Imagine a technique that begins with one simple movement and transforms every muscle in your entire body... a technique so easy you can learn it yourself.. .and so amazingly effective that your whole life may change for the better.

"The Alexander Technique
Nobel Prize-winner Nikolaas Tinbergen hailed the discovery of the. technique. With "growing amazement" he and his family noted "very striking improvements" in high blood pressure, depth of sleep, overall cheerfulness and mental alertness. Tinbergen concluded that the technique may often produce "profound and beneficial effects" to help: relieve rheumatism, various forms of arthritis and respiratory ailments • remedy circulation defects that may lead to high blood pressure • alleviate many digestive disorders • reduce sexual failures, migraines and depression. Now you can learn the secrets of this unique, effortless technique and begin to realize your full physical and mental potential, starting today.

"Like opening a door into another world..."
One of our foremost teachers and practitioners of the Alexander Technique, Sarah Barker, has taught this amazingly effective method of mobilizing total energy in colleges across the country. From her own experience she has found that "the mere performance of this simple movement can, if you extend it through the whole range of your normal activity, put you on the road to a new life of health, physical freedom and, in the deepest sense, personal happiness." Try the technique yourself for a few weeks with her simple, everyday routines and see what wonders it can do for you.

THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE The Revolutionary Way To Use Your Body For Total Energy by Sarah Barker BANTAM BOOKS TORONTO • NEW YORK • LONDON • SYDNEY .

is Registered in U. Marca Registrada. Inc. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. without permission. New York 10103. Bantam Books.For Marj THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE: THE REVOLUTIONARY WAY TO USE YOUR BODY FOR TOTAL ENERGY 2nd printing A Bantam Book /August 1978 April 1979 3rd printing February 1981 Photographs courtesy of Susan and Reed ErskinelLightworks All rights reserved. Its trademark.. PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 . by mimeograph or any other means. New York. Inc. consisting of the words "Bantam Books" and the portrayal of a bantam. 666 Fifth Avenue. Copyright © 1978 by Bantam Books. Inc.S. For information address: Bantam Books. Inc. ISBN 0-553-14976-8 Published simultaneously in the United States and Canada Bantam Books are published by Bantam Books. This book may not be reproduced in whole or in part.

Contents Acknowledgments PART I LEARNING ABOUT THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE: The Important Benefits It Offers You THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE The What and the Why Scientific Acclaim Feeling at Your Best Age Is No Barrier If You Are Overweight Your Rampant Emotions Living Without Stress Being Who You Are Beneficial Effects in Many Diseases A Simple Method ix l 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 8 Chapter 1 Chapter 2 HOW THE TECHNIQUE WAS DISCOVERED The Australian Story Crisis on Stage The Patient Scientist A Unique Mission The Search and the Answer Outwitting Our Destructive Habits Those Puritanical Hang-Ups 10 10 11 12 13 13 15 15 V .

No Poses How to Look at Pictures The Breath of Life Let It Happen Your Breathing Improves How We Got This Way Three Easy Tests See For Yourself The Road to Take THE BASIC MOVEMENT Not an Exercise How to Start THE BASIC MOVEMENT Exploring Yourself The Basic Movement Your Whole Head Your Whole Body The Upward Direction On Your Way The Instant Train How to Succeed Without Really Trying 17 18 19 20 20 20 21 21 22 23 23 24 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 32 32 32 34 35 37 37 38 39 39 41 41 42 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 BECOME A WHOLE PERSON The Trouble with Physical Exercise The Trance in Which We Live Our Mistaken Ideas About Ourselves The Crown of the Senses Discover a World Within Part Person vs. Whole Person Staying in the Moment vi CONTENTS .Chapter3 BRINGING THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE INTO YOUR LIFE What Is Good Use? You Are Not a Statue No Positions.

Chapter 6 THE TECHNIQUE AS A WAY TO STAY YOUNG Why We Shrink The Upright Creature Must We Fall Apart? How We Conquer It Goes by Itself Never a Feeling of Strain A Future Without Fear THE PRACTICE OF THE TECHNIQUE How to Do It THE SEVEN ACTIONS An Effortless Program No Dumb-Bells. No Leotards A Way to Begin For Your Enjoyment Nine Rules to Follow 43 44 44 45 46 47 49 49 PART II 51 52 52 52 53 54 54 56 56 56 57 58 58 59 61 61 61 62 63 65 66 CONTENTS vii Action 1 LEANING FORWARD A N D BACKWARD Exploring Yourself Applying the Basic Movement Applications to Daily Life Eating Soup How to Get Out of a Slump The Way You Talk MOVING ARMS Exploring Yourself Applying the Basic Movement Applications to Daily Life Brushing Your Teeth Opening a Door With Children Action 2 .

Action 3 WALKING WITH EASE Exploring Yourself Applying the Basic Movement Applications to Daily Life Jogging and Running Playing Golf MOVING LEGS Exploring Yourself Applying the Basic Movement Applications to Daily Life Walking Up and Down Stairs HEEL A N D TOE Exploring Yourself Applying the Basic Movement Applications to Daily Life KNEE-BENDING Exploring Yourself Applying the Basic Movement Applications to Daily Life STANDING UP A N D SITTING D O W N Exploring Yourself Applying the Basic Movement Applications to Daily Life A SHORT DAILY ROUTINE A Time For Rest Rotating Your Head Moving Your Arms Moving Your Legs Rolling onto Your Side Sitting Up 68 68 68 72 72 73 76 76 76 80 80 82 82 82 84 86 86 86 88 90 90 90 96 97 97 100 100 102 103 103 Action 4 Action 5 Action 6 Action 7 viii CONTENTS .

Panic 104 106 SOME HELPFUL HINTS The Worrier The Straining Housewife The Thinker The Scientist The Manipulator The Under-Achiever The Step-by-Stepper The Freezer The Over-Achiever The Practicer The Posture-Maker The Weight-Watcher 107 107 108 109 109 109 109 110 110 111 111 112 112 CONTENTS ix .Restful Slumber Emotional ControlWorry. Anger.

Surely. Peter Trimmer. benefited from the teaching experiments I conducted in the preparation of this book. who were always available for the encouragement and energy needed to carry on. upon whose work I have drawn freely. even lacking his genius. especially those who patiently suffered and. F M. I am also indebted to several distinguished scholars in the field. I would like to thank the various Alexander teachers with whom I have studied and spent long hours in discussion. had on his own discovered how to control the use of his body. who supported me with their probing questions. Then I remembered that its originator. the rest of us. My colleague. I thought long and hard: The idea of learning the Technique from a book seemed revolutionary and possibly heretical. Alexander. of Oxford University. graciously and expertly collaborated with me in demonstrating for the photographs that illustrate this book. I am grateful to Professor Nikolaas Tinbergen. for his remarkable speech accepting the 1973 Nobel Prize in Medicine. if given a set of sure guidelines. and thanks are also due to a number of close friends. hopefully. and whose individual help in some cases was indispensable to me. When I began the necessary exploring and investigation. I received the help of innumerable people to whom I am most grateful. and all my students. could learn how. which places the Alexander Technique in a modern scixi . Special acknowledgment is due my colleagues and associates at Rancho Linda Vista in Arizona.Acknowledgments Before undertaking to write a "how to" book on the Alexander Technique.

who laid down the guidelines for those of us who have followed him. for the insights in his Anatomist's Tribute to F. the greatest debt of all is to Alexander himself. In a couple of spots. to Professor Raymond A. whose study introducing The Resurrection of the Body (Delta Books). whose studies of the Alexander Technique have accomplished much for the scientific understanding of this work. Matthias Alexander. The project is entirely my own. I have. South Africa. Research Associate at the Tufts Institute for Psychological Research.entific perspective. to Dr. Frank Pierce Jones. This book is not intended to reflect the views of any of the considerable number of people who helped me. with Maisel's generous permission. Sarah Barker xii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . Wilfred Barlow for his informative accounts of the medical use of the Technique in treating patients. closely paraphrased a few passages from that study. Dart. has contributed so greatly to public appreciation of the Alexander Technique. an indispensable selection of Alexanders writings. Of course. to the late Dr. to Edward Maisel. Professor Emeritus of Anatomy and Dean Emeritus of the Medical Faculty of the University of Witwatersrand.

PART 1 Learning About the Alexander Technique The Important Benefits It Offers You .

That technique is the Alexander Technique. named for its discoverer. twenty-five years of investigation—using quantitative measure and control groups—have thrown important light on the manner in which the Alexander Technique produces its seemingly miraculous effects. F. a technique so amazing in its results that your physical and emotional life will soon change for the better.Chapter 1 The Alexander Technique: The What and the Why Imagine a technique for transforming the operation of your body. and known around the world as one of the most extraordinary discoveries of our time. like the opening of a door into another world. At the Tufts Institute for Experimental Psychology. so simple that you can learn it yourself. Matthias Alexander. Scientific Acclaim It would surprise many people to realize what the Alexander Technique can do for them were its astonishing'results not supported by the most respectable scientific authority. There has also accumulated an impressive volume of clinical data. his students and followers conducted a considerable amount of research to substantiate his findings. 2 . During the years before and after Alexander's death in 1955. reports by physicians attesting to its remarkable effectiveness in helping many of their patients.

more than ever. most of us plod through our days and nights in a condition far below optimum. the Alexander Technique proposes. We have learned that there is no mechanical device in the world—electronic. Ours is an era where people have begun to value their bodies as unique and wonderful. one of the founding fathers of scientific philosophy and modern education.Feeling at Your Best Apart from suffering any specific medical symptoms." Good health is regarded as merely the absence of sickness. Against this keep-your-nose-above-water-level definition of being alive. Indeed. Many of us know now that through ignorance and insensibility we unnecessarily limit ourselves in how we function. We scarcely begin to realize our enormous potential. we "get by. full THE WHAT AND THE WHY 3 . He thereupon underwent an extraordinary rejuvenation and lived another thirty-five rich. John Dewey. took up the Alexander Technique at the age of fifty-eight. Just as we have thoughtlessly depleted the natural resources of the planet. We "manage". computerized or laser-beamed—that functions with such infinite resilience or so many delicate capacities as the human body. an exuberant and vital sense of wellness: physical freedom and ease combined with mental flexibility and alertness. as normal. Even after forty or fifty years of continually misusing yourself. humanity's chance to survive may depend upon how men and women salvage themselves. Age Is No Barrier If you think you're too old to begin learning anything so revolutionary. so too are we daily abusing the most valuable resource of all—our bodies—and depleting our own energies. and that today. you can begin to make a beneficial and healthy change. you're wrong. It's never too late. this factor may prove more critical than our ability to manipulate the environment further.

And we have information about calisthenics. If You Are Overweight You can even streamline your physical appearance by means of the Alexander Technique. We have sufficient data on calories. But little or nothing is ever mentioned about another important factor. exercise and strenuous exertion. Something crucial is missing from our national quest for a more attractive physique. which determines success in attaining a beautifully proportionate body. diets and the dangers of eating too much. The famous writer had spent all his days in a state of acute physical illness until he studied the Alexander Technique and transformed himself. you can often change his entire attitude to life and cure his neurotic tendencies. finding his physical and mental energies too drained by social contact. What about the way we wear our weight. one possessing a true waist and chest. whatever it may be? Why is it that two people of identical poundage and the same general build often have quite different looking torsos. George Bernard Shaw learned the Technique at eighty and lived to ninety-four." Huxley might have given his own story as a case in point. He had begun to withdraw from people.years. the other a nondescript but thickening bulge? A beneficial side effect of the Alexander Technique is a better carriage of the body's weight. prejudices and fixed habits. The ninety-two-year-old Dewey attributed this vital longevity to his Alexander practice. What many authorities therefore find most impressive about the Alexander Technique is embodied in Aldous Huxley's statement that "If you teach an individual to be aware of his physical organism and then to use it as it was meant to be used. and he was beset by a terrible 4 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Your Rampant Emotions All of us are subject to "states" of various kinds. and it is hardly news that human development in general is retarded by fear reflexes unduly excited by emotions.

yoga and other remedies in vain. There is likewise an improvement in our self-image when we feel more competent physically.depression and a chronic insomnia that made it almost impossible to work. but it was the Alexander Technique that opened up a new way to live. panic. may of course be explained as the happy side effects of any betterment in physical condition. He had tried gardening. Or if you're anxious about something. reported in other therapies as well. Can the Technique really help with our mental and emotional problems? Professor Frank Pierce Jones. Next time you're angry. "the psychological effects are of greater importance. Living Without Stress We can see how this works easily enough. We also discover how much more we like other people when we have a more relaxed feeling about ourselves. THE WHAT AND THE WHY 5 ." Some of these. We tend to be less depressed when we are not physically burdened. anger. and we are no longer simply at the mercy of confusion. for a change in mental attitude often accompanies an increase in health. he noted. you may find yourself making fidgety movements." This is because the Alexander Technique gives a workable approach in attacking emotional problems directly. When angry. the foremost scientific investigator among Alexander scholars. Jones observed in his own experience "an almost immediate increase in mental and emotional control. worry. But quite apart from these desirable side effects. notice whether you clench your hands slightly or perhaps a great deal. you may also hunch your shoulders and fix your chest rigidly. Underneath are the unconscious tension states that can build into attitudes which interfere in our relationships with other people. These are all surface reactions we can observe. observed that while the physical effects of the Technique are indeed remarkable.

or prevent the fidgeting. upon receiving the Nobel Prize for Medicine.When you release those clenched fists. you may even find that you no longer experience any disquiet—except perhaps to wonder where your rage or panic went. Professor Nikolaas Tinbergen. In 1973. Millions of people exist in this half-alive state. Instead. hoping for some kind of emotional relief. they are offered a release from the confines of habit so that they have some choice in their lives and become capable of acting more freely in whatever they do. or to shop from therapy to therapy. Beneficial Effects in Many Diseases Many people would find it hard to believe the seemingly fantastic medical cures attributed to the Alexander Technique except that these extraordinary reports come from reputable physicians and scientists. devoted half his acceptance speech to the Technique. there is no magic formula that will instantly solve their problems. Once you break this cycle of reinforcing feeling with body tension. because you are no longer reinforcing them with body tension. countering their depressions and anxieties with a whole arsenal of tranquilizers. by means of the Alexander Technique. and moving hopefully from one fad to another. He related how his interest in it 6 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . you are able to experience emotions fully in a few moments and begin thinking clearly again. you may find your feelings much more within your control. This new conscious control of yourself does not prevent you from feeling any emotional states—life would be rather stiff and boring if it did—but you will be able to allow for more appropriate and spontaneous responses to the events of your life if you are not locked into one fearful or angry response for all occasions. Being Who You Are The Alexander Technique has particular value for people who don't want to fill themselves with drugs. If they turn to the Technique. Thus freed.

