Aviation Mechanic Handbook
Fourth Edition by Dale Crane

Aviation Supplies & Academics, Inc.
Newcastle, Washington

Aviation Mechanic by Dale Crane

Handbook,

Fourth Edition

Aviation Supplies & Academics, Inc. 7005 132nd Place SE Newcastle, Washington 98059-3153 Website: www.asa2fly.com Email: asa@asa2fly.com ©1992, 2002, 2003 Aviation Supplies & Academics, Inc. Ali rights reserved. Published 2000. Fourth Edition 2003. Acknowledgments: Greg MeliemaJAbaris, Section 17; Champion Aviation Products, Appendix 2; Concorde Battery, Appendix 3; Michelin Aircraft Tire, Appendix 4. Printed in the United States of America 06 05 04 987 654 3 2 ( (

( (

(
ISBN 1-56027-518-9 ASA-MHB-4

Library of Congress Cafaloging-in-Publication Data: Crane, Dale. Aviation mechanic handbook / by Dale Crane p. cm. "ASA-M-HB1 "_ T.p. verso. ISBN 1-56027-132-9 1. Airplanes _ Maintenance and repair _ Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Aviation Supplies & Academics, Inc. II. Title. TL671.9.C6648 1992 629.134'6 _ dc20 92-34331 CIP

Visit the ASA website often (www. as well as a complete table of contents at the front of the book and index at the back. The editorial staff at ASA has done this job for you and compiled this ASA Aviation Mechanic Handbook to be a handy toolbox source of useful information. Dale Crane. downloadable from ASA's Product Update pages.com) to find updates to operations and procedures due to FAA changes that may affect this publication. The ASA Aviation Mechanics Handbook is a companion volume to the ASA Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms.Introduction Your time as an aviation mechanic is too valuable to be spent looking through stacks of reference books to find a particular chart. "Composites" for this Fourth Edition of the Aviation Mechanics Handbook. ASA is dedicated to providing quality training materials for the aviation industry. The two books are the core of ASA's training materials for aircraft mechanics. this handbook is arranged in 17 sections with a table of contents at the beginning of each section. ASA and the author wish to thank Greg Mellema of Abaris Training for his contribution of the material for Section 17. formula or diagram you need on a particular job. Your feedback regarding our books will help us to continue to produce the materials you need. Editor 2003 . This information has been compiled from a large number of industry and government publications. For your convenience. and every effort has been made to ensure its applicability and accuracy.asa2fly.

5 2.6 1.1 2.7 1.( Contents ( Introduction Section 1: General Information 1.2 1.3 Fraction.1 1.4 1. Decimal.3 2.8 AT A-1 00 System of Identification Aircraft Nationality Identification Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations Standard Taxi Signals Cylinder Color Code Identifiers Section 2: Physical and Chemical Periodic Table of Elements 29 30 31 36 37 38 41 41 42 Drum 44 44 2.6 Temperature Conversion Absolute Temperature ICAO Standard Atmosphere Distribution of Electrons in the Chemical Elements Density of Various Solids and Liquids Density of Various Gases Hydraulic Relationships Quantity of Liquid in a Drum Estimating Quantity of Liquid in a Standard 55-Gallon .5 1.2 2.4 2. and Metric Equivalents Conversions Aircraft Nomenclatu re Axes of an Airplane Forces Acting on an Aircraft in Flight Types of Aircraft Structure Truss Monocoque Semimonocoque iii 1 3 4 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 16 21 24 : 27 28 1.

3 3.4 3. Circumference Geometric Formulas Triangle Square Rectangle Parallelogram Trapezoid Regular Pentagon Regular Hexagon Regular Octagon Circle Ellipse Sphere Cube Rectangular Solid Cone Cylinder Trigonometric Powers of Ten Number Systems Binary Equivalent of Decimal Octal Equivalent of Decimal Binary Equivalent of Octal Hexadecimal Number System Binary Coded Decimal Equivalent of Decimal The Gray Code American Standard Code for Information Interchange Special Control Functions Used in ASCII: Functions and Area of a Circle 3.Metric Conversion Length Weight Volume Mathematical Mathematical Constants Symbols 45 47 47 48 48 48 48 49 50 51 52 55 58 58 58 58 58 58 59 59 59 59 59 60 60 60 60 60 61 65 68 68 68 68 68 69 69 69 71 3. Square Roots.S.Section 3: Mathematics 3.9 (ASCII) . . Cubes.5 3.6 Squares.7 3.1 Measurement Systems The International System of Units (SI) The Metric System U.2 3.8 3. Cube Roots of Numbers Diameter.

2 4.2 5.4 Electrical Symbols Alternating Current Terms and Values Ohm's Law Relationships Electrical Formulas Formulas Involving Resistance Formulas Involving Capacitance Formulas Involving Inductance Formulas Involving Both Capacitance and Inductance Resonant Frequency Total Reactance Impedance 91 92 94 94 95 97 100 100 100 100 vii .3 5.1 Types of Aircraft Drawings Sketches Detail Drawings Assembly Drawings Installation Drawings Sectional Drawings Cutaway Drawing Exploded-View Drawing Schematic Diagram Block Diagram Repair Drawings Wiring Diagrams Pictorial Diagrams Orthographic Projections Meaning of Lines Material Symbols Location Identification Fuselage Stations Water Lines Butt Lines Wing and Horizontal Stabilizer Stations 73 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 76 76 76 76 76 76 77 78 79 79 79 79 79 81 : 83 4.3 4.Section 4: Aircraft Drawings 4.4 Section 5: Aircraft Electrical Systems 5.1 5.

3 6.2 6.10 6. 127 SAE Classification of Steel Strength of Steel Related to its Hardness Color of Steel for Various Temperatures Color of Oxides on Steel at Various Tempering Temperatures 128 129 130 131 6.6 6..5 Electrical System Installation Selection of Wire Size Notes on Wire Installation Switch Derating Factors Wire and Circuit Protectors MS Electrical Connectors Resistor Color Code Aircraft Storage Batteries Lead-Acid Batteries Nickel-Cadmium Batteries 101 101 106 108 109 110 114 116 116 117 Section 6: Aircraft Materials 6.4 Composition of Wrought Aluminum Alloys Four-Digit Designation System for Wrought Aluminum Alloys Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloys Temper Designations for Aluminum Alloys Heat-Treatable Alloys Non-Heat-Treatable Alloys Temperatures for Heat Treatment of Aluminum Alloys Bearing Strength (in pounds) of Aluminum Alloy Sheet 119 121 122 123 124 124 124 125 126 6.1 6.5 6.5.8 6.11 Section 7: Tools for Aircraft Maintenance 7.7 Shear Strength of Aluminum Alloy Rivets 127 Single-Shear Strength (in pounds) of Aluminum-Alloy Rivets 127 Double-Shear Strength (in pounds) of Aluminum-Alloy Rivets .9 6.1 Measuring and Layout Tools Steel Rule Hook Rule Combination Set Vernier Calipers Dividers Outside Calipers Inside Calipers Hermaphrodite Calipers Scriber 133 135 135 135 135 136 136 136 136 136 136 viii .

.How to Read the Vernier Scale Micrometer Caliper Dial Indicator Feeler Gages Small-Hole Gages Telescoping Gages 7. 143 143 143 143 144 144 144 144 144 145 145 :.2 Holding Tools Vises Bench Vise Drill Press Vise Pliers Combination/Slip Joint Pliers Water Pump Pliers Vise-Grip® Pliers Needle-Nose Pliers Safety Wiring Tools Diagonal Cutting Pliers Duckbill Pliers Safety Wire Twisting Tool Bending and Forming Tools Tools for Making Straight Bends and Curves Cornice Brake Box Brake Press Brake Slip Roll Former ~ Forming Compound Curves in Sheet Metal English Wheel Cutting Tools Shears Shears Squaring Shears Scroll Shears Hand Shears Tin Snips Compound Shears Saws Band Saw Hacksaw Wood Saws Crosscut Saw Ripsaw Compass.4 7. 145 145 145 145 146 146 146 146 147 147 147 148 148 148 148 148 149 7.5 .3 . or Keyhole Saw Backsaw Throatless 137 138 140 140 140 140 141 141 141 141 141 141 142 142 142 7.

7 160 161 162 162 162 164 164 166 166 166 166 166 166 167 167 7.8 7.6 Hole Cutting Tools Twist Drills Twist Drill Sizes Drill Gage Twist Drill Sharpening Drill Point Gage Large Hole Cutters Hole Saws Fly Cutter Countersink Reamers Drills for Wood and Composite Materials Auger Bits Forstner Bits Flat Wood-Boring Bits Brad-Point Drills Spade Drill Threads and Threading Tools Unified and American Standard Thread Form Thread-Cutting Tools Body and Tap Drill Sizes Taps Screw Pitch Gage Torque and Torque Wrenches Click-Type Torque Wrench Deflecting-Beam Torque Wrench Torque Conversions Recommended Torque Values Pounding Tools Carpenter's Claw Hammer Ball Peen Hammer Metalworking Hammers Straight Peen and Cross Peen Hammers Body. or Planishing Hammer Mallets and Soft-Face Hammers Sledge Hammers 149 149 149 149 149 150 151 151 151 154 154 155 156 156 156 156 157 157 157 158 158 158 158 159 159 159 160 7.9 .Chisels Flat Chisel Cape Chisel Diamond Point Chisel Round Nose Chisel Files 7.

Washer-Head Bolts Internal Wrenching Bolts Clevis Bolts Eye Bolts Bolt Installation Bolt Fits '" xi .11 Wrenches Open End Wrench Adjustable Open End Wrench Ratcheting Open End Wrench Box End Wrench Ratcheting Box Wrench Combination Wrench Flare Nut Wrench Socket Wrenches Socket Wrench Handles Hand Impact Tool Typical Socket Wrenches Extension and Adapters Allen Wrenches '" '" '" '" '" 7.12 Screwdrivers Slot Screwdrivers Offset Screwdriver '" Recessed-Head Screwdrivers Screw Heads for Special Structural Screws '" '" '" Section 8: Aircraft Hardware 8. or Starting Punch Pin Punch '" Transfer Punch '" Automatic Center Punch '" '" '" 167 167 167 167 168 168 168 169 169 169 169 170 170 170 170 171 171 171 172 172 172 173 173 173 173 '" 174 175 177 177 177 178 179 '" 179 179 179 180 180 180 181 7.2 Standards Threaded Fasteners Bolts Hex-Head Bolts Flush-Head Bolts Drilled-Head Bolts Twelve-Point.1 8.10 Punches Prick Punch Center Punch '" Drift.7.

Screws Aircraft Screw Heads Set Screws Self-Tapping Sheet-Metal Screws Nuts Nonlocking Nuts Self-Locking Nuts Low-temperature locking nuts High-temperature locking nuts Wing Nuts Anchor Nuts Channel Nuts Pressed-Steel Nuts Instrument Nuts Rivnuts Threaded Fastener Safetying Locking Washers Cotter Pins Safety Wire and Safety Wire Twisting 8.3 8.4 Washers Special Rivets Blind Rivets Friction-Lock Rivets Mechanical-Lock Rivets CherryMax Rivets, Olympic-Lok Rivets, Huck Rivets High-Strength Pin Rivets Hi-Shear Rivet Hi-Lok Fasteners Hi-Tigue Fasteners Cowling Fasteners Thread Repair Hardware Helicoil Insert Acres Sleeves

181 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 186 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 189 189 190 193 195 195 196 197 198 198 198 200 201 202 203 203 204

8.5 8.6

Section 9: Metal Aircraft Fabrication 9.1 Sheet Metal Layout and Forming Definitions Layout Procedure Example
Forming

205
207 207 208 208 210 211

9.2

Minimum Bend Radii for 90° Bends in Aluminum Alloys

xii

9.3 9.4 9.5

Setback Setback (K) Chart Bend Allowance Chart

'"

212 212 215 218 218 218 219 219 223 223 224 224 224 225 225 225 226
227

Rivets and Riveting Alternatives to Riveting Aircraft Solid Rivets '" Rivet Material Rivet Diameter '" Examples of Rivet Selection Rivet Length ., Riveting Tools Rivet Sets Bucking Bars '" Installing Flush Rivets Blind Rivet Code Removal of Damaged Rivets Minimum Rivet Spacing and Edge Distance

Section 10: Aircraft Fabric Covering
10.1 10.2 Rib Stitch Spacing Rib Stitch Knots

229 230
233 : .. 235

Section 11: Corrosion Detection and Control
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 11.10 Types of Corrosion Oxidation Surface and Pitting Corrosion Intergranular Corrosion Exfoliation Corrosion Stress Corrosion Galvanic Corrosion Concentration Cell Corrosion Fretting Corrosion Filiform Corrosion Corrosion Control '" '" '"

237 238 239 239 240 240 241 242 242 243

xiii

Section 12: Nondestructive Inspection 12.1 Visual Inspection NDI Visual Inspection Surface Visual Inspection Internal Visual Inspection Tap Test Penetrant Inspection Magnetic Particle Inspection Eddy Current Inspection How it works What it is suited for Method Detection of corrosion Ultrasonic Inspection Radiography X-Rays Gamma Rays Inspection - Steps Considerations Safety

