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18/2/2007 mein dpigad ly dwicad lr mixaqd dnk

zxfra ,jly oexztl zeqgiznd zexrd eptqed minrtl ,ef dpigaa zel`ydn wlg ly dwicaa
.mixvewn "micew"
lynl ,"ze`qtew" jeza mineyxd ,zilbp`a ze` mr minrtl ,mixtqn heyt md el`d "micew"d
.dfk "dqtewa ze`/xtqn" lk ly yextd z` xiaqp df jnqna .'eke , Y21 , AB

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(.xacd eze` hrnk e` xacd eze` zexne` dyrnly mipey micew mr zexrd izy minrtl yi d`ad dniyxa)

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la` .yleynd ly zeinipt zecewp mb dlikn D jly dveawdy jly xeivdn xexa did `l . AA
.dfd xacd llba zecewp epcxed `l

xy` mirhwd zyely lr menxhqw` z`ivn ly dirad z` yxtl oekp `l ixnbl df . AB


.miveli` dyely mr 'bpxbl zhiy itl mixzety dirak D ly dtyd z` mieedn

.z = a3 + b3 t ,y = a2 + b2 t ,x = a1 + b1 t zeixhnxt ze`eeyn i"r oezp L xyidy gipp . AC


.z = A3 + B3 t ,y = A2 + B2 t ,x = A1 + B1 t zeixhnxt ze`eeyn i"r oezp Λ ipy xyiy gipp ok-enk
xtqn ytgl oekp `l ixnbl df f` .df z` df mikzeg el`d mixyid ipy m`d wecal eppevxay gipp
i"r oezp L m` ,lynl .n = 1, 2, 3 xear an + bn t = An + Bn t ze`eeynd yely z` miiwn xy` t
xy` t xtqn s` miiw `l f` ,x = 1 + t, y = 1 + t, z = 1 + t i"r oezp Λ -e x = t, y = t, z = t
.xyi eze` md Λ -e L mixyid ipy df dxwnay zexnl ,el`d ze`eeynd yelyl z` miiwn

e` arctan xy -l deey ok` `evnl mzywazdy φ(x, y) l`ivphetd zivwpet 6 dl`ya . Z1


π
dveawd ly xg` wlga miiwzn `l df oeieey la` Dj dveawd ly mieqn wlga
2
− arctan xy
.D j

cg` cvn mixaer xy`k dtivx zeidl φ(x, y) = arctan xy + c jly divwpetl mexbl zglvd . Z2
gihadl xyt` ji` la` .y xiv ly miccvd ipya c reawd ly zepey zexiga i"r ,y xiv ly ipy cvl
.slgzn me`zt reawd oday y -d xiv lr Dj ly el`d zecewpa mb miiwzn F ~ = ∇φ
~ i`pzdy

cvn mixaer xy`k dtivx zeidl φ(x, y) = − arctan xy + c jly divwpetl mexbl zglvd . Z3
xyt` ji` la` .x xiv ly miccvd ipya c reawd ly zepey zexiga i"r ,x xiv ly ipy cvl cg`
me`zt reawd oday x-d xiv lr Dj ly el`d zecewpa mb miiwzn F ~ = ∇φ~ i`pzdy gihadl
.slgzn

ly mikxrd z` zayg jk-xg` .zniiw dppi` φ divwpetdy dlahd ly a dcenra zpniq . Z4


.zniiw `ppi` xy` divwpet ly mikxrd z` xygl ipeibd `l c`n df .efd divwpetd

`ed mitivx miaikx lra F~ ixehwee dcy :d`ad zillkd dcaerd z` zrcl mixen` mz` . Z5
~ = ∇φ
lka F ~ -y jk φ : D → R divwpet zniiw m` wxe m` D dpezp dgezt dveawa xnyn dcy
(.xnyn dcy ly dxcbd
dxcbdd ef ,mixtqd aex ile` ,mixtq daxda ,ok lr xzi) .D ly dcewp
~
,Dj znieqn dveaw lre F mieqn dcy lr melk mircei `l mz` o`k dl`ya m` elit` ,jk itl
zeidl zeaiig a dcenra daeyzde ` dcenra daeyzd Dj dveaw lk xeary zrcl mixen` mz`
.daeyz dze`