THE WHAT AND THE WHY 7 . All these as well as other non-bug diseases.He. breathing. and reported that in this group there were no coronaries. resilience against outside pressure. no discs. he suggested. might be helped by the Alexander Technique. and called upon their profession to recognize and evaluate it. even asthma. and I repeat once more. overall cheerfulness and mental alertness. they observed "with growing amazement" the marvelous results. which is a point that must be emphasized. no such evaluation has thus far been carried out. that the Technique brought about "very striking improvements in such diverse things as high blood pressure. Unfortunately. no cancers. migraines and depressive states that often lead to suicide. for example. no strokes. "there can be no doubt that it often does have profound and beneficial effects." A physician. no rheumatoid arthritis. circulation defects that may lead to high blood pressure and heart conditions. both in the mental and somatic sphere. depth of sleep. respiratory ailments. Dr. Tinbergen concluded that while the Technique is assuredly no cure-all to be applied in every case. They noted. Wilfred Barlow. signed by nineteen doctors. gastrointestinal disorders of many types." Tinbergen went on to affirm the possibility that certain other stress-related ailments could benefit from the Technique: rheumatism. endorsing the Technique for its remarkable effectiveness in the treatment of many of their patients.was excited by a little experiment he had tried with his own family. Barlow called this statistic "almost unbelievable" and concluded that 99 percent of the population need the Technique. The British Medical Journal once published a letter. conducted a survey of men and women who had long used the Alexander Technique. his wife and one of their daughters had learned the Technique at the same time. As their body musculature began to function differently. no ulcers. including various forms of arthritis. no neurological disorders and no severe mental disorder. sexual failures. and also in such a refined skill as playing a stringed instrument.

A word of caution is therefore in order. you may readily apply it. This book will introduce you to the Alexander process of thinking and moving. A Simple Method People from all walks of life benefit from the Alexander Technique." In Part I. . It provides a compass for navigating in whatever physical or mental perplexities you may find yourself. It presents a simple method for learning the Technique by yourself. like Vogue and Harper's Bazaar. It offers a key for orienting yourself in all that you do. dancers. Highfashion magazines. "Since the Alexander Technique is nothing more than the application of experimental method to problems of everyday behavior. Patients in medical institutes in London. actors—are making it an important part of their training program. New York and elsewhere find it accepted as a valuable resource in physiotherapy. If you have any ailment or illness—even one due to. In the words of Professor Frank Jones. there is no reason to delay the undertaking if a teacher is not available. Those that have a professional interest in their bodies—musicians. the Alexander principle has been encapsulated in one very simple action called the Basic Movement (Chapter 4). Part II presents a systematic program of seven easy Actions that shows you how to expand the Basic Movement as the basis for improving the quality of all the activities of 8 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Whether seated in a theater or standing waiting for a bus. or complicated by.Although there has accumulated an impressive volume of personal testimony. the continual wear you place upon yourself through bad muscular habits—only your own physician can advise you if the Alexander Technique is likely to help. no thorough-going scientific investigation has been conducted into any of the medical claims that have been made for the Technique. have informed their readers of what the Technique will do for bodies that display expensive clothes.

To understand the Alexander principle." THE WHAT AND THE WHY 9 .your everyday life. These Actions will facilitate this because they are invariably involved in almost everything you do. however." said Professor Tinbergen in his Nobel speech. shown by a man without medical training. of intelligence and of persistence. we need to learn more about Alexander himself and how he made his great discovery. "is one of the true epics of medical research and practice. and the Technique that derives from it. "This story of perceptiveness.

In this way. Not much is known about his father except that he was poor and hard-working. The Australian Story Frederick Matthias Alexander came from a remote outpost of the Australian bush country. And upon closer inspection. the new proposition put forth appears to have sprung full-blown from the brain of its originator. are said to have hit upon the powerful mathematical tool of calculus at about the same moment in history. This is certainly true of the way the Alexander Technique was discovered. But there are other turning points. He was born in 1869 on the island of Tasmania in a small town named Wynyard. that have been reached in total isolation from any ongoing tradition of study and research. At first glance. an unusual woman who was close to the child during his formative 10 . Newton and Leibniz. Whatever influence he may have had on his son was far overshadowed by the boy's mother. no less significant for the welfare of the human race. acting independently of one another. we can see that it does indeed owe almost everything to the peculiar genius of that individual and to the special circumstances of his or her particular life.Chapter 2 How the Technique was Discovered Many a major innovation in the history of science appears to have been lying there. just waiting for the great person who discovered it.

In Melbourne. a Scot who had emigrated to Australia in an effort to repair his health. so he took a job with the local tin mining company. however. After the mining came a succession of other uncongenial positions. for the theater had been his love since early childhood. and it was this disability which proved to be the determining factor in his life. when he began at six to practice the kind of recitations so popular in that day. Local doctors often called on her. In this wild and remote part of the world.years. Alexander won prizes and passed examinations with ease. By the time he was nineteen. riding and midwifery (which included nursing and other medical services) to help her neighbors. trying to recoup his small fortune with odd jobs. From the beginning. refusing to accept anything on blind faith. and away from the mining company could consider himself legitimately to be a professional actor. she combined two of her talents. Alexander was already considered an accomplished reciter of Shakespeare. he decided to cast his lot with the theater as actor. He persuaded Alexander's father to let him tutor the boy in the evenings. Fortunately. but family poverty demanded that the eldest son go out to work. finally. recitalist or both. Sometimes during recitals his voice failed him completely—disturbing enough for any actor! Doctors could HOW THE TECHNIQUE WAS DISCOVERED 11 . Crisis on Stage He could have become the teacher his tutor wanted him to be. giving his recitals on numerous smalltown stages. He would have liked to go on the stage. He worked under a handicap. Alexander was different from other children. she had been known to saddle her horse and leap it over the paddock gate so as not to lose time fooling with the latch. and sometimes in response to urgent calls. Thus. He seemed to have an innate distrust of accepted routine and conventional wisdom. which was all the formal education the youngster received. his schoolmaster. saw that his difficult pupil was something more than the usual rebellious student. tutored but not formally taught.

but also when speaking normally in ordinary conversation. One night. he began with that slight pulling backward and down of his head. quite apart from speaking. The Patient Scientist That was the turning point. in fact. Changing the poise of his head by pulling it backward and down was. halfway through an important engagement during the 1888 season. Alexander began to examine closely how he used himself physically when he was on stage—keeping his eyes open and observing. It was only more noticeable in formal recitation because there it produced a depression of the larynx and an audible sucking in of his breath that could. Instead. In everyday physical acts. using mirrors while he declaimed as an aid to observation. Once aware of it. he lost his voice and left the stage in near despair. Alexander devoted himself to finding out what made him lose his voice. This was something he did. Meanwhile. part of a whole body pattern that also included lifting his chest and hollowing his back. but also during any physical activity. Soon he began to go beyond his immediate problem. At first. with attention. not only during his stage appearances. he came upon the characteristic that was blocking his own activity. There were to be no more doctors. becoming fascinated with the whole question of what happens to the body not only in speech. In time.give him no more than temporary relief. 12 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . from the most trivial to the most strenuous. He discovered that every movement he made was accompanied by a slight tendency to pull his head backward and down. This close scrutiny continued for nearly ten years. This pattern of unconscious activity constituted the preliminary to every recitation he gave. which is fundamental to the spirit of all scientific inquiry. he could see the same pattern at work as involuntary preparation in whatever else he undertook. the condition gradually worsened until he finally had to refuse engagements if he thought he might be incapable of getting through the performance.

the obvious solution was to substitute for this negative action (with all the consequences it initiated) the conscious constructive movement of the head and body upward. he withdrew more and more from acting. diplomats. athletes and celebrities of all kinds sought him out. mental and emotional well-being of people everywhere. all his other activities were likewise initiated in the same self-stultifying manner.be seen and heard. France. after he-had completely corrected the long-standing vocal disability that drove him from the stage. Through his students. South Africa and other countries of the world. Thus. Israel. and a valuable compilation of his essential writings may be found in The Resurrection of the Body (Delta Books). The Search and the Answer We can come closer to understanding the nature of the discovery that underlies all we are going to learn in this book if we now outline it in the terms suggested at the outset of this chapter: a special kind of person makes an important HOW THE TECHNIQUE WAS DISCOVERED 13 . He also produced several books. Switzerland. on a different scale. writers. and during his lifetime he worked both in England and America. A Unique Mission Since these patterns of bad use were triggered by an unconscious reflex of pulling the head backward and down. Australia. He continued this mission until his death at the age of eighty-six. Italy. But not for long. Statesmen. theater people. his teachings spread to Denmark. movie stars. He observed similar consequences. industrialists. in everything else he did. For as he pondered the far-reaching consequences of his startling discovery for the physical. New Zealand. finally abandoning the stage to carve a unique career as a teacher of the Alexander Technique. Alexander resumed his theatrical career. no matter what business or occupation.

and his only stumbling block is the occasional but very annoying tendency of his voice to give out during recitals. At the age of nineteen. His career seems assured—his reputation is growing steadily. Alexander has found the key. In fact. Through years of carefully watching his every motion in an elaborate system of mirrors.finding through the circumstances of his or her particular life and in isolation from any tradition of scientific thought on the subject. Alexander chooses the latter. His great love for the theater had caused him to gravitate through a series of unchallenging occupations before attaining. he is forced to see a doctor about the problem. Alexander resumes his profession with renewed confidence. Being a far from submissive personality. and it precedes all efforts at vocal articulation. It turns out that the doctor cannot find the cause. That secret is a small but perceptible contraction of the muscles at the back of his neck. No use in seeing more and more doctors. where we find the young Alexander confronted with a problem of survival. only to have his voice fail completely halfway through an especially important engagement. he devotes the rest of his time to a painstaking and meticulous observation of the only clue he has—himself. Thus armed. results are frustratingly slow in coming. for he realizes that the physicians of his day know even less about his condition than he does. a career on the stage. a remedy 14 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . at last. The scene is Australia during the 1880s. While carefully limiting his theatrical obligations. he is an actor specializing in the recital of long passages from the works of classic playwrights. but he does prescribe a medicine that might just do the trick. it takes almost ten years of searching through more minute movements before the secret reveals itself. This leaves him with the ugly choice between (1) leaving the theater altogether or (2) applying himself tirelessly to discovering the cause of the problem. Eventually.

high blood pressure and chronic joint and muscle pains. Outwitting Our Destructive Habits Basically. It can lead to round-the-clock tension in some muscles. And this is only one destructive habit. which. To eliminate the problem at its source. Those Puritanical Hang-Ups A major conclusion that emerged from Alexander's study and observation. With every act. the first of a whole series that will follow if the first occurs unchallenged. Unfortunately. And doing this means using the conscious mind to change our subconscious muscle patterns. which can cause loss of voice.will follow. thus squeezing the delicate organs that reside there. reducing lung capacity and projecting the stomach unpleasingly forward. we need to prevent the neck from contracting unnecessarily. the customs of language entrap us much HOW THE TECHNIQUE WAS DISCOVERED 15 . In order to revise things of which we are not aware. The person is one psychophysical organism. We are not split into body and mind. He must release that contraction with movement of his head upward. interferes with the smooth operation of the muscular and nervous systems and all the vital organs. we can consciously move our head upward. we need a new approach—one that can bring subconscious sensations forward into the conscious mind. They form an inseparable whole. was this: mind and body are inextricably bound together. and from his later teaching experience. Taken together. repeated hundreds of times a day over a span of many years. this destructive series can compress the body's trunk. the action that most often precedes wasteful or harmful responses is a contraction which pulls the head slightly backward and down. body following it. The effect of this is a compression of the spine.

personal grooming is neglected or forgotten . the garbage is not carried out. 16 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE ." Or "my thoughts keep wandering. we may even persist in believing that the physical business of daily existence is unimportant or at least unworthy of our serious attention. After all. quoting the ancient Greeks. at the same time visualizing a something mental that is embedded in a something fleshly. or higher part. "A sound mind in a sound body. can manifest itself in any of a thousand different ways that upset or swamp us. we also run the risk of never being rid of our troubles. ." we glibly say. Whenever we divide ourselves in two like this. Instead. in fact downright lowly. the kitchen mess accumulates. Often. we tend to look down upon the fleshly part as being inferior. into a mental part and a physical part." We have something to blame. It's "that damn leg of mine." thus mistakenly conceived. The leaves go unraked. . if we happen to suffer from puritanical hang-ups. the clutter of papers on the desk remains untidy. With disastrous consequences for our daily life. the fault lies with one of those two separate halves. Disdain for the mere "physical.of the time into thinking so. we could be finding out what we are doing that keeps us from solving our problems. compared to the mind.