245 247 247 247 247 247 248 249 250 251 251 252 252 252 253 253 253 254 254 255 255 257 259 259 259 260 261 262 262 263 264 267 269 269 271 271

12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5

12.6 12.7

Section 13: Aircraft Control Systems 13.1 Types of Control Systems Torque Tubes Push-Pull Rods Control Cables Control Cable Terminals Turnbuckles Turnbuckle Safetying Clip-Locking Turnbuckles Control Cable Tension

13.2 13.3 13.4

13.5

Section 14: Aircraft Fluid Lines 14.1 14.2 Rigid Fluid Lines Materials recommended for rigid fluid lines Flexible Fluid Lines Types of Flexible Fluid Lines

xiv

5 17.Tail Wheel Landing Gear Datum Aft of the Main Wheels .4 16.1 16.Tail Wheel Landing Gear Location of CG with Respect to the Mean Aerodynamic Chord 281 283 284 285 286 287 288 Section 17: Composites 17.850 PSI Oxygen Cylinders 277 279 279 Section 16: Aircraft Weight and Balance 16.12 Bleeder Schedules .7 17.3 14.1 Oxygen System Servicing Filling Pressure for 1.2 17.Scarfing and Stepping 17.6 17.Nose Wheel Landing Gear Datum Forward of the Main Wheels .10 Damage Removal .3 17..5 16.1 17.4 17.3 16.2 16.Nose Wheel Landing Gear Datum Aft of the Main Wheels .Typical Properties Resin Mix Ratios Fiber I Resin Ratio Formulas Reinforcing Fibers 291 293 294 295 :.14.6 Locating the Center of Gravity Datum Forward of the Airplane .11 Core Materials 17. 296 297 298 299 301 302 302 304 305 Textile and Fiber Terminology Yarn Part Numbering Fabric Weave Styles Common Weave Style Numbers and Features Ply Orientation Conventions Systems 17.8 17.4 Installation of Flexible Hose '" 273 274 Fluid Line Identification Section 15: Oxygen System Servicing 15.9 Resin Systems .

307 309 313 315 335 347 3: Aircraft Lead-Acid Battery Theory 4: Aircraft Tires Index xvi .Appendices 1: 2: Hydraulic Fittings Engines . . .

2 Conversions Page 4 1.4 AT A-100 System of Identification 1.8 Cylinder Color Code Identifiers Page 28 Page 24 . and Metric Equivalents 1.1 Fraction.6 Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations 1.7 Standard Taxi Signals Page 27 1.3 Aircraft Nomenclature Page 13 Page 16 Page 21 Page 3 1.5 Aircraft Nationality Identification 1.Section 1: General Information I 1. Decimal.

9375 0.762 5159 5.937 8.2344 0.9531 0.8281 0.3594 0.7656 0.0313 0.066 17.684 15.860 18.431 21.0781 0.3438 0.906 12.731 9.9219 0.828 22.081 15.541 7.4219 0.984 2.6563 0.794 1.003 25.0625 0.5938 0.6094 0.588 1.0938 0.7968 0.653 19.1406 0.112 11.366 4.128 9.3750 0.9844 1.397 0.0156 0.6250 0.8750 0.7188 0.018 23.2188 0.5156 0.669 17.319 10.4375 0.350 6.7031 0.381 2.049 19.1719 0.4844 0.6875 0.7813 0.4688 0.494 13.700 Fraction Decimal 0. and Metric Equivalents ( ( Fraction 1164 1132 3/64 1/16 5/64 3132 7/64 I MM Decimal 0.0000 ( ( ( ( 33/64 17/32 35/64 9116 37/64 19132 39/64 ( ( ( 118 9/64 5132 11/64 518 41/64 21132 43/64 3116 13/64 7132 15/64 1/4 17/64 9132 19164 11/16 45/64 23132 ( ( ( 47/64 314 49/64 25/32 51164 13/16 53/64 27132 55/64 5/16 21/64 ( ( ( ( ( 11132 23/64 318 25/64 13132 27/64 7/16 29/64 15/32 718 57/64 29132 59/64 15/16 61/64 31132 63/64 31164 112 ( 1 13.747 7.287 14.8594 0.5313 0.3125 0.9063 0.400 1: GeneralInformation 3 .1875 0.0469 0.256 18.638 21.6719 0.2969 0.416 23.606 25.225 22.272 16.6406 0.5000 MM 0.969 4.175 3.144 7.7500 0.2500 0.4063 0.3281 0.716 11.8125 0.034 21.478 15.( ( 1.891 14.812 24.334 8.1563 0.5625 0.844 20.1250 0.8438 0.556 5.463 17.2656 0.4531 0.922 10.1 Fraction.622 23.9688 0.2813 0.953 6.239 20.525 9. Decimal.2031 0.5469 0.7344 0.303 12.191 1.447 19.572 3.209 24.8906 0.1094 0.875 16.509 11.778 3.5781 0.097 13.3906 0.

01257 76.24 4 64 To Get square feet square meters gallons amperes / sq.150.257 2.929 x 10-4 0. inch amperes / sq. gilberts / centimeter gilberts / centimeter centimeters of mercury feet of water inches of mercury kilograms / sq.2 Conversions Multiply acres acres acre feet amperes / sq.3 252.560 4.02356 17.452 0.4 35. coulombs faradays gilberts ampere turns / inch gilberts / cm.96 0.257 0.0550 x 1010 778. inch gallons atmospheres dynes / sq.4950 0.50 1.259 x 105 6. amperes / sq.0 33. meter pounds / sq.92 10.5 2. centimeter pounds / sq. cm.540 1.1.69 42 0.928 x 10-4 0.1550 3.9 29.8 107.57 1. inch ergs foot-pounds gram-calories joules kilogram-meters kilowatt-hours foot-pounds / second horsepower-hours watts foot-pounds / second horsepower watts cubic feet cubic inches liters pecks pints (dry) / / / / cm cm inch meter 4 Aviation MechanicsHandbook . ampere hours ampere hours ampere turns ampere turns ampere turns ampere turns ampere turns atmospheres atmospheres atmospheres atmospheres atmospheres barrels of oil bars bars bars Btu Btu Btu Btu Btu Btu Btu / hour Btu / hour Btu / hour Btu / minute Btu / minute Btu / minute bushels bushels bushels bushels bushels cm inch By 43.0 1.047 3.600 0.2445 2.03731 1.9869 106 14.2162 3.054.332 14.2931 12.

001 2.39 5..85 0.320 1. cubic yards gallons (U.1934 1.020 X To Get feet inches .....639 x 10-5 2.S.. meter pounds / sq..... 0.32 0...••••• .....787 X cubic inches cubic inches cubic inches cubic inches 10-4 1..2 0....531 x 10-5 0.•.03281 0.067 X 10-6 0.642 x 10-4 0.3937 1...4720 448....831 16...01316 0.308 X 10-6 .0194 0... '" cm of mercury cm of mercury cm of mercury cm / second cm / second cm / second cm / second '" cm / second / second cm / second / second circular mils circular mils circular mils coulombs '" cubic centimeters cubic centimeters cubic centimeters cubic centimeters cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic centimeters centimeters centimeters feet '" feet feet '" feet feet feet feet / minute feet / minute feet / second inches '" By 3...02237 5..8036 28.06102 .7854 7. 10-6 1.036 X .S.•...9685 0. 10-3 centimeter-grams pound-feet centimeter-dynes pound-feet atmospheres feet of water kilograms / sq.4461 136...02832 7..728 ..S.036 0...329 x 10-3 .••.1247 0... square centimeters square mils square inches faradays cubic feet cubic inches cubic meters .143 x 10-5 4.376 x 10-8 980..854 x 10-7 1.) bushels cubic centimeters cubic inches cubic meters gallons (U..113 x 10-3 0.. inch feet / minute feet / second kilometers / hour knots feet / second / second miles / hour / second I 7..•..0 27.•....Multiply centimeters centimeters centimeter-dynes centimeter-dynes centimeter-grams centimeter-grams cm of mercury cm of mercury..•. 10-5 3.7 7..233 x 10-5 0..S...) 2...48052 28.281 x 10...) liters gallons / second liters / second gallons / minute cubic centimeters cubic feet cubic meters cubic yards gallons (U. foot pounds / sq.03281 0.........) liters pints (U.

01745 0.74 24 1.S.) cubic feet cubic inches cubic meters gallons (U.656 0.778 X 10-3 1.7646 202 764.7718 0.0 7.01111 0.6 3.Multiply cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic inches meters meters meters meters meters yards yards yards yards yards yards / minute yards / minute By 0.31 61.7250 x 10-14 10-7 0.600 0.367 12.38 35. centimeter ergs ergs ergs ergs ergs ergs ergs ergs I second 6 Aviation MechanicsHandbook .367 x 10-8 0.2389 x 10-7 3.2 27 46.S.248 10-6 9._ dynes dynes dynes / sq.400 60 0.233 x 10-5 2.0625 1.) liters gallons / second liters / second hours minutes seconds minutes quadrants radians seconds radians / second revolutions / minute revolutions grams ounces grams joules / centimeter joules I meter (newtons) poundals pounds bars Btu dyne-centimeters foot-pounds gram-calories horsepower-hours joules kilowatt-hours Btu / minute 10-6 / second days days days degrees degrees degrees degrees degrees degrees (angular) (angular) (angular) (angular) / second / second degrees / second drams drams dynes dynes dynes .01639 28.2778 x 10-13 5..023 1.01745 3.020 x 10-3 10-7 10-5 7.308 264.1667 2.480 x 10-11 1.440 86.688 x 10-9 X To Get liters bushels cubic feet cubic inches cubic yards gallons (U.

1383 3.•..894 x 10-4 0.6818 1.452 X gallons gallons gallons gallons gallons (Imperial) gallons (U.10 26...341 x 10. cubic feet / second .1337 231 3.356 3.649 x 104 6 30.•••.06480 2..24 X 10-4 0.•.48 0.286 x 10-3 1.228 6..5921 0.43 0.7 1: GeneralInformation 7 .785 1..8826 62.785 0...645 x 10-4 1....) gallons (Imperial) 2.260 x 10-5 660 3. inch webers / sq.3048 1.Multiply ergs / second ergs / second faradays faradays fathoms feet feet feet feet feet of water feet of water feet of water feet / minute feet / minute feet / second feet / second feet / second feet / second / second foot-pounds foot-pounds foot-pounds foot-pounds foot-pounds foot-pounds furlongs / minute / minute By 1..0833 x 10-3 980.6818 0...021 0. I 10-5 horsepower kilowatts feet cubic centimeters cubic feet cubic inches liters gallons (U.83267 2..••.5080 0....8 9..20095 0.. centimeter ampere-turns ampere-turns / inch liters grams ounces (avoir.. lines of flux / sq..S.030 X To Get horsepower kilowatts ampere-hours coulombs feet centimeters meters miles (nautical) miles (statute) atmospheres inches of mercury pounds / square foot centimeters / second feet / second kilometers / hour knots miles / hour miles / hour / second Btu joules kilogram-calories kilogram-meters •.01667 1.097 0..10 10.) gallons / minute gausses gausses gilberts gilberts / centimeter gills grains (troy) grains (troy) grams 10-3 .02950 0.7958 2.1183 0.S.) dynes 10-8 0.

297 x 10-8 980.540 25.000 10-2 (metric) (metric) 3.864 7.480 10 0.807 x 10-5 2.4912 33.7 9.540 8.600 2.333 x 10-2 2.) poundals pounds pounds I cubic foot pounds I square foot Btu ergs foot-pounds kilowatt-hours Btu ergs joules acres Btu I minute foot-pounds I minute foot-pounds I second foot-pounds I second horsepower kilogram-calories I min.40 1. watts seconds centimeters feet meters millimeters mils atmospheres feet of water kilograms I sq.9683 X To Get joules I centimeter ounces (avoir.03527 0.471 42.0880 1.5 0.9863 10.1630 x 10-6 9.68 745.1 020 7 X inches of water inches of water joules joules joules joules joules 10-4 8 Aviation MechanicsHandbook .807 x 10.355 x 10-2 3.133 345.07093 2.205 x 10-3 62. inch millibars inches of mercury pounds I sq. inch Btu ergs foot-pounds kilogram-calories kilogram-meters X 10-3 4.613 x 10-2 9. meter pounds I sq.5 0.43 2.342 x 10-2 1.7376 2.3 0.1868 x 107 3.44 33.Multiply grams grams grams grams grams I cubic cm grams I square cm gram-calories gram-calories gram-calories gram-calories gram-centimeters gram-centimeters gram-centimeters hectares horsepower horsepower horsepower horsepower horsepower horsepower horsepower hours inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches of of of of of mercury mercury mercury mercury mercury By 9.389 X 10-4 0.7 3.0481 3.000 550 542.