1
Rx Ry
dnecy zxg` dgqep ile` e` φ(x, y) = x0 P (t, y0 )dt + y0 Q(x, t)dt dgqepd z` zazk . Z6
dcewp lk xear dpekp efd dgqepd (.(1, 0) zeidl zaiig (x0 , y0 ) dcewpdy sqepa mzpad ile`e) .dl
xyid rhwd mbe (x, y0 ) l` (x0 , y0 )-n iwte`d xyid rhwd :d`ad dpekzd zlra Dj -a (x, y)
.Dj -a mdipy milken (x, y) l` (x, y0 ) -n ikp`d
.efd dpekzd z` oi` Dj dveawa (x, y) zecewp daxdl ,o`k eply ze`nbeca la`

divwpetd z` milawn xy`k ,zrvdy dyibd enk dyiba ynzydl xyt` hlgda ,ok . Z7
x y
lawn reawd xy`k ,reaw qelt (− arctan divwpetk oiteligl ,e`) arctan divwpetk φ(x, y)
y x
.dveawd ly mipey mixefi`a mipey mikxr
reawd ly zepeyd zexigad ,hxta .xidf xzeie wiecn xzei ote`a efd dyibd z` lirtdl jixv la`
.Dj dveawd ly itivtqd dpana zeielz Dj dveawd ly mipey mixefi`a
-e (±2, 0) zecewpa φ ly mikxrd hxta .zepey od mb dpidz φ zeivwpetd Dj zepey zeveaw xear
.Dj dveawd ly zepey zexiga xear zepey eidi (−1, 0)

mixaqn `l zaky mixacd la` .mipekp md o`k zazky mixacd lk hrnk e` ,mixacd lk . Z8
.φ(2, 0) ly jxrd z` aygl ozip ji`

.zwcv dfa .qe`b ly upbxaicd htyn z` lirtdl xyt` i` o`ky zazk ,c sirq 7 dl`ya . Y1
xaqedy itk ,la` .miniiwzn `l jkl mi`pzd ik dfd htynd z` xiyi ote`a lirtl xyt` i` ok`
(qe`b htyn mr mb meliya) qwehq htyn z` milirtn day zxg` jxc yi ,epnqxty oexzta
.yweand ighynd lxbhpi`d z` aygl ozip ok ef jxcae

.(x0 , y0 , z0 ) dcewpl zqgizd `l . Y2

miniiwzn zn`a qe`b ly upbxaicd htyn zlrtd xear miyexcd mi`pzd m`d zwca `l . Y3
.df dxwna mipezpd megzde dcyd xear

-iwzn zn`a qe`b ly upbxaicd htyn zlrtd xear miyexcd mi`pzd m`d wecal jilr . Y4
.mlek `l la` mi`pzdn wlg zwca .df dxwna mipezpd megzde dcyd xear mini

ze`d mewna ∂ "dnewr"d ze`d z` aezkl mkilr zeiwlg zexfbp miazek mz` xy`k . Y5
.df llba zecewp jl epcxed `l la` ,d `weec zazk .d libxd


¡ ∂F ¢ ∂2F
eze` miyery miipivx mixtq mb d`xipk yie
∂y ∂x
zxfbpd xear
∂x∂y
oeniqa zynzyd . Y6
.xacd

¡ ∂F ¢ ∂2F
mixtqa miyer i`ceea jk . zxfbpd xear oeniqa ynzydl ipeibd xzei izrc itl
∂y ∂x ∂y∂x
.dfd xacd llba zecewp zcqtd `l .mixg` miipivx

.o`k ihpeelx `l dfd i`pzd . Y7

mi`pzdn wlg zegtl la` .qe`b ly upbxaicd htyn meiw xear minieqn mi`pz znyx . Y8
.dfd htynd meiw xear mipekp mi`pz `l md znyxy

~
oekp ok` jly i`pzd .∇ ~ × F~ ) = 0
· (∇ dgqepd meiwl F~ dcyd lr witqn i`pz znyx . Y9
.il`iaixh `ed la`

