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TEFL 2 Chapter 1

TEFL 2 Chapter 1

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Published by: Osy Machrosin on Jan 27, 2012
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Name NPM Semester Class Subject

: : : : :

Machrosin 091 0302 102 5th Afternoon Class TEFL 2

Summary and Response

Chapter I

Second Language Learning
Key concepts and issues

Introduction The main themes to be dealt with in this section are: a. What makes for a ‘good’ explanation or theory b. Views on the nature of language c. Views of language learning process d. Views of the language learner e. Links between language learning theory and social practice What makes for a good theory? Second language learning is a complex comprehension toward all the human life, since we have experienced it during the time of ours. Then, why should we learn a theory about second language learning? As it’s stated that it is a need for us to learn for 2 basic reasons: a. Improved knowledge in this particular domain is interesting in itself. It also can contribute to more general understanding about the nature of language. b. The knowledge will be useful. If we become better at explaining the learning language process, and are better able to account for both success and failure in second language learning, there will be a pay-off for millions of teachers and others who learn who are struggling with the task. Then, comes to the theory, there is an idea shows that a theory of second language learning may deal only with a particular stage or phase of learning of learning or with the learning of some particular sub-aspects of language; or it may propose learning mechanism which are much more general in scope. But, the theory is developed. The development itself in that theory leads to the need to collect new information and explore different phenomena and different patterns in the potentially infinite world of facts and data. Whatever the particular focus of a given theory, whether it focuses on a general one or even just pays on sub-aspect of a theory, we would expect to find the following: a. Clear and explicit statements of the ground the theory is supposed to cover, and the claims which it is making.



As we shall see.b. We have phonology. By the competence. d. and to propose mechanism for change. the only difference is one of perspective. and discourse. and observed instances of language behavior.3.1. and there is no opposition between language system. this theory has been committed to a dualist position. pragmatics. Competence and Performance Noam Chomsky has argued that the business of theoretical linguistics to study and model underlying language competence rather than the performance data of actual utterances which people have produced. However. Last but not least. this view has been influential in much second language learning research. Language performance data are believed to be an imperfect reflection of competence. Views on the nature of language 1. with its potential to create and understand original utterances in a given language. morphology. Another linguist views language from lexis and grammar. They both argue that the distinction between competence and performance doesn’t appear.2. Systematic procedures for confirming/ disconfirming the theory. The only option for linguist is to study language in use. semantics and lexis. through data gathering and interpretation. 1. syntax. 1. Level of language Linguists agree that language can be seen from its levels.3. Theorists finally view this phenomena as a closely linked between competence and performance or simply they push on the language 2 .3. but attempts to explain why they are so. partly because of the processing complications which are involved in speaking or other forms of language production and which lead to errors and slips. We will find then that the control of syntax is commonly seen as somehow ‘central’ to language learning and the most general SLL theories try to account for development in this area. The split between competence and performance has never been accepted by linguists. engagement with other theories in the field. c. Firth and Halliday has a different view about this. Chomsky is referring to the abstract and hidden representation of language knowledge held inside our heads. Not only description of second language phenomena. since there are difficulties in studying competence. and serious attempts to account for at least some phenomena which are ‘common ground’ in ongoing public discussion.

1. Some experts said that language was a simple one like Jean Pigeat said. in the same way that they make first language learning possible. as we shall see that language is a distinctive one where it needs process to share and convey it toward the learner. Nature and Nurture The discussion of the process of learning a language is debatable. how it happens? Finally.4. and we could see it also from the modularity of our brain point of views. Skinner argues that the process of learning a language could be a natural one. After the acquisition of the first language in the early childhood. flexible organism with one general set of procedures for learning and storing different knowledge or information or skill. and make key aspects of second language learning possible. 1. This theory becomes the behaviouristical theory. and second languages must be learned by other means. They continue to operate during second language learning. etc.3. Modularity The next discussion about the process of learning a language is the modularity of our brain. these mechanism cease to b operable. While Chomsky debates that this theory was unpredictable for language has its own word classes. such as when a child imitates s/he caretakers’ speech. Some theorists are Noam Chomsky and B. During the process we need the supported environmental and. So.1. from the word comes to a sentence. and motivation to learn it as much as we could. 1. verb adverb. Finally.4.2. such as noun. we have to open our mind to convey both theories that language is a process to learn and acquire. The language learning Process 1. time.4. While Chomsky still argued that it is a complex one so it needs a big effort to learn it. and it is a complex process. The mechanisms themselves are no longer operable.in use (speaking or writing) can contribute to language learning (development grammatical or lexical competence in the language). c. Skinner. Chomsky also gives new core knowledge of a language which soon will be called as Universal Grammar to support his theory about the process of learning a language from the essential one. but that first language provides a model of a natural language and how it 3 . circumstance. Our brain is a single. Modularity and second language learning The four logical possibilities in learning a second language: a. b. In the early period of twentieth century the most debated theory is nature and nurture theory.F.4.

