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Imagine a technique that begins with one simple movement and transforms every muscle in your entire body... a technique so easy you can learn it yourself.. .and so amazingly effective that your whole life may change for the better.
"The Alexander Technique
Nobel Prize-winner Nikolaas Tinbergen hailed the discovery of the. technique. With "growing amazement" he and his family noted "very striking improvements" in high blood pressure, depth of sleep, overall cheerfulness and mental alertness. Tinbergen concluded that the technique may often produce "profound and beneficial effects" to help: relieve rheumatism, various forms of arthritis and respiratory ailments • remedy circulation defects that may lead to high blood pressure • alleviate many digestive disorders • reduce sexual failures, migraines and depression. Now you can learn the secrets of this unique, effortless technique and begin to realize your full physical and mental potential, starting today.
"Like opening a door into another world..."
One of our foremost teachers and practitioners of the Alexander Technique, Sarah Barker, has taught this amazingly effective method of mobilizing total energy in colleges across the country. From her own experience she has found that "the mere performance of this simple movement can, if you extend it through the whole range of your normal activity, put you on the road to a new life of health, physical freedom and, in the deepest sense, personal happiness." Try the technique yourself for a few weeks with her simple, everyday routines and see what wonders it can do for you.
THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE The Revolutionary Way To Use Your Body For Total Energy by Sarah Barker BANTAM BOOKS TORONTO • NEW YORK • LONDON • SYDNEY .
666 Fifth Avenue. For information address: Bantam Books. This book may not be reproduced in whole or in part. by mimeograph or any other means. Inc. without permission.. consisting of the words "Bantam Books" and the portrayal of a bantam. Inc. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. ISBN 0-553-14976-8 Published simultaneously in the United States and Canada Bantam Books are published by Bantam Books. Bantam Books.S. Inc. New York 10103. Copyright © 1978 by Bantam Books.For Marj THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE: THE REVOLUTIONARY WAY TO USE YOUR BODY FOR TOTAL ENERGY 2nd printing A Bantam Book /August 1978 April 1979 3rd printing February 1981 Photographs courtesy of Susan and Reed ErskinelLightworks All rights reserved. PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 . New York. is Registered in U. Inc. Its trademark. Marca Registrada.
Contents Acknowledgments PART I LEARNING ABOUT THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE: The Important Benefits It Offers You THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE The What and the Why Scientific Acclaim Feeling at Your Best Age Is No Barrier If You Are Overweight Your Rampant Emotions Living Without Stress Being Who You Are Beneficial Effects in Many Diseases A Simple Method ix l 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 8 Chapter 1 Chapter 2 HOW THE TECHNIQUE WAS DISCOVERED The Australian Story Crisis on Stage The Patient Scientist A Unique Mission The Search and the Answer Outwitting Our Destructive Habits Those Puritanical Hang-Ups 10 10 11 12 13 13 15 15 V .
No Poses How to Look at Pictures The Breath of Life Let It Happen Your Breathing Improves How We Got This Way Three Easy Tests See For Yourself The Road to Take THE BASIC MOVEMENT Not an Exercise How to Start THE BASIC MOVEMENT Exploring Yourself The Basic Movement Your Whole Head Your Whole Body The Upward Direction On Your Way The Instant Train How to Succeed Without Really Trying 17 18 19 20 20 20 21 21 22 23 23 24 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 32 32 32 34 35 37 37 38 39 39 41 41 42 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 BECOME A WHOLE PERSON The Trouble with Physical Exercise The Trance in Which We Live Our Mistaken Ideas About Ourselves The Crown of the Senses Discover a World Within Part Person vs. Whole Person Staying in the Moment vi CONTENTS .Chapter3 BRINGING THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE INTO YOUR LIFE What Is Good Use? You Are Not a Statue No Positions.
Chapter 6 THE TECHNIQUE AS A WAY TO STAY YOUNG Why We Shrink The Upright Creature Must We Fall Apart? How We Conquer It Goes by Itself Never a Feeling of Strain A Future Without Fear THE PRACTICE OF THE TECHNIQUE How to Do It THE SEVEN ACTIONS An Effortless Program No Dumb-Bells. No Leotards A Way to Begin For Your Enjoyment Nine Rules to Follow 43 44 44 45 46 47 49 49 PART II 51 52 52 52 53 54 54 56 56 56 57 58 58 59 61 61 61 62 63 65 66 CONTENTS vii Action 1 LEANING FORWARD A N D BACKWARD Exploring Yourself Applying the Basic Movement Applications to Daily Life Eating Soup How to Get Out of a Slump The Way You Talk MOVING ARMS Exploring Yourself Applying the Basic Movement Applications to Daily Life Brushing Your Teeth Opening a Door With Children Action 2 .
Action 3 WALKING WITH EASE Exploring Yourself Applying the Basic Movement Applications to Daily Life Jogging and Running Playing Golf MOVING LEGS Exploring Yourself Applying the Basic Movement Applications to Daily Life Walking Up and Down Stairs HEEL A N D TOE Exploring Yourself Applying the Basic Movement Applications to Daily Life KNEE-BENDING Exploring Yourself Applying the Basic Movement Applications to Daily Life STANDING UP A N D SITTING D O W N Exploring Yourself Applying the Basic Movement Applications to Daily Life A SHORT DAILY ROUTINE A Time For Rest Rotating Your Head Moving Your Arms Moving Your Legs Rolling onto Your Side Sitting Up 68 68 68 72 72 73 76 76 76 80 80 82 82 82 84 86 86 86 88 90 90 90 96 97 97 100 100 102 103 103 Action 4 Action 5 Action 6 Action 7 viii CONTENTS .
Restful Slumber Emotional ControlWorry. Anger. Panic 104 106 SOME HELPFUL HINTS The Worrier The Straining Housewife The Thinker The Scientist The Manipulator The Under-Achiever The Step-by-Stepper The Freezer The Over-Achiever The Practicer The Posture-Maker The Weight-Watcher 107 107 108 109 109 109 109 110 110 111 111 112 112 CONTENTS ix .
hopefully. even lacking his genius. especially those who patiently suffered and. graciously and expertly collaborated with me in demonstrating for the photographs that illustrate this book. if given a set of sure guidelines. Special acknowledgment is due my colleagues and associates at Rancho Linda Vista in Arizona. I thought long and hard: The idea of learning the Technique from a book seemed revolutionary and possibly heretical. upon whose work I have drawn freely. which places the Alexander Technique in a modern scixi . of Oxford University. Surely. I would like to thank the various Alexander teachers with whom I have studied and spent long hours in discussion. Then I remembered that its originator. I am grateful to Professor Nikolaas Tinbergen. for his remarkable speech accepting the 1973 Nobel Prize in Medicine. My colleague. the rest of us. could learn how. and all my students. had on his own discovered how to control the use of his body.Acknowledgments Before undertaking to write a "how to" book on the Alexander Technique. who supported me with their probing questions. who were always available for the encouragement and energy needed to carry on. Peter Trimmer. benefited from the teaching experiments I conducted in the preparation of this book. F M. I received the help of innumerable people to whom I am most grateful. I am also indebted to several distinguished scholars in the field. Alexander. When I began the necessary exploring and investigation. and whose individual help in some cases was indispensable to me. and thanks are also due to a number of close friends.
who laid down the guidelines for those of us who have followed him. Research Associate at the Tufts Institute for Psychological Research. whose study introducing The Resurrection of the Body (Delta Books). an indispensable selection of Alexanders writings. to Dr. Professor Emeritus of Anatomy and Dean Emeritus of the Medical Faculty of the University of Witwatersrand. to Edward Maisel. South Africa. closely paraphrased a few passages from that study. the greatest debt of all is to Alexander himself. I have. for the insights in his Anatomist's Tribute to F. Matthias Alexander. This book is not intended to reflect the views of any of the considerable number of people who helped me. to Professor Raymond A. to the late Dr.entific perspective. The project is entirely my own. has contributed so greatly to public appreciation of the Alexander Technique. In a couple of spots. whose studies of the Alexander Technique have accomplished much for the scientific understanding of this work. Of course. Sarah Barker xii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . Frank Pierce Jones. Wilfred Barlow for his informative accounts of the medical use of the Technique in treating patients. Dart. with Maisel's generous permission.
PART 1 Learning About the Alexander Technique The Important Benefits It Offers You .
F. named for its discoverer.Chapter 1 The Alexander Technique: The What and the Why Imagine a technique for transforming the operation of your body. At the Tufts Institute for Experimental Psychology. like the opening of a door into another world. a technique so amazing in its results that your physical and emotional life will soon change for the better. twenty-five years of investigation—using quantitative measure and control groups—have thrown important light on the manner in which the Alexander Technique produces its seemingly miraculous effects. and known around the world as one of the most extraordinary discoveries of our time. During the years before and after Alexander's death in 1955. reports by physicians attesting to its remarkable effectiveness in helping many of their patients. Scientific Acclaim It would surprise many people to realize what the Alexander Technique can do for them were its astonishing'results not supported by the most respectable scientific authority. so simple that you can learn it yourself. There has also accumulated an impressive volume of clinical data. That technique is the Alexander Technique. Matthias Alexander. 2 . his students and followers conducted a considerable amount of research to substantiate his findings.
It's never too late. He thereupon underwent an extraordinary rejuvenation and lived another thirty-five rich. We have learned that there is no mechanical device in the world—electronic. most of us plod through our days and nights in a condition far below optimum. you're wrong. so too are we daily abusing the most valuable resource of all—our bodies—and depleting our own energies. Even after forty or fifty years of continually misusing yourself. you can begin to make a beneficial and healthy change. more than ever. the Alexander Technique proposes. We "manage". Indeed. we "get by. Against this keep-your-nose-above-water-level definition of being alive.Feeling at Your Best Apart from suffering any specific medical symptoms. took up the Alexander Technique at the age of fifty-eight. an exuberant and vital sense of wellness: physical freedom and ease combined with mental flexibility and alertness." Good health is regarded as merely the absence of sickness. Many of us know now that through ignorance and insensibility we unnecessarily limit ourselves in how we function. one of the founding fathers of scientific philosophy and modern education. Just as we have thoughtlessly depleted the natural resources of the planet. computerized or laser-beamed—that functions with such infinite resilience or so many delicate capacities as the human body. humanity's chance to survive may depend upon how men and women salvage themselves. full THE WHAT AND THE WHY 3 . Ours is an era where people have begun to value their bodies as unique and wonderful. Age Is No Barrier If you think you're too old to begin learning anything so revolutionary. and that today. as normal. this factor may prove more critical than our ability to manipulate the environment further. We scarcely begin to realize our enormous potential. John Dewey.
and it is hardly news that human development in general is retarded by fear reflexes unduly excited by emotions. What about the way we wear our weight. And we have information about calisthenics. whatever it may be? Why is it that two people of identical poundage and the same general build often have quite different looking torsos. one possessing a true waist and chest. We have sufficient data on calories. He had begun to withdraw from people. the other a nondescript but thickening bulge? A beneficial side effect of the Alexander Technique is a better carriage of the body's weight. What many authorities therefore find most impressive about the Alexander Technique is embodied in Aldous Huxley's statement that "If you teach an individual to be aware of his physical organism and then to use it as it was meant to be used. But little or nothing is ever mentioned about another important factor. diets and the dangers of eating too much. The famous writer had spent all his days in a state of acute physical illness until he studied the Alexander Technique and transformed himself. prejudices and fixed habits.years." Huxley might have given his own story as a case in point. The ninety-two-year-old Dewey attributed this vital longevity to his Alexander practice. Your Rampant Emotions All of us are subject to "states" of various kinds. finding his physical and mental energies too drained by social contact. George Bernard Shaw learned the Technique at eighty and lived to ninety-four. you can often change his entire attitude to life and cure his neurotic tendencies. If You Are Overweight You can even streamline your physical appearance by means of the Alexander Technique. exercise and strenuous exertion. and he was beset by a terrible 4 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Something crucial is missing from our national quest for a more attractive physique. which determines success in attaining a beautifully proportionate body.
observed that while the physical effects of the Technique are indeed remarkable. worry. anger. may of course be explained as the happy side effects of any betterment in physical condition. you may find yourself making fidgety movements. the foremost scientific investigator among Alexander scholars. We also discover how much more we like other people when we have a more relaxed feeling about ourselves. THE WHAT AND THE WHY 5 . yoga and other remedies in vain. notice whether you clench your hands slightly or perhaps a great deal. you may also hunch your shoulders and fix your chest rigidly. There is likewise an improvement in our self-image when we feel more competent physically.depression and a chronic insomnia that made it almost impossible to work. Jones observed in his own experience "an almost immediate increase in mental and emotional control. and we are no longer simply at the mercy of confusion. Next time you're angry." This is because the Alexander Technique gives a workable approach in attacking emotional problems directly. Underneath are the unconscious tension states that can build into attitudes which interfere in our relationships with other people. We tend to be less depressed when we are not physically burdened. Living Without Stress We can see how this works easily enough. He had tried gardening. But quite apart from these desirable side effects. but it was the Alexander Technique that opened up a new way to live. reported in other therapies as well. panic. When angry. Can the Technique really help with our mental and emotional problems? Professor Frank Pierce Jones." Some of these. These are all surface reactions we can observe. "the psychological effects are of greater importance. for a change in mental attitude often accompanies an increase in health. he noted. Or if you're anxious about something.