93 2.550 x 10-9 1.3 22.0 0.5396 0.2048 3.341 3.6214 56.102 x 10-3 0.2642 5.8532 1.02 0.778 107 723.233 3.000 61.) cubic feet / second 1: General Information 9 '" .0 1.689 3.Multiply joules joules / centimeter joules / centimeter joules / centimeter kilograms kilograms kilograms kilograms kilograms kilograms kilograms / cubic meter kilograms / sq. meter kilogram-calories kilogram-calories kilogram-calories '" kilogram-meters kilogram-meters kilometers kilometers kilometers / hour kilometers / hour kilometers / hour kilowatts '" kilowatts kilowatts kilowatt-hours kilowatt-hours kilowatt-hours knots " knots knots knots leagues lines of flux / sq.968 3.92 4.06243 9.1550 1.6214 0.6 x 106 6. centimeter cubic centimeters cubic inches gallons (U.S.281 0. meter kilograms / sq.426 x 104 1.665 9.9113 0.886 X 10-4 dynes joules / meter (newtons) poundals '" pounds tons (long) tons (short) pounds / cubic foot atmospheres pounds / square foot Btu foot-pounds joules Btu foot-pounds feet miles feet / second knots miles / hour Btu / minute foot-pounds / minute horsepower Btu foot-pounds joules feet / hour kilometers / hour miles (statute) / hour feet / second miles gausses gausses webers / sq.294 x 10-3 7.687 x 10-5 0. cm lines of flux / sq.151 1. inch liters liters liters liters / minute By 2.205 9.080 '" 1.413 2.186 9.655 x 106 3.48 X To Get 10-4 '" watt-hours dynes poundals pounds I 980. inch lines of flux / sq.088 4.807 70.842 X 10-4 1.

miles (nautical) miles (statute) yards kilometers I hour miles I hour 6.03937 2.103 1.909 x 10-4 16. foot lux maxwells meters meters meters meters meters meters I second meters I second meter-kilograms meter-kilograms miles (nautical) miles (nautical) miles (nautical) miles (statute) miles (statute) miles (statute) miles (statute) miles I hour miles I hour miles I hour millimeters millimeters mils mils minutes (angular) minutes (angular) minutes (angular) ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces (fluid) ounces (fluid) ounces (troy) pint (dry) pint (liquid) poundals poundals By 1.1508 5.. centimeter-dynes pound-feet feet kilometers miles (statute) feet kilometers miles (nautical) yards feet I second kilometers I hour knots feet inches centimeters inches degrees quadrants radians drams grains grams pounds cubic inches liters ounces (avoir...852 x 10-4 10 Aviation Mechanics Handbook ....076.8689 1.8684 3.01667 2.0625 1..280 1.214 x 10-4 1...54 X 10-3 0.0 437.852 1..396 X To Get foot-candles foot-candles webers feet inches 10..•.467 1.805 0.09714 33.•.233 6...281 39....•• .8 3.3495 0.••.•.4732 13..10 .5 28..37 5..281 x 10-3 0.0 0..609 0.•...6 2..760 1....••.02957 1.826 14..4 ...609 0..60 0...001 0.807 x 107 7.0929 10...) cubic inches liters dynes grams 1..Multiply lumens I sq.094 3.237 9....

273 1.240 1.036 90 5.000 2.68 0.75 0.5924 4.6366 9.0005 0.196 640 1.Multiply poundals poundals poundals pounds pounds pounds pounds '" pounds pounds pounds of water pounds I cubic foot pounds I cubic inch pounds I square inch pounds I square inch pounds I square inch quadrants (angular) quadrants (angular) quadrants (angular) quarts (liquid) quarts (liquid) radians radians '" radians radians I second revolutions I minute revolutions I minute rods square centimeters square centimeters square square square square square square square tons tons tons tons inches inches meters meters miles millimeters mils By 0.452 10.1550 1.02 27.448 0.571 57.01410 0.9463 57.549 6.273 x 106 6.0 0.016 2.03108 453.307 2.400 1.205 '" To Get joules I meter (newtons) kilograms pounds grams joules I meter (newtons) kilograms ounces poundals tons (short) gallons kilograms I cubic meter grams I cubic centimeter atmospheres feet of water inches of mercury degrees minutes radians cubic inches liters degrees minutes quadrants revolutions I minute. degrees I second radians I second feet circular mils square inches circular square square square acres circular circular mils centimeters feet yards mils mils I '" (long) (long) (metric) (metric) kilograms pounds kilograms pounds .973 1.1198 16.1383 0.5 1.973 x 105 0.4536 16 '" 32.76 1.17 0.1 047 16.30 3.438 0.06804 2.

.. X To Get kilograms pounds Btu / hour ergs I second foot-pounds I minute 10-3 .413 2...413 107 44......185 2.....Multiply tons (short) tons (short) watts watts watts watts watt-hours watt-hours watt-hours webers webers I sq.....341 3.656 367...•.27 1.2 108 1..000 3... inch yards yards By 907...•..•.55 x 107 36 0..9144 .... horsepower Btu foot-pounds kilogram-meters maxwells gausses inches meters Notes 12 Aviation Mechanics Handbook .•.

1.3 Aircraft Nomenclature

I

Axes of an Airplane
An airplane in flight is free to rotate about three axes: horizontal, longitudinal and vertical. Each axis is perpendicular to the others and each passes through the center of gravity.

y
Lateral

axis

X
Longitudinal

axis

Z

Vertical axis

The three axes of an aircraft are mutually perpendicular, through the center of gravity of the aircraft.

and all pass

Forces Acting on an Aircraft in Flight
In straight-and-Ievel, unaccelerated flight the forces about the aircraft center of gravity are balanced. Lift acts upward and is opposed by weight and the aerodynamic tail load which act downward. Thrust acting forward is opposed by drag which acts rearward. In straight-and-Ievel, unaccelerated flight the forces about the center of gravity are balanced.

1: Generallnformalion

13

(
(

(
Weight Tail load

( (

In slraight-and-Ievel, unaccelerated gravity are balanced.

flight the forces about the center of

(
Types of Aircraft Structure Truss
A type of structure made up of longitudinal beams and cross braces. Compression loads between the main beams are carried by rigid cross braces called compression struts. Tension loads are carried by stays, or wires, that go from one main beam to the other and cross between the compression struts. Most fabric-covered wings are constructed with a Pratt truss. The spars are the main beams and the cross braces are the compression struts or compression ribs. The stays are the drag and antidrag wires. The drag wires run from the front spar inboard to the rear spar outboard, and oppose the drag forces thai try to move the wing tips backward. The antidrag wires run from the rear spar inboard to the front spar outboard. They oppose the aerodynamic forces that try to move the wing tips forward. The Warren truss is used for the fuselage of most steel tube and fabric aircraft. The main beams are the longerons and the cross braces are steel tube diagonals which carry both compression and tension loads.

( ( (
(

( (
(

( (
(

(

Monocoque
A single-shell that carries all of the flight loads in its outer surface. A chicken egg is a perfect example of a natural monocoque structure. Metal monocoque aircraft fuselages have a minimum of internal structure, usually with just formers to provide the shape. Thin sheets of metal (called skins) riveted to the formers provide a rigid, strong, streamlined structure. DeniS In the skins destroy the integrity of a monocoque structure. Wooden monocoque aircraft structures are similar to those of metal. Thin sheets of aircraft plywood are glued to the formers to provide a strong, lightweight. structure. Modem composite structures are made of resins reinforced with special fabrics and formed in molds or over patterns; these provide a shell sufficiently strong to carry all the flight loads.

(

( (

14

Aviation

Mechanics

Handbook

Semimonocoque
Most larger metal aircraft have a semimonocoque structure. This differs from the monocoque by having a series of longerons and stringers between the formers to support the skins and provide additional strength.

I

Stabilizer/Stabilator Flaps Spoilers.4 ATA-100 System of Identification System Subsystem Title System Subsystem Title 21 Air Conditioning 25 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 22 General Compression Distribution Pressurization Control Heating Cooling Temperature Control Moisture/Air Contaminant Control Auto Flight Equipment and Furnishings 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 26 General Flight Compartment Passenger Compartment Buffet/Galley Lavatories Cargo Compartment Emergency Accessory Compartments Fire Protection 00 10 20 30 40 23 General Auto Pilot Speed/Attitude Correction Auto Throttle System Monitor Communications 00 10 20 30 27 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 28 General Detection Extinguishing Explosion Suppression Flight Controls General Aileron & Tab Rudder/Ruddervator & Tab Elevator & Tab Horiz.1. Load Distribution 00 10 20 30 40 General Storage Distribution/Drain Dump Indicating Valves 16 Aviation Mechanics Handbook . Drag Devices & Variable Aerodynamic Fairings Gust Lock & Dampener Lift Augmenting Fuel 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 24 General HF VHF/UHF Passenger Addressing and Entertainment Interphone Audio Integrating Static Discharging Audio & Video Monitoring Electrial Power 00 10 20 30 40 50 General Generator Drive AC Generation DC Generation External Power Elect.

Warning & Ground Safety Switch Supplementary Gear/Skis. Level Switch Wheels & Brakes Steering Position.System system Sub- Title Power System system Sub- Title 29 00 10 20 30 30 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 31 00 10 20 30 40 50 32 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Hydraulic General Main Auxiliary Indicating 33 00 10 20 30 40 50 34 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 35 00 10 20 30 36 00 10 20 37 00 10 20 Lights General Flight Compartment & Annunciator Panel Passenger Compartments Cargo & Service Compartment Exterior Lighting Emergency Lighting Navigation General Flight Environment Data Attitude & Direction Landing & Taxi Aids Independent Position Determining Dependent Position Determining Position Computing Oxygen General Crew Passenger Portable Pneumatic General Distribution Indicating VacuumlPressure General Distribution Indicating I Ice and Rain Protection General Airfoil Air Intakes Pitot & Static Windows & Windshields Antennas & Radomes Propellers & Rotor Water Lines Detection Indlcating/Recording Systems General Unassigned Unassigned Recorders Central Computers Central Warning System Landing Gear General Main Gear Nose GearfT ail Gear Extension & Retraction. Floats 1: Generaiinformation 17 .

System Subsystem Title System Subsystem Title 38 00 10 20 30 40 39 WaterlWaste General Potable Wash Waste Disposal Air Supply ElectricallElectronic Panels and MultiPurpose Components 52 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 53 00 10 20 30 40 50 54 00 10 20 30 40 50 55 00 10 20 30 40 50 Doors General Passenger/Crew Emergency Exit Cargo Service Fixed Interior Entrance Stairs Door Warning Landing Gear Fuselage General Main Frame Auxiliary Structure Plates/Skin Attach Fittings Aerodynamic Fairings NaceliesIPylons General Main Frame Auxiliary Structure Plates/Skin Attach Fittings Fillets/Fairings Stabilizers General Horizontal Stabilizer/ Stabilator Elevator/Elevon Vertical Stabilizer Rudder/Ruddervator Attach Fittings 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 General Instrument & Control Panels Electrical & Electronic Equipment Racks Electrical & Electronic Junction Boxes Multipurpose Electronic Components Integrated Circuits Printed Circuit Card Assemblies Airborne Auxiliary Power 49 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 51 00 General Power Plant Engine Engine Fuel & Control Ignition/Starting Air Engine Controls Indicating Exhaust Oil Structures General 18 Aviation Mechanics Handbook .

System Sub56 system Title System Sub72(T) system Title Windows Engine Turbine!Turboprop General Reduction Gear & Shaft Section Air Inlet Section Compressor Section Combustion Section Turbine Section Accessory Drives By-pass Section Engine Reciprocating General Front Section Power Section Cylinder Section Supercharger Section Lubrication Engine Fuel and Control I 00 10 20 30 40 57 General Flight Compartment Cabin Door Inspection & Observation Wings 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 72(R) 00 10 20 30 40 50 61 General Main Frame Auxiliary Structure Plates/Skin Attach Fittings Flight Surfaces Propellers 00 10 20 30 40 65 General Propeller Assembly Controlling Braking Indicating Rotors 00 10 20 30 40 50 73 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 71 General Main Rotor Anti-torque Rotor Assembly Accessory Driving Controlling Braking Indicating Powerplant 00 10 20 30 74 General Distribution Controlling/Governing Indicating Ignition . 00 10 20 30 75 General Electrical Power Supply Distribution Switching Bleed Air 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 General Cowling Mounts Fireseals & Shrouds Attach Fittings Electrical Harness Engine Air Intakes Engine Drains 00 10 20 30 40 General Engine Anti-Icing Engine Cooling Compressor Control Indicating 1: General Information 19 .

System Subsystem System Title Subsystem Title 76 Engine Controls 80 Starting 00 10 20 77 General Power Control Emergency Shutdown 00 10 81 General Cranking Turbines (Reciprocating Engines) Engine Indicating 00 10 20 30 78 General Power Temperature Analyzers 00 10 20 82 General Power Recovery Turbo-supercharger Water Injection Engine Exhaust 00 10 20 30 40 79 General Collector/Nozzle Noise Suppressor Thrust Reverser Supplementary Air 00 10 20 30 40 83 General Storage Distribution Dumping & Purging Indicating Remote Gear Boxes (Engine Driven) Engine Oil 00 10 20 30 General Storage (Dry Sump) Distribution Indicating 00 10 20 General Drive Shaft Section Gearbox Section 20 Aviation Mechanics Handbook .

