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Sun Protection - No Skin Off Your Nose

A suntan may look and feel good, but the sun’s rays can cause serious problems, when exposure is excessive.
Radiation from the sunlight damages the skin. Besides sunburn it has been known to cause various types of skin
cancer, including deadly melanomas.
Having tanned or naturally dark skin does not eliminate the need for protection against the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays.
The best precaution is to stay out of the sun as much as possible, but if your job requires you to be outdoors in the
sun, wear sunscreen and cover your skin with a long-sleeved shirt, a neckerchief, and hat or visor.
Sunscreens can make your time in the sun safer for a longer period of time against UV rays. The American Academy
of Dermatology recommends the use of the strongest sunscreen for your particular skin type. A skin protection factor
(SPF) of 15 is a generic rule of thumb, with generally higher numbers for very fair-skinned people. Liberally apply
sunscreen every time you’re exposed to the sun, including on cloudy or hazy days.
Sunscreen should be reapplied regularly, especially when there is heavy sweating, at least every two hours is the
Academy’s recommendation. Keep in mind that certain medications and cosmetics may increase your sensitivity to the
sun.
Protect your eyes from the sun’s light as well. Wear sunglasses, visors, caps, or a combination. Not only is it
important to protect your eyes from damaging UV rays which can lead to cataracts, but your diminished vision from
squinting can present a safety hazard.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

Meeting Attended By:





Page 1 of 1 Sun Protection - No Skin Off Your Nose
1/13/2010 http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=111
Aerial Platform Safety
Jobsites are not always at ground level. Sometimes, workers need to use aerial platforms, aerial ladders, articulating
boom platforms, vertical towers, or ladder trucks to reach their work. All work has hazards and risks involved in it, but
when you work at an elevated height, extra training and attention to safety procedures is a necessity.
In order to work safely with aerial platforms, get training on the operating procedures for your job site and task. Get
specialized training on each aerial lift model you will use. Know the risks and hazards involved with aerial work,
including your own risk of falling and the hazard of dropping objects on to coworkers below. Learn to tether your tools
and equipment and ensure that coworkers underneath the platform are wearing hard hats.
Formal inspections and maintenance of aerial platforms should be scheduled based on the environment and how often
the machine is used. Before performing maintenance on an aerial platform, lower it to the full down position. Switch
all of the controls to the off position. Apply the brakes and/or use chock blocks. Lock out the power and bleed the
hydraulic lines. Never modify or alter your aerial platform without written permission from the manufacturer because
changes could alter the structure and stability. Never operate the aerial platform from a scaffold, trailer, or boat
without written permission from the manufacturer.
In addition to regular inspections and maintenance, inspect the platform each time before you use it. Look for proper
function of the controls. Make sure that the emergency lowering mechanism works. Watch for wear and tear. Check
for proper fluid levels and no leaks. Never use equipment if it is not working properly. Tag it out of service until it can
be repaired.
When you are planning your work, first ensure that the platform is appropriate to the task. Make sure that loads are
within the capacity limit and are stowed properly for stability. Always use the outriggers and stabilizers required for
the aerial platform and check for uneven surfaces and debris in the work area. Look for overhead obstructions and
electrical lines. Avoid using aerial platforms outside in bad weather and high winds. Don’t use an aerial platform if it
has to be stabilized against another building or object. Never use your aerial platform as a crane.
Before working on an aerial platform, put on the appropriate fall protection gear. Consider a fall limiter so that you do
not fall too far off of the platform. Make sure that guardrails are installed and access gates are closed before you raise
the platform. Keep both feet on the platform at all times and do not reach too far out. Do not use lumber or ladders to
get additional height on the platform. Do not step on guardrails or gate rungs and do not climb out of the platform for
any reason. If you will travel with the aerial platform, go slowly in order to watch for overhead hazards and people
down below.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Page 1 of 2 Aerial Platform Safety
1/13/2010 http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=432
Location:

Meeting Attended By:





Page 2 of 2 Aerial Platform Safety
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Africanized Honey Bees
In 1956, a breed of African honey bee was brought to Brazil in an effort to increase honey production. When these
bees interbred with European honey bees, they produced a new variety of bee called the "Africanized honey bee."
These bees are sometimes referred to as "killer bees" because of their aggressively defensive behavior around their
nests. Although bee keeping and bee transportation are regulated by the government, the Africanized honey bee has
now become part of California's environment and can be found in areas along with the European honey bee.
Both varieties of bees are valued for pollination, honey, and beeswax. The Africanized honey bee looks and sounds
like a European honey bee. Both types of bees sting once and the effect of the sting is similar. However, the two types
of bees differ in several important ways:
Africanized honey bees build nests any place that provides some protection from the weather. They nest in
walls or empty structures like old tractors, trailers, cars or equipment. They find hollow trees, stumps, and
animal holes a good place to build nests. They even nest underground in irrigation pipes, meter boxes and
drainage ditches. They can be found nesting around trash areas, in woodpiles, and in bushes or shrubs.
A key difference from the European honey bee is how Africanized honey bees behave when their nests are
disturbed. They are aggressively protective of their young and respond quickly by viciously stinging a
suspected intruder. They may attack within five feet or more from the nest. Equipment vibration can activate
bees from a distance of 100 feet or more.
Africanized honey bees may continue the defense of their nest, by pursuing an individual for a distance of 1/4
mile or more, and in some cases, for a period lasting several hours.
What should you do if you encounter Africanized honey bees?
Protect the head, eyes, nose, and mouth with hands, arms or clothing. Stingers, which remain in the skin,
leave an odor that attracts other bees to sting in that spot.
Get out of the area as quickly as possible.
Get into a shelter such as a vehicle or building. Some bees may follow you in, but you will get away from the
majority of bees in the swarm.
Seek professional medical care. Although the toxicity of the Africanized honey bee is similar to the European
honey bee, multiple stings can cause troubled breathing or trigger an allergic reaction that could lead to death.
Report suspicious bee activity to a supervisor or employer.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

Page 1 of 2 Africanized Honey Bees
1/13/2010 http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=1
Meeting Attended By:





Page 2 of 2 Africanized Honey Bees
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Aggressive Driving
Every year, the California Highway Patrol (CHP) reports approximately 500,000 collisions with 200,000 injuries and
4,000 fatalities as a result. Unsafe speed, improper turning, failure to yield the right of way, and obey traffic signals
were the most frequent causes, which led the Department of Transportation (DOT) to estimate that two-thirds of
traffic fatalities may be caused by aggressive driving.
Aggressive driving can be caused by longer commutes, traffic congestion, and other drivers’ behaviors. It can also be
caused by your own mood, reactions, and ability to deal with stress on and off the road. Aggressive driving is
triggered by anger – yours or another driver’s. Aggressive drivers are more likely to speed, make unsafe lane
changes, ignore the right of way, and violate traffic signals. Aggressive driving behavior includes tailgating, unsafe
passing, honking your horn, making rude gestures, or swearing at other drivers.
Don’t confuse aggressive driving with road rage. Blaring your horn in traffic or making rude gestures are not illegal,
but they can escalate and lead to road rage. Road rage is a criminal act where a driver tries to intentionally injure or
kill another driver, passenger, or pedestrian.
Help prevent aggressive driving (and road rage) by first adjusting your attitude. Forget the idea of “winning” on the
road. Driving is not a race; it should not be a contest to see who finishes first. Leave plenty of time for a trip so that
if traffic or another delay occurs, you can keep your cool. Think of the highway as a conveyor belt – everyone will get
to their destination eventually, so there is no need to speed or act impolite to save a few minutes.
Put yourself in the other driver’s shoes. Have you ever made a mistake on the road, been lost, or unsure of your turn-
off point? Instead of being angry at another driver making the same mistakes, give them the benefit of the doubt.
When you make mistakes, acknowledge them and give the drivers around you a friendly nod or wave. Polite behavior
makes driving safer.
Whether on Wall Street, in a casino, or on the highway, there will always be bad actors that want to break the rules.
Ignore rude and bad drivers on the road. Unless you are a traffic safety officer, it is not your job to enforce the rules
of the road or punish the bad behavior of others behind the wheel. Do not try to teach other drivers “a lesson.”
If you encounter an angry or aggressive driver on the road, don’t engage them. Avoid eye contact and do not make
(or return) rude gestures or comments. Give an angry driver a lot of room by putting distance between you. Slow
down or exit the roadway if necessary, but do not pull off to the side of the road or try to “reason” with an angry
driver. Get help by using your cell phone or driving to a public area such as a police station or shopping center.
If you think you have a problem with anger on the road or aggressive driving, get help. Anger management classes or
counseling can help you deal with the stress in your life and in your car that may be contributing to your behavior.
Keep your cool on the road and live to work and play another day.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Page 1 of 2 Aggressive Driving
1/13/2010 http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=448

Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

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Page 2 of 2 Aggressive Driving
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Agricultural Pesticide Use Regulations
Pesticides can be hazardous to workers if they are exposed to them through the skin, eyes, by mouth, or in the air
they breathe. Agricultural pesticide handlers should get the proper certificates, permits, and training to use pesticides
safely, correctly, and according to the requirements of the law.
The California Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR) governs pesticide use in agricultural operations and classifies
pesticides as "general¨ or "restricted¨ use. Workers must be certified to buy, use, or supervise the use of restricted
pesticides and usually require a permit from the local County Agricultural Commissioner to do so.
Workers must read and follow all of the requirements on the pesticide product label in order to use it safely and
correctly. Pesticide labels give directions for proper mixing, application, storage, and disposal of the material and its
containers. Labels also list the requirements for engineering controls and personal protective equipment (PPE).
Engineering controls required by pesticide labels may include closed application and mixing systems that reduce
worker exposure during use. Workers require training on this equipment and it should be properly maintained and
inspected prior to each use. Product level gauges should be functional and pesticide container sizes and shapes should
be compatible with the closed system hatches to maintain system integrity.
PPE required for pesticide applicators varies depending on the material and the application method; product labels
must be carefully reviewed. Workers must use all of the PPE required on the pesticide label every time. PPE for
pesticide application may include coveralls, eye protection, protective gloves and footwear, chemical resistant aprons
and hoods, and respiratory protection. Workers require extra, clean coveralls to change into if they become soiled or
soaked with pesticide. Workers under 18 years old cannot mix or load a pesticide that requires air supplied respiratory
protection, a closed system, or full-body chemical-resistant clothing.
Decontamination facilities with adequate supplies of soap, water, and towels must be provided to workers using
pesticides. Emergency eyewashes must be immediately available. Emergency medical care information should also be
posted at the worksite. Workers should use proper hygiene by washing hands and face and changing clothes before
leaving the worksite.
Warnings must be posted at the site of a pesticide field application. Workers should monitor weather and other factors
that may affect the application process and the safety and health of humans and animals near the application site.
Records of pesticide use should be maintained. Pesticide containers must be handled properly by storing them in a
secure place and disposing or recycling them according to product label requirements. Pesticides should never be
stored in unlabeled containers, especially those that may appear to be food containers (cans or bottles).
For further information about pesticide regulations, contact the California Department of Pesticide Control or your local
County Agricultural Commissioner, which may have more stringent requirements than the DPR.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Page 1 of 2 Agricultural Pesticide Use Regulations
1/13/2010 http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=347

Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

Meeting Attended By:





Page 2 of 2 Agricultural Pesticide Use Regulations
1/13/2010 http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=347
Agricultural Worker Transport
Agricultural workers use trucks, cars, station wagons, and buses as transportation on and off farms and fields in
California. As with any motor vehicle, there is a risk of an accident and injury when using agricultural transport on the
roadway. Agricultural workers need to know that there are safety rules for agricultural transport designed to keep
them safe on the job.
Workers should make certain that the vehicle they are using is in good operating condition and meets the safety
standards required by law. Transport vehicles require functional steering, working lights and turn signals, brakes, a
leak-free fuel system, a horn, door latches, and tires with adequate tread. To provide good visibility, the vehicle needs
mirrors (rear-view and side), a clean, functional windshield, and windshield wipers. For good ventilation, the exhaust
system should discharge away from the passengers and the windows should be operable to allow fresh air.
The agricultural transport vehicle should have a certification sticker and a safety inspection sticker. The vehicle body
should be free of openings and rust areas that may cause passenger injuries. Overloading of the vehicle should be
avoided; the passenger load should not exceed the vehicle manufacturer’s gross vehicle weight rating. There should
be a proper seat and a seatbelt in the vehicle for every riding passenger.
Drivers of agricultural transport vehicles require a valid driver’s license and should be familiar with the traffic rules for
safe driving. Drivers should always wear their seatbelts. They should never operate a vehicle while under the influence
of drugs or alcohol. Drivers that are too sleepy or fatigued should not operate an agricultural transport vehicle.
Transport drivers should maintain a safe speed for the roadway by following posted signs. They should maintain a
slower, safer speed for bad weather, traffic, and other road conditions. Care is required for roadway conditions that
include uneven pavement, potholes, dirt and gravel roads, or other obstacles. Drivers should pay attention to the road
and not get distracted by tasks like eating, talking to passengers, or talking on the phone. Extreme caution is required
when crossing lanes of traffic, when turning, and while making u-turns.
With a properly working transport vehicle and a licensed and careful driver, agricultural worker transports can get
workers to the fields and home again safely.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