getting in and out of automobiles. our particular patterns of move17 . writing with a pen or pencil. It does not matter what the activity is: lying in bed. unscrewing the caps of jars or uncorking bottles. always involves us in patterns of movement and rest. in insisting upon "treating each act as involving the whole integrated individual. closing windows.Chapter 3 Bringing the Alexander Technique into Your Life Taking Alexander's discovery into your own life can mean strength. sitting down. the effects can afford relief in a very wide range of ailments that are caused. Adopting the Technique does not require you to embrace a new religion or far-out philosophy. However we go through any or all these activities. Sherrington. he said." he wrote. reaching to a shelf. "To take a step is an affair not of this or that limb solely. the whole psychophysical man. the great Nobel Prize physiologist." We can readily see why. "but of the total neuromuscular activity of the moment. walking. opening and shutting doors. ease and endurance in everything you do—even sleeping. casual or major. Sir Charles S." The Australian was therefore correct. by stress and excess muscle tension. It simply offers a different biological approach from the one you have been using. for everything we do. directly or indirectly. standing up. a new way to integrate thought with action. Besides. once praised Alexander for his discovery.

for the movement of another in order to maintain balance and stability.ment and rest constitute the particular use (Alexander's word) that we make of ourselves. Some parts of the spinal cord will then experience more pressure than others. Good or bad. The object is not to learn all the proper combinations of 18 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . If you are slumped down. you will be shortening others drastically. Sometimes nerves are pinched. If you try simply to push yourself erect. Indeed. however. you simply abuse yourself in another manner. When your body is erect. you unconsciously tighten the painful area and often other parts of the body as well. as from a twisted ankle. You do so presumably to protect the injured area by immobilizing it. but in fact this new excess tension in the joints and muscles will slow down circulation and actually prevent your body from healing itself. these conditions of excessive muscular tension are likely to exist. What Is Good Use? The key concept of "use" is perhaps the easiest way to explain the Alexander Technique. it provides enough room for your organs so that your breath can massage them. for unless the vertebrae are stacked evenly. Bad use means employing the body in a haphazard way: one part of the body compensates at random. Circulation is slowed down. and usually inefficiently. So in this attempt to gain desirable results forcibly. everything we do in life manifests itself in the way we "use" ourselves. the only possible result is that while you may be lengthening some muscles. It sometimes happens that when you experience pain anywhere. It's the same thing with your spine. the pressure of the body being supported by them is not evenly shared. you're putting unnecessary pressure on the organs so that they can't function as well. arthritic joints or an upset stomach. Good use means moving the body with maximum balance and coordination of all parts so that only the effort absolutely needed is expended. and that causes malfunctioning of the parts of the body serviced by them. whenever you move without awareness.

For when they depart the parade grounds or the music hall. you learn instead one Basic Movement that can control the normal flow of all your activity. they drop the elevated chest and the forward curvature of the spine. no matter what kind. you must at the outset dismiss from your mind all shining examples of good posture. or when you stand poised at the head of the stairs. you are again caught up in movement. It is in fact quite absurd to think of attaining some ideal posture and then clinging to it through all your subsequent activity. leathernecks and chorines alike let go of these strenously maintained body attitudes. with its accompanying hollow in the back. The effort to hang on to some deliberate position. Conceivably.muscular action needed for all that you do and then try to think of them constantly as you move. Through the Alexander Technique. So in learning the Alexander Technique. Forget the paragons of close-order drill in the Marine Corps or the symmetrical ranks of the chorus line at the Folies Bergère. Unfortunately." a word that ought to be jettisoned because it in no way corresponds to the conditions of real life. there are BRINGING THE TECHNIQUE INTO YOUR LIFE 19 . And your customary use of yourself will reappear immediately. since its absence was based on nothing more than that transient "holding-in" known as posture. Such a course is both impossible and unnecessary. or the very moment you start descending the stairs. however. the word might apply on the rare occasions when you take a stance before coming into a room. though. Once you have entered the room. In the ordinary work of walking and living. is continuous and involves both physical and mental fatigue. The aim of the Technique is to allow a condition of ease throughout the body without creating any new distortions in the process. You are not a statue to be propped about in various juxtapositions to meet the changing requirements of whatever you are engaged in. You Are Not a Statue Making good use of yourself by means of the Technique must never be equated with the static thing known as "posture.

If you slump even slightly. How to Look at the Pictures When you consult the photos that accompany the directions in this book. and. First of all. No Poses To forestall any possibility of error. They are intended only as a guide or pointer to the action described. and even if there were. the mere act of getting out of a chair takes the body through more than a hundred positions. The Breath of Life A vital function of our body that is impaired by bad use is breathing. More air can then pass in and out of the lungs. When you are not slumped. You will not be asked to memorize the "right" pose for every possible body position (sitting. each illustration should be provided by stroboscopic photography or some other form of action picture. Ideally. No Positions. the positions involved in darning a sock would require a whole lifetime of memorization. Second. it would be different for every person on this planet because each human body is different. standing and so on) and then go through life using these and only these poses. to prevent the least trace of confusion. This forces you to breathe with your upper chest rather than with your lower ribs and diaphragm. as a result. more waste materials are cleansed 20 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . your lung capacity is thereby diminished. However. more room is provided in the chest cavity. there is no "right" pose for any position.people who do indeed seem to be trying to preserve just such a rigid and invariant attitude through all that they do. do not look upon them as static poses or positions to be imitated. Think of them as having been extracted from some ongoing movement. the blurry effects of such an attempt at authenticity would nullify the purposes of useful and simple instruction. it may be well to state flatly what the Alexander Technique is not.

from your body. With the increase in the freedom of your breathing machinery, the quality of your voice can improve.

Let It Happen
Good breathing is integral to the Alexander Technique. This does not mean that you will need to practice it in the form of separate and isolated breathing exercises. As you begin to correct your faulty use, excess muscular tension will disappear. With the release of that tension, the action of your ribs and diaphragm in breathing will automatically take care of itself. As you progress, you may find yourself yawning or emitting deep sighs. Let them happen, for they come involuntarily and are an excellent sign that you are getting rid of excess tension. You will find that breathing supports movement at the same time that movement supports breathing. This natural and inevitable orchestration of the two is very different from superimposing some artificially learned breathing pattern upon your movements. Make sure you don't hold your breath. Don't try to do anything. Let it happen.

Your Breathing Improves
Notice, when talking, whether you are breathing in through your nose or your mouth. Give yourself time to breathe. It is helpful on occasion to close your lips and allow the air to come in through your nose when you need breath. This helps to release any tightness in the throat. Many of us develop the habit of gulping or sucking in air. This tenses the throat and is accompanied by a downward pull of the head. But when you don't collapse your chest and pull down, a slight vacuum is created in the lungs, which pulls in the air for you. When you breathe normally in this way, every time stale air leaves your lungs, new air will automatically come back in. Through the Alexander Technique, you can learn to leave your breathing mechanism— your body—alone to function freely and without effort. BRINGING THE TECHNIQUE INTO YOUR LIFE 21

How We Got This Way
To be sure, in this misguided quest, the breathingexercisers and the posture-builders may really be seeking some of the benefits that are achieved by the Alexander Technique. The grace and naturalness that the Technique imparts to you will be highly noticeable. Whenever you use it, your entire body will be more erect—your chest is not collapsed, your torso does not settle in on itself. As you continue to practice, an improvement in muscle tone occurs. If such are the blessings reaped through making good use of oneself, why are they so deplorably lacking in most of us? What has gone wrong? Why so much grief physically and mentally? It is the burden of civilization's advance, Alexander believed, that has brought upon us our present deteriorated condition. Today, instead of adapting our bodies to a slowly changing terrain, we capriciously adapt a fast-changing environment to arbitrary standards of comfort (even taste). Through current upheaval, the one thing that has remained essentially the same is the structure of the human body. Prior to the development of technology, changes in the world around us took place over a span of millions of years, slow enough for us to keep pace through subtle, unconscious alterations in the body itself. But our restless civilization has brought about a revolution in our surroundings so rapid that this process of gradual development has been quite outdistanced. As a result, the world we know now is completely foreign to the one to which human beings long ago adjusted. Our life-style has become a hybrid interaction of a body, originally adapted to primitive survival, with an environment of elevators, mattresses, automobiles and comfy chairs. Our physical and social universe is radically different, and our physical equipment has been impaired in its responses to the new demands thrust upon it by contemporary living. We have to make intelligent use of ourselves,

22 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE

said Alexander, if we want to meet the new conditions effectively.

Three Easy Tests
To illustrate the degenerative influence that civilized living has exerted upon the human organism, Alexander proposed three simple tests: (You are requested to interrupt your reading for a moment and carry out the following three experiments.) 1. Move your head without your shoulders. 2. Open your mouth without tilting your head back. 3. Turn out your toes without first shifting your heels. While doing each test, be alert and sensitive in registering how you move so you may catch the unnecessary movement involved.

See for Yourself
In quite the same spirit of experiment, you may now begin to notice, in the course of your daily activity, how you go about handling objects. Next time you brush your teeth, for example, stay alert and observe just how heavy the toothbrush is, how much energy is required to lift it and keep it in your hand. How much pressure is needed to brush? In the toothpaste commercials on television, it sometimes appears as though the people are trying to brush the teeth right out of their mouths. (See Fig. 8, p. 66.) You can make similar observations when you sit down to write a letter. With a little try-and-see, you can tell how much strength is actually required to hold onto the pen and get the ink to flow onto the paper. Once you consider how you actually go through any activity, you can begin to affect a change in your performance of it.

BRINGING THE TECHNIQUE INTO YOUR LIFE 23

like a cat or a dog. relying on animal instinct. successfully defends itself by exerting very slight movements to deflect the thrusts and feints of a champion swordsman. Observe even a domestic animal. the expenditure of energy in animal movement is exquisitely attuned to the requirements of what needs to be done. But the answer to the perilous misfunction that has befallen mankind through the anxiety and stress of modern living cannot be to call a halt to civilization.The Road to Take Animals in the wild miss out on the satisfactions. defeats and frustrates whatever we may intend on every level of our existence—physical. What is more. MOVE YOUR WHOLE HEAD UPWARD AND AWAY FROM YOUR WHOLE BODY. No overdoing. The human antagonist is baffled by the perfect efficiency of the beast's innate responses. The road to the recuperation of our diminished faculties. which blocks. It is this same harmful pattern of involuntary preparation which is involved in everything we do. definite movements. And it is this. prevents. at rest. the German writer Heinrich von Kleist makes this point by describing how a chained bear. but they are likewise spared its debilitating side effects. may be enunciated as follows: AS YOU BEGIN ANY MOVEMENT OR ACT." There is. cultural advantages and triumphs of civilization. In a famous allegory. 'Alexander uncovered the whole pattern of bad use. and which is the essence of the Alexander Technique. no underdoing. and you will see a creature completely relaxed yet still capable of making sudden. AND LET YOUR WHOLE BODY LENGTHEN BY FOLLOWING THAT UPWARD DIRECTION. In curing himself of his loss of voice by noting the slight pulling backward and down of his head. however. We are not about to rejoin the lower animals or "go primitive. more than anything else. emotional and mental. a sane solution to our problem. which accompanied formal recitation. which we will learn in this book. They have no price to pay. 24 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .

The mere performance of this simple movement can. ed. Not an Exercise But first a word about a word. in the deepest sense. It is true." can be performed more effectively and with much greater benefit once you learn the Basic Movement and apply its principle to them. You are not called upon to run miles or to lift heavy weights. In the Basic Movement. The word "movement" as used here has nothing to do with the 1-2-3-4! 1-2-3-4! calisthenics you did in gym class. There are no exercises in this book.Chapter 4 The Basic Movement You are now ready to learn the Basic Movement that incorporates the Alexander principle in a form you can practice whenever you wish. as we shall see in the following chapter. and everywhere else in this book where a movement or action is given. the word always refers to some movement or action of the utmost simplicity. joint-wrenching gyrations of any kind. that the strenuous and repetitive exertions popularly known as "phys. 25 . physical freedom and. the calisthenic approach stands in direct opposition to the Alexander Technique. This distinction is especially important because. personal happiness. put you on the road to a new life of health. if you extend it through the whole range of your normal activity. It is in no way related to muscle-snapping. Nothing tiresome will be required of you. however.

Some Olympic rowers. Next follow the instructions for the Basic Movement itself. The Basic Movement Exploring Yourself You may carry out this movement either while seated or standing. It provides. Whether you play golf or tennis. rather. Turn your head to look around you. The sooner you apply to any normal activity—such as tying your shoe or lifting a bag of groceries—the Basic Movement of letting your head move up and letting your body follow." and the same format is used as a preliminary to every other movement or action in this book. or whatever your game may be. it can undergo amazing improvement after you have bettered the use of your body in pursuing it. a guideline to follow: a new way of thinking and moving. No trance: eyes open. 26 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . This moment of selfobservation is presented under the heading "Exploring Yourself. It is not to be repeated mindlessly in hopes of programming yourself into some automatic routine that has nothing directly to do with daily living. swim or bowl.The same applies to those more skilled and motivated forms of calisthenics which we call sports. are presently learning the Alexander Technique because it makes a real difference in crew performance. How to Start The Basic Movement is preceded by a brief inspection of your total condition while you carry out the action in your customary or habitual manner. the sooner you will experience a new lightness and ease and a sense of real assurance in whatever you may be doing. We shall do it sitting. for example.

(Figs. (Figs.) The upward direction will keep you from cramping your neck throughout these movements. Turn it from side to side. tip it back to look up at the ceiling. Continue to allow your whole head to move up and away from your body while you perform the turning movement. Next.See the room. This does not mean that your body twists and turns with your head.) Now that you've gone through the Basic Movement once. 6. continuing to let your head ease up. Notice if it brings up and aligns your body.2. then forward to look down at the floor. 8. the following clarification of the main words used should give you even more success the next time you do it. crackling sounds in your spine? Is your breathing slowed or stopped? The Basic Movement While turning your head slowly from one side to the other in order to survey the room. What do you notice about the turning of your head? Do you feel any tense or tight muscles in your neck? Does your body twist about when you turn your head? Do you hear any popping. Allow your whole body to follow the upward direction of your head.3. 5. so that your neck lengthens above your shoulders instead of craning forward or jamming back. 4. then tip it down to look at the floor. Notice if this upward direction of your head affects the smoothness and ease of the side-to-side motion. add the Basic Movement: move your head up and away from your torso and let your body follow. 7.) Remember to keep your eyes open and looking. but that it is allowed to delicately lengthen during your head movement. Your Whole Head You must learn to think of your head as three- THE BASIC MOVEMENT 27 . Tip your head to look up at the ceiling. 1. (Figs.

