the Earth’s surface. A graphic scale (or bar scale), in meters, is printed in the lower margin of topographic maps (Fig.4.1).

Fig.4.1 Scale bars

Colours and map symbols provide detailed information. The chart of symbols can be used to identify all of the features shown on topographic maps. Contour lines show height or elevation. Contour lines connect all points on the map having the same elevation (above sea level).

Geology for engineers- 4th Laboratory-Geologic maps and cross section

The contour interval is the vertical difference in elevation between adjacent contour lines. It may be calculated from index contours, which are drawn thicker and darker than the other contour lines, and are labeled with their elevations. Elevations can be determined by first referring to these index contours. Obs. All contours are multiples of the contour interval. TOPOGRAPHIC PROFILE CONSTRUCTION Shown are a topographic map and a profile constructed along line segment AA’ (Fig.4.2). To construct the profile, the edge of a piece of paper was placed along A-A’ on the topographic map. A tick mark was then placed on the edge of the paper at each point where a contour line intersected the edge of the paper. The elevation represented by each contour line was noted on its corresponding tick mark. Next, the edge of the paper was placed along the bottom line of the profile, and the profile was graduated for elevations along its right margin. Finally, a black dot was placed on the profile above each tick mark, at the elevation noted on the tick mark. The black dots were then connected with a line to complete the profile.


Geology for engineers- 4th Laboratory-Geologic maps and cross section

Fig.4.2 A topographic map and a profile GEOLOGIC MAP This is a map that shows the distribution of geologic formations, of rock types in an area at the Earth’s surface. It shows the areal extent of formations at the earth’s surface and contains certain notations and symbols that further define the geometry of the rock masses as they extend beneath the surface. The geologic map is constructed by plotting strikes and dips of formations and the contacts between formations on a base map or aerial photograph. This information is based on field observations on outcrops in the map area.

Geology for engineers- 4th Laboratory-Geologic maps and cross section

Contact between formations appears as lines, and the formations themselves are differentiated by various colours or symbols (Appendix 4.1). The geologic map may also show topography by standard contour lines. The interpretation of geologic map requires an understanding of information shown on them and the ability to translate that information onto a geologic cross section.


Geologic cross section is a drawing of a vertical slice through the Earth. It shows the arrangement of rock units and their contacts. It is a diagram in which the geologic formations and other pertinent geologic information are shown in a vertical section, perpendicular to the ground surface. It may also show a topographic profile or it maybe schematic and show a flat ground surface. Geologic formations do occur in “layer-cake” structures, but they commonly occur in much more complex structures, and it is through the construction of a geologic cross section that these complexities are unraveled. A geologic cross section is constructed on a vertical plane. The cross section is shown on the corresponding geologic map by a line. Such notations as directions and angles of dip, formational contacts, traces of axial planes, and the like provide the basic elements used to make a geologic cross section. Dip angles from strike and dip symbols on the map can be used as a basis for estimating the inclination of strata on a cross section. The geologic cross section, of three horizontal formations of equal thickness, (Fig. 4.3 A) shows how the thickness of each formation varies with the slope of the land surface. a gentle slope results in a width of outcrop that is greater than the thickness of the formation- the shale formation a steeper slope produces a width of outcrop that is less than the thickness of the formation- sandstone and limestone formations.


The beds (Fig.4.3 B) are dipping 30 degrees, the thickness of each formation is shown on the cross section and the corresponding width of outcrop is shown on the geologic map.

Geology for engineers- 4th Laboratory-Geologic maps and cross section

The formations (Fig.4.3 C) are vertical, that is, they dip 90 degrees. In this case, the true thickness of a formation is the same as the width of outcrop. Obs. The width of outcrop on a geologic map is not necessarily the same as the true thickness of the formation as seen in geologic cross section.