LV Argentina LX Luxembourg LY Lithuania LZ Bulgaria N United States OB Peru OD Lebanon OE Austria OH Finland OK Czech Republic (continued) 1: GeneralInformation 21 .. Switzerland HB plus national emblem Liechtenstein HC Ecuador HH Haiti HI Dominican Republic HK Colombia HL Republic of Korea HP Panama HR Honduras HS Thailand HZ Saudi Arabia H4 Solomon Islands 1 Italy JA Japan JU Mongolia JY Jordan J2 Djibouti J3 Grenada J5 Guinea-Bissau J6 Saint Lucia J7 Dominica J8 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines LN Norway LO. EJ EK EL EP ER ES ET EW EX EY EZ E3 F G I Country Country Pakistan Botswana Tonga Oman Bhutan United Arab Emirates Oatar Bahrain China Canada Chile Morocco Bolivia Portugal Cuba Uruguay Nauru Gambia Bahamas Mozambique Germany Fiji Angola Cape Verde Spain Ireland Armenia Liberia Iran.. Islamic Republic of Republic of Moldova Estonia Ethiopia Belarus Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Eritrea France United Kingdom Mark HA Hungary HB plus national emblem . CF CC CN CP CR. CS CU CX C2 C5 C6 C9 D DO D2 D4 EC EI.5 Aircraft Nationality Identification Mark AP A2 A3 A40 A5 A6 A7 A9C B C..1.

PU PZ P2 P4 RA RDPL Country Slovakia Belgium Denmark Democratic People's Republic of Korea Netherlands Netherlands Antilles Indonesia Brazil Suriname Papua New Guinea Aruba (Netherlands) Russian Federation Lao People's Democratic Republic Philippines Sweden Poland Sudan Egypt Greece Bangladesh Slovenia Seychelles Sao Tome and Principe Turkey Iceland Guatemala Costa Rica Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Tunisia Chad Cote d'ivoire Benin Mali San Marino Mark T9 Country RP SE SP ST SU SX S2 S5 S7 S9 TC TF TG TI TJ TL TN TR TS TT TU TY TZ T7 Bosnia and Herzegovina UK Uzbekistan UN Kazakhstan UR Ukraine VH Australia VP-A Anguilla (UK)' VP-B Bermuda (U.K.K.K. Federated States of V7 Marshall Islands Brunei Darussalam XA.)' VP-C Cayman Islands (U. XC . Mexico XT Burkina Faso XU Oarnbodia XV Vietnam XV. Helena/Ascension (U. PT.)' VP-L Virgin Islands (U.)' VQ.)' VP-F Falkland Islands (Malvinas) (U. XZ Myanmar YA Afghanistan YI Iraq YJ Vanuatu YK Syrian Arab Republic YL Latvia YN Nicaragua YR Romania YS EI Salvador YU Federal Republic of Yugoslavia YV Venezuela va 22 Aviation Mechanics Handbook .K.Mark OM 00 OY P PH PJ PK PP. PR.)' VP-M Montserrat (U..K.)' VQ-H St. XB.T Turks and Caicos (UK)' VT India V2 Antigua and Barbuda V3 Belize V4 Saint Kitts and Nevis V5 Namibia V6 Micronesia.)' VP-G Gibralter (U.K.K.

6W 6Y ~:~. ZL. ZU Z3 3A 3B 3C 3D 3X 4K 4L 4R 4X 5A 5B 5H 5N 5R 5T 5U 5V 5W Country Zimbabwe New Zealand Paraguay South Africa The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Monaco Mauritius Equatorial Guinea Swaziland Guinea Azerbaijan Georgia Sri Lanka Israel Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Cyprus United Republic Tanzania Nigeria Madagascar Mauritania Niger Togo Samoa 5Y 60 6V.~ ~~~ I 80 8R 9A 70 7P 70Y 7T 8P 9G 9H 9J 9K 9L 9M 9N 90 9U 9V 9XR 9Y Kenya Somalia Senegal Jamaica Yemen Lesotho Malawi Algeria Barbados Maldives Guyana Croatia Ghana Malta Zambia Kuwait Sierra Leone Malaysia Nepal Democratic Republic of the Congo Burundi Singapore Rwanda Trinidad and Tobago • (United Kingdom) 1: General Information 23 .Mark Z ZK. ZT. ZM ZP ZS.

SVC-121. rebuilding. preventive maintenance. acrobatic. are the actual legal documents that govern civil aircraft operations. utility. MD 20785 Part Title A . This AC is free and may be ordered from: U.Procedural Rules Subchapter 11 13 14 15 16 General rulemaking procedures Investigative and enforcement procedures Rules implementing the Equal Access to Justice Act of 1980 Administrative claims under Federal Tort Claims Act Rules of practice for Federally-assisted airport enforcement proceedings C . and alteration Subchapter 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 34 35 36 39 43 24 Aviation Mechanics Handbook .Definitions Subchapter 1 Definitions and abbreviations B .Aircraft Certification procedures for products and parts Airworthiness standards: normal. formerly called the Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs).S.1. Information on the latest regulations is available in Advisory Circular (AC) 00-44 Status of the Federal Aviation Regulations.6 Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations The documents in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR).23 Ardmore East Business Center 3341 Q 75th Ave Landover. Department of Transportation Subsequent Distribution Office. and commuter category airplanes Airworthiness standards: transport category airplanes Airworthiness standards: normal category rotorcraft Airworthiness standards: transport category rotorcraft Airworthiness standards: manned free balloons Airworthiness standards: aircraft engines Fuel venting and exhaust emission requirements for turbine engine powered airplanes Airworthiness standards: propellers Noise standards: aircraft type and airworthiness certification Airworthiness directives Maintenance.

routes.-registered aircraft engaged in common carriage 1: GeneralInformation 25 . class C. and reporting points 73 Special use airspace 75 [Reserved] 77 Objects affecting navigable airspace Subchapter F. and ground instructors 63 Certification: Flight crewmembers other than pilots 65 Certification: Airmen other than flight crewmembers 67 Medical standards and certification Subchapter E-Airspace 71 Designation of class A.000 pounds or more.S. kites.45 47 49 50-59 Identification and registration marking Aircraft registration Recording of aircraft titles and security documents [Reserved] I Subchapter 0 . and rules governing persons on board such aircraft 129 Operations: Foreign air carriers and foreign operators of U.Air Carriers and Operators for Compensation or Hire: Certification and Operations 119 Certification: Air carriers and commercial operators 121 Operating requirements: DomestiC.flag. class D. and supplemental operations 125 Certification and operations: Airplanes having a seating capacity of 20 or more passengers or a maximum payload capacity of 6. and class E airspace areas.Air Traffic and General Operating Rules 91 General operating and flight rules 93 Special air traffic rules and airport traffic patterns 95 IFR altitudes 97 Standard instrument approach procedures 99 Security control of air traffic 101 Moored balloons.Airmen 60 [Reserved] 61 Certification: Pilots. unmanned rockets and unmanned free balloons 103 Ultralight vehicles 105 Parachute operations 107 Airport security 108 Airplane operator security 109 Indirect air carrier security Subchapter G . airways. class B. flight instructors.

Navigational Facilities Subchapter 170 171 Establishment and discontinuance criteria for air traffic control services and navigational facilities Non-Federal navigation facilities K . and service of legal process and pleadings Fees Use of Federal Aviation Administration communications system Protection of sensitive security information L through M [Reserved] N . alteration.Schools and Other Certificated Agencies Subchapter 140 141 142 143 145 147 [Reserved] Pilot schools Training centers [Reserved] Repair stations Aviation maintenance technician schools 1.Airports Subchapter 150 151 152 155 156 157 158 161 169 Airport noise compatibility planning Federal aid to airports Airport aid program Release of airport property from surplus property disposal restrictions State block grant pilot program Notice of construction.133 135 137 139 Rotorcraft external-load operations Operating requirements: Commuter and on-demand operations and rules governing persons on board such aircraft Agricultural aircraft operations Certification and operations: Land airports serving certain air carriers H .War Risk Insurance Subchapters Subchapter 198 26 Aviation insurance Aviation Mechanics Handbook . activation.Administrative Regulations Subchapter 183 185 187 189 191 Representatives of the Administrator Testimony by employees and production of records in legal proceedings. and deactivation of airports Passenger facility charges (PFCs) Notice and approval of airport noise and access restrictions Expenditure of Federal funds for nonmilitary airports or air navigation facilities thereon J .

) 11 Generallnlormalion .1.rtengines Pull chocks Insert chOcks Right turn Night operation 2.K.7 Standard Taxi Signals ( I ( ( ( ( l ( ( ( Signalman'S position Signalman directs towing { ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( lX~ f 4f ~~~ "~i SloP Cut engines -~~ ~ Slowdown Flagman directs pilot Proceed straight ahead Sta.7 All clear (O.

8 Cylinder Color Code Identifiers Painted around cylinder base by the hold down nuts or on fins between push rods: Gray or unpainted Orange Blue Green Yellow White Platinum Two orange bands Standard steel barrels Chrome plated cylinder barrels Nitride hardened cylinder barrels Steel cylinder 0.020 oversize Rebarreled cylinder CermiNil® cylinder barrels CermiChrome® cylinder barrels 28 Aviation MechanicsHandbook .1.010 oversize Steel cylinder 0.

2 2.5 Distribution Conversion ICAO Standard Atmosphere of Electrons in the Chemical Page 42 Density of Various Solids and Liquids Hydraulic Relationships Page 44 2.1 Temperature 2.3 2.4 2.6 Quantity of Liquid in a Drum 2: Physicaland Chemical 29 .Section 2: Physical and Chemical I Periodic Table of Elements Page 30 Page 31 Page 37 Elements Page 41 Page 38 2.

.§ is :1:..Ii <oJ -12 ::s~ i e :8 &'~ 0> .. ill 00li li~ N::I:g ih .. ."l M.... .It. _rX~ C\I ~c ':c !P_ ...a:::a "..I~ 8!iI ~ II I: gZc . ~w ::s~ 0> .. i - ~ 0( "' '" a: ~ -I......= " .o~ ... co U5 ~C_ - ..a::~ "'o!!! ~ .."" ! .. g:j ". -.. C\I o~~ '" ...~z~ coC"i N .0_ oJ)~:lI 51 (Ou~ .j I s: ii 1i IE Ol <D '0 ..j M :2 oj II> <oJ~.0.ZSl M~2 . / 13 C (:.:! 1!: !.j § III ..~ .s ~ -.. ~o . .a::g J::'=:~ :x '" - i!! cga:~ . ! !I w $ c: Aviation MechanicsHandbook .. ~~ III . 1t)::I~ C')~. CD - i!: !. 1Ie!. i!N'. !Ml J: "C: l6$ . ~ ~ '" '" OI~ ~ ~ III 0 CD E U = > . - i e c 1:1 ::I '" .o~ No - -i ~II~ _{...)o:.II ...... N.~ • C/l :2flJ . 0 e~ 1-...£ C5!2 l§l "'111~ <D 'a:Q .~ @!~ _'a~ ~Z!:>'..Ugj ..:.0 i= CD r 11... C s: - 0> . c: CD CD ".:I! ~ !! Do c::. ".. <> ~ 01 AI -l¥ ~z~ co - ~j~ ~l[ 'a "I gZ! oJ) _ .i :::IE! . III t.« :: III i!! = ~ -<D"'~ ~ ciS....... Ia i en :ll ~ cS.!I..f:! ::! - . 1:1 . ~UIll . '" ./jD. .c: .'" oJ) ... ~::I- NOm O~ to Z! g:.lIl:i M . ~ ..D.:Z~ ". 51 ~~~ :2 <I> ~"':."1 ~1I.a ~ CD > III - Utl v tj III i i! <:I ~ .l1li...:8 .~ . S...: llIa::! N .t.. OIill :::Ii J '0 j !.j !ij . II...' :8 M ~lIl:iiI ~>C§ "...i II> . s :t~ S N "....>:..cS 8~.. 8 II> - ~~ r:: .! N '" c..t~ .. f6 ~ Z§ i!l ~ Ug <D ~ III " 1I<i! M:C~ 0 - • ill c~ :!"'iIi !ll"~ Sl"'~ !::It. ~ ~-IC. .. i j:61 '" .:I:~ ..- z~ I:! M -~ -I -10:1 <oJ . 1-. t8 . j:!?c. II> O.o§ .I -0'l1li..Ji . ."m "Iit-=. a... !II M ..... = - ~N:B c~ ~u:: oz~ CO 'a :t. « S.! Ila::~ . . c.~~ 0> -~ po..!I%111 j~ s - j !:'> :- .i R)og . 30 a. OI~ _ N N::I .lIj :!! .. -.. coZIli". ~ "1i! • til 18a::1! CN' .CO <0 .... Ilj .~ '" ~U~ -~ ..