Meeting Attended By:

Page 1 of 2 Agricultural Worker Transport
1/13/2010 http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=322




Page 2 of 2 Agricultural Worker Transport
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Air Bag Safety
Vehicle air bags (including front, side and head curtains) rapidly inflate to cushion and protect drivers and passengers
in traffic accidents. Air bags have deployed 3.8 million times since first used in the 1980’s and have saved 5,000 lives.
Installed in 56 million vehicles, the air bag is a supplemental vehicle safety device; the first line of defense is the
seatbelt. The risk of death in an accident is reduced by 65% with seat belts alone; seat belt use in combination with
an air bag reduces risk by an additional 15%.
Air bag benefits are proven, but most of us have seen the safety warnings posted in vehicles and heard the news that
they can kill. To date, air bag deployment has killed 147 people due to the force of the airbag itself, not wearing a
seatbelt, and sitting too close to the airbag. Air bags are not soft pillows; they are balloons of air that inflate with a
blast of energy. Workers that drive on the job should be aware of the ways to increase air bag effectiveness for
themselves and their passengers.
Drivers should review the vehicle owner’s manual to determine the type and location of the vehicle air bags. Drivers
should wear shoulder and lap belts securely and move the seat back as far as possible and recline it slightly. This
helps maintain at least 10 to 12 inches between the steering wheel air bag and the breastbone. Pedal extenders can
help smaller adults maintain this distance. To reduce the risk of arm and hand injuries, drivers should hold the
steering wheel from the sides (the traditional 10 o’clock and 2 o’clock positions). Tilting the steering wheel down
directs the air bag deployment force away from the head and neck.
Passengers should always wear their lap and shoulder belts securely. Passengers in the front seat should move the
seat as far back as possible and slightly recline it. Pregnant women, children age 13 and up, small statured adults (5
feet, two inches or shorter), adults with medical conditions, and the elderly may sit in the front seat with an air bag if
they are securely belted, move the seat back, recline it slightly, and sit straight in the seat with feet on the floor.
Those with eyeglasses and pacemakers can also sit by an air bag. All vehicle passengers should keep their arms and
feet off of the air bag areas and avoid leaning against side impact air bags.
Drivers that transport children on the job should note the specific safety requirements for children and air bag safety.
Infants and children should ride in the rear seat buckled up or secured in child safety seats appropriate for their age
and weight.
Air bag fatalities are a rare occurrence, but with attention to safety precautions, we can all ensure that they save
more lives than they take. For more information on air bag safety, visit the National Highway and Transportation
Safety Association website at www.nhtsa.dot.gov.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Page 1 of 2 Air Bag Safety
1/13/2010 http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=355
Location:

Meeting Attended By:





Page 2 of 2 Air Bag Safety
1/13/2010 http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=355
Aircraft Maintenance Safety
Aircraft maintenance work includes inspection and repair of aircraft structures, coatings, and systems in hangars and
on the air field. Good training and work practices ensure aircraft and worker safety.
Tall, heavy aircraft make it hard to see people on the ground when maneuvering in the hangar or maintenance area.
Watch and communicate with the aircraft operator to avoid caught/crush accidents (getting run over by a tire or
colliding with a wing or tail). Never enter the ramp or flightline without permission from the air field controller.
Work at a steady pace. Rushing your work increases aircraft turnaround and accidents. To avoid a fall, watch for
ground lines to the aircraft. Well-lit work areas are safer. Watch sharp leading edges like wing tips and pointy
antennas, probes, and “Remove Before Flight” flags that stick out from the aircraft. Colliding with hard, sharp surfaces
or protrusions causes bumps, bruises, and cuts.
Stay inside painted hazard lines and keep clear of aircraft “prop arcs.” Contact with a propeller, rotor, or exposed
rotating part can cause severe injuries. Keep hair tied back and avoid loose clothing and jewelry to prevent
entanglement with moving parts. Don’t lean on or place your hands or feet near engine intake areas. Keep tools away
and pick up debris near the engine. If an engine starts, you could be severely injured, or small items could be turned
into projectiles.
Tall aircraft require ladders, platforms, and scaffolds to reach work areas. Follow ladder safety guidelines. Use a fall
protection harness where required. You may need to work in cramped quarters while performing aircraft maintenance.
Evaluate aircraft access areas and job tasks with limited egress and follow confined space procedures if needed.
Aircraft chemicals include lubricants, fuels, coating strippers, paints, and solvents. These can be concentrated and
contain hazardous materials; use material safety data sheets (MSDS). MSDS explain how to handle chemicals, proper
storage and disposal, and the required personal protective equipment (PPE) for safe work. Do not smoke around
aircraft maintenance areas where chemicals and fuels are flammable.
Fabrication and repair work requires tools such as welding torches, drills, rivets, or grinders. Properly maintain your
tools and follow safety procedures. When moving large, bulky aircraft parts and materials, use assistive devices or get
help to make the lift safe. Use good ergonomic practices such as frequent 30-second micro-breaks and job task
rotation to prevent fatigue and injury.
PPE varies with the job task. Bump caps protect you from an accidental collision with an aircraft part. Hard hats
protect you from falling objects. Safety glasses, a face shield, and goggles protect your face and eyes, depending on
the task and materials. Coveralls and rubber gloves and boots protect your hands and feet from chemicals. Sturdy
work gloves protect your hands from cuts and scrapes while steel-toe work boots with non-slip soles protect your toes
and decrease the chance of falls. Wear adequate hearing protection (ear plugs, muffs, etc.) to protect you from
aircraft noise. A respirator may be needed to control dusts from grinding and sanding operations.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Page 1 of 2 Aircraft Maintenance Safety
1/13/2010 http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=532

Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

Meeting Attended By:





Page 2 of 2 Aircraft Maintenance Safety
1/13/2010 http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=532
Ammonia Safety
Ammonia is a commonly used chemical in commercial and household cleaners. In industry, ammonia is used in
petroleum refining, to manufacture pharmaceuticals, to disinfect water, and as a refrigerant. In agriculture, ammonia
can be used for crop processing, fertilizers, or as an anti-fungal treatment for citrus. Ammonia can also be produced
naturally when stored materials such as manure, compost, or other materials break down.
Ammonia can be mixed with water and sold as ammonium hydroxide, or used in compressed gas as anhydrous
ammonia (meaning without water). Workers in all industries should know that, despite its common usage, ammonia
poses health risks and hazards that require proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and safe use and
handling procedures.
The reason ammonia is considered a hazardous chemical is that it is corrosive to the skin, eyes, and lungs. Ammonia
has a distinct and irritating odor when it is released, so your nose is usually the first warning of exposure. If you
breathe ammonia into your lungs, you may cough, wheeze, or feel shortness of breath.
To prevent overexposure to ammonia, know the amounts, concentrations, and properties of the materials that you
work with. Store ammonia in a cool, dry area away from incompatible materials such as chlorine, acids, oxidizers, and
metals. Use ammonia products and materials in well-ventilated areas. Never mix ammonia with chlorine (bleach)
because the combination creates chloramines, an extremely toxic and irritating gas. Wear the appropriate PPE for the
job task and the strength of the ammonia you use.
Wear an air-supplying respirator if you will be entering an area that has high ammonia concentrations. If your
workplace stores large amounts of ammonia, make sure that “escape” respirators with supplied air are available to
you in case of an accidental release. Know where these respirators are located and how to use them. Inspect and
maintain ammonia storage and processing equipment to prevent leaks and exposures.
Swallowing ammonia can cause burns to the mouth, throat, and stomach and can be fatal. Always wash your hands
after using ammonia products and before you smoke, eat or drink. Do not store food and beverages near ammonia
products.
Skin contact with ammonia can cause redness, pain, irritation, and burns. For housekeeping purposes, wear gloves to
protect your skin when using ammonia cleaning products. When using higher concentrations in industrial and
laboratory settings, wear gloves and consider a lab coat or coverall with long sleeves to protect your skin. If your
clothes are splashed with ammonia, remove the contaminated clothing and flush your skin with water for at least 15
minutes.
An ammonia splash in the eye can cause pain and burns and lead to eye damage and temporary or permanent
blindness. If you work with household cleaners, always spray the materials down and away from your face to avoid
exposure. If you use or mix concentrated ammonia, wear splash goggles or consider a face shield to protect your
eyes. If your eyes are exposed, flush them with water for 15 minutes and get immediate medical attention.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Page 1 of 2 Ammonia Safety
1/13/2010 http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=433

Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

Meeting Attended By:





Page 2 of 2 Ammonia Safety
1/13/2010 http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=433
Animal Handling Safety
Workers in farming, veterinary, and animal services industries may handle animals as a part of their job duties. The
types of animals may vary, but workers should get training on their potential hazards and safe handling techniques.
Animal hazards may include injuries due to sudden animal movements, bites and scratches, and zoonosis (diseases
spread from animals to humans).
Handling an animal safely begins with knowing the animal’s typical behavior. Animal handling techniques should be
taught to inexperienced workers and used consistently by everyone. Generally, slow and deliberate movements should
be used around animals. Workers should approach animals from the front and avoid their blind spots and the “kick
zone” behind cattle and horses. Cornering, teasing, poking, or needlessly hurting animals can cause them to react
violently.
Animal behavior can be unpredictable; therefore workers should remain constantly alert when handling them. Workers
should watch for warning signs of animal aggressiveness and fear. These vary with animal breeds, but may include
raised fur, flattened ears, twitching tails, or bared teeth. If possible, workers should avoid handling these animals until
they are in a calmer state. Some herd animals may be calmer when handled in small groups.
Extra caution should be used when handling animals that are sick, hurt, or new mothers. Aggressive (or sick) animals
and their pens should be labeled to ensure that everyone uses extra caution around them. If workers must capture
animals or administer treatments that may cause pain, they should do so with assistance from animal capture devices
and/or other workers. Workers should use extreme caution when giving injections and handling sharps around
animals; sudden animal movements could cause a stick injury.
When capturing or handling a tethered animal, workers should practice good ergonomics by keeping their backs
straight and their joints “soft.” This can prevent injury and a “whiplash” effect if the animal moves suddenly. If an
animal begins thrashing around too violently to safely control, the handler should release the animal if it is safe to do
so. Additional restraints or help may be needed to handle that animal safely. It is advisable to keep an open route of
escape when working with animals.
For safety on the job, workers need protective footwear with non-slip soles, sturdy clothing, and gloves. The potential
for zoonosis (diseases transmitted by animals) varies depending on the animal breed, but is generally caused by dirty
hands or inhalation of contaminated dusts. Frequent hand washing is the best defense against diseases caused by
touching animal saliva and wastes. Protective eyewear and respirators may also be needed for diseases transmitted
by breathing contaminated farm and field dusts. If injured by an animal or potentially exposed to a diseased animal,
workers should immediately report to their supervisor and seek the appropriate medical attention and follow-up.
Knowledge and training can prevent workers from experiencing the painful side of animal instincts.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Arc Welding Safety
Arc welders use a powerful electric arc to make and repair plain, coated, or treated metal items. Welders can be
stationary, electric powered or portable, diesel/gas powered.
Install electric-powered arc welders to code. Ground equipment and place it on an independent circuit with the
correct-sized fuse or circuit breaker. Overloading circuits or improper installation can lead to fire, a ground fault, or
equipment failure. Mount a safety disconnect switch near the user work area. Operate diesel/gas powered arc welders
in well-ventilated areas to control combustion fumes. Do not add fuel to the engine while it is running or near open
flame. Stop the engine and lockout the ignition before performing maintenance or repairs.
To protect your body from burns due to arc welding heat, ultraviolet light (UV), molten metal, and sparks, wear dark
colored coveralls with long sleeves and pant legs. The coveralls should be fire retardant, cuffless, and pocketless with
no holes, tears, or worn spots. A skull cap protects your head and hair. Leather gauntlet gloves and safety boots
protect your hands and feet. Wear hearing protection in noisy environments and to keep sparks out of your ears.
Goggles or safety glasses and welding helmets/shields protect your eyes from flying sparks, chipped slag, and UV
light. Welding helmets and shields should be non-reflective and free of cracks, gaps, and openings. Use the correct
filter setting for the power output of the arc welder. Weld inside a screened area to protect coworkers. Portable
screens, shields, and anti-flash goggles can also be used to protect visitors and coworkers.
Arc welders can reach temperatures greater than 10,000 degrees F, posing a fire and explosion hazard. Don’t arc weld
near flammables or combustibles. Avoid welding, cutting, or hot work on used drums, barrels, or tanks, where
residual fumes can ignite and explode. Weld on a firebrick surface on concrete or other fire-resistant flooring
surrounded by spark curtains. Fill cracks in the flooring to prevent sparks and hot metal from entering and
smoldering. Keep an ABC fire extinguisher, fire blanket, and first aid kit available at all times. It may be necessary to
set a “fire watch” to ensure that a fire does not start.
To avoid electric shock from arc welding, use an insulating mat when you weld steel or other conductive materials. If
you are welding in a wet or damp area or perspiring heavily, wear rubber gloves underneath your leather gloves. Keep
welding cables clean and intact and position them so they do not get sparks or hot metal on them.
Use arc welders in well-ventilated areas. Welding metals may be hazardous or lead to an oxygen deficient atmosphere
and are best handled in a ventilation hood exhausted to the outside. If you weld or cut metals with hazardous
coatings or treatments use a supplied-air respirator or a respirator with a specialty cartridge to filter specific metal
fumes. Use respiratory protection for galvanized items and metals, coatings, and fluxes that contain fluorine
compounds, zinc, lead, beryllium, cadmium, and mercury. Some cleaning and degreasing compounds may also be
hazardous.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Are You Prepared For An Emergency?
Emergencies in the workplace cannot be eliminated, but if you have an emergency action plan in place and have
trained workers to respond quickly and appropriately you can optimize efficiency, relieve anxiety, and in some cases,
save lives.
Management commitment and worker involvement are essential to an effective emergency action plan. The action
plan should be explained to workers and reviewed whenever the plan or responsibilities change. How good is your
emergency action plan? Find out by asking yourself and your workers the following questions:
General
Is there a means of reporting emergencies and accounting for personnel before and after an incident?

