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Cultural Frameworks

Cultural Frameworks

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Published by: raina714 on Jan 26, 2012
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Cultural Frameworks

± Facts about and information about a particular culture and how to make sense of these through mapping cultures with the help of a conceptual framework ± Managers depend on comparative models of culture because these help him/her learn about the new culture by comparing it to cultures with which he/she has experience


Hall Culture Elements Geert Hofstede Trompenaars Sociological & Anthropological Framework ‡ Universalism vs Particularism ‡ Collectivism vs Individualism ‡ Affective vs Neutral Relationships ‡ Achievement vs Ascription ‡ Orientation Towards Time ‡ Internal vs External Control Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck Variations in Value Orientations ‡ relation to nature ‡ orientation to time ‡ belief about human nature ‡ mode of human activity ‡ relationships ‡ space and international business practice Value Patterns ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ time space things friendships agreements ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ power risk individualism masculinity time and interpersonal behavior and management theories .practice .Frameworks Edward T.Culture Maps .

All situations B. Routine situations C.Culture models apply most accurately in A. Business situations E. Personal situations . Extreme situations D.

Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck .


low reliance on nonverbal diffused through bureaucratic system. foreigners can adjust Cultural pattern change: slow faster .High/Low Context Cultures . loyalty at a premium Agreements: spoken. litigious. blunt communicative style short duration. more lawyers Insiders vs outsiders: very distinguishable difficult to identify.Hall High-Context Crucial to Communications: external environment. deep personal mutual involvement Communication: economical. flexible and changeable Low-Context explicit information. fast because of shared "code" Authority person: responsible for actions of subordinates. heterogeneous populations explicit messages. non-verbal behavior Relationships: long lasting. final and binding. situation. personal responsibility tough to pin down written.

Culture and the workplace (Hofstede) ‡ Hofstede groups national cultures along dimensions meaningful to business: ± Work related values not universal ± Home country values used to determine HQ policies ± Local values may persist over MNC efforts to create global corporate culture ± MNC may create unnecessary morale problems if it insists on uniform moral norms ‡ Hofstede s work is a good starting point for understanding of business situations 8 .

Hofstede s Dimensions ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Power Distance Individualism versus Collectivism Masculinity versus Femininity Uncertainty Avoidance Long-term vs. Short-term Orientation 9 .

Hofstede's dimensions ‡ Power Distance: ± degree of social inequality considered normal by people ± distance between individuals at different levels of a hierarchy ± scale is from equal (small power distance) to extremely unequal (large power distance) 10 .

Hofstede's dimensions ‡ Individualism versus Collectivism: ± degree to which people in a country prefer to act as individuals rather than in groups ± the relations between the individual and his/her fellows 11 .

"what is different is dangerous.Hofstede's dimensions ‡ Uncertainty Avoidance: ± more or less need to avoid uncertainty about the future ± degree of preference for structured versus unstructured situations ± structured situations: have tight rules may or may not be written down (high context society?) ± high uncertainty avoidance: people with more nervous energy (vs easy going)." 12 . rigid society.

service. care for the weak. solidarity 13 .Hofstede's dimensions ‡ Masculinity versus Femininity: ± division of roles and values in a society ± Masculine values prevail: assertiveness. maintenance of warm personal relationships. competition ± Feminine values prevail: quality of life. success.





and so you promote her to a senior job. Untypical . Nevertheless. this promotion is happily accepted by (almost) all other employees A.In the UK. Typical B. She is a poor communicator and unqualified. you discover that a junior employee is the daughter of a powerful politician.

you form a mixedculture work team consisting of Japanese men and Swedish women. The team is neither compatible nor productive. Untypical .At company headquarters. and chaired by a woman. Typical B. A. These persons have been temporarily borrowed from your subsidiaries in Tokyo and Stockholm.

In Australia. Untypical . Typical B. the great majority of your employees opt to take relatively low salaries in return for guarantees of life-time employment. A.

the technology might be a great success. all will suffer. A. which means scrapping the previous technology and retraining many of the workforce.In Sweden. Typical B. You decide to introduce new technology. The workforce quickly accept your proposals. but if it fails. Untypical . The outcomes of making the change are uncertain. your subsidiary is losing money.

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