BLOCK DIAGRAM Block diagram is a combination of the above two representations. Is a perspective drawing in which the information on a geologic map and geologic cross section are combined. This mode of geologic illustration is used to show the three-dimensional aspects of a geologic structure. The relative ages of sedimentary strata in some of the maps, block diagram and cross sections are usually designated by Arabic numerals. Ex. If four formations are shown on a map or block diagram, the oldest formation is assigned the number “1”, and the youngest, a number”4”. a) Horizontal strata dissected by a drainage system (number refers to relative ages of the formations) (Fig.4.4 A). b) Tilted rock layers- the oldest beds (1,2 and 3) dip toward the youngest beds (5 and 6), the apex of the V’s points in the direction of dip (Fig.4.4 B) c) Three vertical sedimentary beds- the relative age relationship of the three formations cannot be determined from the information shown either on the block diagram or on the map (Fig.4.4 C)


Geology for engineers- 4th Laboratory-Geologic maps and cross section

Fig.4.3 Cross section and geologic maps of the three sedimentary formations showing the relationship of the true thickness of each formation to their widths of outcrop on geologic map A- horizontal strata; B- inclined strata; C- vertical strata


Geology for engineers- 4th Laboratory-Geologic maps and cross section

Fig. 4.4 Blocks diagrams and maps showing relationship of topography to outcrop patterns: A- Horizontal strata; B- Tilted rock layers; C- Three vertical sedimentary beds. The arrangement of rocks at and beneath the Earth’s surface implies to have a system to describe the orientation, or attitude, of rocks. Strike and dip are used for this purpose (Fig. 4.5)


Geology for engineers- 4th Laboratory-Geologic maps and cross section

Fig.4.5 Schematic illustrations of an outcrop of rock to show strike and dip Strike is the compass direction of a line formed by the intersection of a horizontal plane and an inclined stratum, fault, fracture, or other inclined surface. Strike is usually expressed relative to north. Obs. Strike is expressed as “north n0 east” or “north n0 west” Dip is the angle between a horizontal plane and the inclined stratum, fault, or fracture. Dip is always measured perpendicular to strike. A thin stream of water poured onto an inclined surface always runs down the surface along a line parallel to dip; the inclination of the water line relative to a horizontal plane is the dip angle. Obs. Because the strike is perpendicular to dip, strike can easily be determined relative to the water line. The direction that the water runs down an inclined surface is the dip direction, and must be expressed together with the dip angle (Ex. 360 east). Strike and dip are shown on maps using symbols (like those illustrated in Fig.4.6) -the long line represents the line of strike


Geology for engineers- 4th Laboratory-Geologic maps and cross section

-the short line represents the dip direction, and it always drawn perpendicular to the line representing strike. The short line “points” away from the strike and downdip -the accompanying numerals indicate the dip angle in degrees



Fig.4.6 a) The strike is North-East, and the dip angle is 300; b) The strike is North-West, and the dip angle 60 0. APPLICATIONS 1. CONTOUR PROBLEM Construct all contour lines on the map. Use a contour interval of 10 meters, and draw contours only for lines having elevations in even 10-s of meters (ex. 90 meters, 100 meters, etc.) Fig. 4.7

Fig.4.7 Contour problem using a contour interval of ten meters

Geology for engineers- 4th Laboratory-Geologic maps and cross section

2. TOPOGRAPHIC PROFILE PROBLEM Construct a topographic profile for line A-A’ on geologic map (Fig.4.8)

Fig.4.8 Topographic profile problem on geologic map 3. DETERMINATION OF STRIKE AND DIP ANGLE using three wells that have been intersected the same mark stratum, and a topographic map (1:1000 or 1:2000 scale) Fig.4.9 well-1 absolute elevation 540,00 m of the soil surface relative elevation of -5,00m the mark stratum absolute elevation 535,00 m of the mark stratum well- 2 542,00 m well- 3 543,00 m

- 4,00 m


538,00 m

540,00 m


Geology for engineers- 4th Laboratory-Geologic maps and cross section

Fig.4.9 Topographic map showing wells locations, strike and dip direction


Geology for engineers- 4th Laboratory-Geologic maps and cross section

Plate 4.1 – Geological Map Symbols


Geology for engineers- 4th Laboratory-Geologic maps and cross section

Plate 4.2 - Geological column- is a stratigraphic column


Geology for engineers-5thLaboratory- Structural geology. Relative ages of rocks.

