Imagine a technique that begins with one simple movement and transforms every muscle in your entire body... a technique so easy you can learn it yourself.. .and so amazingly effective that your whole life may change for the better.

"The Alexander Technique
Nobel Prize-winner Nikolaas Tinbergen hailed the discovery of the. technique. With "growing amazement" he and his family noted "very striking improvements" in high blood pressure, depth of sleep, overall cheerfulness and mental alertness. Tinbergen concluded that the technique may often produce "profound and beneficial effects" to help: relieve rheumatism, various forms of arthritis and respiratory ailments • remedy circulation defects that may lead to high blood pressure • alleviate many digestive disorders • reduce sexual failures, migraines and depression. Now you can learn the secrets of this unique, effortless technique and begin to realize your full physical and mental potential, starting today.

"Like opening a door into another world..."
One of our foremost teachers and practitioners of the Alexander Technique, Sarah Barker, has taught this amazingly effective method of mobilizing total energy in colleges across the country. From her own experience she has found that "the mere performance of this simple movement can, if you extend it through the whole range of your normal activity, put you on the road to a new life of health, physical freedom and, in the deepest sense, personal happiness." Try the technique yourself for a few weeks with her simple, everyday routines and see what wonders it can do for you.

THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE The Revolutionary Way To Use Your Body For Total Energy by Sarah Barker BANTAM BOOKS TORONTO • NEW YORK • LONDON • SYDNEY .

. Marca Registrada. Inc. For information address: Bantam Books. New York 10103. Its trademark. Inc. Copyright © 1978 by Bantam Books. without permission. is Registered in U. This book may not be reproduced in whole or in part. PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 . Inc. New York. Bantam Books. consisting of the words "Bantam Books" and the portrayal of a bantam. 666 Fifth Avenue. by mimeograph or any other means. ISBN 0-553-14976-8 Published simultaneously in the United States and Canada Bantam Books are published by Bantam Books.S. Inc. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries.For Marj THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE: THE REVOLUTIONARY WAY TO USE YOUR BODY FOR TOTAL ENERGY 2nd printing A Bantam Book /August 1978 April 1979 3rd printing February 1981 Photographs courtesy of Susan and Reed ErskinelLightworks All rights reserved.

Contents Acknowledgments PART I LEARNING ABOUT THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE: The Important Benefits It Offers You THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE The What and the Why Scientific Acclaim Feeling at Your Best Age Is No Barrier If You Are Overweight Your Rampant Emotions Living Without Stress Being Who You Are Beneficial Effects in Many Diseases A Simple Method ix l 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 8 Chapter 1 Chapter 2 HOW THE TECHNIQUE WAS DISCOVERED The Australian Story Crisis on Stage The Patient Scientist A Unique Mission The Search and the Answer Outwitting Our Destructive Habits Those Puritanical Hang-Ups 10 10 11 12 13 13 15 15 V .

No Poses How to Look at Pictures The Breath of Life Let It Happen Your Breathing Improves How We Got This Way Three Easy Tests See For Yourself The Road to Take THE BASIC MOVEMENT Not an Exercise How to Start THE BASIC MOVEMENT Exploring Yourself The Basic Movement Your Whole Head Your Whole Body The Upward Direction On Your Way The Instant Train How to Succeed Without Really Trying 17 18 19 20 20 20 21 21 22 23 23 24 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 32 32 32 34 35 37 37 38 39 39 41 41 42 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 BECOME A WHOLE PERSON The Trouble with Physical Exercise The Trance in Which We Live Our Mistaken Ideas About Ourselves The Crown of the Senses Discover a World Within Part Person vs.Chapter3 BRINGING THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE INTO YOUR LIFE What Is Good Use? You Are Not a Statue No Positions. Whole Person Staying in the Moment vi CONTENTS .

Chapter 6 THE TECHNIQUE AS A WAY TO STAY YOUNG Why We Shrink The Upright Creature Must We Fall Apart? How We Conquer It Goes by Itself Never a Feeling of Strain A Future Without Fear THE PRACTICE OF THE TECHNIQUE How to Do It THE SEVEN ACTIONS An Effortless Program No Dumb-Bells. No Leotards A Way to Begin For Your Enjoyment Nine Rules to Follow 43 44 44 45 46 47 49 49 PART II 51 52 52 52 53 54 54 56 56 56 57 58 58 59 61 61 61 62 63 65 66 CONTENTS vii Action 1 LEANING FORWARD A N D BACKWARD Exploring Yourself Applying the Basic Movement Applications to Daily Life Eating Soup How to Get Out of a Slump The Way You Talk MOVING ARMS Exploring Yourself Applying the Basic Movement Applications to Daily Life Brushing Your Teeth Opening a Door With Children Action 2 .

Action 3 WALKING WITH EASE Exploring Yourself Applying the Basic Movement Applications to Daily Life Jogging and Running Playing Golf MOVING LEGS Exploring Yourself Applying the Basic Movement Applications to Daily Life Walking Up and Down Stairs HEEL A N D TOE Exploring Yourself Applying the Basic Movement Applications to Daily Life KNEE-BENDING Exploring Yourself Applying the Basic Movement Applications to Daily Life STANDING UP A N D SITTING D O W N Exploring Yourself Applying the Basic Movement Applications to Daily Life A SHORT DAILY ROUTINE A Time For Rest Rotating Your Head Moving Your Arms Moving Your Legs Rolling onto Your Side Sitting Up 68 68 68 72 72 73 76 76 76 80 80 82 82 82 84 86 86 86 88 90 90 90 96 97 97 100 100 102 103 103 Action 4 Action 5 Action 6 Action 7 viii CONTENTS .

Panic 104 106 SOME HELPFUL HINTS The Worrier The Straining Housewife The Thinker The Scientist The Manipulator The Under-Achiever The Step-by-Stepper The Freezer The Over-Achiever The Practicer The Posture-Maker The Weight-Watcher 107 107 108 109 109 109 109 110 110 111 111 112 112 CONTENTS ix .Restful Slumber Emotional ControlWorry. Anger.

graciously and expertly collaborated with me in demonstrating for the photographs that illustrate this book. even lacking his genius. benefited from the teaching experiments I conducted in the preparation of this book. who supported me with their probing questions. and all my students. could learn how. Surely. and thanks are also due to a number of close friends. Alexander. which places the Alexander Technique in a modern scixi .Acknowledgments Before undertaking to write a "how to" book on the Alexander Technique. I would like to thank the various Alexander teachers with whom I have studied and spent long hours in discussion. the rest of us. hopefully. I am grateful to Professor Nikolaas Tinbergen. if given a set of sure guidelines. My colleague. I thought long and hard: The idea of learning the Technique from a book seemed revolutionary and possibly heretical. especially those who patiently suffered and. F M. who were always available for the encouragement and energy needed to carry on. and whose individual help in some cases was indispensable to me. Then I remembered that its originator. I received the help of innumerable people to whom I am most grateful. I am also indebted to several distinguished scholars in the field. Special acknowledgment is due my colleagues and associates at Rancho Linda Vista in Arizona. had on his own discovered how to control the use of his body. of Oxford University. for his remarkable speech accepting the 1973 Nobel Prize in Medicine. upon whose work I have drawn freely. When I began the necessary exploring and investigation. Peter Trimmer.

I have. an indispensable selection of Alexanders writings. who laid down the guidelines for those of us who have followed him. whose studies of the Alexander Technique have accomplished much for the scientific understanding of this work. Research Associate at the Tufts Institute for Psychological Research. Sarah Barker xii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . Wilfred Barlow for his informative accounts of the medical use of the Technique in treating patients. Professor Emeritus of Anatomy and Dean Emeritus of the Medical Faculty of the University of Witwatersrand. In a couple of spots. the greatest debt of all is to Alexander himself. Matthias Alexander. has contributed so greatly to public appreciation of the Alexander Technique.entific perspective. to Dr. to the late Dr. Frank Pierce Jones. closely paraphrased a few passages from that study. to Professor Raymond A. with Maisel's generous permission. Of course. to Edward Maisel. whose study introducing The Resurrection of the Body (Delta Books). This book is not intended to reflect the views of any of the considerable number of people who helped me. The project is entirely my own. South Africa. Dart. for the insights in his Anatomist's Tribute to F.

PART 1 Learning About the Alexander Technique The Important Benefits It Offers You .

his students and followers conducted a considerable amount of research to substantiate his findings. a technique so amazing in its results that your physical and emotional life will soon change for the better. 2 . like the opening of a door into another world. Matthias Alexander. reports by physicians attesting to its remarkable effectiveness in helping many of their patients. Scientific Acclaim It would surprise many people to realize what the Alexander Technique can do for them were its astonishing'results not supported by the most respectable scientific authority. That technique is the Alexander Technique. F. named for its discoverer. so simple that you can learn it yourself. There has also accumulated an impressive volume of clinical data.Chapter 1 The Alexander Technique: The What and the Why Imagine a technique for transforming the operation of your body. At the Tufts Institute for Experimental Psychology. twenty-five years of investigation—using quantitative measure and control groups—have thrown important light on the manner in which the Alexander Technique produces its seemingly miraculous effects. During the years before and after Alexander's death in 1955. and known around the world as one of the most extraordinary discoveries of our time.

so too are we daily abusing the most valuable resource of all—our bodies—and depleting our own energies. We have learned that there is no mechanical device in the world—electronic. Indeed. He thereupon underwent an extraordinary rejuvenation and lived another thirty-five rich. the Alexander Technique proposes. It's never too late. as normal. Many of us know now that through ignorance and insensibility we unnecessarily limit ourselves in how we function. one of the founding fathers of scientific philosophy and modern education. an exuberant and vital sense of wellness: physical freedom and ease combined with mental flexibility and alertness. Age Is No Barrier If you think you're too old to begin learning anything so revolutionary. We "manage". you can begin to make a beneficial and healthy change. We scarcely begin to realize our enormous potential. more than ever. Ours is an era where people have begun to value their bodies as unique and wonderful. most of us plod through our days and nights in a condition far below optimum. and that today. full THE WHAT AND THE WHY 3 . we "get by. Against this keep-your-nose-above-water-level definition of being alive.Feeling at Your Best Apart from suffering any specific medical symptoms. Just as we have thoughtlessly depleted the natural resources of the planet. John Dewey. Even after forty or fifty years of continually misusing yourself. humanity's chance to survive may depend upon how men and women salvage themselves. took up the Alexander Technique at the age of fifty-eight. this factor may prove more critical than our ability to manipulate the environment further. you're wrong. computerized or laser-beamed—that functions with such infinite resilience or so many delicate capacities as the human body." Good health is regarded as merely the absence of sickness.

He had begun to withdraw from people. What many authorities therefore find most impressive about the Alexander Technique is embodied in Aldous Huxley's statement that "If you teach an individual to be aware of his physical organism and then to use it as it was meant to be used. The famous writer had spent all his days in a state of acute physical illness until he studied the Alexander Technique and transformed himself. exercise and strenuous exertion. We have sufficient data on calories. diets and the dangers of eating too much. Your Rampant Emotions All of us are subject to "states" of various kinds. But little or nothing is ever mentioned about another important factor. and he was beset by a terrible 4 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . prejudices and fixed habits. What about the way we wear our weight. The ninety-two-year-old Dewey attributed this vital longevity to his Alexander practice. one possessing a true waist and chest.years. the other a nondescript but thickening bulge? A beneficial side effect of the Alexander Technique is a better carriage of the body's weight. you can often change his entire attitude to life and cure his neurotic tendencies. Something crucial is missing from our national quest for a more attractive physique. And we have information about calisthenics. If You Are Overweight You can even streamline your physical appearance by means of the Alexander Technique. finding his physical and mental energies too drained by social contact." Huxley might have given his own story as a case in point. George Bernard Shaw learned the Technique at eighty and lived to ninety-four. and it is hardly news that human development in general is retarded by fear reflexes unduly excited by emotions. whatever it may be? Why is it that two people of identical poundage and the same general build often have quite different looking torsos. which determines success in attaining a beautifully proportionate body.

