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Gonzalez 17 November 2011 The Black Death and HIV/AIDS The Black Death and HIV/AIDS pandemics have tested the people of their times. Societies of both times responded in the same way: dividing the community, weeding out the carriers, and migrating away from home. The economies of both times received a major hit as their work force dramatically decreased and so did their resulting productivity. Many governments during the 14th century took the same approach as governments of the early 1980s: ignoring the problems and hoping they will alleviate themselves. However, as the pandemics wore on some governments have took action to fight the problems. Governments then and now created and funded programs to lessen the pandemics effects. When governments got involved, there were and are still major holes in policies and plans. Just like the 14th century, there still remain people ignorant about the pandemics that shake their society. Literature, songs, and pictures are still on record that has captured life amidst the panic and pain. The Black Death and HIV/AIDS have rocked the social, political, and economic worlds for decades, forever leaving their mark on history. Both pandemics, revealed the already conflicting divisions within the respective societies. In Central Europe during the years the plague on, it was clear that there would be two divisions: Christians and pagans. Christians consisted the majority of the population. These people believed that the plague had come as a sort of punishment, God¶s way of reprimanding his people for
(Franklin 72). not in terms of faith. Discuss why When communities are broken apart and thrown into disarray.Louis 2 their carnal sins. This ³gay disease´ was now contributing to widespread homophobia. Already seen as the persecutors of Jesus Christ. used as a ³sacrifice´ to God. Jews were targeted because they had lower death rates than Christians. There are two groups of people. and sometimes labeled AIDS as ³The Gay Disease. one. In today¶s societies. stereotyped. they were called the Flagellants and publicly beat themselves in order to ³attract God¶s attention. which wholly accepts and believes in the existence of AIDS. This caused another subgroup to form. focused on already segregated and marginalized people. Members of the larter group are often at the lowest economic standing in society.´ Europeans thought that the Jews had contaminated the air and water (Zapotoczny 1). The other group believes that the disease was conjure up by the rich used to ³exterminate´ the poor. and are of the minority race. tend to be undereducated and informed.´ (Mallon 235). but this time. male homosexuals targeted. Hundreds were burned alive. In both situations the majority. In 14th century central Europe. citizens tend to look for scapegoats (Ziegler 73). Early media reports defined.´ and ask for forgiveness (Ziegler 66). Two major divisions simply include believers and nonbelievers. like the societies of AfroEurasia in the 14th century and most contemporary ones. Jews were the ³prey of choice. specifically in the center. even within this large sub-group there were more levels. Some followers of the Church believed that neither their religious leaders nor government officials were taking decent measures to reconnect and restore ties with the Father. In AIDS¶ case. In the early 1990s many movies were made in which HIV appeared to have only been contracted from males and given to other males (Franklin 78). . the general public has responded to AIDS in a much broader sense. However.
Even though AIDS killed high percentages of people. During the 14th century. most people migrated after the plague burned out. the Mongols and the Malmuks (spelling). governments haven¶t been substantially weakened or broken down. Europe? AIDS is a largely diffused virus located all across the globe. comparable to no other empire in history. it was easy for the Black Death to conquer and weaken the imperial bureaucracies (Borsch 156). With such power and wealth concentrated in the hands of a few. homosexuals set up neighborhoods within their present countries. but preference. Palestinians and Syrians fled their homes and crops leaving entire rural areas depopulated (Yeloff and Bas 578). The Jews of Central Europe moved east to seek refuge in Poland and Germany (Zapotoczny 1). Why? The Mongol empire took a huge hit. two dynasties ruled Asia and the Middle East. especially throughout central and sub-Saharan Africa. controlling more than half of the world¶s terrain at the time (Borsch 30). Some historians have noted the migration of Africa¶s economically elite to the southern tip of Africa. Did this happen in other countries During the Black Death.Louis 3 The minorities began to migrate away from their persecutors. Instead of emigration. As people emigrated out of infested areas. ³Gay villages´ (Mallon 238) such as the one surrounding Stonewall Inn. began springing up around the late 1960s. The extensive fear and hatred of homosexuals made migration improbable because they would probably face the same resistance in other countries. In both situations the migrations that had nothing to do with the prevalent social divisions. a city¶s population dropped negatively affecting the governmental structure during the 14th in a way that AIDS never could. past or present. Historians and scientists theorize that the Black Death began in Mongol China and traveled along reaching Arabia and Europe through the Mongols massive trade routes and . New York and San Francisco. in the United States is a prime example of this.