To define, describe and interpret geological structures in three dimensions (examples are folds, faults, and unconformities) we will use three-dimensional block diagrams, geologic maps and geologic cross sections. Structural geology is the study of the way in which rocks or sediments are primarily arranged, and secondarily deformed, on the Earth. Rock/sediment deformation is caused by stress (applied force). Deformation caused by stress is called strain. Therefore, much of structural geology involves deciphering stress and strain relations. The geologist records this two-dimensional information on a geologic map, and then infers the arrangement of the rocks/sediments in three dimensions. The rocks are commonly divided into units that can be recognized and traced across the map area. Such mappable units are called formations, and they may be subdivided into members. The boundaries between formations and members are called contacts. TYPES OF STRUCTURES Many types of geologic structures (such as unconformities, folds and faults) must be located, observed, and interpreted. • Unconformities are of three common types (Fig.5.1)

Fig.5.1- Unconformities

- a disconformity - an unconformity between parallel strata, although the disconformity itself may be a very irregular surface - an angular unconformity - an unconformity between two sets of strata that are not parallel

Geology for engineers-5thLaboratory- Structural geology. Relative ages of rocks.

- a nonconformity - an unconformity between non-sedimentary rock and sedimentary rock or sediment • Faults are of two general types (Fig.5.2) - Those having relative vertical motions - normal fault (if the top block has moved down, as gravity would normally pull it) - reverse fault (if the top block appears to have moved up, the reverse of the way gravity would pull it) -those having relative lateral motions - lateral faults or strike-slip faults

Fig.5.2 - Faults

• Folds- two common types are illustrated in (Fig.5.3) Anticlines are “upfolds” and have the oldest rocks in their middle (core) Sinclines are ”downfolds” and have the youngest rocks in their middle (core)

Fig.5.3 - Folds All folds axes of the strata in a fold lie within the axial plane of the fold.

Geology for engineers-5thLaboratory- Structural geology. Relative ages of rocks.

Plunge is the angle between the fold axis and horizontal. The direction of plunge, or trend, is the compass direction measured in the direction that the axis is inclined downward. Folds commonly have two sides, or limbs, one of each side of the axial plane. An exception is the monocline, a local steeping in the dip of otherwise gently inclined strata. • Domes and basins are large, circular-to-subcircular structures formed when strata are warped upward (domes) or downward (basins). Strata are oldest at the center of a dome, and youngest at the center of a basin

Geologists commonly examine surficial exposures of rocks and sediments in two-dimensional, vertical cross sections such as road cuts, railroad cuts, stream valleys, and cliffs. There are two basic principles for determining the relative age relationships in sedimentary rocks: the Principle of Original Horizontality and the Principle of Superposition; to these basic principles there have been added others that the geologists are using on a regular basis. Principle of original horizontality Sedimentary rock layers or strata were originally deposited as relatively horizontal sheets of sediment. Strata that do not retain their original horizontality have been displaced by movements of the Earth’s crust. Principle of original lateral continuity Sedimentary rock layers or lava flows extend laterally in all directions until they thin to their termination or each the edges of their basins of deposition. Principle of superposition In any undisturbed sequence of strata, the oldest stratum is at the bottom of the sequence, and the youngest stratum is at the top of the sequence. Principle of inclusions Any part of preexisting rock body that is incorporated into another body of sediment or rock is older than the body of sediment or rock into which it has been incorporated. Such a clast is referred to as an inclusion, and the surrounding body of sediment/rock is called the matrix or the groundmass. As such, an inclusion is older than its matrix.

Geology for engineers-5thLaboratory- Structural geology. Relative ages of rocks.

Principle of unconformities Unconformities are surfaces that represent a gap in the geologic record. They are surfaces on which sediment was not deposited for a period of time, or surfaces on which erosion has occurred. Principles of cross cutting Any feature that cuts across a body of sediment or rock is younger than the body of sediment or rock that it cut across. A fracture is a crack in rock. A fault is a fracture along which movement has occurred.


Sedimentary rocks are the result of deposition of sediments, layer by layer, on the surface of the Earth. 1. Horizontal rocks Fig 5.4 (a simple illustration of the principle of superposition) 2. Folded rocks Fig.5.5 (the rocks have been deformed by folding). If a series of strata is folded, the folding is younger than the youngest rock affected. 3. A sedimentary layer that lies with an angular discordance on other rocks is the youngest Fig.5.6 4. If a series of strata is folded into an anticline, the oldest formation is in the core of the fold Fig 5.7 5. If the series of strata is folded into a syncline, the youngest formation is in the core of the fold (any strata were deposited after folding) Fig.5.8 6. Sedimentary rocks are younger than the rocks from which they were derived Fig.5.9.


Geology for engineers-5thLaboratory- Structural geology. Relative ages of rocks.

Fig.5.4 Rock layer A is the oldest layer. Layer D is the youngest deposited

Fig.5.5 Folding and erosion occurred after E, but before layer was

Fig.5.6 A is the oldest. Formation E is the youngest. Tilting and erosion occurred after D, but before E

Fig. 5.7 Formation A is the oldest. Formation F is the youngest. Folding and erosion occurred after D, before E

Fig.5.8 Formation A is the oldest. Fig.5.9 Formation A is the older. Formation G is the youngest. Folding Formation B is the younger. and erosion occurred after E, but before F. Erosion occurred after A, but before B. 62

Geology for engineers-5thLaboratory- Structural geology. Relative ages of rocks.

RELATIVE AGES OF IGNEOUS ROCKS Igneous rocks are products of cooling and hardening of magma. They can form within the crust of the surface of the Earth, producing extrusive flows and ash beds. An intrusive body is younger than the country rocks (preexisting rocks) that it intruded. An extrusive body such as a lava flow is younger than the underlying rocks (but it is older than the overlying rocks) 1. If a body of igneous rock crosscut another rock, the igneous rock is the younger Fig.5.10 2. If a body of igneous rock contains inclusions (unmelted fragments) of another rock, the igneous rock is the younger. Younger intrusive rocks produce contact metamorphic zones along their contacts with the older rocks. Fig.5.11 3. Lava flow contact-metamorphose older rocks at their basal contacts.

Fig.5.10 Granite B is younger than country country rock A.

Fig.5.11 Granite B is younger than rock A.

RELATIVE AGES OF REGIONALLY METAMORPHOSED ROCKS Metamorphosed rocks form at depth in the Earth’s crust by recrystallization of previously formed rocks. 1. Metamorphic rocks are older than igneous rocks which have intruded them. They also are older than any layered rocks that have been deposited on top of them Fig.5.12.

Geology for engineers-5thLaboratory- Structural geology. Relative ages of rocks.

Fig.5.12 Schist A is older than granite B. Granite B is older than formation C

RELATIVE AGES OF FAULTS Faults are fractures along which rocks have been displaced. 1. If rocks are faulted, the faulting occurred after formation of the youngest rock affected by the fault Fig.5.13

Fig.5.13 Formation A is the oldest. Formation E is the youngest. Fault D is younger than C, but older than E


Geology for engineers-5thLaboratory- Structural geology. Relative ages of rocks.

RULES FOR INTERPRETING GEOLOGIC MAPS 1. Contacts between horizontal beds are parallel to topographic contours 2. Dip, if any,is in the direction of older-to-younger beds 3. Anticlines have their oldest beds in the center 4. Synclines have their youngest beds in the center 5. Anticlines plunge toward the nose (closed end) of the structure 6. Synclines plunge toward the open end of the structure 7. Contacts of horizontal beds, or of beds that have a dip lower than stream gradient, „V” up-stream 8. Contacts of beds that have a dip greater than stream gradient „V” downstream 9. Vertical beds do not „V” or migrate with erosion 10. The upthrown blocks of faults tend to be eroded more than downthrown blocks 11. Contacts migrate downdip upon erosion 12. True dip angles can only be seen in cross section if the cross section is perpendicular to the fault or to the strike of the beds.


Geology for engineers-5thLaboratory- Structural geology. Relative ages of rocks.

APPLICATIONS 1. RELATIVE AGES OR ROCKS Refer to the vertical geologic cross sections in Fig. 5.14, and determine the relative ages of the bodies and other lettered features. Indicate these relative age relationships by placing the letters on the blanks at the right of each figure, from oldest (at the bottom) to the youngest (to the top). Indicate all zones where contact metamorphism would be expected.

