BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA

PROCESS ENGINEERING AND SAFEGUARDING THEORY
Engineering passion series – 2009 publication

Limited explanation for Pressure Vessel, Pump and Compressor

A compilation by: Alvin Alfiyansyah Ronaldo Reagan

Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory

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Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan

BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA

PROCESS ENGINEERING AND SAFEGUARDING THEORY
CONTENTS ……………………………………………………………………………........ 2 1. PRESSURE VESSEL ………………………………………………………………… 1.1. Definition of Pressure Vessel (Separator)……………………………………… 1.2. General Requirements and Representation in PFD/P&ID…………………… 1.3. Engineering Requirements …………………………………………………….. 1.4. Major Type of Separator………………………………………………………… 1.5. Piping Engineering Requirements …………………………………………….. 1.6. Instrumentation Requirements ………………………………………………... 1.7. Equipment Protection Requirements …………………………………………. 1.8. Operational Aspect Requirements and Failure Modes ………………………. 1.9. Vessel/Separator Calculation Theory ………………….……………………… PUMPS ………………………………………………………………………………… 2.1. Description ……………………………………………………………………… 2.2. Pump Classification ……………………………………………………………. 2.3. Safety Device ……………………………………………………………………. 2.4. General Requirements………………………………………………………….. 2.5. Engineering Requirements…………………………………………………….. 2.6. Equipment Protection Requirement…………………………………………… 2.7. Pump Common Operational Aspect and Failure Modes…………………….. 2.8. Basic Selection Criteria………………………………………………………… 2.9. Equipment Selection and Design………………………………………………. COMPRESSOR …………………………………………...…………………………. . 3.1. Definition of Compressor …………………………………………………….... . 3.2. Selection of Compressor ...……………………………………………………… 3.3. Process Condition and Limitation ……………………………..……….……… 3.4. General Requirements…. ……………………………………………….……… 3.5. Engineering Requirements…. ….………….…………………………………. . 3.6. Piping and Instrumentation Requirements…. ….……………..……………… 4 4 6 6 8 22 25 25 27 42 50 50 50 56 59 59 65 68 69 72 85 85 85 92 104 104 105

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Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory

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Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan

BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA

Below is basic engineering study comprising explanation of several equipments that have been often used in Oil and Gas Industry especially in upstream operations. Reader shall take his/her own consideration during thoroughly use part of this article for engineering purpose.

Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory

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Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan

a diverter baffle. Figure 1. PRESSURE VESSEL Commonly known in production and process system as Separator. It contains the inlet nozzle which may be tangential. Separation vessels usually contain as follow: A – Primary Section. It consists of a portion of the vessel through where the gas moves relatively lower than maximum allowable vapor velocity with little turbulence. 3-phase separator may use a boot to collect free water removed/separated from hydrocarbon liquid. 1.1 Theory of Separation Process at Horizontal Separator Section A is used to separate the main portion of free liquid (bulk of liquid droplets) in the inlet stream. or half open pipe to take advantage of the inertial effects of centrifugal force or an abrupt change of direction to separate the major portion of the liquid from the gas stream. D – Sump or Liquid collecting Section. but also remove free water from liquid phase (hydrocarbon). Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 4 dari 4 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .1 Definition of Pressure Vessel (Separator) A separator is a vessel used in oil fields to remove well-stream liquid(s) from the gas. Scrubber and various Knock Out Drums. Section B is designed to utilize the force of gravity (of liquid droplets having big dimension) to enhance separation of entrained droplets. The separators may be either 2-phase or 3-phase and may be either vertical or horizontal. 2-phase type remove the total liquid from the gas. C – Coalescing Section. while 3-phase type remove not only total liquids. B – Secondary Section (Gravity Settling).BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA 1.

where mist extractor is horizontal position. bulk droplet of liquid fall down to the bottom vessel counter current flow direction from gas flow direction. Figure 1. coalesced.3 Gravity Settling Theory (2001 ASHRAE Meeting in Cincinnati. Figure 1.2 Theory of Separation Process at Vertical Separator Section D can be called as the sump or liquid collector which acts as receiver for all liquids separated from the gas in the section A.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Section C utilizes a coalescer or mist extractor to separate the very small droplet of liquids from the gas by impingement on a surface where they trapped. B. In vertical vessel. collected and grow become bulk droplet sizes and then removed fall to the bottom vessel through gravity settling. Nestle USA) Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 5 dari 5 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . and C.

a pressure vessel acting as a complete separator must have the following: . identification and essential internals. separation of solid particles from liquid phase. Horizontal separators can be single or double barrel and can be equipped with sumps or boots and also equipped with weir plate if it has function as 3 phase separation. As stated on above paragraphs. Pressure vessel determined here can be scrubber. should be indicated specially for critical elevation. The final design of the vessel should be able to perform one or more of above listed functions as per the need of the process.A primary separation section to remove the bulk of the liquid from the gas. and special consideration. From process point of view of relative liquid and vapor load consideration. . separator. 1. B. domes and body flanges.Sufficient length or height to allow the small droplets to settle out by gravity (to prevent undue entrainment). D.A means of reducing turbulence in the main body of the separator so that proper settling may take place. The relative size and elevation.Prime function by of a separator are separation of vapours from liquid. . also spherical vessel may also be used for high pressure and high liquid hold up system like storage of light liquid hydrocarbon.A mist extractor to capture entrained droplets or those which are too small to settle by gravity. filter separator.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA 1. knock out drum. pulsation bottle. . pig launcher. slug catcher.3 Engineering Requirements Engineering requirements for separators: A. solid bed dehydrator and column. separation of two immiscible liquid phase.Sufficient liquid capacity to handle surges of liquid from gas line. etc. economics. and the outline should be as simple as practical. C. Height of skirt shall be indicated if P&ID will be used for construction or to have AFC (Approved for Construction). B. . . hold-up volume for liquids. The choice between horizontal and vertical primarily depend upon following process requirements: relative liquid and vapor load. Symbols. general guidelines are summarized below: Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 6 dari 6 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . although not to scale.2 General Requirements and Representation in PFD/P&ID General requirement and representation of separator system in PFD/P&ID: A. Skirts and support should be shown in P&ID for good representation. pig receiver. A separator can be vertical or horizontal. including all essential such as sump. availability of plot area.

Number of Reservoir. Internally extended vortex breaker shall be used in fouling service and for hydrocarbon liquid outlet where the liquid is separated from water or aqueous solutions to prevent water from entering product. where liquid may enter. head exits can be used where plot space is limited. All inlets. G. Vapor velocity in a horizontal vessel can exceed the liquid settling velocity so provide L/D >1.1 Guidance to Determine Type of Vessel SELECTION GUIDELINES FOR TYPE OF VESSEL (HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL) SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS TYPE OF VESSEL Large vapor load. Provided L/D ratio is selected a horizontal vessel is more efficient than a vertical for the same flow area. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 7 dari 7 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . E. F. are preferably to be provided with deflector when no other device is specified for process reasons. Horizontal separators generally give large interface area and may give long retention time that is needed to remove the gas from the liquid where Liquid/Gas Ratio is great. In horizontal vessel. the vapor and liquid outlets including the possible water sump.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Table 1. Count down the following critical data to count the trains required: 1. but not for vertical vessel. Horizontal vessels are more effective and geometrically more practical for a heavy liquid phase removal than vertical vessel. Avoid vessel with thickness greater than 100 mm as these require special fabrication and can prove expensive cost. less vapor load (by volume) Horizontal Large vapor load. This separator is also good for liquidliquid separation. A rising liquid level in a vertical vessel does not alter the vapour flow area. less liquid load (by volume) Vertical Large liquid load. Consequently vertical vessels are preferred for compressor and fuel gas Knock Out drum. shall be located at the opposite side of the inlet (at a minimum distance from tangent line). Vertical vessels utilize a smaller plot area and are easier to instrument with alarms and shutdown control. a second separation train may be needed. C. The number of separation trains is also influenced by the number of production reservoirs. For floating installation are preferred as less “sloshing” occurs. large liquid load (by volume) Horizontal with split flow∗ Liquid-Liquid separation Horizontal Liquid-Solid separation Vertical ∗Split flow vessel has got one entry in the centre and two vapor outlets on each end. All liquid outlet nozzles shall be provided with vortex breakers. D. representation in PFD/P&ID. If more than one reservoir is being produced. and the available flowing wellhead pressure (FWHP) can not match the other reservoirs.

redundancy of vessels does not in itself improve availability of the process unless the characteristics of the fluid being processed force frequent cleanouts (sand. a factor which may support the case for more than one train of separation. and pumps can improve availability since these items have relatively high failure rates. cleanout of the crude separator may be required. The wax content may influence the number of separation trains. sized to accommodate the full flow range. or cleaned in some other manner.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA If the available FWHP from the second reservoir is sufficient to match the second stage of separation of the first reservoir. 5. vessel diameter will increase for the same amount of crude produced because gas flow rates will control vessel size. This concern can be overcome by use of dual control valves on the liquid and gas outlets. Thus. Usually. Availability. in sizing the piping for 2-phase (gas and oil). Another method to accommodate low flow rates would be to use the test separator as a start up separation vessel until full crude production permits the larger single train operation. 4. Equipment components can be evaluated to determine statistical reliability. more than one separation train would be favored to avoid interrupting crude production. as discussed herein. Usually. 6. The gas/ratio influences the diameter of separators. then the second reservoir production can be separated in the second stage of a single train of production separators. Under these maintenance conditions. If the sand content of the reservoir fluid is severe and not controllable by gravel packing at the reservoir face. Configuration may be a big production separator with highest flow rate and 2 small test separators with low flow rate or may be 2 big production separators and 2 small test separators. upsets in the heating system could occur. and more than one train of crude separation would be favored. In the past. and will influence the decision to retain a single train. At a higher gas/oil ratio. swelling factor is considered. scale clogging). redundancy of instruments. will affect this decision. if wax content is high and processing conditions require heating. Wax Content. this evaluation has not been an overwhelming reason to decide for two or more trains. valves. Sand Content. however. Gas/oil Ratio. 2. However. 3. Production could be interrupted by shutdown of the separation train if wax build-up (swelling) occurs and the separation train vessels need to be steamed. Turndown Ability. Other considerations. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 8 dari 8 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . The turndown ability of a large single train of crude separation is a concern.

The size of the test separator is normally fixed by the residence time required for oil/water separation. a. A production separator as a unit process may be a series of a first stage production separator and a second stage production separator. A level gauge and drain connections are built into the knock out drum.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA 1. The operating pressure of the test separator would be the same operating as the first stage separator. The liquids have their densities measured by an accurate densimeter after the oil and water are completely separated in a test container. water and gas phases. Knock out drum is important if substantial cooling of heavy liquids is possible considering winter conditions.4 Major Type of Separator Major type of separators used in the oil /gas/water separation process is described in the following paragraphs.slb. and monitors the reservoir's productivity. Figure 1. This drum is provided when liquid separation is likely in the waste line. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 9 dari 9 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . c. water and gas properties of each producing reservoir or well. The separation process would be followed by other process treatments to produce the required quality of the produced liquid and gas. A conventional test separator may be horizontal or vertical. The type of separator may be a horizontal or vertical separator and the separation type may be a two-phase separation or a three-phase separation. Knock Out Drum A Knock out drum is a type of separator which falls into one of two categories: free water and total liquid knock outs. A standard test separator would separate and measure the oil. The test separator is sized for the maximum "best" full well potential and anticipated gas and water rates.com) b. Test Separator A test separator determines the oil. Production separator A production separator is used to separate liquid and gas phases of well fluid.4 3-phase Test Separator (www.

alliedeq.com) d. The water is removed from disposal.com) These vessels are often used upstream of a treater to help separate and remove excess free water from the oil-water emulsion so the energy is not wasted in heating the free water within a fired treating vessel. These vessels can be heated or cold depending on the design requirements.5 Knock Out Drum (www.mrw-tech. oil and water).6 Free Water Knock Out Drum (www. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 10 dari 10 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . Figure 1. Free Water Knock Out Drum (FWKO Drum) A free water knock out drum is used to separate free water from well-fluids (streams of gas. Standard design is 50 – 75 psi.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 1. Type of the separator is a three-phase separator and the gas and oil usually leave the vessel through the same outlet to be processed by other equipment.

O.com) Figure 1.7 Flare Knock Out Drum (www.) and Flare or Vent Stack. f.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA e.crimtech. Flare Knock Out Drum This equipment is as same principle as Knock Out Drum located between Blow Down Valve/BDV (include R. The purpose is to separate liquid produced from depressurization at BDV before the gas inlet to Flare or Vent Stack.com) Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 11 dari 11 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . Figure 1.tornadotech. Total Liquid Knock Out Drum The total liquid knock out is normally used to remove the combined liquids from a gas stream.8 Flare Knock Out Drum above Ground (www.

Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 12 dari 12 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . 3-phase gravity separators 3-phase gravity separators are one of the main surface production units in the petroleum industry.9 Flare Knock Out Drum below Ground (www. by gravity settling based on difference in density and droplet sizes.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 1. This separator generally has internal coating with epoxy or polyester to protect the shell made by carbon steel from water corrosion. However.tornadotech. They are used to separate hydrocarbon streams produced at the facility into their component phases: gas. h. the vessel must be designed to separate the gas that flashes from the liquid as well as the oil and water. The separated oil is skimmed over a weir or bucket & weir. oil. horizontal separators come in 3 configurations: interface control with boot. Type of bucket and weir design eliminates the need for all liquid interface controllers. A weir is used to maintain the oil level separated from the water level. the most common used to be configuration interface control with weir. interface control with weir. Because the flow enters this separator either directly from a production well or a separator operating at a higher pressure. and water. Regeneration Gas Knock Out Drum Regeneration Gas Knock Out Drum (vertically orientation) using horizontal wire mesh pad is used to separate free-water from the regeneration gas used in Molecular Sieve Dehydration Unit after the gas is used to regenerate (heating phase) the dehydrator and condensed in cooler.com) g. Example type of weirs is vertical weir plate which is perpendicular from liquid flow. and bucket & weir. Depending on the philosophies used to control the liquid-liquid phases.

sog.11 3-Phase Gravity Separator (www. oil and water streams through gravity settling.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 1.ca) Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 13 dari 13 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . The oil/water interface in the left section is maintained at the desired level controller which manipulates the water outlet valve. The separated oil above water surface is skimmed or floated over the weir to the right section and its level is kept at the desired point by another level controller which also manipulate the oil outlet flow as well as to the water outlet flow at certain control settings to ensure that outlet water is free from oil where as outlet oil is free from water. Figure 1.10 Theory of Process Control at Horizontal Separator The unit receives 3 phase fluid and separates it into gas.

Exception for screw type. feed gas is separated from the bulk liquid carryover before inlet to absorber columns.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA The gas disengages from the liquid phases and flows horizontally through the vessel length and out from left section of vessel through a mist extractor to ensure that liquid carryover in the effluent gas stream will not exceed 0. Separator pressure is regulated by manipulating the gas outlet flow using Pressure Control valve. Figure 1.1 gallon of particle larger than 10 microns per MMSCF of gas. Scrubber A scrubber is a type of separator which is designed to separate liquid content from the gas where the feed gas stream has unusually high gas-to-liquid ratios.au) i. or compressors (include compressor station) for protection from entrained liquids. Scrubber in compressor station is used to protect the compressor from liquid carryover in the gas which can cause damage to the compressor (liquid slugging). This separator type usually is used in Glycol plants. shaft seals. extraction plants. decrease in cooling capacity. reduce lifetime of bearing.com. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 14 dari 14 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .12 3-Phase Offshore Production Separator (www. increase in power consumption. instruments. the scrubber can be uninstalled where liquid phase may inlet to the compressor section without damaging its compressor. In Glycol and Amine contactor plants. Amine contactor plants. This will minimize inefficiency contact between feed gas and the solvent (absorbent) liquid. and rotors.jord.

allards-international.tfes. 3.13 Vertical Gas Scrubber (www.com) In refrigeration system. Figure 1. Separators not only act as scrubber to protect compressor unit. Provide sufficient volume for possible swelling and foaming of the liquid charge caused by sudden pressure reduction. Provide sufficient Net positive Suction Head (NPSH) above its required NPSH to prevent pumps from cavitations.com) Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 15 dari 15 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . 4. 2. Provide sufficient surge volume for excess liquid returning from evaporators and return lines.14 Scrubber (www. Provide sufficient ballast volume to prevent pumps from starving liquid.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 1. they also have functions as follow: 1.

Location of immersion heater should be downstream section of separator where feed inlet from upstream section below mist extractor. Figure 1.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA j. the simplest pulsation bottles are pressure vessels which are unbaffled internally and mounted on or near a cylinder inlet or outlet. Suction pulsation bottles are also designed for the same pressure as the discharge bottle. Pulsation Bottles / Pulsation Dampener (suction and Discharge) In reciprocating compressors. Usually.15 3-Phase Horizontal Separator (with Immersion Heater) k. the column type is always preferred. Installing pulsation dampener in suction line may not be required if the suction piping is big (oversized) and short. the criteria are subjected based on company criteria and engineering study. condensate outlet designed to have maximum BS&W OF 0. In reciprocating pumps. Volume of bottles is sized empirically to provide adequate volume to absorb most of the pulsation. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 16 dari 16 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . Maximum heating temperature in separator 150 oC can be applicable to result stable condensate where maximum TVP (@ 37. if based on economic and feasible study conclude that energy consumption at reboiler section and dimension of calculated column is not acceptable to achieve stabilized condensate. 3 phase separator heated with electrical (or any other heat sources) immersion heater internally should be considered. reciprocating compressor manufacturers can be consulted. For more accurate sizing. But. This pulsation dampener shall be installed as close as possible to the pump.8 oC) 10 psia. The location of boot should be as far as enough from immersion heater to prevent re-mixture of separated water to the separated gas as water can be evaporated by immersion heater which operated above 100 oC. Furthermore. 3 phase separator with immersion (internal) heater In condensate stabilization Unit.8 oC) 5 psig and RVP (@ 37. pulsation dampener is used and placed both in suction and discharge lines. or if the pump operates at less than 150 rpm. this pulsation dampener act like as a stabilizer to reduce pressure fluctuations at the pump.5 %. Performance of volume bottles is not normally guaranteed without a detailed analysis. Maximum temperature can be 150 oC. In suction line. A temperature gauge should to be placed near and above Boot to check/monitor water temperature in the separator. Boot should to be provided to collect water droplet separated from mixture fluid. This equipment consists of a small pressure vessel containing a cushion of gas (sometimes separated from the pumped fluid by a diaphragm).

the size of vessel and the type of internals installed. liquid carryover in the effluent gas stream will not exceed 0. Discharge pulsation dampener will minimize pressure peaks and also contribute to extend pump life and pump valve life.1 gallon of particle larger than 10 microns per MMSCF of gas if mist extractor (mist eliminator) is used. flare scrubbers. slug catcher. Figure 1. These separators are similar to the vertical but handle larger volumes of liquid. and minimum steel for present pressure. these separators are able to get more surface area on the oil for the foam to break down. test separators. horizontal separators are used successfully as production separators. limited liquid surge capacity. Spherical Separator This separator is intermittently used for high pressure service where compact size is preferred and liquid volumes are small. Horizontal separators Because of their flexibility. In general. m. Factors considered for this separator are: Compactness. The use of pulsation dampener in discharge line is also effective in absorbing/reducing flow variation caused by pressure fluctuations and should be considered if vibration on the piping appears to be a problem. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 17 dari 17 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA In discharge line. free water knock outs. pressure fluctuations also occur. inlet separators and floating production separators. degassing drum. l. wellhead separators. If foaming problems are possible.16 Horizontal oil-Gas Separator (Pecten Cameroon Offshore) Horizontal separator performance is determined by the characteristics of the fluid being separated.

