# SE-305 Computer Networks, 2011 Tutorial -1 Submission Date: September 6, 2011

Problems Discussed in class: 1. Find the 8-bit data stream for the following cases:

2. Draw NRZ-L scheme for following streams, assuming last signal level as positive. a. 11111111 b. 00000000 3. What is the maximum data rate of a channel with a bandwith of 300 kHz if there are four levels of digital sampling? 4. Determine the information capacity in bps for a circuit with a 100 kHz bandwidth and a signal to noise ratio of 40 dB

5. What is the minimum number of samples for PCM encoding if the frequency ranges from 1000 to 8000 Hz? 6. The following character encoding is used in a data link protocol: A: 01000111; B: 11100011; FLAG:01111110; ESC: 11100000 Show the bit sequence transmitted (in binary) for the four-character frame: A B ESC FLAG when each of the following framing methods are used: (a) Character count. (b) Flag bytes with byte stuffing. 7. To provide more reliability than a single parity bit can give, an error-detecting coding scheme uses one parity bit for checking all the odd-numbered bits and a second parity bit for all the even-numbered bits. What is the Hamming distance of this code?

8. Sixteen-bit messages are transmitted using a Hamming code. How many check bits are needed to ensure that the receiver can detect and correct single bit errors? Assume that even parity is used in the Hamming code.

Home Work: 1. What is the remainder obtained by dividing x7 + x5 + 1 by the generator polynomial x3 + 1? 2. A bit stream 10011101 is transmitted using the standard CRC method described in the text. The generator polynomial is x3 + 1. Show the actual bit string transmitted. Suppose the third bit from the left is inverted during transmission. Show that this error is detected at the receiver's end

3. Sketch Manchester and Diff Manchester encoding for bit stream: 0001110101

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