These are all surface reactions we can observe.depression and a chronic insomnia that made it almost impossible to work. you may find yourself making fidgety movements. anger. We also discover how much more we like other people when we have a more relaxed feeling about ourselves. THE WHAT AND THE WHY 5 . and we are no longer simply at the mercy of confusion. the foremost scientific investigator among Alexander scholars. yoga and other remedies in vain. observed that while the physical effects of the Technique are indeed remarkable. We tend to be less depressed when we are not physically burdened. Can the Technique really help with our mental and emotional problems? Professor Frank Pierce Jones. you may also hunch your shoulders and fix your chest rigidly. When angry. he noted. Jones observed in his own experience "an almost immediate increase in mental and emotional control. Underneath are the unconscious tension states that can build into attitudes which interfere in our relationships with other people. for a change in mental attitude often accompanies an increase in health. notice whether you clench your hands slightly or perhaps a great deal." This is because the Alexander Technique gives a workable approach in attacking emotional problems directly." Some of these. Or if you're anxious about something. But quite apart from these desirable side effects. may of course be explained as the happy side effects of any betterment in physical condition. He had tried gardening. There is likewise an improvement in our self-image when we feel more competent physically. but it was the Alexander Technique that opened up a new way to live. Living Without Stress We can see how this works easily enough. Next time you're angry. reported in other therapies as well. worry. panic. "the psychological effects are of greater importance.

or to shop from therapy to therapy. Thus freed. devoted half his acceptance speech to the Technique. by means of the Alexander Technique. there is no magic formula that will instantly solve their problems. they are offered a release from the confines of habit so that they have some choice in their lives and become capable of acting more freely in whatever they do. you may even find that you no longer experience any disquiet—except perhaps to wonder where your rage or panic went. He related how his interest in it 6 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Being Who You Are The Alexander Technique has particular value for people who don't want to fill themselves with drugs.When you release those clenched fists. you may find your feelings much more within your control. upon receiving the Nobel Prize for Medicine. and moving hopefully from one fad to another. Beneficial Effects in Many Diseases Many people would find it hard to believe the seemingly fantastic medical cures attributed to the Alexander Technique except that these extraordinary reports come from reputable physicians and scientists. you are able to experience emotions fully in a few moments and begin thinking clearly again. If they turn to the Technique. Instead. Once you break this cycle of reinforcing feeling with body tension. Millions of people exist in this half-alive state. In 1973. hoping for some kind of emotional relief. countering their depressions and anxieties with a whole arsenal of tranquilizers. because you are no longer reinforcing them with body tension. or prevent the fidgeting. Professor Nikolaas Tinbergen. This new conscious control of yourself does not prevent you from feeling any emotional states—life would be rather stiff and boring if it did—but you will be able to allow for more appropriate and spontaneous responses to the events of your life if you are not locked into one fearful or angry response for all occasions.

sexual failures. "there can be no doubt that it often does have profound and beneficial effects. no discs. depth of sleep. he suggested. and I repeat once more. They noted." Tinbergen went on to affirm the possibility that certain other stress-related ailments could benefit from the Technique: rheumatism. signed by nineteen doctors. both in the mental and somatic sphere. breathing." A physician.He. endorsing the Technique for its remarkable effectiveness in the treatment of many of their patients. Unfortunately. Tinbergen concluded that while the Technique is assuredly no cure-all to be applied in every case. All these as well as other non-bug diseases. might be helped by the Alexander Technique. and reported that in this group there were no coronaries. they observed "with growing amazement" the marvelous results. no strokes. even asthma. no such evaluation has thus far been carried out. his wife and one of their daughters had learned the Technique at the same time. and called upon their profession to recognize and evaluate it. circulation defects that may lead to high blood pressure and heart conditions. Wilfred Barlow.was excited by a little experiment he had tried with his own family. no neurological disorders and no severe mental disorder. The British Medical Journal once published a letter. no cancers. which is a point that must be emphasized. Barlow called this statistic "almost unbelievable" and concluded that 99 percent of the population need the Technique. migraines and depressive states that often lead to suicide. overall cheerfulness and mental alertness. no ulcers. respiratory ailments. Dr. including various forms of arthritis. gastrointestinal disorders of many types. THE WHAT AND THE WHY 7 . conducted a survey of men and women who had long used the Alexander Technique. no rheumatoid arthritis. resilience against outside pressure. As their body musculature began to function differently. and also in such a refined skill as playing a stringed instrument. for example. that the Technique brought about "very striking improvements in such diverse things as high blood pressure.

actors—are making it an important part of their training program. you may readily apply it. It presents a simple method for learning the Technique by yourself. This book will introduce you to the Alexander process of thinking and moving. have informed their readers of what the Technique will do for bodies that display expensive clothes. the Alexander principle has been encapsulated in one very simple action called the Basic Movement (Chapter 4). New York and elsewhere find it accepted as a valuable resource in physiotherapy. the continual wear you place upon yourself through bad muscular habits—only your own physician can advise you if the Alexander Technique is likely to help. It offers a key for orienting yourself in all that you do. "Since the Alexander Technique is nothing more than the application of experimental method to problems of everyday behavior. there is no reason to delay the undertaking if a teacher is not available." In Part I. Whether seated in a theater or standing waiting for a bus. no thorough-going scientific investigation has been conducted into any of the medical claims that have been made for the Technique. dancers. A Simple Method People from all walks of life benefit from the Alexander Technique. or complicated by. It provides a compass for navigating in whatever physical or mental perplexities you may find yourself. Patients in medical institutes in London.Although there has accumulated an impressive volume of personal testimony. A word of caution is therefore in order. Part II presents a systematic program of seven easy Actions that shows you how to expand the Basic Movement as the basis for improving the quality of all the activities of 8 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . In the words of Professor Frank Jones. Highfashion magazines. If you have any ailment or illness—even one due to. like Vogue and Harper's Bazaar. . Those that have a professional interest in their bodies—musicians.

"This story of perceptiveness. however." said Professor Tinbergen in his Nobel speech. "is one of the true epics of medical research and practice. we need to learn more about Alexander himself and how he made his great discovery. To understand the Alexander principle.your everyday life. and the Technique that derives from it." THE WHAT AND THE WHY 9 . of intelligence and of persistence. shown by a man without medical training. These Actions will facilitate this because they are invariably involved in almost everything you do.

Newton and Leibniz. The Australian Story Frederick Matthias Alexander came from a remote outpost of the Australian bush country. that have been reached in total isolation from any ongoing tradition of study and research. He was born in 1869 on the island of Tasmania in a small town named Wynyard. an unusual woman who was close to the child during his formative 10 . But there are other turning points. no less significant for the welfare of the human race. the new proposition put forth appears to have sprung full-blown from the brain of its originator. This is certainly true of the way the Alexander Technique was discovered. Whatever influence he may have had on his son was far overshadowed by the boy's mother. acting independently of one another. In this way. just waiting for the great person who discovered it. Not much is known about his father except that he was poor and hard-working. are said to have hit upon the powerful mathematical tool of calculus at about the same moment in history. And upon closer inspection. we can see that it does indeed owe almost everything to the peculiar genius of that individual and to the special circumstances of his or her particular life. At first glance.Chapter 2 How the Technique was Discovered Many a major innovation in the history of science appears to have been lying there.

By the time he was nineteen. but family poverty demanded that the eldest son go out to work. for the theater had been his love since early childhood. so he took a job with the local tin mining company. Fortunately. From the beginning. He worked under a handicap. Local doctors often called on her. Alexander was already considered an accomplished reciter of Shakespeare. Thus. however. He persuaded Alexander's father to let him tutor the boy in the evenings. she had been known to saddle her horse and leap it over the paddock gate so as not to lose time fooling with the latch. trying to recoup his small fortune with odd jobs. and sometimes in response to urgent calls. and away from the mining company could consider himself legitimately to be a professional actor. In Melbourne. recitalist or both. giving his recitals on numerous smalltown stages.years. riding and midwifery (which included nursing and other medical services) to help her neighbors. tutored but not formally taught. In this wild and remote part of the world. Sometimes during recitals his voice failed him completely—disturbing enough for any actor! Doctors could HOW THE TECHNIQUE WAS DISCOVERED 11 . she combined two of her talents. refusing to accept anything on blind faith. finally. Crisis on Stage He could have become the teacher his tutor wanted him to be. Alexander was different from other children. his schoolmaster. a Scot who had emigrated to Australia in an effort to repair his health. Alexander won prizes and passed examinations with ease. which was all the formal education the youngster received. After the mining came a succession of other uncongenial positions. He would have liked to go on the stage. saw that his difficult pupil was something more than the usual rebellious student. He seemed to have an innate distrust of accepted routine and conventional wisdom. when he began at six to practice the kind of recitations so popular in that day. and it was this disability which proved to be the determining factor in his life. he decided to cast his lot with the theater as actor.

Meanwhile. The Patient Scientist That was the turning point. This was something he did. he lost his voice and left the stage in near despair. At first. One night.give him no more than temporary relief. but also during any physical activity. he could see the same pattern at work as involuntary preparation in whatever else he undertook. he came upon the characteristic that was blocking his own activity. Soon he began to go beyond his immediate problem. from the most trivial to the most strenuous. Alexander devoted himself to finding out what made him lose his voice. In time. Alexander began to examine closely how he used himself physically when he was on stage—keeping his eyes open and observing. This pattern of unconscious activity constituted the preliminary to every recitation he gave. halfway through an important engagement during the 1888 season. This close scrutiny continued for nearly ten years. but also when speaking normally in ordinary conversation. There were to be no more doctors. which is fundamental to the spirit of all scientific inquiry. part of a whole body pattern that also included lifting his chest and hollowing his back. the condition gradually worsened until he finally had to refuse engagements if he thought he might be incapable of getting through the performance. using mirrors while he declaimed as an aid to observation. with attention. becoming fascinated with the whole question of what happens to the body not only in speech. Once aware of it. He discovered that every movement he made was accompanied by a slight tendency to pull his head backward and down. Changing the poise of his head by pulling it backward and down was. In everyday physical acts. not only during his stage appearances. in fact. he began with that slight pulling backward and down of his head. Instead. 12 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . It was only more noticeable in formal recitation because there it produced a depression of the larynx and an audible sucking in of his breath that could. quite apart from speaking.

be seen and heard. and a valuable compilation of his essential writings may be found in The Resurrection of the Body (Delta Books). writers. in everything else he did. South Africa and other countries of the world. Israel. Alexander resumed his theatrical career. For as he pondered the far-reaching consequences of his startling discovery for the physical. He also produced several books. the obvious solution was to substitute for this negative action (with all the consequences it initiated) the conscious constructive movement of the head and body upward. finally abandoning the stage to carve a unique career as a teacher of the Alexander Technique. on a different scale. Switzerland. New Zealand. He observed similar consequences. theater people. and during his lifetime he worked both in England and America. He continued this mission until his death at the age of eighty-six. athletes and celebrities of all kinds sought him out. The Search and the Answer We can come closer to understanding the nature of the discovery that underlies all we are going to learn in this book if we now outline it in the terms suggested at the outset of this chapter: a special kind of person makes an important HOW THE TECHNIQUE WAS DISCOVERED 13 . mental and emotional well-being of people everywhere. France. Through his students. Italy. Thus. industrialists. he withdrew more and more from acting. Statesmen. A Unique Mission Since these patterns of bad use were triggered by an unconscious reflex of pulling the head backward and down. after he-had completely corrected the long-standing vocal disability that drove him from the stage. no matter what business or occupation. But not for long. all his other activities were likewise initiated in the same self-stultifying manner. Australia. movie stars. diplomats. his teachings spread to Denmark.

It turns out that the doctor cannot find the cause. Being a far from submissive personality. That secret is a small but perceptible contraction of the muscles at the back of his neck. This leaves him with the ugly choice between (1) leaving the theater altogether or (2) applying himself tirelessly to discovering the cause of the problem. While carefully limiting his theatrical obligations. but he does prescribe a medicine that might just do the trick. No use in seeing more and more doctors. for he realizes that the physicians of his day know even less about his condition than he does. At the age of nineteen. only to have his voice fail completely halfway through an especially important engagement. The scene is Australia during the 1880s. he is an actor specializing in the recital of long passages from the works of classic playwrights. Through years of carefully watching his every motion in an elaborate system of mirrors. a remedy 14 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Thus armed. and it precedes all efforts at vocal articulation.finding through the circumstances of his or her particular life and in isolation from any tradition of scientific thought on the subject. a career on the stage. he is forced to see a doctor about the problem. he devotes the rest of his time to a painstaking and meticulous observation of the only clue he has—himself. His great love for the theater had caused him to gravitate through a series of unchallenging occupations before attaining. Eventually. In fact. and his only stumbling block is the occasional but very annoying tendency of his voice to give out during recitals. Alexander chooses the latter. results are frustratingly slow in coming. where we find the young Alexander confronted with a problem of survival. His career seems assured—his reputation is growing steadily. Alexander resumes his profession with renewed confidence. Alexander has found the key. it takes almost ten years of searching through more minute movements before the secret reveals itself. at last.

The person is one psychophysical organism. In order to revise things of which we are not aware. the action that most often precedes wasteful or harmful responses is a contraction which pulls the head slightly backward and down. With every act. The effect of this is a compression of the spine. body following it. we need a new approach—one that can bring subconscious sensations forward into the conscious mind. the customs of language entrap us much HOW THE TECHNIQUE WAS DISCOVERED 15 . We are not split into body and mind. we need to prevent the neck from contracting unnecessarily. It can lead to round-the-clock tension in some muscles. high blood pressure and chronic joint and muscle pains. He must release that contraction with movement of his head upward. Taken together. which. Unfortunately. Outwitting Our Destructive Habits Basically. Those Puritanical Hang-Ups A major conclusion that emerged from Alexander's study and observation. interferes with the smooth operation of the muscular and nervous systems and all the vital organs. And this is only one destructive habit. we can consciously move our head upward. thus squeezing the delicate organs that reside there. was this: mind and body are inextricably bound together. And doing this means using the conscious mind to change our subconscious muscle patterns. the first of a whole series that will follow if the first occurs unchallenged. repeated hundreds of times a day over a span of many years. which can cause loss of voice. They form an inseparable whole. and from his later teaching experience. this destructive series can compress the body's trunk.will follow. reducing lung capacity and projecting the stomach unpleasingly forward. To eliminate the problem at its source.

Disdain for the mere "physical. Whenever we divide ourselves in two like this. at the same time visualizing a something mental that is embedded in a something fleshly. can manifest itself in any of a thousand different ways that upset or swamp us.of the time into thinking so. "A sound mind in a sound body. compared to the mind. quoting the ancient Greeks. into a mental part and a physical part. Instead. the kitchen mess accumulates. Often." We have something to blame. With disastrous consequences for our daily life." Or "my thoughts keep wandering. After all. we may even persist in believing that the physical business of daily existence is unimportant or at least unworthy of our serious attention. The leaves go unraked. the clutter of papers on the desk remains untidy." we glibly say. in fact downright lowly." thus mistakenly conceived. or higher part. we tend to look down upon the fleshly part as being inferior. the fault lies with one of those two separate halves. personal grooming is neglected or forgotten . . we also run the risk of never being rid of our troubles. the garbage is not carried out. It's "that damn leg of mine. . if we happen to suffer from puritanical hang-ups. 16 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . we could be finding out what we are doing that keeps us from solving our problems.

