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Some useful Mathematical formulas and identities:

e j! = cos(! ) + j sin(! ) ,

cos(! ) =

e j! + e " j! , 2

sin(! ) =

e j! " e " j! 2j

sin(2! ) = 2 sin(! ) cos(! ) , cos(2! ) = 2 cos 2 (! ) " 1 = 1 " 2 sin 2 (! ) 1 cos(" ) cos(! ) = [ " # ! ) + cos(" + ! )] cos( 2 1 sin(" ) sin( ! ) = [ " # ! ) # cos(" + ! )] cos( 2 1 sin(! ) cos( " ) = [sin(! # " ) + sin(! + " ) ] 2 sin(! x) sinc( x) = !x

n

Geometric series:

k =m

"a

k

=

a m ! a n +1 1! a

Fourier series:

x(t ) = a0 +

**! [an cos(n$0t ) + bn sin(n$0t )]=
**

n =1

"

+" n = #"

!c e

n

jn$0t

,

a0 =

1 T0

T0

! x(t )dt ,

+"

an =

2 T0

T0

! x(t ) cos(n" t )dt ,

0

+"

bn =

2 T0

T0

! x(t ) sin(n" t )dt ,

0

cn =

1 T0

T0

! x(t )e

" jn#0t

dt

Fourier transform and inverse Fourier transform:

X ($ ) =

#"

!

x(t )e # j$t dt ,

x(t ) =

1 2%

#"

! X ($ )e

j $t

dt

Some useful Fourier transform pairs:

1 $ 2"# (! )

u (t ) $ "# (! ) + 1 j!

" (t ) ! 1

e j!0t % 2"# (! $ !0 )

&t # & (T # rect$ ! = Tsinc$ ! %T " % 2' " cos(!0t ) % # [ (! + !0 ) + " (! $ !0 )] " sin(!0 t ) % j# [ (! + !0 ) $ " (! $ !0 )] "

( a < 1 ) (n + 1)a n µ[n] . N-periodic: Px = N $# 2 N + 1 N n=" N +N ! n =# N " ! x[n] 2 +" Discrete-time linear convolution: Discrete-time Fourier Transform (DTFT): DTFT Properties: Symmetry relations: Sequence y[n] = x[n] $ h[n] = X ( e j$ ) = k = #" +" n = #" ! x[k ]h[n # k ] # j $n ! x[n]e DTFT x[n] X ( e j! ) X ( e " j! ) X * ( e j! ) 1 X ( e j! ) + X * ( e " j! ) 2 1 X as (e j! ) = X (e j! ) " X * (e " j! ) 2 X cs (e j! ) = x[!n] x * [ ! n] Re{x[n]} j Im{x[n]} [ [ ] ] xcs [n] xas [n] X re (e j! ) jX im (e j! ) Note: Subscript “cs” and “as” mean conjugate symmetric and conjugate anti-symmetric signals. ( a < 1 ) k = #" ! 2$& (% # % 1 + 2$k) 1 " ae " j! 1 & # $ ! % 1 ' ae ' j( " 2 h[n] = sin("c n) . respectively. ( "! < n < +! ) !n $1 0 % ' % 'c ! H ( e j' ) = # !0 'c < ' < & " . DTFT of commonly used sequences: Sequence DTFT ! [n] µ[n] (Unit Step Function) 1 1 # e # j% +" 1 +" + k = #" !$& (% + 2$k ) 0 e j! 0 n a n µ[n] . Power: non-periodic Px = lim 2 1 1 2 x[n] .Energy and power of discrete-time signals: +" Energy: E x = n = #" ! x[n] .

DTFT Theorems: Theorem Sequence DTFT g[n] G ( e j! ) H ( e j! ) h[n] Linearity Time Reversal Time Shifting Frequency Shifting Differentiation in Frequency Convolution Modulation "g[n] + !h[n] g[ ! n] # G ( e j! ) + " H ( e j! ) G ( e " j! ) e " j!n0 G (e j! ) G (e j ( ! "!0 ) ) g[n ! n0 ] e j! 0 n g [ n ] ng[n] j dG (e j! ) d! g[n] ! h[n] g[n]h[n] +$ G ( e j! ) H ( e j! ) 1 2# * "# "# ! G (e j$ ) H (e j (% "$ ) )d$ Parseval’s Identity n = #$ " g[n]h [n] = 2% ! G(e #% 1 +% j& ) H * (e j& )d& N "1 Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT): X [k ] = ! n =0 x[n]e N "1 k =0 "j 2# nk N . Inverse DFT: Circular Convolution: 1 x[n] = N N "1 # X [k ]e 0 " n " N !1 0 " n " N !1 yc [ n] = m =0 ! x[m]h[$n " m# N]. Symmetry properties of DFT: Length-N Sequence N-Point DFT x[n] = xre [n] + jxim [n] x * [ n] x*["# n! N ] X [k ] = X re [k ] + jX im [k ] X *["# k ! N ] X *[ k ] 1 X [k ] + X *["# k ! N ] 2 1 X as [k ] = X [k ] # X * ["# k ! N ] 2 X re [k ] X cs [k ] = xre [n] jxim [n] xcs [n] xas [n] [ ] [ ] jX im [k ] . j 2! nk N 0 " k " N !1 .

DFT Theorems: Theorem Sequence DTFT g[n] h[n] Linearity Circular Time Shifting Circular Frequency Shifting Duality N "1 G[k ] H [k ] "g[n] + !h[n] g[# n " n0 ! N ] "G[k ] + !H [k ] e "j 2! kn0 N G[k ] e j 2! nk0 N g[ n] G[# k " k 0 ! N ] Ng["# k ! N ] N] G[n] N-Point Circular Convolution m =0 ! g[m]h[$n " m# g[n]h[n] G[k ]H [k ] 1 N N "1 m =0 2 Modulation ! G[m]H [$n " m# N] N "1 Parseval’s Identity ! n =0 #n g[ n] = 2 1 N N "1 ! G[k ] n =0 +" Z-Transform: X ( z) = n = #" ! x[n]z Inverse Z-Transform: x[n] = 1 G ( z ) z n "1dz 2#j C ! Z-Transform Properties: Property Sequence z-Transform Region of Convergence g[n] h[n] Conjugation Time Reversal Linearity Time Shifting Multiplication by an exponential sequence Differentiation in the z-domain Convolution G (z ) H (z ) Rg Rh Rg 1 Rg Includes Rg ! Rh g [ n] g[ ! n] * G (z ) * * G( z ) 1 "g[n] + !h[n] g[n ! n0 ] "G ( z ) + ! H ( z ) z ! n0 G ( z ) Rg except possibly the point z = 0 or ! ! n g[n] ng[n] G (z ! ) dG ( z ) dz G( z) H ( z) !z ! Rg Rg except possibly the point z = 0 or ! Includes Rg ! Rh g[n] * h[n] .

Some useful z-transform pairs: Sequence z-Transform ROC All values of z ! [n] µ[n] 1 1 ! n µ[n] n! n µ[n] r n cos(!0 n) µ[n] r n sin(!0 n) µ[n] 1 ! z !1 1 1 ! "z !1 z >1 z >! z >! z >r z >r "z !1 ( ! "z ) 1 1 ! (r cos("0 ) z !1 1 ! (2r cos("0 ) z !1 + r 2 z ! 2 (r sin("0 ) z !1 1 ! (2r cos("0 ) z !1 + r 2 z ! 2 !1 2 .

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