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Sergeants Distance Education Program

Basic Grammar and Composition

8011B

EXAM ADMINISTRATION THROUGH COMMAND UNIT VERIFICATION REPORT, RANDOM ONLINE EXAMS (ROLE)
1. This is to amplify the procedures as per MARADMIN 370/07. 2. Exams will not be distributed with this MCI unless specifically requested by the Marines Training Representative. Marines are strongly encouraged to use ROLE. 3. Marines should contact their Command Unit Verification Report representative to complete the final examination using the Random Online Examination (ROLE). 4. Marines who do not have access to a computer may request the final examination material by contacting MCIs Student Services Division at 1-800-MCI-USMC.

BASIC GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION (8011B) Course Introduction

Scope

The Basic Grammar course is designed to provide the Marine sergeant with a basic knowledge of English grammar and composition fundamentals. It includes a review of the parts of speech, the basic elements of writing including phrases, clauses, sentence structure, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling, and an overview of composition fundamentals from outlining to final proofing.

References

The following reference was used in the writing of this course: Effective Army Writing Subcourse Number IS1460, Edition A. Center for Army Leadership, Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Edition Date: June 1999.

Table of Contents

The following is a table of contents for this course. Study Unit -1 2 3 4 5 Title Course Introduction Parts of Speech Phrases, Clauses, and Sentences Punctuation Capitalization and Spelling Effective Composition Page i 1-1 2-1 3-1 4-1 5-1

Estimated Study Time

You will spend about 10 hours 45 minutes completing this course. This includes the time required to study the text, complete the exercises, and take the final exam.
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MCI Course 8011B

Course Introduction

Course Introduction, Continued

Reserve Retirement Credits

You earn four retirement credits for completing this course. You earn reserve retirement credits at the rate of one credit for each 3 hours of estimated study time. Note: Reserve retirement credits are not awarded for the MCI study you do during drill periods if awarded credits for drill attendance.

Summary

The table below summarizes all important gateways needed to successfully complete this course. Step 1 2 3 For more information Enroll in the program Receive your program Refer to the Program material Introduction Complete the selfArrange to take the Refer to the Program paced text final examination Introduction Pass the final Receive a course Refer to the Program examination completion certificate Introduction When you Then you will

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Course Introduction

STUDY UNIT 1 PARTS OF SPEECH Overview

Estimated Study Time

2 hours, 25 minutes

Unit Scope

Putting our thoughts on paper is important, but only if what we have written clearly communicates our intentions. Our understanding of English grammar can help make sure that we communicate clearly. The objective of this study unit is to help you sharpen your understanding of English grammar by briefly reviewing the parts of speech.

Learning Objectives

After completing this study unit, you should be able to Identify the parts of speech. Identify the relationship between sentence elements joined by a conjunction.

Unit Content

The following table lists the lessons covered in this study unit. Topic Overview Lesson 1 Nouns Lesson 2 Pronouns Lesson 3 Verbs Lesson 4 Adjectives and Adverbs Lesson 5 Prepositions Lesson 6 Conjunctions Study Unit 1 Exercise See Page 1-1 1-3 1-13 1-21 1-33 1-41 1-45 1-49

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Study Unit 1

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Study Unit 1

LESSON 1 NOUNS Introduction

Estimated Study Time

15 minutes

Lesson Scope

Nouns are your people, place, and thing words. Nouns typically serve as the subjects and objects of verbs and prepositions. This lesson will help you identify the nouns in a sentence and how these nouns relate to other sentence elements.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to Define the characteristics of nouns. Identify the function of nouns. Form plurals of nouns correctly. Select the nouns in a sentence.

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction Definition Gender Number Person Case See Page 1-3 1-4 1-6 1-7 1-9 1-10

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Definition

Naming Words

Naming is a function of nouns. Nouns can be Concrete Officer Weapon Tank Abstract Invisible substances (air, gases) Qualities (leadership, honor) Actions (marching, commanding) Measurements (month, pounds)

Function

Nouns function as The subject these nouns do the action described by the verb. Corporal Wrigley fired the rifle. (Corporal Wrigley is the noun that did the action.) Sergeant Baker taught the maintenance class. (Sergeant Baker is the noun that did the action.)

Objects of the verb or of a preposition these nouns generally receive the action. Private Jones fired the rifle expertly to win the championship. (Rifle is the noun that was acted on.) The honored guest for todays parade is Colin Powell. (Parade is the object of the preposition for.)

The function is further explained in study unit 1, lesson 1, Case.


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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Definition, Continued

Proper Nouns

Proper nouns begin with a capital letter. Proper nouns name particular people, places, or things: President Bush Parris Island American

Compound Nouns

Compound nouns are two or more words that express a single idea. Sometimes compound nouns are written as One word Keyboard Machinegun Breechblock Hyphenated words Brother-in-law Commander-in-chief Court-martial

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Gender

Explanation

One characteristic of nouns is gender. Gender is obvious for some nouns. Noun gender may be Male Man Boy Female Woman Lady Neutral Weapon Barracks Integrity

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Number

Definition

Another characteristic of nouns is number. Number tells if the noun is singular (one) or plural (more than one). Most plurals are formed based on the spelling of the singular form of the noun.

Adding S

Nouns ending in a sound that can be smoothly united with s usually form their plurals by adding s: Officer, officers Radio, radios Regulation, regulations

Nouns ending in ay, ey, oy, or uy form their plurals by adding s: Day, days Key, keys Boy, boys

Adding ES

Nouns ending in a sound that cannot be smoothly united with s form their plurals by adding es: Bush, bushes Torch, torches Wrench, wrenches

Changing Y to I Nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant form their plurals by changing y and Adding ES to i and adding es:

Mercy, mercies Nursery, nurseries Army, armies


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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Number, Continued

Plurals of Compound Nouns

Compound nouns form their plurals by making the main word plural: Sergeant major, sergeants major Lieutenant colonel, lieutenant colonels Court-martial, courts-martial

Plurals of Borrowed Nouns

Plurals of nouns borrowed from French, Greek, and Latin frequently retain the plural of the original language: Alumna (feminine), alumnae Alumnus (masculine), alumni Analysis, analyses Basis, bases Datum, data

Special Plurals

Some nouns form their plurals differently. These types of nouns do not follow specific rules: Man, men Mouse, mice Sheep, sheep

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Person

Type

The third characteristic of nouns is person. Person determines the function of the noun. The noun can be First person Second person Third person

First Person

A noun in first person is serving as the speaker; generally this is the subject of a sentence, the person who does the action. Example: Private Jones talked. (Private Jones is a noun in first person.)

Second Person

A noun in second person is the person spoken to or to whom action is done. Example: Private Jones talked to Sergeant Smith. (Sergeant Smith is a noun in second person.)

Third Person

A noun in third person is the one spoken of. Example: Corporal Jones talked to Sergeant Smith about Private Mason. (Private Mason is a noun in third person.)

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Case

Definition

The last characteristic of nouns is case. Case describes whether a noun is functioning as Subjective Objective Possessive

Subjective Case

A subject (subjective case) The wind blew. (Wind is a noun and the subject of the sentence.) The platoon marched away. (Platoon is a noun and the subject of the sentence.) The general spoke eloquently to the command. (General is a noun and the subject of the sentence.)

Objective Case

An object of a verb or of a preposition (objective case) The commander assigned the guards. (Guards is a plural noun that is the object of the verb assigned.) The general spoke eloquently to the command. (Command is a collective noun that is the object of the preposition to.) Staff Sergeant Lyon placed first at the rifle competition. (Competition is a noun that is the object of the prepositions at.)

Possessive Case

A possessive (possessive case) SGT Smith locked the door of the cell. (Cell is a noun that is the object of the preposition of.) The commanders policy is no drinking at company functions. (Commanders is the possessive form of the noun commander.) This evenings storm cancelled the parade. (Evenings is the possessive form of the noun evening.)
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Case, Continued

Form

Nouns have only two case forms: Common Possessive

Common Form

The common form serves as either the subjective or objective case. The common form is generally the noun in singular or plural form.

Possessive Form

The possessive forms show ownership. Generally the possessive form follows the phrase of the or has an apostrophe s or a plain apostrophe at the end of the noun: The storm of the evening (the evenings storm) Angelas book (book belongs to Angela) Marines rifles (rifles that belong to many Marines)

Check on Learning

What are the four characteristics of nouns? The four characteristics of nouns are Gender (male, female, neutral) Number (singular, plural) Person (1st, 2nd, 3rd) Case (subjective, objective, possessive)

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

LESSON 2 PRONOUNS Introduction

Estimated Study Time

20 minutes

Lesson Scope

Another part of speech that is critical for good writing is the pronoun. Pronouns function like nouns; they are naming words. Pronouns are words that substitute for nouns. This lesson will describe the characteristics of pronouns and provide you examples of pronouns so you can identify them in a sentence.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to Define the characteristics of pronouns. Identify pronouns by type. Identify the pronouns in a sentence. Define pronoun-antecedent agreement.

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction Basic Characteristics Types Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement See Page 1-13 1-14 1-16 1-18

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Basic Characteristics

Pronoun Characteristics

Because pronouns substitute for nouns, they have the same characteristics as nouns: Gender Number Person Case

Gender

Because pronouns substitute for nouns, pronouns also note gender differences. Pronouns may be Male (he) Female (she) Neutral (it, you)

Person

Like nouns, pronouns function in First person the speaker (I, we) Second person - the one spoken to (you) Third person the one spoken of (he, she, it, they)

Number

Pronouns can be singular or plural. The following table shows number and person for some pronouns. Person 1st 2nd 3rd Number Singular I You He, she, it Plural We You They

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Basic Characteristics, Continued

Case

As with nouns, case describes whether a pronoun is functioning as A subject (subjective case) An object (objective case) A possessive (possessive case)

Examples of Case

The following table lists some pronouns by case. Subjective I You He, she, it We They Who Possessive Mine Your, yours His, hers, its Our, ours Their, theirs Whose Objective Me You Him, her, it Us Them Whom

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Types

Eight Types of Pronouns

There are eight types of pronouns: Demonstrative Indefinite Intensive Interrogative Reciprocal Reflexive Relative Personal

Demonstrative Pronouns

A demonstrative pronoun points out the noun it refers to and distinguishes it from others. Some demonstrative pronouns are This That These Those

Example: Those Marines are the ones who helped validate this course. (Those is the demonstrative pronoun that refers to a specific group of Marinesthe ones who helped validate this course.)

Indefinite Pronouns

Indefinite pronouns refer to an unidentified person or thing. Some indefinite pronouns are One Any Each Anyone Somebody All

Example: Anyone can apply for the position. (Anyone is the indefinite pronoun that refers to the unknown person who can apply for the position.)
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Types, Continued

Intensive Pronouns

Intensive pronouns strengthen or emphasize the antecedent. The antecedent is the noun to which the pronoun refers. Some intensive pronouns are Myself Yourself Himself

Example: The commander, himself, took out the garbage. (Himself is the intensive pronoun that refers to the antecedent commander to emphasize it.)

Interrogative Pronouns

An interrogative pronoun indicates a question. Some interrogative pronouns are Who Which What

Example: Who was the honor graduate? (Who is the interrogative pronoun in the question; it refers to the person who was the honor graduate.)

Reciprocal Pronoun

Reciprocal pronouns denote mutual action or cross relationship between members comprised in a plural subject. Some reciprocal pronouns are Each other One another

Example: Corporal Jones and Corporal Smith helped each other prepare for the promotion board. (Each other is the reciprocal pronoun that refers to the antecedents Corporal Jones and Corporal Smith.)
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Types, Continued

Reflexive Pronoun

Reflexive pronouns refer to the subject of the sentence, clause, or verbal phrase in which it stands. Generally it is a personal pronoun compounded with self. Some reflexive pronouns are Myself Yourself Himself

Example: He helped himself get promoted by working and studying diligently. (Himself is the reflexive pronoun that refers to the subject of the sentence he.)
Relative Pronoun

Relative pronouns introduce an adjective clause. The relative pronoun connects the adjective clause to the independent clause by showing relationship to the noun (the antecedent). Some relative pronouns are Who, Whom Whose Which That

Example: Corporal Smith is the Marine who won the rifle competition. (Who is the relative pronoun that refers to the Marine that won the rifle competition.)
Personal Pronouns

A personal pronoun represents a person or persons. Some common personal pronouns are I You He, She It We They

Example: John and I attended basic training together; we were combat buddies there. (We is the personal pronoun that refers to the antecedent John and I.)

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement

Antecedent Definition

An antecedent is the noun that the pronoun represents or stands for. Generally it is the closest noun that comes before the pronoun in the sentence.

Agreement

Pronouns must always agree in person and number with their antecedents. The pronoun gender should also be the same as its antecedent. The following table describes this agreement further. If the noun is In first person In second person In third person Singular Plural Male Female Neutral Then the pronoun Must be first person Must be second person Must be third person Must be singular Must be plural Should be male Should be female Should be neutral

Check on Learning

When a pronoun is in objective case, what do you know about it? When a pronoun is in objective case, you know that it is functioning as an object of a verb or of a preposition.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

LESSON 3 VERBS Introduction

Estimated Study Time

15 minutes

Lesson Scope

When we write, we not only use nouns and pronouns, but also we express action. Predicating (stating or asserting) is a function of the verb. Verbs express state of being (seem, be, and all other forms of to be) or action (run, eat, think, etc.). This lesson will teach you the characteristics of verbs and the relationship between verbs and other sentence elements.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to Classify verbs by type. Define the characteristics of verbs. Identify the tenses of verbs. Select the correct verb form for subject-verb agreement in a sentence.

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction Classification Person and Number Voice Tense Mood See Page 1-21 1-22 1-25 1-27 1-28 1-30

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Classification

Categories

Verbs are predicating (stating or asserting) words. They express state of being or action. We classify verbs as Transitive Intransitive Linking Auxiliary

Transitive Verbs

A transitive verb Expresses a transfer of action from the subject to the object Requires a direct object to complete its meaning; that is, it must be followed by a word that answers the question whom or what.

Examples: The commander wrote the award citation. (Wrote is the transitive verb; citation is the object that answers the question wrote what?) The officer pushed the suspect. (Pushed is the transitive verb; suspect is the object that answers the question pushed whom?) Sergeant Johnson drove the bus. (Drove is the transitive verb; bus is the object that answers the question drove what?)

Intransitive Verbs

An intransitive verb expresses no transfer of action; consequently, it does not require an object to complete its meaning. An intransitive verb is also called a finite verb. Examples: The troops marched all day. (Marched is the intransitive verb.) The old man died. (Died is the intransitive verb.)
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Classification, Continued

Linking Verbs

A linking verb Links the subject to some other word that names or describes it Denotes a state of being or condition Is always followed by a subject complement that identifies or describes the subject of the sentence

Note: When the subject complement is a noun or pronoun, it is called a predicate nominative. When the subject complement is an adjective that modifies the subject of the verb, it is called a predicate adjective.

Common Linking Verbs

The most common linking verbs are Forms of the verb to be (is, are, was, were, be, being, been, am) Seem Become Appear Prove Look Remain Feel Taste Smell Sound Turn Grow

Examples: He is my friend. (Is represents the linking verb; friend is the noun serving as the subject complement that identifies or describes who he is.) The room appears different. (Appears is the linking verb; different is the adjective serving as the subject complement that describes the subject room.)
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Classification, Continued

Auxiliary Verbs

An auxiliary verb helps another verb. Some verbs commonly used as auxiliaries are Have Has Had Do Did Does Shall Will Must May Can Might Could Would Should Forms of to be

Examples: She is going to Okinawa. (Is is the auxiliary verba form of the verb to bethat helps the verb going.) You should check with your platoon leader for the information. (Should is the auxiliary verb that helps the verb check.)

Verb Phrase

A verb with its auxiliary verb is called a verb phrase. Some examples of verb phrases are Can go Had been done Will be able to

Verb phrases are discussed more in study unit 2, lesson 1, Verb Phrases.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Person and Number

Characteristics

Like nouns and pronouns, verbs can be First, second, or third person Singular or plural

Based on the person and number, the form of the verb is different. Creating these different forms is called conjugation.

Conjugating the Verb To Take

The following table is an example of the verb to take based on person and number. Number Singular I take You take He, she, or it takes Plural We take You take They take

Person 1 (the speaker) 2nd (the one spoken to) 3rd (the one spoken of)
st

Adding S to Verbs ending in a sound that can be smoothly united with s form their third Form Third person singular by adding s. Person Singular Verbs Verb blacken becomes blackens

Verb criticize becomes criticizes Verb radiate becomes radiates

Verbs ending in a y and preceded by a, e, o, or u also form their third person singular by adding s. Verb buy becomes buys Verb enjoy becomes enjoys Verb sway becomes sways
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Person and Number, Continued

Adding ES to Verbs ending in a sound that cannot be smoothly united with s form their Form Third third person singular by adding es. Person Singular Verbs Verb pass becomes passes

Verb tax becomes taxes Verb march becomes marches

Changing Y to I Verbs ending in a y preceded by a consonant form their third person singular and Adding ES by changing the y to i and adding es. to Form Third Person Singular Verb pity becomes pities Verbs

Verb carry becomes carries Verb bury becomes buries

Subject-Verb Agreement

Because the verb takes different forms based on person and number, it is important to use the correct form. The verb form must match the form for the person and number of the subject noun. That is, if the subject is singular and third person, the verb form must also be singular, third person; generally this means the verb will end in s.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Voice

Active Voice

Voice is a characteristic unique to verbs. Active voice is when the subject performs the action. The private cleaned the floor. (The private is the subject and the person doing the cleaning.) Sergeant Smith directed traffic away from the accident. (Sergeant Smith is the subject and the person directing traffic.) Corporal Jensen fired the rifle expertly. (Corporal Jensen is the subject and the person firing the rifle.)

Passive Voice

The passive voice is when the subject is acted upon. A form of the verb to be combined with a phrase by someone or something generally indicates passive voice. The floor was cleaned by the private. (The floor is the subject and it is being cleaned.) Traffic was directed away from the accident by Sergeant Smith. (The traffic is the subject and it is being directed.) The rifle was fired expertly by Corporal Jensen. (The rifle is the subject and it is being fired.)