as in the case of HIV in Africa. That is to say that if catastrophe or great wealth struck one area of the empire then each other part would be affected. the majority being young adults. The very structure of the empire.Louis 4 patterns (Morgan 434). check! While modern day cities. reported that ³conditions are more oppressive and rural decay has become more widespread«there is no way . With high mortality rates the local bureaucrats could not collect taxes and enforce laws. which contributed to its amazing wealth and prosperity. countries will have to put away at least 30% (Stover and Bollinger. With more than 60% of all SubSaharan Africans infected with HIV countries. like Ivan III¶s of Moscow to overthrow imperial rule. economies. a member of the sultan¶s bureaucracy. Tanzania¶s overall GDP will have dropped 20% in 2011 due to AIDS related deaths. 5) of their public health budget to the management of AIDS/HIV in the future. Stover and Bollinger have indicated that since 1999. Africa has the highest percentages of AIDS related death across the world. While it killed off large percentages of people. In 1348. ultimately weakened and destroyed its people. The same young adults that would have been entering the labor force to work and increasing Africa¶s overall GDP are unable to work. and government have not experienced political devastation to the degree that its predecessors did. The Mongol empire was structured so that each part depended on one another. Egypt¶s standard coinage. That accompanies with the small military forces allowed local rulers. such as Ethiopia. decreasing the money allocated to other government projects like education or roads. Ivan III success in Russia reflected the fall of the Yuran dynasty in China. states. the Black Death reached Egypt and devastated its economy. which reduced the value of rural land across Egypt. where the government was overthrown (Zapotoczny 4). Ibn al-Ji¶an. the plague also shattered the value of the dinar. now and then have suffered because of the high mortality rates that correspond with the pandemics.
the Chinese government secretly called it the ³loving capitalism disease´ and refused to educate its people about it (µHIV and AIDS in China¶). and Russians in Moscow. 52). hindered industrial progress. and political world crumbling around them during both pandemics some governments remained unresponsive and indifferent to the suffering of its people. The Egyptian economy and government were not able to recover from such economic setbacks until the 19th century. serfs in Europe. Governments. were threatened and confronted with civil uprising and unrest. In 2008. The city had a group of men over public health which prohibited the entry of people or goods from infected areas. 48% of Chinese citizens believe that mosquitos gave them AIDS and 32% percent of interviewees thought infected people deserved their condition (µHIV and AIDS in China¶). social. The lack of teachers. Loses like those in Cairo were reflected all across Europe where the lack of people elevated the social status of serfs. The public health committee . like Egypt¶s sultan and royal company fled to neighboring countries where they believed the plague had not yet reached (Borsch. In countries where AIDS infection was low. governments couldn¶t do anything about their current situations. however. crippled by lack of military enforcement and money. Many governments. When the first cases HIV positive people emerged in the 1980s and 1990s. like the Bedouin in Egypt. awareness material in minority languages. With the economic. almost 400 years later. creating a lasting impact on its people. Many historians argue that during the time. governments remained been fairly unresponsive. at least attempted to control and respond aggressively to the pandemics that killed their people and destroyed their economies. and the stigma still surrounding the disease makes implementing AIDS education difficult. The best 14th century example is of the Ordinances of Pistoia Italy. in Borsch 69). and crippled the market (Renouard 10).Louis 5 to calculate the worth of a village´ (qtd. Unable to neither subdue nor control their people. many leaders.
Germany¶s numbers of policies directly and indirectly addressing the pandemic has increased (Sethna 1). Since the NGOs are often made up of members of the community. NGOs. AIDS is now being combatted in a ways that the Black Plague never could have. German Foundation for World Population f. Florentine legislators also closely watched and appropriated funds to hospitals and doctors during major outbreaks. the legislative acts that were passed are believed to have lessened or prolonged the Black Death¶s impact on society. other more general organizations like Bombay Dost in India and the Rio de Janeiro Prostitutes Association in Brazil are also taking measure to support the fight on AIDS (Sethna 22). Technology . and treatment of AIDS. While there are specific HIV NGOs such as the AIDS Support Organization in Uganda. and medical advisors were undermined by inadequate hygiene (Renouard 25). their messages and information reach more people that then government can. Most efforts made by governments. prevention. Since their establishment. Their primary goals are to be advocates for persons with HIV/AIDS. The creation and establishment of nongovernment organizations. has kept the virus from spreading and infecting larger percentages of the German and Kenyan population. The NGO as work in Germany. Through government and NGO sponsored education. Through specific public policies and figures the DSW has demanded the attention of the German government. them from inside city walls during summer months (Wray 149). and revolutionary technology. doctor. A significant hindrance during the 14th century was poor hygiene. resources. target education to specific groups and improve experimental drug tests and health care (Sethna 19). However. the German government. have played a major part in the War on AIDS by forcing governments to develop policies that focus on the education. Similar restrictions were used in Tuscany and Florence.Louis 6 also regulated butchers and their goods banning. the media.