0 42.6 -67.8 53.4 48.0 30.3 -17.0 °C -23.6 -15.0 <- of °C-> -10 -5 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 14.9 -26.0 -112.3 -70.0 -40.7 -11.2 50. use these formulas: I or OF = (9 x 0c) + 32 5 Celsius to Fahrenheit: 0C = of - 32 1.0 -62.0 33.3 -20.2 41.4 -31.3 -45. 1°C = 1.6 -10.4 -56.7 -53.0 -31.0 -103.7 -28.0 51.9 -51.8 -40.0 -139.2.2 32.0 5.6 -42.2 -16.8 44.6 -18.0 -76.3 -12.1 <- °Fi °C-> -100 -95 -90 -85 -80 -75 -70 -65 -60 -55 -50 -45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 of -148.8°F °C -73.0 -94.6 46.1 Temperature Conversion To convert between the temperature Fahrenheit to Celsius: scales.0 -85.0 -67.8 -17.0 -49.0 -13.2 31 2: Physical and Chemical .8 -65.2 -11.0 -22.9 -13.8 -12.0 -130.2 -34.0 -4.0 -14.2 -59.6 37.1 -48.0 23.0 -121.4 -13.8 or For interpolation.8 35.4 57.7 -16.1 -10.6 I 55.0 -58.0 -37.4 39.1 -15.

0 25.0 177.6 127.4 -8.7 2.8 -7.0 60.0 159.2 212.2 149.8 98.8 116.1 1.2 12.9 19.9 29.0 10.8 170.2 17.8 3.2 176.8 152.3 18.6 82.4 111.9 -3.4 5.4 174.6 36.4 35.8 33.4 15.6 6.9 +- oFI °C-+ 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 of 59.8 8.8 134.6 73.2 194.0 15.0 168.0 195.3 -7.4 20.4 156.3 8.2 22.0 105.1 11.2 140.2 86.°C -9.4 93.2 -1.7 27.9 9.8 23.7 12.6 181.4 75.8 18.9 24.6 145.8 13.2 113.8 197.8 125.7 17.6 °C 14.0 114.6 26.3 3.1 36.6 109.9 -8.6 199.2 185.1 16.2 77.0 132.0 204.4 165.7 22.4 30.8 28.1 31.8 188.2 104.7 7.0 35.0 78.0 141.4 120.4 102.0 96.8 -2.8 62.8 161.6 208.0 5.6 190.8 107.7 32.0 0.4 84.6 11.4 138.2 122.0 150.1 -5.2 37.4 210.6 118.2 32.8 89.2 131.0 32 Aviation Mechanics Handbook .0 -4.4 201.0 123.6 163.2 95.3 23.2 -6.8 71.8 +- oFI °C-+ 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 of 136.4 10.9 4.1 21.6 16.3 13.2 167.4 -3.8 206.7 -6.6 -5.8 143.2 158.6 21.8 179.1 -0.4 192.4 183.2 7.2 27.1 6.3 33.6 100.2 68.7 -1.6 64.0 20.6 154.4 66.2 2.0 69.3 -2.4 147.2 203.6 0.4 25.0 87.6 1.0 30.4 129.6 172.1 26.6 31.3 28.9 34.6 91.8 80.7 37.0 186.

9 59.4 40.4 70.8 83.0 80.6 244.0 366.9 79.4 80.2 239.7 +- °Floc __ 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 of 213.4 °c 62.9 49.3 48.8 58.2 284.4 50.0 303.7 42.6 262.0 276.6 41.6 66.0 40.4 318.0 249.6 361.2 47.1 81.8 224.2 320.9 84.6 298.4 327.8 296.1 71.2 365.7 57.4 237.8 305.4 255.1 46.2 67.3 53.8 73.6 289.0 240.9 44.2 311.0 50.4 85.4 336.7 52.6 46.2 257.4 309.4 264.3 78.0 258.6 316.0 312.1 51.0 45.3 58.2 329.7 47.0 222.2 57.2 356.6 61.4 75.9 69.4 55.1 76.6 56.6 76.2 347.8 53.6 253.2 275.0 348.8 68.2 82.9 39.6 271.7 82.6 217.2 221.6 343.8 314.8 242.8 63.4 65.9 74.0 60.0 294.7 77.8 341.6 71.2 72.6 334.8 78.6 235.2 248.6 81.8 43.4 273.4 60.°c 38.3 73.2 62.8 332.2 52.4 345.2 338.3 38.0 75.1 66.8 269.0 357.0 330.3 83.4 282.1 61.4 300.9 54.8 215.2 293.6 307.2 42.7 72.2 230.6 226.8 251.8 350.6 280.0 339.8 I 2: Physical and Chemical 33 .6 51.0 285.8 359.2 302.2 77.0 70.4 45.4 219.0 65.4 246.0 321.6 352.2 266.9 64.4 354.8 278.8 48.3 63.1 56.0 267.8 323.7 67.4 228.8 233.6 325.8 260.3 43.6 +- oFloc __ 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 of 291.4 363.0 85.8 287.0 231.3 68.0 55.1 41.

6 424.2 237.2 97.0 572.9 154.0 932.6 415.4 107.0 968.0 °c 132.8 243.0 860.1 176.0 455.1 276.0 90.3 93.2 383.1 326.8 395.2 337.6 96.2 92.0 986.0 393.4 160.0 1148.6 221.0 411.0 662.4 426.2 87.1 226.2 428.0 878.9 204.6 171.0 536.4 417.9 99.6 379.0 842.0 464.7 182.0 1040.6 91.3 248.8 404.9 89.9 126.0 446.0 375.0 770.1 148.2 410.1 86.2 287.8 377.0 806.0 34 Aviation Mechanics Handbook .8 115.4 381.0 100.3 198.2 187.0 626.2 401.3 98.0 1058.0 824.6 321.0 734.0 420.8 293.0 95.0 384.0 1202.0 1022.4 399.0 1112.2 374.6 118.0 752.0 509.7 102.4 408.8 103.6 397.4 310.0 716.0 165.4 260.2 102.6 101.9 94.0 1184.0 788.0 1004.2 419.0 491.0 437.0 500.2 392.0 554.3 298.7 282.7 97.6 370.4 _ °Floc __ 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 225 230 235 240 245 250 255 260 265 of 368.4 90.3 88.7 232.8 98.°C 86.8 343.4 100.8 88.8 386.0 590.1 101.0 527.0 137.0 644.6 406.4 372.0 215.0 473.1 123.0 896.0 1094.0 315.9 104.6 143.2 135.0 698.9 _ oFI °C __ 270 275 280 285 290 295 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 of 518.0 545.7 129.8 193.4 95.3 146.0 1166.4 390.3 103.6 271.3 121.4 210.8 140.7 332.0 112.0 563.8 93.7 92.6 388.8 422.0 265.9 304.2 110.0 1130.0 402.0 608.0 914.1 91.0 950.8 413.0 482.0 680.0 1076.0 1220.7 87.3 348.1 96.9 254.

2 893.1 882.1 476.0 2984.0 3560.6 1026.4 460.0 2840.8 393.9 860.4 715.0 2804.0 2660.6 726.0 1310.0 515.2 593.9 660.0 1832.0 1472.0 3524.0 1580.0 2516.0 3092.4 1015.0 571.3 498.0 1742.8 948.0 2228.0 2876.0 1256.0 1508.0 1418.0 2120.6 471.0 3452.0 1634.°C 354.0 3020.2 387.7 637.0 2264.8 748.0 35 I 2: Physical and Chemical .0 °C 648.7 837.0 3308.9 960.0 671.0 2300.0 1652.0 3164.0 971.3 704.1 1082.2 693.6 926.6 __ oFI °C-+ 1200 1220 1240 1260 1280 1300 1320 1340 1360 1380 1400 1420 1440 1460 1480 1500 1520 1540 1560 1580 1600 1620 1640 1660 1680 1700 1720 1740 1760 1780 1800 1820 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 2040 of 2192.0 1598.1 682.0 3632.1 582.7 1037.8 493.2 993.0 2444.3 604.8 848.0 365.6 371.0 1706.0 3704.7 432.0 2948.1 426.6 521.7 482.0 1796.9 504.0 2768.7 532.9 1060.9 454.0 1526.0 2048.0 1454.0 2552.0 1760.0 1670.9 760.0 1490.0 3344.0 3056.0 3416.0 3380.0 1868.0 465.3 1004.0 2084.0 2912.6 421.0 1328.4 615.0 1778.0 2336.7 937.0 771.3 398.0 3236.1 782.0 1346.2 487.0 1562.0 2732.0 3488.0 2480.0 1688.8 __ oFI °C-+ 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 830 840 850 860 870 880 890 900 910 920 930 940 950 960 970 980 990 1000 1020 1040 1060 1080 1100 1120 1140 1160 1180 of 1238.0 415.0 2696.0 1071.0 3272.2 537.0 2408.0 1724.2 793.0 3596.1 376.0 2156.3 448.0 1400.7 737.0 871.2 437.0 1814.0 1274.4 360.6 626.0 1976.3 904.8 548.0 2588.4 815.3 1104.1 982.0 1292.9 404.4 410.0 3128.0 2372.0 1382.0 3200.1 526.8 443.0 1616.4 915.0 2012.7 382.0 1364.0 1904.0 3668.3 804.0 2624.9 560.8 1048.6 826.0 1940.0 1544.0 1436.4 510.4 1115.2 1093.

0 5036.9 1260.1 1182.1 1648.0 5000.9 1460.7 1437.0 4676.0 4100.6 1426.4 1415.0 4568.7 1237.0 4136. Zero degrees Kelvin (OOK)is absolute zero.0 3848.4 1315.9 1160. and 36 Aviation Mechanics Handbook .0 4460.0 4316. Zero degrees Rankine (OOR)is absolute zero.2 1493. "K = °C + 273 and °C = °K_ 273 The Rankine temperature scale uses the same graduations as are used in the Fahrenheit scale.0 3884.7 1537.6 1326.0 4748.0 3956. and is equal to -273°C.0 Absolute Temperature The Kelvin temperature scale uses the same graduations as are used in the Celsius scale.0 4064.6 1593.0 5072.6 1226.3 1204.°C 1126.0 4352.3 1304.0 5342.0 3812.0 4388.4 1215.7 1337.6 1526.2 1293.2 1393.0 4892.0 5432. 2480 2500 2520 2540 2560 2580 2600 2620 2640 2660 2680 2700 2720 2740 2760 2780 2800 2850 2900 2950 3000 OF 4496.0 3920.8 1348.0 4640.7 1137.0 1471.0 4532. 2060 2080 2100 2120 2140 2160 2180 2200 2220 2240 2260 2280 2300 2320 2340 2360 2380 2400 2420 2440 2460 of 3740.0 5252.0 4028.9 +- of I °C-.3 1504.0 1371.0 °C 1360.0 4712.8 1248.0 4208.0 5162.1 1382.0 4244.0 4172.0 4856.3 1404.2 1193.1 1482.8 1448. and is equal to -460°F.9 +- °FI °C-.4 1515.0 3776.0 1271.0 1171.0 4424.3 1621.0 3992.8 1148.0 4964.0 4784.0 4280.8 1565.0 4928.0 4604.1 1282.0 4820.

39 20.50 59.000 5.000 0 1.310 1.43 51.70 -69.6 602.98 23.09 22.000 7.000 20.8 573.8 -49.92 28.3 595.000 50.320 Speed of Sound Knots 666.4 589.6 643.9 645.82 -69.11 °C 19.637 0.70 -69.8 573.1 3.2 -44.6 650.15 -47.01 29.70 -69.5 -44.558 4.7 661.000 95.0 663.8 573.000 15.000 100.8 -2.6 -40.80 -56.6 626.90 23.000 35.000 Temperature Pressure In.5 -56.4 583.000 3.70 -69.34 5.8 573.000 9.70 -64.693 2.10 62.3 647.86 27.5 -53.5 -56.47 26.5 -56.400 0.118 1.17 37.000 30.683 5.8 -14.6 573.1 I *Geopotential of the tropopause 2: Physical and Chemical 37 .3 640.2 589.000 *36.2 -56.32 -30.34 -40.4 -54.7 659.000 4.57 -48.1 5.5 -56.000 -1.74 41.82 26.000 6.00 55.70 -69.5 -56.0 15.8 -4.041 6.8 573.9 652.089 40.8 573.030 0.000 80.5 -56.810 0.2 of 66.000 2.5 -56.665 1.70 -69.000 25.7 614.58 16.1 7.51 -12.12 8.000 75.000 8.885 7.9 638.8 573. Hg 32.60 34.2.425 2.5 657.504 0.7 -24.5 576.70 -69.8 577.82 25.04 30.70 -69.8 573.000 90.1 -0.000 85.000 60.70 -69.1 1.6 -34.2 654.000 70.0 11.5 -56.87 48.000 45.0 17.0 9.90 23.89 13.84 24.23 21.75 11.355 3.000 55.0 13.2 ICAO Standard Atmosphere Altitude Feet -2.8 573.000 10.000 65.15 31.30 44.5 -56.90 -65.

08 44.0983 40.01115 14.453 39.905 Shells k 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 m n 0 p q 0 F Ne Na Mg AI Si P S CI Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Handbook 1 2 3 4 5 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 8 9 10 11 13 13 14 15 16 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 8 9 1 2 2 .54 65.942 51.948 39.96 79.0026 6.90 50.9898 24.62 88.064 35.0067 15.59 74.9994 18.00797 4.086 30.847 58.4678 87.9216 78.80 85.38 69.72 72.0122 10.70 63.179 22.94 55.305 26.811 12.9736 32.9984 20.9815 28.941 9.3 Distribution of Electrons in the Chemical Elements Atomic Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 38 Element Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Aviation Mechanics Symbol H He Li Be B C N Atomic Weight 1.956 47.996 54.2.904 83.9332 58.