There is split liquid reservoir to collect separated liquid.com) n. Sometimes. The main separation takes place with retention time and then the mist pad to remove the smaller liquid particles. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 18 dari 18 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . where space available is small. Figure 1. vertical type is preferred than horizontal type. Vertical Separators Vertical type of separator is used when gas/liquid ratio is high to give sufficient space for gravity settling. Horizontal Filter Separators These separators are equipped internally with cartridge filter element in upstream section and Coalescer in downstream section.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 1.17 Horizontal Separator Package (www.gastech.18 Vertical Separator o.

This is required in Molecular Sieve Dehydrator Unit where sales gas required very low water dew point. Figure 1.com) Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 19 dari 19 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . sands and mechanical dispersed in the flowing gas to decrease loading of liquid and mechanical impurities and protect early damage of Molecular Sieve bed and ensure the life bed/adsorbent as guaranteed by manufacturer.20 Horizontal Filter Separator (www.19 Horizontal Filter Separator (www.com) These separators are suited to removal even relatively small quantities of dispersed liquid.alliedeq. the gas shall be separated first from water or oil.ccithermal. Before the wet gas (having impurities like sands and mechanical) inlet to dehydrator.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 1.

Smaller solid particles and smaller liquid droplets will be trapped in Filters having multi layers (section E) where trapped smaller liquid droplets will be coalesced and combined into larger size. Slug Catcher The gas coming by long distance offshore or onshore pipeline has substantial amount of liquid due to the condensation during transmission in the pipeline. Quite often the liquid comes out at the first equipment in the form of ‘slug’ rather than in uniformly dispersed phase. first. The slug of liquid can be fairly large often a few KM long and coming in at a high velocity. p. At this section.21 Horizontal Filter Separator (Peerless Mfg. the main separation is happen where greater solid particles and greater liquid droplets fall down to the bottom of the vessel to be removed and collected in the first-stage liquid reservoir. named as coalescer (section D). Co. a section A (first-stage) show that the gas comes into the filtercoalescer section through the inlet nozzle and the T-Feed chamber that distributes the gas flow into two directions.) From above figure. The vane pack separates the liquid droplets from the gas at high velocity. Gas and the coalesced liquid droplets flow into the second-stage. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 20 dari 20 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 1. draining the liquid into the second-stage drain sump for complete removal. The flow enters filter element section. the closure end of the vessel (section B) and the outlet end of the first-stage chamber (section C). The equipment to trap the slug and separate out the gas is called Slug Catcher. The fluid having smaller solid particles and smaller liquid droplets will flow to the section E and F. a vane pack section (section F).

com) q. This equipment may be either a vessel or constructed of parallel pipes called fingers type. in high pressure operation. fingers type of slug catchers is frequently desired than vessel to avoid wide wall thickness. Figure 1. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 21 dari 21 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . Pig Launcher When water presented in piping line for long time.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 1. pipeline is pigged to minimize corrosion and this operation will also improve pressure drop-flow rate performance as the water accumulated in sags in the pipeline has main constitution for partial blockages that increase pressure drop.com) Slug catcher is vessel located at the downstream end or other intermediate points of a long distance pipeline to absorb the fluctuating liquid inlet flow rates through liquid level fluctuation.22 Horizontal Slug Catcher (webwormcpt. The pipeline is pigged using pig launcher which is designed like as pressure vessel. Mostly.blogspot.23 Horizontal Slug Catcher (www.midcofabricators. Sufficient volume must be same for liquid level fluctuation.

Vents. between the vessel and pipeline shut-off location (spade. To prevent pulling vacuum in equipment which is not designed for vacuum. The drain shall be located on the bottom of the vessel when no bottom line is present. B. for line 6” .BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 1. drains. Pig Receiver Pig receiver is used to receive pigged water from the upstream pipeline and acted opposite of pig launcher function. C. vent for process line shall be provided with ¾” NPT. D.acpbm. It shall be ensured that the vessel can never be isolated from this vent when spading off at the process flanges. As guidelines. the size of the vent and drain connection shall be the same.4”. and utility connections shall be closed with a blind flange or capped. All vessels shall have a low point valved drain. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 22 dari 22 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .5 Piping Engineering Requirements A. Or other guidelines.8” shall be provided with ¾” NPT drain and greater than 10” line shall be provided with 1” NPT drain. Generally this drain should be located on the bottom line and outside of the skirt. ½” NPT can be provided for line 1” . particularly below liquid level. 1. or when the bottom line is not flush with the lowest point of the vessel. drain lines for pressure vessel should be sized to empty the required vessel volume by gravity flow within two hours.24 Pig Launcher (www. As guidance. till 4” line size can be provided with ¾” NPT drain and greater than 6” line size shall be provided with 1” NPT drain. valve or blind flange).com) r. should be minimized. The number connection on vessel. As guidelines. Nozzle sizes on vessel should not be smaller than 150# class for strength reason. All vessels shall have a high point valve vent.

At equipment nozzle of rigid piping (i. The drain line-up to and including the manual valve shall be maximum 2”.e. where the fractionator’s inlet flange shall be deleted entirely. Prevention against the vapor escaping for vent and drain line to atmosphere is mandatory. Examples of this condition are: • A transfer line from a furnace to large fractionators. In either case.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA E. H. and the spring loaded valve and downstream piping should be ¾”. 30”). The nominal minimum diameter for inspection openings (hand hole) is 6” as guidelines. In this case. including water drain on LPG vessel. and if no man way is possible. Spades and spectacle blinds are used for isolation prior to inspection. a utility connection per compartment should be considered. regardless of pipe size. an alternative location of the spectacle blind can be considered. the cover plate of the tray shall be split. The transfer line now becomes part of the fractionators and should be provided with an inspection manhole at the furnace end and in the top and/or bottom plate of the inlet device. For equipment and piping containing LPG gases. maintenance or entry or personnel. Manhole shall have a minimum clear inside diameter of 16”-18” as guidelines (usually is 24” used to in Middle East and Center Asia). The spectacle blind should be located in the furnace outlets. However. G. An access opening shall be provided for each vessel. for example by baffles. This should then be accommodated by nearby manhole. Required size of access openings in a column with removable trays should not be smaller than 10” x 18”. F. Spectacle blinds have to be provided in the following cases: In line of equipment which can be blocked in with the unit still in operation. for strength reason. A utility connection for purge and steam-out purposed should be installed with 2” valve as guidance. testing. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 23 dari 23 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . although the company may choose to use spectacle blinds for smaller nozzle. because it is prone to leak due to thermal shock during start-up and shut down. If the vessel is divided into more than one compartment. where a spade can not be installed). the spring loaded valve may be increased to 1 ½” and the downstream piping to 1” for typical process vessel. operational drains shall consist of a spring loaded valve and a manual valve located a minimum of 600 mm upstream of the spring loaded valve to prevent freezing and operable from the same location as the spring loaded valve. For a very large vessel nozzle (i. at location which are difficult to access. The utility connection shall not be connected permanently to the utility header.e. At equipment nozzles of 10” and larger. it will obviously not anymore possible to pass the inlet device through its own nozzle. care should be taken that no other connection exist or will be temporarily made between the vessel and the spectacle blinds that would defeat the isolation of the vessel.

For flanges closer to grade. The presence of H2S where its partial pressure > 1 bar. This will protect block valve from getting freezing whenever insulation or heat tracing is used covering the block valve. Positive isolation may not be required if: 1.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA • An overhead line ending in a more convenient condenser inlet nozzle or even dividing up into a number of smaller and more manageable condenser nozzles where the spectacle blinds can be located. Fluid very corrosive and abrasive with high concentration of acid component including water presence (all chemical component where hydrogen bonded with inorganic should be considered as acidic) O. where size is 3 inch or below. drainage or sample manual globe valve which possible provoke freeze condition during operation in winter seasons having very low temperature. spade blind can be useful. L. Operating pressure > 70 barg. At rating pressure (ANSI) 300# RF. Piping rating is 150# and sizes of inlet or outlet lines of the pressure vessel are above 16 inch. Piping rating is 300# or 600#. I. steam Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 24 dari 24 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . K. De-pressurizing. > 35 barg if LNG 2. At rating pressure (ANSI) 150# RF. Piping rating is 150# and sizes of inlet or outlet lines of the pressure vessel are below 16 inch.e. Flange connections. For piping rating is 900# and above (using connection like ring). Piping rating 300# and below. positive isolation is given by spool piece which is easy to be removed and blind flanges. shall have smothering steam rings with weather protection covers to extinguish a possible fire from leaking hydrogen. Spectacle Blind shall be installed if (subjected to the user policy): Piping rating is 600# and below. At rating pressure (ANSI) 900# RF & RJ. range temperature from -29 oC – 260 oC and size of inlet or outlet lines of the pressure vessel is below 250 mm (10 inch). The valves that are not used when the line or equipment is under pressure (i. but isolation may be provided with blind flange. should be located minimum 600 mm downstream of a block valve. 6” and larger in hydrogen service operating above 200 °C. N. Spacer and spades shall be installed instead of spectacle blinds in the following cases: In lines with operating temperatures below 0 °C. or 3. J. Double block and bleed (DB&B) isolation should be installed on piping line if: 1. At rating pressure (ANSI) 600# RF & RJ. which are not readily accessible. piping size < 6” 3. piping size < 4” 4. vent at vessels) are not installed with DB&B isolation. piping size < 8” 2. M. piping size < 2” P. range temperature from -29 oC – 260 oC and sizes of inlet or outlet lines of the pressure vessel are above 250 mm (10 inch).

Pressure Safety Valve (PSV) should be installed at pressure vessel to protect vessel from over pressure. The use of bends outside the vertical plane through the axis of the feed nozzle shall be avoided within ten pipe diameters of two phase flow inlet nozzle in order not to generate vapor flow maldistribution. it should preferably be located on the top of outlet line. B. hydro cracking. Where exothermic processes are possible outside the normal temperature range. Pressure relief valves shall be connected to the protected equipment in the vapor space above any contained liquid or to piping connected to vapor space. for hydro treating. installation on the tall vessel or column should be avoided. These thermocouples and indicators shall be in addition to narrow range thermocouples and indicators used for control and normal process monitoring (i. High Vaccuum Unit (HVU). The steam supply line valve to the rings should be operable from a safe distance. In addition. wide range thermocouples shall be installed at considered location where exothermic processes will result first in the part side of equipments so that. Set point at PSV shall no higher than maximum allowable working pressure of the vessel. i. It should be clearly visible from grade or easily accessible platforms. A pressure gauge shall be installed on every vessel and normally located in vapor space. Where no connection to flare is available for process reason.e. C. downstream of the equipment blinding point. B.7 Equipment Protection Requirements A. R. to avoid entrainment in large fractionator (distillation column such as Crude Distillation Unit (CDU). If a temperature indicator is required at the outlet. PSH and PSHH should always be installed at Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 25 dari 25 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . isomerization. it is recommended to install two thermocouples with three thermo elements on top section and bottom section of the bed to monitor heat distribution in the bed during hot regeneration phase. If fluids inlet to the vessel is coming from a well. polymerization reactors where in situ regeneration take place). Q. a manual valve or a valve with TSH/PSH should be provided for depressuring to flare during shutdown as example in column overhead system.6 Instrumentation Requirements A. In solid bed dehydrator (pressure vessel). High Pressure Sensor (PSH) should be installed as an alarm initiation pressure to give sufficient time for operator to do safety operation and also use High High Pressure Sensor (PSHH) to shut off inflow fluid to vessel if operator fails to handle over pressure. PSV line is vented to atmosphere at safe height or location from operator. This connection will not be required for units normally operating at sub atmospheric pressure. should an exothermic processes occurs. the transfer line should run down to feed nozzle without pockets. This information is important for metallurgical reason. the maximum temperature can be monitored.e. 1.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA lances can be provided as an alternative. 1. Thermal Gas-Oil Unit (TGU)).

artificial lift. wire mesh. i. In bottom side. F. collapse of internals. For vessel fitted with demister (i. LSLL should be located above the immersed tubes (hot tube). Use nozzle with sufficient size for 3 temperature elements if TSH is to be used to sense temperature in the vessel. a pressure relief valve downstream of demister is allowed if the velocity of the largest relief flow is not greater than 3 times that of the design operating flow.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA vessel considering increase pressure due to change in reservoir conditions. This is applicable at. If the pressure vessel is heated. The relief connection shall be upstream of demister for larger relief flows. It should be noted that blockage can not occur as result of fouling.. H. Low Pressure Sensor (PSL) as an alarm initiation pressure to give sufficient time for operator to do safety operation and also use Low Low Pressure Sensor (PSLL) to shut off inflow fluid to vessel if operator fails to handle vacuum pressure.e. Consider to install a check valve as flow safety device (FSV) at outlet lines both gas outlet line and liquid outlet line(s) of pressure vessel if significant fluid volumes could back flow from downstream equipment is possible. Providing a make up system having high pressure can be done to maintain adequate pressure in the vessel from vacuum condition. solidification. C. TSH sensor should be installed in thermowells for ease removable and testing. High Level Sensor (LSH) to give sufficient time for operator to do safety operation and also use High High Level Sensor (PSHH) to shut off inflow fluid to vessel if operator fails to handle liquid over flow level. work-over activities. D. The thermowell should be located where it will be accessible and continuously immersed in the heated fluid. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 26 dari 26 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . LSH (include LSHH) and LSL (include LSLL) sensors should be installed in external columns that can be isolated from the vessel. a High Temperature Sensor (TSH) should be installed to shut off the heat source when process fluid temperature becomes excessive. E. G. vane pack). PSL and PSLL should always be considered to be installed when possible leaks large enough to reduce pressure occur. Height of Liquid level should be controlled with control device both in top side of maximum liquid level (surge volume) and bottom side. 3-phase horizontal separator heated by immersion heater where this separator is used as condensate stabilizer. To avoid vacuum condition in the vessel. Low Level Sensor (LSL) as an alarm initiation for operator should be used and use Low Low Level Sensor (LSLL) to shut off inflow fluid to vessel if operator fails to close liquid outlet at the bottom vessel to avoid gas blowby. etc. In top side. Otherwise. In the heated component of vessel (like 3 phase separator with immersion (internal) heater). etc.e. the relief connection shall be located upstream of the potential restriction.

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I. The inlet piping between protected equipment and inlet of relief valve should be designed so that the total pressure loss does not exceed 3% of the valve set pressure. The pressure loss should be calculated using the maximum rated capacity of the pressure relief valve. Excessive pressure loss will cause rapid opening and closing the valve, or chatter. The nominal size of the inlet piping must be the same as or larger than the nominal size of the valve inlet flange. The inlet piping of pressure relief valve shall be self draining back into the process. J. All process equipment containing under normal operating condition at least 2 tons of LPG (butane or volatile liquid) shall be provided with remotely operated depressuring valves. High rate depressuring of plant facilities is applied during an emergency. This will for instance, serve to avoid a BLEVE in the event of a fire and can also reduce the consequence of leakage. For the purpose of sizing depressuring system, each unit area shall be divided in probable fire areas. Within each fire area, one depressuring valve can serve a number of equipment items which are normally interconnected and can be isolated as sub system. K. For 2 phase separator of gas-free water separation, the separators may have internal coating to protect the shell made by carbon steel from water corrosion as explain on above paragraph. 1.8 Operational Aspect Requirements and Failure Modes A. During design review, process and piping engineer shall consider appropriate routine access to valves and several instruments in pressure vessels. Main and secondary escape route in pressure vessel position shall be arranged with careful prediction of future piping and instruments modification. Integration of piping plan, equipment plan and instrument plan drawings shall be used to review this purpose during engineering phase. B. In Commissioning, overfilling with water happens in example for hydro testing when the vessel or support is not designed for it, might lead to overstressing the shell or bottom head and/or overloading the support or foundation. C. In Start-up, similar to water, hydrocarbon especially heavy hydrocarbon, can lead to damage if the equipment is overfilled during start-up and the design has not catered for a full vessel. More frequently equipment is designed for full water load, but the overhead vapor lines or column and transfer line are not. D. In Start-up, inadequate air removal happens when oxygen left in the vessel, due to insufficient purging and may lead to internal fire/explosion. E. In Start-up, inadequate water removal happens when water introduced in hot environments often causes steam explosions resulting in damage to vessel internals. F. In Start-up, overpressure often happens when spades and spectacle blinds are not removed or opened and the vessel is isolated from pressure relief valve. Also, when purging with an advertently closed vent will cause pressure build up to the operating pressure of the purge fluid, which can be higher than the design pressure of vessel.
Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 27 dari 27 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan

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Similarly starting a reboiler before commissioning the overhead cooling system will rapidly overpressure a column. G. In Start-up, vacuum will happens when developed by inadequate venting when draining a liquid full vessel or when condensing steam and no gas make up provided for. H. In Shutdown, inadequate purging happens when air entering vessel caused by inerted improperly, may contact phyroporic iron and start burning when insufficiently wetted, thus initiating a hydrocarbon fire/explosion. I. In Normal Operation, ingress of air should be avoided because air leaking into system at sub-atmospheric pressure may cause internal fire/explosion. And small amounts of air may have an adverse effect on product/solvent quality, and be careful when disposed of contaminated air which can cause problem. J. In Normal Operation, draining water from sumps of pressurized vessels, the downstream system should be checked in effect of capable to cope over draining and draining to atmosphere from pressurized vessel is not recommended. K. Internal Components of Separators and separator component example are shown below: Inlet Diverters There are many types of inlet diverters. Figure 1.25, Inlet diverter: a component of internal separator to quickly change of direction to separate the major portion of the liquid from the gas stream. In the other hand, inlet diverter will break up the bulk of the inlet stream into smaller particles. The inlet device controls the inlet momentum by redirecting the inlet stream and dissipating/dispersing the energy of the inlet fluid. A box type diverter is always used with the two sides in the vertical plane open to flow (at right angles to incoming flows).