Note: Use passive voice when the doer is not important. For example, The words lets go were heard.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Tense

Definition

The verb characteristic of tense refers to the action or state of being of the verb. It describes the point in time the action or state of being occurs.

Six Tenses

The six verb tenses are Present Past Future Present perfect Past perfect Future perfect

Present Tense

Present tense refers to action or state of being that is currently occurring: I take He marches They grow

Past Tense

Past tense refers to action or state of being that has already occurred. I took He marched They grew

Future Tense

Future tense refers to action or state of being that will occur in the future. I shall take He shall march They shall grow
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Tense, Continued

Present Perfect

Present perfect tense refers to action or state of being that began in the past and is continuing in the present. I have taken He has marched They have grown

Past Perfect

Past perfect tense refers to action or state of being that has occurred before another past action. I had taken He had marched They had grown

Future Perfect

Future perfect tense refers to action or state of being that will be completed by a certain time in the future. I shall have taken He shall have marched They shall have grown

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Mood

Definition

Mood, another characteristic of verbs, shows how the speaker views the action. It tells what type of sentence it will be; it can be a statement or opinion, question, command, warning, or doubt.

Four Moods

The four moods a verb can express are Indicative Interrogative Imperative Subjunctive

Indicative Mood

Indicative mood states a fact or an opinion. The Marine Corps is one of the smaller branches of service. (fact) The Marine Corps is the best branch of service. (opinion)

Interrogative Mood

Interrogative mood asks a question. Do you believe the Marine Corps is the best branch of service? Do you want to join the Marines after you graduate?

Imperative Mood

Imperative mood expresses a command, warning, or request. The subject of the sentence (you) is often omitted. Ready, aim, fire! Be wary of files from unknown sources. Please complete this survey.
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Mood, Continued

Subjunctive Mood

Subjunctive mood expresses doubt, wish, or condition contrary to fact. The platoon leader recommended that he study the drill and ceremony manual more often. The boss insisted that they work five days a week. Regulation requires that all students be enrolled before the new fiscal year.

Check on Learning

What are the six tenses of a verb? The verbs six tenses are present, past, future, present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

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LESSON 4 ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Introduction

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Lesson Scope

Modifying words add color to our writing. Adjectives and adverbs are modifying words. That is, they describe or limit the meaning of another word or group of words. This lesson will explain the differences between adjectives and adverbs.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to Identify the function of adjectives. List the types of adjectives. Identify the function of adverbs. Select the adjectives in a sentence. Select the adverbs in a sentence.

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction Adjectives Adverbs Conjunctive Adverbs Importance of Location See Page 1-33 1-34 1-36 1-38 1-39

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 4

Adjectives

Definition

Adjectives are words and phrases that describe or limit the meaning of a noun or its equivalent. Adjectives answer the questions what kind, how many, or which one.

Attributive Adjectives

Adjectives that describe a quality of a noun are called attributive adjectives. Attributive adjectives are placed next to the nouns they modify. Dressed in his fatigues, the sergeant looked like a formidable foe. (Formidable describes the noun foe.) She demonstrated her professional attitude in that situation. (Professional describes the noun attitude.) He married a woman of great means. (Of great means describes the noun woman. Additionally, great describes the noun means.)

Predicative Adjectives

Adjectives that occur after a linking verb or words such as appear, sound, look, feel, taste, seem, become, and smell are called predicative adjectives. The food tasted bad. He is handsome in his dress uniform. The section became disorganized.

Three Types

Attributive and predicative adjectives can be divided into three categories: Descriptive Proper Limiting
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Adjectives, Continued

Descriptive Adjectives

Descriptive adjectives name a particular quality. Green vehicle Powerful Marine Leaking radiator

Proper Adjectives

Proper adjectives are derived from proper nouns. Roman fountain American custom Marine Corps hero

Limiting Adjectives

Limiting adjectives may Indicate possession My puppy Their challenge Your commitment Point out This manual Former president That regulation Number Three forces Second platoon Tenth vehicle Be articles A division The Marine An idea

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 4

Adverbs

Definition

Like adjectives, adverbs are modifying words. Adverbs are words and phrases that describe or limit the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or a whole sentence. Adverbs answer the questions when, where, why, in what manner, or to what extent.

Modify Single Words

By definition, adverbs are words and phrases that modify single words (either verbs or adjectives). The day went quickly. Nearly all men want success. The funeral detail slowly marched to the cadence.

Modify Sentences

Adverbs can also modify complete sentences. Maybe he will go. Very quickly the crowd dispersed. The parade was cancelled, because it was raining.

Ask Questions

Adverbs can also serve to ask questions. When did he go? Where is the book? How quickly can you disassemble the rifle?

Indicate Manner

Adverbs can indicate the manner in which the action is taken. Secretly embarrassed, the woman held her head high. Speaking quietly, the chaplain admonished the little boy. I only found the secret.
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Adverbs, Continued

Indicate Time

Another function of adverbs is to indicate time. Never healthy, she decided to retire. I called today. Yesterday the Marines celebrated their victory.

Indicate Place

Adverbs can describe location or place. Outside the office, it was raining hard. Here at MCI, we produce distance training products. Within the organization, the morale was low.

Indicate Degree

Adverbs indicate the degree something happens. Quite easily distracted, the editor failed to finish her project. She was very happily married. The meal was mostly vegetarian.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 4

Conjunctive Adverbs

Definition

A conjunctive adverb is an adverb that serves as a conjunction; it joins two complete sentences.

Common Conjunctive Adverbs

Some common conjunctive adverbs are Consequently Furthermore However Moreover Nevertheless Otherwise Therefore Thus

Examples: He was the top student in his platoon; therefore, he was the honor graduate. Corporal Brooks finished second in the marksmanship competition; consequently, his platoon finished second in the company competition.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 4

Importance of Location

Specific Rules for Adjectives

Attributive adjectives, you may remember, are placed next to the noun they modify. Predicative adjectives are placed after the linking verb or verb of sense (appear, sound, feel, taste, smell).

General Rule

Generally, place the adverb or adjective closest to the word or words that it modifies. Placement of the adjective or adverb affects the meaning of a sentence. Be sure to place the adjective or adverb so that it modifies exactly what you mean for it to modify! Consider the following sentences to see how the placement of only, which can be an adjective or an adverb, affects the meaning of each sentence. Only I lost a million dollars. (Just me, nobody else.) I only lost a million dollars. (Just lost, not found, won, etc.) I lost only a million dollars. (Just $1 million, not more or less.)

Check on Learning

Adjectives and adverbs are modifying words. What is the basic difference between the two? Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns; adverbs modify verbs or the predicate part of the sentence.

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LESSON 5 PREPOSITIONS Introduction

Estimated Study Time

5 minutes

Lesson Scope

Prepositions are connecting words. Connecting words helps us link one word or word group with another. They help us establish relationships between the words in a sentence. This lesson will teach you about the group of connecting words called prepositions.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to Define the function of prepositions. Identify prepositional phrases in a sentence.

Lesson Content

The following table lists the contents of this lesson. Topic Introduction Definition Prepositional Phrases See Page 1-41 1-42 1-43

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 5

Definition

Relationship to Nouns and Pronouns

Prepositions are specific words that connect a noun or pronoun (called its object) with some other word in the sentence. The preposition shows the relationship between the object and the other word.

Common Prepositions

The most common prepositions are About, above, across, after, among, around, as, at Before, behind, below, beside, by Down, during Except For, from In, inside, into Near, next Of, off, on, out, over Past Since Through, to, toward Under, until, up, upon With, within, without

Example: The company under the leadership of Captain Johnson excelled in competition. (Under is the preposition that relates leadership to company. Of is the preposition that relates Captain Johnson to leadership. In is the preposition that relates competition to excelled.)

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1-42

Study Unit 1, Lesson 5

Prepositional Phrases

Definition

A preposition and its object form a prepositional phrase.

Examples of Prepositional Phrases

Some prepositional phrases are After the ceremony (After is the preposition; ceremony is its object.) Toward the enemy (Toward is the preposition; enemy is its object.) Under the leadership (Under is the preposition; leadership is its object.)

Prepositional phrases are discussed more in study unit 2, lesson 1, Prepositional Phrases.

Check on Learning

What is the function of prepositions? Prepositions connect nouns or pronouns (called the object of the preposition) with some other word in the sentence. The preposition shows the relationship between the object and the other word.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 5

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 5

LESSON 6 CONJUNCTIONS Introduction

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Lesson Scope

Like prepositions, conjunctions are connecting words. A conjunction joins words, phrases, or clauses. Conjunctions show the relationship between the sentence elements they connect. This lesson will teach you to identify conjunctions and the relationship between the elements they connect.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to Identify the classes of conjunctions. Identify correlative conjunction pairs. Identify the relationship between elements joined by subordinating conjunctions. Identify the conjunctions in a sentence.

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction Coordinating Conjunctions Correlative Conjunctions Subordinating Conjunctions See Page 1-45 1-46 1-47 1-48

MCI Course 8011B

1-45

Study Unit 1, Lesson 6

Coordinating Conjunctions

Definition

One category of conjunctions is the coordinating conjunction. Coordinating conjunctions join words, phrases, or clauses of equal rank.

Common Coordinating Conjunctions

The common coordinating conjunctions are For And Nor But Or Yet So

Note: An easy way to remember the common coordinating conjunctions is to remember the acronym fan boys (from the first letter of each of the common coordinating conjunctions).

Examples

The following sentences contain coordinating conjunctions. The Marine and the soldier competed together. The Marine Corps collects toys at Christmas, so the chapel staff can distribute gifts to children. The commander devised the plan, but the NCOs carried out the orders.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 6

Correlative Conjunctions

Definition

Another type of conjunction is the correlative conjunction. Correlative conjunctions work in pairs to join words, phrases, clauses, or whole sentences.

Common Correlative Conjunction Pairs

The most common correlative pairs are Both and Either or Neither nor Not but Not only but also

Relationship Between Joined Elements

Elements joined with a correlative conjunction pair are generally equal in rank.

Examples

The following sentences contain correlative conjunctions. Both the Marines and the Navy live on that base. Not only the enlisted Marines, but also the officers participated in the disaster relief. Neither sleet, nor rain, nor dark of night shall keep them from their appointed duties.

MCI Course 8011B

1-47

Study Unit 1, Lesson 6

Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating Conjunctions

The third category of conjunctions is subordinating conjunctions. Subordinating conjunctions join clauses that are not equal in rank. When subordinating conjunctions are used, one clause is dependent on the other; that is, the dependent clause is not a complete sentence by itself.

Common Subordinating Conjunctions

The most common subordinating conjunctions are After, although, as, as if, as though Because, before Even if, even though If, in order that Rather than Since, so that Than, that, though Unless, until When, whenever, where, wherever, whether, while

Examples

The following sentences contain subordinating conjunctions. Although the weather was stormy, the Marine patrolled the perimeter. She accepted the job, so that she could be closer to home. Corporal Smith worked after duty hours even though his supervisor did not ask him to.

Check on Learning

What are the three categories of conjunctions? Conjunctions can be divided into three categories: coordinating, correlative pairs, and subordinating.

MCI Course 8011B

1-48

Study Unit 1, Lesson 6

Study Unit 1 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

1 hour, 10 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against the correct answers at the end of this study unit. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item.

Item 1

What is the major function of nouns? a. b. c. d. Naming Modifying Connecting Predicating

Item 2

To form the plural of nouns that end in y preceded by a consonant, you a. b. c. d. add es. add s. change the y to e and add s. change the y to i and add es.

Item 3

To form the plural of compound nouns, you a. b. c. d. add s to the last word. make the last word plural. make the main word plural. make the first word plural.

Item 4

Case refers to whether a noun is a. b. c. d. singular or plural. female, male, or neutral. first, second, or third person. subjective, objective, or possessive.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1 Exercise

Study Unit 1 Exercise, Continued

Directions for Item 5 Through Item 7

Refer to the following sentence to answer items 5 though 7. Lance Corporal Maclains ability to accomplish multiple, complicated tasks simultaneously enabled his superiors to focus on other important issues.

Item 5

Identify the nouns in the sentence. a. b. c. d. Ability, multiple, superiors, important issues Ability, superiors, issues Lance Corporal Maclains, ability, tasks, superiors Lance Corporal Maclains, ability, tasks, superiors, issues

Item 6

Identify the noun in the possessive case. a. b. c. d. Ability Lance Corporal Maclains Important issues Superiors

Item 7

Identify the noun in the objective case. a. b. c. d. Issues Multiple Lance Corporal Maclains Ability

Item 8

What is the major function of pronouns? a. b. c. d. Connecting Modifying Naming Predicating


Continued on next page

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1-50

Study Unit 1 Exercise

Study Unit 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 9 Through Item 11

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the type of pronoun from column 2 that best describes the list of pronouns in column 1. The answers in column 2 may only be used once. Column 1 List of Pronouns ___ 9. Who, which, what ___ 10. This, that, these, those ___ 11. Myself, yourself, himself, etc. Column 2 Type of Pronouns a. b. c. d. Interrogative Reflexive Reciprocal Demonstrative

Directions For Item 12 Through Item 14

For items 12 through 14, select the answer that describes the problem and the correction (problem; correction).

Item 12

Our company clerk is a man in who you can put a great deal of trust. a. b. c. d. Wrong case of pronoun who; whom Pronoun-antecedent disagree; whose Wrong person of pronoun who; whom Wrong person of pronoun who; whose

Item 13

The cub scouts played his first game. a. b. c. d. Wrong number of pronoun his; their Wrong number of pronoun his; theirs Pronoun-antecedent disagree; their Pronoun-antecedent disagree; theirs
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1 Exercise

Study Unit 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 14

Everyone had taken off their heavy equipment. a. b. c. d. Pronoun-antecedent disagree; his or her Pronoun-antecedent disagree; theirs Wrong number of pronoun their; theirs Wrong person of pronoun their; theirs

Item 15

What does a transitive verb do? a. b. c. d. Helps another verb Links to some word that names or describes it Expresses a transfer of action from subject to object Expresses no transfer of action from subject to object

Item 16

Verbs of sense (such as be, appear, feel, taste, smell, sound) are types of _____ verbs. a. b. c. d. auxiliary linking transitive intransitive

Item 17

Active voice is when a. b. c. d. the subject performs the action. the subject is acted upon. action transfers from subject to object. the subject is linked to another word that names or describes it.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1 Exercise

Study Unit 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 18

Verb tense refers to the action or state of being of the verb. What are the six verb tenses? a. b. c. d. Pluperfect, future perfect, past perfect, future, past, present Future perfect, past perfect, present perfect, aorist, past, present Future perfect, past perfect, present perfect, future, past, present Future perfect, past perfect, present pluperfect, future, past, present

Directions For Item 19 Through Item 21

For items 19 through 21, fill in the blank with the correct form of the verb.

Item 19

One of the Marines ____ completed the land navigation course. a. has b. have

Item 20

He was one of those Marines who ___ to be honored for conspicuous valor. a. is b. are

Item 21

Second platoon _____ expert on the rifle range. a. shooted b. shot


Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1 Exercise

Study Unit 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 22

What is the function of adjectives and adverbs? a. b. c. d. Naming Modifying Connecting Predicating

Item 23

Adjectives answer the following questions: a. b. c. d. When, why, what kind When, what kind, how many What kind, how many, where What kind, how many, which one

Item 24

Limiting adjectives a. b. c. d. indicate possession or number. indicate manner in which action is taken. indicate time. indicate to what extent something occurs.

Item 25

Not counting the article the, list the adjectives and adverbs in the following sentence (adjectives; adverbs): The Continental Congress authorized the formation of two battalions of Marines under Captain Samuel Nicholas, who is traditionally considered the first Commandant of the Marine Corps. a. b. c. d. two, Captain; first two, first; traditionally first; Captain, traditionally two, Continental; first
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1 Exercise

Study Unit 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 26

Adverbs answer the questions a. b. c. d. when, which one, why, where. in what manner, when, where, how many. who, what, when, where, why. when, where, why, in what manner, to what extent.

Item 27

What is the function of prepositions? a. b. c. d. Naming Modifying Connecting Predicating

Directions For Item 28 Through Item 31

For items 28 through 31 identify the prepositions and the objects (preposition, object; preposition, object; etc.) in each sentence.

Item 28

Lieutenant OBannon led a Marine detachment in the storming of the harbor fortress of Derna, Tripoli in 1805. a. b. c. d. in, storming; of, fortress; of, Derna, Tripoli; in, 1805 led, Marine; of, fortress; in, 1805 of, harbor; of, Derna; in, 1805 led, detachment; of, harbor; of, Tripoli, in 1805

Item 29

Marines deployed as part of a multinational peacekeeping force. a. b. c. d. deployed, as; of, peacekeeping deployed, part; of, multinational as, part; of, force as, part; of, peacekeeping
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1 Exercise

Study Unit 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 30

In January 1968, Marines defended the firebase at Khe Sanh from an attack force. a. b. c. d. In, January 1968; at, Khe Sanh; from, attack At, Khe Sanh; from, force In, January 1968; at Khe Sanh; from, force In, January 1968; from, force

Item 31

Marines occupied the Halls of Montezuma after the Battle of Chapultepec in Mexico City. a. b. c. d. of, Montezuma; after, Battle; in, City of Montezuma; after, Battle; of, Chapultepec; in, Mexico City of Montezuma; after, Battle, of, Chapultepec after, Battle; of, Chapultepec; in, Mexico City

Item 32

What is the function of conjunctions? a. b. c. d. Predicating Naming Modifying Connecting

Item 33 Through Item 36

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the class of conjunction from column 2 that best describes the conjunction in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used more than once. Column 1 Conjunction ___ 33. ___ 34. ___ 35. ___ 36. Nor Bothand Notbut As if Column 2 Class of Conjunction a. Coordinating b. Correlative c. Subordinating

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1 Exercise

Study Unit 1 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Answer a d c d d b a c a d b a c a c b a c a a b b d a b d c a c Reference Page 1-4 1-7 1-8 1-10 1-4 1-10 1-10 1-13 1-17 1-16 1-18 1-15 1-19 1-19 1-22 1-23 1-27 1-28 1-26 1-26 1-28 1-33 1-34 1-35 1-35; 1-36 1-36 1-41; 1-42 1-42; 1-43 1-42; 1-43
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1 Exercise

Study Unit 1 Exercise, Continued

Answers (continued)

Item Number 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

Answer c b d a b b c

Reference Page 1-42; 1-43 1-42; 1-43 1-45 1-46 1-47 1-47 1-48

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Study Unit 1 Exercise

STUDY UNIT 2 PHRASES, CLAUSES, AND SENTENCES Overview

Estimated Study Time

1 hour, 10 minutes

Unit Scope

Now that you have learned the different parts of speech, you need to learn how to put them together to write effectively. The subject is usually a noun, noun phrase, or pronoun. The predicate is what is being written about the subject. The predicate consists of a verb or a verb phrase and may also contain modifiers or objects that the subject acts on. Study unit 2 teaches you about the basic elements of writing: phrases, clauses, and sentences.