Beginning from a usual slump.1. From side to side. 3. 2. Easing upward and away as you turn your head. 28 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .

6. 5. THE BASIC MOVEMENT 29 . Easing upward. And tip it forward.4. As you tip your head back.

(Fig. 7. 8. 9. With this in mind.) When you remember that your chin is part of your head. The fact is that the spine in your neck is very near the center of your neck. the diameter of your vertebrae is larger than that of a silver dollar—not the size of a nickel or a quarter. 30 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . (Fig. sides. Cramping your neck unnecessarily.) Often people have a tendency to lead movements with their chin. When you are directed to move your head. including the back. Also. thus pulling your head back and down.dimensional. this means your whole head. you will be less likely to jut it forward. 10. It is important that you realize how substantial a support your neck provides for your head. the neck is sturdy and the head rests easily on that large base as it moves. not just along the back of it as many imagine. top and front (your face). you will understand that you do not need to hold your head up.

10. THE BASIC MOVEMENT 31 . Jutting the chin forward needlessly.9. The whole head.

as you lean your body to the side. Your entire torso must be considered and no part forgotten. 11. If you remember this connection. including sides. up toward the ceiling. you must not forget it. Perhaps you'll be aware that you were pushing 32 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . (Fig. Simple as this may seem. causing unnecessary effort. The Upward Direction "Upward" does not necessarily mean ceilingward. Because your torso is connected to your head. When you are sitting or standing. It begins at the base of your neck. As a result. their body will curve forward or backward. We're aiming for as much flexibility and ease as possible. back and front. remember that upward always applies to movement—wherever the top of the spine happens to be pointing—and is not a fixed position. of course. 13. On Your Way Repeat the Basic Movement and see what happens. It means the moving of your head up and away from your body.Your Whole Body "Body" refers to your whole torso. your body must follow. People tend to think of only one dimension when allowing their body to move upward: either their front or their back. "upward" is where the top of your spine points. you will find that your body will automatically want to follow that upward movement. the bottom line of your buttocks. when you allow your head to move upward.) Above all. 12.) Remember to think of your whole body as three-dimensional. in following the instructions. includes your shoulders and ends at your hip joints. (Fig. (Fig.) However. and the moving of your torso up from the hips. You will probably experience some sort of change or notice some difference. that direction is. Upward directs a positive action in order to prevent the usual negative action of pulling the head back and down and slumping.

THE BASIC MOVEMENT 33 .11. The whole body.

and the cars the remainder of the body. Or maybe you'll feel that it is easier to move your head in the way described. although the engine always begins the movement of the train with its forward impetus is transmitted almost simultaneously to each car. you will have begun the process of keeping your eyes open and observing how you move.yourself and using more effort to sit (or stand) than you are now." 12. there will be no time lag between the movement of the cars and engine. 73. The engine represents the head. The Instant Train The movement of the body following the head is fundamental to the Alexander Technique. Or as Alexander once paradoxically described the movement: "All together one after another. Upward. If it is linked up properly. In any case. You might compare it to the image of a train. 34 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .

obvious. The Basic Movement is a first-class example of the way a very simple adjustment in the use we make of ourselves can have tremendous. a very subtle and continuous movement of the head upward "only an infinitesimal amount" (as Alexander wrote from England to a man in America who was learning the Technique on his own). What matters is that you improve the process of how you move. external show. Here. though. far-reaching consequences.How to Succeed Without Really Trying Most people learning something new are eager to discover the "right" way to do it. you are not required to take up any new position in order to correct your misuse. on the order of mil- THE BASIC MOVEMENT 35 . For as we have seen in the preceding chapter. there are no "right" positions. The Basic Movement is accomplished without any big. It is a single adjustment. The lengthening of your neck when you move your head upward is tiny.

though. they try to become human giraffes. It is perhaps part of our American credo to believe that only prodigious feats can produce worthwhile results. is one case where the big results come from a tiny change.limeters. Here. 36 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . They strain their necks mightily. However. Your ruler may not detect the difference. But no neck-stretching whatever is required! Just a very slight movement of the head upward from the body will do the trick. but you will feel it in every bone of your body. some people are reluctant to believe that anything remarkable can result from the Alexander Technique unless they do something that demonstrates huge effort.

updown. they would continue to do so throughout their physical exertions. and the seven supplementary Actions that will follow in Part II.Become a Whole Person The Basic Movement you have just learned." the well-known nursery rhyme tells us. This is because they have been designed with a very different objective from that of ordinary calisthenics. If we comport ourselves in a manner that is harmful. "There was a crooked man. the repeated and accentuated performance of the prescribed movements—thus badly executed—increased the damage they were already doing themselves. any exercises we do to get in shape will likewise be carried out in a manner that is harmful. left-right activity most of us associate with physical education. Some of these bestow considerable good upon us. are clearly of a very different order from the strenuous push-pull. If they used themselves badly in ordinary life. The Trouble with Physical Exercises After visiting the gym of a leading exercise teacher in Australia one day. Much the same is true of the numerous varieties of physical manipulation and massage that are applied to our bodies. Alexander became convinced that such training would never meet the needs of people who came there in quest of physical development." Just so. In fact. They are not likely to change our condition for the better. 37 . "and he walked a crooked mile.

some welcome temporary relief from the pains and aches caused by a faulty swing. Only the very gross or screaming message—a headache. Thus.but their intention is not to teach a better use of ourselves. 38 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . a person may carry one shoulder higher than the other and never notice (were his shoulders to be set level for him. sore ligaments or illness—gets through. for example. they would now feel "wrong. so too has our sensory awareness gradually adjusted to them." We simply don't get true messages from our bodies anymore. In this half-conscious state in which we operate. Consider. we pay scant heed to the constant flow of information that is being communicated by our bodies. a muscle cramp. if you are accustomed to a standard shift. but his trouble will surely recur if the error in his swing is not corrected. We cannot perceive the faulty way we are using ourselves because it has come to "feel right. Moreover. driving a car. the Alexander Technique coordinates conscious thought with action in order that you may deal with yourself. We unfold the whole repertoire of our daily activity with little attention to how we are doing what we are doing. as these bad habits have developed little by little. think back to the last time you borrowed an automatic car and reached down for gears that weren't there." ludicrously askew). How often have you driven from point A to point B without noticing what lies between or even how you got to point B. through alleviating treatment of this kind. The Trance in Which We Live Unlike conventional exercise and manipulation. Most of the time we operate our bodies on a subconscious level. Perhaps a golfer can find. Another person may be oblivious of a tendency to lift her chin and jut it forward (until she sees herself on television). We continue wearing ourselves out and tearing ourselves apart from day to day because we remain in deep ignorance of our bad tension habits until we reach a crisis of pain or run into some drastic physical or emotional trouble. Or again.

caused by a confusion between the event as intended and the event as it really happens? How. "The clumsy gesture is screened off from awareness by the direct impact of the image of the intended graceful movement on perception. and. I was virtually unaware of this till I first listened to my voice on a recorded broadcast. and although my foreign accent retains the specific density of pea-soup. do we get rid of the bad habits that plague us? The Alexander Technique. all the Actions in this book for learning it. according to Koestler." So too may our singing be stridently out of tune and yet sound just fine to us until a musical accompaniment pulls us back on the track. yet perceive my own voice as if it were free from it. says Koestler. The main component of what we perceive is the sound we think we are projecting." The Crown of the Senses So how do we defeat this tendency toward what might be called a kind of wish-fulfillment in our senses. however defective and self-defeating they may be. because in the perception of one's own voice.Our Mistaken Ideas About Ourselves There is still another factor at work in this universal unfamiliarity with ourselves and our functioning. I have a good ear for other people's accents. The same applies also to our gestures and movements. in short. Perhaps no one has given a sharper and more disquieting picture of it than the writer Arthur Koestler. meets the problem by calling BECOME A WHOLE PERSON 39 . the actual acoustic production plays a subordinate part. There may be a world of difference between what we think we hear and our performance as heard by others. therefore. All this occurs. He offers himself as an example: "I am of Hungarian origin. People who listen for the first time to the sound of their voice played back on a tape recorder usually get a shock. but this discrepancy is masked from us by the process of hearing what we intend and not what we are in fact uttering. remarks Koestler.

Clearly evident in people like circus aerialists. Most everyone knows something at least about this faculty. it is deplorably lacking in a very great number of us." the distinguishing mark of superb physical condition. we do not have to know the names of our muscles or how to locate them on a chart. Whenever we admire the seemingly effortless coordination in the movements of a great athlete." though actually its sense organs may be found not only in the muscles. We use it to assess the range and force of our movements and also in adapting ourselves to the weight of anything we lift. one speaker even accused the others. but in calling upon this faculty. It is by means of this sense that we remain aware of the position of every part of our body even when our eyes are closed. This enricher of the whole person is considered by some connoisseurs and gourmets of good physical condition to be nothing less than "the crown of the senses. In order to ensure that we are using our bodies properly. in their concern with it. At a UNESCO conference on brain mechanisms and awareness. a real chance is offered for the enrichment of our entire organism. we are paying tribute to it.upon a faculty we all possess but often overlook because it is not one of the so-called "five senses" we usually talk about. jugglers or sculptors. "Kinesthetic" is a cross between the words "kinetic" (motion) and "esthetic" (feeling) and means "feeling motion. or the "kinesthetic sense" as it is called. 40 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . or the agile ease and poise of a friend in the way he handles himself in all the ordinary activities of life." Since it is essential in the practice of the Alexander Technique. but in the tendons and joint membranes as well. It is the kinesthetic sense that supplies the information we need. It is from this sense that we are continually receiving knowledge of the gestures we make and of the pressures or tensions anywhere in our body. It is sometimes called the "muscle sense. the development of this sense underlies the entire program set forth in this book. of trying to "unscrew the inscrutable." It is not really that inscrutable. It is not one of the original five long ago listed by Aristotle.

we can increase the reliability of our kinesthetic sense and establish a new standard of good use. clear idea of ourselves in action. Dearborn always emphasized the important place that the kinesthetic sense holds in the life of every human being. as Dr. Virtually every branch of that movement makes some use of body awareness.We can feel what we are doing and. The other way is to use the BECOME A WHOLE PERSON 41 . It was. get a good. Through the sensitive practice of the Basic Movement and the seven Actions which build upon it. Dearborn pointed out." One trouble.S. however. Whole Person There are always two ways a person can learn to carry out any action. is that the much stronger sense experiences of light and color may drown out this subtler experience. in this way." The effective practice of the Alexander Technique makes it possible to receive increasingly subtle messages from within." heralded by Alexander. One way is to focus on the single part of the body that actually does the work. This in turn produces a harmonious interplay of all our faculties and thereby brings about the first visible fruit of our growing kinesthetic development: good muscular coordination. Part Person vs. N. Discover a World Within The "crown of the senses. George V. by no means entirely forgotten in earlier American efforts to promote physical and emotional fitness. sometimes so completely that many intelligent people go through their days "wholly ignorant even of the essential existence of these warpthreads in the fabric of our conscious life. during the past decade due to the popular rise of the human potential movement. has come very much to the foreground in the U. He called it "the warp of the sensation-fabric—the personality's dynamic index of its body. The wise and respected New England medical educator Dr.

This means using the Basic Movement. He has no real awareness of the rest of himself. you swing your arm in a manner that allows your whole body to be balanced and your energy to be directed effectively. You will then discover for yourself what it means in actual practice. 42 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . be open to any and every message of feeling that comes to you from the various parts of your body. It is the kinesthetic sense which. From moment to moment. keep alert. Rather. So he swings his arm as best he can. all parts included and coordinated to perform the action. in time. he may unwittingly raise his shoulder. to control whatever you do. Staying in the Moment In carrying out the Actions that follow. how it feels and how it affects a person to live by means of the unique. The second way of performing an action is to involve your whole person in it. Do not hold your breath from a sense of strain. any number of things can happen that will cause more effort than necessary. With the first method. Your eyes must not become glazed. during the whole time you devote to an Action. This does not mean exerting effort throughout your entire organism in order to swing your arm. enables you to allow this total pattern. a person wanting to throw a ball will find that he must swing his arm. the Basic Movement. For example. his body may then compensate inefficiently to keep its balance. physically-mentally unified Technique you gain from these Actions.natural integrating mechanism of the whole body. Because there are so many possible combinations of tension. You will learn directly the benefits of this regular experience of complete personal harmony. and when he hoists his shoulder. but must see whatever they look at.