Figure 1.25 Inlet Diverter There are various types available all of which are used by manufacturers. These types are listed below: a. The dished end type of inlet diverter directs the inlet fluid back into the vessel head. This is used in cases where the inlet nozzle is in the head of vessel. b. The fluid is directed back against the vessel head by a 90o elbowed pipe. This type is uses for gases.
Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 28 dari 28 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan

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c. Presently the most common of all types is either a vane, angle or pipe type inlet diverter in a box type arrangement. Baffle Horizontal baffle is used to reduce liquid/liquid settling volume which impact to retention time, since droplets only need time to settle to the baffle rather than to the bottom of the drum. The baffle is designed so that settled liquid flows to the inlet end of the drum and the down of the drum walls to the bottom. The following direction can be observed in providing settling baffles: a. Make the minimum vertical distance between adjacent baffles, or baffle and drum range from 15” – 19” for access. b. Make the distance from the end of the baffle to the adjacent end of the drum ¼ the drum diameter. c. Provide a 2” lip on each baffle at the outlet end of the drum. d. Provide 2 slots, 1” wide and ¼ as long as the drum, located at between drum and baffle, at each section of the inlet end of the baffle. Figure 1.26 and Figure 1.27 show several basic, commonly used types in oil and gas industry.

Figure 1.26 Deflector baffle

Figure 1.27 Cyclone Inlet Baffle

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Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan

These are nothing more than vertical baffles or partial cross-sectional area plate that span the gas-liquid interface perpendicular to the flow direction while still letting liquid pass through. which uses centrifugal force rather than mechanical agitation to disengage the oil and gas.30. Cyclonic inlets generally create a fluid velocity of about 20 ft/s around a chimney whose diameter is perhaps 2/3 that of the vessel diameter. is to force the foam to pass through a series of inclined parallel plates or tubes as shown in Figure 1. This foam can be stabilized with the addition of chemicals upstream of the separator inlet. or helices. Wave Breakers In long horizontal vessels it is sometimes necessary to install wave breaker(s) as shown in Figure 1. The advantage of using devices such as the hemisphere or cone is that they create fewer disturbances than flat plates or angle irons. This inlet can have a cyclonic chimney. or may use a tangential-fluid race around the walls of the vessel. and prevent waves caused by liquid surges. Spiral fins. Figure 1.28. Often. this leads to the coalescence of the foam bubbles. The second device shown is a cyclone inlet. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 30 dari 30 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . cutting down on reentrainment or emulsification problems. metal cone. piece of angle iron. since refineries sometimes object to defoamer chemicals in crude oil. or just about any shape that will cause a rapid change in the direction and velocity of the fluids and thus disengage the gas and liquid. This can be a hemispherical dish.28 Wave Breaker Defoaming Plates Foam may occur at the gas-oil interface when gas bubbles are liberated from certain liquid mixtures.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA The first is a deflector baffle. particularly in the Middle East. are also sometimes used in the last few feet of inlet piping.29 and Figure 1. a more effective solution. as shown. flat plate.

This will also avoid gas blowby event. the lowest effective working level) and the nozzle velocity is below nozzle velocity calculated without using vortex breaker at various liquid flow rates.29 Defoaming Plates Figure 1.com) Vortex Breaker It is normally a good idea to include in a separator design a simple vortex breaker.31 (slotted pipe).e.32 (platform). Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 31 dari 31 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .vmeprocess. Vortex breakers are required to maintain flow rate of liquid phase continuity from vessel whenever the intersection of the minimum liquid level (i. Vortex breaker may be located before the liquid outlet nozzle(s) to prevent gas or oil entrainment with the bottom liquid.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 1.30 Foam Breaker/Defoaming Plate (www. LSLL shall be determined above vortex breaker Figure 1. as shown in Figure 1.

these are to keep a vortex from developing when the liquid control valve is open.31 Vortex Breaker (slotted Pipe) Figure 1. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 32 dari 32 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .33 (crossed plates) and Figure 1.32 Platform Vortex Breaker Figure 1.35.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 1.

blogspot.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 1.35 Position Crossed Plate Mist Eliminator (Mist Extractor). Mist Eliminator is an entrainment in a separator to remove small liquid droplets lower than 100 micron and free the gas from liquid content.com) A vortex could suck some gas out of the vapor space and re-entrain it in the liquid outlet. Figure 1. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 33 dari 33 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .33 Crossed Plate Vortex Breaker Figure 1.34 Vortex Breaker (webwormcpt.

Also.36 SS Wire Mesh Pad ready to be installed (www.44 show three of the most common mist extraction devices: wire mesh pads. Figure 1.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA The use of mist extractor will give high overall percentage removal of droplet liquid even very small liquid droplets. the use of mist extractor can significantly reduce the required diameter of separator because of its more efficient in removing liquid droplets from the gas that using gravity settling method. vanes.evergreenindia. and arch plates. The mist extractor of the coalescing side may be a series of vane. The mist extractor will remove the small droplets (normally down to 10 microns diameter) of liquid (both oil and water) from the flowing gas stream before the gas leaves the vessel. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 34 dari 34 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .37.37 Wire Mesh Pad Wire mesh pad is fabricated in pad form from symmetrical interlocking loops of knitted metal wire or plastic monofilaments with a high free volume and large impingement area. Liquid carryover in the outlet gas is normally less than 0. woven wire mesh pad or a centrifugal device design. Figure 1.1 gallon per MMSCF.39 and Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 1.com) Minimum distance upstream and downstream of the mist extractor between gas inlet and outlet nozzles should be provided for space required for gravity settling separation and also for full utilization of mist extractor.

the vapor will just drift through the mesh element without the droplets impinging and coalescing.38 Separation Process at Vertical Separator using Wire Mesh Pad (www. Although wire mesh eliminators are inexpensive they become plugged more easily than the other types. Wire Mesh pad types are frequently used as entrainment separators for the removal of very small liquid droplets and. The construction of a wire mesh mist eliminator is often specified by certain thicknesses (usually 3 to 7 inches) and mesh density (usually 10 to 12 lb/ft3). If the velocity is too high. 6 inch is mostly widely used and up to 12 inch may be required for fine mists. the liquids knocked out will be reentrained.com) The effectiveness of wire mesh depends largely on whether or not the gas is traveling at the proper velocity. If the velocity is too low. Experience has indicated that a properly sized wire mesh eliminator can remove 99% of 10 micron and larger droplets.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Wire mesh pads which are a static. therefore a higher overall percentage removal of liquid. Figure 1. Or. A pad thickness of 4 inch also can be used as minimum. in-line device are made of finely woven mats of stainless steel wire wrapped into a tightly packed cylinder. wire mesh pads are efficient only when the gas stream velocity (defined as allowable vapor velocity) is low enough that reProcess Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 35 dari 35 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .evergreenindia.

The type is generally in horizontal position (at a 90o angle) of flow gas direction and entrained liquid passing vertically upward. a higher free volume leads to a lower pressure drop. Meanwhile. having greater inertia. the vapour passes freely through the layered mesh structure. wire mesh pad is typically not used. In critical cases. the liquid droplets. The overhead product is pure vapour containing practically no liquid. When vapour carrying entrained liquid droplets or mist passes through the mesh pad (in perpendicular flow of pad position). Figure 1. Vane or centrifugal types are generally more acceptable.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA entrainment of the coalesced droplets does not occur and also fouling and hydrate formation are possible not occur. But. where they coalesce and fall to the liquid-collection section of the vessel. As more droplets collect. pressure drop at wire mesh pad shall be considered if application is at vacuum service and at equipments having a blower or a fan as the prime mover. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 36 dari 36 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . Typically. The separating action of a separator largely depends upon the contact surface area necessary for impingement which must be evenly distributed. pressure drop at wire mesh pad may also occur significantly.39 Vane Mist Extractor Vane-type mist eliminators force the gas flow to become laminar between corrugated parallel plates. Droplets impinge on the plate surfaces. When flooding happens. Generally speaking. they coalesce and grow in size and become large enough to drain back into the bottom of vessel. If fouling or hydrate formation is possible. contact the large wire surface exposed and briefly held there. The pressure drop across the wire mesh pad is sufficiently low (usually less than 1 inch H2O) to be considered negligible for most application. vane is one of appropriate choices (beside of centrifugal) if fouling or hydrate formation is possible or expected. it may be necessary to decide whether pressure drop or efficiency should be sacrificed.

Vane-type eliminators are sized by their manufacturers to assure both laminar flow and a certain minimum pressure drop. For configuration of vertical gas flow – horizontal vanes position. Collected liquids (entrained liquid particles) run down counter current to the direction of gas flow. sometimes turndown can being a problem.com) Figure 1. it should be noted that as vane type separators depend upon inertial forces for performance.41 Vane Mist Extractor Construction (www. The entrained liquid particles can not follow the deflected gas path and are collected as they accumulate along the wall of the vane mist eliminator. the vanes are designed to provide optimum deflection to the gas containing entrained liquid particles.petroeng. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 37 dari 37 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 1.40 Vane Mist Extractor (www.ru) But.vmeprocess.

on which the gas impinges and coalesces. specially designed sinusoidal vanes having a provision for a phase separation chamber are employed.42 Theory of Configuration of Vertical Gas Flow – Horizontal Vanes Position For configuration of horizontal gas flow – vertical vanes position. Figure 1.43 Theory of Configuration of Horizontal Gas Flow – Vertical Vanes Position Arch plates are designed to function essentially in the same method as the vanes. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 38 dari 38 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . The plates are formed as concentric cylinders. sometimes corrugated. Re-entrainment is avoided as a separate liquid drainage path is provided in the phase separation chamber. The gas flow is split by these vanes and the entrained liquid particles are driven by inertial forces to the walls in the phase separation chambers.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 1.

In addition they require relatively large pressure drops to create the centrifugal force necessary for separation. Commercial units have capacities of 5 – 500 gpm and are able to remove water from hydrocarbon down to the certain range of ppm.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 1.45 Centrifugal Mist Eliminator These can be more efficient than either wire mesh or vane-type mist eliminators and are the least susceptible to plugging.45). However. Figure 1. they are not in common use in production operations because their liquid removal efficiencies are much more sensitive to small changes in flow rate. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 39 dari 39 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .44 Arch Plates Some separators have centrifugal mist eliminators which cause the liquid drops to be separated by centrifugal force (Figure 1.

however. Two additional components found in three-phase separators are coalescing plates (section D of Figure 1.46 Sand Jets and Drains The sand jets are normally designed with a 20 ft/s jet tip velocity. To prevent the settled sand from clogging the sand drains. Because of the potential for plugging. Coalescing Plates It is possible to use various plate or pipe coalescer designs to aid in the coalescing of oil droplets in the water and water droplets in the oil. is pumped through sand jets which agitates the solids and flushes them down the drains (Figure 1.21) and sand jets. it is recommended that coalescer be used to extend the capabilities of existing three-phase separators or where there are severe space limitations.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Three-Phase Separator Components Internal components of three-phase separators are similar or identical to those for twophase separators. Sand Jets and Drains In horizontal three-phase separators. Physical Principles that affected in Separator sizing is shown in the following: Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 40 dari 40 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . they will disrupt efficient separator operation by taking up vessel volume. To remove the solids.46). and high-pressure fluid. they are positioned to give good coverage of the vessel bottom. If these solids are allowed to build up. one major problem is the accumulation of sand and solids at the bottom of the vessel. L. usually produced water. Generally the solids settle to the bottom and become well packed. Some tests have indicated that some reduction in vessel size (and therefore cost) is possible. These are inverted troughs with slotted side openings. sand drains are carefully opened. sand pans or sand troughs are used to cover the outlets. Figure 1. the separator is temporarily taken out of operation.

BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA 1. Some of the points on the curve are defined in subsequent paragraphs. No liquid in the reservoir can form at any pressure However. In the upper left-hand side the fluid is only that a similar plot for a single component would produce only a line and not an envelope. 6. 8. Cricondentherm This is the maximum temperature at which liquid and vapor may co-exist in equilibrium. some revaporizations occur. As pressure declines below the dew point. 7. the fluid can be either liquid above the bubble point or two-phase below it. liquid forms consisting mainly of the heavier components. Gas Condensate Reservoir This reservoir contains hydrocarbons at a temperature between the critical point and the cricondentherm. Heat also reduces interfacial surface tension which promotes coalescence (increase droplet size). 5. In one case. Gas Reservoir This reservoir contains fluids above the cricondentherm. cooling in the well may result in formation of liquids. Cricondenbar This is the maximum pressure at which liquid may exist. Below this region. and viscosity. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 41 dari 41 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . The physical differences of the fluid components are density. The effect of low velocity is to reduce turbulence and allow the differences in densities and gravity to influence the separation. 4. Retrograde Region This area inside the phase envelope is where condensation of liquid occurs by lowering pressure or increasing temperature. Critical Point This is the condition at which the specific properties of the gas and liquid are identical. particle size. the high velocity is used to create momentum between the gas and liquid particles in the gas to effect separation. Multi Component System A typical phase diagram of a multi component system is presented in Figure 5. As pressure declines to the dew point. These differences will be influenced by fluid velocity. thus improving the settling rate. 2. Heat any be used to reduce the viscosity and density of oil relative to water. Oil Reservoirs These reservoirs contain hydrocarbons below their critical temperature. which may create a separating force. liquid formation increases as long as pressure is in the retrograde region. 3. in the case of a mist eliminator (high velocity). or increase the residence time for oil and water to separate (low velocity).

Gas velocities d. Gas and liquid densities e. Base diameter The base diameter is the minimum particle size which has a terminal velocity equal the average carrier fluid velocity. Emulsion k. This time either vaporizing or coalescing. because it is the predominant factor in determining the settling velocity in all applications other than Newton's Law. and proportional to the amount of inter-particle contact. Flow rate surges l.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA The Mechanism of Particle Collection The basic separation methods are: a. An entrained liquid system is basically unstable. The bubble point curve represents 0% vapor and the dew point curve 100 vapor.9 Vessel/Separator Calculation Theory A. Quality Lines These lines show constant gas volume weight percentages which intersect at the critical point and are essentially parallel to the bubble point and dew point curves. is inversely proportional to size. Surface and interfacial tension h. if the maximum liquid handling capacity is not exceeded. 1. Temperature g. b. the particles either coalescing or vaporizing if given sufficient time. It is on this latter premise that impingement separators are based. Foam j. b. Although vapor-liquid separators are used to separate the vapor phase from the liquid phase as the primary task. For particles which are larger than size of base diameter will theoretically be removed from the carrier stream. c. Factors which effect separation efficiency are defined below. they may also provide surge capacity. 9. they acted as surge drum downstream of condenser used in Refrigeration Unit. Pressure f. Particle diameter b. For example. Impingement and Coalescence on solid surface followed by settling out. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 42 dari 42 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . Base diameter c. Slug a. Particle diameter Particle diameter is one the most important properties affecting separation efficiency. a. Viscosity i. Any design allowing high efficiency in the separation of larger particles. Settling out under Centrifugal force/action. Settling out under the influence of Gravity separation.

The net effect or higher gas velocities is to increase the size of particles reaching the mist extractor. d. The interfacial tension of immiscible liquids is less than the larger of the surface tensions of the component liquids. This affects the number of particles of a given size that will be present in the carrier stream. Both the gas and liquid densities are affected because more of the lighter components of the gas are driven into the liquid phase. ii. Campbell. while smaller particles are removed by the mist extractor. John M. Pressure Pressure affects the allowable velocity and actual flowing volume. (Ref : "Gas Conditioning and Processing". Higher temperatures reduce surface tension of a liquid. g. The effect of an increase in pressure is an increase in capacity. Gas and liquid densities These densities affect efficiency only as a factor in establishing the allowable fluid velocities. i. Surface and interfacial tension These factors affect efficiency from the standpoint of the size of the particles formed.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA In practice. This surface molecule tends to adjust itself to a minimum surface area causing the droplet to assume a spherical shape. Gas velocities These values are usually set for particles greater than 200 micron to be separated by gravity in the gas-liquid separation section of a separator. Temperature Temperature affects gas and liquid separator capacities in that it affects the actual flowing volume and density. e. The net affect of an increase in temperature is to decrease the gas capacity of a given separator size due to an increase in gas volume and velocity. (1976)). some particles larger than base diameter may not be separated due to turbulence and isolated high velocity areas and some particles smaller than the base diameter will be separated because they do not have to fall the maximum distance across the gas space. A molecule on the surface of a liquid is subject to an inward force as a result of the attraction between molecules. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 43 dari 43 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . f. Interfacial tension. thereby changing the density of both phases. c. If one thinks of the attractive forces as a film over the liquid surface one can speak of the result as a surface tension. Surface tension. allowing larger particles to be formed in turbulence.

it is not uncommon to add heat to lower the viscosity in a liquids separator (see Figure 1. h. for two saturated liquid layers in equilibrium. Separation of two liquids is dependent on the Figure 1. and. Perry and Cecil H. 5-61 ff (1973)). the interfacial tension is equal to the difference between the individual surface tension of the two. Chilton. A lower interfacial tension leads to coalescence. Robert H. which produces larger particles that settle faster. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 44 dari 44 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .47). Fifth Edition.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Quantitative predictions may be made with Antonoff's Rule which states that. mutually-saturated phases under a common vapor or gas (Chemical Engineer's Handbook. Viscosity An increase in either the temperature or pressure causes the gas viscosity to increase which retards smaller particle separation. therefore. McGraw-Hill.47 Effects of Reynolds Number On Drag Coefficient viscosity of the continuous phase.

Foam Foam is a mixture of gas dispersed in a liquid and has a density less than the liquid but greater than the gas. The surface tension of the bubble is so strong that the bubble will not break. asphaltness and resins in the crude oil. This type of foam can be dispersed by the use of impingement baffles and residence time. j. This type of foam is caused by iron sulfide particles. This type of foam is called bubble foam. the firm thick ness is less at the water-oil droplet interface than that which existed with the original emulsifying agent. weak film surrounding each drop. which is a surface tension phenomenon. k. Flow rate surges Separator designs must include surge capacity to account for non-steady state flow rate which inevitably occurs in normal production operation and to provide sufficient liquid Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 45 dari 45 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . because the water drops can come much closer together with only a thin. After displacement of the emulsifying agent by the de-emulsifier chemical. Upon droplet contact.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA i. The chemical causes the emulsifying agent to displace and disperse throughout the oil phase of the mixture. Emulsion Water in oil and oil in water emulsions may also form because of turbulent two-phase mixing in the flow line. are used to break the emulsions. rupturing the surrounding film and allowing minute water droplets to coalesce into larger drops and to settle out the oil phase of the oil-water mixture. The de-emulsifier chemical is added as the first step to break the emulsion. this attraction is strong enough to pull the drops together. and gas. A second type of foam is chemical foam. The de-emulsifier molecules are small and. The chemical should be injected at a place where thorough chemical mixing can be obtained prior to entry of the fluids into the treating vessel. coalescing of the water drops begins. Oils bring emulsion increase the viscosity significantly and may cause fluid flow problems if not chemically treated. De-emulsifier chemicals. since less distance separates the drops. A foaming crude oil requires a greater interface area and longer retention time remove the gas from the liquid. The molecular attraction between drops is also stronger. This chemical disperses throughout the oil and collects on the surface of the water droplets. Bubble foam may also be formed by aeration of the liquid in the flow line. The resultant film is much thinner and the bond holding the droplets in dispersion is considerably weaker. usually polyglycol or sulfonate. The composition of "all fluids" encompasses the emulsion. The chemical has a stronger tendency to collect on the water-oil interface than does the emulsifying agent. free-water. Bubble foam may be caused by a pressure reduction which causes the lighter liquid component of the crude oil to flash and escape from the liquid. consequently. The de-emulsifier chemical injection usually occurs prior to the time of fluid entry into the treating vessel to ensure the successful operation of the treating vessel.