96 157.25 158.07 102.905 106.26 168.82 118.2 195.75 127.906 95.934 173.97 178.24 (145) 150.4 107.94 (97) 101.19 k 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 m 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 Shells n 10 12 13 14 15 16 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 20 21 22 23 24 25 25 27 28 29 30 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 0 p q W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg TI Pb 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 8 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 17 17 18 18 18 18 I 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 :2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 1 2 3 4 2: Physical and Chemical 39 .50 164.49 180.34 138.60 126.Atomic Number 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 Element Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Cesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Symbol Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta Atomic Weight 91.907 144.04 174.948 183.59 204.9045 131.967 200.22 92.41 114.37 207.85 186.925 162.91 140.69 121.905 137.30 132.09 196.12 140.2 190.35 151.2 192.930 167.868 112.

02 (227) 232.980 (209) (210) (222) (223) 226.0482 (244) (243) (247) (247) (251) (254) (257) (258) (259) (262) k 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 m 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 n 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 0 p 18 5 18 6 18 7 18 8 18 8 18 8 18 9 18 10 20 9 21 9 22 9 23 9 24 9 25 9 26 9 27 9 28 9 29 9 30 9 31 9 32 9 q 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Values in parentheses longest half-life. give the atomic mass number of the isotope of 40 Aviation Mechanics Handbook .03 237.0359 238.Atomic Number Element Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelvium Nobelium Lawrencium Symbol Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Atomic Weight Shells 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 208.038 231.

2 99.0 488.204.01114 0.07651 0.146 1.81 0.84 6.2 51.0 539.31 Pounds! Cubic Foot 13.03 1.12 1.000 1.5 443.4 64.55 19.166 1.2 55.00 1.36 I 113.00561 0.2.020 1.0 62.95 11.93 1.35 13.84 7.9 49.79 0.18 2.3 69.74 2.60 1.89 0.02 6.8 558.22 0.82 0.5 709.8 108.073 0.37 13.65 8.12341 2: Physical and Chemical 41 .59 1.08921 0.6 493.10 7.0 50.72 0.76 8.43 7.70 7.90 8.83 7.4 58.82 0.35 8.5 57.9 Pounds! Gallon 6.6 1.60 6.14 Density of Various Gases Specific Gas Gravity Hydrogen Helium Air Nitrogen Oxygen Carbon Dioxide 0.0 168.9 99.5 51.6 136.60 9.07807 0.76 6.5 845.92 0.613 Pounds! Cubic Foot 0.4 Density of Various Solids and Liquids Substance Cork Gasoline JP-4 Alcohol (methyl) JP-5 Kerosine Oil (Petroleum) Ice Oil (Synthetic) Water (fresh) Water (sea) Ethylene Glycol Sugar Carbon Tetrachloride Magnesium Salt Aluminum Zinc Steel Iron Brass Copper Lead Mercury Gold Specific Gravity 0.7 44.

and the distance the piston moves.5 Hydraulic Relationships Relationships exist between pressure. 42 Aviation Mechanics Handbook . in pounds. Circle graphs make it easy for us to visualize the way to find the desired value. The amount of pressure needed for a piston having a given area (in square inches) to produce a known force may be found by dividing the amount of force by the area of the piston. by the pressure of the hydraulic fluid in psi. Divide if they are separated by the horizontal line. To find the value of the shaded area.2. Relationships exist between the volume of fluid moved by a piston in a cylinder. The amount of force produced by a hydraulic actuator can be found by multiplying the pressure in pounds per square inch (psi). and volume in a hydraulic actuator that allow us to find the value of anyone of them when the other two are known. area. the area of the piston. F=PxA The area of a piston needed to produce a given amount of force can be found by dividing the force. Circle graphs make it easy for us to visualize the way to find the desired value. by the area of the piston in square inches. multiply the other two if they are both below the horizontal line.

~ ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( The volume of fluid. in cubic inches.1 43 . 2: Physical and Chemica. The area of a piston needed to move a given quantity of fluid Is found by dividing the volume of the fluid by the distance the piston moves. in. I ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( A:~ -4 =2 sq. moved by a piston is found by multiplying the area of the piston In square inches. =4 ( ( inches The distance that a piston with a given area must move to displace a given volume of fluid is found by dividing the volume of the fluid by the area of the piston. by the distance the piston has moved in inches.

0 5.5 41.2.0 24.0 50.5 50.0 4.0 52.0 38.5 40.0 32.0 22.5 41.5 2.5 15.5 47.0 45.0 48.5 14.5 8.0 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 55.5 34.5 9.5 38.5 25.5 35.) Drum On Its Side Depth of Liquid (inches) Gallons (approx.) 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 54.0 47.5 0.0 12.5 15.5 29.5 7.5 22.0 43.5 26.0 18.5 44.0 28.5 2.8 44 Aviation MechanicsHandbook .0 19.5 7.6 Quantity of Liquid in a Drum Estimating Quantity of Liquid in a Standard 55·Gallon Drum Drum Upright Depth of Liquid (inches) Gallons (approx.0 3.0 17.5 12.5 27.0 52.0 10.5 21.0 31.0 36.5 33.

4 Squares.6 3. Square Roots. Cube Roots of Numbers 3.Section 3: Mathematics 3.8 Diameter.3 Mathematical Symbols Page 51 3. Cubes.7 3.2 Mathematical Constants Page 50 3.1 Measurement Systems Page 47 3.9 Number Systems 3: Mathematics 45 . Circumference Geometric Formulas Functions Page 65 Page 68 Trigonometric Powers of Ten and Area of a Circle Page 58 Page 61 Page 55 I Page 52 3.5 3.

in 1968.3. I The International System of Units (51) The International System of Units is founded on seven base units: length meter mass kilogram time second electrical current ampere temperature °Kelvin amount of substance mole luminous intensity candela 3: Mathematics 47 . However. Enthusiastic adoption of the metric system in the U. More than one hundred years later. on the other hand. the increase in international trade has caused many U. Metric Board was established to coordinate the voluntary conversion to the metric system. and height are one tenth of a meter.S. and the metric system.S. has been slow because of the tremendous amount of machinery and equipment in use that was built to U. Congress authorized an intensive study to determine the advantages and disadvantages of increased use in the U. In 1975 the U. and the other metric. However. width. and the basis of many are arbitrary. manufacturers to include both U. The metric system spread slowly from France to other European countries.S. and metric dimensions in their service literature. they have been used for so long that most of us are familiar with them.S.S. The sizes of the units change in multiples of 10. The unit of mass was the kilogram which was equal to the mass of water contained in a cube whose length. In the United States. The metric system had its start in France late in the eighteenth century when the unit of length. legislation was signed into law authorizing. of the metric system.1 Measurement Systems There are two systems of measurement used in the United States: the U. The Omnibus Trade Bill passed in 1988 required most federal agencies to convert to metric units in their activities by 1992. Customary system (U.S. was accepted as being equal to one tenmillionth of the length of the arc from the equator to the North Pole. Most professional mechanics and technicians now have two sets of hand tools. The metric system. dimensions. The popularity of foreign automobiles in the U.). one U. in July of 1866. has increased the familiarity of most Americans with metric dimensions. is based upon absolute and repeatable physical factors. The U.S. but not mandating the use of the metric system.S.S. Customary system was mainly derived from the British Imperial system in which there is no correlation between the units. the meter.S.S.

These units make up a complete set from which all other units of measurement can be derived.852 kilometers Weight 1 ounce 1 pound 1 ton 16 ounces 2.Metric Conversion The basis of many units in the U. .S.54 centimeters 30.280 feet 6. But by relating them to one of the units in the SI system.609 kilometers 1.4536 kilogram 907.3495 gram 0. system are arbitrary and are not reproducible. they are traceable back to a reproducible basic unit. Prefix exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto deka UNIT deci centi mill micro nano pico femto atto Symbol E P T G Power 1018 1015 1012 109 M k h da d c m m n p f a 106 103 102 101 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 10-15 10-18 U.000 pounds 28. The Metric System The metric system is based upon dividing and multiplying the standard units by the powers of 10 and giving each a name indicating its value.48 centimeters 0. Length 1 1 1 1 1 inch foot yard statute mile nautical mile 12 inches 3 feet 5.2 kilograms 48 Aviation MechanicsHandbook .076 feet 2.9144 meter 1.S.

2 U. gallons I 3: Mathematics 49 .01639 liter 3.39 cubic centimeters 0.S.S. gallon Imperial gallon 16.Volume 1 1 1 1 cubic inch cubic inch U.785 liters 4.542 liters 231 cubic inches 1.

253 n3 = 31.5708 0.0253 2n = 0.i 13= 0.2 Mathematical Constants n = 3.7071 1 = 0.3.1416 n2 1 = 9.4142 13 = 1.7321 ..4971 log n2 = 0.3183 2 = 0.1592 [~J2= 2n= 6.4784 50 Aviation MechanicsHandbook .5642 .2486 log ~ = 1.n 1 1 1 f2 = 1.0063 it = 0.9943 10g.8696 4n = 12.5708 ~= 1.1013 n -m= 1..[2= 0.5773 log n = 0.JJt= 0.5664 n 2" = 1.7725 .2832 2n2 = 39.

.3 Mathematical Symbols + x + Plus. 3_fa lal L . or positive Minus. or negative or- Multiplied by Divided by Equal to Not equal to Approximately equal to Greater than or equal to Less than or equal to Identical with Greater than Less than Parallel with Perpendicular to Plus or minus Infinity Increment Square root of a Cube root of a Absolute value of a Angle Therefore There exists Ratio I = O!: oS .. fi.L ± 00 6.3.. - 5:! > < II . :3 3: Mathematics 51 .

0000 3.8020 2.576 19.024 1.824 15.0366 3.4772 5.4641 3.8171 1.4495 2.6904 4.5678 5.8439 2. Cube Roots of Numbers Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Square 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 121 144 169 196 225 256 289 324 361 400 441 484 529 576 625 676 729 784 841 900 961 1.8990 5.913 5.952 24.8845 2.000 1.3852 5.3.0828 6.167 13.7589 2.1644 6.2361 2.8284 3.6207 2.1544 2.3513 2.9161 6.6569 5.2450 Cube 1 8 27 64 125 216 343 512 729 1.319 Cube Root 1.4721 4.1962 5.3322 3.1748 3.625 17.389 27.0000 1.9240 2.6458 2. Square Roots.7417 3.9625 3.3166 3.156 1.683 21.444 1.375 4.000 29.648 12.5826 4.5198 2.089 1.3620 3.0990 5.791 32.9129 2.304 42.0801 2.832 6.744 3.7110 1.937 39.4662 2.8730 4.2894 2.2396 3.4142 1.0000 2.1072 3.261 10.5713 2.2915 5.3019 3.096 4.3589 4.653 54.4 Squares.521 Square Root 1.197 2.369 1.656 50.1623 3.7446 5.1232 4.0723 3.4101 2.1414 3.0000 4.0000 6.728 2.6056 3.0000 1.0000 2.859 8.5874 1.2711 3. Cubes.296 1.331 1.872 59.875 46.0000 5.4423 1.2599 1.225 1.2075 3.0000 3.7321 2.000 9.2240 2.6684 2.7144 2.768 35.2426 4.8310 5.7958 4.3912 52 Aviation Mechanics Handbook .

3485 7.507 85.3621 I 3: Mathematics 53 .7823 6.624 4.5569 3.4200 3.432 328.025 2.464 166.0207 4.916 3.2172 4.681 1.6840 3.600 1.8740 7.1104 Cube 64.041 5.0817 4.6088 3.776 5.241 6.9579 3.4833 7.2111 7.764 1.0000 4.000 132.3066 8.0554 9.206 2.809 2.225 4.4031 6.608 148.400 6.2543 4.5034 3.8485 3.125 97.000 531.601 2.328 250.6342 3.368 571.625 287.379 216.1602 4.7460 7.0000 7.1414 7.329 5.704 2.2908 4.900 5.1854 8.6603 8.7082 6.4853 8.8103 7.877 157.017 405.112 205.651 140.552 493.5574 6.4760 3.8882 8.9443 9.476 5.1016 4.976 456.184 5.981 238.8259 3.500 2.533 474.9373 8.6023 8.000 226.724 6.2801 7.5830 3.8709 3.721 3.096 4.8030 3.1213 4.7325 3.823 110.401 2.911 373.2358 4.875 438.969 4.921 74.849 1.0711 7.763 314.4162 7.1240 8.496 300.4482 3.3267 4.3246 6.7750 8.761 4.5440 8.649 125.441 551.616 185.136 3.Number 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 Square 1.5498 7.4807 6.000 68.7798 3.8930 3.7563 3.047 262.193 195.9791 4.9282 7.0623 8.9149 3.116 2.8557 6.6593 3.039 512.3089 4.000 357.625 5.184 91.8318 8.6158 7.375 175.304 2.336 103.2462 8.248 389.084 6.600 3.3445 4.1983 4.1408 4.0000 8.3666 8.936 2.9365 3.7178 8.844 3.929 6.7084 3.889 Square Root 6.489 4.6811 7.6333 6.0412 4.224 421.592 117.561 6.356 4.787 Cube Root 3.088 79.4262 8.0000 9.481 3.364 3.2727 4.1793 4.025 3.509 343.5303 3.144 274.0615 4.249 3.