Who is the person responsible for decision-making during emergency conditions?
Does everyone in the workplace know the procedures to follow in various emergency scenarios (e.g. fire,
explosion, earthquake, chemical spill or workplace violence, etc.)?
Do workers know the escape routes and evacuations procedures including where to reassemble for a
headcount or for further instruction?
Do workers know where emergency supplies are located?
Medical
Do workers know how to respond in the event of a medical emergency?

Are there workers trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and first aid?
Does the worksite have first aid equipment which corresponds to the possible injuries workers may encounter?
(e.g. emergency wash stations, personal protective equipment, oxygen tanks, ice packs, etc.)
Are emergency response phone numbers (fire department, ambulance, medical facility, etc.) clearly posted
where they can be readily accessed?
Fire
Does the worksite have fire extinguishers that match the possible fire hazards?

Have workers practiced using the fire extinguishers so that they’re aware of their operation and limitations?
Have the fire extinguishers been recharged within the last year? (They must be tagged to indicate the recharge
date.
Spills
Does the worksite have absorbent material that matches the quantity and type of chemicals which could spill?

Do you have relevant personal protective equipment that would be needed to respond to a chemical spill?
Have workers been properly trained in how to safely respond to a chemical spill?
Once you have established your emergency action plan, make sure workers are trained and retrained in the possible
emergencies they may encounter, the emergency procedures they should follow, any first aid or rescue procedures,
and in the location of emergency response equipment and phone number. In an emergency an immediate and
educated response can save individual lives, the business operation, and thousands of dollars in potential losses.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
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compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Asbestos in Construction
What is Asbestos?
Asbestos is the name given to a group of naturally occurring minerals. Asbestos differs from other minerals, in that it
forms long thin fibers instead of crystals. There are six different minerals, divided into two groups, included in the
asbestos family. The two groups are Serpentine and Amphibole, and are based on the differences of their crystalline
structure. Serpentine forms a sheet or layered structure. Amphiboles form a chain-like structure. Asbestos fibers are
naturally occurring and stay airborne very well.
Where do you find asbestos?
Asbestos is used in many products because of their high tensile strength, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and
thermal breakdown. Asbestos is used in insulation, fireproofing materials, automotive brakes, cement and wallboard
materials, floor tiles and roofing materials.
Chrysotile (a member of the Serpentine group) is the most common type of asbestos found in buildings. Chrysotile
makes up 90-95% of all the asbestos in the United States. The federal government declared a moratorium on
asbestos production in the early 1970’s. Installation of these products continued into the early 1980’s.
Who is at risk of asbestos exposure?
The construction trades most at risk from asbestos are insulators, plumbers, pipefitters, electricians, sheet metal
workers, roofers, bricklayers, painters, and steel workers. Any construction worker may be exposed occur during
maintenance, remodeling, renovation or demolition of older buildings.
How can you become exposed?
Disturbing asbestos materials may generate airborne asbestos fibers. Asbestos is only dangerous if it becomes
airborne. To be a significant health concern, asbestos fibers must be inhaled over an extended period of time.
Asbestos fibers then accumulate in the lungs. As exposure increases, the risk of asbestos related diseases also
increase. As long as asbestos containing materials are not damaged, the asbestos fibers do not become airborne and
do not pose a health threat.
Asbestos related diseases.
Asbestosis– is a scarring of the lung tissue. The scarring impacts the elasticity of the lungs and lowers its ability to
transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide. Asbestosis is a slowly progressive disease, taking 15 to 30 years to fully develop.
Mesothelioma– is a type of cancer. This disease attacks the lining of the space holding the lungs, called the pleura.
Mesothelioma is considered to be exclusively related to asbestos exposure. Mesothelioma may take 30 to 40 years to
develop.
Lung Cancer– is a malignant tumor in the lungs. The tumor grows through the surrounding tissues, invading and
blocking the air passages of the lungs. The time between exposure to asbestos and the occurrence of lung cancer may
take 20 to 30 years. It should be noted that there is a multiplying effect between smoking and asbestos exposure,
which creates a high susceptibility to lung cancer.
How to protect yourself?
Before you disturb asbestos (loosen the fibers) you must have special training. OSHA requires a “competent person”
to be designated for all worksites that will involve asbestos work. The competent person should inspect the jobsite
regularly, be knowledgeable of personal protective equipment, and supervise the work to be done to ensure all safety
measures are being taken to prevent exposure to asbestos.
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More Information
For more detailed information and updates, visit the website maintained by the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration at http://www.osha-slc.gov/SLTC/asbestos.
If you have any concerns or questions, contact your company’s health and safety representative.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Asphalt
Asphalt is a black, sticky material that comes from crude oil. It is used in paving, roofing, waterproofing and some
glues. Asphalt is often confused with coal tar or pitch. Coal tar and pitch come from coal, not oil. Asphalt is a solid or
semisolid substance. It is mixed with solvents to make it more liquid, and easier to work with. Some of the solvents
used to mix with asphalt are naphtha, toluene, and xylene. These solvents are hazardous substances, flammable, very
smelly and increase the potential hazards of working with asphalt. There are many different types and grades of
asphalt in current use.
Who is at risk? It is estimated that 350,000 workers are exposed to asphalt fumes each year. Workers most likely to
be exposed to asphalt fumes are road workers, roofers, employees at hot-mix asphalt facilities and general
construction workers.
Health Dangers
Breathing asphalt fumes is the most common method of exposure. The acute (immediate) health effects of asphalt
fumes include; headache, skin rash, fatigue, eye and throat irritation, and cough. Exposure to asphalt fumes (and the
solvents in them) over long periods of time (chronic exposure) may cause lung and stomach cancer. Long-term
contact of asphalt with your skin can cause pigment change, which is made worse by sunlight exposure. To find out
the specific hazards associated with the type of asphalt you are working with, consult the Material Safety Data Sheet
from your employer.
Many forms of asphalt are flammable. This can lead to potential fires and explosions. Sources of ignition (e.g. sparks,
flames, cigarettes, etc.) should be kept away from the area where the hot asphalt is being used. Asphalt is almost
always used hot, so burns are a common form of injuries. Have a fire extinguisher available, of the correct type, for
possible fires. Do not use a fire extinguisher unless you have been fully trained in its use.
Methods of Control
Substitution – there are many types of asphalt. Some are more hazardous than others. If possible, substitute a less
hazardous form of asphalt in your construction project.
Isolation – isolating asphalt operations will minimize worker exposure. Where possible, transfer the asphalt
automatically by pump to minimize exposures.
Enclosure – enclose the mixing and stirring operations. Stirring asphalt in an open kettle exposes you to fumes,
solvent vapors and possible burns.
Prior to starting any job, discuss with your supervisor/employer the appropriate personal protective equipment
necessary for the work being performed.
Gloves – for the best protection, use thermally insulated gloves.