Learning Objectives

After completing this unit, you should be able to Identify the difference between a phrase, a clause, and a sentence. Identify a complete sentence from a sentence fragment.

Unit Content

The following table lists the lessons covered in this unit. Topic Overview Lesson 1 Phrases Lesson 2 Clauses Lesson 3 Sentences Study Unit 2 Exercise See Page 2-1 2-3 2-11 2-21 2-26

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Study Unit 2

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Study Unit 2

LESSON 1 PHRASES Introduction

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Lesson Scope

This lesson teaches the first element of putting parts of speech together to communicate effectively. The first element of word groups is the phrase. This lesson will define different types of phrases so that you will be able to identify them in sentences.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to Define a phrase. List types of phrases Identify phrases in a sentence.

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction Types of Phrases Absolute Phrases Verb Phrases Prepositional Phrases Adjective Phrases Adverb Phrases See Page 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9

MCI Course 8011B

2-3

Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Types of Phrases

Definition

A phrase is a group of words that relate to each other but lack a related subject and predicate. Phrases do not make sense alone. A phrase by itself is a sentence fragment; that is, it is not a complete sentence.

Categories

The different categories of phrases are Absolute Verb Prepositional Adjective Adverb

MCI Course 8011B

2-4

Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Absolute Phrases

Definition

An absolute phrase is a noun and a participle (a verb functioning as an adjective; normally ends with ing) that is not grammatically connected to the rest of the sentence. It is related only by thought.

Examples

Some sentences with absolute phrases (in italics) are Knees trembling, Private Smith approached the promotion board. Eyes flashing, the first sergeant reprimanded the unshaven Marine.

MCI Course 8011B

2-5

Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Verb Phrases

Definition

A verb phrase is a verb plus its auxiliary (helping verb). You will remember from the lesson on verbs that some common auxiliary verbs are Have Has Had Do Did Does Shall Will Must May Can Might Could Would Should Forms of to be

Examples

Some sentences with verb phrases (in italics) are After you have moved the handle to the safe position, you will be able to connect the chain to the block. Travelers should be aware of strangers lurking near their luggage. You have loaded the weapon.

MCI Course 8011B

2-6

Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Prepositional Phrases

Definition

A prepositional phrase is a preposition plus its object. A few common prepositions, as stated in an earlier lesson on this subject, are About, above, across, after, among, around, as, at Before, behind, below, beside, by Down, during Except For, from In, inside, into Near, next Of, off, on, out, over Past Since Through, to, toward Under, until ,up, upon With, within, without

Examples

Some sentences with prepositional phrases (in italics) are When placing the ammunition into the weapon, make sure the bolt is in the closed position. Each step of the process is covered in more detail later in this lesson. How can we make sure we retain the integrity of the plan?

MCI Course 8011B

2-7

Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Adjective Phrases

Definition

An adjective phrase is a prepositional phrase that serves as an adjective. The adjective phrase modifies a noun or pronoun, and it answers questions such as: what kind, how many, or which one?

Examples

Some sentences with adjective phrases (in italics) are The commander of the troops is responsible for the commands. Careless omission of pertinent facts will hinder mission success.

MCI Course 8011B

2-8

Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Adverb Phrases

Definition

An adverb phrase is a prepositional phrase that is used as an adverb. The adverb phrase modifies the verb, and it answers questions such as: when, where, how, or why?

Examples

Some sentences with adverb phrases (in italics) are Because it started to rain, the troops marched at a fast pace. The party began after the parade.

Check on Learning

What kind of information does an adjective phrase provide? An adjective phrase is a prepositional phrase serving as an adjective. It modifies a noun or pronoun. An adjective phrase tells what kind, how many, or which one.

MCI Course 8011B

2-9

Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

LESSON 2 CLAUSES Introduction

Estimated Study Time

15 minutes

Lesson Scope

The next element of effective writing is the clause. This lesson defines clauses and explains the different types of clauses you will use to write well. You will learn words that may signal the different types of clauses in a sentence.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to Define a clause. List types of clauses. Identify clauses in a sentence.

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction Types of Clauses Noun Clause Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Restrictive Clause Nonrestrictive Clause Dependent Clause Independent Clause See Page 2-11 2-12 2-13 2-14 2-15 2-16 2-17 2-18 2-19

MCI Course 8011B

2-11

Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Types of Clauses

Definition

A clause is a group of words that relate to each other, contains a subject and a predicate (verb), but may or may not form a complete thought. All clauses that do not form a complete thought are incomplete sentences or sentence fragments.

Listing of Categories

Types of clauses are Noun Adjective Adverb Restrictive Nonrestrictive Dependent Independent

MCI Course 8011B

2-12

Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Noun Clause

Definition

A noun clause functions as a noun. Because it is a clause, it has a subject and a predicate. A noun clause is generally essential to the sentence and cannot be omitted.

Signals

Some signal words that a noun clause is beginning are How That What Whether Why

Examples

Some sentences with noun clauses (in italics) are The manual describes how the machinegun is cleaned. The awards board determines whether the award nomination is approved.

MCI Course 8011B

2-13

Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Adjective Clause

Definition

An adjective clause is a clause that functions as an adjective. The adjective clause modifies a noun or a pronoun; it comes after the word it modifies.

Signals

Adjective clauses are introduced by relative pronouns. There are five main relative pronouns. That Which Who Whom Whose

Examples

Some sentences with adjective clauses (in italics) are The secondary road that runs south from the junction at the river is your left boundary. Honor graduate is awarded to the Marine whose grades and performance greatly excelled above the rest.

MCI Course 8011B

2-14

Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Adverb Clause

Definition

An adverb clause functions as an adverb. The adverb clause tells how, on/under what condition, when, where, or why. The adverb clause has a subject and a predicate, but it cannot stand alone.

Signals

Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinate conjunctions. The subordinating conjunctions that signal the beginning of an adverb clause depend on the type of information the clause tells. The following table lists the subordinating conjunctions for adverb clauses. If the subordinating conjunction is As if, as though Although, if, provided that, though, unless After, as, as soon as, before, since, until, when, whenever, while Where, wherever Why Then the adverb clause tells How On/under what condition When Where As, because, since, so that

Examples

Some sentences with adverb clauses (in italics) are Although we have no units adjacent to us, we have a company to our rear for support. Move your platoon forward 600 meters, as soon as your equipment arrives.

MCI Course 8011B

2-15

Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Restrictive Clauses

Definition

A restrictive clause limits the meaning of the word it modifies, and it limits the interpretation to only one. The restrictive clause is an essential element of the sentence.

Examples

Some sentences with restrictive clauses (in italics) are The company that won the softball tournament celebrated their victory at the picnic. Turn the switch that powers the tank to the off position, before you begin disassembly. The Marine presented the bouquet to the lady whose husband just retired.

MCI Course 8011B

2-16

Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Nonrestrictive Clauses

Definition

A nonrestrictive clause merely adds information about the word it modifies. The nonrestrictive clause is not essential to the meaning, and it is set off with a comma.

Examples

Some sentences with nonrestrictive clauses (in italics) are Before testing the adapter, the silver part of the machine, remove the circuit card. The M250 smoke grenade launcher, mounted on the side of the tank, screens your tank from enemy observation. Personnel having open lesions, particularly on their hands, face, and neck, are prohibited from performing further duty in the mess hall.

MCI Course 8011B

2-17

Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Dependent Clauses

Definition

A dependent clause is introduced by a subordinating conjunction; a dependent clause does not make sense when it stands alone. You will remember from the lesson on conjunctions, the most common subordinating conjunctions are After, although, as, as if, as though Because, before Even if, even though If, in order that Rather than Since, so that Than, that, though Unless, until When, whenever, where, wherever, whether, while

Examples

Some sentences with dependent clauses (in italics) are When you have 12 smoke grenades in the storage boxes, firmly seat 6 grenades into the barrels of the launchers. Your professionalism is evident, because you have chosen to study distance education materials. As a dedicated Marine, your job performance will improve when you take these courses.

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2-18

Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Independent Clause

Definition

An independent clause contains a subject and a predicate. However, it is really a sentence. An independent clause not only contains a subject and a predicate, it also makes sense by itself; it is a complete thought.

Examples

Some independent clauses are All Marines learn basic infantry skills. The Marine Corps celebrates its birthday on November 10. Corporal Jones received his first Good Conduct Medal.

Check on Learning

What is a restrictive clause? Unlike a nonrestrictive clause, a restrictive clause is necessary for the accuracy of the sentence. A restrictive clause limits the meaning of the word it modifies; it limits the interpretation to only one.

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2-19

Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

LESSON 3 SENTENCES Introduction

Estimated Study Time

15 minutes

Lesson Scope

This lesson teaches you how to put together everything you have learned to form properly structured sentences. In this lesson you will learn how to create simple, compound, and complex sentences. Once you have these mastered, you are well on the way to effectively communicating.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to Define a sentence. Identify sentences by type.

Lesson Content

The following table lists the contents of this lesson. Topic Introduction Sentence Structure Simple Sentences Compound Sentences Complex Sentences See Page 2-21 2-22 2-23 2-24 2-25

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2-21

Study Unit 2, Lesson 3

Sentence Structure

Definition of a Sentence

A sentence is a word group that has a subject and a predicate and makes sense by itself. At a minimum, it is the equivalent of an independent clause that makes sense by itself.

Subject

The subject is the naming part of the sentence. It consists of a noun, a noun phrase, or a pronoun. It is what the sentence is about.

Predicate

The predicate is what is being written about the subject. It consists of a verb or verb phrase. It may also contain modifiers or objects that the subject acts upon.

Types of Sentences

The three basic types of sentences are Simple Compound Complex

Note: Learn to use the three types of sentences. It improves your writing if you can mix simple, complex, and compound sentences within your paragraphs. CAUTION: Be careful not to put too much information into one sentence. It is better to provide the information in several shorter sentences instead of one cumbersome one. Consider the following sentence, for example: During the summer, Marines at Marine Barracks Washington, D.C. perform in ceremonial parades on Tuesdays and Fridays at 8th and I Streets and the Iwo Jima Memorial. It would be better to present the information in several shorter sentences: During the summer, Marines at Marine Barracks Washington, D.C. perform in many ceremonial parades. These parades are held on Tuesdays and Fridays. Tuesdays parades are at the Iwo Jima Memorial. Fridays parades are at the 8th and I Streets barracks.

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2-22

Study Unit 2, Lesson 3

Simple Sentences

Definition

A simple sentence is a subject and a predicate that makes sense by itself. An independent clause is a simple sentence.

Examples

Some simple sentences are She was promoted. The Marines will defend the perimeter. Health and sanitation within the food service field go hand in hand.

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2-23

Study Unit 2, Lesson 3

Compound Sentences

Definition

A compound sentence consists of two simple sentences joined by the conjunctions or, but, or and.

Examples

Some compound sentences are The planning team has developed a sound plan, but the operations section is having trouble executing it. The preventive medicine personnel are instructors of sanitation training, and they perform the sanitation inspections at the mess hall.

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2-24

Study Unit 2, Lesson 3

Complex Sentences

Definition

A complex sentence contains one or more dependent clauses and an independent clause. The dependent clauses must relate to the independent clause in thought.

Examples

Some complex sentences are When war broke out in Europe in 1914, the balance of power system pitted two European alliances of roughly equal military strength and national resources. Although annual training may be recorded on the reverse side of the certificate, for Marines transferring, the departments at new duty stations may prefer to issue new certificates.

Check on Learning

What is the difference between a compound and complex sentence? A compound sentence is two independent clauses joined by the conjunction or, but, or and. A complex sentence is an independent clause joined with one or more closely related dependent clauses.

MCI Course 8011B

2-25

Study Unit 2, Lesson 3

Study Unit 2 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

30 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against the correct answers at the end of this study unit. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item.

Item 1

What is a phrase? a. A group of words that relate to each other, but lack a related subject and predicate b. A group of words that relate to each other, and have a subject and a predicate c. A group of words that relate to each other, have a subject and a predicate, and form a complete thought

Item 2 Through Item 5

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the type of phrase from column 2 that best describes the phrase in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used more than once. Column 1 Phrase ___ 2. ___ 3. ___ 4. ___ 5. At the Harpers Ferry arsenal Teeth gnashing May be infected Did report to Column 2 Type of Phrase a. Absolute b. Verb c. Prepositional

Item 6

What is a clause? a. A group of words that relate to each other, but lack a related subject and predicate b. A group of words that relate to each other, have a subject and a predicate, and may or may not form a complete thought c. A group of words that relate to each other, have a subject and a predicate, and form a complete thought
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2 Exercise

Study Unit 2 Exercise, Continued

Item 7 Through Item 10

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the type of clause from column 2 that matches the definition in column 1. The type of clause may only be used once. Column 1 Definition ___ 7. Clause that may begin with that, which, who, whom, whose ___ 8. Clause that is introduced with a subordinating conjunction ___ 9. Clause that may begin with how, that, what, whether, or why ___ 10. Clause that limits the meaning of the word it modifies Column 2 Type of Clause a. b. c. d. e. Noun clause Adjective clause Restrictive clause Dependent clause Adverb clause

Directions For Item 11 and Item 12

For items 11 and 12, identify the restrictive clause in each sentence.

Item 11

Although the crowd was small, the ceremony in which the silent drill team performed impressed both the young and old there. a. Although the crowd was small b. In which the silent drill team performed c. Both the young and old

Item 12

Marines deployed to Lebanon as part of a multinational peacekeeping force were withdrawn from the war-torn country in 1984. a. b. c. d. Deployed to Lebanon as part of a multinational peacekeeping force As part of a multinational peacekeeping force From the war-torn country In 1984
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Study Unit 2 Exercise

Study Unit 2 Exercise, Continued

Item 13

What is the definition of a sentence? a. A group of words that has a subject and a predicate and makes sense by itself b. A group of words that relate to each other but lack a related subject and predicate c. A group of words that relate to each other that have a subject and a predicate

Item 14 Through Item 17

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the type of sentence from column 2 that best describes the example sentence in column 1. The type of sentence may be used more than once. Column 1 Example Sentence Column 2 Type of Sentence

a. Simple ___ 14. Chesty, the Marine Corps mascot, is named for Lieutenant b. Compound General Lewis B. Puller. c. Complex ___ 15. A suicide truck bombed the headquarters building, and more than 200 Americans were killed or wounded. ___ 16. By the end of World War II, Major Boyington was the topranking flying ace in the Marine Corps. ___ 17. When Private Opha Mae Johnson enlisted into the Marine Corps, her enlistment reflected the dramatic changes in womens status brought about by the U.S. entry into World War I.
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Study Unit 2 Exercise

Study Unit 2 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Answer a c a b b b b d a c b a a a b a c Reference Page 2-4 2-7 2-5 2-6 2-6 2-12 2-14 2-18 2-13 2-16 2-16 2-16 2-22 2-23 2-24 2-23 2-25

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Study Unit 2 Exercise

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Study Unit 2 Exercise

STUDY UNIT 3 PUNCTUATION Overview

Estimated Study Time

1 hour, 20 minutes

Unit Scope

Punctuation is a device we use to clarify the meaning of written text. The general principles governing the use of punctuation are that If it does not clarify the text it, should be omitted. In the choice and placing of punctuation marks, the sole aim should be to bring out more clearly the writers thought.

Punctuation should aid in reading and prevent misreading. Careless omission of a punctuation mark can greatly alter the meaning of a sentence. Likewise, excessive punctuation tends to break the smooth flow of words and makes the sentence hard to understand. This unit teaches you the proper way to use different punctuation marks in a sentence.
Learning Objectives

After completing this study unit, you should be able to Define the purpose or function of each punctuation mark. Identify correct use of each punctuation mark in a sentence.

Unit Content

The following table lists the lessons covered in this unit. Topic Overview Lesson 1 The Comma Lesson 2 The Colon Lesson 3 The Semicolon Lesson 4 The Apostrophe Lesson 5 End Punctuation Lesson 6 Quotation Marks Study Unit 3 Exercise See Page 3-1 3-3 3-9 3-13 3-17 3-21 3-27 3-32

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Study Unit 3

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Study Unit 3

LESSON 1 THE COMMA Introduction

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Lesson Scope

In its simplest sense, punctuation in writing takes the place of pauses and emphasis in speaking. One test for effective punctuation is to read your writing aloud; if you pause or use emphasis where the punctuation appears, you have probably punctuated correctly. About half of the errors in punctuation are comma errors. This lesson will not cover all of the minute details of the comma; however, it will teach you the proper and most common uses of the comma.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to Define the purpose or function of the comma in a sentence. Identify correct use of the comma in a sentence.

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction In Compound Sentences With Phrases and Clauses See Page 3-3 3-4 3-5

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

In Compound Sentences

The Rule

Commas set off independent clauses that are joined by a coordinating conjunction.

Examples

The following sentences are examples of compound sentences that use a comma to set off the independent clauses (in italics) joined by a coordinating conjunction. The commander is Colonel Jensen, and the executive officer is Major Roe. The Marines practiced the ceremony every day, so the crowd enjoyed each performance.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

With Phrases and Clauses

Introductory Elements

Commas set off introductory elements (in italics). Adverb clauses If you register now, you can vote by mail When you first handle a weapon, you must clear it. Long prepositional phrases In the cool air of the April morning, we prepared for the field problem. Military personnel often complete substantial work, by the time civilians are just beginning to wake up. Verbal phrases Speaking off the record, the Senator addressed the battalion. The lieutenant handled the situation, serving as the acting commander.