Thus freed. you may even find that you no longer experience any disquiet—except perhaps to wonder where your rage or panic went. you are able to experience emotions fully in a few moments and begin thinking clearly again. you may find your feelings much more within your control. This new conscious control of yourself does not prevent you from feeling any emotional states—life would be rather stiff and boring if it did—but you will be able to allow for more appropriate and spontaneous responses to the events of your life if you are not locked into one fearful or angry response for all occasions. they are offered a release from the confines of habit so that they have some choice in their lives and become capable of acting more freely in whatever they do. Beneficial Effects in Many Diseases Many people would find it hard to believe the seemingly fantastic medical cures attributed to the Alexander Technique except that these extraordinary reports come from reputable physicians and scientists. In 1973. devoted half his acceptance speech to the Technique. or prevent the fidgeting. there is no magic formula that will instantly solve their problems. hoping for some kind of emotional relief. and moving hopefully from one fad to another. by means of the Alexander Technique. Professor Nikolaas Tinbergen. upon receiving the Nobel Prize for Medicine.When you release those clenched fists. Being Who You Are The Alexander Technique has particular value for people who don't want to fill themselves with drugs. or to shop from therapy to therapy. Instead. Once you break this cycle of reinforcing feeling with body tension. Millions of people exist in this half-alive state. countering their depressions and anxieties with a whole arsenal of tranquilizers. If they turn to the Technique. He related how his interest in it 6 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . because you are no longer reinforcing them with body tension.
his wife and one of their daughters had learned the Technique at the same time. resilience against outside pressure.was excited by a little experiment he had tried with his own family. no ulcers. migraines and depressive states that often lead to suicide. no strokes. no discs." Tinbergen went on to affirm the possibility that certain other stress-related ailments could benefit from the Technique: rheumatism. sexual failures. The British Medical Journal once published a letter. overall cheerfulness and mental alertness. They noted. no such evaluation has thus far been carried out. no rheumatoid arthritis. might be helped by the Alexander Technique. Tinbergen concluded that while the Technique is assuredly no cure-all to be applied in every case. signed by nineteen doctors. As their body musculature began to function differently." A physician. circulation defects that may lead to high blood pressure and heart conditions. they observed "with growing amazement" the marvelous results. breathing. depth of sleep. "there can be no doubt that it often does have profound and beneficial effects. respiratory ailments. All these as well as other non-bug diseases. conducted a survey of men and women who had long used the Alexander Technique. Barlow called this statistic "almost unbelievable" and concluded that 99 percent of the population need the Technique. THE WHAT AND THE WHY 7 . Wilfred Barlow. and called upon their profession to recognize and evaluate it. he suggested. no cancers. and also in such a refined skill as playing a stringed instrument. and I repeat once more. Unfortunately. including various forms of arthritis. that the Technique brought about "very striking improvements in such diverse things as high blood pressure. even asthma. both in the mental and somatic sphere. for example. and reported that in this group there were no coronaries. which is a point that must be emphasized. endorsing the Technique for its remarkable effectiveness in the treatment of many of their patients. no neurological disorders and no severe mental disorder.He. gastrointestinal disorders of many types. Dr.
A Simple Method People from all walks of life benefit from the Alexander Technique. "Since the Alexander Technique is nothing more than the application of experimental method to problems of everyday behavior. have informed their readers of what the Technique will do for bodies that display expensive clothes. A word of caution is therefore in order. . New York and elsewhere find it accepted as a valuable resource in physiotherapy. Those that have a professional interest in their bodies—musicians. Whether seated in a theater or standing waiting for a bus. like Vogue and Harper's Bazaar. dancers. It provides a compass for navigating in whatever physical or mental perplexities you may find yourself. In the words of Professor Frank Jones. actors—are making it an important part of their training program. If you have any ailment or illness—even one due to. It presents a simple method for learning the Technique by yourself. the Alexander principle has been encapsulated in one very simple action called the Basic Movement (Chapter 4). This book will introduce you to the Alexander process of thinking and moving. Patients in medical institutes in London. there is no reason to delay the undertaking if a teacher is not available. no thorough-going scientific investigation has been conducted into any of the medical claims that have been made for the Technique." In Part I. the continual wear you place upon yourself through bad muscular habits—only your own physician can advise you if the Alexander Technique is likely to help. Part II presents a systematic program of seven easy Actions that shows you how to expand the Basic Movement as the basis for improving the quality of all the activities of 8 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . you may readily apply it. Highfashion magazines. It offers a key for orienting yourself in all that you do.Although there has accumulated an impressive volume of personal testimony. or complicated by.
and the Technique that derives from it. shown by a man without medical training." THE WHAT AND THE WHY 9 . we need to learn more about Alexander himself and how he made his great discovery. of intelligence and of persistence. "is one of the true epics of medical research and practice. These Actions will facilitate this because they are invariably involved in almost everything you do. To understand the Alexander principle." said Professor Tinbergen in his Nobel speech.your everyday life. however. "This story of perceptiveness.
the new proposition put forth appears to have sprung full-blown from the brain of its originator.Chapter 2 How the Technique was Discovered Many a major innovation in the history of science appears to have been lying there. acting independently of one another. an unusual woman who was close to the child during his formative 10 . But there are other turning points. Whatever influence he may have had on his son was far overshadowed by the boy's mother. no less significant for the welfare of the human race. just waiting for the great person who discovered it. are said to have hit upon the powerful mathematical tool of calculus at about the same moment in history. At first glance. He was born in 1869 on the island of Tasmania in a small town named Wynyard. Newton and Leibniz. And upon closer inspection. This is certainly true of the way the Alexander Technique was discovered. The Australian Story Frederick Matthias Alexander came from a remote outpost of the Australian bush country. Not much is known about his father except that he was poor and hard-working. In this way. we can see that it does indeed owe almost everything to the peculiar genius of that individual and to the special circumstances of his or her particular life. that have been reached in total isolation from any ongoing tradition of study and research.
By the time he was nineteen. and sometimes in response to urgent calls. his schoolmaster. giving his recitals on numerous smalltown stages. saw that his difficult pupil was something more than the usual rebellious student. Local doctors often called on her. but family poverty demanded that the eldest son go out to work. trying to recoup his small fortune with odd jobs. he decided to cast his lot with the theater as actor. and it was this disability which proved to be the determining factor in his life. Sometimes during recitals his voice failed him completely—disturbing enough for any actor! Doctors could HOW THE TECHNIQUE WAS DISCOVERED 11 . Thus. refusing to accept anything on blind faith. Alexander was different from other children. From the beginning. a Scot who had emigrated to Australia in an effort to repair his health. He seemed to have an innate distrust of accepted routine and conventional wisdom. He would have liked to go on the stage. In Melbourne. and away from the mining company could consider himself legitimately to be a professional actor. finally. He persuaded Alexander's father to let him tutor the boy in the evenings. which was all the formal education the youngster received. Alexander was already considered an accomplished reciter of Shakespeare. recitalist or both. Crisis on Stage He could have become the teacher his tutor wanted him to be. In this wild and remote part of the world. After the mining came a succession of other uncongenial positions. tutored but not formally taught. so he took a job with the local tin mining company. Alexander won prizes and passed examinations with ease. Fortunately.years. she had been known to saddle her horse and leap it over the paddock gate so as not to lose time fooling with the latch. He worked under a handicap. for the theater had been his love since early childhood. riding and midwifery (which included nursing and other medical services) to help her neighbors. however. she combined two of her talents. when he began at six to practice the kind of recitations so popular in that day.
becoming fascinated with the whole question of what happens to the body not only in speech. he could see the same pattern at work as involuntary preparation in whatever else he undertook. Once aware of it. He discovered that every movement he made was accompanied by a slight tendency to pull his head backward and down. In everyday physical acts.give him no more than temporary relief. but also when speaking normally in ordinary conversation. Instead. quite apart from speaking. Soon he began to go beyond his immediate problem. This was something he did. One night. Alexander devoted himself to finding out what made him lose his voice. from the most trivial to the most strenuous. In time. he lost his voice and left the stage in near despair. with attention. in fact. There were to be no more doctors. he began with that slight pulling backward and down of his head. using mirrors while he declaimed as an aid to observation. This pattern of unconscious activity constituted the preliminary to every recitation he gave. This close scrutiny continued for nearly ten years. Changing the poise of his head by pulling it backward and down was. Meanwhile. which is fundamental to the spirit of all scientific inquiry. he came upon the characteristic that was blocking his own activity. It was only more noticeable in formal recitation because there it produced a depression of the larynx and an audible sucking in of his breath that could. not only during his stage appearances. part of a whole body pattern that also included lifting his chest and hollowing his back. but also during any physical activity. Alexander began to examine closely how he used himself physically when he was on stage—keeping his eyes open and observing. halfway through an important engagement during the 1888 season. The Patient Scientist That was the turning point. 12 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . the condition gradually worsened until he finally had to refuse engagements if he thought he might be incapable of getting through the performance. At first.
Switzerland. and during his lifetime he worked both in England and America. no matter what business or occupation. He also produced several books. and a valuable compilation of his essential writings may be found in The Resurrection of the Body (Delta Books). after he-had completely corrected the long-standing vocal disability that drove him from the stage. France. He observed similar consequences. on a different scale.be seen and heard. his teachings spread to Denmark. Israel. athletes and celebrities of all kinds sought him out. New Zealand. finally abandoning the stage to carve a unique career as a teacher of the Alexander Technique. theater people. Statesmen. Alexander resumed his theatrical career. in everything else he did. He continued this mission until his death at the age of eighty-six. For as he pondered the far-reaching consequences of his startling discovery for the physical. Italy. the obvious solution was to substitute for this negative action (with all the consequences it initiated) the conscious constructive movement of the head and body upward. writers. The Search and the Answer We can come closer to understanding the nature of the discovery that underlies all we are going to learn in this book if we now outline it in the terms suggested at the outset of this chapter: a special kind of person makes an important HOW THE TECHNIQUE WAS DISCOVERED 13 . But not for long. industrialists. Thus. Through his students. South Africa and other countries of the world. diplomats. all his other activities were likewise initiated in the same self-stultifying manner. he withdrew more and more from acting. mental and emotional well-being of people everywhere. A Unique Mission Since these patterns of bad use were triggered by an unconscious reflex of pulling the head backward and down. Australia. movie stars.
only to have his voice fail completely halfway through an especially important engagement. No use in seeing more and more doctors. Being a far from submissive personality. At the age of nineteen. Alexander resumes his profession with renewed confidence. While carefully limiting his theatrical obligations. he devotes the rest of his time to a painstaking and meticulous observation of the only clue he has—himself. and his only stumbling block is the occasional but very annoying tendency of his voice to give out during recitals. a career on the stage. where we find the young Alexander confronted with a problem of survival. it takes almost ten years of searching through more minute movements before the secret reveals itself. Alexander has found the key.finding through the circumstances of his or her particular life and in isolation from any tradition of scientific thought on the subject. This leaves him with the ugly choice between (1) leaving the theater altogether or (2) applying himself tirelessly to discovering the cause of the problem. Eventually. His great love for the theater had caused him to gravitate through a series of unchallenging occupations before attaining. results are frustratingly slow in coming. That secret is a small but perceptible contraction of the muscles at the back of his neck. for he realizes that the physicians of his day know even less about his condition than he does. and it precedes all efforts at vocal articulation. Through years of carefully watching his every motion in an elaborate system of mirrors. It turns out that the doctor cannot find the cause. The scene is Australia during the 1880s. In fact. he is forced to see a doctor about the problem. Alexander chooses the latter. at last. His career seems assured—his reputation is growing steadily. a remedy 14 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Thus armed. but he does prescribe a medicine that might just do the trick. he is an actor specializing in the recital of long passages from the works of classic playwrights.
this destructive series can compress the body's trunk. It can lead to round-the-clock tension in some muscles. high blood pressure and chronic joint and muscle pains. we need to prevent the neck from contracting unnecessarily. which can cause loss of voice. we need a new approach—one that can bring subconscious sensations forward into the conscious mind. In order to revise things of which we are not aware. body following it. And this is only one destructive habit. To eliminate the problem at its source. repeated hundreds of times a day over a span of many years. We are not split into body and mind. the customs of language entrap us much HOW THE TECHNIQUE WAS DISCOVERED 15 . Outwitting Our Destructive Habits Basically. interferes with the smooth operation of the muscular and nervous systems and all the vital organs. the action that most often precedes wasteful or harmful responses is a contraction which pulls the head slightly backward and down. the first of a whole series that will follow if the first occurs unchallenged. The person is one psychophysical organism. With every act. They form an inseparable whole. Unfortunately. Those Puritanical Hang-Ups A major conclusion that emerged from Alexander's study and observation. and from his later teaching experience. He must release that contraction with movement of his head upward. thus squeezing the delicate organs that reside there. And doing this means using the conscious mind to change our subconscious muscle patterns. Taken together. we can consciously move our head upward. which.will follow. was this: mind and body are inextricably bound together. reducing lung capacity and projecting the stomach unpleasingly forward. The effect of this is a compression of the spine.
of the time into thinking so. Often. . can manifest itself in any of a thousand different ways that upset or swamp us." we glibly say. or higher part. With disastrous consequences for our daily life. quoting the ancient Greeks. Disdain for the mere "physical. 16 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . "A sound mind in a sound body. at the same time visualizing a something mental that is embedded in a something fleshly. the clutter of papers on the desk remains untidy. in fact downright lowly." We have something to blame. . personal grooming is neglected or forgotten . The leaves go unraked. we also run the risk of never being rid of our troubles. Whenever we divide ourselves in two like this. into a mental part and a physical part. we tend to look down upon the fleshly part as being inferior. we could be finding out what we are doing that keeps us from solving our problems." Or "my thoughts keep wandering. we may even persist in believing that the physical business of daily existence is unimportant or at least unworthy of our serious attention. Instead. the garbage is not carried out. the kitchen mess accumulates. It's "that damn leg of mine. After all. compared to the mind. the fault lies with one of those two separate halves." thus mistakenly conceived. if we happen to suffer from puritanical hang-ups.