Clothes – wear long sleeve shirts and long pants.
Eye protection – wear indirect vent goggles when working with liquids. If the liquids are corrosive, highly
irritating or toxic, wear a face shield along with the goggles.
Safe Work Practices
Do not eat, smoke or drink where asphalt is handled.

Wash hands carefully before eating, drinking, smoking or using the toilet.
If you feel ill while working with asphalt, let your supervisor know right away.
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For more information and updates of new information, visit the website maintained by the Occupational Safety &
Health Administration at http://www.osha-slc.gov
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Asphalt Worker Safety
Asphalt is used for paving and surfacing roads, roofing, concrete work, and paints. It is made from petroleum
products and is usually heated between 150-200 degrees F. Asphalt is often mixed with solvents (diesel, kerosene,
naphtha, toluene, and xylene), binders, hardening and bonding agents (resins), crushed rock, sand, and recycled
rubber. Exposure to asphalt fumes can cause serious health effects, so get training and use safe work practices.
When asphalt is heated, the fumes can cause coughing, a scratchy throat, or lung irritation. Long term exposure can
lead to bronchitis or emphysema. Asphalt additives may create vapors that can cause damage to the liver, kidneys,
and nervous system. Hot asphalt can release hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) that can cause lung irritation, suffocation, or
death. Skin contact with hot asphalt can cause burns while absorbing the chemicals can lead to allergies and rashes.
Eyes can be irritated by asphalt fumes or if you touch them with dirty hands.
Find out about the asphalt products you work with. Check the product label or material safety data sheet (MSDS) to
get health and safety information about the specific asphalt mix and ingredients that you use. Where possible, choose
asphalt products that are safer to use. Rapid cure asphalts contain solvents to help them evaporate faster, but this
increases the risk of vapors and fire. Slower cure and lower temperature asphalt applications reduce the fumes and
the fire hazard. The Cal OSHA permissible exposure level (PEL) for asphalt fumes is 5mg/M3. Asphalt additives may
also have their own PEL limits, so check the MSDS.
Wear personal protective equipment (PPE) when working with asphalt. Thermally insulated gloves prevent asphalt
burns and stop solvents from soaking into your skin. Wear long sleeves and pants or coveralls. Safety glasses and a
face shield protect your eyes and face. Safety boots protect your feet. If necessary, use respiratory protection to
prevent overexposure to asphalt fumes.
Avoid breathing asphalt fumes by staying upwind of application areas and enclosing kettles and mixing operations.
Don’t stick your head over an open tank or kettle and avoid open stirring to prevent burns and overexposure to
fumes. Use your PPE to keep asphalt off of your skin and out of your eyes. Wash your hands frequently and before
you eat, drink, smoke, or use the restroom.
Heated asphalt is a fire and explosion hazard. Do not allow water to splash into hot asphalt because it can bubble up
explosively. Some asphalt additives can be flammable. Do not smoke around flammable vapors. Avoid heat and
sparks around your asphalt work. Do not weld an asphalt tank or kettle unless you are certain that it does not contain
flammable vapors. Keep the correct type of fire extinguisher handy when using asphalt.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Automobile Repair Services
Automobile repair services include inspections, maintenance, and repairs to vehicles. Repairs may require computer
analysis, fluid changes, parts changes, or major mechanical work, exposing workers to fire and explosion hazards,
chemicals, ergonomic strains, awkward postures, and tool and machinery safety concerns.
Get the proper training you need to safely use your equipment and tools. Get training, read, and understand the
material safety data sheet on the chemicals you use. Know where emergency exits and equipment are located. Get
fire extinguisher training. Emergency eyewash stations and showers should be available, easily accessible, and ready
to use if you need them.
Wear proper personal protective equipment and clothing. Long sleeved coveralls protect your skin. Wear gloves when
you work with chemicals. Wear sturdy, comfortable shoes with a non-slip sole. Don’t wear loose clothing, jewelry, or
bulky gloves. Tie back long hair. Eye protection protects eyes from dirt, debris, and liquid splashes. Wear hearing
protection when using pneumatic tools or doing loud tasks. Respiratory protection prevents inhaling dusts and fumes.
Pay special attention to mechanical hazards in the shop. Use caution with jacks and aerial lifts. Know the rated
capacity and the weight and center of gravity of the vehicle. When you use a jack, test to see if the vehicle is
supported before you work underneath. Use support stands to protect you if the vehicle falls. When you use the aerial
lift, know the vehicle’s lift points to ensure a balanced and stable lift. Periodically inspect and maintain your jacks and
lifts.
Other mechanical hazards include moving engine parts such as drive belts, pulleys and fans. Know where these parts
are and keep your hands clear of them. Don’t lean over or reach into the engine compartment while someone else is
behind the ignition key or revving the engine. Watch for rotating parts that can pull in your hand, sleeve, and arm and
cause severe injury. Take caution around air bag technology; disable it before you begin work.
Avoid burns; watch for hot engine and exhaust parts. Hot fluids can scald your skin; allow the engine to cool before
you work with hot parts and fluids. Never open the radiator cap on a hot engine. Prevent shop fires. Don’t smoke
around fuels or fuel-related parts. Don’t smoke or get sparks near the battery; it can off-gas explosive hydrogen. Use
caution when working on fuel lines. Bleed line pressure and use a rag to absorb drips and sprays. Store flammable
rags in fire-safety cans with self-closing lids.
Automotive work can require long days; pace yourself to prevent fatigue. Take frequent mini-breaks and rotate your
work tasks throughout the day. Moving in and around a vehicle and reaching into cramped engine and electrical
compartments may require awkward postures that can lead to ergonomic strains and sprains. Get the proper tools to
allow you to reach your tasks comfortably and safely. Auto parts are heavy, so use proper lifting methods.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Avoiding Allergic Reactions to Latex
Most people who encounter latex products have no health problems, but some workers, continually exposed to latex
gloves and other products containing natural rubber latex, develop allergic reactions. Those who work where latex
products are manufactured or who have multiple allergic conditions may also be affected. A latex allergy can result in