Since our body consists of mass. unequal to the combat. that the force of gravity.Chapter 6 The Technique as a Way to Stay Young The youthful manner and attractive bearing attained through the Alexander Technique should dispel once and for all the conviction that men and women must inevitably bow down. is now surprisingly common at a much earlier time of life. lithe movement and springy step belie their actual age. Like air. widely accepted at present. We have all encountered at one time or another those rare men and women whose upright bearing. pulls us down." no longer related to income group or social status and every bit as typical of men as of women. what used to be known as "dowager's hump. sunshine and other more familiar elements. We continue instead under the spell of the rather sinister and frightening idea. stoop and wither before the onslaught of advancing years. elastic lineaments. down. it is self-evident that all our movements and activities are subject to gravity's pull. it has become a prevalent sign of our era. we tend to disregard or forget this reassuring evidence of our senses. However. That much is certainly true. That gravity does indeed provide a persistent and unvarying element in man's ecology there can be no doubt. down until finally. Indeed. An eyesore and a handicap. it plays a major role in whatever we do. working against us through all the years of our life. we are done in by it. But what about the rest of the theory? THE TECHNIQUE AS A WAY TO STAY YOUNG 43 .

it works its malign influence upon us. as on earth. Thompson. which was partly the result of not being pulled down. it is the indomitable force which defeats us in the end. . In this view. The skylab astronauts gave us yet another glimpse of this force's baneful effects when they emerged—after months of living outside it—in a remarkably unkinked condition. and the problem is one that has been with us ever since the forepaws of our prehistoric ancestors left the ground. For 44 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Gravity has slowly squashed them to the ground. pitting human strength against gravity's relentless power with no chance of winning. people actually lose about half an inch in height. They had even gained in height (and lost at the waist)." and "it leaves its mark in sagging wrinkles. we find ourselves inextricably locked in a lifelong struggle. in every beat of our hearts. down. The unflinching. unceasing pull upon us of this antagonistic force has been assigned responsibility for a very great number of the woes of aging. During sleep. and thus being permitted to straighten out. Down. when we lie in a position parallel to the ground and thus alter the effects of the ubiquitous pull. Throughout the day. . we seem peculiarly ill-equipped for maintaining an upright position. But the cumulative results of a lifetime of unequal struggle can be seen in some bent-over and hobbling older people who have lost many inches. Studies have shown that between getting out of bed in the morning and getting back in at night." The Upright Creature Supposedly. the quadruped is more fortunately constructed for resistance to gravity than we are. drooping mouth and hanging breasts. we regain that lost stature. According to the biologist D'Arcy W. without let-up or cease. it is felt "in every movement of our limbs. all this is the price we pay for standing erect.Why We Shrink According to a popular view. which lays us on our death bed and lowers us to the grave. down . As bipeds.

These muscles are reflexively maintained in a state of tonus— partially contracted and ready for work—except when the body is lying completely horizontal. Physiologically. like an inverted pyramid. Must We Fall Apart? While gravity depresses all the elements of the body. in respiration and circulation as well as in the nervous system. Richard Selzer totaled up the outward woes he thinks indicate that our erect stance THE TECHNIQUE AS A WAY TO STAY YOUNG 45 . the weight of our inner organs is carried high above our center of gravity. Our structural frame is an intricate system of articulated levers—bones and joints— that are held and moved by our muscles and tendons. Failure or defeat in any of these components adversely affects the overall struggle. The immediate battleground for humans versus gravity may be discerned throughout the musculo-skeletal system whose mainstays are the pelvis. curved in several places. we appear to be top-heavy. with our heavy head and shoulders weighing down the skeletal structure. how—in this view—can we hope to contend with gravity's pull? We are compelled to oppose its force by sheer muscular power. However. Our spine is flexible. deformation and distortion depending upon the disparity between the pull and each person's total power of response to it. perhaps an ingenious device for cushioning shock. In a fierce book. two-legged human race. This situation is said to account for many of the chronic progressive and degenerative conditions which afflict the falteringly upright. repercussions of the conflict are felt in all the other major systems of the body. Mortal Lessons. Dr. Standing or sitting. Just standing up is a kind of acrobatic triumph involving an exact balance of varying degrees of contraction and relaxation in more than two hundred pairs of muscles. the greatest strain is sustained by the musculo-skeletal structure that keeps us erect. but far from ideal for steadying our weight. the spine and the network of muscles and ligaments.one thing. And strain means injury.

slip. Or watch a baby turn its head. Our flesh pushes itself through into hernias. According to Dr. as Professor Tinbergen has pointed out. it pivots smoothly without tension. attitude and behavior may also figure in the generalized failure of our adaptation to the ordinary strain of being on the earth's surface. the extreme and scary picture we have just looked at. Our hip joints grind to a stop. Man is a perfect match for gravity. piled one atop the other. buckle and wear out. It does not fully or accurately represent man's complex relationship to the downward pull he experiences from the earth. the human species. feeling. The arches of our feet fall. our vertebrae. In the first two or three years of life as they gain mobility. He found that body chemistry as well as the regulatory and coordination mechanisms of the body are all affected. Observe a baby come to sitting position by itself. their actions are beautifully free and easy. In the very long history of walking erect. mood. no strain in the back or anywhere else. and before they are physically corrupted. How We Conquer As it happens.cannot successfully resist the pressure imposed upon us by gravity. the adventure of assuming an upright posture would probably never have been sustained if man had not become capable of it. We obviously had to develop a way of neutralizing the effects of gravity in order for our life to have continued on earth. Selzer. is both one-sided and incomplete. the whole body is in a system of balance. Our blood gathers in hemorrhoids and varicose veins. Mental confusion. And the mechanism is by now genetic. which is so popular today. This reflex of good use can be observed in infants. We inherit an easy good use of our bodies. From an evolutionary viewpoint. must have evolved a suitable equipment and the correct mechanism for biped locomotion. 46 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . which enables us to deal handily with the earth's pull. They move in a superb manner quite naturally.

In effect.). The correct messages from one body part to another (coordination) are relayed and interpreted properly. We sense a new way of moving. some form of additional support—in the case of the body. tense muscles—is needed to keep it standing. THE TECHNIQUE AS A WAY TO STAY YOUNG 47 . Rather. and gravity merely compounds the problem. 1. Only those muscles which are essential to a particular action are used in that action. The movement of the head leads and influences the movement of the body so that all parts (muscles) are coordinated and work in a harmonious system of contraction and relaxation.) In this condition. detailed studies of this natural mechanism have offered a technical explanation in anatomical and physiological terms. And it is because of these tense habits that it so often feels as if gravity must be working against us.It Goes by Itself Careful. A jutting part here or there creates an imbalance and. it is we who work against ourselves. (Fig. the reflex system of the body is allowed to work. with its energy and movement directed up through the top of that column—the whole torso following the head—the body will work efficiently and flexibly. When we do not trust our body's ability and interfere with this natural reflex of ease. we shorten our necks and pull our chests down. If the head does not initiate. as with a leaning column or an uneven tower of blocks. things go wrong. 2. We actually feel heavier because of pressure put on the joints by excess muscular tension. the reflex of our movement will be interfered with and muscle will be pitted against muscle. what has been discovered is that when all the body parts are balanced and integrated. the human species is constructed in a way to resist the pull of gravity effortlessly in keeping itself erect. the body column will be out of kilter (Fig. We no longer have to depend upon large jolts or shocks from tensing muscles to tell us if something is happening. or shorten and arch our backs. When arranged naturally in a sort of flexible column. In attempts to control ourselves. different from our previous experience of tension-filled activity.

1. 48 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . The body column out of kilter. 2. Energy and movement directed upward.

Even when we think we're relaxed. is obviously an old. Our misuse of ourselves in all that we do is the consequence of modern living. Such excess tension is unnecessary. The magnificent engineering of the human body does not require it. muscles throughout our body are tensing—holding on—in an effort to keep us as we are. produces this desired alignment of the total structure. But in fact we usually are holding onto something—namely. our superb natural functioning had already vanished because of the way we were handled as infants." "Or "Little girls don't sit like that. through the tasks we were called upon to perform before we THE TECHNIQUE AS A WAY TO STAY YOUNG 49 . ourselves. The Alexander Technique. Most of us consider ourselves balanced when we stand (otherwise how could we?). then.Never a Feeling of Strain We meet gravity by keeping our "balance. Our bone structure (skeleton) is so finely organized a system of arches and supports that it takes only a tiny contraction of muscles to maintain us in the "work" of standing. And this muscular release goes a long way toward explaining why the Technique is effective in eliminating superfluous tension." "Don't slouch. A Future Without Fear Proper adjustment to gravity in the way we stand. Most of us are still trapped by the distant voices of parents and teachers repeating: "Stand up straight." But long before we heard these and similar unhelpful exhortations. bringing the head into real physical balance on top of the spine." and an elementary definition of the word is: the state of not having to hold onto something in order to maintain a position." "Your posture is terrible. walk and move. the body following. inherited form of behavior. through the models we encountered and imitated in early family life and school. The new equilibrium gives relief and freedom to dozens of muscles that were previously engaged full time in "holding on" to maintain a condition that is at best a rough and hapless approximation of true balance.

means that tension and gravity are operating in concert. and the entire trunk and spine are slowly compressed. we can call a halt to our customary interference with the body's natural reflexes and thus facilitate our antigravity response. we violate our own natural mechanism for meeting the downward pull exerted on all forms of terrestrial life. 50 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . We can reverse that trend once and for all the moment we decide to change our bad use of ourselves and reinstate our pristine grace. The youngster now starting out. By means of the Alexander Technique. We are no longer the helpless playthings or victims of a hostile force from below. But this need not be. By means of the Alexander Technique.had the physical capacity or readiness. This is why the popular picture of gravity as inescapable master and despoiler is for so many of us the stark truth. The upward movement of the head followed by the body can free us to initiate whatever we choose to do in whatever manner we choose to do it. In the way we misuse ourselves. The foreshortening of the back neck muscles with which we initiate our every act. has no reason to dread that the years ahead are going to pull him or her down in a decline of slow surrender to gravity. The effect is too strong for the body to resist. and through our adaptation to the furniture and paraphernalia with which we lived. we can regain our easeful place on the planet and go confidently forward with the concerns that matter in our life. and which Alexander pinpointed as the root of our difficulties. or the adult of middle or advanced age.

P A R T II The Practice of the Technique How to Do It .

Each step consists of three parts: (1) a preliminary exploration of your personal condition before you begin. which will show you how to apply the basic principle to all your movements. You can do them anywhere: at home or at work. UPWARD DIRECTION. MOVE YOUR WHOLE HEAD UPWARD AND AWAY FROM YOUR WHOLE BODY. Keep in mind these and other italicized instructions throughout the Action as they are essential to the success of your experimenting. (When the weather permits.The Seven Actions An Effortless Program The following chapters present a simple step-by-step program of seven Actions for learning the Alexander Technique. to refer to it before undertaking a new movement. which was given in Chapter 4. therefore. without exception. but all the Actions. in your kitchen or office. w h i c h as we h a v e s e e n i s : AS YOU BEGIN ANY MOVEMENT OR ACT. are extensions and developments of the Basic Movement. No Leotards The Actions in this program are simple. Often the Basic Movement within the Action description is italicized. Each Action leads to the next according to a definite plan. That movement contains the key to the whole T e c h n i q u e . AND LET YOUR WHOLE BODY LENGTHEN BY FOLLOWING THAT It is advisable. They do not employ anything in the way of athletic equipment or apparatus. doing 52 . (2) the Action itself. No Dumb-Bells. and (3) suggestions for how it may be applied to everyday life.

them outdoors will provide the additional benefit of fresh air.) The Actions require no gym shorts, or leotards or other special outfits. Street clothes, office clothes—any clothes you happen to be wearing—are fine, and no change of apparel will be necessary afterward. Whatever clothes you do wear should, however, allow you sufficient leeway so that you are not restricted in your movements and do not feel hampered in your breathing. If your clothes are not decently comfortable, you may want to loosen your shirt collar or open your belt a notch. Simply do whatever is needed to allow you to be freer in moving about and less confined in your breathing.

A Way to Begin
Read the instructions for each Action slowly until you have an idea of what it is. (If you prefer, have someone read the instructions aloud to you.) Then proceed to carry them out in the manner described. Sometimes the instructions are given in metaphorical language to convey what is wanted. Thus, when you are instructed to "direct your energy upward," don't worry about a scientific meaning: simply follow the instruction! You needn't do a great many Actions at one session; you may prefer to do them gradually. For example, you may do an Action for a day or so, noticing throughout the rest of the week how that particular movement appears when it shows up in your everyday activities. Then go on to the next Action. Initially, follow them in the order given, as each movement leads to the next according to a definite plan. Some people may prefer to do several a week. Be your own judge of your particular rate. Later, you can always return to a given Action and see if you can discover something more in it. However often you repeat them, you will always derive some benefit, provided the element of awareness is there. Never do them mechanically; you are not a machine. Indeed, treating yourself THE SEVEN ACTIONS 53

like a machine is the bane of what is ordinarily meant by "exercise." Paying attention to what is happening every moment of this program reeducates your senses and muscles.

For Your Enjoyment
Although a conscientious attitude is necessary, it is not necessary to drive yourself to the limits of your endurance. Indeed, that is an entirely wrong approach. It is far more beneficial to do an Action sensitively three or four times, without strain or tension, than to do it automatically many times. Remember, you are not in competition with anyone. You are doing the Action only for yourself, for your own good. If you rush through a meal, you do not give yourself the opportunity to taste what you are eating or to digest the food properly. Ill-digested movement, like ill-digested food, is less beneficial to you. You will enjoy the Actions more if they are done in a spirit of experiment and play. You should even allow yourself a little time in which to feel and enjoy the aftereffects of each Action. Do not rush from one directly into the next. Tall, short, thin, fat, lanky or padded, whatever the proportions of your body and whatever your age, there is nothing to prevent you from learning these Actions and doing them with enjoyment. You will adjust them to your own body as you go along.

Nine Rules to Follow
1. Your "head" means the whole three-dimensional globe—not just your face or chin or some other part of it. (See Fig. 9, p. 31.) 2. Your "body" means the whole torso. (See Fig. 11, p. 33.) 3. "Upward" indicates a direction, not a fixed place. (See Figs. 12, 13, pp. 34 and 35.)

54

THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE

4. Refer to the Basic Movement (pp. 26-27) each time you proceed to a new Action. 5. Perform each Action at your own pace, not in the fastest way possible. How is what matters. 6. Stay alive: Keep breathing and seeing the world around you. There is no reason to hold your breath or go glassy-eyed. 7. Do not worry about executing the Actions "correctly." It is not a question of doing them the "right way," but rather of discovering greater flexibility and freedom in your movements. 8. Breathe easily and naturally through your nose. 9. Perform each Action as though for the first time.