It does not matter what the activity is: lying in bed. always involves us in patterns of movement and rest. ease and endurance in everything you do—even sleeping. the effects can afford relief in a very wide range of ailments that are caused. opening and shutting doors. It simply offers a different biological approach from the one you have been using. getting in and out of automobiles. our particular patterns of move17 . "but of the total neuromuscular activity of the moment. by stress and excess muscle tension. once praised Alexander for his discovery. in insisting upon "treating each act as involving the whole integrated individual. casual or major. the whole psychophysical man. "To take a step is an affair not of this or that limb solely. Sir Charles S. writing with a pen or pencil. unscrewing the caps of jars or uncorking bottles. a new way to integrate thought with action. sitting down." The Australian was therefore correct. closing windows. standing up." he wrote. for everything we do. However we go through any or all these activities. walking.Chapter 3 Bringing the Alexander Technique into Your Life Taking Alexander's discovery into your own life can mean strength. Adopting the Technique does not require you to embrace a new religion or far-out philosophy. Sherrington. directly or indirectly. he said. Besides. the great Nobel Prize physiologist." We can readily see why. reaching to a shelf.
as from a twisted ankle. the pressure of the body being supported by them is not evenly shared. Circulation is slowed down. and usually inefficiently. The object is not to learn all the proper combinations of 18 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . If you try simply to push yourself erect. however. Good or bad. these conditions of excessive muscular tension are likely to exist. everything we do in life manifests itself in the way we "use" ourselves. Good use means moving the body with maximum balance and coordination of all parts so that only the effort absolutely needed is expended. Some parts of the spinal cord will then experience more pressure than others. It sometimes happens that when you experience pain anywhere. What Is Good Use? The key concept of "use" is perhaps the easiest way to explain the Alexander Technique. you unconsciously tighten the painful area and often other parts of the body as well. You do so presumably to protect the injured area by immobilizing it. the only possible result is that while you may be lengthening some muscles. you're putting unnecessary pressure on the organs so that they can't function as well.ment and rest constitute the particular use (Alexander's word) that we make of ourselves. and that causes malfunctioning of the parts of the body serviced by them. arthritic joints or an upset stomach. Bad use means employing the body in a haphazard way: one part of the body compensates at random. If you are slumped down. It's the same thing with your spine. you simply abuse yourself in another manner. Sometimes nerves are pinched. but in fact this new excess tension in the joints and muscles will slow down circulation and actually prevent your body from healing itself. Indeed. it provides enough room for your organs so that your breath can massage them. whenever you move without awareness. When your body is erect. for the movement of another in order to maintain balance and stability. So in this attempt to gain desirable results forcibly. for unless the vertebrae are stacked evenly. you will be shortening others drastically.
they drop the elevated chest and the forward curvature of the spine. you are again caught up in movement. The effort to hang on to some deliberate position. or when you stand poised at the head of the stairs. In the ordinary work of walking and living. the word might apply on the rare occasions when you take a stance before coming into a room. you learn instead one Basic Movement that can control the normal flow of all your activity. with its accompanying hollow in the back. It is in fact quite absurd to think of attaining some ideal posture and then clinging to it through all your subsequent activity. Through the Alexander Technique. there are BRINGING THE TECHNIQUE INTO YOUR LIFE 19 . Such a course is both impossible and unnecessary. though.muscular action needed for all that you do and then try to think of them constantly as you move. no matter what kind. You Are Not a Statue Making good use of yourself by means of the Technique must never be equated with the static thing known as "posture. since its absence was based on nothing more than that transient "holding-in" known as posture. You are not a statue to be propped about in various juxtapositions to meet the changing requirements of whatever you are engaged in. Forget the paragons of close-order drill in the Marine Corps or the symmetrical ranks of the chorus line at the Folies Bergère. you must at the outset dismiss from your mind all shining examples of good posture. Once you have entered the room. The aim of the Technique is to allow a condition of ease throughout the body without creating any new distortions in the process. however. Unfortunately." a word that ought to be jettisoned because it in no way corresponds to the conditions of real life. is continuous and involves both physical and mental fatigue. So in learning the Alexander Technique. leathernecks and chorines alike let go of these strenously maintained body attitudes. And your customary use of yourself will reappear immediately. Conceivably. or the very moment you start descending the stairs. For when they depart the parade grounds or the music hall.
it may be well to state flatly what the Alexander Technique is not. How to Look at the Pictures When you consult the photos that accompany the directions in this book. it would be different for every person on this planet because each human body is different. more room is provided in the chest cavity. the mere act of getting out of a chair takes the body through more than a hundred positions. More air can then pass in and out of the lungs. each illustration should be provided by stroboscopic photography or some other form of action picture. When you are not slumped. Ideally. more waste materials are cleansed 20 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . First of all. the blurry effects of such an attempt at authenticity would nullify the purposes of useful and simple instruction. Second. and. and even if there were. However. as a result. This forces you to breathe with your upper chest rather than with your lower ribs and diaphragm. the positions involved in darning a sock would require a whole lifetime of memorization. If you slump even slightly. standing and so on) and then go through life using these and only these poses.people who do indeed seem to be trying to preserve just such a rigid and invariant attitude through all that they do. Think of them as having been extracted from some ongoing movement. No Poses To forestall any possibility of error. to prevent the least trace of confusion. They are intended only as a guide or pointer to the action described. your lung capacity is thereby diminished. You will not be asked to memorize the "right" pose for every possible body position (sitting. do not look upon them as static poses or positions to be imitated. there is no "right" pose for any position. The Breath of Life A vital function of our body that is impaired by bad use is breathing. No Positions.
from your body. With the increase in the freedom of your breathing machinery, the quality of your voice can improve.
Let It Happen
Good breathing is integral to the Alexander Technique. This does not mean that you will need to practice it in the form of separate and isolated breathing exercises. As you begin to correct your faulty use, excess muscular tension will disappear. With the release of that tension, the action of your ribs and diaphragm in breathing will automatically take care of itself. As you progress, you may find yourself yawning or emitting deep sighs. Let them happen, for they come involuntarily and are an excellent sign that you are getting rid of excess tension. You will find that breathing supports movement at the same time that movement supports breathing. This natural and inevitable orchestration of the two is very different from superimposing some artificially learned breathing pattern upon your movements. Make sure you don't hold your breath. Don't try to do anything. Let it happen.
Your Breathing Improves
Notice, when talking, whether you are breathing in through your nose or your mouth. Give yourself time to breathe. It is helpful on occasion to close your lips and allow the air to come in through your nose when you need breath. This helps to release any tightness in the throat. Many of us develop the habit of gulping or sucking in air. This tenses the throat and is accompanied by a downward pull of the head. But when you don't collapse your chest and pull down, a slight vacuum is created in the lungs, which pulls in the air for you. When you breathe normally in this way, every time stale air leaves your lungs, new air will automatically come back in. Through the Alexander Technique, you can learn to leave your breathing mechanism— your body—alone to function freely and without effort. BRINGING THE TECHNIQUE INTO YOUR LIFE 21
How We Got This Way
To be sure, in this misguided quest, the breathingexercisers and the posture-builders may really be seeking some of the benefits that are achieved by the Alexander Technique. The grace and naturalness that the Technique imparts to you will be highly noticeable. Whenever you use it, your entire body will be more erect—your chest is not collapsed, your torso does not settle in on itself. As you continue to practice, an improvement in muscle tone occurs. If such are the blessings reaped through making good use of oneself, why are they so deplorably lacking in most of us? What has gone wrong? Why so much grief physically and mentally? It is the burden of civilization's advance, Alexander believed, that has brought upon us our present deteriorated condition. Today, instead of adapting our bodies to a slowly changing terrain, we capriciously adapt a fast-changing environment to arbitrary standards of comfort (even taste). Through current upheaval, the one thing that has remained essentially the same is the structure of the human body. Prior to the development of technology, changes in the world around us took place over a span of millions of years, slow enough for us to keep pace through subtle, unconscious alterations in the body itself. But our restless civilization has brought about a revolution in our surroundings so rapid that this process of gradual development has been quite outdistanced. As a result, the world we know now is completely foreign to the one to which human beings long ago adjusted. Our life-style has become a hybrid interaction of a body, originally adapted to primitive survival, with an environment of elevators, mattresses, automobiles and comfy chairs. Our physical and social universe is radically different, and our physical equipment has been impaired in its responses to the new demands thrust upon it by contemporary living. We have to make intelligent use of ourselves,
22 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE
said Alexander, if we want to meet the new conditions effectively.
Three Easy Tests
To illustrate the degenerative influence that civilized living has exerted upon the human organism, Alexander proposed three simple tests: (You are requested to interrupt your reading for a moment and carry out the following three experiments.) 1. Move your head without your shoulders. 2. Open your mouth without tilting your head back. 3. Turn out your toes without first shifting your heels. While doing each test, be alert and sensitive in registering how you move so you may catch the unnecessary movement involved.
See for Yourself
In quite the same spirit of experiment, you may now begin to notice, in the course of your daily activity, how you go about handling objects. Next time you brush your teeth, for example, stay alert and observe just how heavy the toothbrush is, how much energy is required to lift it and keep it in your hand. How much pressure is needed to brush? In the toothpaste commercials on television, it sometimes appears as though the people are trying to brush the teeth right out of their mouths. (See Fig. 8, p. 66.) You can make similar observations when you sit down to write a letter. With a little try-and-see, you can tell how much strength is actually required to hold onto the pen and get the ink to flow onto the paper. Once you consider how you actually go through any activity, you can begin to affect a change in your performance of it.
BRINGING THE TECHNIQUE INTO YOUR LIFE 23
like a cat or a dog. 24 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . prevents. 'Alexander uncovered the whole pattern of bad use. the German writer Heinrich von Kleist makes this point by describing how a chained bear. In curing himself of his loss of voice by noting the slight pulling backward and down of his head. defeats and frustrates whatever we may intend on every level of our existence—physical. which we will learn in this book." There is. It is this same harmful pattern of involuntary preparation which is involved in everything we do. successfully defends itself by exerting very slight movements to deflect the thrusts and feints of a champion swordsman. The human antagonist is baffled by the perfect efficiency of the beast's innate responses. may be enunciated as follows: AS YOU BEGIN ANY MOVEMENT OR ACT. a sane solution to our problem. more than anything else. They have no price to pay. but they are likewise spared its debilitating side effects.The Road to Take Animals in the wild miss out on the satisfactions. no underdoing. In a famous allegory. No overdoing. the expenditure of energy in animal movement is exquisitely attuned to the requirements of what needs to be done. But the answer to the perilous misfunction that has befallen mankind through the anxiety and stress of modern living cannot be to call a halt to civilization. AND LET YOUR WHOLE BODY LENGTHEN BY FOLLOWING THAT UPWARD DIRECTION. emotional and mental. definite movements. and you will see a creature completely relaxed yet still capable of making sudden. relying on animal instinct. and which is the essence of the Alexander Technique. The road to the recuperation of our diminished faculties. And it is this. MOVE YOUR WHOLE HEAD UPWARD AND AWAY FROM YOUR WHOLE BODY. at rest. which blocks. What is more. cultural advantages and triumphs of civilization. Observe even a domestic animal. We are not about to rejoin the lower animals or "go primitive. however. which accompanied formal recitation.
put you on the road to a new life of health. that the strenuous and repetitive exertions popularly known as "phys. joint-wrenching gyrations of any kind. 25 . the word always refers to some movement or action of the utmost simplicity. This distinction is especially important because. The word "movement" as used here has nothing to do with the 1-2-3-4! 1-2-3-4! calisthenics you did in gym class. It is true. Nothing tiresome will be required of you. personal happiness. You are not called upon to run miles or to lift heavy weights. Not an Exercise But first a word about a word. if you extend it through the whole range of your normal activity. ed. however." can be performed more effectively and with much greater benefit once you learn the Basic Movement and apply its principle to them. in the deepest sense.Chapter 4 The Basic Movement You are now ready to learn the Basic Movement that incorporates the Alexander principle in a form you can practice whenever you wish. The mere performance of this simple movement can. In the Basic Movement. and everywhere else in this book where a movement or action is given. the calisthenic approach stands in direct opposition to the Alexander Technique. It is in no way related to muscle-snapping. as we shall see in the following chapter. physical freedom and. There are no exercises in this book.
No trance: eyes open. are presently learning the Alexander Technique because it makes a real difference in crew performance. a guideline to follow: a new way of thinking and moving.The same applies to those more skilled and motivated forms of calisthenics which we call sports. 26 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . This moment of selfobservation is presented under the heading "Exploring Yourself. Turn your head to look around you. for example. Whether you play golf or tennis. The sooner you apply to any normal activity—such as tying your shoe or lifting a bag of groceries—the Basic Movement of letting your head move up and letting your body follow. How to Start The Basic Movement is preceded by a brief inspection of your total condition while you carry out the action in your customary or habitual manner. or whatever your game may be. it can undergo amazing improvement after you have bettered the use of your body in pursuing it. Next follow the instructions for the Basic Movement itself. rather." and the same format is used as a preliminary to every other movement or action in this book. The Basic Movement Exploring Yourself You may carry out this movement either while seated or standing. the sooner you will experience a new lightness and ease and a sense of real assurance in whatever you may be doing. Some Olympic rowers. swim or bowl. We shall do it sitting. It provides. It is not to be repeated mindlessly in hopes of programming yourself into some automatic routine that has nothing directly to do with daily living.
Notice if this upward direction of your head affects the smoothness and ease of the side-to-side motion. then tip it down to look at the floor. Next. Continue to allow your whole head to move up and away from your body while you perform the turning movement. Turn it from side to side. 5.) Remember to keep your eyes open and looking. 7. add the Basic Movement: move your head up and away from your torso and let your body follow.See the room. so that your neck lengthens above your shoulders instead of craning forward or jamming back. (Figs. (Figs. then forward to look down at the floor. 1.3. but that it is allowed to delicately lengthen during your head movement.) The upward direction will keep you from cramping your neck throughout these movements. tip it back to look up at the ceiling.2. continuing to let your head ease up.) Now that you've gone through the Basic Movement once. crackling sounds in your spine? Is your breathing slowed or stopped? The Basic Movement While turning your head slowly from one side to the other in order to survey the room. Your Whole Head You must learn to think of your head as three- THE BASIC MOVEMENT 27 . 6. Tip your head to look up at the ceiling. What do you notice about the turning of your head? Do you feel any tense or tight muscles in your neck? Does your body twist about when you turn your head? Do you hear any popping. 4. Notice if it brings up and aligns your body. (Figs. 8. the following clarification of the main words used should give you even more success the next time you do it. Allow your whole body to follow the upward direction of your head. This does not mean that your body twists and turns with your head.