" he wrote. directly or indirectly. ease and endurance in everything you do—even sleeping. Sir Charles S. a new way to integrate thought with action. Besides. by stress and excess muscle tension. our particular patterns of move17 . casual or major. the whole psychophysical man. Sherrington. closing windows." The Australian was therefore correct. reaching to a shelf. in insisting upon "treating each act as involving the whole integrated individual. writing with a pen or pencil. "To take a step is an affair not of this or that limb solely. Adopting the Technique does not require you to embrace a new religion or far-out philosophy. the great Nobel Prize physiologist. always involves us in patterns of movement and rest. opening and shutting doors. for everything we do. sitting down. standing up. However we go through any or all these activities.Chapter 3 Bringing the Alexander Technique into Your Life Taking Alexander's discovery into your own life can mean strength. walking. the effects can afford relief in a very wide range of ailments that are caused. getting in and out of automobiles. once praised Alexander for his discovery. he said." We can readily see why. "but of the total neuromuscular activity of the moment. unscrewing the caps of jars or uncorking bottles. It does not matter what the activity is: lying in bed. It simply offers a different biological approach from the one you have been using.

Circulation is slowed down. for the movement of another in order to maintain balance and stability. everything we do in life manifests itself in the way we "use" ourselves. these conditions of excessive muscular tension are likely to exist. but in fact this new excess tension in the joints and muscles will slow down circulation and actually prevent your body from healing itself. So in this attempt to gain desirable results forcibly. When your body is erect. whenever you move without awareness. for unless the vertebrae are stacked evenly. it provides enough room for your organs so that your breath can massage them. the only possible result is that while you may be lengthening some muscles. The object is not to learn all the proper combinations of 18 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . as from a twisted ankle. Good use means moving the body with maximum balance and coordination of all parts so that only the effort absolutely needed is expended. Good or bad. What Is Good Use? The key concept of "use" is perhaps the easiest way to explain the Alexander Technique. Indeed. Sometimes nerves are pinched. you will be shortening others drastically. and usually inefficiently. you're putting unnecessary pressure on the organs so that they can't function as well. It's the same thing with your spine. and that causes malfunctioning of the parts of the body serviced by them.ment and rest constitute the particular use (Alexander's word) that we make of ourselves. arthritic joints or an upset stomach. Bad use means employing the body in a haphazard way: one part of the body compensates at random. you simply abuse yourself in another manner. however. It sometimes happens that when you experience pain anywhere. you unconsciously tighten the painful area and often other parts of the body as well. Some parts of the spinal cord will then experience more pressure than others. You do so presumably to protect the injured area by immobilizing it. If you are slumped down. the pressure of the body being supported by them is not evenly shared. If you try simply to push yourself erect.

In the ordinary work of walking and living. the word might apply on the rare occasions when you take a stance before coming into a room. Forget the paragons of close-order drill in the Marine Corps or the symmetrical ranks of the chorus line at the Folies Bergère. Once you have entered the room." a word that ought to be jettisoned because it in no way corresponds to the conditions of real life.muscular action needed for all that you do and then try to think of them constantly as you move. or when you stand poised at the head of the stairs. Through the Alexander Technique. there are BRINGING THE TECHNIQUE INTO YOUR LIFE 19 . since its absence was based on nothing more than that transient "holding-in" known as posture. with its accompanying hollow in the back. leathernecks and chorines alike let go of these strenously maintained body attitudes. Such a course is both impossible and unnecessary. you are again caught up in movement. Conceivably. Unfortunately. or the very moment you start descending the stairs. though. For when they depart the parade grounds or the music hall. You are not a statue to be propped about in various juxtapositions to meet the changing requirements of whatever you are engaged in. You Are Not a Statue Making good use of yourself by means of the Technique must never be equated with the static thing known as "posture. The effort to hang on to some deliberate position. The aim of the Technique is to allow a condition of ease throughout the body without creating any new distortions in the process. is continuous and involves both physical and mental fatigue. you must at the outset dismiss from your mind all shining examples of good posture. So in learning the Alexander Technique. It is in fact quite absurd to think of attaining some ideal posture and then clinging to it through all your subsequent activity. however. And your customary use of yourself will reappear immediately. you learn instead one Basic Movement that can control the normal flow of all your activity. no matter what kind. they drop the elevated chest and the forward curvature of the spine.

If you slump even slightly. No Positions. each illustration should be provided by stroboscopic photography or some other form of action picture. and even if there were. When you are not slumped. More air can then pass in and out of the lungs. However. This forces you to breathe with your upper chest rather than with your lower ribs and diaphragm. The Breath of Life A vital function of our body that is impaired by bad use is breathing.people who do indeed seem to be trying to preserve just such a rigid and invariant attitude through all that they do. No Poses To forestall any possibility of error. it would be different for every person on this planet because each human body is different. the positions involved in darning a sock would require a whole lifetime of memorization. You will not be asked to memorize the "right" pose for every possible body position (sitting. to prevent the least trace of confusion. standing and so on) and then go through life using these and only these poses. there is no "right" pose for any position. First of all. it may be well to state flatly what the Alexander Technique is not. They are intended only as a guide or pointer to the action described. the mere act of getting out of a chair takes the body through more than a hundred positions. and. Second. do not look upon them as static poses or positions to be imitated. more room is provided in the chest cavity. the blurry effects of such an attempt at authenticity would nullify the purposes of useful and simple instruction. as a result. Think of them as having been extracted from some ongoing movement. your lung capacity is thereby diminished. How to Look at the Pictures When you consult the photos that accompany the directions in this book. more waste materials are cleansed 20 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Ideally.

from your body. With the increase in the freedom of your breathing machinery, the quality of your voice can improve.

Let It Happen
Good breathing is integral to the Alexander Technique. This does not mean that you will need to practice it in the form of separate and isolated breathing exercises. As you begin to correct your faulty use, excess muscular tension will disappear. With the release of that tension, the action of your ribs and diaphragm in breathing will automatically take care of itself. As you progress, you may find yourself yawning or emitting deep sighs. Let them happen, for they come involuntarily and are an excellent sign that you are getting rid of excess tension. You will find that breathing supports movement at the same time that movement supports breathing. This natural and inevitable orchestration of the two is very different from superimposing some artificially learned breathing pattern upon your movements. Make sure you don't hold your breath. Don't try to do anything. Let it happen.

Your Breathing Improves
Notice, when talking, whether you are breathing in through your nose or your mouth. Give yourself time to breathe. It is helpful on occasion to close your lips and allow the air to come in through your nose when you need breath. This helps to release any tightness in the throat. Many of us develop the habit of gulping or sucking in air. This tenses the throat and is accompanied by a downward pull of the head. But when you don't collapse your chest and pull down, a slight vacuum is created in the lungs, which pulls in the air for you. When you breathe normally in this way, every time stale air leaves your lungs, new air will automatically come back in. Through the Alexander Technique, you can learn to leave your breathing mechanism— your body—alone to function freely and without effort. BRINGING THE TECHNIQUE INTO YOUR LIFE 21

How We Got This Way
To be sure, in this misguided quest, the breathingexercisers and the posture-builders may really be seeking some of the benefits that are achieved by the Alexander Technique. The grace and naturalness that the Technique imparts to you will be highly noticeable. Whenever you use it, your entire body will be more erect—your chest is not collapsed, your torso does not settle in on itself. As you continue to practice, an improvement in muscle tone occurs. If such are the blessings reaped through making good use of oneself, why are they so deplorably lacking in most of us? What has gone wrong? Why so much grief physically and mentally? It is the burden of civilization's advance, Alexander believed, that has brought upon us our present deteriorated condition. Today, instead of adapting our bodies to a slowly changing terrain, we capriciously adapt a fast-changing environment to arbitrary standards of comfort (even taste). Through current upheaval, the one thing that has remained essentially the same is the structure of the human body. Prior to the development of technology, changes in the world around us took place over a span of millions of years, slow enough for us to keep pace through subtle, unconscious alterations in the body itself. But our restless civilization has brought about a revolution in our surroundings so rapid that this process of gradual development has been quite outdistanced. As a result, the world we know now is completely foreign to the one to which human beings long ago adjusted. Our life-style has become a hybrid interaction of a body, originally adapted to primitive survival, with an environment of elevators, mattresses, automobiles and comfy chairs. Our physical and social universe is radically different, and our physical equipment has been impaired in its responses to the new demands thrust upon it by contemporary living. We have to make intelligent use of ourselves,

22 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE

said Alexander, if we want to meet the new conditions effectively.

Three Easy Tests
To illustrate the degenerative influence that civilized living has exerted upon the human organism, Alexander proposed three simple tests: (You are requested to interrupt your reading for a moment and carry out the following three experiments.) 1. Move your head without your shoulders. 2. Open your mouth without tilting your head back. 3. Turn out your toes without first shifting your heels. While doing each test, be alert and sensitive in registering how you move so you may catch the unnecessary movement involved.

See for Yourself
In quite the same spirit of experiment, you may now begin to notice, in the course of your daily activity, how you go about handling objects. Next time you brush your teeth, for example, stay alert and observe just how heavy the toothbrush is, how much energy is required to lift it and keep it in your hand. How much pressure is needed to brush? In the toothpaste commercials on television, it sometimes appears as though the people are trying to brush the teeth right out of their mouths. (See Fig. 8, p. 66.) You can make similar observations when you sit down to write a letter. With a little try-and-see, you can tell how much strength is actually required to hold onto the pen and get the ink to flow onto the paper. Once you consider how you actually go through any activity, you can begin to affect a change in your performance of it.

BRINGING THE TECHNIQUE INTO YOUR LIFE 23

We are not about to rejoin the lower animals or "go primitive. cultural advantages and triumphs of civilization. AND LET YOUR WHOLE BODY LENGTHEN BY FOLLOWING THAT UPWARD DIRECTION. a sane solution to our problem. In a famous allegory. more than anything else. which we will learn in this book. The road to the recuperation of our diminished faculties. emotional and mental. successfully defends itself by exerting very slight movements to deflect the thrusts and feints of a champion swordsman. which accompanied formal recitation. which blocks. It is this same harmful pattern of involuntary preparation which is involved in everything we do. and you will see a creature completely relaxed yet still capable of making sudden. and which is the essence of the Alexander Technique. And it is this." There is. No overdoing. may be enunciated as follows: AS YOU BEGIN ANY MOVEMENT OR ACT. the expenditure of energy in animal movement is exquisitely attuned to the requirements of what needs to be done. no underdoing. 24 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . prevents. at rest. the German writer Heinrich von Kleist makes this point by describing how a chained bear. but they are likewise spared its debilitating side effects. 'Alexander uncovered the whole pattern of bad use. The human antagonist is baffled by the perfect efficiency of the beast's innate responses. But the answer to the perilous misfunction that has befallen mankind through the anxiety and stress of modern living cannot be to call a halt to civilization. MOVE YOUR WHOLE HEAD UPWARD AND AWAY FROM YOUR WHOLE BODY. relying on animal instinct. What is more. definite movements. They have no price to pay. like a cat or a dog. Observe even a domestic animal. In curing himself of his loss of voice by noting the slight pulling backward and down of his head. defeats and frustrates whatever we may intend on every level of our existence—physical.The Road to Take Animals in the wild miss out on the satisfactions. however.

as we shall see in the following chapter. There are no exercises in this book. 25 . It is true. ed. Nothing tiresome will be required of you. joint-wrenching gyrations of any kind.Chapter 4 The Basic Movement You are now ready to learn the Basic Movement that incorporates the Alexander principle in a form you can practice whenever you wish. put you on the road to a new life of health. You are not called upon to run miles or to lift heavy weights. if you extend it through the whole range of your normal activity. in the deepest sense. and everywhere else in this book where a movement or action is given. This distinction is especially important because. The word "movement" as used here has nothing to do with the 1-2-3-4! 1-2-3-4! calisthenics you did in gym class. The mere performance of this simple movement can. the word always refers to some movement or action of the utmost simplicity. the calisthenic approach stands in direct opposition to the Alexander Technique. It is in no way related to muscle-snapping. personal happiness. Not an Exercise But first a word about a word. that the strenuous and repetitive exertions popularly known as "phys. In the Basic Movement." can be performed more effectively and with much greater benefit once you learn the Basic Movement and apply its principle to them. physical freedom and. however.

or whatever your game may be. The sooner you apply to any normal activity—such as tying your shoe or lifting a bag of groceries—the Basic Movement of letting your head move up and letting your body follow. a guideline to follow: a new way of thinking and moving. are presently learning the Alexander Technique because it makes a real difference in crew performance. It is not to be repeated mindlessly in hopes of programming yourself into some automatic routine that has nothing directly to do with daily living. Next follow the instructions for the Basic Movement itself. 26 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . it can undergo amazing improvement after you have bettered the use of your body in pursuing it. We shall do it sitting. for example.The same applies to those more skilled and motivated forms of calisthenics which we call sports. Turn your head to look around you. the sooner you will experience a new lightness and ease and a sense of real assurance in whatever you may be doing. This moment of selfobservation is presented under the heading "Exploring Yourself. Some Olympic rowers. rather. Whether you play golf or tennis. swim or bowl." and the same format is used as a preliminary to every other movement or action in this book. How to Start The Basic Movement is preceded by a brief inspection of your total condition while you carry out the action in your customary or habitual manner. The Basic Movement Exploring Yourself You may carry out this movement either while seated or standing. No trance: eyes open. It provides.

) Now that you've gone through the Basic Movement once. continuing to let your head ease up. Notice if this upward direction of your head affects the smoothness and ease of the side-to-side motion.See the room. but that it is allowed to delicately lengthen during your head movement. Tip your head to look up at the ceiling. 1. 6. Next. Continue to allow your whole head to move up and away from your body while you perform the turning movement. the following clarification of the main words used should give you even more success the next time you do it.3. What do you notice about the turning of your head? Do you feel any tense or tight muscles in your neck? Does your body twist about when you turn your head? Do you hear any popping. add the Basic Movement: move your head up and away from your torso and let your body follow. crackling sounds in your spine? Is your breathing slowed or stopped? The Basic Movement While turning your head slowly from one side to the other in order to survey the room. 7. then forward to look down at the floor. Your Whole Head You must learn to think of your head as three- THE BASIC MOVEMENT 27 . Turn it from side to side. Notice if it brings up and aligns your body. so that your neck lengthens above your shoulders instead of craning forward or jamming back. tip it back to look up at the ceiling. (Figs. 4.) The upward direction will keep you from cramping your neck throughout these movements. 5.2. Allow your whole body to follow the upward direction of your head. (Figs. 8. This does not mean that your body twists and turns with your head. (Figs. then tip it down to look at the floor.) Remember to keep your eyes open and looking.

1. Beginning from a usual slump. 3. 28 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Easing upward and away as you turn your head. 2. From side to side.

4. As you tip your head back. 5. THE BASIC MOVEMENT 29 . And tip it forward. Easing upward. 6.

sides. Cramping your neck unnecessarily. It is important that you realize how substantial a support your neck provides for your head.) When you remember that your chin is part of your head. you will be less likely to jut it forward. 30 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . With this in mind. including the back. you will understand that you do not need to hold your head up. thus pulling your head back and down. (Fig. this means your whole head. the neck is sturdy and the head rests easily on that large base as it moves. 7. 9.dimensional.) Often people have a tendency to lead movements with their chin. The fact is that the spine in your neck is very near the center of your neck. (Fig. the diameter of your vertebrae is larger than that of a silver dollar—not the size of a nickel or a quarter. not just along the back of it as many imagine. 8. 10. top and front (your face). Also. When you are directed to move your head.

The whole head. 10. THE BASIC MOVEMENT 31 .9. Jutting the chin forward needlessly.

"upward" is where the top of your spine points. including sides. causing unnecessary effort. up toward the ceiling. It means the moving of your head up and away from your body. As a result. their body will curve forward or backward. you will find that your body will automatically want to follow that upward movement. you must not forget it. We're aiming for as much flexibility and ease as possible.) Remember to think of your whole body as three-dimensional.Your Whole Body "Body" refers to your whole torso. the bottom line of your buttocks. (Fig. 13. If you remember this connection. when you allow your head to move upward. 11. You will probably experience some sort of change or notice some difference. Because your torso is connected to your head. remember that upward always applies to movement—wherever the top of the spine happens to be pointing—and is not a fixed position. Perhaps you'll be aware that you were pushing 32 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .) Above all. includes your shoulders and ends at your hip joints. 12. of course. It begins at the base of your neck. that direction is. People tend to think of only one dimension when allowing their body to move upward: either their front or their back. Your entire torso must be considered and no part forgotten. Simple as this may seem. as you lean your body to the side. your body must follow. back and front. and the moving of your torso up from the hips. On Your Way Repeat the Basic Movement and see what happens. in following the instructions. The Upward Direction "Upward" does not necessarily mean ceilingward. (Fig. Upward directs a positive action in order to prevent the usual negative action of pulling the head back and down and slumping.) However. (Fig. When you are sitting or standing.

11. THE BASIC MOVEMENT 33 . The whole body.

The Instant Train The movement of the body following the head is fundamental to the Alexander Technique. 73. In any case. although the engine always begins the movement of the train with its forward impetus is transmitted almost simultaneously to each car.yourself and using more effort to sit (or stand) than you are now. 34 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . The engine represents the head. You might compare it to the image of a train." 12. there will be no time lag between the movement of the cars and engine. and the cars the remainder of the body. Or as Alexander once paradoxically described the movement: "All together one after another. you will have begun the process of keeping your eyes open and observing how you move. Upward. If it is linked up properly. Or maybe you'll feel that it is easier to move your head in the way described.

external show. What matters is that you improve the process of how you move. far-reaching consequences. The Basic Movement is a first-class example of the way a very simple adjustment in the use we make of ourselves can have tremendous. The Basic Movement is accomplished without any big. It is a single adjustment. on the order of mil- THE BASIC MOVEMENT 35 . you are not required to take up any new position in order to correct your misuse. The lengthening of your neck when you move your head upward is tiny.How to Succeed Without Really Trying Most people learning something new are eager to discover the "right" way to do it. though. For as we have seen in the preceding chapter. a very subtle and continuous movement of the head upward "only an infinitesimal amount" (as Alexander wrote from England to a man in America who was learning the Technique on his own). there are no "right" positions. Here. obvious.

They strain their necks mightily.limeters. Here. they try to become human giraffes. But no neck-stretching whatever is required! Just a very slight movement of the head upward from the body will do the trick. However. though. but you will feel it in every bone of your body. some people are reluctant to believe that anything remarkable can result from the Alexander Technique unless they do something that demonstrates huge effort. It is perhaps part of our American credo to believe that only prodigious feats can produce worthwhile results. Your ruler may not detect the difference. is one case where the big results come from a tiny change. 36 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .

37 . If they used themselves badly in ordinary life. Much the same is true of the numerous varieties of physical manipulation and massage that are applied to our bodies. If we comport ourselves in a manner that is harmful. Some of these bestow considerable good upon us. they would continue to do so throughout their physical exertions.Become a Whole Person The Basic Movement you have just learned. "There was a crooked man. "and he walked a crooked mile." the well-known nursery rhyme tells us. They are not likely to change our condition for the better." Just so. updown. The Trouble with Physical Exercises After visiting the gym of a leading exercise teacher in Australia one day. left-right activity most of us associate with physical education. are clearly of a very different order from the strenuous push-pull. Alexander became convinced that such training would never meet the needs of people who came there in quest of physical development. and the seven supplementary Actions that will follow in Part II. This is because they have been designed with a very different objective from that of ordinary calisthenics. any exercises we do to get in shape will likewise be carried out in a manner that is harmful. In fact. the repeated and accentuated performance of the prescribed movements—thus badly executed—increased the damage they were already doing themselves.

they would now feel "wrong.but their intention is not to teach a better use of ourselves." We simply don't get true messages from our bodies anymore. Consider. How often have you driven from point A to point B without noticing what lies between or even how you got to point B. Another person may be oblivious of a tendency to lift her chin and jut it forward (until she sees herself on television). if you are accustomed to a standard shift. Moreover. sore ligaments or illness—gets through. but his trouble will surely recur if the error in his swing is not corrected." ludicrously askew). we pay scant heed to the constant flow of information that is being communicated by our bodies. Perhaps a golfer can find. the Alexander Technique coordinates conscious thought with action in order that you may deal with yourself. as these bad habits have developed little by little. driving a car. The Trance in Which We Live Unlike conventional exercise and manipulation. a person may carry one shoulder higher than the other and never notice (were his shoulders to be set level for him. for example. through alleviating treatment of this kind. some welcome temporary relief from the pains and aches caused by a faulty swing. a muscle cramp. We continue wearing ourselves out and tearing ourselves apart from day to day because we remain in deep ignorance of our bad tension habits until we reach a crisis of pain or run into some drastic physical or emotional trouble. Or again. Only the very gross or screaming message—a headache. so too has our sensory awareness gradually adjusted to them. In this half-conscious state in which we operate. Thus. 38 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . We unfold the whole repertoire of our daily activity with little attention to how we are doing what we are doing. We cannot perceive the faulty way we are using ourselves because it has come to "feel right. Most of the time we operate our bodies on a subconscious level. think back to the last time you borrowed an automatic car and reached down for gears that weren't there.

I have a good ear for other people's accents. remarks Koestler. The main component of what we perceive is the sound we think we are projecting. yet perceive my own voice as if it were free from it. however defective and self-defeating they may be. do we get rid of the bad habits that plague us? The Alexander Technique. The same applies also to our gestures and movements. and. the actual acoustic production plays a subordinate part. I was virtually unaware of this till I first listened to my voice on a recorded broadcast. therefore. caused by a confusion between the event as intended and the event as it really happens? How. People who listen for the first time to the sound of their voice played back on a tape recorder usually get a shock. All this occurs. "The clumsy gesture is screened off from awareness by the direct impact of the image of the intended graceful movement on perception. all the Actions in this book for learning it. He offers himself as an example: "I am of Hungarian origin." So too may our singing be stridently out of tune and yet sound just fine to us until a musical accompaniment pulls us back on the track. There may be a world of difference between what we think we hear and our performance as heard by others. and although my foreign accent retains the specific density of pea-soup. Perhaps no one has given a sharper and more disquieting picture of it than the writer Arthur Koestler. according to Koestler.Our Mistaken Ideas About Ourselves There is still another factor at work in this universal unfamiliarity with ourselves and our functioning. meets the problem by calling BECOME A WHOLE PERSON 39 . says Koestler. because in the perception of one's own voice. but this discrepancy is masked from us by the process of hearing what we intend and not what we are in fact uttering. in short." The Crown of the Senses So how do we defeat this tendency toward what might be called a kind of wish-fulfillment in our senses.

It is sometimes called the "muscle sense. in their concern with it. but in calling upon this faculty." It is not really that inscrutable. In order to ensure that we are using our bodies properly. of trying to "unscrew the inscrutable. it is deplorably lacking in a very great number of us. a real chance is offered for the enrichment of our entire organism. This enricher of the whole person is considered by some connoisseurs and gourmets of good physical condition to be nothing less than "the crown of the senses. we do not have to know the names of our muscles or how to locate them on a chart. Most everyone knows something at least about this faculty. It is not one of the original five long ago listed by Aristotle. one speaker even accused the others. but in the tendons and joint membranes as well. "Kinesthetic" is a cross between the words "kinetic" (motion) and "esthetic" (feeling) and means "feeling motion. or the "kinesthetic sense" as it is called. we are paying tribute to it.upon a faculty we all possess but often overlook because it is not one of the so-called "five senses" we usually talk about. It is by means of this sense that we remain aware of the position of every part of our body even when our eyes are closed. It is from this sense that we are continually receiving knowledge of the gestures we make and of the pressures or tensions anywhere in our body. the development of this sense underlies the entire program set forth in this book. jugglers or sculptors." the distinguishing mark of superb physical condition. At a UNESCO conference on brain mechanisms and awareness. or the agile ease and poise of a friend in the way he handles himself in all the ordinary activities of life. We use it to assess the range and force of our movements and also in adapting ourselves to the weight of anything we lift." though actually its sense organs may be found not only in the muscles. Whenever we admire the seemingly effortless coordination in the movements of a great athlete. Clearly evident in people like circus aerialists." Since it is essential in the practice of the Alexander Technique. It is the kinesthetic sense that supplies the information we need. 40 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .

Through the sensitive practice of the Basic Movement and the seven Actions which build upon it. in this way. get a good. Part Person vs. Whole Person There are always two ways a person can learn to carry out any action. is that the much stronger sense experiences of light and color may drown out this subtler experience. This in turn produces a harmonious interplay of all our faculties and thereby brings about the first visible fruit of our growing kinesthetic development: good muscular coordination. has come very much to the foreground in the U. The wise and respected New England medical educator Dr. during the past decade due to the popular rise of the human potential movement. clear idea of ourselves in action. by no means entirely forgotten in earlier American efforts to promote physical and emotional fitness. as Dr." heralded by Alexander." The effective practice of the Alexander Technique makes it possible to receive increasingly subtle messages from within. George V. Discover a World Within The "crown of the senses. Dearborn always emphasized the important place that the kinesthetic sense holds in the life of every human being. Virtually every branch of that movement makes some use of body awareness. One way is to focus on the single part of the body that actually does the work. He called it "the warp of the sensation-fabric—the personality's dynamic index of its body. however. Dearborn pointed out. The other way is to use the BECOME A WHOLE PERSON 41 . N.S. It was. we can increase the reliability of our kinesthetic sense and establish a new standard of good use." One trouble. sometimes so completely that many intelligent people go through their days "wholly ignorant even of the essential existence of these warpthreads in the fabric of our conscious life.We can feel what we are doing and.

This means using the Basic Movement. Your eyes must not become glazed. keep alert. during the whole time you devote to an Action. a person wanting to throw a ball will find that he must swing his arm. and when he hoists his shoulder. 42 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . So he swings his arm as best he can. how it feels and how it affects a person to live by means of the unique. in time. He has no real awareness of the rest of himself. his body may then compensate inefficiently to keep its balance. he may unwittingly raise his shoulder. the Basic Movement. physically-mentally unified Technique you gain from these Actions. The second way of performing an action is to involve your whole person in it. Rather. all parts included and coordinated to perform the action. With the first method. Do not hold your breath from a sense of strain. For example. but must see whatever they look at.natural integrating mechanism of the whole body. Staying in the Moment In carrying out the Actions that follow. It is the kinesthetic sense which. to control whatever you do. you swing your arm in a manner that allows your whole body to be balanced and your energy to be directed effectively. any number of things can happen that will cause more effort than necessary. Because there are so many possible combinations of tension. be open to any and every message of feeling that comes to you from the various parts of your body. This does not mean exerting effort throughout your entire organism in order to swing your arm. enables you to allow this total pattern. From moment to moment. You will then discover for yourself what it means in actual practice. You will learn directly the benefits of this regular experience of complete personal harmony.

it has become a prevalent sign of our era. pulls us down. is now surprisingly common at a much earlier time of life. But what about the rest of the theory? THE TECHNIQUE AS A WAY TO STAY YOUNG 43 . We have all encountered at one time or another those rare men and women whose upright bearing. Like air. Indeed. sunshine and other more familiar elements. we are done in by it. stoop and wither before the onslaught of advancing years. An eyesore and a handicap.Chapter 6 The Technique as a Way to Stay Young The youthful manner and attractive bearing attained through the Alexander Technique should dispel once and for all the conviction that men and women must inevitably bow down. down. it is self-evident that all our movements and activities are subject to gravity's pull. what used to be known as "dowager's hump. That gravity does indeed provide a persistent and unvarying element in man's ecology there can be no doubt. lithe movement and springy step belie their actual age. widely accepted at present. it plays a major role in whatever we do. we tend to disregard or forget this reassuring evidence of our senses. We continue instead under the spell of the rather sinister and frightening idea. down until finally. Since our body consists of mass. That much is certainly true. elastic lineaments." no longer related to income group or social status and every bit as typical of men as of women. However. working against us through all the years of our life. that the force of gravity. unequal to the combat.

" and "it leaves its mark in sagging wrinkles. Thompson. all this is the price we pay for standing erect. when we lie in a position parallel to the ground and thus alter the effects of the ubiquitous pull. the quadruped is more fortunately constructed for resistance to gravity than we are. The unflinching. which was partly the result of not being pulled down. it works its malign influence upon us. down. it is felt "in every movement of our limbs.Why We Shrink According to a popular view. Down. In this view. we find ourselves inextricably locked in a lifelong struggle. . in every beat of our hearts. For 44 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . drooping mouth and hanging breasts. we seem peculiarly ill-equipped for maintaining an upright position. as on earth. As bipeds. The skylab astronauts gave us yet another glimpse of this force's baneful effects when they emerged—after months of living outside it—in a remarkably unkinked condition. pitting human strength against gravity's relentless power with no chance of winning. According to the biologist D'Arcy W. Throughout the day. we regain that lost stature. unceasing pull upon us of this antagonistic force has been assigned responsibility for a very great number of the woes of aging. Studies have shown that between getting out of bed in the morning and getting back in at night. and the problem is one that has been with us ever since the forepaws of our prehistoric ancestors left the ground. They had even gained in height (and lost at the waist). But the cumulative results of a lifetime of unequal struggle can be seen in some bent-over and hobbling older people who have lost many inches. . which lays us on our death bed and lowers us to the grave. without let-up or cease." The Upright Creature Supposedly. and thus being permitted to straighten out. people actually lose about half an inch in height. During sleep. Gravity has slowly squashed them to the ground. it is the indomitable force which defeats us in the end. down .

the greatest strain is sustained by the musculo-skeletal structure that keeps us erect. This situation is said to account for many of the chronic progressive and degenerative conditions which afflict the falteringly upright. Richard Selzer totaled up the outward woes he thinks indicate that our erect stance THE TECHNIQUE AS A WAY TO STAY YOUNG 45 . but far from ideal for steadying our weight. Standing or sitting. deformation and distortion depending upon the disparity between the pull and each person's total power of response to it. the weight of our inner organs is carried high above our center of gravity. Just standing up is a kind of acrobatic triumph involving an exact balance of varying degrees of contraction and relaxation in more than two hundred pairs of muscles. with our heavy head and shoulders weighing down the skeletal structure. Our spine is flexible. And strain means injury. The immediate battleground for humans versus gravity may be discerned throughout the musculo-skeletal system whose mainstays are the pelvis. two-legged human race. in respiration and circulation as well as in the nervous system. the spine and the network of muscles and ligaments. Dr. Physiologically. Mortal Lessons. These muscles are reflexively maintained in a state of tonus— partially contracted and ready for work—except when the body is lying completely horizontal. curved in several places. we appear to be top-heavy.one thing. perhaps an ingenious device for cushioning shock. In a fierce book. how—in this view—can we hope to contend with gravity's pull? We are compelled to oppose its force by sheer muscular power. Failure or defeat in any of these components adversely affects the overall struggle. like an inverted pyramid. Must We Fall Apart? While gravity depresses all the elements of the body. Our structural frame is an intricate system of articulated levers—bones and joints— that are held and moved by our muscles and tendons. However. repercussions of the conflict are felt in all the other major systems of the body.

Our hip joints grind to a stop. Man is a perfect match for gravity. it pivots smoothly without tension. the human species. Our blood gathers in hemorrhoids and varicose veins. They move in a superb manner quite naturally. He found that body chemistry as well as the regulatory and coordination mechanisms of the body are all affected. feeling. which enables us to deal handily with the earth's pull. which is so popular today. It does not fully or accurately represent man's complex relationship to the downward pull he experiences from the earth. the adventure of assuming an upright posture would probably never have been sustained if man had not become capable of it. mood. Mental confusion. must have evolved a suitable equipment and the correct mechanism for biped locomotion. and before they are physically corrupted.cannot successfully resist the pressure imposed upon us by gravity. the whole body is in a system of balance. And the mechanism is by now genetic. Our flesh pushes itself through into hernias. attitude and behavior may also figure in the generalized failure of our adaptation to the ordinary strain of being on the earth's surface. From an evolutionary viewpoint. as Professor Tinbergen has pointed out. the extreme and scary picture we have just looked at. How We Conquer As it happens. their actions are beautifully free and easy. We obviously had to develop a way of neutralizing the effects of gravity in order for our life to have continued on earth. Or watch a baby turn its head. According to Dr. We inherit an easy good use of our bodies. Selzer. 46 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . slip. buckle and wear out. no strain in the back or anywhere else. This reflex of good use can be observed in infants. Observe a baby come to sitting position by itself. In the first two or three years of life as they gain mobility. our vertebrae. piled one atop the other. In the very long history of walking erect. The arches of our feet fall. is both one-sided and incomplete.

with its energy and movement directed up through the top of that column—the whole torso following the head—the body will work efficiently and flexibly.). The movement of the head leads and influences the movement of the body so that all parts (muscles) are coordinated and work in a harmonious system of contraction and relaxation. We actually feel heavier because of pressure put on the joints by excess muscular tension. A jutting part here or there creates an imbalance and. We sense a new way of moving. or shorten and arch our backs. what has been discovered is that when all the body parts are balanced and integrated. and gravity merely compounds the problem. When we do not trust our body's ability and interfere with this natural reflex of ease. it is we who work against ourselves. If the head does not initiate. we shorten our necks and pull our chests down. 1. things go wrong. the reflex system of the body is allowed to work. The correct messages from one body part to another (coordination) are relayed and interpreted properly. And it is because of these tense habits that it so often feels as if gravity must be working against us. different from our previous experience of tension-filled activity. In effect. THE TECHNIQUE AS A WAY TO STAY YOUNG 47 . tense muscles—is needed to keep it standing.It Goes by Itself Careful. In attempts to control ourselves. Only those muscles which are essential to a particular action are used in that action. the human species is constructed in a way to resist the pull of gravity effortlessly in keeping itself erect. When arranged naturally in a sort of flexible column. We no longer have to depend upon large jolts or shocks from tensing muscles to tell us if something is happening. some form of additional support—in the case of the body. Rather.) In this condition. 2. the reflex of our movement will be interfered with and muscle will be pitted against muscle. the body column will be out of kilter (Fig. detailed studies of this natural mechanism have offered a technical explanation in anatomical and physiological terms. as with a leaning column or an uneven tower of blocks. (Fig.

48 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Energy and movement directed upward. 2.1. The body column out of kilter.

bringing the head into real physical balance on top of the spine. Even when we think we're relaxed." But long before we heard these and similar unhelpful exhortations. through the tasks we were called upon to perform before we THE TECHNIQUE AS A WAY TO STAY YOUNG 49 . ourselves. Our bone structure (skeleton) is so finely organized a system of arches and supports that it takes only a tiny contraction of muscles to maintain us in the "work" of standing. But in fact we usually are holding onto something—namely." "Don't slouch. And this muscular release goes a long way toward explaining why the Technique is effective in eliminating superfluous tension. The magnificent engineering of the human body does not require it. the body following." "Or "Little girls don't sit like that. muscles throughout our body are tensing—holding on—in an effort to keep us as we are." and an elementary definition of the word is: the state of not having to hold onto something in order to maintain a position. The Alexander Technique. produces this desired alignment of the total structure. The new equilibrium gives relief and freedom to dozens of muscles that were previously engaged full time in "holding on" to maintain a condition that is at best a rough and hapless approximation of true balance. is obviously an old. our superb natural functioning had already vanished because of the way we were handled as infants.Never a Feeling of Strain We meet gravity by keeping our "balance. Such excess tension is unnecessary. inherited form of behavior. A Future Without Fear Proper adjustment to gravity in the way we stand. Most of us consider ourselves balanced when we stand (otherwise how could we?). then. Most of us are still trapped by the distant voices of parents and teachers repeating: "Stand up straight. walk and move. through the models we encountered and imitated in early family life and school. Our misuse of ourselves in all that we do is the consequence of modern living." "Your posture is terrible.

we can regain our easeful place on the planet and go confidently forward with the concerns that matter in our life. The foreshortening of the back neck muscles with which we initiate our every act. The youngster now starting out. We can reverse that trend once and for all the moment we decide to change our bad use of ourselves and reinstate our pristine grace. 50 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . In the way we misuse ourselves. We are no longer the helpless playthings or victims of a hostile force from below. This is why the popular picture of gravity as inescapable master and despoiler is for so many of us the stark truth. By means of the Alexander Technique. But this need not be.had the physical capacity or readiness. or the adult of middle or advanced age. The upward movement of the head followed by the body can free us to initiate whatever we choose to do in whatever manner we choose to do it. we can call a halt to our customary interference with the body's natural reflexes and thus facilitate our antigravity response. means that tension and gravity are operating in concert. and through our adaptation to the furniture and paraphernalia with which we lived. and the entire trunk and spine are slowly compressed. and which Alexander pinpointed as the root of our difficulties. we violate our own natural mechanism for meeting the downward pull exerted on all forms of terrestrial life. By means of the Alexander Technique. The effect is too strong for the body to resist. has no reason to dread that the years ahead are going to pull him or her down in a decline of slow surrender to gravity.

P A R T II The Practice of the Technique How to Do It .

The Seven Actions An Effortless Program The following chapters present a simple step-by-step program of seven Actions for learning the Alexander Technique. You can do them anywhere: at home or at work. Each Action leads to the next according to a definite plan. UPWARD DIRECTION. Keep in mind these and other italicized instructions throughout the Action as they are essential to the success of your experimenting. are extensions and developments of the Basic Movement. to refer to it before undertaking a new movement. without exception. doing 52 . and (3) suggestions for how it may be applied to everyday life. in your kitchen or office. Often the Basic Movement within the Action description is italicized. They do not employ anything in the way of athletic equipment or apparatus. which was given in Chapter 4. That movement contains the key to the whole T e c h n i q u e . (2) the Action itself. but all the Actions. No Leotards The Actions in this program are simple. MOVE YOUR WHOLE HEAD UPWARD AND AWAY FROM YOUR WHOLE BODY. No Dumb-Bells. which will show you how to apply the basic principle to all your movements. w h i c h as we h a v e s e e n i s : AS YOU BEGIN ANY MOVEMENT OR ACT. (When the weather permits. AND LET YOUR WHOLE BODY LENGTHEN BY FOLLOWING THAT It is advisable. Each step consists of three parts: (1) a preliminary exploration of your personal condition before you begin. therefore.

them outdoors will provide the additional benefit of fresh air.) The Actions require no gym shorts, or leotards or other special outfits. Street clothes, office clothes—any clothes you happen to be wearing—are fine, and no change of apparel will be necessary afterward. Whatever clothes you do wear should, however, allow you sufficient leeway so that you are not restricted in your movements and do not feel hampered in your breathing. If your clothes are not decently comfortable, you may want to loosen your shirt collar or open your belt a notch. Simply do whatever is needed to allow you to be freer in moving about and less confined in your breathing.

A Way to Begin
Read the instructions for each Action slowly until you have an idea of what it is. (If you prefer, have someone read the instructions aloud to you.) Then proceed to carry them out in the manner described. Sometimes the instructions are given in metaphorical language to convey what is wanted. Thus, when you are instructed to "direct your energy upward," don't worry about a scientific meaning: simply follow the instruction! You needn't do a great many Actions at one session; you may prefer to do them gradually. For example, you may do an Action for a day or so, noticing throughout the rest of the week how that particular movement appears when it shows up in your everyday activities. Then go on to the next Action. Initially, follow them in the order given, as each movement leads to the next according to a definite plan. Some people may prefer to do several a week. Be your own judge of your particular rate. Later, you can always return to a given Action and see if you can discover something more in it. However often you repeat them, you will always derive some benefit, provided the element of awareness is there. Never do them mechanically; you are not a machine. Indeed, treating yourself THE SEVEN ACTIONS 53

like a machine is the bane of what is ordinarily meant by "exercise." Paying attention to what is happening every moment of this program reeducates your senses and muscles.

For Your Enjoyment
Although a conscientious attitude is necessary, it is not necessary to drive yourself to the limits of your endurance. Indeed, that is an entirely wrong approach. It is far more beneficial to do an Action sensitively three or four times, without strain or tension, than to do it automatically many times. Remember, you are not in competition with anyone. You are doing the Action only for yourself, for your own good. If you rush through a meal, you do not give yourself the opportunity to taste what you are eating or to digest the food properly. Ill-digested movement, like ill-digested food, is less beneficial to you. You will enjoy the Actions more if they are done in a spirit of experiment and play. You should even allow yourself a little time in which to feel and enjoy the aftereffects of each Action. Do not rush from one directly into the next. Tall, short, thin, fat, lanky or padded, whatever the proportions of your body and whatever your age, there is nothing to prevent you from learning these Actions and doing them with enjoyment. You will adjust them to your own body as you go along.

Nine Rules to Follow
1. Your "head" means the whole three-dimensional globe—not just your face or chin or some other part of it. (See Fig. 9, p. 31.) 2. Your "body" means the whole torso. (See Fig. 11, p. 33.) 3. "Upward" indicates a direction, not a fixed place. (See Figs. 12, 13, pp. 34 and 35.)

54

THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE

4. Refer to the Basic Movement (pp. 26-27) each time you proceed to a new Action. 5. Perform each Action at your own pace, not in the fastest way possible. How is what matters. 6. Stay alive: Keep breathing and seeing the world around you. There is no reason to hold your breath or go glassy-eyed. 7. Do not worry about executing the Actions "correctly." It is not a question of doing them the "right way," but rather of discovering greater flexibility and freedom in your movements. 8. Breathe easily and naturally through your nose. 9. Perform each Action as though for the first time.