4 ρL. K (in MKS unit) lies between 0. From then on. inch) versus K values may be given by equation K = 0. 3 ≤ h ≤ 12 ……………………………………. Surge capacity = LSHH volume ― NLL volume LSHH volume l. 1. VAPOR – LIQUID SEPARATION Separation of vapor and liquid in a vessel accomplished by the virtue of density difference aided by gravity force. A 25% surge capacity is normally used for separator design..………… Eq.3 C D × C ( ρ L − ρV ) ρV …………………………………….03 and 0.0325h .021 + 0.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA storage capacity to allow instruments and operators to react to external operational upsets. So.. B. 1.10 meter per second units.………. the particle falls at constant velocity known as Terminal velocity or Critical velocity. Gravity accelerates the falling of a particle until its force is offset by drag force. K = 0. VC / S = K × x 100 % …………… Eq. Eq. slug is considered happen in well-pad facility and in gathering system.2 2.003615 × Where: D …………………………………………….003615 × 3.1 (ρ L − ρV ) ρV ……………………………………………. 1.5 Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 46 dari 46 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . 1. Lower values of K may be considered in aqueous systems where the surface tension has been reduced by surfactants. Surge capacity is determined as below. Slug Usually. separator design shall consider possible liquid slugging of the separator. 1. 1. VC / S = 0.……….V Vs/c K D C = = = = = Liquid or Vapor density (kg/m3) Terminal settling velocity (m/s) Correlating parameter (m/s) Particle diameter (micron) Drag coefficient For most industrial system. Eq. Eq. The effect of disengaging height (h.

. if detailed analysis becomes necessary. Eq. 1.6 x + 0. For specific system. K may be calculated by using equation: K = [P × (− 0.048 is recommended for designing process liquid-vapor separator. 1.263 . Eq. Below equation to estimate K value can be used: K = −0.04 ≤ x ≤ 6.7 × WV ρL = = = = Weight flow rate of Liquid (lb/hr) Weight flow rate of Vapor (lb/hr) Density of Liquid (lb/ft3) Density of Vapor (lb/ft3) WL WV ρL ρV For vertical 2 phase separator having horizontal wire mesh pad.0001)] + 0.4.8 Where.0 ……………………………….. Eq. When the pad is installed in a vertical or inclined position.294 ρV WL ………………………………………………………. A typical value of 0. psig Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 47 dari 47 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .573 1.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA with a maximum value of 0.……….…….35 ……………………………………………. Lower values can be expected in aqueous system where the surface tension has been reduced by surfactants. This relation is standard for efficiency pads. P = Operating pressure. droplets tend to be re-entrained and the pad may become flood.. 0. practice has shown that K values should be about 2/3 of the value for pads mounted in a horizontal position.0037 + Where: x= 0. 1. K value can be estimated from table as below (API RP 12J) At high liquid rates..

Formula for the separation of droplets: a. 1.. (ρd .13 Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 48 dari 48 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA For designing a liquid-vapor separator. For higher pressure (> 50 bar) or viscosities in excess of 0.4 is used to calculate Vs. Eq. INTERMEDIATE LAW (ref : Ludwig) For 2 < Re < 500 Vc = 2. (Dp2 . a popular design velocity is about 75% of allowable critical velocity.3 / (ρc0.10 b.3072 × 10 −11 × ρV × D 3 × (ρ L − ρV ) μ2 ………………………………. it is necessary to calculate Vs. actual vapor velocity. if special internals (like demister pads.43)) ……………………. 1.ρc) / ρc )1/2 …………………………………. or maximum allowable vapor velocity should always be less than critical velocity calculated above. 1.216 x 10-6. etc. Eq. 1. (ρd . the liquid flow rate over the oil-water interface should be less than 100 bbl/day. where: C Re = 2 1. ρd0. The drag coefficient C is calculated using figure below..ρc) / μc2) ……………………….) are provided.14 . (Dp .ft2. STOKES LAW (ref : Ludwig) For Re < 2 Vc = 5. If according to CREST engineering criteria.11 c.45 x 10-10. vapor velocity higher than critical velocity may also be acceptable..01 cp.29 . Eq. Eq. For separator using wire mesh pad. 1. (ρd .ρc)0.……….45 x 10-3.12 Re = (Vc x D x ρc) / (μc2 x 103) ………………………………………… Eq. (Dp1.9 Then Equation 1. However. NEWTON LAW (ref : Ludwig) Re < 500 Vc = 5.

BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Subscript c for the continuous phase (kg/m3) Subscript d for the dispersed phase Dp = droplet diameter (micron) C. This method can also be used to know whether diameter size or length size will influence gas-oil-water separation in sizing final dimension of 3phase separator. 1. (D2 . Gas velocity should be lower than maximum allowable superficial velocity to allow liquids to drop out from the gas phase.ρL) / μc ) ………………………………………………………. d.ρL) / 18 μc ) ………………………………. Use a mist extractor before the gas phase flow leave the vessel through outlet nozzle to remove the small droplets (normally down to 10 micron of 99 % removal) of liquids.3. LIQUID-LIQUID SETTLING Equation velocity for liquid-liquid settling: Vc = g. (ρH ..513 (ρH . c.14 Where: ρ = density of heavy fluid (kg/m3) ρL = density of light fluid (kg/m3) μc = continuous viscosity H Setting the particle size to 125 micron and using more useful units gives: Vc = 0.e.…………………. b. It is also possible to use Length Effective method to determine in which length. The most common configuration in sizing horizontal 3-phase separator is half full. oil and water) shall be separated from the gas phase flow in a primary separation section when inlet to the separator to remove main bulk droplets of liquids.1 – 0. Sizing 3-phase (gas-oil-water) Separator In spite of shape. the separation between Light Liquid phase and Heavy liquid phase will be complete in sizing horizontal 3-phase separator. All liquids including light liquid and heavy liquid (i.15 If calculated settling velocity is > 250 mm/min use D = 250 (maximum) and valid only for Re = 0. Light liquid phase and heavy liquid phase should be separated well in gravity settling section (caused by difference in density) of the vessel. 1.. Eq. This section must be free from Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 49 dari 49 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . Eq. the following requirements can be used as guidelines: a.

8 lb/ft. Last. SIZING NOZZLE Criteria for selection of nozzle size are depends on momentum criteria (ρ x v2) for gas phase (gas inlet and outlet nozzle) and velocity for liquid phase (liquid outlet nozzle) where: ρm x vm2 ≤ 6000 kg/m.s2 (2519. f. e. .Gas-liquid phase: The criteria are mixture velocity should not exceed than erosional velocity and pipe cross sectional area of flow area should exceed than its minimum required.e. This retention time is related to capacity/volume of vessel. above guidelines can show that sizing 3-phase separator is a function of retention time for gas-liquids separation and for liquid-liquid separation. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 50 dari 50 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . SIZING PIPING LINE Criteria for selection piping line based on velocity and pressure drop/100 ft regarding to type of phase: . light liquid phase (i.e. water) can be deflected well.e.e.s2 (4031. settling time required to remove heavy liquid phase from light liquid phase. settling time require to remove light liquid phase from heavy liquid phase. oil) and heavy liquid phase (i. .BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA turbulence flow so that. oil) and heavy liquid phase (i. g. This hold time can be reduced by using Length effective method as one of methods in sizing 3-phas separator (horizontal).5 psi/100 ft.9 lb/ft. The main considerations in determining retention time are first. Heavy liquid phase and light liquid phase shall be removed from the vessel at outlet nozzles on different location. Of course.Liquid phase: velocity should not exceed than 12 ft/s and maximum pressure drop should not exceed than 1. Light liquid outlet nozzle location is downstream of the weir plate whereas heavy liquid outlet nozzle location is upstream of the weir plate. D.s2) for 2 phase (gas + liquid) ρg x vg2 ≤ 3750 kg/m.Gas Phase: Velocity should between 60 – 80 ft/s and pressure drop should below 5 psi/100 ft. This sufficient time will be influenced by their properties (mainly densities) and operating temperature.s2) for gas phase v not more than 3. Liquids shall be kept in the vessel for along certain time to give sufficient time to allow separation between light liquid phase (i.7 m/s (12 ft/s) for liquid phase E. The heavy liquid-light liquid interface shall be maintained to allow good removing outlet from separator without mixing between Oil and water both in separated oil section and in separated water section. A weir plate can be used to maintain heavy liquid-light liquid interface. water).

bigger pump smaller rpm). low elevation/location or a low pressure through piping system to another place. Then. the outer casing is always one full casing. screws. Number of suction inlets (single or double suction). Pump speed (example : in 50 Hz operation -> 1000 rpm or 1500 rpm or 3000 rpm. Other than above configuration. higher elevation/location or higher pressure. In general radial split casing is relatively cheaper than the axial split ones. This type of pump may be further divided into several categories based on their mechanical configuration. the suction flange rating is 300# and discharge flange rating is 900# and higher.1 Description Pumps are equipments used to move/transfer liquids from one place. They more or less have a constant flow regardless of the system pressure or head.2 Pump Classification Pumps are classified as “kinetic” or “dynamic” types and “positive displacement” types. Commonly. gears. user shall consider following criteria: Basic requirement met industry and company standard If the pump type at operating condition is well proven to operational and industry experience under design and operating condition If it is the lowest possible equipment price and cost If it is met lowest possible installation cost If spare parts is guaranteed available for several years of operation If it is generally acceptable with the engineer’s practical experience. PUMPS 2. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 51 dari 51 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . energy is added to the pump continuously and this energy is imparted to the fluid to increase the fluid’s velocity within the pump by a rotating impeller generating centrifugal force. during pump selection. or mixed flow). these include: The type of flow (axial. LPG and well water pump. According to ASME VIII Div 2. Vertical submersible pump has special application included for LNG. vanes motioned by rotation of the drive shaft to the casing. double or multi stages). In a positive displacement pump. 2. the pressurized fluid exits through discharge pipe. the liquid is compressed mechanically. There are two major type of positive displacement pump: reciprocating and rotary type. These pumps transport a volume of liquid constantly for each cycle against varying discharge pressure (head).BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA 2. plungers. Type of pump split casing (axially or radially split). In kinetic type. Number of stages involved (single. this pump speed is determined by impeller profile in corresponding estimated specific speed range. Positive displacement pumps have a chamber containing cams. radial. normally. Pump orientation (horizontal or vertical). for pumps with total head more than and equal to 800 m. This will cause a direct rise in potential energy.

the system should be checked carefully to ensure that at destination. twin screw. gear and screw type of rotary pump is most frequently used in production system. • Controlled volume type also known as the metering or proportioning or chemical injection. the design pressure may be set higher than maximum pump discharge pressure if the pump is not only the source of overpressure (e.. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 52 dari 52 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . surge. In the other hand. downstream equipment backflow. the displacement is accomplished by linear motion of a piston in a cylinder. But. horizontal or vertical. according to API RP 675. manual or auto. Each type has its own advantages and limitations in operation. if the maximum pump discharge pressure considerably exceeds maximum operating pressure of the system (or downstream equipment). For example.g. 2. in some circumstance. single or double acting type. pressure of liquid. piston or plunger or diaphragm. rotating vane or gear traps the liquid in the suction side of the pump housing and forces it to the discharge side of the pump housing. Centrifugal (kinetic type) pumps and reciprocating pumps (one of positive displacement types of pumps) are the most common types of pumps used in gas processing plants. tube rupture. or using variable speed electric motor. In reciprocating pumps. it will be more safe and economical to specify the lower design pressure of discharge pump and protect the system against overpressure with a pressure relief valve (PSV). the design pressure of the system may be set lower than the maximum pump discharge pressure. piston or plunger. etc. discharged from pump.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA The reciprocating type is subdivided into: • Fixed (or constant) volume type (or power pump) according to API RP 674. The rotary positive displacement pump is subdivided into: • Vane type • Lobe type • Gear type • Screw type • Rotary piston type Lobe. stroke controlled.). Rotary pumps operate on the principle that a screw. horizontal type. The 3 basic categories of rotary pumps are: • Gear pumps • Screw pumps (single screw. In some cases. triple screw) • Moving vane pumps Diaphragm pumps are also categorized as positive displacement pumps as the diaphragm acts as a limited displacement piston. has enough pressure as required by the downstream equipment for process conditioning regarding pressure loss through pipelines and position of inlet of fluid at downstream equipment. Special Consideration 1.

minimum flow provisions shall be made. noise. Diffuser construction is used to a limited extent in some high pressure. The double suction arrangement (double suction is used to minimize axial thrust) has balanced axial thrust and is favored particularly for severe duty and where the lowered NPSH is an advantage. will have higher shut off pressures. based on the possible maximum fluid density. Submergence – at pressure vessel or atmospheric vessel. Capacity Control Manual or automatic capacity control for one pump or several parallel pumps can be accomplished by one or a combination of the following methods: Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 53 dari 53 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . 7.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA 3. The maximum discharge pressure will be used to set the design pressure of a pump casing. the suction lines should be manifolded together. Pump Cooling Water Requirement Cooling water is used to cool bearings. Shut Off Pressure The shut off pressure of a typical centrifugal pump is approximately equal to the sum of the maximum suction pressure and 125% of the net differential pressure generated by the pump. and air or vapor pockets. 5. This is the sum of the maximum suction pressure and maximum differential pressure. are exclusively single suction. Other pumps with steep H-Q curves such as turbine. which may entrain air or vapor into the pump system and cause loss of capacity and efficiency as well as other problems such as vibration. pedestals and glands to safe temperature conditions. Low head pumps using open type impellers are less efficient than closed impellers. Multistage pumps. If two or more pumps are installed in parallel. When turndown required is less than 30%. multistage machines. the suction system inlet or the pump suction signal should have sufficient height of liquid to avoid vortex formation. It means that the lines should be sized so that the velocity in the common feed line is approximately equal to the velocities in the lateral lines feeding the individual pumps. A throttling valve that changes the system head-flow-rate will have no effect on the flow rate through the pump. however. Rotating discipline should be consulted to determine shut off pressure since it may influence the design pressure of downstream equipment. multistage and mixed flow pumps. This avoids abrupt velocity changes and minimizes acceleration head effects. In case where the feed vessel is protected by a safety relief valve. The cooling water flow rate will vary with temperature and pump size. 4. Pump Efficiency The efficiency of centrifugal pump varies from about 20% for low capacity pumps (less than 30 USGPM) to a high of almost 90% for certain large capacity pumps. 6. which usually occurs at zero flow. the maximum suction pressure will be equal to the sum of the safety valve set pressure and the maximum static head. stuffing boxes. however.

or if the pump operates at low speed (less than 150 rpm). Low discharge pressure. High discharge vessel level. In multiple pump installations. 12. Variable displacement pump. 13. On-off control. 11. 7. Discharge pulsation dampeners can minimize pressure peaks and contribute to longer pump and pump valve life. Vibration. But.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA a. Pulsation dampeners can be liquid-filled. etc. The compressibility of the liquid itself is used to absorb pressure pulsations. Pulsation at Reciprocating Pumps Pulsation is a phenomenon where pressure and flow are fluctuated at the reciprocating pump. Variable speed driver or transmission. To reduce pressure and flow fluctuations. High discharge temperature. b. In other conditions. Flow reversal. 6. High discharge pressure. pulsation dampeners can be installed both at suction line and discharge line. Protection may be considered for the pump driver and may be combined with pump protections. 9. Low flow. or tuned acoustically. for centrifugal type). gas-cushioned. c. it better to install pulsation dampeners both at suction line and discharge line than awaiting result of computer analog which usually expensive and need extra time. A liquid-filled dampener (or called liquid-filled surge vessel) is a large surge vessel located close to the pump. 8. 2. Lack of lubrication. High suction pressure (e. Recirculation. pulsation dampeners should be installed. The high compressibility of the gas gives absorption of the pressure pulsations. pulsation dampeners may not required if the suction line is big and short. 10. Low suction vessel level. Low suction pressure. Computer analog programs can be used to conclude whether pulsation dampeners both at suction and discharge lines are required or not. Pump Protection The protections may be considered as follow: 1. 4. Over speed. 5. case. Pulsation dampeners are also effective in absorbing flow variations on the discharge side of the pump and should be considered if piping vibration caused by pressure fluctuation appears to be a problem.g. Manufacturers should be consulted to design the pulsation dampeners. 3. d. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 54 dari 54 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . Typical gas-cushioned dampener is a surge bottle with a gas/liquid interface. High temperature of bearing.

This propeller gives high rate of flow but low developed pressure. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 55 dari 55 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . used for clean liquids that have low viscosity (low density) liquids. Type of the impellers may be closed impeller which is used for clear liquids. They are essentially non-clogging. Turbine pump performance looks like that of positive displacement types.com) Impeller inducers should be avoided as a means of lowering the NPSHR because of the unpleasant effects on pump performance. The impeller may have both axial propeller and centrifugal vane action. c. they may differ in width and number and curvature of the vanes. and diameter.cheresources. clearance of the open face to the wall is typically 0. Closed impellers have shrouds on both sides of the vanes from the eye to the periphery. Open type of impellers is desirable if there is possibility of clogging (blocking) as with slurries or pulps (mainly fluids having high viscosity). The turbine impeller rotates in a case of uniform diameters. Figure 2.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Tuned acoustical dampeners are formed when two liquid-filled vessels are connected by a short section of small diameter pipe called a choke tube. Impeller types: a. turbines are essentially self-priming which will not vapor bind. Impellers Impeller is the rotor that accelerates the liquid.02 inch for 10 inch diameters. Open impellers consist of vanes attached to a shaft without any form of supporting sidewall and are suited to handling slurries or pulps without clogging. With many kinds of impellers. b.1 Impellers Type (www. used primarily in small size pumps. Semi enclosed impellers have a complete blanket (shroud) on one side. Like them.

