Harmonics in Low Voltage Three-Phase Harmonics in Low Voltage Three-Phase Four-Wire Electric Distribution Systems

Four-Wire Electric Distribution Systems and Filtering Solutions and Filtering Solutions

Dr. Prasad Enjeti Dr. Prasad Enjeti Texas A&M University Texas A&M University
Power Electronics and Power Quality Laboratory Power Electronics and Power Quality Laboratory

© 2001 Texas A&M University. All rights reserved. © 2001 Texas A&M University. All rights reserved.

PSERC Online Seminar PSERC Online Seminar February 13, 2001 February 13, 2001

Outline Outline
1 2 3 4 Introduction Introduction Harmonic Current Sources Harmonic Current Sources Case Studies Case Studies Solutions: Solutions: -- Derating Derating -- Passive Approach Passive Approach -- Active Approach Active Approach Conclusions Conclusions

5

Introduction

Typical Building Power Distribution Scheme Typical Building Power Distribution Scheme

Harmonic Current Sources

Harmonic Producing Equipment in Office Buildings Harmonic Producing Equipment in Office Buildings Copy machines Electric typewriters Light fixture ballasts Personal computers Computer systems Computer terminals Audio visual equipment Recorders Televisions Video tape players SCR drives for motors SCR drives for elevators UPS systems Laboratory testing equipment .

Harmonic Related Problems in Buildings Harmonic Related Problems in Buildings •Overheating and damage to neutral conductors •Overheating and damage to panel board feeders •Line voltage distortion •Higher Common mode voltage •Nuisance tripping of circuit breakers •Overheating and premature failure of distribution transformers .

Case Studies .

Typical Current Waveforms of Appliances Typical Current Waveforms of Appliances .

Contd. Typical Current Waveforms of Appliances. . Contd.Typical Current Waveforms of Appliances.

Contd. .Typical Current Waveforms of Appliances. Contd. Typical Current Waveforms of Appliances.

Typical Current Waveforms of Appliances. Contd. Contd. Typical Current Waveforms of Appliances. .

rms = 3 * I phase .rms + I b2.Effect of Triplen Harmonics in Neutral Conductors Effect of Triplen Harmonics in Neutral Conductors Ia Ib 2 I N .rms + I c2.rms Ic IN .rms I N .rms = I a .

Survey results. Building I . Building I Survey results.

Building II .Survey results. Building II Survey results.

1A 77.8A 80.0A 53.5A 142. % 170% 103% 80.4% 143% .1A 24.7A 27.2A 17.2A C 72.Summary of Building Measurement Summary of Building Measurement Phase Building Building I Building II Building III Building IV Building V Building VI A 66.5A 41.3A 65.8A 50.3% 57.4A 41.7A Neutral to Phase.6A 23.9A N 120.0A 12.9% 171.0A 44.6A 36.0A 41.5A 90.6A B 77.0A 26.7A 60.0A 12.

• Typical loads include computers. • Typical loads include computers.02 INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES • 14 sites surveyed.12 . office equipment.Harmonic Profiles for Typical Buildings Harmonic Profiles for Typical Buildings OFFICE BUILDINGS OFFICE BUILDINGS • 9 Buildings surveyed. laboratory equipment. • Average neutral to phase of 1. telecommunication equipment. diagnostic and patient care equipment. • Average crest factor of 2. • Average neutral to phase ratio of 1. • Typical loads include computers and office equipment.04 • Average crest factor of 2.13 • Average crest factor of 2.12 MEDICAL FACILITIES MEDICAL FACILITIES • 22 facilities surveyed.

Contd. office equipment. GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS • 6 sites surveyed. • Average neutral to phase of 0.74 .78 AUDIO VISUAL STUDIOS AUDIO VISUAL STUDIOS •8 studios surveyed. • Typical loads include computers. Harmonic Profiles for Typical Buildings. Contd.Harmonic Profiles for Typical Buildings. data processing equipment.65 •Average crest of 1.77 • Average crest of 1. •Average neutral to phase of 0.

Building I . Building I Common Mode Noise.Common Mode Noise.

Building I Line Voltage Distortion. Building I .Line Voltage Distortion.

EFFECTS OF EFFECTS OF TRIPLEN HARMONICS TRIPLEN HARMONICS • Excessive stress due to heating • Insulation breakdown • Lower operating efficiency • Short life span • Acoustic noise . • Core loss is of minor concern since it is due to flux generated in the core by the bus voltage.Harmonic Effects on Transformers Harmonic Effects on Transformers TRANSFORMER LOSSES DUE TRANSFORMER LOSSES DUE TO TRIPLEN HARMONICS TO TRIPLEN HARMONICS • Losses in transformers are subdivided into core and winding losses. • Winding losses are increased due to I2R and stray losses.

Solutions: Solutions: -Derating -Derating -Passive Approach -Passive Approach -Active Approach -Active Approach .

Use true rms. 4. 3. Use neutral over current sensors to trip phase conductors. Oversize all neutral components for 1. Derate transformers or use K-Factor Transformers. .73 times rated full load amps. ammeters and instruments with sufficient bandwidth for measurement.Recommendations Recommendations by CBEMA by CBEMA 1. 5. 2. Use separate neutral conductors for nonlinear loads and avoid shared neutral conductors where practical.

Transformer Derating Schemes Transformer Derating Schemes Derating is a means of determining the maximum load that may be safely placed on a transformer that supplies harmonic loads. .THDF. The most common derating method is the CBEMA approved "crest factor" method which provides a transformer harmonic derating factor.

Building I Phase A B C True RMS Phase Current Peak Value of Phase Current 70A 76A 73A 178A 181A 180A HENCE. THE TRANSFORMER SHOULD BE DERATED TO 57% OF ITS NAME PLATE RATING!!! . Building I Example of Transformer Derating.Example of Transformer Derating.

•K factor transformers are designed to supply nonsinusoial loads. •K factor transformers use smaller. . •K factor transformers are more expensive than conventional transformers. •The magnetic core has a lower flux density as it is designed with higher grades of iron.K Factor Rated Transformers K Factor Rated Transformers •K factor was developed by Underwriters Laboratory in UL 1561. secondary conductors in parallel to reduce skin effect. •They contain enlarged primary windings to carry circulating triplen harmonic currents. insulated.

The K factor numbers do not linearly indicate transformer harmonic tolerance.K Factor Rated Transformers. A K13 rated transformer has approximately twice the tolerance of a K4 and K30 has twice of a K13. Contd. K factor is a means of rating a transformer with respect to the harmonic magnitude and frequency of the load. . For example. Contd. K Factor Rated Transformers. a K4 rated transformer has four times the eddy current tolerance as a K1 transformer.

Building I Example K Factor Calculation. Building I K Factor = 8.84 .84 K Factor = 8.Example K Factor Calculation.

and similar electronic equipment where non-linear switching similar electronic equipment where non-linear switching loads produce additive. It handles ceilings used for environmental air handling. plus power. The neutral per phase (striped with color to match the phase conductor) per phase (striped with color to match the phase conductor) accomplishes the same objective. The neutral harmonics generated by the non-linear loads. programmable controllers. Super Neutral Cable can be used under computer room Super Neutral Cable can be used under computer room floors. or overhead in the space above hung floors. or overhead in the space above hung ceilings used for environmental air handling. signal. raised floors.Solutions. The oversized neutral conductor(s) are sized 150% to 200% The oversized neutral conductor(s) are sized 150% to 200% of the phase conductor ampacity to minimize the effects of of the phase conductor ampacity to minimize the effects of harmonics generated by the non-linear loads. Neutral Cable Super Neutral Cable® Super Neutral Cable® Super Neutral Cable is a metal-clad. and control circuits in dry locations. accomplishes the same objective. Type MC Cable. tape and disk drives) office machines. manufactured with an oversized neutral conductor or one manufactured with an oversized neutral conductor or one neutral per phase for three-phase/four-wire power supply neutral per phase for three-phase/four-wire power supply systems to computers (with dc drive fan motors. odd order harmonic currents which loads produce additive. Type MC Cable. may create overloaded neutral conductors. lighting. programmable controllers. . and control branch and feeder. It handles branch and feeder. tape and systems to computers (with dc drive fan motors. Neutral Cable Solutions. circuits in dry locations. plus power. raised floors. Super Neutral Cable is a metal-clad. lighting. signal. and disk drives) office machines. odd order harmonic currents which may create overloaded neutral conductors.

Solutions. Transformers Solutions. Transformers K-factor transformers: Sola Dongan .

or selection of unnecessarily high K factor ratings of transformers. can increase the harmonic currents due to lower impedance.Disadvantages and Risks Disadvantages and Risks Derating a transformer is a temporary fix and often translates into lower efficiency operation and increased heat for losses. Derated transformers also run the risk of being perceived to be partially loaded and future load additions are possible. due to a wide scattering of data processing equipment to implement. While derating removes some stresses from the transformer. . a typical dry type transformer is not designed to supply harmonic loads. Separate neutral conductors for computer loads is almost impossible Separate neutral conductors for computer loads is almost impossible to implement. Oversizing of transformers. it may be subject to a shorter life span and lower efficiency. due to a wide scattering of data processing equipment all over the building. Hence. all over the building.

Solutions: Solutions: -Derating -Derating -Passive Approach -Passive Approach -Active Approach -Active Approach .

Protects the distribution transformer and neutral Protects the distribution transformer and neutral conductor from excessive neutral currents. Improves transformer power factor. conductor from excessive neutral currents.Passive Approach for Neutral Current Reduction Passive Approach for Neutral Current Reduction Circulates excessive triplen harmonics through the Circulates excessive triplen harmonics through the filter and back to the load. filter and back to the load. Improves transformer power factor. .

Zig-Zag Transformer for Neutral Current Reduction Zig-Zag Transformer for Neutral Current Reduction VA Rating Calculation VA Rating Calculation .

T-Connected Transformer for Neutral T-Connected Transformer for Neutral Current Reduction Current Reduction VA Rating Calculation VA Rating Calculation kVA rating is higher kVA rating is higher .

Star-Delta Transformer for Star-Delta Transformer for Neutral Current Reduction Neutral Current Reduction Transformer kVA rating is higher. Harmonic filtering is impedance sensitive. Transformer kVA rating is higher. Harmonic filtering is impedance sensitive. VA Rating Calculation VA Rating Calculation .

This Zero sequence impedance of the Zig-Zag transformer must be low. Lower zero-sequence impedance increases the single-phase fault current Lower zero-sequence impedance increases the single-phase fault current level. . fusing and circuit breaker re-sizing may be necessary. requires special design. approach is larger in size and weight. The effectiveness of the Zig-Zag transformer to divert 3rd. harmonic current The effectiveness of the Zig-Zag transformer to divert 3rd harmonic current is highly dependent on the distribution system impedance. Therefore. In most cases is highly dependent on the distribution system impedance.Zig-Zag Transformer for Neutral Current Reduction Zig-Zag Transformer for Neutral Current Reduction Disadvantages Disadvantages Zero sequence impedance of the Zig-Zag transformer must be low. only 50% reduction can be guaranteed.. In most cases only 50% reduction can be guaranteed. This requires special design. The specially designed low impedance Zig-Zag transformer becomes a low The specially designed low impedance Zig-Zag transformer becomes a low impedance path for zero sequence currents from other parts of the system impedance path for zero sequence currents from other parts of the system Due to the reasons mentioned above the passive Zig-Zag transformer Due to the reasons mentioned above the passive Zig-Zag transformer approach is larger in size and weight. Therefore. level. fusing and circuit breaker re-sizing may be necessary.

United States and Canada. Passive Approach Acme's I-Trap™ Reduces Excessive Neutral Acme's I-Trap™ Reduces Excessive Neutral Currents Caused by Harmonic Distortion Currents Caused by Harmonic Distortion Acme has introduced a product that provides a cost effective solution to Acme has introduced a product that provides a cost effective solution to high neutral currents that result from zero sequence harmonics and high neutral currents that result from zero sequence harmonics and unbalanced loads. The I-TRAP™ can be installed adjacent to distribution panels that will feed non-linear loads in plants.Solutions. C insulation class. provide constant reading of the neutral current. less offices. unbalanced loads. transformers that may overheat due to harmonic loads. This permits the use of smaller. hi-rises and other locations. C temperature rise and 220 deg. Each unit includes a built-in ammeter to 100A. offices. They provide electrical contractors. adjacent to distribution panels that will feed non-linear loads in plants. and are covered under temperature rise and 220 deg. less expensive neutral cable and provides protection to distribution expensive neutral cable and provides protection to distribution transformers that may overheat due to harmonic loads. and are covered under Acme's exclusive 10 year warranty. C All I-TRAP™ units are UL listed and CSA certified. Acme's exclusive 10 year warranty. Installation is accomplished by four simple terminal connections and the Installation is accomplished by four simple terminal connections and the units can be floor or wall mounted and require minimal maintenance. The I-TRAP™ units are designed for use on 208Y/120V three phase 60Hz The I-TRAP™ units are designed for use on 208Y/120V three phase 60Hz systems. Passive Approach Solutions. This permits the use of smaller. They provide electrical contractors. rated for 115 deg. . 150A. The I-TRAP™ is for use on systems with maximum neutral currents of The I-TRAP™ is for use on systems with maximum neutral currents of 100A. system designers and specifying engineers with an economical alternative to replacement of specifying engineers with an economical alternative to replacement of overheated system neutral conductors. C insulation class. 300A and 450A. hi-rises and other locations. units can be floor or wall mounted and require minimal maintenance. The I-TRAP™ can be installed overheated system neutral conductors. All I-TRAP™ units are UL listed and CSA certified. system designers and systems. The I-TRAP™ and Acme's full line of dry type distribution transformers The I-TRAP™ and Acme's full line of dry type distribution transformers are available through a network of reps and electrical distributors in the are available through a network of reps and electrical distributors in the United States and Canada. 150A. 300A and 450A. rated for 115 deg. Each unit includes a built-in ammeter to provide constant reading of the neutral current.

Solutions: Solutions: -Derating -Derating -Passive Approach -Passive Approach -Active Approach -Active Approach .

Protects the distribution transformer and neutral Protects the distribution transformer and neutral conductor from excessive neutral currents. conductor from excessive neutral currents. Improves transformer power factor. .+ Single & ThreePhase Linear and Non-linear Distributed Loads In Harmonix TM: Active Harmonic Cancellation System I ref = 0 Circulates excessive triplen harmonics through the Circulates excessive triplen harmonics through the filter and back to the load.+ .Active Neutral Current Filtering Scheme Active Neutral Current Filtering Scheme . filter and back to the load. Improves transformer power factor.+ .

Dallas. College Station & Current Technology. Inc. •Design to Cancel Zero Sequence Harmonic Current from a 3-Phase 4-Wire Distribution System.Active Neutral Current Filtering Scheme Active Neutral Current Filtering Scheme •Developed by Texas A&M University. Texas. . •Patented Technology.

Active Neutral Current Filtering Scheme Active Neutral Current Filtering Scheme .

Functional Block Diagram.+ a b c n In .IN In I N /3 I N /3 I N /3 S in g le & T h re e P h a s e L in e a r a n d N o n -lin e a r D is trib u te d L o a d s IN T1 I se n sed 3 -P h a se B rid g e R e c tifie r N Lf P W M F u llB rid g e In v e rte r + S e n s in g C irc u itry 60H Z N o tc h F il t e r E rro r A m p li f i e r PW M C o n tro lle r I ref = 0 . . Active Neutral Current Filtering Scheme.Active Neutral Current Filtering Scheme.+ . Functional Block Diagram.+ .

Active Neutral Current Filter Active Neutral Current Filter .

Features. Features.95%. •Performance independent of System Impedance. •High Cancellation Effectiveness : 90 . Active Neutral Current Filter. .Active Neutral Current Filter. •Cancels neutral current harmonics by measurement and close-loop control. •Built-in pulse-pulse current limit (No Overloading). •Fast-response characteristics. •Significant improvement in Voltage and Current THD’s. •No low-impedance path for Zero-Sequence 60 Hz.

225 Amps Distribution Panel 4 .5 F a c ility N e u tra l C u rre n t A m ps H A R M O N IX F ilte r O n I-m a x A la rm D is a b le d F a u lt F ilte r O n / O ff I-H a rm o n ic I-R M S A la rm O n / O ff N o rm a l T est 1 0 2 . Connection.Active Neutral Current Filter. Box C u r r e n t T e c h n o lo g y L ow T h e rm a l B a tte ry O v e rlo a d H a r m o n ic C o n tr o l P a n e l N G B re a k e r .8 H a rm o n ic F ilte r C a n c e lla tio n C u rre n t A m ps Term. Connection. 4 . Active Neutral Current Filter.8 H a rm o n ic F ilte r C a n c e lla tio n C u rre n t A c tiv e H a r m o n ic C a n c e lla tio n S y s te m / 1 0 0 a m p A m ps A B C N C u r r e n t T e c h n o lo g y L ow T h e rm a l B a tte ry O v e rlo a d H a r m o n ic C o n tr o l P a n e l B re a k e r 3 Phase Breaker Current Sensor 120/208 .5 F a c ility N e u tra l C u rre n t A m ps H A R M O N IX A c tiv e H a r m o n ic C a n c e lla tio n S y s te m / 1 0 0 a m p F ilte r O n I-m a x A la rm D is a b le d F a u lt F ilte r O n / O ff I-H a rm o n ic I-R M S A la rm O n / O ff N o rm a l T est Current Resistor 1 0 2 .

Connection. Connection.Active Neutral Current Filter. . Active Neutral Current Filter.

220/380. 4-Wire Topology .Filter Specifications Filter Specifications Voltage Current Frequency Power Efficiency Cancellation Effectiveness Parallelability 120/208. 277/480 100 A rms per module 50/60 Hz 90% 90-95% Up to 4 filters can be connected in parallel Parallel connection 3-Phase.

Contd.) . Filter Specifications. Contd. Max current indicator. Protection Pulse-Pulse current protection Thermal shutdown Overcurrent protection Facility current Filter current Harmonics or total rms current Indicator lights. Dry contacts 21H x 24W x13D Floor mount stackable Monitoring Status Indication Enclosure Weight 200 lbs (approx.Filter Specifications. Audible alarm.

p h a s e L in e a r & N o n . Test Results Active Neutral Current Filter.B e ta S ite E le c tr ic R o o m 1 0 3 H a r m o n ix : A c tiv e H a r m o n ic C a n c e lla tio n S y s te m TM .L in e a r L oads PE O n e .L in e D ia g r a m .Active Neutral Current Filter. Test Results L o a d C e n te r 1 2 0 /2 0 8 D is tr ib u tio n P a n e l B o a rd s PC PG 2 S in g le .

Test Results Active Neutral Current Filter.Active Neutral Current Filter. Test Results Neutral Current without Active Harmonic Cancellation System Neutral Current with Active Harmonic Cancellation System .

2 .Active Neutral Current Filter.14 34.7 3.5 4.3 94.9 33.3 32.0 71.2 - 2. Test Results Active Neutral Current Filter.1 With Filter 33.3 67. Test Results Variable Neutral Current (A rms) Zero-Sequence Harmonic Current in Neutral (A rms) 60 Hz Zero-Sequence Current in Neitral (A rms) Voltage THD (% Fundamental) Current THD (% Fundamental) Cancellation Effectiveness Without Filter 82.

Neutral Current Filtering Scheme Neutral Current Filtering Scheme .

The active filter compensates only for harmonic currents in the neutral The active filter compensates only for harmonic currents in the neutral and does not become a low impedance path to unbalanced 60Hz currents. voltage spikes etc.Conclusions Conclusions The active filter employs a conventional zig-zag transformer (not The active filter employs a conventional zig-zag transformer (not optimized for low zero sequence impedance) and cancels the neutral optimized for low zero sequence impedance) and cancels the neutral current harmonics by measurement and closed loop current control. The kVA of the power electronic active current source in low as the voltage The kVA of the power electronic active current source in low as the voltage between the neutral of the zig-zag transformer and the system neutral is between the neutral of the zig-zag transformer and the system neutral is near zero. hence is not location sensitive. and does not become a low impedance path to unbalanced 60Hz currents. The performance of the active filter is independent of the system The performance of the active filter is independent of the system impedance. voltage spikes etc. The active filter has an electronic built in current limit and does not overload. such as over voltages. hence is not location sensitive. The active filter has an electronic built in current limit and does not overload. The proposed active filter is rugged and stable in operation. impedance. Notice the power electronic components are not subjected to line disturbances power electronic components are not subjected to line disturbances such as over voltages. near zero. . current harmonics by measurement and closed loop current control. Notice the The proposed active filter is rugged and stable in operation.