THE SEVEN ACTIONS 55

don't change your position. but look around the room by turning your head. such as a popping or crackling noise in your spine. 1. Repeat three or four times. Notice whether or not you are able to move your head more easily and let your head move up.Action 1 Leaning Forward and Backward Exploring Yourself Sit in a chair and turn your head from side to side and then up and down to look around the room. Involve your neck muscles as needed. Do you really need to use your body as well as your neck to turn your head? Lean forward and then sit back in the chair. Now that you've begun to think about how you are using your head.) While allowing your head to continue 56 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . (Fig. include your body in that upward movement and lean forward. What parts of you tense in order to move forward and then back? Do you push yourself forward instead of letting your hip joints simply hinge? Do you hold your breath? Applying the Basic Movement Still sitting. sore muscles or stiffness. Let your whole head move up and away from your body and pivot on the top of your spine (top of your neck). Your neck will twist a little to let your head turn farther to the right or left. Note any sensations of which you are aware. but don't force your head around.

LEANING FORWARD AND BACKWARD 57 . let your body follow upward as it leans forward in space.V. Applications to Daily Life Some examples of leaning forward and back: tying your shoe while seated. 2. then let your body follow that motion. Unnecessary pushing with your body. 1. tip your head forward. lighting someone's cigarette from a seated position and eating at the table. toward the floor. In leaning forward. on or off from your chair. simply bend at the hips to lean forward. Keep your seat. find out the difference between pushing your head up with your body and following the upward motion of your head. 2. Try both. reaching to turn the T. Lean forward by lengthening upward.upward and away from the top of your spine. (Fig.) If you have difficulty moving without pushing.

4. (Fig. The next time you discover yourself in a slump. (Fig.) You may have tried the opposite strategy: sitting very straight and trying to balance the spoon all the way to your mouth in an effort to appear graceful.) Probably the easiest way to eat soup is to lean forward effortlessly (by following your head up) and then let your torso curl slightly to bring your mouth closer to the bowl. 5. The tendency is to collapse the chest and push the chin toward the bowl in order to avoid spilling the soup.Eating Soup Especially watch what happens when you eat soup. 3. pull down a little more than you normally would. How to Get Out of a Slump "Sometimes you just want to have a good old slump. 6.) Then experience getting out of that position by first becoming aware of a real connection be- 58 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE ." one of my teachers would often say. (Fig. (Fig.) You will also appear more graceful and eliminate the balancing act.

You can do this anytime you find yourself slouching. 4. (Fig. Do you leave them free or do you pull them down? Now think of moving your head up and away from your body and letting your body follow that direction while you speak. As you talk. Stiff.tween your whole head and whole body. Then begin to let your head move up delicately. Easing upward. Try reading aloud from a book and see if you can notice what you do with your head and neck. The Way You Talk How you talk is affected by what you do with your head. You've achieved a little more ease just by moving.) Greater freedom in breathing brings greater freedom in speaking. 7. straight and awkward. (See pp. Pulling down. LEANING FORWARD AND BACKWARD 59 .) Note the change that has taken place as you emerge from your slump. 3. you may have noticed a change in your breathing. 5. let the upward energy continue. 20-22. While you have been learning to follow the upward direction of your head with your whole body. your body following up after it while you lean forward and then back.

leaving the jaw muscles loose. The ease of your head also helps your lower jaw to release. The slump. Now open and close your jaw with your hands. with your thumbs on the underside of your jaw. When you have difficulty moving your jaw in this way.6. You can change this by allowing your body to follow the upward motion of your head. 60 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . To check the flexibility of your jaw. Easing upward. it usually indicates that you hold tension there when you speak. 7. You are therefore using more effort than you need to for speaking. very gently place your fingertips on your chin just below your lower lip.

palms resting down. In other words. Apply the Basic Movement Place your hands on the tops of your thighs. later. Then bring them down again. do the movement easily enough to notice what you do with your body and head. let your arms lengthen out through your fingertips. lift both over your head. 2. 3. legs included. Let your head begin easing away from your body. (Figs. what you do with the remainder of your body.Action 2 Moving Arms Exploring Yourself Do this one while sitting. 1. Do you tense your neck or jut your chin forward? Do you lean forward or backward with your upper torso? What parts of your body besides your arms are involved in this movement? Perhaps there are other things that you'll notice. Then try moving them quickly and in several different ways. Leave your hands there and let your arms rest comfortably at your sides. you can try it standing. While your neck lengthens and your body follows the upward motion of your head. Starting with your arms at your sides. When your arms are 61 . continuing to pay attention to your head and body.) Move your hands along your legs toward your knees. At first. while you lift your arms will affect the ease and efficiency with which you can move them. Every part of your body is related to every other part in movement.

4. Then let your arms come back down in front of you.) Think of each shoulder moving to the side upward and outward from the body to prevent any unnecessary tightening there. Repeat the movement of raising your arms. lift them over your head. During this entire sequence. (Figs.straight. you needn't force your shoulders to move this way. bend your elbows and bring your hands back to your upper thighs. let your arms lengthen and let your head rest lightly on the top of your neck. 5. although you can allow them to move. shoulders or neck to move your arms. Applications to Daily Life What usually happens is that people shorten most of the muscles of any limb or any part of the body to move that part 62 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Beware of pulling down or tightening your chest. When your hands touch your knees. 7. adding to it the new direction for your shoulders.) As with your head and body. (Fig. 6.

By watching how you use your arms. Ask yourself if the energy you use is really appropriate to how light a toothbrush is and the amount of pressure you need to apply to your teeth. 2. pulling the upper arm toward the shoulder. to bend the elbow the way most of us do. you will be able to avoid a lot of excess tension that would otherwise occur in your shoulders and neck. Then we unconsciously select the proper muscle to do the bending and use that muscle to work against the rest of the muscles. For example. which are shortening. Brushing Your Teeth A good example of how most people do more work than they need to is brushing teeth. and most people do it unwittingly. let your arms lengthen. While your body follows your head up. we make a tiny jerk of the arm. MOVING ARMS 63 . 1. That locks the elbow joint. notice how you reach to pick up and use an object. 3.or to bend a joint. That takes a lot of extra work. In the course of your daily activities.

5. No need to pull down and tighten.4. 6. 64 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .

Opening a Door You can make similar observations when you open a door.) There is a tendency in standing activities like this one to lock your knees. (Fig.) Also note if you are overdoing the action by reaching out toward the door long before you get there.) 7. 9. (Figs. Your shoulders move upward and outward. give it some thought. Then let your head ease up and your body follow and see if you can allow your arm to float up to the knob by lengthening out through your fingertips. which simply adds an unnecessary restriction to your freedom of movement. Do a little experimenting to see how much strength is actually required to reach out to the knob and take hold of it. See if you can make it easier. 11.Next time you brush. 10. (Fig. 8. Also notice what you do with your other arm and your shoulders. MOVING ARMS 65 .

With Children The way you use your arms in handling a young child will definitely affect how that child moves. think a little and notice what you are doing with yourself. The amount of ease you have in your own body affects almost anyone you touch. Let your head move up and your arms lengthen and hold the child with the 66 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . especially children. The body following the head upward. a child can feel it in the way you touch him. If you are tense and nervous. 9. Pulling down.8. Next time you pick up your son or daughter.

which is maintained while the baby sits. Lengthening. if the child brings himself to sitting. Also important is exactly what part of the child you hold when you lift him or help him to walk or to sit. least amount of effort needed. an undue amount of tension is produced in his back and shoulders. he uses his whole body in a system of balances with no tension in his back or anywhere else. Overdoing. When you support a child with your hands in helping him to sit or stand. On the other hand.10. The amount of ease from you that reaches the child will influence him to calmer and less resistant behavior. 11. When a six-month-old child is brought up by pulling on his arms. support him at the torso. Do not inject any effort into the easy movement the child already possesses. MOVING ARMS 67 .

then shoulders following. with each step forward consisting of an awkward fall on that foot. you do not need to lean or fall forward. Notice in which direction your energy moves. (Figs. This will allow you to move as a unit rather than in disconnected sections—for example. As you let your head move upward and away from your body with your torso following. 2. 1. Which part of your body leads as you walk? Stop. From a standing position. (Figs. shift your weight onto your left foot. 3.) When walking. the upward movement of your head and torso will move you forward.) Stop and start again several times. begin to walk. note what part of your body begins the motion and which direction you move in first: side to side? backward? forward? Continue walking for a few minutes. stopping and starting several times until you feel that you have made some discoveries about your usual walk. then head. hips forward. bend your right knee. 4. Applying the Basic Movement Begin standing. It will help if you start 68 . step out with your right foot and walk forward.Action 3 Walking with Ease Exploring Yourself Find a room that has some open space enough to walk around in comfortably. As you start walking again.

1. WALKING WITH EASE 69 . Walking with ease.2.

70 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .3. Moving in disconnected sections.

Awkward. with hips forward.4. WALKING WITH EASE 71 . head dropped.

I was letting my body glide along at a constant distance from the floor while continuing to explore the act of walking. Notice whether your hips shift from side to side or up and down. that I had to stretch my legs to get them down there. I felt that my feet would no longer reach the floor. putting your hands at the spot on each hip where your leg bends. infinitesimal undulation of the hips forward and back when you walk—unless you tense up and interfere with it. (Fig. I discovered I was no longer pushing into my hips toward the floor on every step. You'll be pleased at the gain in lightness and ease. Remember that walking and easing upward happen at the same time. I discovered my old habit had involved sinking into my hips and throwing myself off balance every time I shifted my weight from one leg to the other. Applications to Daily Life My first experience with walking by means of the Alexander Technique was new and strange to me.) Jogging and Running With any degree of speed.) In running. Avoid thinking of moving your head upward and then walking as two separate actions. For once I began walking by the Alexander Technique. 6. To test this for yourself. whether you start at a gallop or more gradually accelerate from a walk to a run.with both feet under you and your weight evenly distributed. Place your fingers on the front side and thumbs on your upper buttocks. see that you ease your head upward and allow your body to follow up after it. (Fig. (There is naturally a slight. Instead.) 72 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . there's often a tendency to pull the head back and down. walk around the room. Each time you start. notice whether your head continues to ease up as you walk. therefore. 5.

With a compacted approach. the golfer is getting in his own way.) This important advantage is often sacrificed in the supposed interest of power. Easing upward. the upright stance provides flexibility in the shoulders and the torso and makes possible the maximum control over the swing. The golfer thus compacts his body. (Fig. He will then have a true one-piece swing. 5. pressing in and down to brace himself in order to swing.Playing Golf In golf. However. shoulders easing out. (Fig. will he maintain an upright stance and his arms have the greatest flexibility possible. it is the speed of the club head and not the force with which it is swung that makes the ball travel farthest. 7. 6. Only when he is willing to let his head move up and his body follow.) Otherwise he fears he cannot swing hard enough. WALKING WITH EASE 73 . which helps increase the speed and control of it. His whole body will become involved in the swing. 8. Downward pressure.

7. Lengthening upward and outward. 74 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .

Pulling down.8. WALKING WITH EASE 75 .

Rest one hand on it lightly.) Avoid sinking into the leg on which you are standing (Fig.) 76 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Lift your right leg till your thigh is parallel to the floor. Does your right lower leg hang as freely from your knee as it can or is it tense? Do you lift or move your right hip unnecessarily? When you lower your leg. do you release it and drop it easily or do you reach at the floor with your foot and tense the muscles in your leg as you lower it? Once again take note of what your head and body have been doing. Applying the Basic Movement Still stabilizing yourself when you need to. (Fig.) Imagine a line drawn from one hip to the other and keep that line parallel with the floor. 2. bend your right knee and lift your right leg until your thigh is about parallel with the floor. 1. Now lower your leg down to the floor. you may use it to balance yourself during this exploration. 4. 3. Take note of how successful you are at balancing on one leg.Action 4 Moving Legs Exploring Yourself Stand next to a firm waist-level surface.) or lifting the hip of the leg being lifted. Lift and lower your right leg several times. let your head ease upward and away from your body and let your body follow that motion. As your body continues upward. Move your head and look around the room. (Fig. (Fig.

MOVING LEGS 77 . Lift your leg.1.

Now let your raised leg swing forward and back freely from your knee down. It should be free enough so that if someone were to push it lightly. Push your lower leg with either hand instead of using your muscles to swing it. it would swing like a pendulum until it lost momentum. Before you shift any of your weight onto it. first make sure the whole sole of your foot is touching the floor. then move your head and body upward as your weight shifts to that leg. Lift your other leg by bending the knee while letting your head and body 78 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Then gently release that leg to the floor.

The line of the hips is parallel to the floor. Then shift your weight from the back foot to the front by moving your head away from the top of your spine and letting your body follow that upward motion over your foot. The next time you repeat lifting one of your legs. lift your leg a shorter distance so that finally you will be walking easily. Avoid sinking into the hip. then gently release at the hip joint until your foot touches the floor again. The important 2. Lifting the hip needlessly. Let your lower leg swing freely.continue upward. allow your foot to come to the floor in front and to the side of the foot that supports you. 3. MOVING LEGS 79 . 4. On each step.