Foaming fluids as foam has trapped gas. and also will cause no flow out from discharge pump. high loads. Because the effects of cavitation can be severe. The minimum pressure required at the pump flange is expressed in feet of liquid and is called NPSH. If hydrocarbon liquid phase flow has low pressure even meet vapor pressure of its fluids. Furthermore. it is recommended that pumps be specified with a required NPSH that is 3 or 5 ft less than NPSH available. To ensure this. Simply. Fluids that contain dissolved gas which may be impinge on vapor pressure. or high speeds although the bearings are inexpensive and no need separate lubrication system. weaken pump performance. cavitation causes impeller damage. Eq. vapor could be released by the form of small bubbles that would then collapse in an “implosion” as the liquid is pressured in the pump.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Bearings Ball bearings convey a load from a rotating surface to a fixed surface through a series of rotating balls. The bearing has limited ability to handle thrust. All boiling point fluids either single or multi-component. the net head at the suction of the pump impeller must exceed a certain value. when a liquid’s falls below its vapor pressure. vibration. 3. Cavitation can be avoided by assuring that the liquid’s pressure does not drop below its vapor pressure anywhere as it passes through the pump. Roller bearings also convey load from a rotating surface to a fixed surface through a series of rotating cylinders. and reduced pressure or throughput capacity. This minimum head is called the Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) and is evaluated as NPSH = A + B – C – D ………………………………………………………………. 2.. 2. Hydrodynamic thrust transmits the load through a slight oil film/layer between a rotating shaft and a fixed bearing surface that consist of multiple pads that slope/tilt. consideration must be given to: 1. the definition of NPSH is the net pressure above the vapor pressure of the liquid being pumped. Hydrodynamic sleeve bearings convey the load via a slight oil layer between a rotating shaft and a fixed bearing surface.1 Where: A B C D = Pressure head at the source = Static Suction Head = Friction head in the suction line = Vapor pressure of the liquid Simplify. gas will be flashed. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 56 dari 56 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . This is called cavitation and result in noise. In determining NPSH. greatly increased wear. NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head) Each pump requires a certain minimum pressure at its suction flange to assure that no vapor is flashed between the pump suction line and the cylinder or entrance to the impeller vane.

So that. the available NPSH supplied to the pump suction must account for the acceleration in the suction piping caused by the pulsation flow. This will be subjected to field condition or design condition at the system where pump is located. as well as the friction. a reasonable estimate of the total equivalent length. The static head for vertical vessels is calculated from the bottom tangent line while for horizontal vessels. and other losses. the bottom invert line is used. Design Guidelines for Pressure/Atmospheric Vessel at Suction Line of Pump The NPSH Available will be calculated at rated flow and lowest operating level (LALL Set Point). As pump keep on operate.3 Safety Device Overpressure and leak are the events which are usually happen and influence a pump performance. Usually. at a minimum. the pressure at the suction flange must meet the same requirement. NPSH required also increase. the pump Required NPSH is generally higher than for a centrifugal pump because of pressure drop caused by the valves and pulsation in the flow at suction line. Discharge Calculation For pump discharge lines when fittings and valve count are not available. and static head. This device is Pressure Gauge. The additional requirement is expressed as acceleration head. this column will catch up with the receding face of the piston during its filling stroke.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA When flow rate increase. A 3 ft margin can be deducted from the calculated available NPSH for suction system design and suction vessel elevation setting. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 57 dari 57 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . 2. There may be cases where layout constraints result in limited available NPSH and reduced margin may be required. For reciprocating pump. This is the head required to accelerate the fluid column on each suction stroke. fitting and friction loss can be used to predict the discharge pressure required as minimum. fluid pumped from the pump will be accumulated at blocked discharge line. NPSH required for a reciprocating pump is calculated in the same method as for a centrifugal pump. A device is installed at discharge line of pumps to detect high pressure caused by overpressure event or low pressure event caused by leakage. except that additional allowance must be made for the requirements of the reciprocating action of the pump. inlet-exit. no credit is taken for the head contributed by liquid operating levels in a vessel. When discharge line of pumps is blocked. velocity. But. Similarly. Suction Calculation It involves the summation of the feed vessel’s normal operating pressure and the static head less the pressure drop in the suction piping resulting from friction. the accumulated fluid at blocked discharge line will cause high pressure. Overpressure can be caused by blockage at discharge line of pumps.

erosion.g. This can be caused by damage of seals as the impact of deterioration. When a pump is difficult to force its fluid. PSL and PSLL sensors should be provided on glycol powered glycol pumps to shut off wet glycol flow to the pump. The PSLL will shut off inflow and shut down the pump as well as the function of PSHH. But. and vibration. chemical injection. PSH and PSHH sensors are not required on glycol powered glycol pump. Vibration usually happens when pumps operate at high speed impeller. Increase in fluid density makes a pump difficult to force its fluid. this pump will operate at higher pressure to force its fluid and possibly overpressure will happen. This will cause accumulation at discharge line and then will result on overpressure. and downstream equipment of discharge line is atmospheric vessel (open to atmospheric). This will give sufficient time for operator to do safe anticipations. PSL and PSLL also can be not installed if pump does not handle hydrocarbon fluids. This will shut off inflow and shut down the pump if operator fails to do safe anticipations. Leakage is an event where fluid escape or outflow from the pump. Installations of Low Pressure Sensor (PSL) and Low Low Pressure Sensor (PSLL) at discharge line have the same purposes and installations with PSH and PSHH above. High High Pressure Sensor (PSHH) should be installed at discharge line of the pump with set point is design pressure determined at equipment downstream of discharge line. chemical injection. corrosion. PSH and PSHH sensors also can be not installed if the volume flows of fluid are small e. and downstream equipment of discharge line is atmospheric vessel (open to atmospheric).BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Excess back pressure can also cause overpressure when fluid from downstream of discharge line come to the upstream of discharge line having higher pressure than pumped fluid. PSL set point is between minimum operating pressure and slightly above atmospheric pressure determined by equipment at downstream of discharge line of pump. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 58 dari 58 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . Set point criteria at PSH and PSHH should also consider pressure loss at discharge line to the downstream equipment and rating pressure of discharge piping. small and low volume pumps e. For all hydrocarbon pipeline pump discharge lines. adequate containment is provided. If impeller speed operates higher than normal operation. PSH and PSHH sensors can be not installed at discharge line if maximum developed pump pressure at discharge line does not exceed 70% of the maximum allowable working pressure of the discharge line or the pump is manually operated and continuously observed to prevent overpressure. fluid pumped will have overpressure. impact damage of pump. PSL and PSLL sensors also can be not installed at discharge line if the pump is manually operated and continuously observed to prevent low pressure.g. High Pressure Sensor (PSH) should be installed at discharge line of the pump with set point between maximum operating pressure and design pressure determined at equipment downstream of discharge line. Rating pressure at discharge line should also be considered to determine set point at PSH and PSHH. The PSL will give sufficient time for operator to do safe anticipation. The PSLL set point is slightly above atmospheric pressure.

When glycol powered pumps are used.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA At suction line of centrifugal pump types. PSH and PSHH should be installed to anticipate high inlet pressure unless PSH and PSHH have been installed at equipment upstream of pump. etc) that delivers production to a pipeline pump through the pipeline pump when pump has problems and/or to prevent the flow of hydrocarbons into the pipeline in the event of a pipeline leak. Set point for PSH and PSHH should consider maximum inlet pressure to the pump. The PSV can also be not installed if the maximum pump discharge pressure is less than the maximum allowable working pressure of the line and maximum allowable working pressure at equipment downstream of discharge line. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 59 dari 59 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . At discharge line. the PSL and PSLL on the wet glycol high pressure line should be located between the pump and the SDV. The Y strainer is located at downstream of any block valve on suction line and connected to the tank that collects the fluids. The PSV is possible installed at discharge line of centrifugal pump if thermal expansion is possible happen. a SDV should be installed and located on near the outlet of a storage component. The check valve should be located on the pump discharge line to minimize backflow. upstream of block valve. A PSV should be installed at discharge line of all pipeline pumps (mainly positive displacement types). the PSV should be located upstream of any block valve. PSL and PSLL also should be installed to anticipate low pressure inlet to the pump which may cause cavitation. Y strainer should be installed at suction line of the pump to flow the fluids when the pump needs to be off mode. To prevent the flow of hydrocarbons from a storage tank (tank. separator. PSH (include PSHH) and PSL (include PSLL) sensors should be located on the pump discharge line upstream of the check valve (FSV) where FSV is located upstream of block valve. A PSV should be provided in the wet glycol low pressure discharge line of glycol powered glycol pumps unless the discharge line is rated higher than the maximum pump discharge pressure or discharge line has been protected by a PSV installed on a downstream equipment that can not be isolated from the pump. unless the pump is kinetic energy type which is incapable to generate a head greater than the maximum allowable working pressure of the discharge piping. a SDV should be located near the high pressure wet glycol outlet of the glycol contactor to shut off flow from the contactor and to shut down the pumps. A Check Valve (FSV) should be provided in the pump discharge line to minimize back flow. In a glycol powered glycol pump.

etc. Pumps that have stable head/capacity curves (continuous head rise to shut-off) are preferred for all applications and are required when parallel operation is specified.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 2. when there is a strong incentive to apply Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 60 dari 60 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . Pumps handling viscous liquids (which are more viscous than water) shall have their water performance correction compliant with the centrifugal pump section of the Hydraulic Institute Standards. pumps are spared.5 Engineering requirements A. steam oil and cooling water should be shown. Pumps with heads greater than 200 m per stages with more than 225 kW per stage may require special requirements to reduce vane passing frequency vibration and lowfrequency vibration at reduced flow rates. reciprocating and rotary pumps.4 General Requirements A. This also will make easy for maintenance when the pump need to be removed for internal inspection. D. This will extend life of pumps operated. Sparing philosophy. hook-up for flushing oil. F. maintenance. However.2 Process Flow Diagram of Pump System 2. Suction and Discharge nozzle shall be flanged (RF type if pressure above 10 bar and FF type for lower pressure than 10 bar) for easy installation of the pump at installed suction and discharge lines. 2. In most cases. C. B. The outline should be simple as practical including centrifugal. When parallel operation is specified. improvement. seal oil. B. the shut-off differential head when pumping the heavy fluid should be used to determine the discharge pressure. Critical elevation. Generally common spare pump for different duties are not recommended. all vent and drain connections. E. the head rise shall be at least 10% of the head at rated capacity. If a pump which is designed normally for light fluid is capable in pumping water or other heavy fluids under some operating conditions.

For this application. - - H. the extra flow is quite low. If no other requirements for minimum flow protection exist. and sometimes with consultation to process and instrument engineer. an instrumented minimum flow recycle shall be installed back to suction vessel rather than to direct suction to avoid overheating. is often applied when the flows varies considerably for operational reasons and the pumps uses a little power. I. safeguarding and equipment design. Capacity Control (Positive-Displacement Pump) Variable speed driver shall be considered for capacity control. the pump typically operated on/off via level switches in the suction vessel. In cases where the pump capacity is much larger then the normal required flow. not for each pump and spare and the recycle control valve is air fail open.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA common spare pumps. Because positive displacement pumps have virtually no variation in capacity with pressure. Determining if pulsation dampener required are subject to rotating engineer. having been sized for an upset or non-routine operation. throttling off the discharge is not considered as the flow is not reduced. Pulsation Dampeners (Reciprocating pumps) As described on above paragraph. but instead will cause the pressure in the discharge system to rise and the pump’s power requirement to increase. Number cases when arise of closure and throttling of discharge may result damage to pumps which protection will be required in following cases: High speed pump cannot tolerate running below the specified minimum flow for event shorts period of time. Minimum flow requirement for centrifugal pump protection is not normally required. Usually. A permanent recycle flow above the minimum flow. For constant speed drives. Examples include water removal from drainage pits of vessel boots. Pulsation should not exceed plus or minus 1. the effect of a possibly incorrect operational line-up should be carefully considered and taken into account for piping. The minimum flow is typically 40% to 60% of design flow but can be as high as 80% of design flow.5% of the absolute working pressure in the suction and discharge manifolds. G. A typical example is oil removal from a vacuum column overheads system. The usual minimum flow is usually 30% of design flow which is more than the turndown of the process and the pumps are usually tolerant of running at minimum flow for sufficient time to allow operator action. the available capacity controls are by recycle system or by variable stroke methods. minimum flow protection is not required to handle the special case of discharge control valve closing on instrument air failure. Pulsation dampeners are used to reduce pressure pulsation in the liquid flow entering and being discharge from reciprocating pumps. only one recycle flow line is installed per pump set. The cheaper alternative of a permanent recycle flow above the minimum flow is usually not an option for these pumps as the head falls off rapidly at flows not much higher than the design flow. usually set by a restriction orifice. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 61 dari 61 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .e. i.

BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA J. the pump should be below the lowest level of the liquid supply. for example in pumping below grade pits. this is called NPSH available. 3. the suction line is a critical part. Piping Requirements 1. The suction line should be as short as possible with minimum elbows and fittings. so that the pump remains primed at all every time and NPSH required are met. A centrifugal booster pump is often used ahead of a reciprocating pump to provide adequate NPSH which would also allow higher suction line velocities. 5. K. Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) As described on above paragraph. In double suction line to the pumps. Pockets should be avoided as air and vapor can be accumulated in the pocket. Suction lines should toward the source when it is below the pump. etc. For pumps taking suction from vacuum column. in order to ensure that suction conditions for a pumps are such that no vaporization occurs in the pump suction. Inlet air or vapor to the pump can cause pulsation and vibration. it may use gravitational force to flow the liquid from the source to the pump through suction line. the margin between the available and required NPSH shall be at least 2 m. Priming (Centrifugal Pump) If at all possible. should be provided to avoid vortex formation which may result in vapors together with liquids entering the pump. 8. there has to be sufficient suction pressure above the vapor pressure of the liquid. Vertical downward suction pipes require special care to avoid pulsation and vibrations that can be caused by air or vapor entrainment. Size of suction line should be one or two times larger than pump suction connection. 6. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 62 dari 62 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . This will prevent vapor phase inlet together with liquid phase to the pump. specialist advice should be sought regarding alternatives such as self priming pumps and submerged pumps. To do this. full bore valve. the available NPSH shall exceed the required NPSH by at least 1 m throughout the entire operating range. long radius elbow. Suction line should be designed to minimize friction losses. elbows should be installed in a position parallel to the impeller. When the pump is located below the source. 2. In the reciprocating pumps installations. Where these criteria can not be met. 4. This can be done by sloped down the installation of suction line is from the source to the suction pump. 7. uses an adequate line size. Use reducer to connect big size of suction line with pump suction connection. The suction line should be as short as possible and sized to provide liquid velocity not more than 3 ft/s. As installed. Sufficient liquid height above the suction piping inlet. or installation of a vortex breaker. with a minimum of bends and fittings to minimize pressure drop.

use eccentric reducer near the pump. i.e. The installation should be as close to the pump as possible to ensure that pressure fluctuation not being formed again after liquid out from dampener. Provision for piping of stuffing box leakage and other drainage away from the pump should be provided. this will minimize pulsations. Additionally. 12. For discharge line. acceleration head (ha) effects should be minimized. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 63 dari 63 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . 18. install a pulsation dampener to minimize pulsation. 11. 17. Each pump shall be provided by block valve in suction at upstream of strainer and discharge side. Use reducer to connect big size of discharge line with pump discharge connection. install a pulsation dampener to minimize pulsations. discharge lines should be short and direct enough. Velocities range from 3 – 15 ft/s would be sufficient. In multi-pump installation. 19. Pulsations in reciprocating pump discharge piping are also related to the acceleration head (ha). 15. discharge line for reciprocating pump should be sized to minimize pulsation. shall be provided at the pump side of the block valves to obtain positive isolation. For reciprocating pumps. velocity changes should be avoided. To eliminate the possibility of gas pockets (as described above paragraph). If possible. The installation should be as close to the pump as possible to ensure that pressure fluctuation not being formed again before inlet to the pump suction connection. For reciprocating pumps. with flat side up to keep the top of line level. If high point unavoidable. 20. as it facilitates maintenance and also pipe-work is usually rigid. The suction shut-off valve and the downstream piping to the pump inlet shall have the same pressure rating as the line work at the pump discharge side. 13. 16. sizing is determined by available head and economic considerations. These can be done by size the main feed line to result the velocity as close as possible to the velocity in the each individual suction line to the individual pumps. in heat exchanger application between suction vessel and the pump. Liquid velocity at discharge line should not exceed than 3 times of the liquid velocity in the suction line. In reciprocating pumps. In addition. For pumps with a suction line 2 inches and smaller spectacle blind are not required since spades or blind flanges can be made available in field. venting facilities located for frequent use shall be provided. 10. 14. Suction piping shall not be routed than the lowest level of the liquid supply and shall not have a high point where gas can accumulate. Spectacle blinds. but are more complex than suction piping pulsations. rather than spades.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA 9. Size of discharge line should be one or two times larger than pump discharge connection.

24. A check valve shall be installed in rotary and centrifugal pump discharge lines. If by maintaining backflow solidification/freezing. All type of filter in suction lines of 4” and larger should have a low point drain of 1” minimum with valve and cap or blind. For spare pump which have a common suction and discharge lines. 18” or larger and also in services where large amounts of solids can be expected. a check valve in the common discharge line as close as possible to the main process line shall be installed to prevent back flow through this pressure relief valve in case of spring failure. In horizontal suction lines. These enable filter switching without stopping the pump. Halaman 64 dari 64 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory . In practice this lead to the situation that a spool-piece between the block valve and check valve is required in order to turn the spectacle in larger line size. At initial start-up. a ¾” bypass with throttling valve shall be installed around the discharge check valve in cases indicated below. Since reciprocating pump are equipped with a pressure relief valve in the discharge line. In some highly fouling services. 22. i. ready for immediate start-up. If the spool-piece between the discharge block valve and the check valve needs to be flushed and depressurized owing to the handling of toxic or high pour point material. 1” should be considered: To minimize thermal shock if the pump has to be kept on standby at temperature below –30 °C or above 150 °C. in order to protect pump against foreign matter. 23. bucket type strainers shall be used. This feature allows a small flow which keeps the spare pump at operating temperatures. For line sizes 12” and larger. Y type strainers shall be used for vertical suction lines. For horizontal lines.e. when the discharge valve and check valve are flanged together. pumps shall be protected by temporarily inserting a fine mesh screen on the upstream side of the permanent strainer. provided that removal of the stud bolts is possible in order to turn the spectacle. corrosion or high viscosity problem can be avoided.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA 21. The bypass of the check valve can be achieved as follow: Connecting a line and globe valve from the spool-piece downstream of the check valve to the upstream piping. Connecting a line and globe valve from upstream to the top cover of the check valve. positive displacement pump are particularly prone to damage. where flushing oil has to be supplied via this bypass. especially when no spare pumps available. Permanent strainers shall be installed at all pump suction in downstream of block valves. The bypass valve should be closed when the pump is running. Y-type strainers or bucket type may be used. For smaller line sizes a flange to flange connection may be possible. duplex type strainers set are used. The check valve shall be located upstream of and close to the discharge block valve. Plugging of spare pump and piping connections will thus be minimized.