28 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .1. Beginning from a usual slump. 2. Easing upward and away as you turn your head. 3. From side to side.
Easing upward.4. And tip it forward. 5. As you tip your head back. THE BASIC MOVEMENT 29 . 6.
you will understand that you do not need to hold your head up. (Fig. 7. you will be less likely to jut it forward. It is important that you realize how substantial a support your neck provides for your head. With this in mind. the diameter of your vertebrae is larger than that of a silver dollar—not the size of a nickel or a quarter. thus pulling your head back and down. this means your whole head. top and front (your face). 10. sides. not just along the back of it as many imagine. (Fig. the neck is sturdy and the head rests easily on that large base as it moves. 8. The fact is that the spine in your neck is very near the center of your neck. including the back. Also. When you are directed to move your head. Cramping your neck unnecessarily.dimensional. 9. 30 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .) When you remember that your chin is part of your head.) Often people have a tendency to lead movements with their chin.
Jutting the chin forward needlessly. THE BASIC MOVEMENT 31 .9. The whole head. 10.
Perhaps you'll be aware that you were pushing 32 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . If you remember this connection. You will probably experience some sort of change or notice some difference. On Your Way Repeat the Basic Movement and see what happens. "upward" is where the top of your spine points.Your Whole Body "Body" refers to your whole torso. Your entire torso must be considered and no part forgotten. Simple as this may seem.) Remember to think of your whole body as three-dimensional. It means the moving of your head up and away from your body. The Upward Direction "Upward" does not necessarily mean ceilingward. As a result.) Above all. in following the instructions. 13. of course. their body will curve forward or backward.) However. your body must follow. Upward directs a positive action in order to prevent the usual negative action of pulling the head back and down and slumping. Because your torso is connected to your head. when you allow your head to move upward. causing unnecessary effort. 12. that direction is. including sides. 11. the bottom line of your buttocks. includes your shoulders and ends at your hip joints. (Fig. It begins at the base of your neck. you will find that your body will automatically want to follow that upward movement. People tend to think of only one dimension when allowing their body to move upward: either their front or their back. remember that upward always applies to movement—wherever the top of the spine happens to be pointing—and is not a fixed position. you must not forget it. as you lean your body to the side. When you are sitting or standing. and the moving of your torso up from the hips. up toward the ceiling. (Fig. (Fig. back and front. We're aiming for as much flexibility and ease as possible.
THE BASIC MOVEMENT 33 .11. The whole body.
Or maybe you'll feel that it is easier to move your head in the way described. 73. there will be no time lag between the movement of the cars and engine. Upward. 34 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . If it is linked up properly. You might compare it to the image of a train. although the engine always begins the movement of the train with its forward impetus is transmitted almost simultaneously to each car." 12. The engine represents the head. In any case. you will have begun the process of keeping your eyes open and observing how you move. and the cars the remainder of the body.yourself and using more effort to sit (or stand) than you are now. The Instant Train The movement of the body following the head is fundamental to the Alexander Technique. Or as Alexander once paradoxically described the movement: "All together one after another.
Here. though.How to Succeed Without Really Trying Most people learning something new are eager to discover the "right" way to do it. there are no "right" positions. a very subtle and continuous movement of the head upward "only an infinitesimal amount" (as Alexander wrote from England to a man in America who was learning the Technique on his own). far-reaching consequences. The lengthening of your neck when you move your head upward is tiny. on the order of mil- THE BASIC MOVEMENT 35 . For as we have seen in the preceding chapter. The Basic Movement is a first-class example of the way a very simple adjustment in the use we make of ourselves can have tremendous. It is a single adjustment. The Basic Movement is accomplished without any big. you are not required to take up any new position in order to correct your misuse. obvious. What matters is that you improve the process of how you move. external show.
36 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . It is perhaps part of our American credo to believe that only prodigious feats can produce worthwhile results. though. However. is one case where the big results come from a tiny change. Here. Your ruler may not detect the difference. they try to become human giraffes. But no neck-stretching whatever is required! Just a very slight movement of the head upward from the body will do the trick. They strain their necks mightily. but you will feel it in every bone of your body.limeters. some people are reluctant to believe that anything remarkable can result from the Alexander Technique unless they do something that demonstrates huge effort.
In fact. If we comport ourselves in a manner that is harmful. they would continue to do so throughout their physical exertions. the repeated and accentuated performance of the prescribed movements—thus badly executed—increased the damage they were already doing themselves. any exercises we do to get in shape will likewise be carried out in a manner that is harmful. "and he walked a crooked mile. Some of these bestow considerable good upon us. are clearly of a very different order from the strenuous push-pull. and the seven supplementary Actions that will follow in Part II.Become a Whole Person The Basic Movement you have just learned." the well-known nursery rhyme tells us. The Trouble with Physical Exercises After visiting the gym of a leading exercise teacher in Australia one day. "There was a crooked man. This is because they have been designed with a very different objective from that of ordinary calisthenics." Just so. Much the same is true of the numerous varieties of physical manipulation and massage that are applied to our bodies. Alexander became convinced that such training would never meet the needs of people who came there in quest of physical development. updown. left-right activity most of us associate with physical education. If they used themselves badly in ordinary life. They are not likely to change our condition for the better. 37 .
Moreover. but his trouble will surely recur if the error in his swing is not corrected. as these bad habits have developed little by little. Thus. In this half-conscious state in which we operate. Perhaps a golfer can find. we pay scant heed to the constant flow of information that is being communicated by our bodies. How often have you driven from point A to point B without noticing what lies between or even how you got to point B. We continue wearing ourselves out and tearing ourselves apart from day to day because we remain in deep ignorance of our bad tension habits until we reach a crisis of pain or run into some drastic physical or emotional trouble. so too has our sensory awareness gradually adjusted to them. driving a car. 38 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .but their intention is not to teach a better use of ourselves. Only the very gross or screaming message—a headache. a muscle cramp. if you are accustomed to a standard shift. think back to the last time you borrowed an automatic car and reached down for gears that weren't there. they would now feel "wrong. through alleviating treatment of this kind. The Trance in Which We Live Unlike conventional exercise and manipulation." ludicrously askew). We unfold the whole repertoire of our daily activity with little attention to how we are doing what we are doing. We cannot perceive the faulty way we are using ourselves because it has come to "feel right. Another person may be oblivious of a tendency to lift her chin and jut it forward (until she sees herself on television)." We simply don't get true messages from our bodies anymore. sore ligaments or illness—gets through. some welcome temporary relief from the pains and aches caused by a faulty swing. Or again. Consider. for example. the Alexander Technique coordinates conscious thought with action in order that you may deal with yourself. Most of the time we operate our bodies on a subconscious level. a person may carry one shoulder higher than the other and never notice (were his shoulders to be set level for him.
in short. do we get rid of the bad habits that plague us? The Alexander Technique. He offers himself as an example: "I am of Hungarian origin. all the Actions in this book for learning it. according to Koestler. meets the problem by calling BECOME A WHOLE PERSON 39 . The same applies also to our gestures and movements. caused by a confusion between the event as intended and the event as it really happens? How. People who listen for the first time to the sound of their voice played back on a tape recorder usually get a shock. because in the perception of one's own voice." So too may our singing be stridently out of tune and yet sound just fine to us until a musical accompaniment pulls us back on the track. The main component of what we perceive is the sound we think we are projecting. There may be a world of difference between what we think we hear and our performance as heard by others. All this occurs." The Crown of the Senses So how do we defeat this tendency toward what might be called a kind of wish-fulfillment in our senses. says Koestler. yet perceive my own voice as if it were free from it. "The clumsy gesture is screened off from awareness by the direct impact of the image of the intended graceful movement on perception. however defective and self-defeating they may be. I was virtually unaware of this till I first listened to my voice on a recorded broadcast. remarks Koestler.Our Mistaken Ideas About Ourselves There is still another factor at work in this universal unfamiliarity with ourselves and our functioning. but this discrepancy is masked from us by the process of hearing what we intend and not what we are in fact uttering. and. and although my foreign accent retains the specific density of pea-soup. I have a good ear for other people's accents. the actual acoustic production plays a subordinate part. Perhaps no one has given a sharper and more disquieting picture of it than the writer Arthur Koestler. therefore.
"Kinesthetic" is a cross between the words "kinetic" (motion) and "esthetic" (feeling) and means "feeling motion. It is not one of the original five long ago listed by Aristotle. in their concern with it.upon a faculty we all possess but often overlook because it is not one of the so-called "five senses" we usually talk about. Most everyone knows something at least about this faculty. a real chance is offered for the enrichment of our entire organism. In order to ensure that we are using our bodies properly. or the "kinesthetic sense" as it is called." It is not really that inscrutable." Since it is essential in the practice of the Alexander Technique. We use it to assess the range and force of our movements and also in adapting ourselves to the weight of anything we lift. It is from this sense that we are continually receiving knowledge of the gestures we make and of the pressures or tensions anywhere in our body. we do not have to know the names of our muscles or how to locate them on a chart. It is the kinesthetic sense that supplies the information we need. It is by means of this sense that we remain aware of the position of every part of our body even when our eyes are closed. but in the tendons and joint membranes as well. 40 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . it is deplorably lacking in a very great number of us. Clearly evident in people like circus aerialists. we are paying tribute to it. of trying to "unscrew the inscrutable. but in calling upon this faculty. Whenever we admire the seemingly effortless coordination in the movements of a great athlete." the distinguishing mark of superb physical condition. It is sometimes called the "muscle sense. the development of this sense underlies the entire program set forth in this book. one speaker even accused the others. This enricher of the whole person is considered by some connoisseurs and gourmets of good physical condition to be nothing less than "the crown of the senses. At a UNESCO conference on brain mechanisms and awareness. jugglers or sculptors." though actually its sense organs may be found not only in the muscles. or the agile ease and poise of a friend in the way he handles himself in all the ordinary activities of life.
Virtually every branch of that movement makes some use of body awareness. The wise and respected New England medical educator Dr. Dearborn always emphasized the important place that the kinesthetic sense holds in the life of every human being. in this way. Dearborn pointed out. clear idea of ourselves in action. It was.We can feel what we are doing and. however. get a good. N. Discover a World Within The "crown of the senses. The other way is to use the BECOME A WHOLE PERSON 41 ." The effective practice of the Alexander Technique makes it possible to receive increasingly subtle messages from within." One trouble. Whole Person There are always two ways a person can learn to carry out any action. has come very much to the foreground in the U. Through the sensitive practice of the Basic Movement and the seven Actions which build upon it. Part Person vs. sometimes so completely that many intelligent people go through their days "wholly ignorant even of the essential existence of these warpthreads in the fabric of our conscious life. by no means entirely forgotten in earlier American efforts to promote physical and emotional fitness. This in turn produces a harmonious interplay of all our faculties and thereby brings about the first visible fruit of our growing kinesthetic development: good muscular coordination. is that the much stronger sense experiences of light and color may drown out this subtler experience. He called it "the warp of the sensation-fabric—the personality's dynamic index of its body. during the past decade due to the popular rise of the human potential movement. as Dr.S. George V. we can increase the reliability of our kinesthetic sense and establish a new standard of good use." heralded by Alexander. One way is to focus on the single part of the body that actually does the work.
be open to any and every message of feeling that comes to you from the various parts of your body. enables you to allow this total pattern. From moment to moment. but must see whatever they look at. you swing your arm in a manner that allows your whole body to be balanced and your energy to be directed effectively. in time. With the first method. It is the kinesthetic sense which. Do not hold your breath from a sense of strain. For example. all parts included and coordinated to perform the action. during the whole time you devote to an Action. how it feels and how it affects a person to live by means of the unique. So he swings his arm as best he can. Because there are so many possible combinations of tension. This does not mean exerting effort throughout your entire organism in order to swing your arm. Staying in the Moment In carrying out the Actions that follow.natural integrating mechanism of the whole body. Rather. This means using the Basic Movement. You will learn directly the benefits of this regular experience of complete personal harmony. the Basic Movement. You will then discover for yourself what it means in actual practice. any number of things can happen that will cause more effort than necessary. and when he hoists his shoulder. 42 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . his body may then compensate inefficiently to keep its balance. The second way of performing an action is to involve your whole person in it. He has no real awareness of the rest of himself. keep alert. to control whatever you do. he may unwittingly raise his shoulder. a person wanting to throw a ball will find that he must swing his arm. Your eyes must not become glazed. physically-mentally unified Technique you gain from these Actions.
widely accepted at present. it plays a major role in whatever we do. Like air. We have all encountered at one time or another those rare men and women whose upright bearing. unequal to the combat. Indeed. is now surprisingly common at a much earlier time of life. That gravity does indeed provide a persistent and unvarying element in man's ecology there can be no doubt. An eyesore and a handicap. elastic lineaments. it is self-evident that all our movements and activities are subject to gravity's pull.Chapter 6 The Technique as a Way to Stay Young The youthful manner and attractive bearing attained through the Alexander Technique should dispel once and for all the conviction that men and women must inevitably bow down. down until finally. stoop and wither before the onslaught of advancing years. it has become a prevalent sign of our era. down. pulls us down. Since our body consists of mass. lithe movement and springy step belie their actual age. That much is certainly true. we are done in by it. However. We continue instead under the spell of the rather sinister and frightening idea. that the force of gravity. working against us through all the years of our life." no longer related to income group or social status and every bit as typical of men as of women. we tend to disregard or forget this reassuring evidence of our senses. sunshine and other more familiar elements. what used to be known as "dowager's hump. But what about the rest of the theory? THE TECHNIQUE AS A WAY TO STAY YOUNG 43 .