THE SEVEN ACTIONS 55

(Fig. Your neck will twist a little to let your head turn farther to the right or left. but don't force your head around. sore muscles or stiffness. Do you really need to use your body as well as your neck to turn your head? Lean forward and then sit back in the chair. Let your whole head move up and away from your body and pivot on the top of your spine (top of your neck).) While allowing your head to continue 56 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . don't change your position. What parts of you tense in order to move forward and then back? Do you push yourself forward instead of letting your hip joints simply hinge? Do you hold your breath? Applying the Basic Movement Still sitting. Notice whether or not you are able to move your head more easily and let your head move up. Now that you've begun to think about how you are using your head.Action 1 Leaning Forward and Backward Exploring Yourself Sit in a chair and turn your head from side to side and then up and down to look around the room. include your body in that upward movement and lean forward. but look around the room by turning your head. such as a popping or crackling noise in your spine. Note any sensations of which you are aware. Repeat three or four times. Involve your neck muscles as needed. 1.

In leaning forward. on or off from your chair.) If you have difficulty moving without pushing. 2. Try both. Lean forward by lengthening upward. reaching to turn the T. tip your head forward.upward and away from the top of your spine. lighting someone's cigarette from a seated position and eating at the table. 2. simply bend at the hips to lean forward. find out the difference between pushing your head up with your body and following the upward motion of your head. Applications to Daily Life Some examples of leaning forward and back: tying your shoe while seated.V. (Fig. toward the floor. Unnecessary pushing with your body. LEANING FORWARD AND BACKWARD 57 . then let your body follow that motion. Keep your seat. let your body follow upward as it leans forward in space. 1.

(Fig.Eating Soup Especially watch what happens when you eat soup.) Probably the easiest way to eat soup is to lean forward effortlessly (by following your head up) and then let your torso curl slightly to bring your mouth closer to the bowl. How to Get Out of a Slump "Sometimes you just want to have a good old slump.) You may have tried the opposite strategy: sitting very straight and trying to balance the spoon all the way to your mouth in an effort to appear graceful. 6.) You will also appear more graceful and eliminate the balancing act. (Fig. The next time you discover yourself in a slump. (Fig. pull down a little more than you normally would." one of my teachers would often say. 5. 3. 4.) Then experience getting out of that position by first becoming aware of a real connection be- 58 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . The tendency is to collapse the chest and push the chin toward the bowl in order to avoid spilling the soup. (Fig.

LEANING FORWARD AND BACKWARD 59 . you may have noticed a change in your breathing. 3. 7. Try reading aloud from a book and see if you can notice what you do with your head and neck. You can do this anytime you find yourself slouching. Do you leave them free or do you pull them down? Now think of moving your head up and away from your body and letting your body follow that direction while you speak. your body following up after it while you lean forward and then back. 20-22. (See pp. While you have been learning to follow the upward direction of your head with your whole body. Then begin to let your head move up delicately.) Greater freedom in breathing brings greater freedom in speaking. Pulling down. (Fig. The Way You Talk How you talk is affected by what you do with your head. Stiff.tween your whole head and whole body. 5. straight and awkward. Easing upward. 4.) Note the change that has taken place as you emerge from your slump. You've achieved a little more ease just by moving. As you talk. let the upward energy continue.

7. very gently place your fingertips on your chin just below your lower lip. You can change this by allowing your body to follow the upward motion of your head. The slump. it usually indicates that you hold tension there when you speak. When you have difficulty moving your jaw in this way. with your thumbs on the underside of your jaw. Easing upward. You are therefore using more effort than you need to for speaking. leaving the jaw muscles loose. The ease of your head also helps your lower jaw to release. 60 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .6. Now open and close your jaw with your hands. To check the flexibility of your jaw.

2. you can try it standing. Starting with your arms at your sides. While your neck lengthens and your body follows the upward motion of your head. Leave your hands there and let your arms rest comfortably at your sides.) Move your hands along your legs toward your knees. Let your head begin easing away from your body. while you lift your arms will affect the ease and efficiency with which you can move them. what you do with the remainder of your body. Then bring them down again. let your arms lengthen out through your fingertips. continuing to pay attention to your head and body. When your arms are 61 . Every part of your body is related to every other part in movement. (Figs. Do you tense your neck or jut your chin forward? Do you lean forward or backward with your upper torso? What parts of your body besides your arms are involved in this movement? Perhaps there are other things that you'll notice. lift both over your head. At first. Apply the Basic Movement Place your hands on the tops of your thighs. do the movement easily enough to notice what you do with your body and head. In other words. legs included.Action 2 Moving Arms Exploring Yourself Do this one while sitting. 3. Then try moving them quickly and in several different ways. palms resting down. 1. later.

7. When your hands touch your knees. (Figs. lift them over your head. Applications to Daily Life What usually happens is that people shorten most of the muscles of any limb or any part of the body to move that part 62 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Beware of pulling down or tightening your chest. bend your elbows and bring your hands back to your upper thighs. (Fig. Repeat the movement of raising your arms.straight.) Think of each shoulder moving to the side upward and outward from the body to prevent any unnecessary tightening there. During this entire sequence. let your arms lengthen and let your head rest lightly on the top of your neck. 6. although you can allow them to move. Then let your arms come back down in front of you. 4. you needn't force your shoulders to move this way. shoulders or neck to move your arms. adding to it the new direction for your shoulders. 5.) As with your head and body.

MOVING ARMS 63 . 2. For example. Brushing Your Teeth A good example of how most people do more work than they need to is brushing teeth. By watching how you use your arms. In the course of your daily activities. we make a tiny jerk of the arm. let your arms lengthen. Then we unconsciously select the proper muscle to do the bending and use that muscle to work against the rest of the muscles. That locks the elbow joint. Ask yourself if the energy you use is really appropriate to how light a toothbrush is and the amount of pressure you need to apply to your teeth. to bend the elbow the way most of us do. While your body follows your head up. 1. pulling the upper arm toward the shoulder. notice how you reach to pick up and use an object. which are shortening. and most people do it unwittingly. you will be able to avoid a lot of excess tension that would otherwise occur in your shoulders and neck.or to bend a joint. 3. That takes a lot of extra work.

5. 6. 64 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .4. No need to pull down and tighten.

(Figs. 10. (Fig. Opening a Door You can make similar observations when you open a door.) There is a tendency in standing activities like this one to lock your knees. MOVING ARMS 65 . Then let your head ease up and your body follow and see if you can allow your arm to float up to the knob by lengthening out through your fingertips.) 7.Next time you brush. Do a little experimenting to see how much strength is actually required to reach out to the knob and take hold of it. which simply adds an unnecessary restriction to your freedom of movement. Your shoulders move upward and outward. (Fig. 11.) Also note if you are overdoing the action by reaching out toward the door long before you get there. 8. See if you can make it easier. Also notice what you do with your other arm and your shoulders. give it some thought. 9.

8. Next time you pick up your son or daughter. With Children The way you use your arms in handling a young child will definitely affect how that child moves. a child can feel it in the way you touch him. Let your head move up and your arms lengthen and hold the child with the 66 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . The body following the head upward. especially children. The amount of ease you have in your own body affects almost anyone you touch. think a little and notice what you are doing with yourself. Pulling down. 9. If you are tense and nervous.

if the child brings himself to sitting. least amount of effort needed. 11.10. When you support a child with your hands in helping him to sit or stand. Do not inject any effort into the easy movement the child already possesses. an undue amount of tension is produced in his back and shoulders. When a six-month-old child is brought up by pulling on his arms. On the other hand. Also important is exactly what part of the child you hold when you lift him or help him to walk or to sit. Lengthening. The amount of ease from you that reaches the child will influence him to calmer and less resistant behavior. support him at the torso. Overdoing. he uses his whole body in a system of balances with no tension in his back or anywhere else. MOVING ARMS 67 . which is maintained while the baby sits.

hips forward. Applying the Basic Movement Begin standing. From a standing position.) Stop and start again several times. stopping and starting several times until you feel that you have made some discoveries about your usual walk. 2. note what part of your body begins the motion and which direction you move in first: side to side? backward? forward? Continue walking for a few minutes. bend your right knee. This will allow you to move as a unit rather than in disconnected sections—for example. then head. (Figs.Action 3 Walking with Ease Exploring Yourself Find a room that has some open space enough to walk around in comfortably. step out with your right foot and walk forward. shift your weight onto your left foot. (Figs. the upward movement of your head and torso will move you forward. As you let your head move upward and away from your body with your torso following. begin to walk. Which part of your body leads as you walk? Stop. 3. you do not need to lean or fall forward. 4. It will help if you start 68 . As you start walking again. 1.) When walking. then shoulders following. with each step forward consisting of an awkward fall on that foot. Notice in which direction your energy moves.

2.1. WALKING WITH EASE 69 . Walking with ease.

70 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Moving in disconnected sections.3.

with hips forward.4. head dropped. Awkward. WALKING WITH EASE 71 .

For once I began walking by the Alexander Technique.) 72 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . putting your hands at the spot on each hip where your leg bends. I discovered my old habit had involved sinking into my hips and throwing myself off balance every time I shifted my weight from one leg to the other. whether you start at a gallop or more gradually accelerate from a walk to a run. 5. notice whether your head continues to ease up as you walk. I felt that my feet would no longer reach the floor. (There is naturally a slight. Avoid thinking of moving your head upward and then walking as two separate actions. there's often a tendency to pull the head back and down. Applications to Daily Life My first experience with walking by means of the Alexander Technique was new and strange to me. infinitesimal undulation of the hips forward and back when you walk—unless you tense up and interfere with it. Instead. (Fig. Each time you start.) In running. that I had to stretch my legs to get them down there. Remember that walking and easing upward happen at the same time. Place your fingers on the front side and thumbs on your upper buttocks. Notice whether your hips shift from side to side or up and down. walk around the room. 6. To test this for yourself.) Jogging and Running With any degree of speed. see that you ease your head upward and allow your body to follow up after it. I was letting my body glide along at a constant distance from the floor while continuing to explore the act of walking. (Fig. therefore. I discovered I was no longer pushing into my hips toward the floor on every step. You'll be pleased at the gain in lightness and ease.with both feet under you and your weight evenly distributed.

(Fig. will he maintain an upright stance and his arms have the greatest flexibility possible. it is the speed of the club head and not the force with which it is swung that makes the ball travel farthest. Only when he is willing to let his head move up and his body follow. Downward pressure. However. 8. With a compacted approach. 7. (Fig. His whole body will become involved in the swing. 6. which helps increase the speed and control of it.) This important advantage is often sacrificed in the supposed interest of power. He will then have a true one-piece swing. Easing upward. the golfer is getting in his own way. the upright stance provides flexibility in the shoulders and the torso and makes possible the maximum control over the swing. 5. The golfer thus compacts his body.Playing Golf In golf. WALKING WITH EASE 73 .) Otherwise he fears he cannot swing hard enough. shoulders easing out. pressing in and down to brace himself in order to swing.

74 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Lengthening upward and outward.7.

Pulling down.8. WALKING WITH EASE 75 .

3. Does your right lower leg hang as freely from your knee as it can or is it tense? Do you lift or move your right hip unnecessarily? When you lower your leg. Move your head and look around the room. 2. (Fig.) or lifting the hip of the leg being lifted. (Fig. Lift your right leg till your thigh is parallel to the floor.Action 4 Moving Legs Exploring Yourself Stand next to a firm waist-level surface. Applying the Basic Movement Still stabilizing yourself when you need to. (Fig. you may use it to balance yourself during this exploration.) Avoid sinking into the leg on which you are standing (Fig. 1. As your body continues upward. do you release it and drop it easily or do you reach at the floor with your foot and tense the muscles in your leg as you lower it? Once again take note of what your head and body have been doing.) Imagine a line drawn from one hip to the other and keep that line parallel with the floor. Lift and lower your right leg several times. bend your right knee and lift your right leg until your thigh is about parallel with the floor. Now lower your leg down to the floor. let your head ease upward and away from your body and let your body follow that motion. Rest one hand on it lightly. Take note of how successful you are at balancing on one leg. 4.) 76 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .

1. Lift your leg. MOVING LEGS 77 .

Before you shift any of your weight onto it. Push your lower leg with either hand instead of using your muscles to swing it. It should be free enough so that if someone were to push it lightly. it would swing like a pendulum until it lost momentum. then move your head and body upward as your weight shifts to that leg.Now let your raised leg swing forward and back freely from your knee down. first make sure the whole sole of your foot is touching the floor. Lift your other leg by bending the knee while letting your head and body 78 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Then gently release that leg to the floor.

then gently release at the hip joint until your foot touches the floor again. On each step. The important 2.continue upward. lift your leg a shorter distance so that finally you will be walking easily. The next time you repeat lifting one of your legs. MOVING LEGS 79 . 4. The line of the hips is parallel to the floor. Let your lower leg swing freely. Avoid sinking into the hip. 3. Then shift your weight from the back foot to the front by moving your head away from the top of your spine and letting your body follow that upward motion over your foot. Lifting the hip needlessly. allow your foot to come to the floor in front and to the side of the foot that supports you.

