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n thi tt nghip Vt L 12 Chng VI: SNG NH SNG

GV: Nguyn Quang Hiu

A. Tm tt l thuyt: I. Hin tng tn sc nh sng: - L hin tng nh sng trng qua lng knh va b lch v y, va b tch ra thnh di nhiu mu. - Di nhiu mu gi l quang ph ca nh sng trng. - nh sng n sc l nh sng khng b tn sc khi qua lng knh. - nh sng trng l tp hp ca v s nh sng n sc khc nhau bin thin lin tc t n tm. - Chit sut ca cng mt mi trng trong sut vi cc nh sng n sc khc nhau th khc nhau v tng dn t mu n mu tm. ntm>.>n II. Hin tng giao thoa nh sng: - Giao thoa nh sng trng l bng chng chng t nh sng c tnh cht sng. - Ln lt gi d1, d2 ln lt l khong cch t ngun F1, F2 n im M trn mn quan st, a l khong cch gia hai khe F1v F2, D l khong cch t hai khe ti mn quan st, x l ta ca im M. Ta c: d 2 d1 =
a.x D

Nu M l vn sng: d 2 d1 = k x s = k

D a

+ k = 0 l vn sng trung tm. V tr vn trung tm khng ph thuc vo bc sng ca nh sng. + k = 1 l vn sng bc 1 D Nu M l vn ti: d 2 d1 = ( 2.k + 1) xt = ( 2k + 1)
2 2.a

- Khong vn: L khong cch gia 2 vn sng hoc 2 vn ti lin tip: i = - o bc sng nh sng: o D, a v i ta tnh c , =
i.a D

D
a

III. Cc dng bi tp thng gp: 1. Xc nh bc sng nh sng trong th nghim giao thoa nh sng. 2. Xc nh tnh cht ca vn giao thoa ( sng, ti) v tm bc giao thoa ng vi im M cho. 3. Tm s vn sng v vn ti trong min giao thoa L. 4. Thc hin giao thoa nh sng vi hai nh sng n sc ng thi. Tm v tr trn mn m c hai vn sng thuc ca hai nh sng n sc trng nhau. IV. Quang ph: Quang ph nh ngha Ngun pht c im ng dng Gm nhiu di mu Cc cht rn, cht - Khng ph thuc - o nhit ca t n tm, ni lng, cht kh p vo bn cht ca vt cc vt pht sng v lin nhau mt cch sut ln khi b nung pht sng, m ch cc vt rt xa. ln tc. nng s pht ra ph thuc vo nhit Lin tc quang ph lin tc. . - Nhit ca vt cng cao, min pht sng cng lan dn v pha nh sng c bc sng ngn. Vch pht Gm cc vch mu Cc cht kh hay hi Quang ph vch ca Xc nh thnh phn x ring l, ngn cch p sut thp b cc nguyn t khc cu to ca cc nhau bng nhng kch thch (t nng nhau th khc nhau nguyn t c trong khong ti. hay phng in v s lng vch, v hp cht. qua.) tr, mu sc v cng sng.

n thi tt nghip Vt L 12 L h thng cc vch ti ring r Vch hp nm trn mt nn th quang ph lin tc.

-Chiu nh sng trng qua m kh hay hi nng sng p sut thp. - Nhit m hi phi thp hn nhit ca ngun sng.

GV: Nguyn Quang Hiu Chiu nh sng - nhit nht trng qua m hi nh, mt m kh nung nng thu c hay hi c kh nng vch ti trn nn pht ra nhng nh quang ph lin tc. sng n sc no th - Tt ngun sng, c cng c kh nng nhng vch mu hp th nh sng nm trn nn ti n sc y. trng vi cc vch ti trn.