472 704.5789 4.688 804.100 8.571 778.744 7.3968 4.4647 4.4868 9.736 912.6104 4.025 9.6261 4.464 8.7980 9.192 970.836 9.225 7.969 729.216 9.2195 9.8995 9.357 830.000 Square Root 9.6416 54 Aviation Mechanics Handbook .6954 9.8489 9.4340 9.125 636.569 7.5947 4.2736 9.1652 9.649 8.375 884.9499 10.7468 9.5629 4.5144 4.Number 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 Square 7.056 7.3808 9.4814 4.4480 4.5468 4.3795 4.000 753.4310 4.4979 4.673 941.396 7.4140 4.0000 Cube 592.584 857.5307 4.5394 9.6437 9.000.056 658.604 9.704 614.801 10.5917 9.503 681.000 Cube Root 4.3274 9.281 8.299 1.921 8.409 9.

2832 9.1150 72.7080 18.5398 81.3894 100.5310 103.5575 37.86 754.0686 12.25 855.635 28.1416 6.540 95.075.5487 59.617 78.9911 25.6814 84.1416 7.48 452.9557 113.9646 91.10 132.88 1.3.2743 31.2389 119.71 201.017.8142 109.274 38.485 50.16 346.8319 65.21 1.30 907.8230 87.1327 28.5 Diameter.1062 94.4071 56. Circumference and Area of a Circle Diameter Units 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Circumference Units 3.75 660.98 254.8496 21.94 176.6903 62.265 63.2478 97.92 962.2655 53.4248 12.9823 47.8407 43.3805 Area Square Units 0.0973 116.9735 69.36 380.77 804.033 113.566 19.6726 106.5664 15.93 572.56 615.73 153.11 1.13 415.3982 78.47 283.1239 50.53 314.06 226.134.6991 40.12 I 3: Mathematics 55 .7854 3.2566 75.87 530.39 490.52 706.4159 34.

536.44 1.76 2.0796 160.551.4779 235.5133 147.3628 166.56 1.7610 241.25 3.64 1.421.417.6549 150.827.0885 138.3274 254.6637 128.885.43 1.290.019.901.959.153.6372 194.8053 131.463.185.6194 238.642.042.1947 229.3363 232.63 4.6283 216.2035 207.0619 204.55 5.631.206.2301 141.3540 188.963.525.117.123.01 2.22 2.9469 135.28 3.31 3.071.126.47 3.20 1.848.7787 197.661.452.318.778.59 1.25 1.656.08 2.385.590.53 1.734.87 4.39 4.07 3.50 2.300.2212 163.19 3.4867 213.74 1.3717 144.82 2.43 2.520.1858 251.922.0531 226.Diameter Units 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 Circumference Units 122.9203 201.739.9292 179.5044 169.194.7699 219.0708 182.4956 191.3451 210.50 4.2124 185.45 3.90 1.83 2.97 2.7876 175.733.256.72 2.026.19 4.320.375.9026 245.6460 172.7964 153.18 2.00 ~"l"tion Mechanics Handbook .67 5.809.46 4.36 4.9380 157.84 4.4690 Area Square Units 1.95 1.0442 248.68 3.65 3.99 3.9115 223.5221 125.

81 7.361.6017 282.674.61 5.Diameter Units Circumference Units Area Square Units 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 257.98 I 3: Mathematics 57 .082.503.853.14 6.0265 292.91 6.8861 311.221.22 7.1681 295.50 5.792.4513 301.12 6.96 7.7345 307.647.02 5.69 7.541.7433 285.23 7.389.78 7.542.3097 298.0354 270.6106 260.77 5.5929 304.61 6.7522 263.1770 273.410.281.1593 5.939.0177 314.73 6.088.8938 267.3186 276.88 6.8849 289.697.68 6.944.283.81 5.4602 279.808.

plane figure. Area: s = Length of one of the sides Rectangle A closed. but are of unequal length. The sum of the angles in a triangle is always equal to 180 degrees.6 Geometric Formulas Triangle A closed. All sides are of equal length and the opposing sides are parallel. Two of the opposing sides are parallel. Area: A=bxa 2 b = Length of the base a = Altitude (height) A= I xh I = Length of longer side h = Height (perpendicular distance between the two longer sides) Trapezoid A closed. Area: Square A closed. plane figure. All angles are right angles. four-sided. four-sided. The opposing sides are of equal lengths and are parallel. All angles are right angles. three-sided.3. Area: A=I xw a = Length of the longest parallel side b = Length of the shortest parallel side h = Height (perpendicular distance between the parallel sides) I = Length of longer side w = Length of shorter side 58 Aviation Mechanics Handbook . plane figure. Area: Parallelogram A closed. plane figure. The opposing sides are of equal length and are parallel. four-sided. four-sided. None of the angles are right angles. plane figure.

All sides are of equal length.828 x S2 ~b Area: s = Length of one side A = rcab Circle A closed. Circumference: C = 2rcJa 2 2 = Length of one side Regular Octagon A closed. All sides are of equal length.1416 d = Diameter of a circle Area: s = Length of one side A = rc x r2 or A = 0. and all angles are equal. 3. generated by a point moving in such a way that the sums of the distances from two fixed points is constant. eight-sided. plane figure.1416 r = Radius of a circle d = Diameter of a circle I Regular Hexagon A closed. and all angles are equal.Regular Pentagon A closed. six-sided.598 x s S2 Ellipse A closed. curved.1416 a = Length of one of the semiaxes b = Length of the other semiaxis 3: Mathematics 59 . and all angles are equal. Area: A = 2. 3. five-sided. All sides are of equal length. Every point on the curve is an equal distance from a paint within the curve called the center.7854 x d2 rc = A constant. rc = A constant.720 x S2 Circumference: C = rc x d rc = A constant. plane figure. plane curve. plane figure. A = 4. plane figure. 3. Area: A = 1.

Surface area: A=6x Volume: S2 it = A constant.Sphere A solid object bounded by a surface. Curved surface area: A = itr)r2+ Volume: h2 or it = A constant.1416 r = Radius of a circle d = Diameter of a circle Cube A regular solid figure having six square sides. 3.1416 r = Radius of the base h = Vertical height of the cone Cylinder A solid figure with circular ends and parallel sides. 3. Surface area: A=itxdxh A = S3 Volume: s = Length of one of the sides V = 0. Surface area: A = 2 ([I x w] + [I x h] + [w x h]) 60 Aviation Mechanics Handbook .7854 x d2x h it = A constant. called the center.1416 d = Diameter of the end h = Height of the cylinder Rectangular Solid A solid figure with six rectangular sides. all points of which are a constant distance from a point within. 3. Surface area: A = 4itr2 Volume: Volume: V=lxwxh I = Length w=Width h = Height Cone A solid figure with a circular base and sides that taper to a point.

I Side Opposite Side Adjacent The six basic trigonometric functions. cosecant (esc). The functions considered are those of one of the acute angles. the sum of the two acute angles in a right triangle is always gO degrees. and cotangent (cot) are the ratios oi the lengths of the three sides of a right triangle.7 Trigonometric Functions Trigonometry is based on the relationship between the angles and the lengths of the sides of a right triangle (a triangle that contains one gO-degree angle). tangent (tan). the sine (sin). ( )0 osme cos side opposite Tangent (tan) 0 = side adjacent Cosecant 1 hypotenuse (esc) 0 = sin 0 = side opposite 1 hypotenuse Secant (sec) 0 = cos 0 = side adjacent Cotangent 1 side adjacent (cot) 0 = tan 0 = side opposite 3: Mathematics 61 . The side of the triangle joining the two acute angles is called the hypotenuse. secant (sec).3. Since the sum of the angles in any triangle is always 180 degrees. and the side away from angle 0 is the side opposite. · (sin) 0 S me sin C = s_id_e_o-.-p_os_it_e hypotenuse = side adjacent hypotenuse .p-. The side of the triangle between angle 0 and the right angle is the side adjacent. called angle 0 (Theta). cosine (cos).

3584 Cosines 1.3138 5.350 14.9998 0.9994 0.9613 0.Degrees Sines Cosines Tangents Cotangents 0° 1° 2° 3° 4° 5° 6° 7° 8° 9° 10° 11° 12° 13° 14° 15° 16° 17° 18° 19° 20° 21° 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 0.9397 0.9887 2.2079 0.9659 0.0787 0.3640 0.9681 0.6051 Tangents 89° 88° 87° 86° 85° 84° 83° 82° 81° 80° 79° 78° 77° 76° 75° 74° 73° 72° 71° 70° 69° 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30~ 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' Degrees 62 Aviation Mechanics Handbook .8239 2.290 38.3173 0.9744 0.1564 0.8667 3.1132 0.0175 0.0872 0.9511 0.9563 0.1584 0.9042 2.0698 0.3256 0.081 16.0087 0.188 28.2867 0.3541 0.9999 0.9986 0.9997 0.0523 0.6713 5.3346 0.0349 0.1446 4.9925 0.6746 2.1944 0.0958 0.0000 0.9903 0.7046 4.9588 0.9763 0.1045 0.3759 3.1139 0.9936 0.2679 0.3338 0.9890 0.9990 0.0777 2.1405 0.5958 7.9962 0.3739 0.2217 0.0262 0.2924 0.2035 0.9724 0.3007 0.385 9.9863 0.9848 0.9969 0.706 11.59 57.4874 3.2962 0.2840 0.1443 7.0610 0.1716 3.9483 0.2250 0.9537 0.9758 5.0436 0.0087 0.2419 0.1673 0.7475 2.1822 0.3057 0.1994 0.1305 0.6912 6.2334 0.5107 4.1219 0.3420 0.1763 0.0262 0.0524 0.636 22.0785 0.301 12.3839 Cotangents 90° 114.0437 0.2126 0.0108 3.3955 5.0000 0.3315 4.0000 0.0175 0.2504 0.1051 0.1392 0.9816 0.9636 0.9367 0.1228 0.1495 0.6059 3.0612 0.1154 6.1853 0.9954 0.9426 0.9703 0.9981 0.7321 3.9914 0.2164 0.430 10.0963 0.1317 0.2672 0.9976 0.2773 0.1653 4.0699 0.5144 8.9833 0.2709 3.3090 0.904 19.0349 0.1478 0.9781 0.2586 0.2588 0.3153 0.1908 0.3249 0.1650 0.9799 0.1736 0.9945 0.3443 0.2309 0.2493 0.7769 8.2401 0.9152 4.9877 0.9455 0.3502 0.2756 0.0875 0.9336 Sines 0.

4348 0.2460 2.5664 0.6745 0.6018 0.8480 0.6691 0.6293 0.8660 0.8418 1.3559 2.6643 1.5108 1.5075 0.7431 0.4040 0.8847 0.4826 1.4452 0.4848 0.7133 0.8541 0.8526 0.7934 0.8192 0.0057 1.Degrees Sines Cosines Tangents Cotangents 22° 23° 24° 25° 26° 27" 28° 29° 30° 31° 32° 33° 34° 35° 36° 37° 38° 39° 40° 41° 42° 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 0.6619 0.6561 0.8387 0.5948 0.8290 0.4540 0.7321 1.7813 0.5299 0.3939 0.9100 0.9063 0.5890 0.8910 0.7986 0.2131 1.3987 0.9304 0.1943 2.9272 0.1303 1.2572 1.7490 0.9210 1.0503 2.8829 0.4550 1.1106 1.5386 2.2998 2.4770 0.5095 0.3764 1.3514 1.5697 1.5878 0.5592 0.3827 0.7771 0.5807 0.8434 0.8572 0.5000 0.8949 0.7536 0.8090 0.3907 0.8243 0.8098 0.4695 0.7547 0.7880 0.5206 0.7265 0.4305 0.3032 1.4557 0.7400 0.1445 2.7002 0.2349 1.4617 0.4019 1.5225 0.7954 0.2799 1.9135 0.6009 0.9026 0.4986 0.3665 0.6088 0.9626 1.7604 0.5150 0.3746 0.8746 0.5430 0.1918 1.9205 0.4142 0.6128 0.1504 1.5658 0.8141 0.5446 0.7716 0.9239 0.8616 0.6977 1.5317 0.8704 0.8693 0.6428 0.5519 0.8870 0.5774 0.4281 1.8339 0.8988 0.9004 0.8040 1.8039 0.5736 0.6371 0.6225 0.6626 0.8788 0.6319 1.1708 1.6361 0.5543 0.6249 0.4226 0.0913 Tangents 68° 67° 66° 65° 64° 63° 62° 61° 60° 59° 58° 57" 56° 55° 54° 53° 52° 51° 50° 49° 48° 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 30' I Degrees 3: Mathematics 63 .7826 0.6157 0.6003 1.4384 0.7675 1.0965 2.5399 1.5373 0.4877 0.9171 0.6494 0.4772 0.4067 0.4245 0.7673 0.8807 1.6494 0.7660 0.4751 2.4663 0.9163 Cotangents 2.4462 0.6873 0.4147 0.7373 Sines 0.4924 0.6756 Cosines 0.8241 0.4142 2.3270 1.8391 0.