Threads are damaged by corrosion. and not properly reconnected. as they tend to fail after: . 26. the valves shall be fitted with blind flanges. one at the column end and one at the pump end of the line and a spectacle blind at pump side. without opening of the discharge valve. Screwed connection should be avoided on pumps. 30. In order to reduce the flow in the priming line a restriction orifice can be installed. Drains on LPG pumps shall be permanently blanked without valves. If not permanently piped up.More than 4m3 of LPG (butane or more volatile liquid). For instance a pump in hot service could be the source of ignition in the event of leakage from an adjacent pump displacing a flammable liquid below the auto-ignition temperature. In addition to the two cases defined above. the drain and/or vent connection of the pump can be piped up permanently to the drain system.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA 25. (seal failure or pump casing failure). 28. could escalate into major incident. .Being disconnected. The probability of failure of the pump (seal). When liquid is considered dangerous or dangerous that it is thought inadvisable to spill small amounts when the pump is opened up. 29. for example in a congested area. The time available and the possibility to take corrective action. . where the pumps still has a pocket the vent shall be installed at the highest point of the casing. . the following factors have to be taken into account to decide if an ROV is required in other circumstances: The potential for damage and/or emergency escalation.Being exposed to external force on piping/connection. 27. The vent line shall have two valves. When the suction vessel operates under vacuum. Pumps are normally fitted with a valved vent and drain connection. Pumps handling butane or lighter fluids shall have vent line to the flare system. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 65 dari 65 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . However. A line-up to similar to that above should also be considered for automatic starting pumps to ensure proper priming. He vent line shall have two valves and a spectacle blind in between. .Being exposed to vibration. Drain shall be installed on the casing and vents preferably on the discharge line. The possibility of early warning.More than 10m3 of hydrocarbon liquid above its auto-ignition temperature. The purpose of an ROV is to provide quick shut-off in cases where loss of containment at the pump. this will allow positive filling of the pump with liquid before start-up. the vent connection on the pump has to be permanently piped up to the vapor space of that suction vessel. A Remotely Operated Valves (ROV) shall be installed in the suction line of each individual pump when the upstream system normally contains: .

In order to protect the pump against cavitation.g. It should be clearly visible from the local pump start switch as well as from the discharge block valve. 2. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 66 dari 66 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . The decision whether water cooling is required is the responsibility of rotating engineer.6 Equipment Protection Requirement A. Remote emergency operation shall always overrule local operation. Thermal expansion relief valve Pumps in LPG service may require. shall be safeguarded against a blocked outlet. Water cooling for centrifugal pumps shall be applied on the stuffing box jacket and bearing brackets where the pumped liquid temperature is in excess of 200°C and on the pedestal if the temperature shall exceeds 350°C. Alternatively the pressure relief valve may be lined up between the discharge line upstream of the block (check) valve and the suction line downstream of the block valve. reciprocating and rotary. a locked open valve downstream the pressure relief valve is required to enable the pump to be isolated during operation. and the pump drive shall be stopped when the ROV is less than 80% open. between the pump and the check valve. A pressure relief valve integral with the pump is not permitted. In this case. the pump can be approached in suitable personal protective equipment. on the suction side. a thermal expansion relief valve with a downstream locked-open valve lined up to flare. The pressure relief valve shall be lined up between the discharge line upstream of the block (check) valve and the suction vessel. Separate external full flow pressure relief valve shall be provided to protect these pumps and its associated piping system from damage by overpressure. it shall not be permitted to run before the ROV is sufficiently opened. seal failure). A pressure gauge shall be installed on the discharge line of each pump. Instrumentation Requirements A.The other one shall be located at a safe distance of minimum 15 m from the pump and within line of sight of the pump. typically 80%. the drive of the pump shall also be tripped. 31. Pressure relief Positive displacement pump.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA In toxic service a ROV is not strictly necessary when there is no danger of fire/explosion and after an early warning (e. B. The ROV shall be provided with a local switch for opening/closing during normal operation and one or two emergency shut-off switches: . Simultaneously with the closing of the ROV.One can be optionally located in the control room .

C. Flushing requirement: A. In order to prevent liquid leakage out of the pumps (centrifugal or rotary). Types of seals for pump shafts are as follows: a. • Toxic product. Water cooled stuffing box. In this type. • Any material not acceptable in the oily sewer system. Mechanical seals prevent leakage at the rotating shaft. • Expensive solvent or product.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Pressure relieving may be required to prevent over-pressuring caused by thermal expansion of the trapped liquid if the temperature can increase due to solar radiation. Isolation is obtained by a double block and bleed valve arrangement. a high flash point / low pour point gas oil is often used. Shaft Sealing: A. a suitable type of water. B. Flushing facilities. seal have to be provided. for removing process material from the pump and to cool down prior to opening for maintenance. Stuffing boxes prevent leakage at the rotating shaft by using a soft packing which is compressed and may be lubricated or wetted with the pump liquid or with an independent source. is applied. • Fouling process stream. the sealing liquid may be from the pump discharge or from an independent source. The purpose of the seal is to hold the pumped liquid inside the pump at the point where the drive shaft penetrates the pump body. Backflow protection of flushing medium supply system Fixed connection is normally used for flushing oil supply/return lines. usually industrial water. Simply. b. smooth metal surfaces slide on each other and are lubricated with a very small leakage rate of the pump liquid or with an independent liquid/source. For watery system. The flushing medium should be compatible with the process material in the pump. Two common methods that are used are stuffing boxes and mechanical seals. at the point where the rotating shaft passes out through the pump casing. For pumps handling hydrocarbons. as well as with the pump hardware. should be provided for pumps handling: • Liquid solidifying or having high viscosities when “cold”. Packed stuffing box. normally with a spectacle blind between the blocks and with the bleed capped or blanked. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 67 dari 67 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . the seal purpose is to prevent or minimize leakage of liquid out from the pump during operation. It is recommended that the TERV is installed in the pump suction piping between the pump and its suction valve rather than in the pump discharge because of the larger margin between the set pressure of the TERV and the maximum working pressure.

Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 68 dari 68 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . Toxic services. precision faces. A suitable buffer liquid is then applied between the primary and the secondary seal to create optimum running conditions for the seal faces and to prevent leakage to atmosphere. d.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA c. Mechanical seals consist of a stationary and a rotating face. Seal faces may require cooling and lubrication. a throttle bush is fitted to limit the amount of liquid release to atmosphere upon mechanical seal failure. Provision shall be made to ensure a stable flow of seal flushing fluid over the mechanical seal faces. This will only cause a minor leakage. Mechanical seals are the most common sealing devices for centrifugal pumps in process applications. and the actual sealing takes place across these very smooth. To prevent loss of product. For safety reason. Double mechanical seals with independent sealing liquid. on fire fighting pumps. external to the seal under the following conditions: Where leakage of liquid to atmosphere could become a potential source of fire hazard. Inflammable liquids. Hydrocarbon services with a seal chamber vapor pressure exceeding 5 bar abs. With a certain exceptions. Hydrocarbon services butane and lighter. such as pump in intermittent operation on less essential duties. Internal assembly mechanical seal. in water duties. B. mechanical seal shall be applied for all duties for the following reason: To minimize maintenance on the stuffing box assembly. To safeguard personnel and equipment against harmful product. compatible with the pumping liquid shall be used when: The pumped liquid contains abrasives which would damage seal faces. Where the pumped liquid would crystallize on exposure to atmosphere. Double mechanical seal shall be allowed in following cases : A suitable seal flushing liquid is not available. External to the seal. the rotating and fixed surfaces are detained together by the pressure of the pump liquid which also serves as lubricant. This is often obtained by internal circulation (cooled or heated if necessary) from the pump discharge to the seal chamber and via the seal back into the pump. and in cooling water pumps. Where leakage of liquid to atmosphere could endanger personnel due to toxicity. Services with H2S containing liquids which upon seal failure will result in an H2S leakage rate to the atmosphere exceeding 1 g/s. escape to the atmosphere of the pumped liquid is not allowed. A (steam) quench shall be used to this cavity. A clean seal flushing medium from an external source. C.

Contamination of the fluid to be pumped with material that flashes in the pump. should be avoided. Integration of piping plan. B. therefore backflow can occur. during start-up). Main and secondary escape route in each pump position shall be arranged with careful prediction of future piping and instruments modification. The loss of NPSH. causing vapor lock. especially with high differential pressure duties may lead. particularly for centrifugal pumps. This can normally be achieved by up-rating the design pressure of the downstream equipment or by avoiding the installation of pumps in series. • The provision of a low level trip should be considered in special cases such as for multistage pumps. causing more severe vibrations. Fail close of a ROV or MOV in the suction.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA 2. should be applied. equipment plan and instrument plan drawings shall be used to review this purpose during engineering phase. The relief valve should be of a type.g. • Do not use common spares for incompatible process duties. to severe vibrations. If this is not possible: • The provision of a valve position trip should be applied. should be taken such as: • Avoid the need for a booster pump. For high differential pressure duties. This is unacceptable as these vibrations may lead to seal failure or seizure of the pump and therefore design precautions. • The provision of a low pressure trip should be considered. During design review. Low or no flow Drive or coupling failure The design should take into account that the check valve in the discharge may not work. C. especially suitable for liquid service. preferably inherent in the system.7 Pump Common Operational Aspect and Failure Modes: A. the provision of a non slam type check valve should be considered to minimize the possibility of surges pressure in the discharge line work. Full liquid flow relief valve The provision of full flow relief valve in discharge pumps. Also a high pressure or low Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 69 dari 69 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . appropriate access to valves and instruments in pump design shall be carefully checked. Failure of an upstream booster pump. often in a short time span. Loss of level in the suction vessel. However. capable of loosening flange bolts in the vicinity. Loss of NPSH This can be caused by the number of events: Fouling of the suction strainer (e. Also. and not of the “universal” type. the consequences of backflow to the upstream system are often unacceptable and in these cases the standard high integrity backflow protection system. if such a relief valve is essential then care should be taken to avoid the violent chattering that is common with liquid relief.

NPSHa = hp – hvpa + hst – hf – hvh – ha …………………………………………. The head required to pump a fluid between two points in a piping system can be calculated by rearranging Bernoulli’s Law: H P = H 2 + H f − H 1 ……………………………………………………………. and velocity) at point 1 (suction). ft = Total fluid head at point 2 (discharge). 2. determine the desired flow rate or head.8 Basic Selection Criteria Criteria to select of the pump required for a special installation. First. are required. Head Head express the pressure that a pump must put out or the pressure generated by an equivalent height of liquid. When a centrifugal selection is possible. ft = Head loss due to friction between points 1 and 2. NPSH Available NPSH should always exceed the NPSH required (NPSHa ≥ NPSHr) as defined above paragraph. availability of spare parts and service at the location and the preferences of operating personnel. Eq. a system head-flow-rate curve should be drafted. Other aspects which are not engineering consideration like life of installation. should be considered also in selecting type of pump. ft = Total fluid head (include elevation. they shall not in any case obstruct operational or routine maintenance activities. The use of noise hoods should be avoided because of many additional safety requirements. such as acoustic insulation or acoustic enclosures. pressure.2 Where: HP H1 H2 Hf = Head pump required.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA flow activated trip of the pump. determine the NPSH available above its requirement. 2.3 Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 70 dari 70 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . Basic Principle 1. 2. Where other noise control measures. or a minimum flow recirculation line should be considered in order to minimize the lifting/chatter of the relief valve D. E.. Noise Abatement Excessive equipment noise should preferably be eliminated by low noise design. ft 2. High suction speed Pumps with high suction speed tend to be at risk to vibration (which may cause seal and bearing problems) when they are operated at other than design flow rates.. Where: Eq. Then.

ha is essential.2 feet/second2) = Velocity Head = υ h = υl 2 υl 3. Eq. the acceleration head (ha) is zero.5 550 . feet of liquid 2× g = Acceleration Head. feet (Actual Length not Equivalent Length) Average Liquid Velocity in Suction Line. feet of liquid Length of Suction Line. HHP = Where: HHP = Hydraulic Horsepower where 1 HP equals to 550 ft. For centrifugal or rotary pump. 2. feet/second Pump speed.4 is a conservative basis which gives sufficient provision for acceleration head. feet of liquid = Static Head.lb/sec Hp = Pump Head. 4.2 feet/second2) RP C K g υl Note that Equation 2. feet of liquid = Velocity of liquid in pipeline. feet of liquid = Friction Head or head loss due to flowing friction in the suction piping. including entrance and exit losses. Below equation is from the Hydraulics Institute: ha = L × υl × RP × C ………………………………………………………………. = Gravitational Constant (32. atmospheric or otherwise. Eq.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA hp hvpa hst hf hvh ha g = Absolute pressure head due to pressure. 2. feet of liquid . feet/second = Gravitational Constant (Usually 32. positive or negative. on surface of liquid going to suction.4 K×g Where: ha L = = = = = = Acceleration Head. In reciprocating types. ft Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 71 dari 71 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan HP × ρ ×Q ………………………………………………………………. feed of liquid = The absolute vapor pressure of the liquid at suction temperature. Revolutions/minute (rpm) Empirical constant based on type of Pump A factor correspond to the Reciprocal of the Fraction of the theoretical acceleration head which must be provided to avoid an obvious disturbance in the suction piping. Horse Power Hydraulic Horse Power is obtained by multiplying the weight rate of flow by the head difference across the pump and converting to horse power. due to liquid level above or below the datum line (centerline of pump).

Eq. gpm Flow rate.. 2. 2.G. barrel/day Pressure Increase.9 HP = Where: HP = Driver Horse Power η* = Driver efficiency Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 72 dari 72 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .. 2. 2. psi The input horse power to the shaft of the pump is called the Brake Horse Power: BHP = Where: BHP = Brake Horse Power η = Pump efficiency Driver Horse Power (HP) for Driver pump is calculated by: HP = BHP …………………………………………………………………….6 HHP = 3960 HHP = q ∗ × ΔP ………………………………………………………………….. Eq.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA ρ Q = Liquid density. Eq. lb/ft3 = Liquid Flow rate. × q ∗ × H P …………………………………………………………… Eq.10 η* HHP …………………………………………………………………… Eq. Eq.. 2. ft3/sec Other conversions of HHP: S .11 η ×η ∗ HHP η …………………………………………………………………….G... 2..8 58766 HHP = Where: S.7 1714 Q ∗ × ΔP …………………………………………………………………. q* Q* ∆P = = = = Specific Gravity of Liquid relative to water (water = 1) Flow rate.

Centrifugal pumps Centrifugal pumps are kinetic machines converting mechanical energy into hydraulic energy through accelerating the liquid by a revolving device .BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA 2. One stage pump can not develop high pressure except at very high speeds (i. Figure 2. Multistage pumps for high pressures are expensive. because it offers good capacity and head performances ranges.e. smooth operation. and has a large capacity. 2.tssr. and are available in a large variety of materials.9 Equipment Selection and Design Type selection: A.nl) They require little maintenance because of the relative simple in construction. Although non centrifugal pumps are infrequently used in refinery and centrifugal plants. their performance drop off quickly with increasing viscosity (means increasing density).an impeller. Pump efficiencies will drop off quickly when flow rates much different from those at peak efficiency. Centrifugal pumps are not self-priming and in some case. Some of their disadvantages are: 1. The smallest robust conventional centrifugal pump has a capacity of 3-5 m3/hr. mainly in corrosionresistant materials.3 Centrifugal Pump Equipment (www. high viscosity like slurries (using open impeller) or high discharge pressure application. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 73 dari 73 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . 10. easy flow control. Whenever possible this pump is used.000 rpm). they are of a great importance for certain low flow. 3. They operate at high speed so that they can be driven directly by electrical motors.

BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Description of Centrifugal pumps Centrifugal pumps are kinetic type and classified as either radial flow or axial flow. In radial flow.5 Simplified Diagram of a Typical Centrifugal Pump single volute (www. Figure 2.skf. Figure 2. and this is converted to pressure by case.4 Installed Centrifugal Pump (www. centrifugal pump consist of a stationary pump casing and an impeller mounted on a rotating shaft. flow enters the center of the rotating wheel (impeller) and is forced radially to the outside by centrifugal force.com) Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 74 dari 74 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . The pump casing has suction and discharge penetrations for the main flow passageway of the pump and normally has small drain and vent fittings to remove gases trapped in the pump casing or to drain the pump casing for maintenance. The casing provides a pressure periphery for the pump and contains canal/conduit to direct the suction and discharge flow appropriately.com) Generally. Within the impeller.engineersedge. the velocity of the liquid is increased.

The vanes of the rotating impeller convey a radial and rotary motion to the liquid. The purpose of the volute is to collect the liquid discharged from the periphery of the impeller at high velocity and gradually cause a reduction in fluid velocity by increasing the flow area. forcing the liquid to the outer periphery of the pump casing where it is collected in the outer part of the pump casing called the volute.wfdasia. The volute is a section that expands in cross-sectional area as it covers around the pump casing.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 2.7 Centrifugal Pump at Offshore Platform Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 75 dari 75 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . This will convert the velocity head to static pressure.com) The centrifugal pump casing steer the liquid from the suction connection line to the center or eye of the impeller.6 Centrifugal Pump View (www. Figure 2. The fluid is the n discharged from the centrifugal pump through discharge connection line.

Centrifugal Pump consist of a rotor (impeller) in a casing in which a liquid is given a high velocity head that is largely converted to pressure head by the time the liquid reaches the outlet.com) Radial flow pumps develop a higher head per stage and operate at slower speeds than axial flow pumps. Although several impellers can be installed in series to create more large heads. which are shaped like airfoils. This flow is parallel to the axis of the shaft. This is as well as kinetic energy equation. very low head applications.8 Axial Flow Centrifugal Pump (www.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA In axial flow. centrifugal pumps are only practical for achieving high pressure when there are large flow rates.com) Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 76 dari 76 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . axial flow is limited to heads under 50 ft or so. where energy is as means as mass and velocity.britannica. A velocity is imparted by the impeller vanes. Figure 2. Double volute pumps or called split volute pumps are another type of centrifugal pumps using volute. Figure 2. Therefore. That’s why centrifugal type is more preferable for large flow rate application. flow is developed by axial thrust of a propeller blade.engineersedge.9 Simplified Diagram of single and double volute (www. Practically. axial flow designs are used in very high flow rate. This type is constructed in a manner that results in two distinct volutes where each volute will receive fluids that is discharged from a 180 degrees region of the impeller at any given time.