Items in a Series

Commas separate the items in a series (in italics) when there are more than two items. The book is available in bookstores, at newsstands, or by mail. Basic issue items include fatigues, boots, and BAWs. Some benefits of military service are the travel opportunities, the medical care, and the exchange privileges.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

With Phrases and Clauses, Continued

Coordinate Adjectives

Commas separate coordinate adjectives (in italics) when they are of equal importance. Tall, stately trees lined the boulevard. Courageous, dedicated Marines traveled to the area on a relief mission. The mess sergeant cooked large, delicious burgers to order.

Parenthetical Expressions

Commas set off parenthetical expressions (in italics). These words and phrases interrupt the flow of the sentence and are not essential to its meaning. General parenthetical expressions She was, in my opinion, an outstanding officer. The entire briefing, moreover, lacked vitality. Nonrestrictive clauses Parsons Boulevard, which runs past my house, is being repaved. The editors supervisor, who recently took another job, received an award for her service. Nonrestrictive phrases Mrs. Atlee, wearing red, is the commanders sister. The Marine, dressed in his blues, becomes a handsome escort. Nonrestrictive appositives Americas first general, George Washington, crossed the Delaware River. The Marine Corps Commandant, General Jones, recently took command.

Absolute Phrases

Commas set off absolute phrases (in italics). The day being warm, we headed for the beach. The corporal hurried to clean the rifle, the command being a lawful order.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

With Phrases and Clauses, Continued

Direct Address

Commas set off names or words used in direct address (in italics). Sergeant Jones, what are you doing? How are you this morning, Mrs. Snyder?

Yes or No

Commas set off yes or no at the beginning of a sentence. Yes, a lot of information is covered in this course. No, you do not disassemble the weapon before you clear it.

Check on Learning

List three instances when a comma is used. A comma is used to Set off independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction Set off introductory elements (adverb clauses, prepositional phrases, verbal phrases) Separate items in a series when there are more than two items Separate two coordinate adjectives when they are of equal importance Set off parenthetical expression or nonrestrictive clauses Set off absolute phrases Set off direct address words or names and yes or no at the beginning of a sentence

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

LESSON 2 THE COLON Introduction

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Lesson Scope

The colon is a mark of anticipation. The material that follows the colon illustrates, restates, or depends on the information that precedes the colon. This lesson will teach different situations in which to use a colon.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to Define the purpose of the colon. Identify correct use of the colon in a sentence.

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction To Introduce To Separate See Page 3-9 3-10 3-12

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

To Introduce

A List

Colons introduce a list, but only after as follows, the following, or a noun that represents or stands for the list that follows it. Each soldier will carry the following: MREs for three days, a survival knife, and a sleeping bag. The division had four new officers: Lieutenants Smith, Tucker, Fillmore, and Lewis.

A Long Quotation

Colons introduce a long quotation (one or more paragraphs). In The Killer Angels Michael Shaara wrote: You may find it a different story from the one you learned in school. There have been many versions of that battle [Gettysburg] and that war [the Civil War].

Note: The brackets indicate that the comment was added by the person quoting the author. In the DLTD Style Manual, styles are defined as: A series of formats that can automatically apply to any part of your document. Instead of applying formats one at a time by clicking toolbar buttons, keyboard shortcuts, or dialog boxes, you choose a style and it automatically applies all the formatting for you. When you need to change the appearance of any document, all you have to do is change the styles.

A Formal Quotation or Question

Colons introduce a formal quotation or question. The President declared: The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. The question is: What can we do about it?
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

To Introduce, Continued

A Second Independent Clause

Colons introduce a second independent clause that explains the first. Potters motive is clear: he wants the assignment. The commander was transferred: he was reassigned to Headquarters, Marine Corps.

A Business Letter

Colons introduce a business letter. That is, a colon follows the introduction of a business letter. Dear Sir or Madam: Dear Senator Smith:

Details of an Announcement

Colons introduce details following an announcement. For sale: Large lakeside cabin with dock. Attention: The parade will be cancelled due to rain.

A Formal Resolution

Colons introduce a formal resolution. That is, a colon follows the word resolved. Resolved: That this council petition the mayor Resolved: That this court-martial will

Words in a Script

Colons introduce the words of a speaker in a play or script. Macbeth: She should have died hereafter. Narrator: If you will please take your seats, we will now begin the ceremony.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

To Separate

Parts of a Title, Reference, or Numeral

Colons separate the parts of a title, reference, or numeral. Principles of Mathematics: An Introduction Luke 3:4-13 8:15 AM

Bibliographies

In bibliographies, colons separate the place of publication from the publisher and the volume number from the pages. Miller, Jonathan. The Body in Question. New York: Random House, 1978. Jarchow, Elaine. In Search of Consistency in Composition Scoring. English Record 23.4 (1982): 1819.

Check on Learning

When do you use a colon with two independent clauses in the same sentence? You use a colon after an independent clause when what follows the colon is another independent clause that explains the first.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

LESSON 3 THE SEMICOLON Introduction

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Lesson Scope

Another frequently used punctuation mark is the semicolon. Using the semicolon allows you to vary the sentence construction within a paragraph. However, there are specific rules for using the semicolon correctly. This lesson will teach you acceptable uses of the semicolon in a sentence.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to Define the purpose of the semicolon. Identify the correct use of the semicolon in a sentence.

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction Independent Clauses With Commas See Page 3-13 3-14 3-15

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Independent Clauses

No Coordinating Conjunction

The semicolon separates two or more independent clauses when closely related and not joined by a coordinating conjunction. Since the mid-1970s Americas campuses have been relatively quiet; todays students seem interested more in courses than causes. You will set up an anti-armor ambush in their vicinity; the ambush will cover the road running northwest to southwest.

With Conjunctive Adverb

The semicolon separates two independent clauses joined by a conjunctive adverb (see Conjunctive Adverbs, study unit 1, lesson 4). On weekdays the club closes at eleven; however, on weekends its open until one. MCI Marines help produce distance learning products; furthermore, they perform ceremonial duties at the Marine Corps Barracks.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

With Commas

Clauses with Commas

The semicolon punctuates clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (in italics) when the clauses have commas within them. Today people can buy what they need from department stores, supermarkets, and discount stores; but in colonial days, when such conveniences did not exist, people depended on general stores and peddlers. You must draw rations, water, ammunition, radios, and radio batteries at the company command post; and then draw four sound-powered telephones and communication wires from the company gunnery sergeant.

Series with Commas

The semicolon punctuates items in a series when there are commas within the series. At the alumni dinner, I sat with the schools best-known athlete, Gary Wyckoff; the editor of the paper, two stars of the class play, a fellow and a girl who later married each other; and Tad Frump, the class clown. The Marines came from Fargo, North Dakota; Norfolk, Virginia; Austin, Texas; and Barstow, California.

Check on Learning

How are semicolons used to punctuate sentences with two independent clauses? You use a semicolon to separate two or more independent clauses that are closely related and not joined by a coordinating conjunction. You also use a semicolon when two independent clauses are joined by a conjunctive adverb such as however, therefore, thus.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

LESSON 4 THE APOSTROPHE Introduction

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Lesson Scope

Another often misused punctuation mark is the apostrophe. Misuse or omission of an apostrophe can hamper the understanding of the sentence. This lesson will teach you the function of the apostrophe so you can use it correctly when you write.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to Define the function of the apostrophe. Identify the correct use of the apostrophe in a sentence.

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction To Show Possession To Mark Omissions See Page 3-17 3-18 3-19

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

To Show Possession

Possessive Case of Nouns

The apostrophe forms the possessive case of nouns. Generally, form the possessive noun by adding an apostrophe s to the end of the noun. Mrs. Smiths car The court-martials outcome The Marines uniform (singular)

For nouns that end in an s, form the possessive case by adding only an apostrophe. The bus tires (singular noun) The buses tires (plural noun) The gas aroma The Marines uniforms (plural)

Note: Be careful when forming the possessive case of nouns ending in s. If the noun is singular, make it possessive by just adding the apostrophe. If you want a plural possessive noun, make it plural first and then add the apostrophe.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

To Mark Omissions

In Contractions

Apostrophes show the omission of letters in contractions. Do not becomes dont Would not becomes wouldnt I am becomes Im It is becomes its

Note: Be careful not to confuse the contraction its with the possessive case of the pronoun it (its). Use the apostrophe only for the contraction of it is.

For Numbers

Apostrophes can also show the omission of numerals. Class of 1984 becomes Class of 84 The 1920s becomes the 20s

Check on Learning

In the term its, what does the apostrophe mean? In this case, the apostrophe represents the omission of the letter i. Its is a contraction for the words it is.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

LESSON 5 END PUNCTUATION Introduction

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Lesson Scope

While the punctuation within the sentence is critical for accurate communication of your ideas, end punctuation is equally important. End punctuation indicates the end of a complete thought and the type of sentence that is presented. This lesson discusses end punctuation so that you can choose the right punctuation to communicate your thought.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to List the three types of end punctuation. Correctly identify the end punctuation to use for different communication situations.

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction The Period The Exclamation Point The Question Mark See Page 3-21 3-22 3-23 3-24

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 5

The Period

Function

The most frequently used end punctuation mark is the period. Beside separating whole numbers from decimal numbers, the period is placed at the end of all Declarative statements Imperative statements (commands) Indirect questions

Decimal Point

The period is called a decimal point when it separates whole numbers from decimal numbers. $500.25 33.50 percent 23.75 feet

Declarative Sentences

The following statements are examples of declarative sentences. You will be held accountable for your actions, words, and gestures. The private was at the appointed place of duty on time. I expect you to lead the way.

Imperative Sentences

The following statements are imperative sentences. Check the phone roster for accuracy. Would you please help customers in a timely manner? Report to the first sergeant before you leave.

Indirect Questions

The following statements are indirect questions. The corporal asked when the promotion would become effective. We need to get the supplies for the picnic; the question is who has the money. The first sergeant asked the private what his problem was.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 5

The Exclamation Point

Function

The exclamation point is used to emphasize a statement or to express strong emotion (urgency, surprise, enthusiasm, disbelief).

Examples

The following sentences are examples of emphatic statements. Look out, the tree is falling! Congratulations! Oh! I forgot to tell you the good news.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 5

The Question Mark

Function

The question mark is used to indicate Direct questions A series of questions Elliptical questions A command or request Doubtful information Rising intonation A question within a statement

Direct Questions

The question mark is placed at the end of direct questions. What are you doing for lunch today? Where have you been all morning? Have you participated in any wars or conflicts?

A Series of Questions

Use a series of questions when you want to add emphasis to your writing. The question mark is placed at the end of each question in a series. For example, see how the emphasis changes in the following sentence when you add question marks. Who is in charge, the commander, the first sergeant, or the executive officer? Who is in charge? Is it the commander? Is it the first sergeant? Or is it the executive officer?
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 5

The Question Mark, Continued

Elliptical Questions

The question mark is placed at the end of elliptical questions. Elliptical questions are questions that are shortened for economy and ease of understanding; their meanings are clear. I understand tickets are on sale for the picnic. How much? (Short for How much are the tickets?) Where is the briefing? At headquarters? (Short for Is the briefing at headquarters?)

A Command / Request

The question mark is placed at the end of a command phrased as a request. Will you go to the post office for me? Can you bring me a copy of the regulation?

Doubtful Information

The question mark is used to indicate doubt about the information that precedes it. The Marine Corps (1775? - present) is a fine branch of service. President Kennedy (1932? 1963) believed strongly in civil rights.

Rising Intonation

The question mark is placed at the end of a sentence that is a statement in form, but a question of intonation. That is, when you say the statement your voice rises at the end to sound like a question instead of a statement. You want to go on leave in the middle of the personnel changes? You believe they care about your problems?

Question Within a Statement

A short question inside a statement is set off with commas and the question mark is placed at the end. If the short question is at the end of the sentence, a question mark is placed at the end. We can exchange the gifts, cant we, if we have the receipts? We can exchange the gifts if we have the receipts, cant we?
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 5

The Question Mark, Continued

Check on Learning

Name three types of sentences that use a period for end punctuation. Three types of sentences that use a period for end punctuation are Declarative sentences Imperative sentences Indirect questions

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 5

LESSON 6 QUOTATION MARKS Introduction

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Lesson Scope

Often when we write we repeat statements made by other people or from other sources. To correctly do this we must use quotation marks. Quotation marks enclose quotations, slogans, slang expressions, or ordinary words used in other than their usual fashion. This lesson teaches you how to properly use quotation marks.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to Define the purpose of quotation marks. Identify correct use of quotation marks in a sentence.

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics contained in this lesson. Topic Introduction Direct Quotations Ellipses Special Uses With Other Punctuation Marks See Page 3-27 3-28 3-29 3-30 3-31

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 6

Direct Quotations

One Sentence Quotation

Use quotation marks to enclose direct quotations. MacArthur vowed, I shall return, as he left the islands. Walter Cronkite closed his news program with these words, And thats the way it is.

More Than One Sentence Quotation

For quotations of several sentences, use quotation marks before the first sentence and after the last. Jenkins said, Somethings wrong. I know it. He should have called in by now. The sergeant said, The company operations will be with the 3rd platoon. The command post is to the rear grid 691901. Ill be with 3rd platoon.

Several Paragraphs Quotation

For quotations of several paragraphs either Put quotation marks at the beginning of each paragraph but at the end of only the last paragraph. Do not use any quotation marks at all; instead indent the entire quotation and type it single spaced.

Incomplete Sentence Quotation

With a short quotation that is not a complete sentence, use no commas before the quote. Barrie described life as a long lesson in humility. MacArthurs commencement speech was about duty, honor, country.

Interrupted Quotation

With an interrupted quotation, use quotation marks only around the quoted words. I heard, said the sergeant, that you passed the course. A ship without Marines, said Admiral David D. Porter, U.S. Navy, is like a garment without buttons.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 6

Ellipses

Definition

An ellipsis (plural form is ellipses) is three periods () used to indicate an omission or a pause.

In Quotations

Use the ellipsis to indicate the omission of unimportant or irrelevant words from a quotation. What a heavy burden is a name that has becomefamous. Voltaire Military intelligencea contradiction in terms. Groucho Marx

Opposite

By contrast, use brackets [] to indicate explanatory words added to the quotation. From a distance it [fear] is something; nearby it is nothing. La Fontaine Said Benjamin Franklin [on freedom], Those that can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 6

Special Uses

Quoting Dialogue

When quoting dialogue, start a new paragraph with each change of speaker. Hes dead, Holmes announced. Are you sure? the young lady asked. Is the company formed? asked the commander. The company is all present and accounted for, the first sergeant replied.

Short Title

Use quotation marks around the titles of short written works: poems, articles, essays, short stories, chapters, and songs. The first chapter in The Guns of August is entitled A Funeral. I still get misty-eyed when I hear Danny Boy.

Definition of Words

Use quotation marks around the definition of words. The original meaning of lady was kneader of bread. Montagnard comes from the French word for mountaineer; it refers to people inhabiting a highland region chiefly in southern Vietnam bordering on Cambodia.

Special Use of Words

Use quotation marks to indicate the special use of a word. Organized crime operates by having its ill-gotten gains laundered so they appear legitimate. Devil Dog is an affectionate term for Marines coined after World War II.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 6

With Other Punctuation Marks

Quotation Within Quotation

Use a set of single quotation marks () to indicate a quotation within a quotation: She asked, Who said, Let them eat cake.?

Periods or Commas

Place periods and commas inside quotation marks. Dr. Watson said, Its the speckled band. Move out, the first sergeant commanded.

Colons or Semicolons

Place colons and semicolons outside the quotation marks: Coe barked, I have nothing to say; then he left.

Question Marks, Exclamation Marks, Dashes

Place question marks, exclamation marks, and dashes Inside the quotation marks when the punctuation belongs to the quote Shauna said, Who is my opponent? Outside the quotation marks when they do not belong to the quote Did Shauna say, I fear no opponent?

Check on Learning

Which punctuation marks are placed inside quotation marks and under what circumstances? When you use quotation marks, place the following punctuation marks inside quotation marks as indicated: Single quotation marks for quotes within a quote Periods always Commas always Question marks, exclamation points, and dashes when the punctuation belongs to the quote

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 6

Study Unit 3 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

20 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against the correct answers at the end of this study unit. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the use of the comma in column 2 that best describes the commas use in the sample sentence in column 1. The use of the comma in column 2 may be used more than once. Column 1 Sample Sentence ___ 1. SgtMaj John Quick, noted for his performance at Cuzco Well, received the Congressional Medal of Honor. ___ 2. Brevet Brigadier General Henderson introduced higher standards of personal appearance, training, and discipline for the Marines. ___ 3. Lieutenant OBannon led a Marine detachment in the storming of the fortress of Tripoli, and OBannons Marines were the first forces to hoist the flag over territory in the Old World. ___ 4. Wash your hands before going on duty, after every visit to the head, and after touching anything that might be a source of germs. Column 2 Use of Comma a. Separate independent clauses joined by coordinating conjunction b. Set off parenthetical or nonrestrictive information c. Separate items in a series d. Set off introductory phrases

Item 1 Through Item 4

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3 Exercise

Study Unit 3 Exercise, Continued

Item 5

A colon is used to a. separate items in a list after the words as follows, the following, or a noun that is an appositive for the list. b. separate details in an announcement. c. separate independent clauses that do not have a coordinating conjunction. d. introduce a list after the words as follows, the following, or a noun that is an appositive for the list and to introduce details in an announcement.

Directions For Item 6 Through Item 10

For items 6 through 10, circle the letter of the statement that is correctly punctuated.

Item 6

a. The following military personnel are members of the Detroit Chamber of Commerce General Black, post commander; General Smith, USMC liaison; and Colonel Jones, USAF liaison. b. The following military personnel are members of the Detroit Chamber of Commerce: General Black, post commander, General Smith, USMC liaison, and Colonel Jones, USAF liaison. c. The following military personnel are members of the Detroit Chamber of Commerce: General Black, post commander; General Smith, USMC liaison; and Colonel Jones, USAF liaison. d. The following military personnel are members of the Detroit Chamber of Commerce. General Black, post commander; General Smith, USMC liaison; and Colonel Jones, USAF liaison.

Item 7

a. Private Holland said, I liked the poem Invictus very much, but I do not know the name of the author. b. Private Holland said, I liked the poem Invictus very much, but I do not know the name of the author. c. Private Holland said I liked the poem Invictus very much, but I do not know the name of the author. d. Private Holland said, I liked the poem Invictus very much, but I do not know the name of the author.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3 Exercise

Study Unit 3 Exercise, Continued

Item 8

a. b. c. d.

Camp LeJeune was 2 days march from where we were encamped. Camp LeJeune was 2 days march from where we were encamped. Camp LeJeune was 2 days march from where we were encamped. Camp LeJeune was 2 day march from where we were encamped.

Item 9

a. During Sergeant Collins briefing, he said, Bring everything we shall need. b. Captain Page said, The company will go on a 10-mile hike; therefore, I forgot about the siesta I was planning. c. Corporal Wilsons rifle is lying on his bunk where he placed it this afternoon. d. Tension rose rapidly during yesterdays meeting, they consequently adjourned early.

Item 10

a. b. c. d.

The commander asked where the supplies were? The commander asked where the supplies were. I have asked him will you get me that regulation? I have asked him to get me that regulation?
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3 Exercise

Study Unit 3 Exercise

Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Answer b c a c d c d a a b Reference Page 3-6 3-5 3-4 3-5 3-10; 3-11 3-10; 3-15 3-31 3-18 3-18; 3-31 3-22

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Study Unit 3 Exercise

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Study Unit 3 Exercise

STUDY UNIT 4 CAPITALIZATION AND SPELLING Overview

Estimated Study Time

50 minutes

Unit Scope

Along with proper sentence structure and punctuation, readers rely on proper capitalization and spelling to convey the meaning of a sentence or paragraph. Capitalization indicates the beginnings of different sentences and other grammatical constructions. Spelling includes selecting the proper word to state your meaning. The study unit teaches you rules for proper capitalization and to improve your spelling ability.

Learning Objectives

After completing this study unit, you should be able to Identify correct instances to capitalization when writing. Apply spelling rules to select correct spellings of words in sentences.

Unit Content

The following table lists the lessons covered in this unit. Topic Overview Lesson 1 Capitalization Lesson 2 Spelling Study Unit 4 Exercise See Page 4-1 4-3 4-9 4-14

MCI Course 8011B

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Study Unit 4

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MCI Course 8011B

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Study Unit 4

LESSON 1 CAPITALIZATION Introduction

Estimated Study Time

15 minutes

Lesson Scope

Readers generally expect a capital letter to identify the beginnings of sentences and proper names. Using capital letters otherwise may be misleading. If you are unsure about whether or not a word should be capitalized, the best rule is not to capitalize it. This lesson will teach you appropriate instances to use capital letters.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to Define the function of capitalization. Identify proper capitalization in a sentence.

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction In Grammatical Forms For Proper Nouns and Adjectives See Page 4-3 4-4 4-6

MCI Course 8011B

4-3

Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

In Grammatical Forms

Sentences

Capitalize the first word of every sentence, including quoted sentences. She said, The work is finished. The commander asked for the morning report. What do you want for your birthday?

Poetry

Capitalize the first word of a line of poetry. Had we but world enough, and time, This coyness, lady, were no crime. Andrew Marvel, To His Coy Mistress Listen my children and you shall hear Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, The Midnight Ride

Words and Phrases

Capitalize words and phrases used as sentences. Really? Yes, indeed. Of course. Why?

Following a Colon

Capitalize the first word of a formal question or statement following a colon. He asked several questions: Where are you going? What will you do? What is your goal? I offered a word of advice: Read only the best books.
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MCI Course 8011B

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

In Grammatical Forms, Continued

In an Outline

Capitalize the first word of each item in a formal outline. I. Sports offered the first semester A. Football B. Basketball II. Enlisted ranks in the Marine Corps A. Private B. Private First Class C. Lance Corporal

Titles

Capitalize the first, last, and all other important words in a title. The Naked and the Dead Uniform Code of Military Justice

Addresses, Salutations, and Signatures

Capitalize the first word and all principal words in addresses, salutations, and signatures. Very truly yours, Dear Sir or Madam: My Dearest Son,

Note: Capitalize nouns indicating relationships only when they are used as names or titles in combination with proper names (as in Mother Theresa). Do not capitalize them if they are preceded by a possessive adjective (as in my mother).

MCI Course 8011B

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

For Proper Nouns and Adjectives

Proper Noun

A proper noun is a name of a particular person, place, or thing. It is always capitalized. Eskimo Marine Corps General Westmoreland

Proper Adjectives

A proper adjective is an adjective derived from a proper noun; that is, American from America. Proper adjectives are always capitalized. English Japanese

Places and Organizations

Capitalize the names of specific places and organizations. This includes geographic directions when they refer to a specific area, but not points on the compass. Also capitalize the names of stars and planets. Atlantic Ocean He came from the Old South. 1st Marine Air Wing United Nations Earth, Jupiter The North Star, the Big Dipper

Time References

Capitalize the days of the week, months, holidays, historical events, and historical periods. Friday May Veterans Day We had a staff ride on the Battle of Gettysburg. What happened during the Middle Ages?
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

For Proper Nouns and Adjectives, Continued

Religious Names

Capitalize religious names. Christians read the Bible. Catholics revere the Virgin. Allah God, the Lord

Historical Documents, Emblems, and Colors

Capitalize historical documents, names of flags, emblems, and school colors. Where is the Constitution stored? Old Glory Bronze Star Green and Gold

Specific Transportation Vehicles

Capitalize the names of ships, aircraft, trains, and spacecraft. These names are usually also in italics. Titanic The Orient Express Enterprise

Acronyms

Capitalize initials used as acronyms. B.C. NATO FBI

Personifications

Capitalize personifications (attributing personal qualities to something). Mother Nature Old Man Winter The face of Death
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

For Proper Nouns and Adjectives, Continued

Titles

Capitalize a title preceding a name. Also capitalize the names of educational institutions, departments, specific courses, and specific academic degrees. Professor Johnson (but the professor) Reverend Howell Duke University Biology 101 MEd (for Masters degree in Education) Captain Williams (but he was promoted to captain)

Interjections

Capitalize the interjection O and the pronoun I.

Check on Learning

Why are capitalization rules important? Readers rely on capitalization to tell them when sentences begin and to identify other grammatical constructions (proper nouns, outlines, poetry lines, etc.). Capitalization improves reading comprehension.

MCI Course 8011B

4-8

Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

LESSON 2 SPELLING Introduction

Estimated Study Time

15 minutes

Lesson Scope

Nothing can substitute for the ability to spell. Some writers try to avoid misspelling by using only familiar words. For instance, a writer wants to express moving forward in a sentence. He would like to use the word edging to describe the action. Instead, he substitutes the word moving simply because he does not know how to spell edging. The result is writing that is flat and colorless. This lesson teaches you habits and rules to follow to reduce your chances for spelling errors.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to List habits of effective writers. Use English grammar and spelling rules to identify misspelled or misused words in a sentence.

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction Habits Basic Spelling Rules Word Usage Study Unit 4 Summary Study Unit 4 Exercise See Page 4-9 4-10 4-11 4-12 4-14 4-15

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Habits

Proofreading

Care in writing and proofreading your work will help eliminate errors in the spelling of simple words, such as, to, there, and its.

Dictionary

Use the dictionary. Some people do not like to use the dictionary. However, the only sure way to find the correct spelling, or correct hyphenation of a word is to look it up in the dictionary.

Record Errors

Keep a list of your spelling errors. Although it is a difficult habit to establish, the habit of correctly recording the words you frequently misspell is one technique that many have found helpful. Make sure you spell the word correctly when entering it on your list.

Spell by Syllables

Learn to spell words by syllables. A long word when divided into syllables becomes a number of short words. To simplify the spelling of long words, divide the word into its pronounceable parts (syllables) and spell them part by part.

Frequently Misspelled Words

Learn lists of frequently misspelled words. Collect lists of frequently misspelled words. From the lists identify the words you have trouble spelling. Study them. Practice writing the words several times until you have memorized them correctly.

Misused Words

Be sure to use exactly the word you mean. Be particularly careful when choosing the preposition; although they may be short words, they can be carelessly used. Some words require specific prepositions; sometimes the preposition used can change the meaning of the sentence.

Basic Rules

Learn the basic spelling rules to help you become a better speller.

MCI Course 8011B

4-10

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Basic Spelling Rules

Ie and Ei

Distinguish between ie and ei. Remember this saying: Write i before e except after c or when sounded like a as in eighty and sleigh.

Final E

Drop the final e before a suffix beginning with a vowel but not before a suffix beginning with a consonant. Suffix beginning with a vowel: guide + ance = guidance Suffix beginning with a consonant, final e retained: hate + ful = hateful

Final Y

Change the final y to i before a suffix, unless the suffix begins with i. Change y to i and add suffix (not beginning with i): defy + ance = defiance Suffix begins with i: cry + ing = crying

Final Consonant

If a single vowel precedes a final single consonant that ends an accented syllable or a one-syllable word, double the final single consonant before adding a suffix beginning with a vowel Stop + ing = stopping Admit + ed = admitted

Unless both conditions exist, the final consonant is not doubled. Stoop + ing = stooping (p ends a one-syllable word, but is preceded by a double vowel oo) Benefit + ed = benefited (t is preceded by a single vowel I, but it does not end the accented syllable)

Note: Remember, every rule has an exception. Basic spelling rules are only basic guidelines to follow. If in doubt, look it up in the dictionary!

MCI Course 8011B

4-11

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Word Usage

Idiosyncrasies

Watch for word idiosyncrasies. When the spelling of a word is contrary to the usual word structure, give particular attention to that word. Observe its special qualities. Look at it. Sound it out to yourself. Memorize it. Write it repeatedly. Write it in different sentences.

Homonym Pairs

Distinguish between homonyms. Homonyms are words that sound alike but have different meanings and may have different spellings. Whenever you use a word that may be a homonym, use a dictionary to make sure you use the word correctly. The following table lists some homonym pairs that give writers problems. Word and Meaning Accept a verb meaning to receive. Homonym and Meaning Except a preposition meaning to leave out. Advice a noun meaning counsel or Advise a verb meaning to give opinion. counsel. Affect a verb meaning to produce a Effect a noun meaning result; a change in. verb meaning to cause or to accomplish. Capitol a noun meaning the Capital a noun meaning the official building in which state or federal seat of government or wealth; an legislatures meet. adjective meaning of primary importance. Complement a verb meaning to Compliment a verb meaning to make complete; a noun meaning that praise or congratulate; a noun which is filled up or complete. meaning a formal expression of courtesy, praise, or admiration. Here an adverb meaning in or at Hear a verb to mean to perceive or this place; a noun meaning this place. apprehend by the ear. Its a singular personal pronoun in Its a contraction of the words it is. third person possessive case. Personal an adjective meaning or, Personnel a noun meaning a body relating to or affecting a person; a of persons usually employed.` noun meaning a short newspaper paragraph relating to the activities of a person, a group, or personal matters.
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MCI Course 8011B

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Word Usage, Continued

Other Frequently Confused Words

The following table lists other homonyms that are frequently misused in sentences. Learn them so you can check your writing to make sure you have used the right word for what you mean. Cite a verb meaning to quote, commend, or mention to support or illustrate. To a preposition used as a function word to indicate movement, an action or condition toward a place, person, or thing; direction; contact or proximity; limit; relationship; also used to indicate infinitive verb form. There an adverb meaning in or at that place; a pronoun that functions to introduce a clause or sentence. Write a verb meaning to inscribe characters on a surface. Site a noun meaning a location or a verb meaning to find a location. Too an adverb meaning besides or also. Sight a noun meaning ability to see or a verb meaning to observe within ones field of vision. Two an adjective meaning one more than one in number.

Their a plural personal pronoun in third person possessive case. Right an adjective meaning correct or the opposite of left; a noun meaning a privilege.

Theyre a contraction for the words they are.

Rite a noun meaning a ceremony.

Check on Learning

Why is it important to distinguish between homonyms when you write? Homonyms are words that sound alike but have different meanings and may be spelled differently. It is important that you spell the word that means exactly what you intend in your sentence; otherwise, the sentence will not mean what it is supposed to or will not make sense at all.

MCI Course 8011B

4-13

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Study Unit 4 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

20 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against the correct answers at the end of this study unit. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item.

Item 1 Through Item 4

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the reason for capitalization in column 2 that best describes why the italicized words in the samples in column 1 are capitalized. The reasons in column 2 may be used more than once. Column 1 Samples ___ 1. Respectfully yours, ___ 2. Members of the 5th and 6th Marines wear the French Fourragere. ___ 3. Into the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. --A.L. Tennyson ___ 4. Valorous exploits of Marines throughout history are important examples on which to base your conduct. Column 2 Reason a. Beginning of sentence or line of poetry b. Proper noun c. Title d. Address or salutation

Item 5

Select the list that contains only habits for improving your spelling. a. Learn basic rules for spelling; use the dictionary and thesaurus; record frequent errors to learn from your mistakes b. Proofread; use the dictionary; learn basic rules for spelling; record frequent errors to learn from your mistakes c. Proofread; spell by sounding out the words; use the thesaurus; learn basic rules for spelling d. Spell by syllables; use the dictionary and thesaurus; learn frequently misspelled words and record your own frequently misspelled words
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Study Unit 4 Exercise

Study Unit 4 Exercise, Continued

Directions For Item 6 Through Item 9

Select the basic spelling rule that the given word demonstrates.

Item 6

Friend a. Double the final consonant preceded by a single vowel in an accented syllable or one-syllable word before adding a suffix that begins with a vowel. b. Change the y to an i before adding a suffix, unless the suffix begins with i. c. Drop the final e before a suffix beginning with a vowel but not before a suffix beginning with a consonant. d. Write i before e except after c or when sounded like a as in eighty and sleigh.

Item 7

Continuous a. Double the final consonant preceded by a single vowel in an accented syllable or one-syllable word before adding a suffix that begins with a vowel. b. Change the y to an i before adding a suffix, unless the suffix begins with i. c. Drop the final e before a suffix beginning with a vowel but not before a suffix beginning with a consonant. d. Write i before e except after c or when sounded like a as in eighty and sleigh.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 4 Exercise

Study Unit 4 Exercise, Continued

Item 8

Companies a. Double the final consonant preceded by a single vowel in an accented syllable or one-syllable word before adding a suffix that begins with a vowel. b. Change the y to an i before adding a suffix, unless the suffix begins with i. c. Drop the final e before a suffix beginning with a vowel but not before a suffix beginning with a consonant. d. Write i before e except after c or when sounded like a as in eighty and sleigh.

Item 9

Transferred a. Double the final consonant preceded by a single vowel in an accented syllable or one-syllable word before adding a suffix that begins with a vowel. b. Change the y to an i before adding a suffix, unless the suffix begins with i. c. Drop the final e before a suffix beginning with a vowel but not before a suffix beginning with a consonant. d. Write i before e except after c or when sounded like a as in eighty and sleigh.

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Study Unit 4 Exercise

Study Unit 4 Exercise Solutions

Correct Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer d b a a b d c b a Reference Page 4-5 4-6 4-4 4-4 4-10 4-11 4-11 4-11 4-11

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Study Unit 4 Exercise

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Study Unit 4 Exercise

STUDY UNIT 5 EFFECTIVE COMPOSITION Overview

Estimated Study Time

2 hours

Unit Scope

Now that you have reviewed the parts of speech and basic principles for writing a sentence, you need a process to organize your thoughts for a final composition. This study unit will teach you how to write effectively. The processes to write effectively are diagrammed in the picture below.

RESEARCH
(Data Collection)

PLAN FINAL DRAFT

PROOF

DRAFT EDIT

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8011B

5-1

Study Unit 5

Overview, Continued

Learning Objectives

After completing this unit you should be able to Identify the steps for effective communication. Identify the steps of the research process. Identify the process for gathering data. Describe an outline. Identify eight criteria for editing. Define purpose for proofing.

Unit Content

The following table lists the lessons covered in this study unit. Topic Overview Lesson 1 The Research Process Lesson 2 The Planning Process Lesson 3 The Draft Writing Process Lesson 4 The Editing Process Lesson 5 The Proofing Process Study Unit 5 Exercise See Page 5-1 5-3 5-11 5-29 5-33 5-51 5-54

MCI Course 8011B

5-2

Study Unit 5

LESSON 1 THE RESEARCH PROCESS Introduction

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Lesson Scope

All writing begins with research of a given topic. The topic may come from a job requirement, professional development, or an instructor. The research process consists of finding information, making notes, explaining the notes, and documenting your sources. Organized and focused research provides sufficient material to improve the quality of your composition. This lesson teaches you how to research effectively.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to Define the purpose of the research process. Identify the steps of the research process. Define hypothesis.

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction Research Definition and Characteristics Asking Questions Defining Your Purpose Dividing Primary Problem Forming Hypotheses Developing a Specific Plan of Action See Page 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-6 5-8 5-9 5-10

MCI Course 8011B

5-3

Study Unit 5, Lesson 1

Research Definition and Characteristics

Common Misconception

You may think that because you documented your sources and included a bibliography you've researched. Although what you have done is part of research, at best it is merely "the tip of the iceberg." If you fail to tell your reader how the facts and ideas support your thesis, you have not completed the tasking. You merely collected and described information; but you did not research.

Definition

Research is a process to systematically gather information to find the answer to a specific question or to develop the solution to a given problem.

Characteristics

The research process has several distinct characteristics. Your first step is to understand clearly what your requirement is, not just what you think it is. You must clearly identify the requirement that underlies the task. The following flowchart lists questions you must be able to answer.

Purpose identified?
NO YES

Assumptions identified?
NO YES

Audience specified?
NO YES

Gather Data

MCI Course 8011B

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 1

Asking Questions

Purpose

Your research consists of asking questions and finding answers. These questions help you Identify the problem Establish your purpose Analyze the data Draw valid conclusions

Sample Questions

You can use the following questions to start your research process. What is the real problem? What is your purpose in answering the problem? What are the subordinate questions you must answer to solve the problem? What are your educated guesses (hypotheses) that suggest solutions to the problem? What are the assumptions behind your educated guesses? What is your research plan? What type of information do you need? What is your plan to analyze the information (data)? Why does your information support your hypothesis? Why not? What conclusions can you draw from the data analyzed?

Using the Questions

To determine a problem that requires research, you always begin with a question you cannot answer with just a yes or no. Consider the following example; you receive orders assigning you to a joint task force to extract Marines from Haiti. The Marines were part of a military intervention to quell political and social unrest following a devastating earthquake. The task force can answer the question, Will you remove your military forces from Haiti? That question only calls for a yes or no answer. By definition the question does not call for any research. However, if you ask, What conditions must be met before you extract your military forces from Haiti, then you have a problem that requires research.

MCI Course 8011B

5-5

Study Unit 5, Lesson 1

Defining Your Purpose

Why

You must have a clearly stated purpose. Merely stating the research problem just gives your research direction. Compiling information without a purpose is merely collecting facts, opinions, and ideas on a given topic. You must first identify why you need to answer the research problem. "Why" provides purpose for your efforts and helps you and your audience understand what you want to accomplish.

Example

For example, consider the U.S. involvement in Haiti. Your task may be to Protect Marines from the danger of armed confrontation with Haitian nationalists. Convince the media that the intervention is in the best interest of the Haitians. Extract U.S. Marines from Haiti following a successful intervention. Restore public confidence in the Haitian police force. Protect lives and property of all Haitians. Establish democratic elections. Convince the State Department that Haitians are ready to manage their own affairs. Convince the United Nations that Haitians are ready to manage their own affairs.

Pursuing the Purpose

Each of these tasks suggests numerous purposes. Each purpose also provides you with numerous points of view, frames of reference, and perspectives to consider. You must identify a specific purpose to pursue. Let's say you have been placed on a process action team responsible "to establish democratic elections in Haiti. You can identify your specific purpose by asking questions of the person who gave the team the tasking. Two possible purpose questions are Is this to be a one-time democratic election so you can expedite U.S. Marine withdrawal? Is this to be an electoral system that will continue after U.S. Marine withdrawal?
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MCI Course 8011B

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 1

Defining Your Purpose, Continued

Example Purpose Defined

Lets say youve identified your purpose. You are to establish a democratic electoral system in Haiti that will continue after U.S. Marine withdrawal.

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5-7

Study Unit 5, Lesson 1

Dividing Primary Problem

Why

You need answers to several secondary problems before you can fulfill the purpose behind your tasking. Each secondary problem directly affects your purpose. Therefore, you must identify these secondary problems.

Example

Some secondary problems may include: What is the situation where displaced Haitian civilians have sought refuge? What resources are readily available to them? What resources are available to Marine squad members so they can perform their mission? What resources are available to overcome any language barriers?

Your answers to these secondary problems will help determine how the Legitimate Haitian forces defense system will protect displaced civilians after U.S. forces withdraw.

MCI Course 8011B

5-8

Study Unit 5, Lesson 1

Forming Hypotheses

Definition

A hypothesis is an educated guess based on specific assumptions that directs your thinking toward possible solutions. An educated guess may reflect one or more points of view that help you focus on the problem.

Example

Some educated guesses to identify factors that may create voter abuse are that Less than 10 percent of Haitians understand English. Preliminary intelligence studies indicate legitimate Haitian forces only have small-arms weapons. The squad will be operating in tropical and mountainous terrain. The Haitian rebels are intent on destroying the legitimate Haitian forces, and those helping them.

Each of these factors may create a situation that could jeopardize mission accomplishment. You must examine each factor and determine whether or not a valid assumption supports it.

Assumptions

An assumption is a self-evident condition required to complete your research. You discover the assumptions by asking yourself "What is it that I'm taking for granted?" Before accepting any assumption as valid, you must determine whether the self-evident condition nullifies or supports your investigation. Some assumptions are so self-evident that you may err by not identifying them. Without identifying your assumptions you won't know if they are valid or invalid. You must identify your assumptions. For example, if you are evaluating computer-assisted training for Marine development, you may assume that Marines can read. If they cannot read, then your educated guess is invalid.

Example Assumptions

Now, consider the first assumption, "Less than 10 percent of Haitians understand English." This statement assumes that a non-English speaking population may increase the potential for mission failure. If this assumption is true, then a condition exists that nullifies part or all of your investigation.

MCI Course 8011B

5-9

Study Unit 5, Lesson 1

Developing a Specific Plan of Action

Purpose

Military operations begin with a clearly stated purpose. Implementation requires a specific plan of action; so does research. You identify your purpose and then develop a plan to discover the information needed to answer the question. You must then consider where to find your research data and how to analyze the data to be sure you recognize and understand its significance for your research.

Criteria for Accepting Data

You only accept information, evidence, facts, observations, and experiences (data) relevant to the problem. Every problem has many factors. Data will come from primary and secondary sources. Some are relevant, while others may have nothing to do with the solution. Your task is to determine what data is relevant, and then to collect it. However, what you collect only becomes significant when you use your mind to extract meaning from it. Data demands interpretation; it cannot stand alone. It must pass from your notes through your mind for processing and interpretation. Data that passes from the raw stage to the final product without interpretation is merely the regurgitation of meaningless ideas.

Defining Your Audience

Your research has an audience; keep your focus on them. You must be mindful of your audiences familiarity and perspective on the subject. Your audience impacts your purpose, style, and content. For example, you may be seeking to develop a new fuel-efficient engine for lawn mowers. If this is a task that benefits only one person, then your audience is one person. However, if your purpose is to increase your income, then your audience quickly expands to include manufacturers, financial leaders, and those wanting a fuel-efficient engine for their lawn mowers.

Example

Returning to the Haitian incident, you can readily identify several audiences. Your purpose is to develop a democratic electoral system for Haiti. With this task, your audience as a minimum includes The Haitian populace Haitian politicians The United States (President, Congress, State Department) The United Nations

MCI Course 8011B

5-10

Study Unit 5, Lesson 1

LESSON 2 THE PLANNING PROCESS Introduction

Estimated Study Time

20 minutes

Lesson Scope

Once you identify the purpose and assumptions and specify your audience, you are ready to gather your data. You can always develop a wealth of data. The only problem is deciding where to start. This lesson teaches you how to follow the planning process for your composition.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to Identify the process for gathering data. Describe the process to analyze data. Identify the standards for evaluating data. Define the purpose of mind-mapping. Define the purpose of the thesis statement. Identify the components of the thesis statement. Define the purpose of an outline. Describe an outline.
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8011B

5-11

Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Introduction, Continued

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction Gathering Data Analyzing Data Standards for Evaluating Data Mind-mapping Fishboning Creating a Thesis Statement Developing an Outline See Page 5-11 5-13 5-14 5-15 5-18 5-22 5-23 5-25

MCI Course 8011B

5-12

Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Gathering Data

Definition

Gathering data consists of collecting data (facts, information, evidence, observations, and experiences) and forming inferences, judgments, and conclusions.

Initial Steps

Before you collect data, you must Identify your own point of view. Seek others' points of view. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of each point of view. Strive for objectivity in evaluating all points of view.

Sources

Now you are ready to research. You should examine sources from libraries, the internet, interviews, etc.

Record

Keep detailed records of the collected data to include source information (titles, publishers, etc.).

MCI Course 8011B

5-13

Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Analyzing Data

Organization

Once you gather your data, Be sure all the data is clear, accurate, and relevant to the question at issue. Lay out the evidence to clearly identify supporting and opposing relationships. Restrict your claims to those supported by sufficient data.

Evaluation Criteria

Once you organize your data, Identify the implications and possible consequences. Search for negative and positive consequences. Anticipate unusual or unexpected consequences. Examine the implications and consequences from various points of view.

Precautions

Everyone develops a subjective way at looking of opportunities, issues, problems, and accomplishments; these are biases. You have biases that inhibit your data analysis and influence how you respond to situations, ideas, information, and decisions. Biases include taboos, traditions, and proverbs that you use to explain why you can or cannot do something. It also includes your tendency to pursue data supporting your viewpoint while downplaying contradictory evidence.

Examine Your Bias

Recognizing your biases and how they inhibit creativity helps you increase the effectiveness of your data analysis. To examine your biases, Identify what biases you may bring to the problem. Ask others to identify what they see as your biases affecting the problem. Ask questions to clarify your biases. Identify what affect your biases have on your problem. Make and implement a plan to use your biases appropriately.

MCI Course 8011B

5-14

Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Standards for Evaluating Data

Purpose

Standards help you determine the quality of your reasoning and thinking. To help you evaluate your reasoning and thinking process, apply the following standards: Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Significance Logic

Clarity

Clarity requires you to express your thoughts clearly. For example, is your purpose so clear that anyone understands it or is it vague so no one understands your intent? Clarity helps you judge the relevance, depth, significance, and accuracy of your ideas, recommendations, or decisions. To help you achieve clarity ask yourself, can I Express that idea in another way? Elaborate further on that point? Give an example or illustration that clarifies that point?

Accuracy

Accuracy describes a product or decision that conforms to some truth or standard. Correct, on the other hand, denotes that there are no errors, mistakes, or distortions. When you strive for accuracy, you try to conform to a specific truth or standard. To help you achieve accuracy ask, What evidence supports the assertion? How can you check for the validity of the evidence? How can you verify or test the assertion?
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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Standards for Evaluating Data, Continued

Precision

Precision describes the quality of accuracy and exactness. An issue M16A2 rifle differs from a match rifle in sights, barrel, and stocks. Manufacturers have machined the sights to closer tolerances on the match rifle than on the standard issue. You say that the sights are precise, that is, manufacturers hold them to closer tolerances so Marines can adjust them accurately. To help you achieve precision, ask yourself, can I Be more specific? Give me more details? Narrow the focus?

Relevance

Relevance suggests that a close association exists between the subject and the data. Your task is to clarify if indeed an association exists and how strong it may be. To help you explore relevancy, ask What is the relationship between the subject and the problem? How is this connected to the problem? How does this affect the problem? How does this help with this issue?

Depth

Depth, in contrast to surface knowledge, seeks to understand the complexities of the subject. To asses depth, ask these types of questions What are the complexities of this problem? How does an understanding of these complexities increase understanding of the problem? How does your answer address the complexities of the problem?
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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Standards for Evaluating Data, Continued

Breadth

You may satisfy all the other standards for assessment, yet have a narrow focus. Narrow focus prevents you from considering other points of view that may affect the problem. You need to ask yourself What are the other points of view that affect this problem? Can I look at this problem from another perspective? How would a conservative, a liberal, or an opponent understand this issue? What would this look like from the point of view of an enemy?

Significance

When something is significant you are giving it importance. Be careful not to equate significance with relevance. The two are not the same. Something may be relevant to the problem, but may have no significance to it. For example, easy to read election ballots are relevant to a fair election but are not significant if the problem is ballot box security. To help you clarify the significance of each issue and its relation to the problem, ask yourself Is this the most important problem to consider? Is this the central idea or issue? Which of these facts are most important? Which will have the greatest effect on the problem?

Logic

Logic refers to the relationship between ideas. It includes the Order in which you place a variety of thoughts and how they support each other Rational conditions that affect whether an event will or will not take place Assumptions that underlie any discipline whether it is academic, business, or military

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Mind-mapping

Gathering Data

Now you can begin gathering data, but where do you begin looking? One helpful technique to find out is called mind-mapping.

Structured Brainstorming

Mind-mapping is a structured brainstorming technique that Emphasizes capturing the free flow of ideas and discovering the relationships within and between the ideas Is especially effective in helping you identify what you already know about a given topic and where you need more information.

Example

For example, you've just reported to the team tasked with developing a plan that ensures the safe withdrawal of U.S. forces from Haiti. The team must also satisfy all the key players' (president, State Department, Congress, DOD, and United Nations) requirements. Your team leader knows you are interested in Caribbean history. During the in brief, your team leader tasks you with putting in place an electoral system that ensures fair and democratic elections in Haiti.

Step One

First, take a sheet of paper (or use electronic media) and record in the center your general topic (in our example, you would write the words Haitian Elections). Underneath the topic, write down who the paper is for, your audience (Haitians, Politicians, United Nations, and United States). The figure below shows what this step would look like.

Haitian Elections
Haitians Politicians United Nations United States

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Mind-mapping, Continued

Step Two

Next, randomly record everything you know about the topic and your audience, as shown in the figure below.

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Mind-mapping, Continued

Step Three

Look over your notes and identify the relationships among the ideas you have recorded. Try to tie these ideas together using symbols and lines that help you to see them, as shown in the picture below.
SA
SECRET POLICE POLING PLACES RURAL
POL PAR ITICA TIE L S

FE

FINANCING
TO ITIVE ES SENS US ABUS PAST

ICE

G TIN KE R MA

SECURITY FEAR CHURCHES

ED UC AT ION PO OB LL SE RV ER S

UNS RECENT DEFEATS ORDERLY

PO L

ABUSIVE MILITARY RULE

Haitian Elections
PA PR IVA TE
CY RA TE LI

ES

NE WS

Haitians Politicians United Nations United States


ING TIM

AR MI

PE R

TRAINING OF POLL WATCHERS


LV NVO UN I

ES UR ED OC PR

ED ER TI O ETY TW CI SO

NT EME

VIL L LEA AGE DER S

TRAINING OF POLL MANAGERS

HY AP GR O GE

ACCESSIBILITY OF POLLS
AN I TI HA

CIT PO Y LIT ICI AN S

VILLAGES

RADIO AND TV

US OF NT RY ME TO LVE S HI VO IN

ILLITERATE POPULATION SCHOOLS

BA LL OT

MI

CO UN T

A LIT RY

IN G

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Mind-mapping, Continued

Step Four

Finally, transfer these relationships to another sheet of paper. At this point you will begin to see the possible major parts of your research along with holes where you need more information, as shown in the figure below.

Finishing Up Mind-mapping

Now you can use your time effectively to collect information on specific areas where you need further data rather than trying to research everything on developing an electoral system for Haiti. This also leads you to the planning phase of writing.

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Fishboning

Purpose

Another technique to capture what you know and don't know about a topic is called fishboning. First, divide your topic into its major divisions. Each major division serves as a branch off of the topic. Next divide each division into its many elements or branches. This helps you identify your general and specific knowledge about the topic, as shown in the picture below.

ier ed

Haitian Society
Tw

Media
Lo cal
ati on al

Possible Problems
Mi lita ry
iva te Ar

Radio /T

Poli ce

Int ern

mi es

oT

Se

cre t

Po lic

Pr

Haitian Electoral System


Haiti
Public
se Ab u

ate St pt. De

non Leba a lia Som


ato Dict

id es Pr t en

rship

sto Hi ry

res ng Co s

United Nations

Haitian Politics

United States

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Creating a Thesis Statement

Purpose

The problem you are investigating is at the very heart of any report, paper, or research. Creating a thesis statement is the most important element of your writing. It is here that you clarify the problem. The thesis statement tells the audience why the topic demands attention.

Format

To create a thesis statement, clearly state your topic and your purpose (or assertion) on the topic. Your position is what you want to accomplish. Thesis = Topic + Your purpose or assertion on the topic

Example

The statement, Creating an electoral system for Haiti is merely a topic. It fails to tell the reader why the topic is important. Look again at the Haitian scenario. You have received a taskto develop an electoral system that ensures fair, democratic elections. This task is not a thesis statement, but you can make it into one: Topic: The Haitian Electoral System. Position: To create a fair and democratic electoral system for Haiti. Thesis Statement: The new Haitian electoral system will ensure fair and democratic elections.

Other Thesis Statements

Notice that by restating the topic and purpose as a thesis statement you have Identified the topic Made an assertion that you can write about

You can develop several other thesis statements for the topic. Each one will take a different direction.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Creating a Thesis Statement, Continued

Topic

Here is an example. Topic: Creating an electoral system for Haiti becomes: People who feel safe will vote their conscience. A democratic electoral system will work when you eliminate private armies. A democratic electoral system will work when you enforce the law equally.

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Developing an Outline

Purpose

Good writing follows a plan. The plan is an outline of your thinking. The outline- Can be detailed enough to set forth item by item what the paper will look like or be just a mental outline used to develop the paper Helps readily identify areas in your research that you need to consider further before writing your first draft Helps you arrange your material so your audience understands what you have to say

The purpose of the outline is to State your thesis and your major arguments. Present facts that support each major reason. Show your analysis of the facts, opinions, and ideas that support your thesis. Conclude with a brief summary restating your thesis.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Developing an Outline, Continued

Pyramid of Support

Outlining is like designing a pyramid from the top down. You start by selecting the topic and forming it into a thesis statement (the capstone of the pyramid). The next layer consists of your major points. Subsequent layers consist of your evidence and analysis. Your analysis explains or illustrates the importance of the evidence relative to the thesis. When you finish you have a "Pyramid of Support," as shown in the picture below.

The Pyramid of Support


Thesis Statement Introduction

Major Reason #1 analysis Evidence 1A analysis Evidence 1B

Major Reason #2 analysis Evidence 2A analysis Evidence 2A1 analysis Evidence 2A2 analysis

Development

Evidence 2B

To whatever it takes . . .

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Developing an Outline, Continued

Other Components

To help your audience understand your major and minor reasons and your thesis, a good plan also includes Evidence. Evidence (facts, experiences, opinions of experts, and other data) by itself may or may not support your thesis. An analysis. Your task is to show your audience through your analysis how the evidence supports and illustrates your thesis.

Key Elements of an Outline

Outlines may have many forms; the key elements, however, are the Introduction (which includes your thesis statement and a listing of your major points) Development of the thesis Conclusion

An example of how to build an outline is shown in the figure below.


EXAMPLE OF HOW TO BUILD AN OUTLINE
I. Introduction A. Attention Step, Purpose, or Context--when necessary B. Thesis Statement (Bottom line) C. List of Major Reasons Supporting the Thesis Statement II. Development A. Major Reason #1 --Evidence 1 and analysis --Evidence 2 and analysis --Relevance to thesis/bottom line Submit in a logical order B. Major Reason #2 --Evidence 1 and analysis --Evidence 2 and analysis --Relevance to thesis/bottom line C. (Other major reasons when necessary) III. Conclusion A. Review of Major Reasons and Support of Thesis B. Thesis Statement Application (to provide information or to persuade) C. Recommendations (further research, etc., as appropriate) Sequence appropriately. If you list the major parts in your introduction, use the same sequence in development. B and C may be reversed.

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Developing an Outline, Continued

Basic Structure

An outline is the plan you develop to lay out your writing. Your plan needs to consider the Introduction Transition Major and minor reasons Transitions between major reasons Transition to your conclusion

The basic structure is shown in the picture below.


Attention Step or Context Thesis Statement List of Reasons I. Introduction. At least one paragraph.

transition Major Reason Evidence Evidence

Smooths movement between parts. II. Development. At least two paragraphs.

transition Major Reason Evidence transition Evidence

At least two, no more than five major parts.

Smooths movement between parts.

Review of Reasons Restatement of Thesis Return to Attention Step or Context

III. Conclusion. At least one paragraph.

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

LESSON 3 THE DRAFT WRITING PROCESS Introduction

Estimated Study Time

5 minutes

Lesson Scope

This lesson will teach you the steps of the draft writing process and how to do them.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to Identify the focus for writing the first draft. Define tasks for writing the first draft.

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction Purpose Use Your Outline Draft Quickly See Page 5-29 5-30 5-31 5-32

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Purpose

Goal

The purpose of drafting is to write very quickly ALL you have to say onto the page. You should focus on the substance and organization of your document, not on what the final product may look like. Remember, you are producing your first draft. It will not look like your final product. However, when finished, the first draft should contain the substance you need to communicate.

Techniques

Two techniques to help you write the first draft are to Use your outline Draft quickly

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Use Your Outline

Purpose

Your outline will help keep you focused on both the substance and organization of your paper.

Process

If you use a computer to compose your text, you should print out your outline and place it where you can see it clearly. Place any quotations, references, and supporting documents in the order they occur in the outline. Now begin writing. Follow your outline and insert supporting material as needed.

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Draft Quickly

Process

Write quickly as the ideas come to mind. Don't worry about the perfect word or the just-right sentence. The purpose is to capture the ideas that race through your mind. Whenever you pause to capture the right word or sentence, you may lose an important idea. Therefore, write as rapidly as you can and capture those great ideas that grabbed your attention.

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

LESSON 4 THE EDITING PROCESS Introduction


Estimated Study Time Lesson Scope

20 minutes

Good writers are invariably good revisers. They can set aside "pride of authorship" and critically review what they wrote. This lesson teaches you how to systematically edit your composition. Besides editing it yourself, you may want to have others edit, too. No matter who is editing, the criteria are the same. This lesson teaches you the criteria to meet when you edit, common editorial marks to facilitate the editing process, and specific word constructions to look for in the edit process. After completing this lesson, you should be able to Identify three editing habits for good writers. Identify eight criteria for editing. Identify common editorial marks by use. Identify wordy constructions for editing.

Learning Objectives

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction Considerations Criteria Editorial Marks Wordy Constructions Dummy Subjects Redundant Expressions Smothered Verbs Simpler Words and Phrases Modifier Problems See Page 5-33 5-34 5-35 5-38 5-39 5-40 5-41 5-42 5-45 5-48

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

Considerations

Problems

Many writers don't revise well because they don't know how, find it difficult and avoid it, and/or don't schedule enough time.

Good Habits

Good writers Set aside sufficient time just for revising At the appointed time, sit down and begin the revision process Follow established criteria to review and revise their writing

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

Criteria

Eight Criteria to Check For

The criteria for editing are the same standards you used for evaluating data. As you begin your revision process, check for Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Significance Logic

Clarity

Clarity requires you to explain, illustrate, give examples, interpret, elaborate, refine, and resolve. Dont use jargon that may confuse your readers. You must express your thoughts clearly so they are obvious to your reader. Write so your thoughts are Distinct Understandable Vivid

Accuracy

A statement can be clear but not accurate. Does the evidence support your assertions? Can you or others verify or test what you say for accuracy? Have you hit the right target?

Precision

A statement can be clear and accurate, but not precise. Are you specific? Is the detail sufficient to support your position? Is your focus too broad, too narrow, or about right? Have you placed all rounds in the target area?
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

Criteria, Continued

Relevance

A statement can be clear, accurate, and precise, but not relevant to the question at issue. Have you shown your reader how your position Is part of the problem? Addresses the question? Helps to resolve the issue?

Depth

Your document may have all of the qualities of good writing yet lack depth. Superficiality is a problem common to many writers and speakers. Does your writing identify those factors that make this a difficult problem? Have you considered the complexities underlying the subject? How do you address these complexities? Are you dealing with the most significant factors or merely superficialities?

Breadth

A line of reasoning may satisfy all of the above standards for assessment, yet lack breadth. Have you identified and considered other points of view? What are they? How do they relate to your problem?

Significance

This standard is often linked to relevance, but the two are not synonymous. Something may have relevance to the issue at hand, but have little or no significance. Have you really addressed the central idea? You list facts and other data but which are the most important? Which will have the greatest effect on the problem? Why? Why not?
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

Criteria, Continued

Logic

When you write, you bring a variety of thoughts together into some order. When the combinations of words are mutually supporting and make sense in order and combination, your writing is "logical." When the combinations of words are not mutually supporting, are contradictory in some sense, or do not make sense, you say that your writing is "not logical."

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

Editorial Marks

Purpose

When you edit, use editorial marks to indicate where changes are needed. Editorial marks provide a quick code for correcting written compositions. Editorial marks tell what needs to be changed and how it needs to be changed.

Common Editorial Marks

The following table lists common editorial marks, their meaning, and an example of their use and correction.

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

Noun Strings

Wordy Constructions

Wordy constructions are phrases, clauses, or sentences that use extra words to convey meaning. Wordy constructions can be in the form of Noun strings Dummy subjects Redundant expressions Smothered verbs

Noun String Rule

Avoid using long strings of nouns to modify another noun. Revise the sentence even if you must add words to make the relationship between words clear.

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

Dummy Subjects

Definition

Dummy subjects are empty expressions that Hide the real subject Increase the sentence length Delay the point Encourage passive voice Hide responsibility

Rule

Delete dummy subjects and move the real subject to the front. Note: The exception to the rule occurs when the dummy subject refers to something definite mentioned in a recent sentence.

Examples

Examples of sentences with dummy subjects are sentences that begin with It is It appears It seems like There is There are It will be

Alternatives

The following table lists suggested replacements for dummy subjects. Dummy Subject It is my intention to There is one thing bothering me. There are three reasons for this. It appears that It is essential that Replace with I intend to One thing bothers me. Three reasons for this are I think You must

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

Redundant Expressions

Definition

Redundant words and expressions create meaningless or unnecessary distinctions. They add bulk but not information.

Rule

Avoid repeating words or phrases unnecessarily. Do not use pairs of similar words when one will do. If two ideas are slightly different, is the difference important? If not, eliminate one and retain the one that expresses meaning more precisely. Use the, that, or which to clarify meaning; otherwise leave them out.

Examples of Redundant Expressions

In the following examples, the italicized word can be deleted because it is unnecessary. Separate out Basic fundamentals Start over again Symmetrical in form Seldom or ever Actual facts Really glad Honest truth

Alternatives

The following table lists redundant expressions and corrected versions. Redundant words are italicized. Redundant Expression The first sergeants function and role are The commander engaged in a frank and candid dialogue. The staff provides guidance and assistance to The regulations wont allow it. I feel that its a good decision. The report that Im writing is nearly finished. Corrected Version The first sergeants role is The commander engaged in candid dialogue. The staff provides guidance to Regulations wont allow it. I feel its a good decision. The report Im writing is nearly finished.

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

Smothered Verbs

Definition

A smothered verb is a verb (action word) converted to a noun so that it needs a helping verb and prepositions or articles to express action. Smothered verbs lengthen the sentence and sap its vitality.

Smothered Verb Construction

The following sentence shows a smothered verb construction. You are in agreement with the decision. In this example, The main verb, agree, has been converted to a noun, agreement. The sentence now needs a o Helping verb, are o Preposition, in.

A better statement would be--You agree with the decision.

Rule

Eliminate smothered verbs in your sentences. Find the smothered verb; convert it to an action verb (or substitute it with a harder hitting verb). Then eliminate the helping verb or other modifiers (the preposition). Note: Passive voice is a form of smothering; the doer of the action is vague. Use active voice whenever possible to make your writing more forceful and easier to understand clearly.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

Smothered Verbs, Continued

Distinct Endings

Most smothered verbs have distinct endings -ance -ant -ence -ity -mant -ment -ness -sion -tion

Weak Helping Verbs

Smothered verbs rely on weak helping verbs to show action. If one of the following weak helping verbs appears, a smothered verb is nearby. Be Can Conduct Do Effect Get Give Have Hold Make Provide Put
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

Smothered Verbs, Continued

Examples

The following table lists possible corrections to smothered verb constructions. Smothered Verb Construction You held a meeting. I made a choice. They conducted an investigation. You gave consideration to You are in support of He made an attempt to The NCO provided assistance to Correction You met. I chose They investigated You considered You support He tried to The NCO assisted

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

Simpler Words and Phrases

Purpose

Contrary to popular belief, official writing does not demand big words or pompous phrases. Small, one-syllable words Form the guts of the English language Save writing and reading time Give power to writing

Improving Your Writing

To make your writing simple and clear, Review the words and phrases from the following table. Highlight those words in the first column you use most often. From the highlighted choices, make a list of the seven you most frequently use and their recommended replacements. Use this list to edit future writing. Repeat the process, picking seven more each time.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

Simpler Words and Phrases, Continued

Improving Your Writing, continued

The following table shows wordy phrases and recommended replacements.

Wordy Phrases A number of A prioritized list Adjacent to Afford an opportunity As a means of As prescribed by At the present time At this point in time Attached herewith is By means of Due to the fact that For example For the purpose of Has the capability In accordance with In addition In an effort to In conjunction with In lieu of In order that In order to In regard to In the amount of In the course of In the event that In the near future In view of In view of the above Inasmuch as Incumbent upon Interpose not objection It is essential It is recommended It is requested

Recommended Replacements Some A priority list Next to Allow, let To Under Now Now Here is By, with Because, due to Such as For, to Can By under Also, besides, too To With Instead of For, so To About, on For During, in If Soon Since So Since Must Dont object Must I/you recommend I/you request
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

Simpler Words and Phrases, Continued

Improve Your Writing, continued

Wordy Phrases Limited number Pertaining to Prior to Provides guidance for Take appropriate measures Take into account This office Time period Until such time as With reference to With the exception of

Recommended Replacements Few About, of, on Before Guides Act Consider I/you Time, period Until About Except for

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

Modifier Problems

Misplaced Modifiers

Put words and phrases that modify other words or phrases as close to the words they modify. Be sure your meaning is clear. Misplaced modifiers drastically change the meaning of the sentence (see importance of location, study unit 1, lesson 4).

Example

The following table shows an example of a misplaced modifier, the explanation, and the correction. Misplaced Modifier During firing, be sure to lubricate moving parts on your weapon to reduce friction. Explanation As written, during firing, modifies the whole sentence. Thus, the sentence means that you lubricate your weapon while you are firing. What you mean to say is that lubrication reduces friction that occurs during firing. The mess sergeant added As written, the mess the noodles and spices to sergeant is boiling the hot water while instead of the water. boiling. Correction Be sure to lubricate moving parts on your weapon to reduce friction during firing.

The mess sergeant added the noodles and spices to the boiling hot water.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

Modifier Problems, Continued

Dangling Modifier

Like misplaced modifiers, dangling modifiers are not correctly placed. A dangling modifier actually has no noun in the sentence to refer to. Dangling Modifier As a tank commander, it is your responsibility to ensure your tank is able to shoot, move, and communicate at all times. Explanation As a tank commander refers to a person. Therefore it can not modify the following word, it, or the whole sentence. The modifier dangles with nothing to modify. This example shows the football was doing the running. Correction As a tank commander, you must ensure your tank is able to shoot, move, and communicate at all times.

Running as fast as possible, the football was caught just before time ran out.

Running as fast as possible, he caught the football just before time ran out.

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

(This page intentionally left blank.)

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

LESSON 5 THE PROOFING PROCESS Introduction

Estimated Study Time

5 minutes

Lesson Scope

Once you have finished editing your composition, you fix the problems you found. Then you reach the final stage before your composition is complete: proofreading. This lesson teaches you the steps of the proof process and how to do them.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to Define the purpose of proofing. Identify the steps of the proof process.

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction Criteria Process See Page 5-51 5-52 5-53

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 5

Criteria

What to Look For

Proofreading means to check and mark the final draft of your paper, that is, the one that you send out the door. When proofreading you look not only for typing errors but also for the true mistakeswhat you never intended to say. This includes anything (and everything) else that's incorrect with the content, such as incorrect data, illogical sequence, erroneous conclusions, and improper grammar.

Too Many Errors

If you discover too many problems for a final copy, reassess your paper, determine if you are saying what you want, make corrections to your paper, and then reprint. Reread the reprint, note any corrections, make them, and then produce the final draft.

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 5

Process

Three Steps

Proofreading is most effective when you approach it systematically. One helpful technique follows three steps Reread the composition Do a spell check Check the grammar

Rereading

First, read your paper backwards beginning at the end and proceeding to the beginning. You call this "proofing from the bottom to the top." Look for correctly spelled words that are not the right words. For example, you may use "sight" rather than "site" when referring to a location.

Spell Check

Second, use your computer to perform a spell check of the document. Note: Do not rely solely on your computers spell check to find all the errors. It is important to read your paper and then reread it again!

Grammar Check

Finally, perform a grammar check of your paper. Look for such things as incomplete sentences, passive voice, verb tense agreement, and subject agreement with verbs and pronouns. The computer can assist you in this task. Remember, the computer is only a tool that suggests what you can do; you must make the final decision on how to compose each sentence.

Good Luck

Once you have finished proofreading your paper, it is ready to send to your readers. Good luck, and may you always communicate what you intend to say.

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 5

Study Unit 5 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

1 hour

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against the correct answers at the end of this study unit. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item.

Item 1

What are the chronological steps to effective communication? a. b. c. d. Plan, research, draft, proof, and go final Research, draft, edit, proof, and go final Plan, research, draft, edit, proof, and produce a final draft Research, plan, draft, edit, proof, and produce a final draft

Item 2

What is the purpose of the research process? a. b. c. d. Identify problem, establish purpose, analyze data, draw conclusions Collect information and analyze it Identify problem, collect information, and support your opinion Collect information, analyze data, and defend your opinion

Item 3

What is the first step in research? a. b. c. d. Clarify the purpose underlying the task. Provide an answer to the commander. Identify why you need to answer the research problem. Identify what data you need to answer the problem.

Item 4

What is a hypothesis? a. b. c. d. A factor that directly affects your task An educated guess based on specific assumptions A subordinate problem that directly affects your purpose An assumption that you need to complete your research
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5 Exercise

Study Unit 5 Exercise, Continued

Item 5

The process of gathering data is a. identifying your purpose and collecting information that supports only your purpose. b. identifying your point of view and collecting only data that support your view. c. collecting data and forming inferences, judgments, and conclusions. d. seeking others points of view, collecting information to refute those views, and collecting information to support your view.

Item 6

To accurately analyze data you have gathered, you must a. be sure data is clear, accurate, and relevant; organized by supporting and opposing relationship; and restricted to claims supported by sufficient data. b. organize data to eliminate all bias and accept only data that supports your claims. c. refer to your purpose, organize data that meets your purpose, express bias whenever possible to reinforce your point of view. d. explore all facets of bias in the data to support your claims.

Item 7

Which of the following statements defines clarity relative to evaluating data? a. b. c. d. Requires that your ideas be accurate Calls for precise statement of your ideas Requires that you express your thoughts clearly Calls for us to judge the relevance of your ideas

Item 8

What is the best definition for accuracy relative to evaluating data? a. b. c. d. Denotes that there are few errors Implies that any distortions are minimal Implies that you conform to some standard Denotes that you have corrected your errors
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5 Exercise

Study Unit 5 Exercise, Continued

Item 9

Relative to evaluating data, precision describes the a. b. c. d. quality of detail. quantity of details you provide. quantity of data you have collected. quality of accuracy and exactness.

Item 10

With regard to evaluating data, relevance suggests that a. b. c. d. the association between the subject and the data is close. the association between the subject and the data is limited. there is some association between the subject and the data. there is limited association between the subject and the data.

Item 11

Relative to evaluating data, significance suggests that you are ascribing _______ to the subject. a. b. c. d. clarity breadth relevance importance

Item 12

Relative to evaluating data, logic describes the a. b. c. d. depth of your research. relationship between ideas. assumptions that underlie your research. relationship between significance and breadth.

Item 13

What is the purpose of mind-mapping? a. b. c. d. Create an outline Organize the research data Clarify what they dont know about a subject Identify relationships between and within ideas
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5 Exercise

Study Unit 5 Exercise, Continued

Item 14

The very heart of any paper you write is your a. b. c. d. topic. thesis statement. purpose for the paper. intention for the paper.

Item 15

What is the value of a thesis statement? a. b. c. d. Clarifies the problem Tells the reader your purpose for writing Tells the reader the purpose of your paper Tells the reader why you have an interest in the topic

Item 16

Your thesis statement consists of what? a. b. c. d. The topic Your interest in the topic What others have said about the topic The topic plus your assertion on the topic

Item 17

What is one purpose of a written outline? a. b. c. d. Prepares the reader for what is to come Assists in selecting topical headings for paragraphs States your thesis and your major arguments Ensures you have an introduction, a body, and a conclusion
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Item 18

What is a good outline like? a. A trapezoid b. A pyramid with the major points on top with the evidence and analysis supporting c. A pyramid with the thesis statement on top, supported by the major points, which in turn are supported by layers of evidence and analysis d. A pyramid with the thesis statement as the foundation, the major points stand on the foundation, and finally you have evidence and analysis

Item 19

As a communicator, your purpose is to a. b. c. d. communicate an outline of your topic. only give evidence that supports your thesis. only analyze evidence that supports your thesis. show through analysis how the evidence supports your thesis.