V. Tia hng ngoi, tia t ngoi v tia X: Ni dung Tia hng ngoi Tia t ngoi nh ngha - Bc x in t khng nhn - Bc x in t khng nhn thy, c bc sng ln hn thy, c bc sng ngn bc sng ca nh sng . hn bc sng ca nh sng tm. Ngun Mi vt nung nng u pht Cc vt c nhit trn pht ra tia hng ngoi. 20000C. - Tc dng ni bt l tc - Tc dng mnh ln knh dng nhit. nh, lm in ha cht kh. - Tc dng ln knh nh - Kch thch pht quang hng ngoi. nhiu cht. - C th bin iu sng in - B nc v thu tinh hp Tnh cht, t cao tn. th mnh, nhng c th tc dng - C th gy ra hin tng truyn qua c thch anh. quang in cho mt s cht - C tc dng sinh l: hu bn dn. dit t bo, dit khun, nm mc - C th gy ra hin tng quang in. Tia X - Sng in t c bc sng ngn t 10 -12 10 -8 m.

ng dng

ng catt c np thm i m cc. - C kh nng m xuyn mnh. (Tnh cht ng ch nht.) - Tc dng mnh ln phim nh, lm in ha khng kh. - C tc dng lm pht quang nhiu cht. - C tc dng gy ra hin tng quang in hu ht kim loi. - C tc dng sinh l mnh: hy dit t bo, dit vi khun - Sy kh, si m. - Kh trng, dit khun. - Y hc: Chp chiu in, - S dng trong b iu - Cha bnh ci xng. cha ung th. khin t xa. - Tm vt nt trn b mt - Cng nghip: d tm - Chp nh hng ngoi. kim loi. khuyt tt trong sn phm - Trong qun s ng dng c. lm ng nhm hng ngoi, - Khoa hc: nghin cu cu quay phim ban m trc tinh th. - Giao thng: kim tra hnh l ca hnh khch.

B. Cc dng ton thng gp: Dng 1: Xc nh bc sng nh sng trong th nghim giao thoa nh sng v khong vn giao thoa. Dng 2: Tm s vn sng v vn ti trong mt min giao thoa. Dng 3: Xc nh v tr vn sng bc m v vn ti th n hoc xc nh xem v tr x l vn sng hay vn ti?