pitting human strength against gravity's relentless power with no chance of winning. Thompson. During sleep. . down. it works its malign influence upon us. . down . and the problem is one that has been with us ever since the forepaws of our prehistoric ancestors left the ground. in every beat of our hearts. In this view. The skylab astronauts gave us yet another glimpse of this force's baneful effects when they emerged—after months of living outside it—in a remarkably unkinked condition. the quadruped is more fortunately constructed for resistance to gravity than we are. unceasing pull upon us of this antagonistic force has been assigned responsibility for a very great number of the woes of aging. it is the indomitable force which defeats us in the end. As bipeds. Gravity has slowly squashed them to the ground. which lays us on our death bed and lowers us to the grave. and thus being permitted to straighten out. all this is the price we pay for standing erect. we seem peculiarly ill-equipped for maintaining an upright position. which was partly the result of not being pulled down. we regain that lost stature. But the cumulative results of a lifetime of unequal struggle can be seen in some bent-over and hobbling older people who have lost many inches." The Upright Creature Supposedly. The unflinching. people actually lose about half an inch in height. as on earth. without let-up or cease. According to the biologist D'Arcy W. we find ourselves inextricably locked in a lifelong struggle. For 44 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . drooping mouth and hanging breasts.Why We Shrink According to a popular view. it is felt "in every movement of our limbs. Studies have shown that between getting out of bed in the morning and getting back in at night. They had even gained in height (and lost at the waist)." and "it leaves its mark in sagging wrinkles. Throughout the day. Down. when we lie in a position parallel to the ground and thus alter the effects of the ubiquitous pull.
the weight of our inner organs is carried high above our center of gravity. deformation and distortion depending upon the disparity between the pull and each person's total power of response to it.one thing. but far from ideal for steadying our weight. Our structural frame is an intricate system of articulated levers—bones and joints— that are held and moved by our muscles and tendons. Just standing up is a kind of acrobatic triumph involving an exact balance of varying degrees of contraction and relaxation in more than two hundred pairs of muscles. However. like an inverted pyramid. perhaps an ingenious device for cushioning shock. These muscles are reflexively maintained in a state of tonus— partially contracted and ready for work—except when the body is lying completely horizontal. repercussions of the conflict are felt in all the other major systems of the body. Richard Selzer totaled up the outward woes he thinks indicate that our erect stance THE TECHNIQUE AS A WAY TO STAY YOUNG 45 . the greatest strain is sustained by the musculo-skeletal structure that keeps us erect. Must We Fall Apart? While gravity depresses all the elements of the body. how—in this view—can we hope to contend with gravity's pull? We are compelled to oppose its force by sheer muscular power. Physiologically. Mortal Lessons. Our spine is flexible. Dr. The immediate battleground for humans versus gravity may be discerned throughout the musculo-skeletal system whose mainstays are the pelvis. two-legged human race. Standing or sitting. In a fierce book. we appear to be top-heavy. And strain means injury. with our heavy head and shoulders weighing down the skeletal structure. This situation is said to account for many of the chronic progressive and degenerative conditions which afflict the falteringly upright. in respiration and circulation as well as in the nervous system. the spine and the network of muscles and ligaments. curved in several places. Failure or defeat in any of these components adversely affects the overall struggle.
buckle and wear out. Observe a baby come to sitting position by itself. mood. This reflex of good use can be observed in infants. the whole body is in a system of balance. From an evolutionary viewpoint. as Professor Tinbergen has pointed out. They move in a superb manner quite naturally. attitude and behavior may also figure in the generalized failure of our adaptation to the ordinary strain of being on the earth's surface. which enables us to deal handily with the earth's pull. In the first two or three years of life as they gain mobility. it pivots smoothly without tension. piled one atop the other. which is so popular today.cannot successfully resist the pressure imposed upon us by gravity. Or watch a baby turn its head. 46 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . our vertebrae. the adventure of assuming an upright posture would probably never have been sustained if man had not become capable of it. feeling. and before they are physically corrupted. Our flesh pushes itself through into hernias. Mental confusion. He found that body chemistry as well as the regulatory and coordination mechanisms of the body are all affected. Man is a perfect match for gravity. According to Dr. no strain in the back or anywhere else. is both one-sided and incomplete. We inherit an easy good use of our bodies. It does not fully or accurately represent man's complex relationship to the downward pull he experiences from the earth. The arches of our feet fall. Selzer. Our hip joints grind to a stop. And the mechanism is by now genetic. the human species. must have evolved a suitable equipment and the correct mechanism for biped locomotion. In the very long history of walking erect. their actions are beautifully free and easy. Our blood gathers in hemorrhoids and varicose veins. the extreme and scary picture we have just looked at. slip. We obviously had to develop a way of neutralizing the effects of gravity in order for our life to have continued on earth. How We Conquer As it happens.
1. If the head does not initiate. with its energy and movement directed up through the top of that column—the whole torso following the head—the body will work efficiently and flexibly. as with a leaning column or an uneven tower of blocks. some form of additional support—in the case of the body. THE TECHNIQUE AS A WAY TO STAY YOUNG 47 . it is we who work against ourselves. We sense a new way of moving. In effect.) In this condition. We actually feel heavier because of pressure put on the joints by excess muscular tension. the human species is constructed in a way to resist the pull of gravity effortlessly in keeping itself erect. Rather. tense muscles—is needed to keep it standing. we shorten our necks and pull our chests down. In attempts to control ourselves. Only those muscles which are essential to a particular action are used in that action. When we do not trust our body's ability and interfere with this natural reflex of ease. and gravity merely compounds the problem. different from our previous experience of tension-filled activity. The movement of the head leads and influences the movement of the body so that all parts (muscles) are coordinated and work in a harmonious system of contraction and relaxation. 2.). what has been discovered is that when all the body parts are balanced and integrated. the reflex of our movement will be interfered with and muscle will be pitted against muscle.It Goes by Itself Careful. A jutting part here or there creates an imbalance and. The correct messages from one body part to another (coordination) are relayed and interpreted properly. (Fig. And it is because of these tense habits that it so often feels as if gravity must be working against us. detailed studies of this natural mechanism have offered a technical explanation in anatomical and physiological terms. When arranged naturally in a sort of flexible column. We no longer have to depend upon large jolts or shocks from tensing muscles to tell us if something is happening. or shorten and arch our backs. the reflex system of the body is allowed to work. the body column will be out of kilter (Fig. things go wrong.
1. 48 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Energy and movement directed upward. 2. The body column out of kilter.
" and an elementary definition of the word is: the state of not having to hold onto something in order to maintain a position. produces this desired alignment of the total structure. ourselves. inherited form of behavior. then." "Don't slouch. Such excess tension is unnecessary. The Alexander Technique. muscles throughout our body are tensing—holding on—in an effort to keep us as we are. And this muscular release goes a long way toward explaining why the Technique is effective in eliminating superfluous tension. through the models we encountered and imitated in early family life and school. through the tasks we were called upon to perform before we THE TECHNIQUE AS A WAY TO STAY YOUNG 49 . Most of us are still trapped by the distant voices of parents and teachers repeating: "Stand up straight. Our bone structure (skeleton) is so finely organized a system of arches and supports that it takes only a tiny contraction of muscles to maintain us in the "work" of standing. the body following." But long before we heard these and similar unhelpful exhortations.Never a Feeling of Strain We meet gravity by keeping our "balance." "Your posture is terrible. Our misuse of ourselves in all that we do is the consequence of modern living. But in fact we usually are holding onto something—namely. The magnificent engineering of the human body does not require it. Most of us consider ourselves balanced when we stand (otherwise how could we?). The new equilibrium gives relief and freedom to dozens of muscles that were previously engaged full time in "holding on" to maintain a condition that is at best a rough and hapless approximation of true balance. our superb natural functioning had already vanished because of the way we were handled as infants. Even when we think we're relaxed." "Or "Little girls don't sit like that. A Future Without Fear Proper adjustment to gravity in the way we stand. bringing the head into real physical balance on top of the spine. walk and move. is obviously an old.
means that tension and gravity are operating in concert. The foreshortening of the back neck muscles with which we initiate our every act. we violate our own natural mechanism for meeting the downward pull exerted on all forms of terrestrial life. But this need not be. We are no longer the helpless playthings or victims of a hostile force from below. The youngster now starting out. we can call a halt to our customary interference with the body's natural reflexes and thus facilitate our antigravity response. or the adult of middle or advanced age. has no reason to dread that the years ahead are going to pull him or her down in a decline of slow surrender to gravity. 50 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . and through our adaptation to the furniture and paraphernalia with which we lived. and which Alexander pinpointed as the root of our difficulties. In the way we misuse ourselves. By means of the Alexander Technique. We can reverse that trend once and for all the moment we decide to change our bad use of ourselves and reinstate our pristine grace. and the entire trunk and spine are slowly compressed.had the physical capacity or readiness. The upward movement of the head followed by the body can free us to initiate whatever we choose to do in whatever manner we choose to do it. The effect is too strong for the body to resist. By means of the Alexander Technique. This is why the popular picture of gravity as inescapable master and despoiler is for so many of us the stark truth. we can regain our easeful place on the planet and go confidently forward with the concerns that matter in our life.
P A R T II The Practice of the Technique How to Do It .
in your kitchen or office. They do not employ anything in the way of athletic equipment or apparatus. to refer to it before undertaking a new movement. are extensions and developments of the Basic Movement. Keep in mind these and other italicized instructions throughout the Action as they are essential to the success of your experimenting. MOVE YOUR WHOLE HEAD UPWARD AND AWAY FROM YOUR WHOLE BODY. which was given in Chapter 4.The Seven Actions An Effortless Program The following chapters present a simple step-by-step program of seven Actions for learning the Alexander Technique. Each step consists of three parts: (1) a preliminary exploration of your personal condition before you begin. Each Action leads to the next according to a definite plan. without exception. AND LET YOUR WHOLE BODY LENGTHEN BY FOLLOWING THAT It is advisable. (2) the Action itself. Often the Basic Movement within the Action description is italicized. (When the weather permits. No Dumb-Bells. which will show you how to apply the basic principle to all your movements. No Leotards The Actions in this program are simple. therefore. doing 52 . You can do them anywhere: at home or at work. w h i c h as we h a v e s e e n i s : AS YOU BEGIN ANY MOVEMENT OR ACT. but all the Actions. UPWARD DIRECTION. and (3) suggestions for how it may be applied to everyday life. That movement contains the key to the whole T e c h n i q u e .
them outdoors will provide the additional benefit of fresh air.) The Actions require no gym shorts, or leotards or other special outfits. Street clothes, office clothes—any clothes you happen to be wearing—are fine, and no change of apparel will be necessary afterward. Whatever clothes you do wear should, however, allow you sufficient leeway so that you are not restricted in your movements and do not feel hampered in your breathing. If your clothes are not decently comfortable, you may want to loosen your shirt collar or open your belt a notch. Simply do whatever is needed to allow you to be freer in moving about and less confined in your breathing.
A Way to Begin
Read the instructions for each Action slowly until you have an idea of what it is. (If you prefer, have someone read the instructions aloud to you.) Then proceed to carry them out in the manner described. Sometimes the instructions are given in metaphorical language to convey what is wanted. Thus, when you are instructed to "direct your energy upward," don't worry about a scientific meaning: simply follow the instruction! You needn't do a great many Actions at one session; you may prefer to do them gradually. For example, you may do an Action for a day or so, noticing throughout the rest of the week how that particular movement appears when it shows up in your everyday activities. Then go on to the next Action. Initially, follow them in the order given, as each movement leads to the next according to a definite plan. Some people may prefer to do several a week. Be your own judge of your particular rate. Later, you can always return to a given Action and see if you can discover something more in it. However often you repeat them, you will always derive some benefit, provided the element of awareness is there. Never do them mechanically; you are not a machine. Indeed, treating yourself THE SEVEN ACTIONS 53
like a machine is the bane of what is ordinarily meant by "exercise." Paying attention to what is happening every moment of this program reeducates your senses and muscles.
For Your Enjoyment
Although a conscientious attitude is necessary, it is not necessary to drive yourself to the limits of your endurance. Indeed, that is an entirely wrong approach. It is far more beneficial to do an Action sensitively three or four times, without strain or tension, than to do it automatically many times. Remember, you are not in competition with anyone. You are doing the Action only for yourself, for your own good. If you rush through a meal, you do not give yourself the opportunity to taste what you are eating or to digest the food properly. Ill-digested movement, like ill-digested food, is less beneficial to you. You will enjoy the Actions more if they are done in a spirit of experiment and play. You should even allow yourself a little time in which to feel and enjoy the aftereffects of each Action. Do not rush from one directly into the next. Tall, short, thin, fat, lanky or padded, whatever the proportions of your body and whatever your age, there is nothing to prevent you from learning these Actions and doing them with enjoyment. You will adjust them to your own body as you go along.
Nine Rules to Follow
1. Your "head" means the whole three-dimensional globe—not just your face or chin or some other part of it. (See Fig. 9, p. 31.) 2. Your "body" means the whole torso. (See Fig. 11, p. 33.) 3. "Upward" indicates a direction, not a fixed place. (See Figs. 12, 13, pp. 34 and 35.)
THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE
4. Refer to the Basic Movement (pp. 26-27) each time you proceed to a new Action. 5. Perform each Action at your own pace, not in the fastest way possible. How is what matters. 6. Stay alive: Keep breathing and seeing the world around you. There is no reason to hold your breath or go glassy-eyed. 7. Do not worry about executing the Actions "correctly." It is not a question of doing them the "right way," but rather of discovering greater flexibility and freedom in your movements. 8. Breathe easily and naturally through your nose. 9. Perform each Action as though for the first time.