Piston or plunger pumps perform well if high pressures and/or lower capacities are needed.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Below is simplified drawing of centrifugal pumps construction.5 m3/hr or 100 gpm. a reciprocating pump usually selected. Their utility in such applications overbalances the drawback of their intrinsic low efficiencies. Types of reciprocating pumps used are Diaphragm type that often used for metering service.com) B. Reciprocating and Metering Pump For capacities lower than 0.cheresources. Figure 2.com) Figure 2. of the order of 20%.11 Centrifugal Pump Parts (www.10 Simplified drawing of centrifugal pumps construction (www. provided that flow pulsations do not adversely affect plant control.cheresources. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 77 dari 77 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .

popeoiltool. it is classified as “double acting”. or diaphragm in one or more fluid-containing volumes. these pumps fill on the backstroke and exhaust on the forward stroke (See Figure 2.12 Reciprocating Pump Skid (www.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 2.kr) Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 78 dari 78 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .com) In reciprocating pump. then the pump is classified as “single acting”.elchem.ac.14 A and B below). Figure 2. Double-acting types which fill and exhaust on the same stroke have the advantage of operating at low speeds and can pump heavy liquids (high viscosity) which are difficult to handle with normal centrifugal or higher speed plunger pumps. Simply. energy is added to the fluid intermittently by moving one or more boundaries linearly with a piston. plunger. If liquid is pumped for along linear movement in one direction only. If the liquid is pumped along both direction movements.kaist.13 Simplified Diagram of a Typical Reciprocating Pump (www.

the diaphragm is used to power a reciprocating pump with air or natural gas.edu) Diaphragm pump can handle corrosive material and are often used for chemical injection.rpi.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA A special type of reciprocating pump is diaphragm pump. Sometimes. For highly dangerous liquids hydraulically actuated double diaphragm pumps are suitable.15 Large Reciprocating Pump Used To Circulate The Mud (drilling fluid) on a Drilling Rig (www. Figure 2.14 (A and B) Simplified Sketch of a Diaphragm-type Reciprocating Pump When The Pump Fill on The Backstroke (A sketch) and Exhaust on The Forward Stroke (B sketch) ( www. The pump utilizes the action of a diaphragm moving backward and forward within a fixed chamber. Figure 2.gov) Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 79 dari 79 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .osha.

Rotary Gear Pump (www.actionwebs.com) Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 80 dari 80 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . Rotary Positive Displacement Pump Viscosity problem of centrifugal pumps become appreciable at 40 cSt and serious at 100 cSt for small pump. Figure 2.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA C.16 Positive Displacement.com) Figure 2. Larger centrifugal pumps have a somewhat greater viscosity tolerance.17 Cutaway of Positive Displacement Rotary Pump (www.grancopump.

silence.5 – 10 m3/hr) at 150 atm.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA When a centrifugal pump is not economically justified for pumping a viscous liquid. This can be means not enough force to release liquid from the pump. leakage between the cavities will increases as low force.com) Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 81 dari 81 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .com) Principally. At very low speed. Screw pump are used for capacities 5 – 200 m3/hr. rotary pumps operate by having a component rotates inside a chamber to create one or more cavities or openings from suction to discharge by forcing the trapped liquid. But. D. and efficient.19 Installed Screw Pump (www. These types are compact. provided the liquid is free from solids.18 External (left) and Internal (right) Gear Pumps (www. Figure 2.equipnet. Rotary pumps have the same characteristic as reciprocating pump.britannica. which is generally used for small capacities (0. Screw pumps Screw pumps are fixed for high viscosity liquids like polymers and dirty liquids. Figure 2. a rotary positive displacement pump should be considered. the reduction in efficiency can be very significant. at low speed. The simplest type is the gear pump.

20 Engine Driven Screw Pump Skid (www.com) Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 82 dari 82 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .21 400HP Screw Pump Package (www.com) Figure 2.amjad-africa.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 2.amjad-africa.

high viscosity. Primarily.com) Peristaltic pump is also suitable for handling aggressive.water.siemens. sand/cement mortar. 0. and in laboratories.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA E. Figure 2.5" Flanged Inlet and Outlet Connections.wayvik. they are used as metering pumps at low capacities and pressures in corrosive and sanitary services when resistant flexible tubes such as those of Teflon can be used. corrosive acids. Peristaltic pumps These types force the liquid by compressing a tube behind it with a rotor. such as abrasive slurries. 1. Figure 2. high density products.23 Peristaltic Pump (www.1kW 1410 rpm Motor Driven (www.22 Peristaltic Pump. liquid accelerator. gaseous liquids. etc.com) Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 83 dari 83 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .

25 Vertical Turbine Pump Station with Stainless Steel Filter (www. Figure 2. But. they are more efficient than centrifugals.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA F. They are suited to handling volatile liquids because of their high suction lifts.rainbird. Turbine pumps Turbine pumps are mainly applied for small capacity and high pressure service.rainbird. In some ranges.com) Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 84 dari 84 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .com) Figure 2. these types are not suited for viscous liquids or abrasive slurries as blocking will happen at turbine section.24 Vertical Turbine Pump Station (www.

in which fluid is squeezed through a flexible tube by the follower. Internal gear pump. Turbine pump also are called regenerative or peripheral.cinergex.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 2. Duplex double acting pump. d. b. g. c. j. f. Peristaltic pump. Simplex double acting pump.net) Several kinds of positive displacement types are listed as follows: a. External gear pump. Double diaphragm pump. Double screw pump. h. Valve action of a double acting reciprocating piston pump.26 Steam turbine pump station (www. These types are essentially self-priming and have a high tolerance for entrained gases but not usually for solids unless they may be become crushed or flattened. Single acting piston pump operated by a crank. i. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 85 dari 85 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . e.

Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 86 dari 86 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . Compressors have the same purpose with pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe.2 Selection of Compressor The choice of the type of compressor depends primarily on the required flow to be compressed. Compressor should be selected by rotating engineer in consultation with process engineer. But. Rotary Compressors. Compression of a gas naturally increases its temperature. The main types of gas compressors are illustrated below: Figure 3. In contrary. liquid fluids can not be compressed. have wider operating ranges and are less susceptible to fouling.1 Diagram of The Main Types of Gas Compressors 3. the density of the gas in conjunction to with the compression ratio and the duty to be performed. COMPRESSOR This section is includes Centrifugal/Axial. 3. so the main action of a pump is to transport liquid fluids. as gas fluids are being compressed. Axial compressor: Axial compressor can handle large volume flow and are more efficient than centrifugal compressor. the compressor also reduces the volume of gas fluids. Axial compressor should be considered only for air or non-corrosive gases. 1.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA 3. centrifugal are less vulnerable and hence more reliable. Reciprocating.1 Definition of Compressor A gas compressor is mechanical equipment used to increases the pressure of flowing gas by reducing its volume (the gas is being compressed). However.

Figure 3. A row of rotors followed by a row of stators is known as a stage and there may be many stages attached to a single shaft.2 Multi Stages Axial Compressor Figure 3.powergeneration.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA (a) The axial flow compressor consists of rows of alternate rotating (rotor) and fixed (stator) blades. Centrifugal compressor: This type of compressor can handle required flow with a reasonable efficiency and no unrealistic number of stages is required to meet high head. This compressor is preferred Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 87 dari 87 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .siemens.3 Axial Flow Compressor Skid (www.com) 2.

com) Figure 3.com) Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 88 dari 88 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . if properly designed and assembled.siemens.geoilandgas.powergeneration. Figure 3.4 Integrally Geared Centrifugal Compressor (www.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA choice because it has the potential to operate continuously for long periods. a centrifugal compressor shall always be considered.5 Centrifugal Compressor (www. If the flow at discharge condition is 300 m3/hr or more than.

BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 3. three half capacity of machines shall be specified.6 Centrifugal Compressor (www.norwalkcompressor. Reciprocating compressor: If the required flow is too small for centrifugal compressor or where the head is so high that an undesirably large number of stages would be necessary that will fall into reciprocating compressor selection.com) 3.7 Reciprocating Compressor Skid (www. A drawback is that reciprocating compressor generally cannot fulfill the minimum requirement of continuous uninterrupted for two year period.friotherm. For this reason. a full capacity spare shall be provided as general rule for this type of compressor in critical services. Figure 3. due to fairly high maintenance requirements. two running in parallel with the third unit as spare. Alternatively.com) Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 89 dari 89 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .

com) Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 90 dari 90 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .norwalkcompressor.9 Reciprocating Compressor Skid (www.8 Vertical Single-Acting Reciprocating Compressor (www.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 3.com) Figure 3.sweethaven02.

sliding vane compressor and rotary lobe compressor for process duties might be considered as alternatives.10 shows a complete skid-mounted compression package (reciprocating type) including the motor driver. 4. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 91 dari 91 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . and of dry running rotary screw compressor. an oil flooded rotary screw compressor for propane service in cooling unit or for tool air.10 Complete Skid-mounted of Reciprocating Compressor (www. The application of oil flooded rotary screw compressors for instrument air. heat exchangers. per API-618.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 3. instrumentation and control panels.com) Figure 3. separators and any other auxiliary equipment. Rotary and Screw compressor This type of compressor may be chosen for relatively small flows with relatively large heads and shall be considered only where there is proven experience of acceptable performance of this compressor in the duty concerned and only where there are advantages over a reciprocating compressor.lonestarcompressor. Successful applications are a liquid ring compressor for vacuum duty.

com) Figure 3.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 3.12 Rotary Screw Compressor Unit (www.com) Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 92 dari 92 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .classzero.11 Casing of Oil free Rotary Screw Compressor (www.brehob.

13 Rotary Screw Compressor unit with 90 HP Natural Gas Driver (www.3 Process Condition and Limitation A.wellsitecompressor. speed of impeller and head available based on suction line design and NPSH minimum.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 3.14 Diagram of Rotary and Screw Compressor Unit (en. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 93 dari 93 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . Surge Condition at Centrifugal Compressor Operation of centrifugal compressors can be defined from three operating parameters: flow of fluids inlet to the compressor.org) 3.wikipedia.com) Figure 3.

A decrease of flow results in a decrease of discharge pressure. At constant speed. As a consequence. 3. surge is occurs. This method is implemented through anti surge system. A flow differential pressure transmitter (DPT) across the compressor flow meter or direct DPT connected to surge controller. The anti surge system provide stability of compressor system from surge condition by modulating a surge control (by-pass) valve around the compressor (covering not only between suction and discharge line. the head capability will be reached for the same speed. A commonly used method to avoid surge condition is to recycle part of the pressurized fluid from the discharge compressor line back to the compressor suction line. surge is ultimate result of system instability. When head is decrease. the fluids at discharge line tends to reverse or even flow back in the compressor. An algorithm in the control system. Simply. The amount of recycled flow rate is determined by the position of a control valve (anti surge valve). some of its compressor components like diffusers and impeller may start to operate in stall condition. pressure at discharge section of compressor will decrease and inlet pressure to the compressor will increase and the flow reverses again.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Stable operating compressor is provided when the head is lower than head capability and the flow rate of the gas inlet to the compressor is greater than the head available. flow rate of gas inlet to the compressor should be increased. Surge repeats and occurs in cycles. This will decrease pressure at discharge section of compressor and increase inlet flow rate to the compressor. Stall occurs when the gas flow rate inlet to the compressor begins to separate from a flow surface. resulting in stable working conditions. flow rate become more decrease. When surge point is reached. When the suction pressure is higher than the compressor outlet pressure. but also suction line of suction scrubber and discharge cooler at discharge line). This point is named surge limit or surge point. A typical anti surge system consists of: 1. So. This will avoid surge condition. Surge condition will occurs when a sudden decrease of the gas flow rate inlet to the compressor causing increase in the peak head. 4. At certain low flow rate of the gas. the compressor can not maintain as much as flow rate of the gas against a higher pressure. Pressure and temperature transmitter at suction and discharge lines. A surge control valve with equivalent accessories. At this point. 2. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 94 dari 94 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .

An anti surge system will determine the compressor operating point using the pressure.15 Simplified Flow Diagram of anti surge system where PDT across the flow meter (FT) both at suction and discharge line to detect pressure differential (PD). temperature and flow data provided by PT. At certain condition.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Figure 3. Pressure Differential Transmitter (PDT) can be installed directly to detect differential in pressure at suction and discharge line without detect differential flow at suction and discharge line through using flow meters at suction and discharge line. and FT installed at suction and discharge line that are connected to the anti-surge controller. TT.16 Simplified Flow Diagram of anti surge system where PDT connected to both suction and discharge line to detect pressure differential (PD). Figure 3. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 95 dari 95 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . A Pressure Transmitter (PT) located at discharge line can be used to control discharge pressure through controlling speed of driven.

as well as small and slow. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 96 dari 96 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . At suction line: 1. Proper recycle valve that neither selected for the system volumes – the valve characteristic must be fitted and capable as well as fast and large enough to ensure the surge limit is nor reached during a shut down. 5. The most idea to realize the anti surge system is that the realization of safe scenario for anti surge system to protect compressor system shall concern to the total system in the location of the anti surge system. the more accurately surge location predicted. Point of view shall not only consider for compressor itself or compressor system. extreme noise abatement should be up to 30 decibels. A suitable control algorithm – it must ensure to avoid surge condition without make action for change in the process conditioning that is unnecessary. Last. Proper recycle valve that selected for the compressor – Valves must fit with the compressor. One of the most important items in anti surge system is a surge-relief valve. anti surge system will be not needed to be implemented. This indicator is connected to control box. the more of the range operating of the compressor available to the user and can be used to set up the set point at anti surge system to protect compressor from stall which damage to the its compressor. and not as isolated items or isolation scenario looking only at the compressor itself. flow indicator should be installed to record flow rate of gas. it must be known where the compressor will surge. The correct instrumentation – instrument that will be used must be selected to meet the requirements for speed. This item plays the essential anti surge system. 2. An accurate surge limit model – it shall predict the surge limit over the applicable range of gas inlet conditions and property of the gas. range and accuracy. Change in flow rate of inlet gas will be controlled through start/stop device which is switched by hand operator locally.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA There are five essentials to avoid surge conditions: 1. but also systems installed at upstream and downstream of compressor system. The valve should have high capacity to anticipate impact of the abnormal capacity occurred during start up and shut down (double the minimum for start up and shut down). The valves shall be capable of changes in capacity both in large and rapid conditions. Safety Device system by Control Box as Local panel at Reciprocating Compressor Single Stage Dry Seal Using Water-Based Cooling System All indicator and control device should be connected to control box as local panel. Before the gas inlet to suction scrubber. The valve should be very stable in throttling control. B. The piping system has the dominant factor in the overall system response. When large volume is available. The valve should have fast stroking speed extremely when opening (typically under 3 seconds). 3. To avoid surge. 4.

for local purpose checking. Pressure indicator (PI) and temperature indicator (TI) should be installed for local purpose checking. 3. 4. At discharge line: 1. Temperature indicator should be installed and connected to control box where TSHH is installed to detect high temperature at suction line. Pressure indicators should be installed and connected to control box where PSHH and PSLL are installed to detect changes of pressure at suction line. Temperature indicator should be installed and connected to control box where TSHH is installed to detect high temperature at discharge line. PI should also be used to control pressure at discharge line through remote control. 4. Hand local pressure control switch can be done by only using PI with set points are based on lowest and highest pressure at acceptable value as same as PSHH and PSLL to prevent over pressure at downstream piping line and equipment and also to prevent low pressure inlet of the gas to downstream equipment as pressure loss at piping lines. 3. Pressure indicator (PI) and temperature indicator (TI) should be installed for local purpose checking. Pressure Safety valve (PSV) should be installed to protect discharge piping line and also downstream equipment from over pressure where discharge PSV line is vented to atmosphere at safe height or location from operator. Pressure indicators should be installed and connected to control box where PSHH and PSLL are installed to detect pressure at discharge line. Hand local temperature control switch can be done by only using TI with set point is based on highest temperature at acceptable value as same as to TSHH to prevent over temperature inlet of the gas to compressor. Hand local pressure control switch can be done by only using PI with set points are based on lowest and highest pressure at acceptable value as same as PSHH and PSLL to prevent overpressure and too low pressure inlet of the gas to compressor. Hand local temperature control switch can be done by only using TI with set point is based on highest temperature at acceptable value as same as to TSHH to prevent over temperature at downstream equipment related with process conditioning required or design temperature at its equipment. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 97 dari 97 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . 2. Check Valve (FSV) should be installed to prevent back flow from downstream line where downstream pressure is higher than discharge pressure from compressor. Pulsation dampener should be installed at suction line to reduce pressure and flow fluctuations which can cause pressure loss. 5. 5. cone strainer should be installed to check pressure fluctuations.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA 2. Also. 6.