Applications to Daily Life Walking Up and Down Stairs Many students of the Alexander Technique find that walking up or down stairs makes them realize how much less effort is needed when directing their energy upward. People have pre-set attitudes toward almost every physical task they perform. (Fig. 5. These attitudes generally involve erroneous judgment of how much effort is required to perform a task or how their bodies must work to do it well.thing is to discover how to allow your body to go upward and forward over your legs instead of being carried by them like dead weight. How much effort is necessary to get up to the next step? A typical attitude held is that a person must push downward in order to move up to the next step.) The problem occurs Downward direction 6. Upward direction. 80 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . So the direction of energy is often downward when a person climbs stairs. The error occurs when a person doesn't experiment with his attitude—doesn't try out easier ways to do the job. Examine your attitude toward climbing stairs.

during the shift of weight after the foot has been lifted to the next stair. Easing upward. When you are walking up or down stairs. allowing your head to move upward and your body to follow.) Walking down stairs is often done with equal inefficiency. which requires extra work in order to maintain balance and control. simply allow your knee to bend forward as you follow your head upward. In going up an incline. Avoid freezing your gaze. you can still look down at the stairs to see where you are stepping. (Fig.) There is no need to keep the muscles of your knee in constant tension to serve as a brake. 6. 7. and the effort involved in straightening the leg with most of the body weight on it is exhausting. To climb stairs the Alexander Technique way. (Fig. 8. 7. usually because it is never approached consciously. nor do you need to jump from foot to foot. place your foot lightly on the step and gradually straighten your leg as you follow your head upward and forward to move your body above that stair. Most people place all their weight onto the forward foot before straightening the leg. To move down a staircase. Pulling down. MOVING LEGS 81 .8. apply the same principles.

Applying the Basic Movement Begin as before with your feet at least five inches apart and pointing forward in whatever position is most comfort- 82 . lift each heel off the floor and put it down again. rest your feet on the floor about five inches apart and pointing forward. as is most desirable? Do you have to tense your thigh or calf to lift your heel? Also try slowly lifting your toes off of the ground so that only your heel remains on the floor. one at a time. When your heel comes up. This indicates excess tension and that you are tensing the muscles around your ankle. up and down. Very slowly. in little jerks. Notice whether or not the movement is smooth.Action 5 Heel and Toe Exploring Yourself Sit in a chair. on the outside or evenly across the front of your foot. in the center. such as a car jack. Look for the same indications of freedom or tension. it moves as though it were on a ratchet. where does the pressure on the ball of your foot fall? Is it under your big toe. Leave the ball and toes of your foot on the floor. You may notice that as you move your ankle. See if you are locking your ankle joint at the top of the movement—with heel as high as possible—and at the end of the movement—with foot flat on the floor.

It will either become easier. be unchanged or become tiring.able. then let the remainder of your foot. (Fig. let your head ease upward and follow it with your body. 1. (Fig. Now as you let your head move upward and away from your body and allow your body to follow. The body's motions can now be consistent from the top of your head to the tip of your toes. Let your toes bend slightly up from the floor. See if you can find the most efficient way (the one involving the least tension) to raise and lower your heel. But something constructive is happening. include your legs in your awareness. Avoid contracting the muscles of your thigh by continuing to lengthen your leg as your left heel comes very slowly off the floor as far as it can. Now lift your toes off the ground so that only your heel remains on the floor. except your heel. There is no set way to do it. 2. but rather to allow it to be its full length and free of tension. Remain aware of the relationship between your head and body. Keep the ball of your foot on the ground and spread your toes. Think of your whole leg getting longer. If you concentrate solely on your ankles to the exclusion of the rest of your body. 3. Repeat with your other foot.) In order to begin and complete this movement. HEEL AND TOE 83 . release your ankle and continue lengthening your bent leg. (Fig. you are becoming aware of how you move your ankle.) Then as you let your heel very gently down to the floor. Now see what happens when you repeat this action. follow upward. When you understand how easing your head upward and letting your body follow affects the movement of your ankle and every other part of your body. let your toes come back to the floor.) Sit comfortably. you will begin to improve your use of yourself. This does not mean stretching your leg. As you continue. and let the movement of your ankles fit in with it. between your hip socket and your knee and between your ankle and your knee. Then stand up and walk around to see what changes have occurred. Lengthen your leg all the way from heel to hip. it will be harder to move them freely.

will give you added freedom of motion. 84 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .Applications to Daily Life Freedom in your ankles is essential for efficient and easy walking. but there is no need to focus on them except when doing this Action. 1. Foot flat on floor pointing forward. the upward direction of your head and body. Generally. now including your legs and feet.

HEEL AND TOE 85 .2. Lift your heel. Lift your toes. 3.

Make sure 86 .) A common tendency is to think of the knees as moving downward. (Fig. Instead. Notice where you feel any pressure on your hips or legs. When you are successful with this Action. Notice what if anything you do with your head and your body. As you release the muscles around your knees. Include your legs in the easing so that they lengthen and lighten. 1. Bend both knees until they are directly above your big toe. away from your body. As your knees bend. and allow your body to follow. Your legs should continue to lengthen as your knees bend. make sure they bend directly above each foot. let them go forward. Then straighten your legs and return to the standing position. Let your feet be as close to parallel as is comfortable.Action 6 Knee-Bending Exploring Yourself Stand with your feet a shoulder's width apart (from eight to eighteen inches). Are you bending at the hips and ankles? Repeat this until you are clear about how you are bending your knees. which creates more pressure than is necessary. keeping your body perpendicular to the ground. continue to follow your head upward with your body and without tightening your legs. Applying the Basic Movement Allow your head to move delicately upward. you will feel no pressure or strain on your knees.

1. KNEE-BENDING 87 . Release knees forward.

3. No need to lean forward. (Fig. Rather than pushing your body back up with your legs. Applications to Daily Life The simultaneous bending of both knees rarely occurs by itself in everyday activity. or forward if needless extra effort is used in bending your hips (Fig.) Place a mirror at your side to monitor this movement. let your head and body ease upward from your legs and let your knees follow. rather.). Keep your body sense alert so that you can tell if at any point you are tensing your knees.). 3. 88 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Don't let your old habits interfere with your new way of bending. No need to tilt back. 1. it is part of the movement 2. but remains perpendicular to the ground. 2.you release your hip joints so that your body does not tilt backward when your hips lock (Fig.

that movement is present even though their feet may be positioned differently. 4. you will encounter a variation of it in the plié.) 4. 5. Working at a low counter. Easing upward. and do the work with their legs as they should instead of their backs. 5. When people bend to pick up things. The greatest value of this Action is that it frees the hips and knees. knees bent. KNEE-BENDING 89 . Instead of going forward by bending your back and hunching your shoulders (Fig.). The act of walking is greatly influenced by the amount of flexibility in the leg joints. doing dishes and ironing are examples of such activities. a freedom most people need. Pulling down. stay upright and bend your knees to lower yourself to the level you need.of sitting and standing. Knee-bending is also the most efficient way of approaching any activity in which you are standing and must lean over to work. (Fig. carpentry. If you're a dancer.

ACTION 7 Standing Up and Sitting Down

Exploring Yourself
In Action 1, you learned how to lean forward without pushing forward. Now get up from a chair, noticing what your body must do in order to stand. When leaning forward in order to stand up, do you use more effort than when you merely lean forward in a chair? No more effort is actually needed. Now sit down from a standing position and notice what happens to the relationship of your head to your body. Do you freeze your head or any part of your body while you sit? Repeat these two Actions, noting everything that is involved in sitting and standing.

Applying the Basic Movement
Standing Up. Sit in a chair of average height. Begin by becoming aware of what you do with your head and your body. Turn your head from side to side and allow it to move up and away from your body. As you become aware of the
upward direction, lean forward by following your head with

your body. Continue following as you lean forward until your buttocks come off the chair. (Fig. 1.) As you lean forward, "upward" becomes diagonal from the chair, not skyward. As soon as your weight is on your feet, you have completed the movement.
90

1. Following your head upward.

STANDING UP AND SITTING DOWN 91

Sit back in the chair and repeat this movement several times, noticing what you do in order to come to your feet. Discover how to do the movement in one flowing motion with the least possible effort. Often people discover that they are giving a little push, a little tightening, just before they leave the chair. There are many people who at first feel that this little push is absolutely necessary but soon discover it isn't when they let their bodies follow their heads. Having made a slight improvement in the flow from sitting to getting your buttocks off the chair, go all the way to standing the next time you do it. "Upward" will continually change in relation to vertical as you fold forward. Notice whether you continue to follow your head or whether you change direction and push yourself up. (Fig. 2.) Beware of trying to swing yourself to your feet. (Fig. 3.) NOTE: When you stand, it is necessary to use your thigh muscles to some extent, so rather than concentrate on your legs, observe what you must do with your head and body to gain the most efficient use of your legs. After you have come to a standing position, your head continues upward and your body continues to follow it. There is no reason to abandon that upward direction and collapse after you have stood up. (Fig. 4.) Sitting Down. In the act of sitting, the advantage of following your head with your body is that you have control of your balance as you sit. An important idea to grasp about sitting down is that you must continue to follow your head upward with your body. If you let all your joints fold as you sit, and direct the energy upward to relieve pressure on the joints instead of tensing to keep from falling, you will not have to work as hard. As you stand in front of a chair, get your head and body going upward. As soon as you feel pressure taken off your legs, release your leg joints and let them fold. Remember to let your hips bend as well so that you lean forward as you approach the chair. (Fig. 5.) If this is confusing, stand up again, noting how far you fold forward as you stand. Sitting down is the same movement in reverse. 92 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE

2. Beware of pushing. Beware of swinging up. STANDING UP AND SITTING DOWN 93 . 3.

Once standing.4. continue easing upward. 94 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .

Bending the joints to sit.5. STANDING UP AND SITTING DOWN 95 .

knees and ankles. you can avoid the shifts in direction and stand up in one easy flowing motion. it is all the same basic movement: bending at the hips. You will still have the flexibility to twist and turn your head. How many people have you seen who push their knees down with their hands in trying to stand. one that uses the whole body is the movement from standing to sitting and vice versa. 96 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . And you can do it without the extra effort of forcing or tensing your muscles. But if you can learn to follow your head with your body. straightening the joints and rebalancing the weight on the feet to stand. 2. Most people drop themselves into a chair and push themselves out. Whichever way it is done. many people divide the movement of standing into steps: lean forward.) Without even thinking about it. It is one of the best movements you can do to explore coordination of your whole body. reach out with your arms or perform any other variation on the movement of standing. then folding into the chair to sit. when they actually need their legs to go up? (Fig.Applications to Daily Life Of the movements we repeat most often. push down. Most of us complete this action many times a day in an uncountable number of ways and positions. They go through a sequence that resembles shifting gears in a 1950 pickup. though. shoot up.

directly above your feet. your knees will tend to fall toward each other. Putting your feet farther apart is helpful. See if you can get your knees to fall inward rather than outward. Lie down. or outward.A Short Daily Routine A Time for Rest The experiments you've been doing thus far have been designed to teach you conscious control of yourself. your feet should be a shoulder's width apart and your knees balanced freely. Lie down with your feet flat on the floor and your knees bent. Ideally. Begin by finding a place that is comfortable.) More realistically. 1. The point of it all is to teach you to let your head and body ease upward during any movement. relatively quiet and can be used regularly. (Fig. 97 . spread-eagle fashion. There is one activity you can use daily to reinforce the process of lengthening in movement. Plan to use this space whenever you want to do this activity. 1.

so you can compare your awareness from one week to the next. Make yourself comfortable on your back. Keep your eyes open. make a mental note of your body's condition. What is important here is that you have begun to spend a period every day.Let your feet rest parallel to each other on the floor and about two feet away from your buttocks. on body maintenance. you may need up to twenty minutes. but continue to make note of them each time. Simply lie there for two to five minutes. and too many responsibilities.) As you lie there. In that case you do not need to write your notes but can use your memory instead. from "I have too many important things to do. though you'll soon be able to rest without one. Let your arms rest easily on the floor at your sides. Afterward. warmer More than likely you'll notice the same things from day to day. for me to be spending time on myself. A two-inch-thick pillow under your head is permissible. then make minor adjustments. When you have made a change in your belief system. You may also be able to remember all these sensations. it will become easier to lie down this way. short though it may be. feet on the floor." to 98 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . (When you are feeling extremely tense. or bend them at the elbows and rest your hands comfortably on your stomach. If any of these positions creates undue pressure. As you learn to direct energy upward and to move with greater freedom. write down the things you noticed during each session. For example: Pressure across the back of my hips Tingling in my right knee Pain in my left upper back Sensation along the left side of my neck The floor is cold on my back My breathing moves my stomach The small of my back isn't touching the floor Feeling a little angry at first Cold fingers Felt calmer at the end.

chin toward your chest and then back tip from your chest. A SHORT DAILY ROUTINE 99 . let your head come to rest in a position where your neck. With the back of your head touching the floor at all times. You may."time spent on myself is as important as any other time. move it slightly out from your body. slowly lower your body until your hips are on the floor again. 3. move your head by nodding it. With your feet firmly on the floor. however. Then starting at the middle back. 2. The lift continues to the middle of the back. Let your shoulders widen and open. Roll your hips up. several times. After you've taken this thoughtful rest for a few minutes. If that should happen. your head continues to move delicately away from your body. As you release it back to the floor. Again. (Fig. All the while you are doing this. find that your body does begin to lengthen. front and back. lift your hips up from the floor. the shoulder. seems to have some length. After nodding. Do the same with your left shoulder. do the following series of movements to allow your body to continue lengthening. but because of friction with the floor you feel stuck at first. 1." you can give yourself the opportunity to improve your performance of any activity. You don't need to push your body into changing. let your head move away from your body and let your body lengthen from buttocks to shoulders. will feel slightly longer. front and back.) 2. 2. Lift your right shoulder toward the ceiling.

roll your head from side to side. Roll it from side to side a few times.) Then allow your lower arm to float up. 3. Continue to experiment with moving your head. Bend it and curve it any way you wish. Try doing fast movements with the least amount of tensing. beginning the movement by easing your head upward. Find a way to move without jerking or setting (tensing) your body. as that begins to lengthen your neck. (Fig. Let your other arm rise the same way. Pay attention to what you do with your head and body as you move your arm. Move your head by letting it ease away from your body and. Observe whether any other part of your body tightens or moves as you roll your head. Any movement can be done by letting your head ease upward and your body follow. Notice whether or not you press your head into the floor or lift it off the floor slightly to move your arm. There is no need to tense any part of your body to start the movement. following your hand and bending your elbow. rolling it from side to side.Now that you do not feel stuck to the floor. Permit your shoulders to continue easing outward from your body. Use the release of tension to move your head. Very gently lengthen out through your fingertips. (Fig. bending your wrist (Fig.) Straighten your arm. All of the movements can be effortless. 4. Moving Your Arms Lift your arms one at a time. Rotating Your Head See how easily you can rotate your head from side to side. Make sure you move your arm without a jolt or locking any part of it. Then slowly and gently move both arms in every which 100 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE .) Finally your upper arm can follow the floating movement and your whole arm will be above your body. Be careful not to increase the pressure of your head against the floor. 5. you're ready to experiment with some movements in the lying-down position. First let your hand float from the floor.