How much effort is necessary to get up to the next step? A typical attitude held is that a person must push downward in order to move up to the next step. 5. (Fig. People have pre-set attitudes toward almost every physical task they perform. The error occurs when a person doesn't experiment with his attitude—doesn't try out easier ways to do the job. Examine your attitude toward climbing stairs. 80 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .thing is to discover how to allow your body to go upward and forward over your legs instead of being carried by them like dead weight. So the direction of energy is often downward when a person climbs stairs. Upward direction.) The problem occurs Downward direction 6. These attitudes generally involve erroneous judgment of how much effort is required to perform a task or how their bodies must work to do it well. Applications to Daily Life Walking Up and Down Stairs Many students of the Alexander Technique find that walking up or down stairs makes them realize how much less effort is needed when directing their energy upward.

you can still look down at the stairs to see where you are stepping. which requires extra work in order to maintain balance and control. In going up an incline.during the shift of weight after the foot has been lifted to the next stair. Easing upward. To climb stairs the Alexander Technique way. allowing your head to move upward and your body to follow. (Fig. 6. nor do you need to jump from foot to foot. simply allow your knee to bend forward as you follow your head upward. Most people place all their weight onto the forward foot before straightening the leg. MOVING LEGS 81 .) There is no need to keep the muscles of your knee in constant tension to serve as a brake. (Fig. To move down a staircase.8.) Walking down stairs is often done with equal inefficiency. Avoid freezing your gaze. apply the same principles. Pulling down. 8. 7. usually because it is never approached consciously. and the effort involved in straightening the leg with most of the body weight on it is exhausting. 7. place your foot lightly on the step and gradually straighten your leg as you follow your head upward and forward to move your body above that stair. When you are walking up or down stairs.

rest your feet on the floor about five inches apart and pointing forward. where does the pressure on the ball of your foot fall? Is it under your big toe. it moves as though it were on a ratchet. in little jerks. Leave the ball and toes of your foot on the floor. such as a car jack. in the center. Very slowly. Notice whether or not the movement is smooth. See if you are locking your ankle joint at the top of the movement—with heel as high as possible—and at the end of the movement—with foot flat on the floor. When your heel comes up. This indicates excess tension and that you are tensing the muscles around your ankle. one at a time. You may notice that as you move your ankle.Action 5 Heel and Toe Exploring Yourself Sit in a chair. on the outside or evenly across the front of your foot. up and down. lift each heel off the floor and put it down again. as is most desirable? Do you have to tense your thigh or calf to lift your heel? Also try slowly lifting your toes off of the ground so that only your heel remains on the floor. Look for the same indications of freedom or tension. Applying the Basic Movement Begin as before with your feet at least five inches apart and pointing forward in whatever position is most comfort- 82 .

Repeat with your other foot. See if you can find the most efficient way (the one involving the least tension) to raise and lower your heel. If you concentrate solely on your ankles to the exclusion of the rest of your body. (Fig. 2. When you understand how easing your head upward and letting your body follow affects the movement of your ankle and every other part of your body.) Sit comfortably. Then stand up and walk around to see what changes have occurred.) Then as you let your heel very gently down to the floor.) In order to begin and complete this movement. There is no set way to do it. except your heel. Keep the ball of your foot on the ground and spread your toes. include your legs in your awareness. follow upward. and let the movement of your ankles fit in with it. It will either become easier. Remain aware of the relationship between your head and body. let your toes come back to the floor. The body's motions can now be consistent from the top of your head to the tip of your toes. Now see what happens when you repeat this action. Now as you let your head move upward and away from your body and allow your body to follow. it will be harder to move them freely. This does not mean stretching your leg. but rather to allow it to be its full length and free of tension. be unchanged or become tiring. As you continue. (Fig. But something constructive is happening. Avoid contracting the muscles of your thigh by continuing to lengthen your leg as your left heel comes very slowly off the floor as far as it can. Think of your whole leg getting longer. 3. you will begin to improve your use of yourself. you are becoming aware of how you move your ankle. let your head ease upward and follow it with your body. Let your toes bend slightly up from the floor. 1.able. (Fig. Now lift your toes off the ground so that only your heel remains on the floor. Lengthen your leg all the way from heel to hip. then let the remainder of your foot. HEEL AND TOE 83 . release your ankle and continue lengthening your bent leg. between your hip socket and your knee and between your ankle and your knee.

84 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Foot flat on floor pointing forward. now including your legs and feet. Generally. will give you added freedom of motion. the upward direction of your head and body. 1.Applications to Daily Life Freedom in your ankles is essential for efficient and easy walking. but there is no need to focus on them except when doing this Action.

3. HEEL AND TOE 85 .2. Lift your toes. Lift your heel.

which creates more pressure than is necessary. continue to follow your head upward with your body and without tightening your legs. make sure they bend directly above each foot. and allow your body to follow. 1. Make sure 86 . When you are successful with this Action. Notice what if anything you do with your head and your body. keeping your body perpendicular to the ground. Are you bending at the hips and ankles? Repeat this until you are clear about how you are bending your knees. Let your feet be as close to parallel as is comfortable. Your legs should continue to lengthen as your knees bend. As your knees bend. Bend both knees until they are directly above your big toe. let them go forward. Instead. you will feel no pressure or strain on your knees. As you release the muscles around your knees. Notice where you feel any pressure on your hips or legs. away from your body.) A common tendency is to think of the knees as moving downward.Action 6 Knee-Bending Exploring Yourself Stand with your feet a shoulder's width apart (from eight to eighteen inches). Applying the Basic Movement Allow your head to move delicately upward. Then straighten your legs and return to the standing position. Include your legs in the easing so that they lengthen and lighten. (Fig.

KNEE-BENDING 87 . Release knees forward.1.

rather. or forward if needless extra effort is used in bending your hips (Fig. but remains perpendicular to the ground. Rather than pushing your body back up with your legs. No need to lean forward.).). Keep your body sense alert so that you can tell if at any point you are tensing your knees.you release your hip joints so that your body does not tilt backward when your hips lock (Fig. (Fig. Don't let your old habits interfere with your new way of bending. let your head and body ease upward from your legs and let your knees follow.) Place a mirror at your side to monitor this movement. 3. 88 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . it is part of the movement 2. 3. 1. No need to tilt back. Applications to Daily Life The simultaneous bending of both knees rarely occurs by itself in everyday activity. 2.

The greatest value of this Action is that it frees the hips and knees. Working at a low counter. Knee-bending is also the most efficient way of approaching any activity in which you are standing and must lean over to work. KNEE-BENDING 89 . a freedom most people need. 5. carpentry. (Fig.). If you're a dancer. Instead of going forward by bending your back and hunching your shoulders (Fig.) 4. doing dishes and ironing are examples of such activities. knees bent. stay upright and bend your knees to lower yourself to the level you need. and do the work with their legs as they should instead of their backs. you will encounter a variation of it in the plié.of sitting and standing. The act of walking is greatly influenced by the amount of flexibility in the leg joints. Easing upward. that movement is present even though their feet may be positioned differently. 5. When people bend to pick up things. Pulling down. 4.

ACTION 7 Standing Up and Sitting Down

Exploring Yourself
In Action 1, you learned how to lean forward without pushing forward. Now get up from a chair, noticing what your body must do in order to stand. When leaning forward in order to stand up, do you use more effort than when you merely lean forward in a chair? No more effort is actually needed. Now sit down from a standing position and notice what happens to the relationship of your head to your body. Do you freeze your head or any part of your body while you sit? Repeat these two Actions, noting everything that is involved in sitting and standing.

Applying the Basic Movement
Standing Up. Sit in a chair of average height. Begin by becoming aware of what you do with your head and your body. Turn your head from side to side and allow it to move up and away from your body. As you become aware of the
upward direction, lean forward by following your head with

your body. Continue following as you lean forward until your buttocks come off the chair. (Fig. 1.) As you lean forward, "upward" becomes diagonal from the chair, not skyward. As soon as your weight is on your feet, you have completed the movement.
90

1. Following your head upward.

STANDING UP AND SITTING DOWN 91

Sit back in the chair and repeat this movement several times, noticing what you do in order to come to your feet. Discover how to do the movement in one flowing motion with the least possible effort. Often people discover that they are giving a little push, a little tightening, just before they leave the chair. There are many people who at first feel that this little push is absolutely necessary but soon discover it isn't when they let their bodies follow their heads. Having made a slight improvement in the flow from sitting to getting your buttocks off the chair, go all the way to standing the next time you do it. "Upward" will continually change in relation to vertical as you fold forward. Notice whether you continue to follow your head or whether you change direction and push yourself up. (Fig. 2.) Beware of trying to swing yourself to your feet. (Fig. 3.) NOTE: When you stand, it is necessary to use your thigh muscles to some extent, so rather than concentrate on your legs, observe what you must do with your head and body to gain the most efficient use of your legs. After you have come to a standing position, your head continues upward and your body continues to follow it. There is no reason to abandon that upward direction and collapse after you have stood up. (Fig. 4.) Sitting Down. In the act of sitting, the advantage of following your head with your body is that you have control of your balance as you sit. An important idea to grasp about sitting down is that you must continue to follow your head upward with your body. If you let all your joints fold as you sit, and direct the energy upward to relieve pressure on the joints instead of tensing to keep from falling, you will not have to work as hard. As you stand in front of a chair, get your head and body going upward. As soon as you feel pressure taken off your legs, release your leg joints and let them fold. Remember to let your hips bend as well so that you lean forward as you approach the chair. (Fig. 5.) If this is confusing, stand up again, noting how far you fold forward as you stand. Sitting down is the same movement in reverse. 92 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE

2. Beware of pushing. Beware of swinging up. 3. STANDING UP AND SITTING DOWN 93 .

94 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .4. Once standing. continue easing upward.

5. STANDING UP AND SITTING DOWN 95 . Bending the joints to sit.

reach out with your arms or perform any other variation on the movement of standing. Most of us complete this action many times a day in an uncountable number of ways and positions. You will still have the flexibility to twist and turn your head. It is one of the best movements you can do to explore coordination of your whole body. They go through a sequence that resembles shifting gears in a 1950 pickup. straightening the joints and rebalancing the weight on the feet to stand.) Without even thinking about it. then folding into the chair to sit. you can avoid the shifts in direction and stand up in one easy flowing motion. one that uses the whole body is the movement from standing to sitting and vice versa. But if you can learn to follow your head with your body. many people divide the movement of standing into steps: lean forward. 96 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . when they actually need their legs to go up? (Fig. though. knees and ankles. shoot up. How many people have you seen who push their knees down with their hands in trying to stand. 2. push down. Whichever way it is done. Most people drop themselves into a chair and push themselves out. And you can do it without the extra effort of forcing or tensing your muscles.Applications to Daily Life Of the movements we repeat most often. it is all the same basic movement: bending at the hips.

97 . Begin by finding a place that is comfortable. relatively quiet and can be used regularly. There is one activity you can use daily to reinforce the process of lengthening in movement. Lie down with your feet flat on the floor and your knees bent. or outward. Ideally. (Fig. Plan to use this space whenever you want to do this activity. Lie down. Putting your feet farther apart is helpful. 1. your knees will tend to fall toward each other. The point of it all is to teach you to let your head and body ease upward during any movement. spread-eagle fashion. your feet should be a shoulder's width apart and your knees balanced freely. 1. See if you can get your knees to fall inward rather than outward.A Short Daily Routine A Time for Rest The experiments you've been doing thus far have been designed to teach you conscious control of yourself.) More realistically. directly above your feet.

for me to be spending time on myself. As you learn to direct energy upward and to move with greater freedom. feet on the floor. make a mental note of your body's condition. When you have made a change in your belief system." to 98 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . you may need up to twenty minutes. Keep your eyes open.) As you lie there. What is important here is that you have begun to spend a period every day. from "I have too many important things to do. For example: Pressure across the back of my hips Tingling in my right knee Pain in my left upper back Sensation along the left side of my neck The floor is cold on my back My breathing moves my stomach The small of my back isn't touching the floor Feeling a little angry at first Cold fingers Felt calmer at the end. it will become easier to lie down this way. If any of these positions creates undue pressure. Afterward. warmer More than likely you'll notice the same things from day to day. so you can compare your awareness from one week to the next. You may also be able to remember all these sensations. Make yourself comfortable on your back. Simply lie there for two to five minutes. though you'll soon be able to rest without one. Let your arms rest easily on the floor at your sides. and too many responsibilities. In that case you do not need to write your notes but can use your memory instead. short though it may be. (When you are feeling extremely tense. write down the things you noticed during each session.Let your feet rest parallel to each other on the floor and about two feet away from your buttocks. or bend them at the elbows and rest your hands comfortably on your stomach. but continue to make note of them each time. then make minor adjustments. A two-inch-thick pillow under your head is permissible. on body maintenance.

Again. As you release it back to the floor. move your head by nodding it. your head continues to move delicately away from your body.) 2. move it slightly out from your body. 3. 2. do the following series of movements to allow your body to continue lengthening. lift your hips up from the floor. If that should happen. After nodding. 1. (Fig. With the back of your head touching the floor at all times. let your head move away from your body and let your body lengthen from buttocks to shoulders. Let your shoulders widen and open. You may. Do the same with your left shoulder. several times. You don't need to push your body into changing. will feel slightly longer. seems to have some length." you can give yourself the opportunity to improve your performance of any activity."time spent on myself is as important as any other time. The lift continues to the middle of the back. A SHORT DAILY ROUTINE 99 . Then starting at the middle back. chin toward your chest and then back tip from your chest. With your feet firmly on the floor. front and back. After you've taken this thoughtful rest for a few minutes. 2. but because of friction with the floor you feel stuck at first. All the while you are doing this. let your head come to rest in a position where your neck. however. slowly lower your body until your hips are on the floor again. front and back. Roll your hips up. find that your body does begin to lengthen. the shoulder. Lift your right shoulder toward the ceiling.