Fig 5.14 Relative age relationships in geologic cross section


Geology for engineers-5thLaboratory- Structural geology. Relative ages of rocks.



Period (symbols abreviation on geologic maps)


Approximate Ages (in milions of years)

Quaternary (Q) Cenozoic (The Age of Mammals)

Pleistocene Pliocen Miocene



1,6 24

Tertiary (T)

Oligocene Eocene Paleocene Late



Cretaceous (K)

Early Late


Mezozoic (The Age of Dinosaurs)

Jurassic (J)

Middle Early Late 213

Phanerozoic: The Eon of Visible Life

Triassic (TR)

Middle Early Late 248

Permian (P)

Early Late


Carboniferous (C)

Early Late


Devonian (D)

Middle Early Late 408

Paleozoic (The Age of Trilobites)

Silurian (S)

Middle Early Late 438

Ordovician (O)

Middle Early Late 505

Cambrian (CB)

Middle Early 590 4500+

Precambrian (PC)

Locally divided into Early, Middle and Lat


Geology for engineers-6thLaboratory-Groundwater

6 th Laboratory


Groundwater can flow laterally through permeable soil and rock, from higher elevations to lower, from areas of abundant infiltration to drier ones, or from areas of little groundwater use toward areas of heavy use. The abundance, movement, and availability of substance water are directly related to the ability of different rock and soil types to hold and transmit water. These properties are described by the parameters porosity and permeability. GROUNDWATER TERMINOLOGY When precipitation falls and infiltration occurs, gravity continues to draw the water downward until an impermeable rock or soil layer is reached, and the water begins to accumulate above it. Immediately above the impermeable material is a zone of rock or soil that is water-saturated, in which water fills all the accessible pore space, called the phreatic zone or zone of saturation (Fig.6.1)

Fig.6.1 Nomenclature for surface and subsurface waters.

Geology for engineers-6thLaboratory-Groundwater

Above that is rock or soil in which the pore spaces are filled partly with water partly with air: the vadose zone or zone of aeration. Obs. All the water occupying pore space below the ground surface is, locally, called subsurface water. Groundwater (Fig. 6.1) however, is the water in the zone of saturation, or phreatic zone, only. It is distinguished from soil moisture, which is water held in small pores or on grain surfaces in unsaturated soil in the vadose zone. Precipitation is the ultimate source of subsurface water. The water table is defined as the top of the zone of saturation, where the .saturated zone is not confined by overlying impermeable rocks. Obs. The water table is not always below the ground surface. The groundwater feeds the stream or the stream replenishes the groundwater depends on geology and climate. The amount of baseflow in a stream is dependent on the height of the regional water table. Baseflow is distinguished from storm runoff (Fig. 6.2): -in dry conditions, flow is entirely baseflow supported by groundwater (if the water table is too low, the stream dries up entirely Fig.6.2 a) -during storms or melting episodes, surface runoff contributes to streamflow Fig.6.2 b) The water table is highest when the ratio of input water to water removed is greatest. In dry seasons the water table drops, and the amount of available groundwater remaining decreases. The processes of infiltration and migration through which groundwater is replaced are collectively termed recharge.


Geology for engineers-6thLaboratory-Groundwater

Fig.6.2 The amount of baseflow in a stream.The depth to the water table also varies.

POROSITY AND PERMEABILITY Rocks and soils vary greatly in porosity and permeability. Porosity is the proportion of void space in the rock, or cracks within or between mineral grains. Obs. The pore spaces may be occupied by gas, liquid, or a combination. Permeability is a measure of how readily fluids pass through the rocks. It is related to the extent to which pores or cracks are interconnected. The porosity and permeability are both influenced by: the shapes of mineral grains (or rock fragments) in the rock the range of the grain size present the way in which the grains fit together

Ex. Igneous rocks usually have both little porosity and low permeability (unless they have been broken up by fracturing or weathering)