A safe operating temperature at compressor may be considered to be approximately 300 F if there is oxygen in the gas loaded. C. equal ratio of compression per stage is used (including pressure drop at suction and discharge lines. Water-based cooling system can be applicable. through start/stop hand switch manually and second. cooler. 350oF of operating temperature can be used as maximum. VSHH should be installed when motor driven is used to control vibration with set point is based on highest vibration value at acceptable value to prevent damage of compressor system caused by high vibration. through control room automatically. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 98 dari 98 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . Compressor system should have two ways to shut down. oil system may not be suitable to cool and lube the piston and cylinder. Limitation of Compression Ratio per stage for Multi Stage Compression Discharge temperature has main influence in determining final maximum of compression ratio for each stage although duty required for each compressor also give impact to compression stages and trains required. Carbonization in oil can also happen at high temperature which may cause blocking event. although vendor or mechanical propose other values. At multi-stage operation. the block valve can be used at suction line of suction scrubber and discharge line of pulsation dampener. Packing and seals life should be considered in determining discharge temperature for each compressor. If downstream equipment require dry and clean gas quality for process conditioning purpose at this equipment. o In designing booster compressor station. and component of the gas (sweet or acid gas). ESD should be connected to the control panel to shut down the compressor through interlock (PLC) if system failure is happen which may damage downstream equipment or compressor itself based on safety scenario and predictable & unpredictable events. Rod loading can also be used beside of discharge temperature.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Additionally. For isolation. and suction and discharge scrubbers if necessary). At high temperature operation. First. The type of isolation device will be influenced by piping line size both suction and discharge lines. discharge temperature and duty required for each compressor shall be considered in designing multi stage compressions. If there is no oxygen. it should be considered for the possibility of fire and explosion because of the oil vapors present when the handled gas contains oxygen where oxygen is one of the main component of combustion with the oil vapors. pressure.

but also we should consider that after 5 or 10 years. compression ratio should be decrease for each next stage (downstream) to reduce excessive rod loading. Anticipation can be taken by removes one or some blades from second or third compressor stage and installed to the first compressor stage. Another method for interstage cooling are within the casing (named inter cooler). Good efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions. the compressibility factor will decrease and impact to decrease actual volume of the gas. Low maintenance cost. criteria values for sizing the interstage and discharge piping can be higher than suction line.5 psia or 1% of operating pressure and maximum actual velocity of 30 ft/s. The design philosophy for choosing a compressor should include the following considerations: a. This will protect the compressor from liquid carryover in the gas which can cause damage to the compressor. These values are pressure drop not to exceed 2% of operating pressure or 5 psi. Use a scrubber located after the cooler and before the gas enters to next compressor to separate produced liquid phase. Low lifecycle cost. To avoid high temperature operating at next stage. This is not only for maintenance purpose. As increased pressure at interstage and discharge line. Sizing Piping Line at Reciprocating Compressor In reciprocating compressor. D. Maximum flexibility of configuration. Flexibility of configuration will play important role during operation. Design of every blade installed at each compressor stages should be easy to be removed. Acceptable capital cost. flow rate and pressure of feed gas will drop down significantly. suction temperature also should be consider being as low as possible to prevent thermal stress complication which may influence to discharge temperature. f. High availability.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA At high compression pressure. This will give effect to the increasing power consumption and increasing discharge temperature at first compressor stage. the first-stage suction line should be sized for a pressure drop not exceed than 0. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 99 dari 99 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . In multi stage compressors. e. This action should not impact to increasing power consumption and discharge temperature at second or third compressor stages significantly over their designs. d. So. b. This also will reduce size of cylinder to produce the same capacity as high compression ratio means low volumetric efficiency. Economic power required can be gained with pre-cooling of the gas for next stage of compressor. whichever is less and a maximum velocity of 50 ft/s. a cooler is used between discharge line of the first compressor and suction line of the next/interstage compressor. c.

a. varying gas densities. b. compressors generally require a running-in period during which time and alternative feed gas may be used. Compressor circuits frequently have automatic shut-down instrumentation. When a compressor is to be used in vacuum or refrigerant service. intermittent loads. G. valve lifters and pockets on reciprocators. Safety Considerations The following potential hazards are to be considered for compressor installations. If air is to be used for running-in. etc. the vendor is to be supplied with data on the molecular weight of the gases. Corrosive Compound Corrosive compounds in the gas (such as Sulphur Oxides. which operates on high gas discharge temperature.g. are to be specified by the process engineer these may determine the selection of materials by Foster Wheeler or the compressor manufacturer. Screw compressors may be employed for applications involving relatively low flows and differential pressures. may be an additional requirement. The final determination of compressor power requirements and discharge gas temperatures is part of the vendor’s responsibility. many reactions proceed at higher rates. Reciprocation compressors are to be considered for conditions of low flow rate. The discharge temperature of air from reciprocating compressors is generally limited to about 300oF – 330oF (149oC – 166oC). Compressor Power Estimation Compressor power estimates shall include gear losses. the reaction between a hydrocarbon lube oil and oxygen or air. Special Consideration Molecular Weight Molecular weight is an important consideration in the design of a centrifugal compressor. combined with moderate temperatures. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 100 dari 100 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA E. Start-Up Considerations Start-up methods are to be considered by the process engineer since items such as antisurge control system. are involved. Hydrogen Sulphides. peak driver load may be required during start-up and a foot note to this effect is to be added to the specification form. e. c. and all inorganic component bonded by Hydrogen atom that is acidic compounds). and varying discharge pressures. acidic compound. by-pass lines. etc. high differential pressure. Compressor Selection and Comparison a. F. At high pressure. Chlorides. then suitable vents. When this or any type of compressor is to be used in multiple services. In addition.. Their selection should be referred to the rotating equipment specialists. Centrifugal compressors are the preferred type for the majority applications.

Restrictive ring type seals are not favored and their application is subject to the explicit approval of the Sr. Centrifugal Compressor Mechanical contact type seal should be considered for gas compressor since it offers the advantage of low oil consumption. • Mechanical and/or thermal condition which are beyond proven capabilities of the contact type seals. Excessive discharge pressures from positive displacement machines can be attained if a discharge valve is inadvertently closed. Liquid-film-seal type should be used for the following duties: • Corrosive and/or fouling gases in direct contact with the seal members when a clean buffer gas can not be made available. Drum should be provided where necessary to prevent liquid slugs from damaging compressors. e. The correct functioning of this type of seal is also less sensitive to sudden fluctuations in gas pressure which can occur during off-design conditions. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 101 dari 101 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . This is frequently accomplished by omitting the siding from a portion of the compressor house. The application of other sealing liquid such as water. which is required for bearing and seal losses.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA b. Adequate inlet K. Labyrinth-type seal are acceptable only for compressor handling non toxic and non flammable gases such as air and nitrogen. Adequate ventilation of the compressor house should be provided when compressing toxic of flammable gases. H. Rotating compressors and their drivers have speed limitations.O. in those cases where the contact between process gas and seal oil could be hazardous. Providing demisters in the K. Trip-outs are indicated and these are usually by the vendor and specified by the Mechanical Equipment Section. Therefore. The usual sealing liquid is oil.O. Process Engineer or Principal Engineer. Shaft Sealing : 1. Process Engineer. c. or where traces of seal oil in the process stream could spoil a catalyst shall be discussed with Sr. The combined losses may be estimated from the table below and are to be added to the polytrophic power requirement. safety valves are mandatory for this class of compressors. Bearing and Seal Losses The polytrophic horse power absorbed by the gas compression phase does not include additional power. Drum can reduce entrainment. d.

Reciprocating compressors must be fitted with a safety relief valve on the discharge on each stage. all centrifugal compressor shaft sealing systems as written above will give smooth operation in the design. A process piping and equipment which forms part of centrifugal or axial compressor system can usually be considered as analogous to the liquid-full pumped systems considerations and the design pressure may be determined in a similar manner.5 96 – 96. Centrifugal Fans In general. 4. Rotary Compressor In general. I. 3. K. % 2 – 1. However. Here are as follows: Type of Gear Single Reduction Double Reduction Triple Reduction Mechanical Efficiency. If maximum sealing effect is required.5 4 – 3. factors will be different and should be set on a case by case basis.5 3 – 2.5 97 – 97. either air to inside or gas to outside. These compressors handle “dirty” gases with small solid contaminants. main and secondary escape route in each compressor position shall be arranged with careful prediction of future piping and instruments modification. above 200 oC. however. Operation and maintenance access. Gear Losses The mechanical efficiency of gears used to transmit power from a driver to a compressor varies based on type of gears and gear loss. appropriate access to valves and instruments in compressor design shall be carefully checked. Integration of piping plan. Internal Design Pressure for Compressor System a.5 J. is not allowed for process reason. mechanical contact type seal may be considered. Therefore gas sealing system with mess and recycle line for lubricants have been specially made for this purpose. this type of seal shall not be specified for high temperature service. An inert gas sealing system may be considered if leakage. b. set high enough to prevent its discharge during normal operation. General Safety Device for Compressor Unit During design review. % 98 – 98.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA 2. equipment plan Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 102 dari 102 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . a restrictive ring or labyrinth type shaft seal including a sealing gas system is preferred. Screw Compressor This type is often used in chemical and petrochemical plants. For high temperature service. non toxic gas at ambient temperature.5 Gear Loss. labyrinth type seal is required for non flammable. non corrosive.

BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA

and instrument plan drawings shall be used to review this purpose during engineering phase. Reciprocating compressor required protection against overpressure due to blocked outlet, a relief valve often installed as safeguard on discharge line upstream of the block valve and routed to flare system. The provision of automatic block-in and/or depressuring a compressor might be considered, when seal failure could result in release of toxic gas. The compressor safeguarding system is often activated by one of the following condition: • High liquid level in scrubber. • High speed of turbine or compressor. • High discharge temperature. • For reciprocating compressor, each cylinder usually have its own dedicated temperature measuring point. • High discharge pressure. • Low discharge flow. • Surge. • Axial displacement. • Low seal oil pressure. • Low lube oil pressure.
Noise Abatement

Excessive equipment noise should be preferably eliminated by low noise design. Where other noise control measures, such as acoustic insulation of acoustic enclosures, are required, they shall not in any case obstruct operation or maintenance personnel activities. The use of noise hoods should be avoided since many requirements of safety design is implemented in present. PSH, PSHH, PSL and PSLL sensors should be installed on suction line and discharge line of compressor unit. These sensors can be not installed if input source, upstream of suction line is protected by these sensors. The PSH should give alarm for high pressure and PSL should give alarm for low pressure. But, PSHH and PSLL should be used to shut off all process flow rate inlet to the compressor and if compressor use fuel gas at its driven, these sensors should also shut off fuel gas flow rate to the driven. But, if the electrical motor is used as driven, the PSHH and PSLL should also shut off the electrical motor. Location of PSH, PSHH, PSL and PSLL on suction line should be as close as practical to the compressor, and on discharge line, upstream of check valve and any block valve. Suction line should also be installed with PSV to protect compressor from over pressure. If the source, upstream of suction line has been installed with PSV with set point not also to protect the source (equipment), but also to protect the compressor, PSV may not be installed at suction line of compressor. At discharge line, PSV should be provided to protect piping line and downstream equipment from over pressure. If downstream of
Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 103 dari 103 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan

BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA

discharge line or equipment has been installed with PSV, PSV may not be necessary installed at discharge line of compressor. When kinetic energy type of compressor is used, PSV may not be provided on the discharge line if the compressor is not capable to increase pressure greater than the maximum allowable working pressure of its compressor or discharge line and downstream equipment. Location of PSV on suction line should be as close as practical to the compressor, and on discharge line, where PSV can not be isolated from the compressor. At discharge line location of PSV is upstream of check valve and any block valve. At suction line, location of PSV is upstream of any block valve. Check valve should be installed in discharge line located at downstream of PSV and upstream of any block valve to prevent back flow coming from downstream equipment. TSH should be installed at suction line to give alarm whenever suction temperature is at maximum near design temperature. TSHH should be installed to shut off inlet flow rate of the gas to the compressor. The TSHH should also shut off fuel gas used for driven or electrical motor driven. This will protect cylinder or case from over heating. Location of TSH and TSHH on suction and discharge line should as close as practical to the cylinder or case of compressor. Block valve should be installed on suction and discharge line for isolation the compressor during maintenance or any event where compressor must be isolated. Location of block valve on suction line is at downstream of PSV, and on discharge line, downstream of check valve. SDV should be installed on each process line (both suction and discharge line) and fuel gas line or electrical motor driven whenever compressor needs to be shut down. The result, the compressor can be isolated from all input sources. SDV should be triggered by a signal from ESD system and fire loop, and by any abnormal pressure condition sensed in the suction and discharge line. SDV should be triggered also by manual whenever ESD system fails to actuate SDV. A blow down valve (BDV) should be installed on the final discharge line which can not be isolated from any block valve. The BDV may be triggered by a signal from fire loop, gas detector, and ESD system or manually hand switched. Over pressure at suction line may be caused by excess flow rate of gas, failure of suction pressure control system, and may be caused by compressor or driven malfunction (fuel gas turbine, diesel engine, or electrical motor driven). Over pressure at discharge line, may be caused by blocked or restricted discharge line, excess back pressure, and high inlet pressure to the compressor or over speed at driven.

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BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA

Leakage event caused by deterioration, erosion, corrosion, impact damage, high vibration at compressor unit may impact to low pressure at discharge pressure of the gas from compressor. High temperature event at compressor may be caused by high temperature of the gas inlet to the compressor. This can be happen when cooler get fails to cool down temperature of the gas flow rate that will go to suction compressor. Cooler failure installed at internal of compressor may cause excess temperature at cylinder or case. When internal cooler is fails, the gas discharged from compressor will has high temperature that can be higher than design temperature at discharge piping line and downstream equipment of discharge line. Excess compression ratio that is higher than normal condition may also cause excess temperature at discharge line. This may happen when speed of driven compressor is higher than normal condition. Whenever turn down is happen caused by insufficient flow rate of the gas from upstream of suction line of compressor, may cause excess temperature at discharged gas outlet from compressor. Compressor valve failure can also impact to excess temperature at discharged gas outlet from compressor.
3.4 General Requirements

A. The outline should be as simple as practical and critical elevation should be stated.
3.5 Engineering Requirements

A. For centrifugal compressor, capacity control (down to a certain minimum) by means of a variable speed driver is favored such as may be provided by steam turbine, an adjustable speed electric motor or a two-shaft gas turbine. For constant speed drives, capacity control can be achieved by suction throttling or recycle systems. Discharge throttling is not commonly used as it is inefficient. Variable inlet guide vanes may only be considered for dry, clean and non corrosive gas. B. For centrifugal fans, capacity control (down to a certain minimum) by means of a variable speed driver is sometimes used, such as may be provided by a steam turbine or variable speed electric motor. Inlet guide vanes for capacity control shall only be specified for clean and non corrosive gas. C. Centrifugal compressor with anti-surge control It is an inherent characteristic of the centrifugal compressor that its performance becomes unstable at some minimum flow point, known as surging. The objective of an anti-surge control system is to ensure that the flow into centrifugal compressor is sufficient at the required pressure differential across the compressor.

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in consultation with rotating equipment engineer. Pulsation suppression devices for reciprocating compressors As pulsations can have a damaging effect on the piping even at moderate pressure levels. pulsation suppression devices shall be provided at the suction and discharge side of each cylinders. E. Entrainment knock-out facilities In order to prevent liquid carry over. sometimes in consultation with process and instrument engineers. returning the gas to the compressor suction and thereby assuring a continuous minimum flow to the compressor inlet. where temperature limitation should be lower. adequate provision shall be made for separate entrainment knock-out facilities. D. and upstream of the machine (i. such as high pressure hydrogen or applications requiring non lubricated cylinders. For reciprocating compressors. Pulsation can cause significant pressure drop. The suction line between knock out drum or scrubber and compressor shall be as short as practicable. The use of variable volume clearance pockets for capacity control is not favored and its application requires the explicit approval of the principal. the controller can be set at a predetermined minimum. the maximum actual discharge temperature shall not exceed 150 °C for mechanical reasons. 3. Volume bottle should be applied for pulsation damping. Condensation and Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 106 dari 106 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan .6 Piping and Instrumentation Consideration A. in excess of the estimated surge parameters. which shall be installed as close as possible to.e. G. Cylinders operating in parallel may be connected to a common suction and common discharge pulsation device. without pockets and slope towards the knock out drum. adjustable speed electric motor drivers can be considered for capacity control. molecular weight of 12 or less (API RP 618). the kickback or recycle flow valve will open. suction scrubber). when the discharge temperature can become too high. F. Determination if pulsation devices are required is responsibility of rotating engineers. so that when the process falls below the minimum set point. For reciprocating compressors. The use of reverse flow control by means of adjustable spring-loaded suction valves should only be used in clean gas service and suction pressure where reliable operation has been demonstrated. Special consideration shall be given to services.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA With an anti-surge controller measuring the total compressor flow and the pressure differential. For constant speed drives capacity control can also be achieved by a recycle system. Interstage Cooling Interstage cooling is applied. Discharge temperature shall not exceed 135 °C for hydrogen rich services. Vendor consultation is required to determine proper interstage cooling as required.

Complete isolation shall be possible designed from process and auxiliary system. D. Suction strainer shall be provided to safeguard the compressor from extraneous solid material getting inside the machines. check valves are required to prevent backflow through the relief valve in case of spring failure. Nitrogen purge to be available for air removal to safe location and for gas removal to flare or. check valves are required to prevent reverse flow and consequently reverse rotation of the compressor after shutdown. a pressurizing bypass may be needed for commissioning purpose. This installation shall permit test run facility of the compressor on air or other test gas under the condition recommended and specified by manufacturer (vendor). The control valve in recycle line shall be self draining to both sides without pockets.g. C. by heat tracing (in 4 season country) and several design case of reciprocating compressor. as guide class 600 and above. F. such as flare and nitrogen. Special provision shall be made for depressuring and purging in the compressor. temperature and vibration. removable spool piece or elbows. suitable instrumentation shall be indicated for this purpose in drawing such as flow. a temporary suction strainer shall be installed downstream of the block valve of the compressor and as close as possible to the compressor suction nozzle. When recycle line is used for capacity control. G. While for reciprocating compressor. A check valve shall be installed in discharger line for following suggested reason : For rotary and centrifugal compressor. If the compressor required on-stream performance checking. E. Any recycle line shall be routed to the inlet of the knock out drum via cooler/condenser. which may be connected concentrically at the side of the header. pressure. particularly during the first month of operation or after maintenance shutdown. Depending to pressure and line size. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 107 dari 107 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . Pressure tapping might be provided across the strainer to enable fouling estimation. The strainer shall be conical type incorporated within a spool piece of adequate length to facilitate bulk removal. if gas is non toxic and lighter than air to safe location. In each compressor suction line. Permanent isolation shall be provided by spectacle blinds. B. Suction lines shall be connected to the top of the header. the recycle valve shall be capable of smooth control and for this reason an arrangement of two valves in parallel may be considered.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA accumulation of condensate in this suction line shall be prevented e. except for suction line at least one pipe smaller than the header.

P-001 5th Edition. deploy and monitoring safe work practice implementation in Kalimantan Operation and across IndoAsia Business Unit.reagan@gmail. 5. “Surface Production Operations”. Engineering articles from internet. 7. 2. and 13 of Gas Processors Suppliers Association. API. 4.BUKU PINTAR MIGAS INDONESIA Author: Alvin currently works as Managing Safe Work (MSW) Champion for Chevron Indonesia Company. and works under direct guidance of Operation Managers and Sr. 6. but logic and simple as better engineering practises and solutions with approach of process (design) engineering of upstream oil and gas plants (main process facilities). Otherwise. “Gas Conditioning and Processing”. Previously in Chevron. direct report to OE/HES Manager. Various engineering and solution company best practice in process engineering. pump and compressor. they compare him with Ronald Reagan. 5. 9. PII. IIPS. 10. he is in charge for facilitating process safety study. VP Kalimantan Operation. Campbell. EPMI. East Kalimantan. reviewing contractor HES program in capital project and major modification. 2nd Edition. project HES evaluation. Process Engineering and Safe Guarding Theory Halaman 108 dari 108 Kontributor : Alvin Alfiyansyah dan Ronaldo Reagan . pump and compressor. Couper and friends. Ronaldo is just Ronaldo with complex ideas. Co-Author: Ronaldo Reagan? People always compare his name with that Brazillian famous soccer striker. 8. ASME and various industry standards for pressure vessel. 2nd Edition. CCPS Global network and AIChE. John M. Ronaldo’s references: 1. Process and Safety Engineer in various oil and gas contractor company. 4. Volume 1 and 2. 12. Yes.com . Safety in Design (ergonomic base) review. ASME and various industry standards for pressure vessel. Email correspondences with oil and gas company client representative during the design (both basic (FEED) and detail engineering) experience. the fortieth President of the United States (1981-1989). He can be further contacted in alfiyansyah@yahoo. Various engineering articles from legacy Unocal. Technip design work experience 2002-2006. He has been working as SHEQ Advisor. Various engineering and equipment design criteria and philosophy company best practice in process safety and process engineering. Engineers India work book. Daniel A. also construction and installation review. Process Engineering and Safeguarding Manual. James R. API.com . He is in charge at facilitating. “Chemical Process Equipment”. both of them have same famous name: Ronaldo. He can be further contacted in process. He is a member of KMI. Alvin’s references: 1. NORSOK STANDARD – Process Design. 2. 3. But. 6. Section 7. “Chemical Process Safety”. Louvar. Ken Arnold and Maurice Stewart. September 2006. Crowl and Joseph F. 3.

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