0724 1.9490 0.0538 1.0000 Cotangents 1.7193 0.9657 0.7009 0.6947 0.0355 1.Degrees Sines Cosines Tangents Cotangents 43° 44° 45° 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' 0.7071 Sines 0.6820 0.6884 0.9325 0.7133 0.0000 Tangents 47° 46° 45° 00' 30' 00' 30' 00' Degrees 64 Aviation Mechanics Handbook .0176 1.9827 1.7314 0.7071 Cosines 0.7254 0.

000 10.8 Powers of Ten Numbers larger than one: Move the decimal to the left until you have a number between one and ten.000.000.0000001 = 1 x 10-7 0. Multiply this number by ten raised to the negative power equal to the number of places you moved the decimal.000 100.000.0001 = 1 x 10-4 0.01 = 1 x 10-2 0.000.000.000 100.000.001 = 1 x 10-3 0.3.1=1x10-1 0.000.000000 = 1 x 10-8 = 1 x 10-9 1 = 1 x 10-10 000 01 = 1 x 10-11 0.000 = 1 x 104 100.000000000001 = 1 x 10-12 3: Mathematics 65 .000000000 0.000 = 1 x 107 = 1 x 108 = 1 x 109 = 1 x 1010 = 1 x 1011 = 1 x 1012 I' Numbers smaller than one: Move the decimal to the right until you have a number between one and ten. Multiply this number by ten raised to the power equal to the number of places you moved the decimal.00000001 0.000.000 1.000 1.000000001 0.000. 1 = 1 x 100 10=1x101 100 = 1 x 102 1.000 = 1 x 106 10.000.000.000.00001 = 1 x 10-5 0.000 = 1 x 105 1. 0.000 001 = 1 x 10-6 0.000 = 1 x 103 10.

356 1. Add: 356 + 1. 3.54 x 102.56 x 10-1 1.464 x 102 = 446.Addition of numbers using powers of ten: 1. Change all the numbers so they will have the same power of ten. Add the powers of ten and use this as the power of ten for the answer.254 x 103to 12. Multiply: 0.254 x 103 Change 1.356 = 3.56 x 102 1.54 x 102-3.56 x 10-1 x 1. Change all the numbers so they will have the same power of ten.54 x 102 = 16.356 x 1.254 x 103 = 4. The answer will have the same power of ten. Change all the numbers into powers of ten.4 66 Aviation Mechanics Handbook .254 x 101 3. Multiply the numbers. 3.254 = 1. The answer will have the same power of ten. 2.254 1. 2.254 356 = 3.254 x 103 to 12.1 x 102 = 1. Add the numbers.254 0.254 = 1. Subtract: 1.610 Subtraction of numbers using powers of ten: 1.56 x 102 8.56 x 102 + 12.98 x 102 = = = 898 Multiplication of numbers using powers of ten: 1.254 .56 x 102 Change 1. and add: 3. Subtract the smaller number from the larger. 3. 2.54 x 102.254 x 103 356 = 3. and subtract: 12.

Subtract the power of ten of the denominator from the power of ten of the numerator and use this as the power of ten for the answer. Divide the numbers.56 x 102 = 3.56 x 102 I= 0.254 by 356 1.Division of numbers using powers of ten: 1.352 x 101 = 1.52 3: Mathematics 67 . 3.254 x 103 356 3. Change all of the numbers into powers of ten.254 x 103 + 3.254 = 1. Divide: 1. 2.

3.9 Number Systems Binary Equivalent of Decimal Decimal Binary Binary Equivalent of Octal Octal Binary 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 Hexadecimal Number System Decimal Hex Binary Octal Equivalent of Decimal Decimal Octal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 10 11 12 10 11 12 13 14 15 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F 0 1 2 3 4 5 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 68 Aviation MechanicsHandbook .

Decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Gray 0000 0001 0011 0010 0110 0111 0101 0100 1100 1101 1111 1110 1010 1011 1001 1000 Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI OLE OC1 OC2 DC3 OC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP # $ % & 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 000 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037 040 041 042 043 044 045 046 047 050 3: Mathematics 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 OA OB OC 00 OE OF 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1A 1B 1C 10 1E 1F 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 69 I .Onlyone bit changes between each successive word.Binary Coded Decimal Equivalent of Decimal Decimal BCD American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) ASCII Decimal Octal Hex 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The Gray Code 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 The graycode isused foroptical or mechanical shaft-position encoders because ofits speed.

ASCII ) + Decimal Octal Hex ASCII U Decimal Octal Hex I 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 < > ? @ A 8 C 0 E F G H I J K L M 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 N 0 P Q R S T 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 Aviation Mechanics 051 052 053 054 055 056 057 060 061 062 063 064 065 066 067 070 071 072 073 074 075 076 077 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 120 121 122 123 124 Handbook 29 2A 28 2C 20 2E 2F 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 3A 38 3C 3D 3E 3F 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 4A 48 4C 40 4E 4F 50 51 52 53 54 V W X Y Z [ \ I A a b c d e f 9 j k h I m n 0 P q r s t u v w x Y z } { I DEL 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 125 126 127 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 55 56 57 58 59 5A 58 5C 50 5E 5F 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 6A 68 6C 60 6~ 6F 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 7A 78 7C 70 7E 7F 70 .

Special Control Functions Used in ASCII: NUL SOH STX ETX EaT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI Null Start of Heading Start of Text End of Text End of Transmission Enquiry Acknowledge Bell (audible signal) Backspace Horizontal Tabulation line Feed Vertical Tabulation Form Feed Carriage Return Shift Out Shift In SP OLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 ~~~:~~~~~~~:~ .:::::::. I ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US DEL End of Transmission Block Cancel End of Message Substitute Escape File Separator Group Separator Record Separator Unit Separator Delete Space Data Link Escape Device Control 1 Device Control 2 Device Control 3 Device Control 4 3: Mathematics 71 .

72 Aviation Mechanics Handbook .

1 Types of Aircraft Drawings Page 75 4.2 Meaning of Lines Page 77 4.Section 4: Aircraft Drawings 4.4 Location Identification Page 79 I 4: Aircraft Drawings 73 .3 Material Symbols Page 78 4.

Each type of drawing has a definite function and purpose.View Drawing Exploded-view drawings are similar to assembly drawings. or on a computer. The components are shown in exploded view to display the way they are assembled.4. Sectional Drawings These show the way a component middle. description.1 Types of Aircraft Drawings There are a number of types of drawings used in aircraft manufacture and maintenance. including dimensions. quantity per assembly. Detail Drawings Detail drawings are made with the use of instruments. Cutaway Drawing A cutaway drawing shows the outside of a component to show the parts on the inside. They are used to convey only a specific bit of information and include the minimum amount of detail needed to manufacture the part. All of the parts in a component are spread out to show what each looks like and their relationship to other parts. Different types of sectional different types of materials used in A half-sectional drawing shows half a sectional view and the other would appear if it were cut through the lines and cross-hatching show the the component. and model usage for each component. A parts list is included showing the reference number. 4: Aircraft Drawings 75 . I Assembly Drawings An assembly drawing shows all of the components in an assembly. a part as it would appear with only one half a plain view. part number. with part of it cut away Exploded. Sketches These are rough drawings made without the use of instruments. Installation Drawings These drawings show the location of the parts and assemblies on the completed aircraft and identifies all of the detail parts used in the installation. They include all of the information needed to fabricate a part.

01-\). Block diagrams help explain the way a complex system works..::::J I '" . and they are often used in troubleshooting. I . Schematic diagrams are extremely useful in troubleshooting a system.. Pictorial Diagrams Pictorial diagrams show the components as they actually appear.' :e~ ~j~ _: __ side Rear : OJ ~_~tt~~ __ 1 -' 76 Aviation MechanicsHandbook . I I _____ ~--~O~-_ : OJ .. wire number.. and the part number of the terminals on each end of each wire. .> _".. Repair Drawings These are drawings used to show the way a repair is made... The parts list accompanying the drawing provides the wire size.J : 't:::IJ : _t_ . Lines connecting the blocks show the direction of flow of signals or other forms of information. Orthographic Projections There are six possible views in an orthographic projection: I ~: r--.. Pictorial diagrams are often used for electrical systems in Pilot's Operating Handbooks. I - -----\.Schematic Diagram A schematic diagram shows the relative location of all of the parts in a system but does not give the physical location in the aircraft.t:::b : r"':I: f - /-------1 'b '~': ~ . but enough information is provided that an experienced technician can use the drawing as a guide to make an airworthy repair. No dimensions are given... Block Diagram Block diagrams show the various functions of a system but do not include any details. ~r~n~ _ _ Right t t. They are used in aircraft manufacturer's maintenance and repair manuals to illustrate typical repairs.----"" ... I - J. : I. rather than using conventional symbols. Wiring Diagrams Wiring diagrams show all of the wires in a particular section of an aircraft electrical system...

..------- Thin Leader line ----------------J .2 Meaning of Lines Centerline ---------------- Thin Dimension line .. -..4..Thin Thin Long break line I Sectioning and extension line Thin Phantom and reference line --- - - ---- - - --- Medium Hidden line - - - - - - - - - - - - Medium Stitch line - - - - - - - -- - - - -- - - -- Medum Datum line --- - - ---- - - --- Medium Outline or visible line Thick Short break line Thick Viewing-plane line Cutting-plane line for complex or offset views r--.... Thick ~ t l Thick l 4: Aircraft Drawings 77 .

._....... magnesium their alloys and Copper......... lead.. and copper alloys Steel and wrought iron Babbit...3 Material Symbols Cast iron Aluminum. plastic......... across the grain Titanium Beryllium 78 Aviation Mechanics Handbook ........_.. zinc and their alloys Rubber..... r-................._ .........4...... Fabric and flexible materials Electrical windings Wood.................................................. .. brass...... 1-- ................ .. with the grain Wood.......................... electrical insulation r............._............. .._............ ...... .

along the wing or stabilizer span measured from the center line of the fuselage. BL -0. Locations above WL-O are positive and those below are negative. or buttock lines) that are distanoes to the left or right in inches from BL-O. ( ( ( ( Fuselage stations and water lines 4: Aircraft Drawings 79 . Water line zero (WL-O) is a line chosen by the aircraft manufacturer as a vertical reference line. a point chosen by the aircraft manufacturer from which all longitudinal measurements are made.4 Location Identification ( ( ( Fuselage Stations Locations along the length of a fuselage are identified by fuselage station (FS) numbers which represent the distance in inches from FS-O. BL-36R is a vertical plane 36 inches to the right (when facing forward) from BL-O. ( ( ( ( Wing and Horizontal Stabilizer Stations These stations are locations in inches left or right.4. I ( ( Butt Lines Lateral locations are identified by bult lines (BL. a vertical plane through the center of the fuselage. For example. FS-199 is 199 inches aft of FS-O. ( ( ( Water Lines Verticallocalions are identified by water lines (WL). WL+20 is a plane 20 inches above WL-O.

80 Aviation Mechanics Handbook .

1 Electrical Symbols Page 83 5.4 Electrical Formulas Page 94 5.Section 5: Aircraft Electrical Systems 5.3 Ohm's Law Relationships Page 92 5.5 Electrical System Installation Page 101 I 5: Aircraft Electrical Systems 81 .2 Alternating Current Terms and Values Page 91 5.

crossing but not connected Conductors.1 Electrical Symbols Conductors -t-t- Conductors.5. crossing and connected Spare conductor with end insulated I Shielded conductor Shielded double conductor Shielded and twisted double conductor Q Coaxial conductor Ground connection (earth ground) Chassis ground connection ground potential) (not necessarily at Terminal strip Terminal strip 5: Aircraft ElectricalSystems 83 .

normally closed.closes on decreasing Temperature-actuated temperature switch . double-throw switch ---- Double-pole.Switches Single-pole. . Eight-position rotary switch o o 0 Pressure-actuated pressure switch . double-throw switch Single-pole..closes on increasing 84 Aviation MechaniCS Handbook ...closes on increasing Temperature-actuated temperature switch . single-throw switch Single-pole.closes on decreasing Pressure-actuated pressure switch ... - --_--o o Double-pole.. double-throw momentarily open switch .. single-throw switch --___'''''''''---___..

Relay switch Solenoid switch Power Sources Battery I crystal Generator J Thermocouple + Piezoelectric --0Capacitors Fixed. nonelectrolytic capacitor Electrolytic capacitor Variable capacitor 5: Aircraft Electrical Systems 85 .

Inductors Air-core inductor Iron-core inductor Variable inductor Autotransformer Iron-core transformer Air-core transformer Resistors Fixed resistor Variable resistor .potentiometer Tapped resistor 86 Aviation Mechanics Handbook .rheostat Variable resistor .

Resistor installed external to LRU (line replaceable unit) Temperature-sensitive resistor Heater element resistor Indicators Voltmeter Ammeter Wattmeter Ohmmeter Milliammeter Microammeter 5: Aircraft Electrical Systems 87 .

Semiconductor Devices ~I Diode Zener diode Light emitting diode Light sensing diode Silicon controlled rectifier y NPN bipolar transistor y ~ PNP bipolar transistor + Diac Triac 88 Aviation Mechanics Handbook .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful