HOMEWORK 3 SOLUTIONS

All questions are from Vector Calculus by Marsden and Tromba Question 1: 2.2.12 Compute the following limits if they exist: sin 2x − 2x . (a) lim x→0 x3 sin 2x − 2x + y (b) lim . x3 + y (x,y)→(0,0) (c) 2x2 y cos z . (x,y,z)→(0,0,0) x2 + y 2 lim

Solution: (a) By L’Hopital’s rule, sin 2x − 2x lim x→0 x3

2 cos 2x − 2 3x2 −4 sin 2x (again by L’Hopital) = lim x→0 6x 4 sin 2x 4 = − lim =− x→0 2x 3 3 =
x→0

lim

since

sin θ = 1. θ→0 θ lim

(b) From (a), for y = 0 sin 2x − 2x 4 approaches − x3 3 as (x, 0) approaches (0, 0). Setting y = 2x, we see that sin 2x − 2x + y sin 2x sin 2x = 3 = 3+y x x + 2x 2x and hence lim
(x,2x)→0

x2

2 +2

sin 2x − 2x + y sin 2x 2 = lim · 2 = 1 · 1 = 1. x→0 2x x3 + y x +2

Therefore, sin 2x − 2x + y x3 + y has two diﬀerent limits along two diﬀerent rays approaching the origin (0, 0), and consequently sin 2x − 2x + y lim x3 + y (x,y)→(0,0) does not exist.
Date: Math 1c Practical, 2008.
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∂g ∂f (0. Solution: 1 Df (x. y) = −x2 − y 2 + xy 3 be called “tangent” at (0.z)→(0.y. y) = (x + y.0. 0). xy). y) = xy/ x2 + y 2 is all points (x. 0) = 0 = (0.0) x2 + y 2 (x.24 Show that f is continuous at x0 if and only if x→x0 lim f (x) − f (x0 ) = 0 Solution: By deﬁnition. Therefore f is C 1 .0) x2 + y 2 lim |2xy| x2 +y 2 ≤ Question 2: 2. 0) ∂x ∂x .8c Compute the matrix of partial derivatives of the function f (x. x − y.2 HOMEWORK 3 SOLUTIONS (c) We have 1).2. y) = x2 + y 2 . ♦ 2x2 y cos z 2xy = lim × x = 0 (Since (x. y) = . the consequence is then obvious.4d Show that the following function is diﬀerentiable at each point in its domain. since limx→x0 f (x) = f (x0 ) is equivalent to limx→x0 f (x)−f (x0 ) = 0. ♦ x Question 5: 2. 0)? Solution: At (0. y) = (0. xy f (x.10 Why should the graphs of f (x. ♦ Question 3: 2. ♦ = y Question 4: 2. 0).3. Determine if the function is C 1 . f is continuous at (x0 ) iﬀ limx→x0 f (x) = f (x0 ). y) =  1 y   1 −1  . We have the partial derivatives ∂(xy) ∂ x2 + y 2 − xy · x2 + y 2 ∂f ∂x ∂x = ∂x x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2 − x2 y(x2 + y 2 )−1/2 x2 + y 2 3 y = (x2 + y 2 )3/2 x3 ∂f = ∂y (x2 + y 2 )3/2 Observe that these partial derivatives are all continuous in the domain of f .3. x2 + y 2 Solution: The domain of the function f (x.3. and g(x.y)→(0.

12 Suppose that the temperature at the point (x. Solution: (a) T (t) = T (σ(t)) = cos2 t + sin2 t + t2 = 1 + t2 . cos(t)) ﬂies oﬀ on a tangent at t0 = 1. ♦ Question 7: 2. the xy plane. sin t. the position of the particle is on the line and is at (2) = (e. y.e. Solution: By the chain rule. the graphs of both f and g have the same tangent plane at (0. z) = x2 + y 2 + z 2 . At t = 2. −e−1 . cos 1 − sin 1). e−1 . 0) = 0 = (0.01. − sin 1). −e−1 . cos 1) + (t − 1)(e. y. 0).18 Suppose that a particle following the path c(t) = (et . ∂u/∂y. express ∂u/∂ρ. it is reasonable to call the graphs tangent. which at t0 = 1 is the vector (e. namely the plane z = 0. Solution: The velocity vector is (et . Let a particle follow the right circular helix σ(t) = (cos t. z = ρ cos φ. cos 1) at t0 = 1. and ∂u/∂φ in terms of ∂u/∂x. e−1 . ♦ Question 6: 2. e−1 . i. T (t) = 2t. ♦ ∂x ∂y ∂z · Question 8: 2. Hence the tangent line placing the particle at its “take oﬀ” point at t = 1 is (t) = (e. 0.HOMEWORK 3 SOLUTIONS 3 and ∂f ∂g (0. −e−t . If x = ρ cos θ sin φ. ∂y ∂y Therefore. 0. ∂u ∂u = ∂ρ ∂x ∂u = ∂x ∂u ∂u = ∂θ ∂x ∂u ∂φ ∂x ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂z + · + · ∂ρ ∂y ∂ρ ∂z ∂ρ ∂u ∂u · cos θ sin φ + · sin θ sin φ + · cos φ ∂y ∂z ∂u ∂u · (−ρ sin θ sin φ) + · ρ cos θ sin φ + ·0 ∂y ∂z ∂u ∂u = − sin θ sin φρ + cos θ sin φρ ∂x ∂y ∂u ∂u ∂u = · ρ cos θ cos φ + · ρ sin θ cos φ + · (−ρ sin φ) ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂u ∂u ∂u = ρ cos θ cos φ + ρ sin θ cos φ − ρ sin φ .4. y. 0). and ∂u/∂z. e−t . − sin t). z). ∂u/∂θ. The particle is at (e.5. . Thus. −e−1 . − sin 1) = (2e. t) and let T (t) be its temperature at time t. z) in space is T (x.5.8 Suppose that a function is given in terms of rectangular coordinates by u = f (x.. y = ρ sin θ sin φ. cos 1) + (e. − sin 1). (a) What is T (t)? (b) Find an approximate value for the temperature at t = (π/2) + 0. Compute the position of the particle at time t1 = 2.

z)| = e8 × | − 2xe−6 − 4ye−6 − 6ze−6 | ≤ √ 2 .Since ∂T ∂T ∂T T = i+ j+ k = −2xT i − 4yT j − 6zT k. 1.01 − + 2 · · 0. The temperature of the ship’s hull when he is at location (x. 1) = 2e−6 i + 4e−6 j + 6e−6 k. the metal of the hull will crack if cooled at a rate grater than 14e degrees per second.4 HOMEWORK 3 SOLUTIONS (b) By the linear approximation. Now. where x.01 ≈ 3. 0 < x + 2y + 3z ≤ 2 } ♦ . y. and z are measured in meters. an approximate value is π π π π 2 π π T +T · =1+ + 0. Solution: (a) In order to cool the fastest. the captain should proceed in the direction in which T is decreasing the fastest. (b) The cool down speed is (degrees per second) √ v × − T (1. 1). we get the 14e 14 following set: {xi + yj + zk : x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1. He is currently at (1. namely − T (1. ♦ Question 10: 2. Describe the set of possible directions in which he may proceed to bring the temperature down at no more than that rate.15 Let r = xi + yj + zk and r = r .16 Captain Ralph is in trouble near the sunny side of Mercury. 1. Prove that: 1 r ( )=− 3 r r Solution: (1) = r 1 ∂( r ) ∂x i ♦ + 1 ∂( r ) ∂y j + 1 ∂( r ) ∂z k x = − r3 i − y r3 j − z r3 k = − rr3 . 1). in the direction of the negative gradient at the point (1. which is the direction required. y.4988 2 2 2 2 2 2 Question 9: 2. z) will be given by 2 2 2 T = e−x −2y −3z . (a) In what direction should he proceed in order to decrease the temperature most rapidly? (b) If the ship travels at e8 meters per second. 1. √ 2) The cool down speed is no greater than 14e2 (Otherwise the metal of the hull will be cracked). ∂x ∂y ∂z we have − T (1. that is. 1) = 56e2 (c) The possible direction xi + yj + zk (assume it is a norm 1 vector) should satisfy the following: 1) The temperature will decrease if proceed in that direction (Otherwise the hull will be melt). 1. condition 1 equivalents to −2xe−6 − 4ye−6 − 6ze−6 < 0. how fast will be the temperature decrease if he proceeds in that direction? √ (c)2 Unfortunately. 1). 1. y.6. √ condition 2 equivalents to v × | T · (x.6.

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