THE SEVEN ACTIONS 55
Your neck will twist a little to let your head turn farther to the right or left. 1.Action 1 Leaning Forward and Backward Exploring Yourself Sit in a chair and turn your head from side to side and then up and down to look around the room. Note any sensations of which you are aware. What parts of you tense in order to move forward and then back? Do you push yourself forward instead of letting your hip joints simply hinge? Do you hold your breath? Applying the Basic Movement Still sitting. Involve your neck muscles as needed. include your body in that upward movement and lean forward. don't change your position. Repeat three or four times. sore muscles or stiffness. Do you really need to use your body as well as your neck to turn your head? Lean forward and then sit back in the chair. Now that you've begun to think about how you are using your head.) While allowing your head to continue 56 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . such as a popping or crackling noise in your spine. Notice whether or not you are able to move your head more easily and let your head move up. Let your whole head move up and away from your body and pivot on the top of your spine (top of your neck). but look around the room by turning your head. but don't force your head around. (Fig.
upward and away from the top of your spine. tip your head forward. 1.V. 2. Unnecessary pushing with your body. In leaning forward. LEANING FORWARD AND BACKWARD 57 . Keep your seat. (Fig. 2.) If you have difficulty moving without pushing. Try both. on or off from your chair. find out the difference between pushing your head up with your body and following the upward motion of your head. let your body follow upward as it leans forward in space. reaching to turn the T. then let your body follow that motion. lighting someone's cigarette from a seated position and eating at the table. toward the floor. simply bend at the hips to lean forward. Lean forward by lengthening upward. Applications to Daily Life Some examples of leaning forward and back: tying your shoe while seated.
) You will also appear more graceful and eliminate the balancing act. 3. 4. (Fig.) Probably the easiest way to eat soup is to lean forward effortlessly (by following your head up) and then let your torso curl slightly to bring your mouth closer to the bowl." one of my teachers would often say.) Then experience getting out of that position by first becoming aware of a real connection be- 58 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . The tendency is to collapse the chest and push the chin toward the bowl in order to avoid spilling the soup. The next time you discover yourself in a slump.) You may have tried the opposite strategy: sitting very straight and trying to balance the spoon all the way to your mouth in an effort to appear graceful. pull down a little more than you normally would.Eating Soup Especially watch what happens when you eat soup. How to Get Out of a Slump "Sometimes you just want to have a good old slump. (Fig. 6. 5. (Fig. (Fig.
While you have been learning to follow the upward direction of your head with your whole body. Then begin to let your head move up delicately. Stiff. 5. (See pp. Do you leave them free or do you pull them down? Now think of moving your head up and away from your body and letting your body follow that direction while you speak. your body following up after it while you lean forward and then back.) Note the change that has taken place as you emerge from your slump. let the upward energy continue. You can do this anytime you find yourself slouching. straight and awkward. As you talk. You've achieved a little more ease just by moving. Try reading aloud from a book and see if you can notice what you do with your head and neck. (Fig. The Way You Talk How you talk is affected by what you do with your head. you may have noticed a change in your breathing. LEANING FORWARD AND BACKWARD 59 . 3. 7.tween your whole head and whole body.) Greater freedom in breathing brings greater freedom in speaking. 20-22. 4. Easing upward. Pulling down.
You can change this by allowing your body to follow the upward motion of your head. To check the flexibility of your jaw. with your thumbs on the underside of your jaw. The ease of your head also helps your lower jaw to release. 7. leaving the jaw muscles loose. it usually indicates that you hold tension there when you speak. very gently place your fingertips on your chin just below your lower lip. When you have difficulty moving your jaw in this way. The slump. 60 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Easing upward. Now open and close your jaw with your hands.6. You are therefore using more effort than you need to for speaking.
In other words. what you do with the remainder of your body. Apply the Basic Movement Place your hands on the tops of your thighs. Let your head begin easing away from your body. palms resting down. 2.) Move your hands along your legs toward your knees. (Figs. let your arms lengthen out through your fingertips. later. 3. Every part of your body is related to every other part in movement. legs included. Do you tense your neck or jut your chin forward? Do you lean forward or backward with your upper torso? What parts of your body besides your arms are involved in this movement? Perhaps there are other things that you'll notice. 1. do the movement easily enough to notice what you do with your body and head. lift both over your head. you can try it standing. At first. continuing to pay attention to your head and body. Then try moving them quickly and in several different ways. Then bring them down again. When your arms are 61 . while you lift your arms will affect the ease and efficiency with which you can move them. While your neck lengthens and your body follows the upward motion of your head.Action 2 Moving Arms Exploring Yourself Do this one while sitting. Starting with your arms at your sides. Leave your hands there and let your arms rest comfortably at your sides.
During this entire sequence. 4. 7. although you can allow them to move. Applications to Daily Life What usually happens is that people shorten most of the muscles of any limb or any part of the body to move that part 62 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . shoulders or neck to move your arms. Beware of pulling down or tightening your chest. 6. Repeat the movement of raising your arms. bend your elbows and bring your hands back to your upper thighs. let your arms lengthen and let your head rest lightly on the top of your neck. adding to it the new direction for your shoulders.straight. (Fig. you needn't force your shoulders to move this way.) Think of each shoulder moving to the side upward and outward from the body to prevent any unnecessary tightening there. Then let your arms come back down in front of you.) As with your head and body. (Figs. When your hands touch your knees. lift them over your head. 5.
and most people do it unwittingly. MOVING ARMS 63 . pulling the upper arm toward the shoulder. which are shortening. 2. Ask yourself if the energy you use is really appropriate to how light a toothbrush is and the amount of pressure you need to apply to your teeth. you will be able to avoid a lot of excess tension that would otherwise occur in your shoulders and neck. In the course of your daily activities. By watching how you use your arms. Brushing Your Teeth A good example of how most people do more work than they need to is brushing teeth. For example. to bend the elbow the way most of us do.or to bend a joint. While your body follows your head up. let your arms lengthen. Then we unconsciously select the proper muscle to do the bending and use that muscle to work against the rest of the muscles. we make a tiny jerk of the arm. That locks the elbow joint. 1. notice how you reach to pick up and use an object. 3. That takes a lot of extra work.
No need to pull down and tighten. 64 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .4. 6. 5.
) There is a tendency in standing activities like this one to lock your knees. give it some thought. 9. (Fig. See if you can make it easier. 11. which simply adds an unnecessary restriction to your freedom of movement. 10.Next time you brush. Your shoulders move upward and outward. Also notice what you do with your other arm and your shoulders. Opening a Door You can make similar observations when you open a door. Do a little experimenting to see how much strength is actually required to reach out to the knob and take hold of it.) Also note if you are overdoing the action by reaching out toward the door long before you get there. (Figs. (Fig. MOVING ARMS 65 .) 7. 8. Then let your head ease up and your body follow and see if you can allow your arm to float up to the knob by lengthening out through your fingertips.
9. especially children. If you are tense and nervous. The body following the head upward. Pulling down. The amount of ease you have in your own body affects almost anyone you touch. Let your head move up and your arms lengthen and hold the child with the 66 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . a child can feel it in the way you touch him. think a little and notice what you are doing with yourself. Next time you pick up your son or daughter. With Children The way you use your arms in handling a young child will definitely affect how that child moves.8.
an undue amount of tension is produced in his back and shoulders. Overdoing. When a six-month-old child is brought up by pulling on his arms. support him at the torso. which is maintained while the baby sits. 11. The amount of ease from you that reaches the child will influence him to calmer and less resistant behavior. MOVING ARMS 67 . On the other hand. he uses his whole body in a system of balances with no tension in his back or anywhere else. least amount of effort needed. Also important is exactly what part of the child you hold when you lift him or help him to walk or to sit. Do not inject any effort into the easy movement the child already possesses. When you support a child with your hands in helping him to sit or stand. Lengthening. if the child brings himself to sitting.10.
Applying the Basic Movement Begin standing. stopping and starting several times until you feel that you have made some discoveries about your usual walk. Notice in which direction your energy moves. begin to walk. you do not need to lean or fall forward. 2. with each step forward consisting of an awkward fall on that foot.) Stop and start again several times. shift your weight onto your left foot. then shoulders following. From a standing position. (Figs. step out with your right foot and walk forward. It will help if you start 68 . 4. the upward movement of your head and torso will move you forward. (Figs. note what part of your body begins the motion and which direction you move in first: side to side? backward? forward? Continue walking for a few minutes. Which part of your body leads as you walk? Stop.) When walking. bend your right knee. This will allow you to move as a unit rather than in disconnected sections—for example.Action 3 Walking with Ease Exploring Yourself Find a room that has some open space enough to walk around in comfortably. hips forward. As you start walking again. 3. As you let your head move upward and away from your body with your torso following. then head. 1.
Walking with ease. WALKING WITH EASE 69 .1.2.
3. Moving in disconnected sections. 70 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .
4. WALKING WITH EASE 71 . head dropped. with hips forward. Awkward.
that I had to stretch my legs to get them down there. (Fig. To test this for yourself.with both feet under you and your weight evenly distributed. Notice whether your hips shift from side to side or up and down. Place your fingers on the front side and thumbs on your upper buttocks.) In running. 5. I was letting my body glide along at a constant distance from the floor while continuing to explore the act of walking. whether you start at a gallop or more gradually accelerate from a walk to a run. 6. there's often a tendency to pull the head back and down. (Fig. see that you ease your head upward and allow your body to follow up after it. For once I began walking by the Alexander Technique. You'll be pleased at the gain in lightness and ease. walk around the room. putting your hands at the spot on each hip where your leg bends.) 72 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . therefore. Applications to Daily Life My first experience with walking by means of the Alexander Technique was new and strange to me. Remember that walking and easing upward happen at the same time. I felt that my feet would no longer reach the floor. Each time you start. infinitesimal undulation of the hips forward and back when you walk—unless you tense up and interfere with it. I discovered I was no longer pushing into my hips toward the floor on every step.) Jogging and Running With any degree of speed. Avoid thinking of moving your head upward and then walking as two separate actions. Instead. notice whether your head continues to ease up as you walk. I discovered my old habit had involved sinking into my hips and throwing myself off balance every time I shifted my weight from one leg to the other. (There is naturally a slight.
pressing in and down to brace himself in order to swing.Playing Golf In golf. 6. 8. 7. WALKING WITH EASE 73 . With a compacted approach. His whole body will become involved in the swing.) This important advantage is often sacrificed in the supposed interest of power. 5. the upright stance provides flexibility in the shoulders and the torso and makes possible the maximum control over the swing. which helps increase the speed and control of it. Only when he is willing to let his head move up and his body follow. (Fig.) Otherwise he fears he cannot swing hard enough. it is the speed of the club head and not the force with which it is swung that makes the ball travel farthest. Downward pressure. will he maintain an upright stance and his arms have the greatest flexibility possible. (Fig. the golfer is getting in his own way. Easing upward. However. shoulders easing out. The golfer thus compacts his body. He will then have a true one-piece swing.
74 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Lengthening upward and outward.7.
WALKING WITH EASE 75 . Pulling down.8.
you may use it to balance yourself during this exploration. Lift your right leg till your thigh is parallel to the floor. Now lower your leg down to the floor.) 76 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . bend your right knee and lift your right leg until your thigh is about parallel with the floor.) Avoid sinking into the leg on which you are standing (Fig. Move your head and look around the room. Applying the Basic Movement Still stabilizing yourself when you need to. Rest one hand on it lightly. (Fig. Take note of how successful you are at balancing on one leg. 2. do you release it and drop it easily or do you reach at the floor with your foot and tense the muscles in your leg as you lower it? Once again take note of what your head and body have been doing. Does your right lower leg hang as freely from your knee as it can or is it tense? Do you lift or move your right hip unnecessarily? When you lower your leg. (Fig. (Fig. 3. let your head ease upward and away from your body and let your body follow that motion.) Imagine a line drawn from one hip to the other and keep that line parallel with the floor. 1. As your body continues upward. Lift and lower your right leg several times.) or lifting the hip of the leg being lifted.Action 4 Moving Legs Exploring Yourself Stand next to a firm waist-level surface. 4.
MOVING LEGS 77 . Lift your leg.1.
It should be free enough so that if someone were to push it lightly. Push your lower leg with either hand instead of using your muscles to swing it. Then gently release that leg to the floor. first make sure the whole sole of your foot is touching the floor. Lift your other leg by bending the knee while letting your head and body 78 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .Now let your raised leg swing forward and back freely from your knee down. it would swing like a pendulum until it lost momentum. Before you shift any of your weight onto it. then move your head and body upward as your weight shifts to that leg.
The important 2. On each step. Then shift your weight from the back foot to the front by moving your head away from the top of your spine and letting your body follow that upward motion over your foot. allow your foot to come to the floor in front and to the side of the foot that supports you. Lifting the hip needlessly. The next time you repeat lifting one of your legs. MOVING LEGS 79 . 4. The line of the hips is parallel to the floor. Let your lower leg swing freely. Avoid sinking into the hip. 3. lift your leg a shorter distance so that finally you will be walking easily. then gently release at the hip joint until your foot touches the floor again.continue upward.
(Fig. Examine your attitude toward climbing stairs. How much effort is necessary to get up to the next step? A typical attitude held is that a person must push downward in order to move up to the next step. 80 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .thing is to discover how to allow your body to go upward and forward over your legs instead of being carried by them like dead weight. These attitudes generally involve erroneous judgment of how much effort is required to perform a task or how their bodies must work to do it well. People have pre-set attitudes toward almost every physical task they perform. Applications to Daily Life Walking Up and Down Stairs Many students of the Alexander Technique find that walking up or down stairs makes them realize how much less effort is needed when directing their energy upward. 5. Upward direction. So the direction of energy is often downward when a person climbs stairs. The error occurs when a person doesn't experiment with his attitude—doesn't try out easier ways to do the job.) The problem occurs Downward direction 6.