n thi tt nghip Vt L 12

GV: Nguyn Quang Hiu

LNG T NH SNG. A. Tm tt l thuyt: I. Hin tng quang in ngoi: 1. Hin tng quang in ngoi: Hin tng nh sng lm bt cc lectron ra khi b mt kim loi gi l hin tng quang in ngoi. Cc lectron b bt ra gi l cc lectron quang in. 2. nh lut quang in: Hin tng quang in ch xy ra khi nh sng kch thch chiu vo kim loi c bc sng nh hn hoc bng bc sng 0 , 0 gi l gii hn quang in ca kim loi . 0 . 3. Thuyt lng t nh sng: a. Gi thuyt lng t: Lng nng lng m mi ln mt nguyn t (phn t) hp th hay pht x c gi tr hon ton xc nh gi l lng t nng lng. K hiu l : = h. f ( f l tn s nh sng b hp th hay pht x; h = 6,625.10 -34J.s gi l hng s Plng). b. Thuyt lng t nh sng (Thuyt phtn): - Chm sng l chm cc phtn (cc lng t nh sng). Mi phtn c nng lng xc nh = h. f . Cng chm sng t l vi s phtn trong 1s. - Nguyn t, phn t, lectronpht x hay hp th nh sng cng c ngha l chng pht x hay hp th phtn. - Cc phtn bay dc theo tia sng vi tc c =3.10 8 m/s trong chn khng. hc 4. Gii hn quang in: 0 = (A l cng thot). A II. Hin tng quang in trong: 1. Hin tng quang in trong: l hin tng to thnh cc lectron dn v l trng trong bn dn do tc dng ca nh sng c bc sng thch hp. 2. Hin tng quang dn: hin tng gim in tr sut tc tng dn in ca bn dn khi c nh sng thch hp chiu vo. III. Mu nguyn t Bohr: 1. Tin ca Bohr: * Tin v trng thi dng: Nguyn t ch tn ti trong mt s trng thi c nng lng xc nh En gi l trng thi dng. Khi trng thi dng, nguyn t khng bc x nng lng. * Tin v bc x v hp th nng lng ca nguyn t: + Khi nguyn t chuyn t trng thi dng c nng lng E n sang trng thi dng c nng lng Em nh hn th nguyn t pht ra 1 phtn c nng lng ng bng hiu: En - Em. En Em =h.f. + Ngc li, nu nguyn t ang trng thi dng c nng lng E m m hp th mt phtn c nng lng hf ng bng En Em th n chuyn ln trng thi dng c nng lng En ln hn. 2. H qu: Trong cc trng thi dng ca nguyn t, electron ch chuyn ng quanh ht nhn theo nhng qu o c bn knh hon ton xc nh gi l cc qu o dng, t l vi bnh phng s nguyn lin tip rn = n2r0 vi r0 = 5,3.10 -11m: bn knhBohr. Bn knh: r0 ; 4r0 ; 9r0 ; 16r0; 25r0; 36r0.. Tn qu o: K ; L ; M ; N ; O ; P IV. S pht quang: - S pht quang l hin tng mt s cht khi hp th nng lng di mt dng no th c kh nng pht ra nhng bc x in t trong min nh sng nhn thy. * c im ca s pht quang: + Mi cht pht quang c mt quang ph c trng cho n. + Sau khi ngng kch thch, s pht quang ca mt s cht cn tip tc ko di thm mt khong thi gian gi l thi gian pht quang ri mi tt hn. * nh ngha v hin tng pht quang: Hin tng pht quang l hin tng mt s cht c kh nng hp th nh sng kch thch c bc sng ny pht ra nh sng kch thch c bc sng khc. * C hai loi pht quang:

n thi tt nghip Vt L 12 GV: Nguyn Quang Hiu + Hunh quang: l s pht quang c thi gian pht quang ngn di 10 -8s. Do cc cht lng hoc kh pht ra khi nhn c nh sng kch thch thch hp. + Ln quang: l s pht quang c thi gian pht quang di khong 10 -8s tr ln. Do cc cht rn khi nhn c nh sng kch thch thch hp. * c im hunh quang l bc sng ca nh sng hunh quang q lun ln hn bc sng h hq > kt . ca nh sng kch thch kt B. Cc dng bi tp thng gp: Dng 1: Xc nh cng thot A ( hoc gii hn quang in ) 0 Dng 2: Xc nh ng nng ban u cc i Wd max ca lectron quang in. Dng 3: Xc nh s phtn c trong mt chm sng khi bit nng lng (hoc cng sut bc x) v bc sng ca chm sng.