Then the lower arm moves. A SHORT DAILY ROUTINE 101 .3. First move your hand. Move your whole arm. 5. 4.

way. 6.) Let your right leg straighten in the same manner. There's no need to push it away from your body. Then let your lower arm follow and. Bring your leg toward your chest. let your left foot slide along the floor away from your body until it is straightened and fully on the floor. As you let it down gently. Now lift your left foot again and bring your leg toward your chest. Moving Your Legs Next lift your legs one at a time. Direct the energy up through your bent knee toward the ceiling. continuing the movements of ease. The object is to learn to move your legs with the least amount of tightening in your stomach. As your leg moves away from your chest again. (Fig. lengthen it toward your elbow. 7. finally. noticing where you tighten and observing whether or not you tense your head as you move your leg. 102 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Do this a couple of times with each leg. back and whole 6. first allow your upper arm to come to the floor. body and arms. (Fig.) Your knee will travel through a slight arc. See what happens when you move your arms quickly and sharply. Whenever you let your arms return to the floor. Lift one foot off the floor by bringing your leg toward your chest. allowing your head to move away from your body as your body follows. Don't interfere with the freedom you've created in your head. Then place your foot on the floor again. Return always to the bent-knee position. your hand.

9. let your knees come to the floor. Let your head move away from your body and let your body move with it. (Fig. one at a time. causing your body to roll until you are lying on your side.body. As you sit up. Always let your head and neck be free. let your head begin rolling toward the same side.) Then roll onto your back by moving your head first and letting your whole body follow. 7. it is essential to let your head continue moving instead of locking in place. Rolling onto Your Side Let your knees fall slowly and easily to one side. The leg is straightened. If you want to bend over as you come up. Allow the ease to continue in your head. let your head go outward from the top of your spine and permit your body to follow. your head doesn't necessarily have to be the highest part of your body as you stand. Draw your knees up again.) As your head continues to move. 8. neck and torso. To do this. A SHORT DAILY ROUTINE 103 . while thinking of your legs lengthening outward through your knees. Roll to the opposite side in the same manner. (Fig. Now straighten up.) Now you should be sitting. roll onto your side. 9. Remember. Sitting Up To sit up from the lying position. Seated it's easy to stand simply by following your head with your body. Use the arm closer to the ceiling to push on the floor in front of your chest. (Fig. doing the same.

is better than a stiff or bouncy one. use the position of rest described above (Fig. 1. or no pillow at all. Your knees roll to the floor. The best way to sleep is on your back unless you have specific physical problems that prevent this position.). Let your head roll to the side.8. Restful Slumber Sometimes we do not get the full benefit of a good night's sleep because we continue so many of our habits of tension while we sleep. Having a good soft pillow that forms to your head. When you first lie down. 9. a few adjustments will 104 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Then let you legs straighten out and rest on the mattress as you continue to let your head move away and your body to follow it! If you must sleep on your side.

11. but rests directly above the other shoulder with your chest and back unconstricted. 10.). or at least rest the upper part of it on your upper side. and let it bend at the elbow. collapsing onto your chest (Fig.). Bunch your pillow under the side of your head so that your neck is straight as it would be in standing. . Cramped. If you slept on your back. This way your upper shoulder does not curl down. that can shock your body with exaggerated muscle action. A SHORT DAILY ROUTINE 105 . 11. Then lay your top arm on the side of your body. Lengthening. make this position more advantageous.10. 11. avoid doing any movement. When rising from the bed in the morning. such as a sit-up. This will keep your body from collapsing onto the shoulder that rests on the mattress and will prevent your neck from cramping (Figs.

even before you choke up or explode. for instance. Emotions are not the result of a conscious decision. 106 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . Anger. which can tie you into knots or make matters worse.first roll onto your side. By this procedure you can. Anger. do all your calisthenics after your body is more awake and your heart has adjusted its beat to a moving body. wasteful or debilitating emotion will express itself in tensions that you can perceive even before you go haywire. jaw and shoulders. The value of control can be seen if we recall for a moment the many unfortunate events in which we and those we love have been hurt by actions stemming from fear. they arise subconsciously before the conscious mind can act. Rather. for example. anger or hostility. Any harmful. If you must do them in the morning. simply give some attention to easing your head upward and allowing your body to follow after it. the new direction of your energy. eliminate the panic from fear and size up the situation that inspires it and do something about it. inundated by it. When you detect these signals. then sit up gently as you ease your head and body up. gives you a means of coping with the emotion so that it remains a potential for action but does not interfere with rational decision and any action you may take. Panic You can apply the Alexander Technique in your daily life so that your emotions do not get out of hand. Emotional Control—Worry. This is not the same as trying to suppress anger. among others. tenses muscles in the neck. by releasing tension throughout your body.

The entire purpose of the sketches that follow is to provide a means for understanding and resolving any unnecessary problem you may recognize in yourself. If so. well and good. and it need not impede the smooth course of making the Alexander Technique your own. But perhaps you may discover one or another obstacle with which you have been needlessly hampering your own progress in acquiring the Technique. These people focus on what they won't or 107 . The Worrier One of the most common tendencies seen in beginners is the "I can't" habit. I have encountered many of the handicaps that people create for themselves at the beginning. take careful note of the sketch that applies to you. It can be eliminated as soon as you become aware of it. But perhaps because the Alexander Technique is so easy to do. These thumbnail portraits have been designed as a series of helpful hints for carrying out the Technique. the problem involved and the answer to it.Some Helpful Hints You now have the simple program that will make an important change in how you function at every level of your daily life. The reason may -be that it seems too good to be true: it can't be that simple. If that is the case. and so we go about inventing them. As a teacher of the Alexander Technique. we manufacture unnecessary difficulties in the process of learning it. It may be that you are not troubled in any of the ways described below. Following are some of the needless difficulties I have most often observed. Surely there have got to be complications.

After that experience." 108 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . I began to notice a definite physical attitude that took over whenever I worked in the kitchen or performed other household chores. Thinking about how you should be easing up is like making a plan to do the laundry instead of actually doing it. I reasoned. As I stood there. "Why not practice what you preach?" So I let my head move up and my body follow. guilt crept over me.can't do. I realized I had been bent over. feeling better and better. While scrubbing away furiously at a burned pot and considering all this. "Am I doing it?" They notice that nothing is happening and then they think. I was in the kitchen one day. The Straining Housewife One of my own experiences can best explain what is involved here. Don't worry about what you're not doing. As I stood there. This can't be right if it's making me feel good instead of strained and tired. it's not necessary to be in a state of continual regret when you feel you're in error. they give their bodies the instruction to follow their heads. they immediately ask themselves. I experimented with just how hard I needed to hold onto it. I suddenly thought. after spending an entire morning teaching the Technique and talking a lot about integrating relaxation into daily activity." The idea of the Alexander Technique is to pay attention to what you are doing. for example. Are you pulling down? Then go up. When. Every activity had a different but usually effortful physical attitude attached to it. "I'm not doing it! I can't. I continued my experiment until the pot was clean and then I felt actually refreshed. In the process. feeling very easy. Still. Only by thinking during the activity was I able to avoid doing the excess work that made me feel I was doing the job right. In other words. and began to press more lightly on the pot. There really is no need to be a "straining housewife. pulling my shoulders in. I let my arm lengthen and hold onto the scrub brush very lightly. It was still coming clean.

Thinking in these terms must be an active process that actually releases you from the downward pulls you ordinarily experience.' I can't go around SOME HELPFUL HINTS 109 . not hands. it takes so much energy to stay aware and remember to move 'Up. you can't go around doing that and carry on your everyday activities. . But you can do some constructive thinking that carries over into every activity. not a place. my head comes back down again. and pushing my head up. Let it happen. The Manipulator "When I get a tension headache. There is a maximum point of lengthening the spine. How can words possibly make them go farther when you reach that limit?" What he has forgotten is that upward is a direction. but you can always continue to direct your head upward as you continue to move about.The Thinker She says: "I think and think about my head going up but nothing happens." It is not just the process of repeating the words or idea in your head. the other hand on my shoulder." Obviously." I tell her: You have not quite understood what I mean by "thinking. The Scientist He has deduced: "My head and body can only go so far upward before levitating is the next step. But I can't keep hanging on that way. This prevents the tendency to pull it downward. well. Direct your head to move upward and your body to follow with awareness. I can stretch my neck by putting one hand under my chin. do it with my hands. The Under-Achiever The under-achiever says: "Oh. . When I take my hands off. I can force . Go past words to experiencing the idea.

The Freezer He declares: "I know where up is." When you're letting your head ease up and your body follow. The Step-by-Stepper He says: "I ease up every time before I move. and when I'm sitting still and not doing anything. For example." To the step-by-stepper I reply: See if you can ease up in order to make a move rather than easing up before you move. I go up with my head and let my body follow to reach with my arm in any direction." Preventing the back-and-down pull is like breaking any other habit. If you do this. then. tense some muscles. it will be there. so all you have to do is continue moving and you'll get to where you want to be. The next step. your head can still move up away from your body but of course not toward the ceiling. to move your head up. and it's very hard to do two things at once. to get forward in a chair. Soon this awareness will become an integral part of everything you do. Surely I have to do something. But as soon as I move. I can remember to think about it. You still have to learn how to recognize your own movement without tensing or pulling down. I think about that immediate move and forget about easing up. you're already moving.thinking about this all the time. That way change will come out of every activity you do and not as a result of something imposed on you. 110 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . I think of any action as moving upward with my head and body. I have things to do. At first you have to remind yourself to do something different—in this case. will be to learn to continue directing the energy upward during the movement. but I just look as though I'm being stiff and formal. You won't have to summon the thought to move your head. then "up" becomes relative to the movement you're doing. If you bend over.

taking a shower. The Practicer She complains: "I go home and practice this Technique every day. and then I feel as though I shouldn't move or I'll lose it. So I don't turn my head. lock in and become inflexible. probably without awareness. And when do you use yourself most? In all your everyday activities—eating. When you get to the point where you refuse to change. When you start allowing your head to ease upward and your body to follow while you SOME HELPFUL HINTS 111 . You yourself change from movement to movement as do the requirements of any activity in which you may be engaged. What you do is make your head move up as far as possible. stop practicing and start living! In studying the Alexander principle. The fact is. you tense up. Maybe I'm practicing wrong." Whenever you think you're doing something right." First. hold it. you're trying to learn to use yourself better.The Over-Achiever He has the opposite problem from the under-achiever: "When I do what I think is easing up and maintain. talking to a friend. you've lost that flexibility. let go of it. but I don't seem to be making any change. The point of asking you to let your head ease upward and your body to follow is that you can get a little more flexibility and ease. I do ten minutes in the morning and ten after dinner. you're easing up as soon as you think of it. The change you can make yourself is very subtle. I feel very uncomfortable and stiff. then when you get to the limit. I still feel just as tense after a long day at the office as I always did. Be satisfied with a little so that you notice the smaller changes more. and I don't ever slouch in a chair. That's fine. I try to think about "it all the time. I can really move forward and back in the chair very well. These are the things you do over and over again.

Where is it again? Sometimes I decide to pull my chin in and push my shoulders back but they never seem to stay. in any movement you do. then you'll get the maximum use out of all your muscles. Because of unnecessary tension in certain parts of your body.wash your hands. chin or anything else. The Posture-Maker She says: 'I can't seem to remember where to put my head to get back that floating feeling. Won't I get flabby and out of shape if I stop exerting as much energy? Then I'll have to exercise twice as much. Then you're giving yourself a choice you never knew you had before—the choice of acting with or without tension. then you'll be putting what you've learned to use. It just so happens that when you stop interfering with your body's natural functioning. shoulders. whatever you do. in taking a step. not of posture and position. 112 THE ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE . locked muscle tissue. it just makes for hard. for example. Go back to letting your head move upward and away from your body as your body follows. The Alexander principle is a principle of movement. notice and see if you can feel a little more ease. Then you're on the right track. you stand up straighter. And should my feet come down heel first or toe first?" There is no right place to put your head. and usually they become a deposit area for flabby fat. But every once in a while. You don't have to think during all activity. for example. It's the way you use the energy that can be of help to your body." You're making the wrong assumption if you think that simply putting forth energy will keep you in shape. The Weight-Watcher Her reasonable question is: "You say that if I use the Alexander Technique I'll learn how to put less energy into doing everything. some muscles don't get used at all. Habitual tension doesn't keep you in shape. When you learn to use your body as an integrated whole. body.

. and Edward Maisel. Texas. In preparing this book Ms. Frank Pierce Jones who conducted major scientific experiments on the Alexander Technique at Tufts University. She has taught the Alexander Technique at several campuses. Louis. editor of Alexander's writings. Barker consulted with Professor Raymond Dart. Barker is now teaching the Alexander Technique at Webster College in St.ABOUT THE AUTHOR SARAH BARKER received her master's in fine arts from Southern Methodist University in Dallas. Ms. Missouri. world-famous anthropologist who discovered australopithecus and who is self-taught in the Alexander Technique. among them Ohio University and Prescott College.

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