The term of fossilization is described to show the phenomena when second language learner seems to freeze or become struck at some or more deviant stage no matter how much classes they attend or how active they use that language.4. first language influence will affect only the more peripheral areas of second language development.4. From a universal grammar view. d. 1.6. Cross. never to integrate completely with its goal.4. If second language learners have continuing direct access to their underlying Universal Grammar. word choice and so on. This is routinely obvious from learners’ foreign accents. The relationship between language learning second language use and second 4 .4. Systematically and variability in second language learning Some second language learners have their own mistakes when they produce the sentence using their second language.works. Incomplete success and fossilization Second language learning is typified by incomplete success which means as the claimed systematic evolution of our underlying interlanguage rules toward the target language system seems doomed.5. That distinctive learning mechanism for language remains available. which can be copied in some way when learning a second language. 1. After having a good treatment of using the second language as much as they can have (routine) shows that it gives a big impact toward the learners. during the process of learning a second language we could also see the variability of erasing the error during the time. 1. They learn a lot in using the grammar. but only in part. 1. This systematicity provides the same rule as a parallel toward the comprehension of their first language. But. the language transfer problem is looked at somewhat differently. 1.linguistic influences in L2 learning Study shows that the learners’ performance of second language learning is influenced by the language or language that they already know. and must be supplemented by other means. such as pronunciation. This term is known as language transfer. This term may be discussed as a result under the influence of their first language. Creativity and routines in second language learning This phenomenon comes when the second language learners try to maintain their first language toward the second language which is being learned.8.4.7. The second language learners will be so much careful with their utterance since their first error.4. most often.

it is useful for them to 5 . We see that theories can hold different views on the contribution both of language input and language output to language learning. 1.2.Some theories argue that through language production such as speaking helps the second language learners learn about the language.3. However. need progress and full of changing.5. 1. This may happen in formal education field or somehow in an informal one. Affective factors which relates to: 1) Language attitude 2) Motivation 3) Language anxiety 1. Views of the language learner Second language learner is learner who embarks on the learning of an additional language at least some years after they have started to acquire their first language. Links with social practice The process of learning second language applies a broad chance in using that language socially in the society. etc. The perspective between the relation of individually and the relation between the social one will be seen as a dynamic one.5. However.5. The learner as language processor This deal with the age at what age should the learner learns about their second language? Do we have to put them at the critical stage? We could know that younger is better in learning the language especially for a second one. another way of distinguishing among the current theories of second language learning from a performance perspective has to do with their view of second language interaction –when the speaking and listening in which the learners engaged are viewed as an integral and mutually influential whole. place. 1. Differences between individual learners This may deal with: a.5. Cognitive factors which may be influenced by: 1) Intelligence 2) Language aptitude 3) Language learning strategies b. the contemporary theories said that the practice of a language helps them in building and making fluency in using the language which is being learned. 1. The learner as social being The learner as social being contains a comprehension that they are learning a lot to a language also being influenced or under reflected to the social aspect such as gender.6.1.

The views toward the learner give a broad knowledge about treating the learner as a social being and the phases. such as the modularity of our mind. Learning a second language is a process which we need learn much about some factors supported that field. with a wider perspective. The next comprehension about this chapter is the wide knowledge about some past theories which is still being used in the development of learning second language theories.learn that language or just getting known about learning a language widely. such as the behaviouristic theory about this. As a student of a teacher training faculty we need learn a lot about what factors support the student’s acquisition in learning a language. Response 6 .

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