n thi tt nghip Vt L 12 HT NHN NGUYN T

GV: Nguyn Quang Hiu

A. Kin thc cn nh: I. Cu tp ca ht nhn nguyn t. ht khi: 1. Cu to ca ht nhn nguyn t: Ht nhn c cu to t cc nucln. C hai loi nucln: - Prtn (p), khi lng 1,67262.10 -27kg, mang in tch nguyn t dng +e (e = 1,6.10 -19C). - Ntrn (n), khi lng 1,67493.10 -27 kg, khng mang in. A - K hiu ca ht nhn nguyn t l: Z X trong : + Z l nguyn t s hay s prtn trong ht nhn. + A l s khi bng tng s proton (Z) v s ntron (N): A = Z + N. 2. ng v: L nhng nguyn t m ht nhn c cng s prton Z nhng c s ntron N khc nhau. 1 0 1 1 1 2 VD: 6 C ; 6 C ; 6 C ... 3. n v khi lng nguyn t: - n v khi lng trong vt l ht nhn l khi lng nguyn t, k hiu l u. 1u = 1,66055.10 -27kg. - Khi lng cn c th l n v ca nng lng chia cho c2, c th: eV/c2 hoc MeV/c2. 1u = 931,5 MeV/c2. 4. Nng lng lin kt: a. Lc ht nhn: l lc tng tc gia cc nuclon trong ht nhn. A b. ht khi. Nng lng lin kt: Ht nhn Z X c khi lng m. - ht khi m = [ Zm p + ( A Z ) mn ] m. - Nng lng lin kt ht nhn l nng lng lin kt gia cc nucln trong ht nhn: 2 Wlk = m.c . W - Nng lng lin kt ring l nng lng lin kt tnh cho mt nucln: lk , c trng cho A bn vng ca ht nhn. - Ht nhn c nng lng lin kt ring cng ln th cng bn vng. II.S phng x: 1. Hin tng phng x: Hin tng mt ht nhn khng bn vng t pht phn r, pht ra cc tia phng x v bin i thnh ht nhn khc gi l hin tng phng x. 2. Cc tia phng x: a. Phng x anpha (): 4 + Tia chnh l ht nhn nguyn t 2 He . + Phng ra t ht nhn vi tc 2.107m/s, in ha mi trng mnh, tm bay xa ngn. b. Phng x bta ( ): phng ra vi tc ln gn bng vn tc nh sng, c kh nng in ha mi trng nhng yu hn tia , tm bay xa di hn. C hai loi tia bta: 0 + Tia bta tr chnh l cc lectron, k hiu e hay e . 1 + Tia bta cng: + chnh l pzitron hay electron dng, k hiu: +0 e hay e + . 1 ) l sng in t c bc sng rt ngn, cng l ht phtn c nng c. Phng x gamma ( lng cao. 3. nh lut phng x: - Gi m 0 v N0 ln lt l khi lng v s nguyn t ban u ca cht phng x. N ( t ) = N 0 e t hay m( t ) = m0 e t . - l hng s phng x, c trng cho tng loi phng x: =
ln 2 0,693 = , trong T gi l T T

chu k bn r. III. Phn ng ht nhn: 1. nh ngha: Qu trnh tng tc gia cc ht nhn vi nhau to thnh ht nhn khc. C hai loi phn ng ht nhn:

n thi tt nghip Vt L 12 GV: Nguyn Quang Hiu - Phn ng ht nhn t pht: Qu trnh t phn r ca mt ht nhn khng bn vng thnh cc ht nhn khc.( Qu trnh phng x). - Phn ng ht nhn kch thch: Qu trnh cc ht nhn tng tc vi nhau to ra cc ht nhn khc. 2. Cc nh lut bo ton trong phn n ht nhn: A A A A Xt phn ng ht nhn: Z11 A+ Z 22 B Z 33 X + Z44 Y . - nh lut bo ton s nuclon (s khi): A1 + A2 A3 + A4. - nh lut bo ton in tch: Z1 + Z2 Z3 + Z4 - nh lut bo ton ng lng. - nh lut bo ton nng lng ton phn. 3. Nng lng phn ng ht nhn: * Nu mtrc > msau th phn ng to nng lng, nng lng c tnh bi: Wta = W = (mtrc - msau)c2. - C hai phn ng ht nhn ta nng lng: + Phn ng nhit hch: l qu trnh hai ht nhn rt nh (A<10) kt hp li vi nhau thnh ht nhn nng hn. + Phn ng phn hch: l qu trnh mt ht nhn nng v thnh hai mnh nh hn. * Nu mtrc < msau th W< 0 ngha l phn ng ht nhn thu nng lng. B. Cc dng ton thng gp: Dng 1: Xc nh ht to thnh trong phn ng ht nhn. Dng 2: Xc nh nng lng ta ra hay thu vo trong mt phn ng ht nhn. Dng 3: Xc nh ht khi, nng lng lin kt v nng lng lin kt ring.