While people Afro Eruasians had created paper and the mill. This parallels the beginning of HIV/AIDS. rumors were spread and accepted as fact (Lerner 209). Daniel Defoe recorded that while going outside was a totally terrifying ordeal that staying inside created a terrible internal struggle as well: ³It pierced ones soul to hear the groans of one that was tormented (86). As a result people in third world countries have decreased the spread of AIDS by 33% (µAIDS: The 30 years war¶). though while still infamous. the media had little influence of life during the time. Beginning in the early 2000s. People¶s awareness of how the plague was contracted and spread was minimal. The cultural works that came towards the end of the plague and during AIDS¶ reign have been parts of movements to express grief and the actual reality of life.Louis 7 during the time was primitive. Doctors and scientists knew very little about the virus itself so information and often misconceptions about the disease spread. responding to social pressures.´ The child¶s song ³Ring around the Rosy´ describes the life of plague stricken 14th century Afro Eurasia.´ AIDS. there has been a notable difference in the way the media portrays AIDS. However. From a highly glamorized ³gay disease. the plague became part of the Renaissance to express times during the plague and the people were obsessed with this ³Culture of Death´. often published what appeared to be profitable. The media motivated the government to take action and since then technological advances have been made that have created antibiotics that aid the body¶s fight and prevents maternal infection. as scientists took advantage of the technology available. the media had to alter its way of communicating. Accounts of the time describe the terror and horror that people experienced. which tended to be scare tactics and fallacies (Franklin 70). The mass media. In Europe. is now being shown as a dangerous virus which can be treated. Knowledge depended on word of mouth. Artisans that survived also created a great number of . which meant that the truth about the Black Death was known by a marginal percent of the population.
depicting grieving people carrying caskets. today¶s people have used pictures as a way to spread the word about AIDS. particularly his friends. Since Nicholas Nixon¶s largely unpo pular depiction of AIDS victim as emaciated and desolate. . using words and statistics. dying from the disease. like Burying the Dead painted in 1352. In 1988 John Corigilano composed his AIDS Symphony in response to the large numbers of people.Louis 8 paintings.
Print. 1352. Martins. 1960. 12 November 2011. Print." New York: Signet. 1971. Boston: Bedford/St. 2011. Web. Print. 563 Print. The Black Death. EBSCO. Web. Stuart. Robert E. Joseph Patrick. Bollinger. Byrne. Lerner.d. Bibliotheque Royale de Belgique. Ed.´ The Economist. March 1999." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 19. Robert W. Web. Strayer. Rhinehart and Winston.4 (2009): 427-437. 2011. Martins. Strayer. Niguliste Museum. "A Journey of the Plague Year. ³AIDS: The 30 years war.org.´ Avert. Ways of the World: A Global History with Sources. Talinn. Daniel. n. "The Decline and Fall of the Mongol Empire. . Defoe.com. 2004. Web." Journal of the Historical Society 8. ³HIV and AIDS in China. AVERTing HIV and AIDS. Academic Search Complete. 12 November 2011. William. Ways of the World: A Global History with Sources. 2005. 1463. Westport: Greenwood. Brussles. Bowsky. Boston: Bedford/St. Robert W. Austin: University of Texas. MORGAN.´ PolicyProject. 15 October 2011. 25-34.´ The Black Death. Policy Project. Borsch. 2011. 4 Sept. John. San Francisco: Holt. Renouard. 2 June 2011. Lori and Stover. The Economist. Print. ³The Economic Impact of AIDS. Yves. "Fleas: Some Scratchy Issues Concerning the Black Death.Louis 9 Works Cited A Culture of Death. ³The Black Death as a Major Event in World History. The Black Death in Egypt and England. Print. David. Burying the Dead. 563 Print.2 (2008): 205-228.
San Francisco: Holt. Shona Kelly. Zapotoczny. Web.´ wzaponline. 4 Sept. Dan.1 (2008): 91-96. 2011. Web. van Geel. Ziegler. Zapotoczny. 1971. n.´ cwru. "A perspective on HIV/AIDS: What could the future hold?. Web.edu. ³The Political and Social Consequences of the Black Death. EBSCO." Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 63. Print. 10 November 2011. Web. Rhinehart and Winston. Hormazd.d. Barry D. Walter. Ed. Sethna. 2009.Louis 10 Schoub. ³The role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in HIV/ AIDS prevention and care.com." Journal of Biogeography 34. Wray. William. Boston: Brill. Print. 1348 ± 1351. ³Germany: The Flagellants and the Persecution of the Jews. 65-79.4 (2007): 575-582. 2011. Bowsky. . and Bas. Communities and Crisis: Bologna during the Black Death. Case Western Reserve University.´ The Black Death. EBSCO. "Abandonment of farmland and vegetation succession following the Eurasian plague pandemic 1347±52. Academic Search Complete. Academic Search Complete. Yeloff. Philip. 2003. 4 Sept. 15 November 2011.
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