~
xne` jly htynd okl .∇ × F~ = ~0 ik il`iaixh ote`a xxeb F~ dcyd lr jly i`pzd . Y10
:`ad xacd z` lreta
~
".∇ ~=0
·A miiwzn if` ~0 -l zizedf deey ~
A mieqn ixehwee dcy m`"

2
.a sirql dxiaq daeyz deedn `l `ed .icn il`iaixh zn`a `ed dfk htyn la` ,mixrhvn ep`

hxetn xzei xaqd zzl jilr ?df iehiaa zenvnhvn zeaxernd zeiwlgd zexfbpd recn . Y11
oi` f` miniiwzn `l minieqn mi`pz m` .dkk zenvnhvn cinz `l od dyrnl .efd dcaerd ly
.mevniv
00
.0 -l deey Ryx − Q00zx + Pzy
00 00
− Rxy + Q00xz − Pyz
00
iehiad ik gikedl ilry rcei ip`e hpcehq ip`y gipp
:mzq ,aezkl heyt leki ip`
00 00 00 00 00 00
''.Ryx − Qzx + Pzy − Rxy + Qxz − Pyz = 0 oaenk"
lr oian ip` m` zrcl xen` ily ognad z` wcea xy` mc` oad ji` ,dfn xzei azek `l ip` m`
?xacn ip` dn

zexfbpd iabl melk epl xne` `l df xac .(0, 0, 0) zccea dcewpa wx G~ = −3k b -y oezp . Y12
~ ly miaikxd ly
.(0, 0, 0) -a G
zexg` zecewpa mb ~
G dcyd ly mikxrd z` zrcl mikixv ep` ,el`d zexfbpd z` aygl ick
.(0, 0, 0) -l zeaexw
zg` s` la` ,G(0, b
~ 0, 0) = −3k miiwn ~ b
G(x, y, z) = (|x| + |y| + |z| − 3)k ixehweed dcyd ,lynl
.(0, 0, 0)-a zniiwzn ely z -d aikx ly zexfbpdn

oey`x xcqn zeiwlg zexfbpl wxe j` miqgizn 7 dl`y ly c sirqa mipezpd mi`pzd . Y13
~ ly miaikxd ly
xacd m` .zniiw `l el`d miaikxd ly ipy xcqn zexfbp s`y zeidl leki okl .G
F~ ly upbxaicdy mb zeidl leki f` ,dxew dfd
.miiw `l
V xeckd ly (x, y, z) dcewp lk
lka mbe S ly (x, y, z) dcewp lk
lkay rpnpd on `l :hxetn xzei ote`a
~ ~
s`a miiw `l ∇ · F mby xxeb did df xac .(x, y, z) -a miiw `l ∇~ ·∇
~ ×G ~ -y lawp S i"r swend
~ ly miaikxlye ,el`d zecewpdn zg`
.zetivx zexfbp oi` F

.jly dgkeda ciwtz s` wgyn `l dfd i`pzd . Y14


³ ´
~ ~ 2 b 2 3b y2 b
.0 -l deey ∇ · ∇ × 5x yz i + 24 sin z j + 7xe k recn zxaqd `l . Y15
³ ´
zgqpy htynd llba ∇ ~ × 5x2 yzbi + 24 sin2 z 3bj + 7xey2 k
~ ·∇ b = 0 ik zprh d`xipk . Y16
miiwn 5x yzb
i + 24 sin2 z 3bj + 7xey k b dcyd m`d zwca `l la`
2 2
znyxy mi`pzd z` .a sirqa
.jly htyna

5x2 yzbi + 24 sin2 z 3bj + 7xey kb


2
htyna znyxy mi`pzd z` miiwn epp` dcyd dyrnl . Y17
.a sirqa jly

divwpet ly ipy xcqn zeaxernd zexfbpdy xne` H. A. Schwarz ly htynd ,jzricil wx . Y18
.zetivxe zeniiw odizy day dcewp lka efl ef zeey dpezp
.oey`x xcqn zexfbpd lr znyxy mitqepd mi`pzd z` mb mixikfn dfd htynd geqipa minrtl
.df htyna mivegp `l md dyrnly xxazn la`
.el`d mitqepd mi`pz z` znyxy df lr zecewp zcqtd `l oaenk