serious health problems.
Workers with ongoing exposure to natural rubber latex should follow the National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health's (NIOSH) recommendations which include: reducing exposure, using appropriate work practices, training and
education, monitoring symptoms, and when possible, substituting non-latex products. You can take steps to avoid or
minimizing allergic reactions to natural rubber latex.
Learn to recognize latex allergy symptoms, which include skin rashes; hives; flushing; itching; nasal, eye, or sinus
irritations; asthma, and (rarely) shock. If allergy symptoms develop, avoid direct contact with latex products until a
doctor experienced in latex allergies sees you. If you have a latex allergy, tell your employer, physicians, nurses and
dentists and wear a medical alert bracelet. Workers with latex allergy should talk to a doctor about precautions in
areas where powder from latex gloves worn by others might be inhaled. High-risk workers should be periodically
screened for latex allergy symptoms.
Non-latex gloves should be used when contact with infectious materials is not likely (food preparation, routine
housekeeping, maintenance, etc.). If latex gloves are required, use powder-free gloves with reduced protein content.
When wearing latex gloves, don't use oil-based hand creams or lotions unless they reduce latex-related problems.
After removing latex gloves, wash hands with a mild soap and dry thoroughly.
Identify and frequently clean work areas contaminated with latex dust (upholstery, carpets, ventilation ducts, and
plenums). Frequently change ventilation filters and vacuum bags used in latex-contaminate areas. Prevention
strategies should be evaluated whenever a worker is diagnosed with a latex allergy.
For additional information about latex allergy, call 1-800-356-4674; or visit the NIOSH Web page at
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/homepage.html
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Back Injuries - Get Your Workers Back in Control
Jokes about nagging back pain get standup comedians a lot of laughs, but back strains and sprains are not at all
funny, nor should they be an unavoidable curse to anyone.
Back injuries suffered in California’s workplaces last year ran up a bill of millions of dollars. Those disabling back
injuries were no laughing matter for the workers who lost time from work or from their personal activities. The sad
truth is that most of the pain and lost time could have been prevented if workers had been more aware of how their
backs function and how to safely lift bulky or heavy loads.
The back is a network of fragile ligaments, discs, and muscles which can easily be thrown out of order. The back’s
complex design breaks down when it is forced to perform activities it was not designed to do.
One sure way to risk injuring the back is to lift heavy or bulky loads improperly or unassisted. The unsupported back
cannot operate like a derrick or a crane boom. Lifting with the back twisted or bent just begs for a pulled muscle or
ruptured disc. The back can be damaged quickly but can take a long time to heal. So workers should be encouraged
to do their lifting with good sense and a little extra help from a co-worker or mechanical aid.
Workers should learn to squat over the item to be lifted, and face it squarely. In this position, the back gets added
lifting strength and power from the legs and arms. Teach workers to tilt the item on edge with its long axis straight up
so the the center of the weight is as high as possible above the ground. Next, the worker should move up close to the
item, because the backbone must act as a supporting column, and it takes the least strain close in. In this position,
the worker is ready to lift. Still squatting, the feet should be set with legs pointed right at the load, with the back
straightened, the worker may then grasp the load with both arms and slowly stand up with it.
A good way to help workers learn the right from the wrong way to lift, is to have them practice lifting correctly a few
times. They will notice that the correct way to lift is the easiest way to lift the load, with the least strain and
awkwardness. To lift the wrong way will, over time, cause injury and pain and then no one will be laughing.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Baling and Compacting Work
Compactors and balers are used in industries such as wholesalers, retailers, manufacturing, garbage and recycling
facilities, and other public entities to compress waste materials into smaller, more manageable loads. Using powered
rams, waste materials such as garbage, paper, cardboard, cotton, metals, and plastic can be compressed and packed
into containers or baled for transport. Workers can get seriously injured or killed if they reach inside or fall into a
compactor or baler.
Get training on the use of the compactor or baler in your work area. Follow manufacturer’s recommendations on the
maintenance, inspection, and use of the machine. Never overload the machine beyond the recommended capacity. Do
not allow workers younger that 18 to operate a compactor or baler.
Know how the machine at your jobsite works; does it operate manually or on semiautomatic or automatic cycles?
Does the machine have capacity sensors and when are they activated? With manual devices, the operator controls the
ram; semiautomatic devices turn on and cycle only after a worker hits the switch; while automatic devices trigger the
compression ram based on a capacity sensor. Know and use these features because they tell you when and how the
machine will activate so you can avoid the powered ram.
Be familiar with and use all of the safety devices on compactors and balers. Guards, conveyors, remote chutes,
control switches, and safety interlocks for doors and ports are designed to keep you out of the compression chamber
and harm’s way. Do not try to bypass safety features in order to perform maintenance, clear a jam, or ease the
loading process. Use access ladders and platforms, or walk around moving conveyers. Use safe access points and
consider fall protection if you are working over gravity-fed chutes or chambers. Watch out for the baling materials
because they are under pressure and can snap if they are overloaded.
Follow the safe work practices designed for your machine and job tasks. Always clear the area and account for all
workers before you activate a compactor or baler. NEVER reach into or enter a baler or compactor unless it has been
de-energized. ALWAYS use lockout/tagout procedures before you perform maintenance, inspections, or clear jams.
Jams are a frequent occurrence in baling and compacting operations, so design your lockout/tagout procedures to be
efficient and effective by marking the power points and wiring the machinery together to reduce the number of
lockouts needed.
Don’t let a compactor or baler put the squeeze on your safety.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