Geology for engineers-6thLaboratory-Groundwater

Sedimentary- well-rounded, and a well sorted (equidimensional grains of similar size), uncemented sandstone, may have quite high porosity and permeability. In materials containing a wide range of grain size (finer materials can fill gaps between coarser grains) reducing porosity, through permeability may remain high. A rock in which mineral grains are platy or slab-shaped may have those grains arranged in such a way that porosity is high but the pores are poorly connected, so permeability is low, especially perpendicular to the grains (characteristic of a shale). The porosity controls the total amount of water available. The permeability, in turn, governs the rate at which water can be withdrawn and the rate at which recharge can occur. A rock that holds and transmits enough water to be useful as a source of water is an aquifer. An aquitard is a rock in which permeability is low and water flow is very much slower, so that it is not useful as a water source. Its extreme, an aquiclude, is a rock that effectively impermeable and acts as a barrier to water flow. Obs. Shale are commonly aquitards and aquicludes. When the aquifer is overlain only by permeable rocks and soil, it is described as unconfined (in an unconfined aquifer, the water is not under unusual pressure) (Fig.6.3). In a well drilled into an unconfined aquifer, the water rise in the well to the same height as the water table in the adjacent aquifers rocks.

Fig.6.3 An unconfined aquifer system. A confined aquifer is one overlain by an aquitard or aquiclude (Fig.6.4). Because the vertical movement of water is restricted, water is a confined aquifer may

Geology for engineers-6thLaboratory-Groundwater

be under considerable pressure from overlying rocks or as a consequence of lateral

changes in aquifer elevation. Fig.6.4 Confined and water-table aquifers If a well is drilled into a confined aquifer, groundwater can rise above its (confined) aquifer under its own pressure, hydrostatic (fluid) pressure. This is an artesian system.

Fig.6.5 Water in a confined aquifer, between aquitards. Potentiometric surface


Geology for engineers-6thLaboratory-Groundwater

In the case of a confined aquifer, rather than describing the height of the water table, geologists refer to the height of the potentiometric surface (Fig. 6.5), the level to which the water’s pressure would raise the water if the water were unconfined. This level will be somewhat higher than the top of the confined aquifer, where the rocks are saturated and it may be above the ground surface. When groundwater must be pumped from an aquifer for use, in an unconfined aquifer, the result is a conical lowering of the water table immediately around the well, which is called a cone of depression (Fig 6.6).

Fig.6.6 Cone of depression formed around a pumped well in a unconfined aquifer. WATER QUALITY Much of the water on and in the continents is not strictly fresh. Even rainwater, long the standard for “pure” water, contains dissolved chemicals of various kinds, especially in industrialized areas with substantial air pollution. Once precipitation reaches the ground, it reacts with soil, rock, and organic debris, dissolving still more chemicals naturally, aside from any pollution generated by human activities. Water quality can be described in a variety of ways: A common approach is to express the amount of a dissolved chemical substance present as a concentration in parts per million (ppm) or, for very dilute substances, parts per billion (ppb).

Geology for engineers-6thLaboratory-Groundwater


Another way express overall water quality is in terms of total dissolved solids (TDS) - the sum of the concentrations of all dissolved solid chemicals in the water. At least as important as the quantities of impurities present, however, is what those impurities are.


Obs. If the main dissolved substance is calcite from a limestone aquifer, the water may taste fine and be perfectly wholesome with well over 1,000ppm TDS in it. If iron or sulfur is the dissolved substance, even few parts per million may be enough to make the water taste bad. Many synthetic chemicals that have leaked into water through improper waste disposal are toxic even at concentrations of 1 ppb or less. Hard water simply contains substantial amounts of dissolved calcium and magnesium. GROUNDWATER POLLUTION There are many sources of groundwater pollution: - Air pollutants can react with or be dissolved in rainwater (sulfurous exhaust gases react with oxygen and water vapor to make sulfuric acid; volatile metals, such as lead and mercury, may be scavenged out of the air by rain and eventually added to groundwater supplies) - Sewage is a major waste-disposal problem (sewage may mingle with groundwater before it has been decomposed, contaminating the groundwater) - Dumps and landfill sites, are potential sources of groundwater pollution (if they are underlain by permeable rock and soil, liquid waste can seep out and down toward groundwater supplies below) - Road salt applied in winter washes off and gets dissolved in rain or meltwater, and seeps into the soil. - Herbicides and pesticides from farmland dissolve and infiltrate, perhaps down to the water table - Old underground gasoline tanks leaks Obs. Once the groundwater is polluted, too, the pollution may be difficult to correct or even to detect.