First let your hand float from the floor. beginning the movement by easing your head upward. following your hand and bending your elbow. 4. Bend it and curve it any way you wish. bending your wrist (Fig. Use the release of tension to move your head.) Straighten your arm. as that begins to lengthen your neck. Any movement can be done by letting your head ease upward and your body follow. (Fig. Permit your shoulders to continue easing outward from your body. Observe whether any other part of your body tightens or moves as you roll your head. Move your head by letting it ease away from your body and. Then slowly and gently move both arms in every which 100 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Moving Your Arms Lift your arms one at a time.) Then allow your lower arm to float up. There is no need to tense any part of your body to start the movement. Try doing fast movements with the least amount of tensing. Continue to experiment with moving your head. All of the movements can be effortless. Pay attention to what you do with your head and body as you move your arm. Rotating Your Head See how easily you can rotate your head from side to side. (Fig.Now that you do not feel stuck to the floor. Let your other arm rise the same way. Be careful not to increase the pressure of your head against the floor. roll your head from side to side.) Finally your upper arm can follow the floating movement and your whole arm will be above your body. you're ready to experiment with some movements in the lying-down position. Make sure you move your arm without a jolt or locking any part of it. Find a way to move without jerking or setting (tensing) your body. Roll it from side to side a few times. 3. rolling it from side to side. 5. Notice whether or not you press your head into the floor or lift it off the floor slightly to move your arm. Very gently lengthen out through your fingertips.

4. Then the lower arm moves. 5. First move your hand. A SHORT DAILY ROUTINE 101 .3. Move your whole arm.

body and arms. noticing where you tighten and observing whether or not you tense your head as you move your leg. Lift one foot off the floor by bringing your leg toward your chest. 102 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . As your leg moves away from your chest again. As you let it down gently. See what happens when you move your arms quickly and sharply. Don't interfere with the freedom you've created in your head. 6. Whenever you let your arms return to the floor. Return always to the bent-knee position. your hand. There's no need to push it away from your body. first allow your upper arm to come to the floor. continuing the movements of ease. Then place your foot on the floor again. (Fig. let your left foot slide along the floor away from your body until it is straightened and fully on the floor. allowing your head to move away from your body as your body follows. (Fig. Now lift your left foot again and bring your leg toward your chest. lengthen it toward your elbow.) Your knee will travel through a slight arc. 7. Bring your leg toward your chest. back and whole 6. finally.way.) Let your right leg straighten in the same manner. The object is to learn to move your legs with the least amount of tightening in your stomach. Moving Your Legs Next lift your legs one at a time. Then let your lower arm follow and. Do this a couple of times with each leg. Direct the energy up through your bent knee toward the ceiling.

let your head begin rolling toward the same side. Roll to the opposite side in the same manner. (Fig. Draw your knees up again. As you sit up. A SHORT DAILY ROUTINE 103 .) Now you should be sitting.) As your head continues to move. Let your head move away from your body and let your body move with it. If you want to bend over as you come up. Rolling onto Your Side Let your knees fall slowly and easily to one side. 9. Use the arm closer to the ceiling to push on the floor in front of your chest. (Fig.body. 8. roll onto your side. To do this. let your head go outward from the top of your spine and permit your body to follow. while thinking of your legs lengthening outward through your knees. Sitting Up To sit up from the lying position. doing the same. one at a time.) Then roll onto your back by moving your head first and letting your whole body follow. 9. causing your body to roll until you are lying on your side. your head doesn't necessarily have to be the highest part of your body as you stand. Seated it's easy to stand simply by following your head with your body. Remember. Now straighten up. let your knees come to the floor. 7. neck and torso. Allow the ease to continue in your head. The leg is straightened. it is essential to let your head continue moving instead of locking in place. (Fig. Always let your head and neck be free.

a few adjustments will 104 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . is better than a stiff or bouncy one. Let your head roll to the side. Restful Slumber Sometimes we do not get the full benefit of a good night's sleep because we continue so many of our habits of tension while we sleep.). The best way to sleep is on your back unless you have specific physical problems that prevent this position. or no pillow at all. Having a good soft pillow that forms to your head. When you first lie down. use the position of rest described above (Fig. Then let you legs straighten out and rest on the mattress as you continue to let your head move away and your body to follow it! If you must sleep on your side. 1. Your knees roll to the floor. 9.8.

This way your upper shoulder does not curl down. and let it bend at the elbow. This will keep your body from collapsing onto the shoulder that rests on the mattress and will prevent your neck from cramping (Figs.). avoid doing any movement. that can shock your body with exaggerated muscle action. 11. A SHORT DAILY ROUTINE 105 . 10. make this position more advantageous. Bunch your pillow under the side of your head so that your neck is straight as it would be in standing. such as a sit-up. or at least rest the upper part of it on your upper side. 11. Then lay your top arm on the side of your body. Lengthening.). but rests directly above the other shoulder with your chest and back unconstricted. . collapsing onto your chest (Fig. Cramped. When rising from the bed in the morning.10.11. If you slept on your back.

Emotional Control—Worry. Anger. they arise subconsciously before the conscious mind can act. which can tie you into knots or make matters worse. jaw and shoulders. This is not the same as trying to suppress anger. Emotions are not the result of a conscious decision. Anger. the new direction of your energy. The value of control can be seen if we recall for a moment the many unfortunate events in which we and those we love have been hurt by actions stemming from fear. for instance. simply give some attention to easing your head upward and allowing your body to follow after it.first roll onto your side. inundated by it. Rather. 106 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . then sit up gently as you ease your head and body up. by releasing tension throughout your body. By this procedure you can. When you detect these signals. Panic You can apply the Alexander Technique in your daily life so that your emotions do not get out of hand. do all your calisthenics after your body is more awake and your heart has adjusted its beat to a moving body. eliminate the panic from fear and size up the situation that inspires it and do something about it. anger or hostility. among others. even before you choke up or explode. If you must do them in the morning. wasteful or debilitating emotion will express itself in tensions that you can perceive even before you go haywire. Any harmful. tenses muscles in the neck. for example. gives you a means of coping with the emotion so that it remains a potential for action but does not interfere with rational decision and any action you may take.

It may be that you are not troubled in any of the ways described below. Surely there have got to be complications. If so. It can be eliminated as soon as you become aware of it. and so we go about inventing them. I have encountered many of the handicaps that people create for themselves at the beginning. The entire purpose of the sketches that follow is to provide a means for understanding and resolving any unnecessary problem you may recognize in yourself. But perhaps because the Alexander Technique is so easy to do. well and good.Some Helpful Hints You now have the simple program that will make an important change in how you function at every level of your daily life. But perhaps you may discover one or another obstacle with which you have been needlessly hampering your own progress in acquiring the Technique. The Worrier One of the most common tendencies seen in beginners is the "I can't" habit. As a teacher of the Alexander Technique. take careful note of the sketch that applies to you. These people focus on what they won't or 107 . Following are some of the needless difficulties I have most often observed. If that is the case. and it need not impede the smooth course of making the Alexander Technique your own. the problem involved and the answer to it. These thumbnail portraits have been designed as a series of helpful hints for carrying out the Technique. The reason may -be that it seems too good to be true: it can't be that simple. we manufacture unnecessary difficulties in the process of learning it.

After that experience. pulling my shoulders in. I was in the kitchen one day. As I stood there. they immediately ask themselves. Thinking about how you should be easing up is like making a plan to do the laundry instead of actually doing it. for example. Only by thinking during the activity was I able to avoid doing the excess work that made me feel I was doing the job right. "Why not practice what you preach?" So I let my head move up and my body follow. I let my arm lengthen and hold onto the scrub brush very lightly. "I'm not doing it! I can't. I suddenly thought. "Am I doing it?" They notice that nothing is happening and then they think.can't do. Every activity had a different but usually effortful physical attitude attached to it. As I stood there." 108 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . There really is no need to be a "straining housewife. In the process." The idea of the Alexander Technique is to pay attention to what you are doing. It was still coming clean. I realized I had been bent over. When. I continued my experiment until the pot was clean and then I felt actually refreshed. guilt crept over me. Don't worry about what you're not doing. feeling better and better. The Straining Housewife One of my own experiences can best explain what is involved here. While scrubbing away furiously at a burned pot and considering all this. In other words. after spending an entire morning teaching the Technique and talking a lot about integrating relaxation into daily activity. This can't be right if it's making me feel good instead of strained and tired. Are you pulling down? Then go up. they give their bodies the instruction to follow their heads. I experimented with just how hard I needed to hold onto it. Still. it's not necessary to be in a state of continual regret when you feel you're in error. I began to notice a definite physical attitude that took over whenever I worked in the kitchen or performed other household chores. I reasoned. feeling very easy. and began to press more lightly on the pot.

my head comes back down again. I can stretch my neck by putting one hand under my chin. How can words possibly make them go farther when you reach that limit?" What he has forgotten is that upward is a direction. When I take my hands off. The Under-Achiever The under-achiever says: "Oh.' I can't go around SOME HELPFUL HINTS 109 . well. . Direct your head to move upward and your body to follow with awareness. The Manipulator "When I get a tension headache. but you can always continue to direct your head upward as you continue to move about." I tell her: You have not quite understood what I mean by "thinking. . But I can't keep hanging on that way. not a place. the other hand on my shoulder. There is a maximum point of lengthening the spine. The Scientist He has deduced: "My head and body can only go so far upward before levitating is the next step." Obviously. not hands. Let it happen. Thinking in these terms must be an active process that actually releases you from the downward pulls you ordinarily experience. I can force . do it with my hands. Go past words to experiencing the idea. But you can do some constructive thinking that carries over into every activity." It is not just the process of repeating the words or idea in your head. and pushing my head up. you can't go around doing that and carry on your everyday activities. This prevents the tendency to pull it downward.The Thinker She says: "I think and think about my head going up but nothing happens. it takes so much energy to stay aware and remember to move 'Up.

Soon this awareness will become an integral part of everything you do. tense some muscles. so all you have to do is continue moving and you'll get to where you want to be. But as soon as I move." To the step-by-stepper I reply: See if you can ease up in order to make a move rather than easing up before you move. The Freezer He declares: "I know where up is. you're already moving. I think about that immediate move and forget about easing up." When you're letting your head ease up and your body follow. to get forward in a chair. then "up" becomes relative to the movement you're doing. and it's very hard to do two things at once. The next step. it will be there. For example. At first you have to remind yourself to do something different—in this case. I go up with my head and let my body follow to reach with my arm in any direction. I think of any action as moving upward with my head and body. I have things to do. Surely I have to do something. You still have to learn how to recognize your own movement without tensing or pulling down. and when I'm sitting still and not doing anything.thinking about this all the time." Preventing the back-and-down pull is like breaking any other habit. but I just look as though I'm being stiff and formal. I can remember to think about it. will be to learn to continue directing the energy upward during the movement. That way change will come out of every activity you do and not as a result of something imposed on you. You won't have to summon the thought to move your head. If you bend over. your head can still move up away from your body but of course not toward the ceiling. The Step-by-Stepper He says: "I ease up every time before I move. to move your head up. then. 110 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . If you do this.

So I don't turn my head. The change you can make yourself is very subtle. talking to a friend. And when do you use yourself most? In all your everyday activities—eating. then when you get to the limit." Whenever you think you're doing something right." First. These are the things you do over and over again. I feel very uncomfortable and stiff. probably without awareness. That's fine. I still feel just as tense after a long day at the office as I always did. I do ten minutes in the morning and ten after dinner. The fact is. Be satisfied with a little so that you notice the smaller changes more. but I don't seem to be making any change. The point of asking you to let your head ease upward and your body to follow is that you can get a little more flexibility and ease. stop practicing and start living! In studying the Alexander principle. When you get to the point where you refuse to change. I can really move forward and back in the chair very well. You yourself change from movement to movement as do the requirements of any activity in which you may be engaged. lock in and become inflexible. you tense up. and I don't ever slouch in a chair. What you do is make your head move up as far as possible. The Practicer She complains: "I go home and practice this Technique every day. you're trying to learn to use yourself better. you're easing up as soon as you think of it. and then I feel as though I shouldn't move or I'll lose it. When you start allowing your head to ease upward and your body to follow while you SOME HELPFUL HINTS 111 . let go of it. hold it. Maybe I'm practicing wrong. I try to think about "it all the time. taking a shower. you've lost that flexibility.The Over-Achiever He has the opposite problem from the under-achiever: "When I do what I think is easing up and maintain.

The Weight-Watcher Her reasonable question is: "You say that if I use the Alexander Technique I'll learn how to put less energy into doing everything. not of posture and position. in taking a step. in any movement you do. You don't have to think during all activity. The Alexander principle is a principle of movement. Then you're giving yourself a choice you never knew you had before—the choice of acting with or without tension. notice and see if you can feel a little more ease. then you'll be putting what you've learned to use. It's the way you use the energy that can be of help to your body. for example. Go back to letting your head move upward and away from your body as your body follows. When you learn to use your body as an integrated whole. Habitual tension doesn't keep you in shape. shoulders. Because of unnecessary tension in certain parts of your body. And should my feet come down heel first or toe first?" There is no right place to put your head. body. some muscles don't get used at all. it just makes for hard. Then you're on the right track. Won't I get flabby and out of shape if I stop exerting as much energy? Then I'll have to exercise twice as much. The Posture-Maker She says: 'I can't seem to remember where to put my head to get back that floating feeling. It just so happens that when you stop interfering with your body's natural functioning.wash your hands. locked muscle tissue. 112 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . then you'll get the maximum use out of all your muscles. Where is it again? Sometimes I decide to pull my chin in and push my shoulders back but they never seem to stay. chin or anything else. for example. whatever you do. But every once in a while." You're making the wrong assumption if you think that simply putting forth energy will keep you in shape. and usually they become a deposit area for flabby fat. you stand up straighter.

Barker consulted with Professor Raymond Dart. editor of Alexander's writings. Frank Pierce Jones who conducted major scientific experiments on the Alexander Technique at Tufts University. Barker is now teaching the Alexander Technique at Webster College in St. and Edward Maisel. Ms. among them Ohio University and Prescott College. world-famous anthropologist who discovered australopithecus and who is self-taught in the Alexander Technique. In preparing this book Ms.ABOUT THE AUTHOR SARAH BARKER received her master's in fine arts from Southern Methodist University in Dallas. Louis. She has taught the Alexander Technique at several campuses. . Texas. Missouri.

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