2 −y 2 )
xear F~ (x, y, z) = xy(x bi -e F~ (0, 0, 0) = ~0 i"r xcbend F~ mixehweed dcya opeazp . Y19
x2 +y 2
ilra md F ~ ly miaikxd lk la` .(0, 0, 0) -a ∇ ~ ·∇~ × F~ 6= 0 miiwn dfd dcyd .(x, y, z) 6= (0, 0, 0)
.(x, y, z) dcewp lka (milia`ivpxtic mb md okle) zetivx zeiwlg zexfbp

3
RR
dgqep epl oi` ik ,xiyi aeyig i"r F~ · dS
S
~ ly jxrd z` lawl deewz mey oi` c sirqa . Y20
~ ×G
.∇ ~ xear zyxetn dgqep mb epl xqg okl .G
~ xear zyxetn

meiwl miil`iaixh `l mi`pz ozep xy` htyn gikedle gqpl zywazd a sirq 7 dl`ya . Y21
.dpey ixnbl htyn zgqpe ,ef dywan ixnbl znlrzd la` .(x0 , y0 , z0 ) dcewpa ~ ·∇
∇ ~ × F~ dgqepd
!dl`yd z` `exwl `p ,d`ad mrta

dgqepdy zetvl mileki epiid if` ,dpekp dziid o`k jly dprhd m` . Y22
RR RRR
V -e ,o`k dl`ya (xeck ipt) ghynd `ed S xy`k mb miiwzz ~ · dS
B ~ = ~ · Bdxdydz
∇ ~
S V
~ xbi+ybj+z k
b
~
.B(x, y, z) = dcyd `ed B xy`ke ,S i"r swend xeckd `ed
(x +y +z )3/2
2 2 2
RRR RR
. ~ · Bdxdydz
∇ ~ =0 -e ~ · dS
B ~ = 4π ik mixiyi miaeyig zxfra mi`ex ep` df dxwna la`
V S

~ = ∂b ∂b ∂ b
.libx xehwee ly zelibxd zepekzd lk oi` ∇ ∂x
i + ∂y j + ∂z k "xehwee"l . Y23
¯ ¯
¯ bi bj k
b ¯
¯ ∂ ∂ ∂ ¯
z` zelwa xzei xekfl ick ¯ ¯ ~ ~
¯ ∂x ∂y ∂z ¯ "dhppinxhc"ae ∇ × F "zixehweed dltkn"a mixfrp ep`
¯ P Q R ¯
.ixehwee dcy ly xehexl dgqepd
zehpipnxhc lye zelibx zeltkn ly zelibxd zepekzd z` oi` ef "dhppinxhc"le ef "dltkn"l la`
.zelibx
mi`xew zilbp`a) "miwixh" - mipeniq wx md la` ,mi`ltp elit` ,miti c`n md dl`d mipeniqd
-pinxhc ,mixehweea xaecn eli`k mda ynzydl xyt` i` .eply oexkfl mixfery (mnemonics mdl
.ze`vez gikedl ick ,milibx zeltkne zehp
.c`n mipeyn mixac exwi ,jk zeyrl miqpn m`
mipye mixehwee dyely ly zaxern dltkn o`k epl yi ik ~ ·∇
∇ ~ × F~ = 0 -y oerhl dqpp ,lynl
.dfl df miliawn mdn
dcyd lynl ~ ·∇
enk) ?∇ ~ × F~ =
6 0 ik lawp F~ ly zeniieqn zexiga xeary xiaqdl lkep ji` f`
.( Y19 -a ritend

xear 0-l deey ~·A


A ~×B ~ zaxernd dltknd ,B ~ -e A
~ milibx mixehwee xeary oerhl enk ef dprh
!!c`n ~ ly zexg` zexiga xear 0 -n dpey `ed la` B
dpeyn .B ~ xehweed ly zeniieqn zexiga

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