(Fig. Avoid freezing your gaze.8.) Walking down stairs is often done with equal inefficiency.) There is no need to keep the muscles of your knee in constant tension to serve as a brake. To climb stairs the Alexander Technique way. In going up an incline. nor do you need to jump from foot to foot. Pulling down. place your foot lightly on the step and gradually straighten your leg as you follow your head upward and forward to move your body above that stair. which requires extra work in order to maintain balance and control. To move down a staircase. MOVING LEGS 81 . simply allow your knee to bend forward as you follow your head upward. When you are walking up or down stairs. and the effort involved in straightening the leg with most of the body weight on it is exhausting. usually because it is never approached consciously. 6.during the shift of weight after the foot has been lifted to the next stair. Most people place all their weight onto the forward foot before straightening the leg. 7. (Fig. allowing your head to move upward and your body to follow. 8. apply the same principles. you can still look down at the stairs to see where you are stepping. 7. Easing upward.
it moves as though it were on a ratchet. rest your feet on the floor about five inches apart and pointing forward. such as a car jack. Look for the same indications of freedom or tension. This indicates excess tension and that you are tensing the muscles around your ankle. as is most desirable? Do you have to tense your thigh or calf to lift your heel? Also try slowly lifting your toes off of the ground so that only your heel remains on the floor. one at a time. Leave the ball and toes of your foot on the floor. up and down. You may notice that as you move your ankle. where does the pressure on the ball of your foot fall? Is it under your big toe. When your heel comes up. Notice whether or not the movement is smooth. in little jerks. in the center. on the outside or evenly across the front of your foot. See if you are locking your ankle joint at the top of the movement—with heel as high as possible—and at the end of the movement—with foot flat on the floor.Action 5 Heel and Toe Exploring Yourself Sit in a chair. Very slowly. lift each heel off the floor and put it down again. Applying the Basic Movement Begin as before with your feet at least five inches apart and pointing forward in whatever position is most comfort- 82 .
But something constructive is happening. include your legs in your awareness. you will begin to improve your use of yourself. This does not mean stretching your leg. follow upward. let your head ease upward and follow it with your body. It will either become easier. and let the movement of your ankles fit in with it. Then stand up and walk around to see what changes have occurred. between your hip socket and your knee and between your ankle and your knee. If you concentrate solely on your ankles to the exclusion of the rest of your body. 2. When you understand how easing your head upward and letting your body follow affects the movement of your ankle and every other part of your body. (Fig. you are becoming aware of how you move your ankle.able. 1. it will be harder to move them freely. There is no set way to do it. Now lift your toes off the ground so that only your heel remains on the floor. let your toes come back to the floor. Think of your whole leg getting longer.) Then as you let your heel very gently down to the floor. except your heel. Repeat with your other foot. 3. (Fig. but rather to allow it to be its full length and free of tension. Keep the ball of your foot on the ground and spread your toes. See if you can find the most efficient way (the one involving the least tension) to raise and lower your heel. Now see what happens when you repeat this action. Now as you let your head move upward and away from your body and allow your body to follow.) Sit comfortably. As you continue. be unchanged or become tiring. HEEL AND TOE 83 . Avoid contracting the muscles of your thigh by continuing to lengthen your leg as your left heel comes very slowly off the floor as far as it can. then let the remainder of your foot. (Fig. Lengthen your leg all the way from heel to hip. The body's motions can now be consistent from the top of your head to the tip of your toes. Remain aware of the relationship between your head and body. Let your toes bend slightly up from the floor.) In order to begin and complete this movement. release your ankle and continue lengthening your bent leg.
now including your legs and feet. will give you added freedom of motion. the upward direction of your head and body. 84 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . but there is no need to focus on them except when doing this Action. 1.Applications to Daily Life Freedom in your ankles is essential for efficient and easy walking. Generally. Foot flat on floor pointing forward.
3. HEEL AND TOE 85 . Lift your heel.2. Lift your toes.
you will feel no pressure or strain on your knees.) A common tendency is to think of the knees as moving downward. which creates more pressure than is necessary. (Fig. 1. Bend both knees until they are directly above your big toe. Then straighten your legs and return to the standing position. Your legs should continue to lengthen as your knees bend. Include your legs in the easing so that they lengthen and lighten. Notice what if anything you do with your head and your body.Action 6 Knee-Bending Exploring Yourself Stand with your feet a shoulder's width apart (from eight to eighteen inches). As your knees bend. and allow your body to follow. keeping your body perpendicular to the ground. Instead. Are you bending at the hips and ankles? Repeat this until you are clear about how you are bending your knees. As you release the muscles around your knees. make sure they bend directly above each foot. let them go forward. continue to follow your head upward with your body and without tightening your legs. away from your body. Applying the Basic Movement Allow your head to move delicately upward. Notice where you feel any pressure on your hips or legs. Make sure 86 . Let your feet be as close to parallel as is comfortable. When you are successful with this Action.
1. Release knees forward. KNEE-BENDING 87 .
3. (Fig.). but remains perpendicular to the ground. No need to lean forward.). rather. 1. 2. Rather than pushing your body back up with your legs. 3. or forward if needless extra effort is used in bending your hips (Fig. Don't let your old habits interfere with your new way of bending.you release your hip joints so that your body does not tilt backward when your hips lock (Fig. let your head and body ease upward from your legs and let your knees follow. Applications to Daily Life The simultaneous bending of both knees rarely occurs by itself in everyday activity. it is part of the movement 2.) Place a mirror at your side to monitor this movement. Keep your body sense alert so that you can tell if at any point you are tensing your knees. 88 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . No need to tilt back.
) 4. Easing upward. Pulling down. The act of walking is greatly influenced by the amount of flexibility in the leg joints. The greatest value of this Action is that it frees the hips and knees. 4. If you're a dancer. Knee-bending is also the most efficient way of approaching any activity in which you are standing and must lean over to work. you will encounter a variation of it in the plié. carpentry.). knees bent. (Fig. Instead of going forward by bending your back and hunching your shoulders (Fig. that movement is present even though their feet may be positioned differently. When people bend to pick up things. Working at a low counter. and do the work with their legs as they should instead of their backs. 5. stay upright and bend your knees to lower yourself to the level you need. doing dishes and ironing are examples of such activities. KNEE-BENDING 89 .of sitting and standing. 5. a freedom most people need.
ACTION 7 Standing Up and Sitting Down
In Action 1, you learned how to lean forward without pushing forward. Now get up from a chair, noticing what your body must do in order to stand. When leaning forward in order to stand up, do you use more effort than when you merely lean forward in a chair? No more effort is actually needed. Now sit down from a standing position and notice what happens to the relationship of your head to your body. Do you freeze your head or any part of your body while you sit? Repeat these two Actions, noting everything that is involved in sitting and standing.
Applying the Basic Movement
Standing Up. Sit in a chair of average height. Begin by becoming aware of what you do with your head and your body. Turn your head from side to side and allow it to move up and away from your body. As you become aware of the
upward direction, lean forward by following your head with
your body. Continue following as you lean forward until your buttocks come off the chair. (Fig. 1.) As you lean forward, "upward" becomes diagonal from the chair, not skyward. As soon as your weight is on your feet, you have completed the movement.
1. Following your head upward.
STANDING UP AND SITTING DOWN 91
Sit back in the chair and repeat this movement several times, noticing what you do in order to come to your feet. Discover how to do the movement in one flowing motion with the least possible effort. Often people discover that they are giving a little push, a little tightening, just before they leave the chair. There are many people who at first feel that this little push is absolutely necessary but soon discover it isn't when they let their bodies follow their heads. Having made a slight improvement in the flow from sitting to getting your buttocks off the chair, go all the way to standing the next time you do it. "Upward" will continually change in relation to vertical as you fold forward. Notice whether you continue to follow your head or whether you change direction and push yourself up. (Fig. 2.) Beware of trying to swing yourself to your feet. (Fig. 3.) NOTE: When you stand, it is necessary to use your thigh muscles to some extent, so rather than concentrate on your legs, observe what you must do with your head and body to gain the most efficient use of your legs. After you have come to a standing position, your head continues upward and your body continues to follow it. There is no reason to abandon that upward direction and collapse after you have stood up. (Fig. 4.) Sitting Down. In the act of sitting, the advantage of following your head with your body is that you have control of your balance as you sit. An important idea to grasp about sitting down is that you must continue to follow your head upward with your body. If you let all your joints fold as you sit, and direct the energy upward to relieve pressure on the joints instead of tensing to keep from falling, you will not have to work as hard. As you stand in front of a chair, get your head and body going upward. As soon as you feel pressure taken off your legs, release your leg joints and let them fold. Remember to let your hips bend as well so that you lean forward as you approach the chair. (Fig. 5.) If this is confusing, stand up again, noting how far you fold forward as you stand. Sitting down is the same movement in reverse. 92 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE
3. Beware of swinging up. STANDING UP AND SITTING DOWN 93 .2. Beware of pushing.
continue easing upward. 94 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .4. Once standing.
STANDING UP AND SITTING DOWN 95 .5. Bending the joints to sit.
) Without even thinking about it. reach out with your arms or perform any other variation on the movement of standing. then folding into the chair to sit. push down. They go through a sequence that resembles shifting gears in a 1950 pickup. And you can do it without the extra effort of forcing or tensing your muscles. it is all the same basic movement: bending at the hips. though. one that uses the whole body is the movement from standing to sitting and vice versa. How many people have you seen who push their knees down with their hands in trying to stand.Applications to Daily Life Of the movements we repeat most often. Whichever way it is done. Most of us complete this action many times a day in an uncountable number of ways and positions. knees and ankles. Most people drop themselves into a chair and push themselves out. But if you can learn to follow your head with your body. shoot up. you can avoid the shifts in direction and stand up in one easy flowing motion. 96 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . many people divide the movement of standing into steps: lean forward. when they actually need their legs to go up? (Fig. 2. You will still have the flexibility to twist and turn your head. It is one of the best movements you can do to explore coordination of your whole body. straightening the joints and rebalancing the weight on the feet to stand.
spread-eagle fashion. or outward. 1. your feet should be a shoulder's width apart and your knees balanced freely. (Fig. relatively quiet and can be used regularly.A Short Daily Routine A Time for Rest The experiments you've been doing thus far have been designed to teach you conscious control of yourself. directly above your feet. Putting your feet farther apart is helpful. 1. 97 . your knees will tend to fall toward each other. Plan to use this space whenever you want to do this activity. Ideally.) More realistically. Lie down with your feet flat on the floor and your knees bent. See if you can get your knees to fall inward rather than outward. The point of it all is to teach you to let your head and body ease upward during any movement. There is one activity you can use daily to reinforce the process of lengthening in movement. Lie down. Begin by finding a place that is comfortable.
write down the things you noticed during each session. Let your arms rest easily on the floor at your sides. from "I have too many important things to do. warmer More than likely you'll notice the same things from day to day. make a mental note of your body's condition. What is important here is that you have begun to spend a period every day. but continue to make note of them each time. it will become easier to lie down this way. Make yourself comfortable on your back." to 98 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . For example: Pressure across the back of my hips Tingling in my right knee Pain in my left upper back Sensation along the left side of my neck The floor is cold on my back My breathing moves my stomach The small of my back isn't touching the floor Feeling a little angry at first Cold fingers Felt calmer at the end. on body maintenance. A two-inch-thick pillow under your head is permissible. and too many responsibilities. In that case you do not need to write your notes but can use your memory instead.Let your feet rest parallel to each other on the floor and about two feet away from your buttocks. short though it may be. If any of these positions creates undue pressure. so you can compare your awareness from one week to the next. You may also be able to remember all these sensations.) As you lie there. Afterward. you may need up to twenty minutes. (When you are feeling extremely tense. or bend them at the elbows and rest your hands comfortably on your stomach. then make minor adjustments. When you have made a change in your belief system. feet on the floor. though you'll soon be able to rest without one. As you learn to direct energy upward and to move with greater freedom. Simply lie there for two to five minutes. Keep your eyes open. for me to be spending time on myself.
let your head move away from your body and let your body lengthen from buttocks to shoulders. front and back. but because of friction with the floor you feel stuck at first. do the following series of movements to allow your body to continue lengthening. your head continues to move delicately away from your body. find that your body does begin to lengthen. let your head come to rest in a position where your neck. With your feet firmly on the floor. Roll your hips up. lift your hips up from the floor.) 2. You don't need to push your body into changing. Lift your right shoulder toward the ceiling. however. move your head by nodding it. Again. After nodding. Let your shoulders widen and open. 2. Then starting at the middle back. the shoulder. slowly lower your body until your hips are on the floor again. All the while you are doing this. If that should happen. With the back of your head touching the floor at all times. will feel slightly longer. (Fig. 3. front and back. A SHORT DAILY ROUTINE 99 . chin toward your chest and then back tip from your chest. The lift continues to the middle of the back. You may. seems to have some length. 1." you can give yourself the opportunity to improve your performance of any activity."time spent on myself is as important as any other time. several times. 2. As you release it back to the floor. After you've taken this thoughtful rest for a few minutes. Do the same with your left shoulder. move it slightly out from your body.