Geology for engineers- References

1. Anastasiu N.,1988- Petrologie sedimentară. Editura Tehnică, Bucureşti. 2. Anastasiu N., Mutihac V., Grigorescu D., Popescu Gh.C., 1998- Dicţionar de geologie, Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, Bucureşti. 3. Balog A.-A., 2010- Geologie inginerească, Editura U.T.Press, Cluj-Napoca 4. Băncilă I., Florea M.N., Fota D., Lazăr L.F., Mocanu Gh., Georgescu M., 1980- Geologie inginerească vol. I, Editura Tehnică, Bucureşti. 5. Băncilă I., Florea M.N., Fota D., Georgescu M.,1981- Geologie inginerească, vol.II., Editura Tehnică, Bucureşti. 6. Clichici O., Stoici S., 1986- Cercetarea geologică a substanţelor minerale solide, Editura Tehnică, Bucureşti. 7. Georgescu D., Marinescu C., Benea St., 1971- Determinarea caracteristicilor mecanice ale rocilor, Editura Tehnică, Bucureşti. 8. Grasu C-tin, 1986- Geologie structurală şi elemente de cartografie geologică, Universitatea “Al.I.Cuza”, Rotaprint, Iaşi 9. Grindan T., 1983- Petrologia-Ştiintă a rocilor, Editura Albatros, Bucureşti. 10. Mureşan I., 1976- Geologie tehnică, Universitatea “Babeş-Bolyai” din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Biologie-Geografie, Cluj-Napoca. 11. Mureşan I., Ghergari L., Bedelean I., 1986- Determinator de minerale, vol.I-II, Universitatea din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Biologie-Geografie şi Geologie, Cluj-Napoca. 12. Mureşanu F.,2001- Geotehnică,Editura U.T.Pres, Cluj-Napoca 13. Muşat V., Botu N., 1999- Geologie, Editura “Gh. Asachi”, Iaşi. 14. Naum T, Grigore M., 1974- Geomorfologie, Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, Bucureşti. 15. Pauliuc S., Dinu C., 1985-Geologie structurală, Editura Tehnică, Bucureşti. 16. Pârvu G., 1983- Minerale şi roci, Editura Sţiinţifică şi enciclopedică, Bucureşti. 17. Pârvu G., Mocanu Gh., Hibomvschi C., Grecescu A., 1977- Roci utile din România, Editura Tehnică, Bucureşti. 18. Petrescu I., 1978- Pământul-O biografie geologică, Editura Albatros, Bucuresti. 19. Petrulian N., 1973- Zăcăminte de minerale utile, Editura Tehnică, Bucureşti,. 20. Popa A., Roman F., Fosti V., Tripa I. Fetea L., Muresanu F., 1992- Geotehnică-Lucrări de laborator, Universitatea Tehnică din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Construcţii, Cluj-Napoca. 21. Popa A., Suciu A-A ,2002- Geologie, îndrumător pentru lucrări de laborator, U.T.Press, ClujNapoca. 22. Răcătăianu C.P., Benea M., Koch R., Peter A., Brandlein P., 2007- Romanian Natural Building Stones, Geology, Rock types, Quarries, Companies and products vol.I, Transylvania Region, Erlangen. 23. Rădulescu D., 1981- Petrologie magmatică şi metamorfică, Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, Bucureşti,. 24. Stamatiu M., 1962- Mecanica rocilor, Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, Bucureşti. 25. SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004.Geotechnical investigation and testing.Identification and classification of soil- Part 1: Identification and description. 26. SR EN ISO 14688-2:2005. Geotechnical investigation and testing.Identification and classification of soil- Part 2: Principles for classification. 27. SR EN ISO 14689-1:2004 Geotechnical investigation and testing.Identification and classification of rocks- Part 1: Identification and description.