Item 20

What should be your focus when writing the first draft? a. b. c. d. Use a computer to compose the draft Keep focused on the substance and organization of the paper Write slowly and carefully ensuring each idea is properly supported Organize your material to support the substance and organization of the paper

Item 21

What is your task when writing the first draft? a. b. c. d. Write quickly as the ideas come to mind Make sure you capture each idea with the right word Make sure you select the right word(s) that support each sentence Write slowly and carefully ensuring each idea is properly supported
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Study Unit 5 Exercise, Continued

Item 22

What are three reasons why writers dont revise? a. They dont know how; it is too difficult; and they dont like to revise. b. It is too difficult; they dont like to revise; and they dont see the value. c. They dont know how, it is too difficult; and they dont schedule enough time. d. They are proud of what they wrote; they dont have time; and it is too difficult.

Item 23

What does accuracy mean relative to the editing process? a. b. c. d. A statement is not superficial. A statement is precise and specific. The evidence is relevant to the question at issue. The evidence supports your assertions and is verifiable.

Item 24

Precision in the editing process means a statement a. b. c. d. is not superficial. is clear and accurate. is specific yet sufficiently broad to support your position. supports your assertions and is verifiable.

Item 25

Breadth in the editing process means that you have a. b. c. d. shown how your position resolves the issue. identified and considered other points of view. identified the complexities underlying the subject. included sufficient detail to support your position.

Item 26

What is the meaning of significance relative to the editing process? a. b. c. d. The same as relevance. The data is not superficial. You have shown how the data affects the problem. You have selected only data that supports the problem.
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Study Unit 5 Exercise, Continued

Item 27

What does it mean when you say your writing exhibits good logic relative to the editing process? a. b. c. d. The words do not contradict. The writing is free of emotion and is logical. The words support the commanders intent. The words are mutually supporting and make sense in order and combination.

Item 28 Through Item 32

Matching: For items 28 through 32, place the letter of the purpose from column 2 that best describes the editorial mark in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Editorial Mark Column 2 Purpose a. b. c. d. e. Delete Insert comma Let it stand Capitalize Insert period

___ 28. ___ 29. ___ 30. ___ 31. ___ 32.

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Study Unit 5 Exercise, Continued

Item 33 Through Item 40

Matching: For items 33 through 40, place the letter of the type of wordy expression in column 2 that best describes the example in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used more than once. Column 1 Example ___ 33. In the event that this occurs, were prepared to act. The project is important and significant. The process should be repeated again and again. In order to succeed, focus on priorities. There are several reasons for rejecting this scheme. The task group devised an action plan. We believe that the changes wont raise costs. He designed a concept analysis planning strategy. Column 2 Type of Wordy Expression a. b. c. d. Simpler words and phrases Dummy subjects Redundant expressions Modifier problems

___ 34. ___ 35. ___ 36. ___ 37. ___ 38. ___ 39. ___ 40.

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Study Unit 5 Exercise, Continued

Item 41 Through Item 51

Matching: For items 41 through 51, place the letter of the analysis in column 2 that best describes the example in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used more than once. Column 1 Example ___ 41. Basic training is where drill instructors separate out the few and proud from the pukes. ___ 42. The mess sergeant created an ice sculpture that was symmetrical in form. ___ 43. In basic training, recruits learn the basic fundamentals of weapons. ___ 44. The report presented the actual facts about the case. ___ 45. Private Mays told his drill instructor the honest truth. ___ 46. The suspect made an attempt to flee. ___ 47. The lawyer provided advice to the client. ___ 48. Captain Brown approved the request. ___ 49. The officer put in an appearance. ___ 50. Basic training places emphasis on physical and mental training. ___ 51. General Lawrence denied the request. Column 2 Analysis a. The sentence contains a smothered verb b. The sentence contains a redundant expression c. The sentence contains a misplaced or dangling modifier d. The sentence is okay as written

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Study Unit 5 Exercise, Continued

Item 52

Why do you need to proof? a. b. c. d. To keep from having the material returned to you for revision To find and correct only typing and grammar errors To find and correct typing, grammar, and content errors To make sure the pages appear correct

Item 53

What does proofing from the bottom to the top mean? a. b. c. d. Use your computer and perform a grammar check. Look for correctly spelled words that are not the right words. Reassess your paper to determine if you are saying what you want. Read your paper backwards beginning at the end and proceeding to the beginning.
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Study Unit 5 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Answer d a c b c a c c d a d b d b a d c c d b a c d c b Reference Page 5-1 5-5 5-6 5-9 5-13 5-14 5-15 5-15 5-16 5-16 5-17 5-17 5-18 5-23 5-23 5-23 5-25 5-26 5-27 5-30 5-30 5-34 5-35 5-35 5-36
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Study Unit 5 Exercise, Continued

Answers, continued

Item Number 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

Answer c d b e c a d a c c a b c c d b b b b b a a d a a d c d

Reference Page 5-36 5-37 5-38 5-38 5-38 5-38 5-38 5-45 5-41 5-41 5-45 5-40 5-41 5-41 5-48 5-41 5-41 5-41 5-41 5-41 5-42 5-42 5-41 through 5-49 5-42 5-42 5-41 through 5-49 5-52 5-53

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BASIC GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION REVIEW LESSON EXAMINATION Review Lesson

Estimated Study Time

1 hour

Introduction

The purpose of the review lesson examination is to prepare you for your final examination. We recommend that you try to complete your review lesson examination without referring to the text, but for those items (questions) you are unsure of, restudy the text. When you finish your review lesson and are satisfied with your responses, check your responses against the answers provided at the end of this review lesson examination.

Directions

Select the ONE answer that BEST completes the statement or that answers the item. For multiple choice items, circle your response. For matching items, place the letter of your response in the space provided.

Item 1

The noun, pronoun, and verb characteristic of first person refers to the a. b. c. d. person speaking. person spoken of. person spoken to. state of being singular or plural.

Item 2

A transitive verb a. expresses no transfer of action. b. requires a direct object to complete its meaning; it must be followed by a word that answers the question whom or what. c. links the subject to some other word that names or describes it. d. helps another verb.
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Review Lesson, Continued

Item 3

Use the subjunctive mood of a verb to express a. b. c. d. active voice. passive voice. a question. a doubt, a wish, or a condition contrary to fact.

Item 4

A subordinating conjunction joins a. clauses of unequal rank, that is a dependent clause with an independent clause. b. two independent clauses. c. words, phrases, and clauses in pairs. d. words, phrases, and clauses of equal rank.

Item 5 Through Item 8

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the function from column 2 that best describes the part of speech in column 1. The answers in column 2 may only be used once. Column 1 Part of Speech ___ 5. ___ 6. ___ 7. ___ 8. Pronoun Verb Adverb Conjunction Column 2 Function a. Names a person, place, or thing b. Modifies the action c. Predicates; expresses state of being or action d. Joins words, phrases, or clauses of equal rank
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Review Lesson, Continued

Item 9 Through Item 13

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the part of speech from column 2 that best describes the italicized words in the sentence in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used more than once. Column 1 Sentence ___ 9. Marines who are in a poor state of physical readiness need a program to develop strength, endurance, and physical skills. ___ 10. The tradition of fines is an occasion that adds levity and humor to the evening. ___ 11. Marines invaded New Providence Island and seized guns and supplies. ___ 12. How quickly must a female Marine finish running 3 miles? ___ 13. Physical training problems must be tailored not only to the mission and condition of the unit, but also to the needs of individuals. Column 2 Part of Speech a. b. c. d. Verb Adverb Conjunction Pronoun

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Review Lesson, Continued

Item 14 Through Item 18

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the type of grammatical construction from column 2 that best describes the item in italics in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used more than once. Column 1 Sample Item ___ 14. Punishments that a commanding officer can impose on enlisted personnel include a reprimand, forfeiture of pay, or extra duties. ___ 15. The senior enlisted member gives the toast to our fallen comrades. ___ 16. The two Marines pull on the halyards to hoist the colors. ___ 17. In 1868, the Marine Corps adopted an emblem that consists of an eagle, globe, and anchor. ___ 18. Also known as colors, the ceremonial hoisting and lowering of the National Ensign is at 0800 and at sunset. Column 2 Grammatical Construction a. b. c. d. Dependent clause Prepositional phrase Verb phrase Complex sentence

Item 19

A prepositional phrase serving as an adverb phrase may answer the question of a. b. c. d. what kind. how many. which one. when or how.
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Item 20

A subject and a predicate that makes sense by itself is called a a. b. c. d. compound sentence. simple clause. simple sentence. dependent clause.

Item 21

A compound sentence consists of a. b. c. d. a subject and a simple sentence. a predicate and a simple sentence. two simple sentences joined with a conjunction (and, but, or). a dependent clause joined with an independent clause.
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 22 Through Item 29

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the type of error from column 2 that best describes the problem with the sentence in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used more than once. Column 1 Erroneous Sentence ___ 22. Sergeant Majors Quick and Daly earned the Congressional Medal of Honor. ___ 23. The Marines and sailor held his ground against repeated assaults. ___ 24. As a food service person, actions such as scratching your underarms or picking a sore is unsanitary and considered socially offensive. ___ 25. Assume carry sword when ordering any manual of arms movement except parade rest, at ease rest, present arms, order arms or eyes right. ___ 26. By the end of the war, Major Boyington was the Marine Corps top ranking flying ace. ___ 27. Of the savage battle, Admiral Nimitz said Among the Americans who served on Iwo Jima uncommon valor was a common virtue. ___ 28. The health inspector conducts sanitary surveillance of storage, preparation, and cleanup areas. ___ 29. When describing the Marines ferocious fighting abilities, German troops called there new enemy Devil Dogs, a nickname in which Marines take pride. Column 2 Type of Error a. Subject-verb disagreement b. Pronoun-antecedent disagreement c. Misspelled or misused word d. Incorrect punctuation

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Review Lesson, Continued

Item 30

The semicolon separates _____ when closely related and not joined by a coordinating conjunction. a. b. c. d. an independent and dependent clause in a series individual items in a series two dependent clauses two independent clauses

Item 31 Through Item 34

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the punctuation from column 2 that belongs in the underlined space in the sentence in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used more than once. Column 1 Sentence ___ 31. To keep your physical routine from becoming boring, mix conditioning activities__ competitive events__ military skill development__ and sports activities into your training schedule. ___ 32. Marine history records significant events in Harpers Ferry, Virginia__ Peking, China__ and Pusan, Korea. ___ 33. The company formation is at 0600__ Bring civilian clothes for after the ceremony__ announced the first sergeant. ___ 34. These actions came to be known as the ___Banana Wars.___ Column 2 Punctuation Mark a. b. c. d. Quotation mark Period Comma Semicolon

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Review Lesson, Continued

Item 35

What are the chronological steps to effective communication? a. b. c. d. Plan, research, draft, proof, and go final Research, draft, edit, proof, and go final Plan, research, draft, edit, proof, and produce a final draft Research, plan, draft, edit, proof, and produce a final draft

Item 36

What is the first step in research? a. b. c. d. Clarify the purpose underlying the task. Provide an answer to the commander. Identify why you need to answer the research problem. Identify what data you need to answer the problem.

Item 37

What is a hypothesis? a. b. c. d. A factor that directly affects your task. An educated guess based on specific assumptions. A subordinate problem that directly affects your purpose. An assumption that you need to complete your research.

Item 38

Gathering data consists of a. looking for only evidence to support your point of view. b. taking initial steps, examining sources, keeping detailed records. c. identifying bias and your purpose and collecting information to enhance bias and support your purpose. d. finding sources to support your thesis and recording only data to support your point of view.
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Review Lesson, Continued

Item 39

Evaluation criteria for data means that you a. identify implications and consequences of data, and explore data from different points of view. b. collect and study data to use to support views. c. put collected data in the order you plan to use it. d. check data for bias and eliminate data that does not support your views.

Item 40

What is the best definition for accuracy relative to evaluating data? a. b. c. d. Denotes that there are few errors Implies that any distortions are minimal Implies that you conform to specific standard Denotes that you have corrected your errors

Item 41

With regard to evaluating data, relevance suggests that a. b. c. d. the association between the subject and the data is close. the association between the subject and the data is limited. there is some association between the subject and the data. there is limited association between the subject and the data.

Item 42

When evaluating data, significance ascribes ___________ to the subject. a. b. c. d. clarity breadth relevance importance
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Item 43

Relative to evaluating data, logic describes the a. b. c. d. depth of your research. relationship between ideas. assumptions that underlie your research. relationship between significance and breadth.

Item 44

What is the purpose of mind-mapping? a. b. c. d. Create an outline Organize the research data Clarify what they dont know about a subject Identify relationships between and within ideas

Item 45

Your thesis statement consists of? a. b. c. d. the topic your interest in the topic what others have said about the topic the topic plus your assertion on the topic

Item 46

What is one purpose of a written outline? a. Prepares the reader for what is to come b. Assists in selecting topical headings for paragraphs c. Shows your analysis of the facts, opinions, and ideas that support your thesis d. Ensures you have an introduction, a body, and a conclusion
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 47

As a communicator, your purpose is to a. b. c. d. communicate an outline of your topic. only give evidence that supports your thesis. only analyze evidence that supports your thesis. show through analysis how the evidence supports your thesis.

Item 48

What is your main purpose when writing the first draft? a. b. c. d. Write quickly as the ideas come to mind. Ensure you capture each idea with the right word. Ensure you select the right word(s) that support each sentence. Write slowly and carefully ensuring each idea is properly supported.

Item 49

What are three reasons why writers dont revise? a. They dont know how; it is too difficult; and they dont like to revise. b. It is too difficult; they dont like to revise; and they dont see the value. c. They dont know how, it is too difficult; and they dont schedule enough time. d. They are proud of what they wrote; they dont have time; and it is too difficult.

Item 50

In the editing process, precision means a statement a. b. c. d. is not superficial. is clear and accurate. is specific yet sufficiently broad to support your position. supports your assertions and is verifiable.
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Review Lesson, Continued

Item 51

What is the meaning of significance relative to the editing process? a. b. c. d. The same as relevance. The data is not superficial. You have shown how the data affect the problem. You have selected only data that supports the problem.

Item 52

What does it mean when you say your writing exhibits good logic relative to the editing process? a. b. c. d. The words do not contradict. The writing is free of emotion and is logical. The words support the commanders intent. The words are mutually supporting and make sense in order and combination.

Item 53 Through Item 57

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the purpose from column 2 that best describes the editorial mark in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Editorial Mark Column 2 Purpose a. b. c. d. e. Delete Insert comma Let it stand Capitalize Insert period

___ 53. ___ 54. ___ 55. ___ 56. ___57.

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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 58 Through Item 82

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the type of wordy expression in column 2 that best describes the example in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used more than once. Column 1 Example ___ 58. In the event that this occurs, were prepared to act. ___ 59. The project is important and significant. ___ 60. The process should be repeated again and again. ___ 61. In order to succeed, focus on priorities. ___ 62. There are several reasons for rejecting this scheme. ___ 63. The task group devised an action plan. ___ 64. We believe that the changes wont raise costs. ___ 65. He designed a concept analysis planning strategy. Column 2 Type of Wordy Expression a. b. c. d. Simpler words and phrases Dummy subjects Redundant expressions Modifier problems

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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 66 Through Item 76

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the analysis in column 2 that best describes the example in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used more than once. Column 1 Example ___ 66. Basic training is where drill instructors separate out the few and proud from the pukes. The mess sergeant created an ice sculpture that was symmetrical in form. In basic training, recruits learn the basic fundamentals of weapons. The report presented the actual facts about the case. Private Mays told his drill instructor the honest truth. The suspect made an attempt to flee. The lawyer provided advice to the client. Captain Brown approved the request. The commandant put in an appearance. Basic training places emphasis on physical and mental training. General Lawrence denied the request. Column 2 Analysis a. The sentence contains a smothered verb b. The sentence contains a redundant expression c. The sentence contains a misplaced or dangling modifier d. The sentence is okay as written

___ 67.

___ 68.

___ 69. ___ 70. ___ 71. ___ 72. ___ 73. ___ 74. ___ 75.

___ 76.

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Review Lesson, Continued

Item 77

Why do you need to proof? a. b. c. d. Keeps from having the material returned to you for revision Finds and corrects only typing and grammar errors Finds and corrects typing, grammar, and content errors Makes sure the pages appear correct.

Item 78

What does proofing from the bottom to the top mean? a. b. c. d. To use your computer and perform a grammar check Looking for correctly spelled words that are not the right words To reassess your paper to determine if you are saying what you want Reading your paper backwards beginning at the end and proceeding to the beginning
Continued on next page

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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the review lesson items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Answer
a b d a a c b d d d a b c c b b a d d c c c b a d d d c c d c d b a

Reference Page
1-9;1-14; 1-25 1-22 1-31 1-48 1-13 1-22 1-36 1-46 1-16 1-16 1-22; 1-28 1-36 1-47 1-24; 2-6 2-7 2-7 2-18 2-25 2-9 2-23 2-24 1-8 1-19 1-26 3-5 3-18 3-31 4-11 4-13 3-14 3-5 3-15 3-22 3-30
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Answers, continued

Item Number
35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68

Answer
d c b b a c a d b d d c d a c c c d b e c a d a c c a b c c d b b b

Reference Page
5-1 5-6 5-9 5-13 5-14 5-15 5-16 5-17 5-17 5-18 5-23 5-25 5-27 5-30 5-34 5-35 5-36 5-37 5-38 5-38 5-38 5-38 5-38 5-45 5-41 5-41 5-45 5-40 5-41 5-41 5-48 5-41 5-41 5-41
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Review Lesson, Continued

Answers, continued

Item Number
69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78

Answer
b b a a d a a d c d

Reference Page
5-41 5-41 5-42 5-42 5-41 through 5-49 5-42 5-42 5-41 through 5-49 5-52 5-53

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