Now that you do not feel stuck to the floor. (Fig. 3. Let your other arm rise the same way. beginning the movement by easing your head upward. Any movement can be done by letting your head ease upward and your body follow. Very gently lengthen out through your fingertips. 5. Try doing fast movements with the least amount of tensing. Make sure you move your arm without a jolt or locking any part of it. Use the release of tension to move your head.) Then allow your lower arm to float up. Notice whether or not you press your head into the floor or lift it off the floor slightly to move your arm. Find a way to move without jerking or setting (tensing) your body. rolling it from side to side. Observe whether any other part of your body tightens or moves as you roll your head.) Finally your upper arm can follow the floating movement and your whole arm will be above your body. All of the movements can be effortless. Roll it from side to side a few times. Moving Your Arms Lift your arms one at a time. as that begins to lengthen your neck. First let your hand float from the floor. Bend it and curve it any way you wish. There is no need to tense any part of your body to start the movement. Then slowly and gently move both arms in every which 100 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . following your hand and bending your elbow. Continue to experiment with moving your head. Be careful not to increase the pressure of your head against the floor. Move your head by letting it ease away from your body and. Permit your shoulders to continue easing outward from your body. you're ready to experiment with some movements in the lying-down position. Pay attention to what you do with your head and body as you move your arm. 4.) Straighten your arm. roll your head from side to side. (Fig. Rotating Your Head See how easily you can rotate your head from side to side. bending your wrist (Fig.
First move your hand. A SHORT DAILY ROUTINE 101 . Move your whole arm.3. Then the lower arm moves. 4. 5.
Then let your lower arm follow and. Moving Your Legs Next lift your legs one at a time. Now lift your left foot again and bring your leg toward your chest. (Fig. 6. The object is to learn to move your legs with the least amount of tightening in your stomach. body and arms. let your left foot slide along the floor away from your body until it is straightened and fully on the floor. lengthen it toward your elbow. first allow your upper arm to come to the floor. As you let it down gently. Lift one foot off the floor by bringing your leg toward your chest. Whenever you let your arms return to the floor. back and whole 6. 102 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . 7.) Your knee will travel through a slight arc. Then place your foot on the floor again. continuing the movements of ease. allowing your head to move away from your body as your body follows.way.) Let your right leg straighten in the same manner. There's no need to push it away from your body. Don't interfere with the freedom you've created in your head. Bring your leg toward your chest. As your leg moves away from your chest again. finally. your hand. Direct the energy up through your bent knee toward the ceiling. Do this a couple of times with each leg. noticing where you tighten and observing whether or not you tense your head as you move your leg. Return always to the bent-knee position. (Fig. See what happens when you move your arms quickly and sharply.
your head doesn't necessarily have to be the highest part of your body as you stand. A SHORT DAILY ROUTINE 103 . 7. let your head go outward from the top of your spine and permit your body to follow.) Now you should be sitting. If you want to bend over as you come up. let your knees come to the floor. 9. causing your body to roll until you are lying on your side. 8. doing the same. Draw your knees up again. Use the arm closer to the ceiling to push on the floor in front of your chest. Rolling onto Your Side Let your knees fall slowly and easily to one side. As you sit up. Seated it's easy to stand simply by following your head with your body.) As your head continues to move. roll onto your side. one at a time. let your head begin rolling toward the same side. (Fig. 9. it is essential to let your head continue moving instead of locking in place. (Fig.) Then roll onto your back by moving your head first and letting your whole body follow. (Fig. neck and torso. Remember. Allow the ease to continue in your head. while thinking of your legs lengthening outward through your knees. Let your head move away from your body and let your body move with it. Always let your head and neck be free. Now straighten up.body. Roll to the opposite side in the same manner. The leg is straightened. Sitting Up To sit up from the lying position. To do this.
9. a few adjustments will 104 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Having a good soft pillow that forms to your head. Your knees roll to the floor. is better than a stiff or bouncy one. When you first lie down.). Let your head roll to the side. Then let you legs straighten out and rest on the mattress as you continue to let your head move away and your body to follow it! If you must sleep on your side. 1. The best way to sleep is on your back unless you have specific physical problems that prevent this position.8. Restful Slumber Sometimes we do not get the full benefit of a good night's sleep because we continue so many of our habits of tension while we sleep. use the position of rest described above (Fig. or no pillow at all.
Then lay your top arm on the side of your body. and let it bend at the elbow.11. This way your upper shoulder does not curl down. If you slept on your back. 11. avoid doing any movement. . make this position more advantageous. This will keep your body from collapsing onto the shoulder that rests on the mattress and will prevent your neck from cramping (Figs. 11. 10. A SHORT DAILY ROUTINE 105 . When rising from the bed in the morning. or at least rest the upper part of it on your upper side.).10. Bunch your pillow under the side of your head so that your neck is straight as it would be in standing. collapsing onto your chest (Fig. such as a sit-up. that can shock your body with exaggerated muscle action. but rests directly above the other shoulder with your chest and back unconstricted.). Lengthening. Cramped.
Emotional Control—Worry. the new direction of your energy. Panic You can apply the Alexander Technique in your daily life so that your emotions do not get out of hand. The value of control can be seen if we recall for a moment the many unfortunate events in which we and those we love have been hurt by actions stemming from fear. When you detect these signals. even before you choke up or explode. do all your calisthenics after your body is more awake and your heart has adjusted its beat to a moving body. If you must do them in the morning. by releasing tension throughout your body. inundated by it. simply give some attention to easing your head upward and allowing your body to follow after it. for example. which can tie you into knots or make matters worse. jaw and shoulders. 106 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .first roll onto your side. gives you a means of coping with the emotion so that it remains a potential for action but does not interfere with rational decision and any action you may take. eliminate the panic from fear and size up the situation that inspires it and do something about it. wasteful or debilitating emotion will express itself in tensions that you can perceive even before you go haywire. among others. they arise subconsciously before the conscious mind can act. then sit up gently as you ease your head and body up. Emotions are not the result of a conscious decision. This is not the same as trying to suppress anger. Rather. By this procedure you can. Anger. for instance. Anger. anger or hostility. Any harmful. tenses muscles in the neck.
and it need not impede the smooth course of making the Alexander Technique your own. As a teacher of the Alexander Technique. If that is the case. It may be that you are not troubled in any of the ways described below. and so we go about inventing them. But perhaps you may discover one or another obstacle with which you have been needlessly hampering your own progress in acquiring the Technique. The Worrier One of the most common tendencies seen in beginners is the "I can't" habit. If so. I have encountered many of the handicaps that people create for themselves at the beginning. These people focus on what they won't or 107 . Surely there have got to be complications. the problem involved and the answer to it. The entire purpose of the sketches that follow is to provide a means for understanding and resolving any unnecessary problem you may recognize in yourself. well and good. It can be eliminated as soon as you become aware of it.Some Helpful Hints You now have the simple program that will make an important change in how you function at every level of your daily life. Following are some of the needless difficulties I have most often observed. The reason may -be that it seems too good to be true: it can't be that simple. These thumbnail portraits have been designed as a series of helpful hints for carrying out the Technique. take careful note of the sketch that applies to you. we manufacture unnecessary difficulties in the process of learning it. But perhaps because the Alexander Technique is so easy to do.
can't do. feeling better and better. "Am I doing it?" They notice that nothing is happening and then they think. feeling very easy. I reasoned." The idea of the Alexander Technique is to pay attention to what you are doing. When. they give their bodies the instruction to follow their heads. The Straining Housewife One of my own experiences can best explain what is involved here. they immediately ask themselves. I let my arm lengthen and hold onto the scrub brush very lightly. I realized I had been bent over. As I stood there. "I'm not doing it! I can't. guilt crept over me. In the process. While scrubbing away furiously at a burned pot and considering all this. it's not necessary to be in a state of continual regret when you feel you're in error. Thinking about how you should be easing up is like making a plan to do the laundry instead of actually doing it. after spending an entire morning teaching the Technique and talking a lot about integrating relaxation into daily activity. Don't worry about what you're not doing. Are you pulling down? Then go up. I experimented with just how hard I needed to hold onto it. Still. "Why not practice what you preach?" So I let my head move up and my body follow. Every activity had a different but usually effortful physical attitude attached to it. There really is no need to be a "straining housewife. As I stood there. for example. I continued my experiment until the pot was clean and then I felt actually refreshed. pulling my shoulders in. Only by thinking during the activity was I able to avoid doing the excess work that made me feel I was doing the job right. It was still coming clean. and began to press more lightly on the pot. I was in the kitchen one day. After that experience." 108 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . I suddenly thought. I began to notice a definite physical attitude that took over whenever I worked in the kitchen or performed other household chores. In other words. This can't be right if it's making me feel good instead of strained and tired.
you can't go around doing that and carry on your everyday activities. Thinking in these terms must be an active process that actually releases you from the downward pulls you ordinarily experience. do it with my hands. not a place. But you can do some constructive thinking that carries over into every activity. Go past words to experiencing the idea. well. and pushing my head up.' I can't go around SOME HELPFUL HINTS 109 . The Manipulator "When I get a tension headache. But I can't keep hanging on that way. How can words possibly make them go farther when you reach that limit?" What he has forgotten is that upward is a direction. The Scientist He has deduced: "My head and body can only go so far upward before levitating is the next step.The Thinker She says: "I think and think about my head going up but nothing happens." Obviously. Let it happen. I can stretch my neck by putting one hand under my chin. This prevents the tendency to pull it downward. but you can always continue to direct your head upward as you continue to move about. There is a maximum point of lengthening the spine. not hands. it takes so much energy to stay aware and remember to move 'Up. I can force . Direct your head to move upward and your body to follow with awareness. . When I take my hands off. the other hand on my shoulder. my head comes back down again. . The Under-Achiever The under-achiever says: "Oh." It is not just the process of repeating the words or idea in your head." I tell her: You have not quite understood what I mean by "thinking.
The Step-by-Stepper He says: "I ease up every time before I move. to move your head up. I have things to do. Soon this awareness will become an integral part of everything you do. and it's very hard to do two things at once. your head can still move up away from your body but of course not toward the ceiling.thinking about this all the time. I think of any action as moving upward with my head and body. If you do this. but I just look as though I'm being stiff and formal. For example. then. so all you have to do is continue moving and you'll get to where you want to be. to get forward in a chair." Preventing the back-and-down pull is like breaking any other habit." When you're letting your head ease up and your body follow. You won't have to summon the thought to move your head. The next step. Surely I have to do something. But as soon as I move. it will be there. I think about that immediate move and forget about easing up. The Freezer He declares: "I know where up is." To the step-by-stepper I reply: See if you can ease up in order to make a move rather than easing up before you move. At first you have to remind yourself to do something different—in this case. 110 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . then "up" becomes relative to the movement you're doing. I go up with my head and let my body follow to reach with my arm in any direction. That way change will come out of every activity you do and not as a result of something imposed on you. If you bend over. tense some muscles. will be to learn to continue directing the energy upward during the movement. and when I'm sitting still and not doing anything. You still have to learn how to recognize your own movement without tensing or pulling down. you're already moving. I can remember to think about it.
I can really move forward and back in the chair very well. I do ten minutes in the morning and ten after dinner. Maybe I'm practicing wrong. When you get to the point where you refuse to change. The fact is. You yourself change from movement to movement as do the requirements of any activity in which you may be engaged. What you do is make your head move up as far as possible. stop practicing and start living! In studying the Alexander principle. lock in and become inflexible. These are the things you do over and over again. but I don't seem to be making any change. let go of it.The Over-Achiever He has the opposite problem from the under-achiever: "When I do what I think is easing up and maintain. So I don't turn my head. When you start allowing your head to ease upward and your body to follow while you SOME HELPFUL HINTS 111 . talking to a friend." Whenever you think you're doing something right. then when you get to the limit." First. I still feel just as tense after a long day at the office as I always did. And when do you use yourself most? In all your everyday activities—eating. I try to think about "it all the time. probably without awareness. you're easing up as soon as you think of it. Be satisfied with a little so that you notice the smaller changes more. That's fine. and I don't ever slouch in a chair. you tense up. The Practicer She complains: "I go home and practice this Technique every day. I feel very uncomfortable and stiff. you're trying to learn to use yourself better. hold it. The change you can make yourself is very subtle. and then I feel as though I shouldn't move or I'll lose it. you've lost that flexibility. taking a shower. The point of asking you to let your head ease upward and your body to follow is that you can get a little more flexibility and ease.
some muscles don't get used at all. Won't I get flabby and out of shape if I stop exerting as much energy? Then I'll have to exercise twice as much. The Weight-Watcher Her reasonable question is: "You say that if I use the Alexander Technique I'll learn how to put less energy into doing everything. in any movement you do. Go back to letting your head move upward and away from your body as your body follows. for example. you stand up straighter. Where is it again? Sometimes I decide to pull my chin in and push my shoulders back but they never seem to stay. then you'll be putting what you've learned to use. Then you're on the right track." You're making the wrong assumption if you think that simply putting forth energy will keep you in shape. shoulders. And should my feet come down heel first or toe first?" There is no right place to put your head. It's the way you use the energy that can be of help to your body. notice and see if you can feel a little more ease. then you'll get the maximum use out of all your muscles. and usually they become a deposit area for flabby fat. The Posture-Maker She says: 'I can't seem to remember where to put my head to get back that floating feeling. for example. it just makes for hard. whatever you do.wash your hands. When you learn to use your body as an integrated whole. Then you're giving yourself a choice you never knew you had before—the choice of acting with or without tension. locked muscle tissue. You don't have to think during all activity. Habitual tension doesn't keep you in shape. 112 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . not of posture and position. It just so happens that when you stop interfering with your body's natural functioning. in taking a step. Because of unnecessary tension in certain parts of your body. The Alexander principle is a principle of movement. But every once in a while. body. chin or anything else.
Frank Pierce Jones who conducted major scientific experiments on the Alexander Technique at Tufts University. Texas. Ms. In preparing this book Ms. editor of Alexander's writings. and Edward Maisel. Barker is now teaching the Alexander Technique at Webster College in St. world-famous anthropologist who discovered australopithecus and who is self-taught in the Alexander Technique. Barker consulted with Professor Raymond Dart. Louis.ABOUT THE AUTHOR SARAH BARKER received her master's in fine arts from Southern Methodist University in Dallas. . among them Ohio University and Prescott College. Missouri. She has taught the Alexander Technique at several campuses.