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Battery Handling Safety
Batteries are used to power our automobiles, trucks, tractors, and construction or power equipment. There are
different types of batteries such as lead-acid batteries, gel cells, and lead-calcium batteries. Most batteries contain
sulfuric acid and lead. Because batteries contain chemicals, chemical reaction by-products, and an electrical current
they can pose a hazard to workers if not handled properly. Workers that operate, maintain, and recharge batteries
should use caution.
Before working with a battery, you should have training in proper handling procedures. Consult the vehicle and
battery owners’ manuals for specific instructions on battery handling and hazard identification. To avoid splashing acid
in your face, wear personal protective equipment (PPE) such as chemical splash goggles and a face shield. Wear acid-
resistant equipment such as gauntlet style gloves, an apron, and boots. Do not tuck your pant legs into your boots
because spilled acid can form a pool in your boots.
Be aware of the chemical hazards posed by batteries. The sulfuric acid (electrolyte) in batteries is highly corrosive.
Acid exposure can lead to skin irritation, eye damage, respiratory irritation, and tooth enamel erosion. Never lean over
a battery while boosting, testing or charging it. In marine environments, do not allow the battery solution to mix with
salt water; it can produce hazardous chlorine gas. If acid splashes on your skin or eyes, immediately flood the area
with cool running water for at least 15 minutes and seek medical attention immediately.
Always practice good hygiene and wash your hands after handling a battery and before eating. If you handle the lead
plates in a battery and don’t wash your hands properly, you could be exposed to lead. Signs of lead exposure include
loss of appetite, diarrhea, constipation with cramping, difficulty sleeping, and fatigue.
The chemical reaction by-products from a battery include oxygen and hydrogen gas. These can be explosive at high
levels. Overcharging batteries can also create flammable gases. For this reason, it is very important to store and
maintain batteries in a well-ventilated work area away from all ignition sources and incompatible materials.
Cigarettes, flames or sparks could cause a battery to explode.
Before working on a battery, disconnect the battery cables. To avoid sparking, always disconnect the negative battery
cable first and reconnect it last. Be careful with flammable fluids when working on a battery-powered engine. The
electrical voltage created by batteries can ignite flammable materials and cause severe burns. Workers have been
injured and killed when loose or sparking battery connections ignited gasoline and solvent fumes during vehicle
maintenance.
Battery maintenance tools should be covered with several layers of electrical tape to avoid sparking. Place protective
rubber boots on battery cable connections to prevent sparking on impact if a tool does accidentally hit a terminal.
Clean the battery terminals with a plastic brush because wire brushes could create static and sparks. Always remove
your personal jewelry before working on a battery. A short-circuit current can weld a ring or bracelet to metal and
cause severe burns.
Batteries can be very dense and heavy, so use proper lifting techniques to avoid back injuries. Battery casings can be
brittle and break easily; they should be handled carefully to avoid an acid spill. Make sure that a battery is properly
secured and upright in the vehicle or equipment. If a battery shows signs of damage to the terminals, case or cover,
replace it with a new one. Finally, remember to dispose of old batteries properly.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Be An Extra-Safe Driver
Those who drive for a living would be the first to agree it can be mighty dangerous out there on California’s crowded
roads. Although the common factors of inexperience, recklessness, and aggressive driving contribute to many vehicle
accidents, it doesn’t explain why so many professional drivers get into accidents. A driver may be trained,
experienced, and competent behind the wheel, but the very flood of vehicles competing for space on the roads today
presents added danger to all drivers. Even the very best drivers must learn to operate their vehicles with life-saving
EXTRAS.
Drivers should take extra care of their vehicles’ maintenance by keeping them in good operating condition. Before
getting behind the wheel, do a simple walk around the vehicle to insure that tires are properly inflated and have good
tread, check that lights are clear and working, and see that windshields are clean and wipers blades are sharp.
Once inside the vehicle, drivers should take the extra time to check the gas gage, adjust the mirrors, seat, and
seatbelt to a comfortable position and, if it’s an unfamiliar vehicle, locate the lights, brakes, and wipers. Horns, flasher
lights, and other warning devices are not just accessories but vital parts of the extra safety built into any vehicle, so
make sure they operate properly.
On the roadways, be extra careful by driving defensively. Following the rules of the road can help you concentrate on
what your should be doing…driving. Stay out of the other vehicle’s blind spot and avoid tailgating. Instead, keep a
safe distance from other drivers by maintaining that extra safety cushion of driving space between your vehicle and
those around you. As an extra precaution, know the condition of the weather and road and drive only as fast as those
conditions allow.
Be extra cautious by staying alert and expecting the unexpected. Watch out for and anticipate other drivers,
pedestrians or children on or near the road. Safe drivers scan constantly for hazards, predicting how they may be
affected by a hazard and pre-determining how to avoid or reduce them.
The ever-changing variable of the road and other vehicles can make drivers instantly vulnerable to accidents. If
drivers don’t practice these life-saving extras on the road, they might personally discover why vehicle deaths and
serious injuries now total more than all the wartime wounded and fatalities since 1776.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Supervisor's Signature:

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Bloodborne Pathogens
What are Bloodborne Pathogens?
Bloodborne pathogens (BBP) are microorganisms that can cause disease when transferred from an infected person to
another person through blood or other potentially infected body fluids. The microorganisms are capable of causing
serious illness and death. The most common diseases spread in this manner are Hepatitis B (HBV) and Human
Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Examples of other bloodborne diseases include malaria, Hepatitis C and syphilis.
Who is at Risk?
Workers in health care and public safety jobs could be potentially exposed to these disease pathogens. These workers
include, but are not limited to, doctors, dentists, nurses, paramedics, police, laboratory workers and housekeeping
workers in the health care industry. Needlestick injuries are the most common method of exposure for health care
workers. Non-health care workers may become exposed at work while providing help to an injured co-worker and
coming in contact with the injured person’s blood or body fluids.
How can you become exposed?
Exposure to bloodborne pathogens may occur in many ways. Any kind of opening or break in the skin provides a place
for infected blood or fluids to enter your body. Scrapes, cuts, rashes, burns and other minor injuries that create an
opening in the skin are entryways for bloodborne pathogens. Your eyes, nose and mouth are mucous membranes, and
are also openings for diseases to enter.
Universal Precautions
Universal precautions are methods of protecting yourself from bloodborne pathogens. Universal precautions assume
all body fluids are infected with bloodborne pathogens. Universal precautions include:
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) – to be used at all times to prevent skin or mucous membrane contact
with bodily fluids. Always inspect PPE for cracks, holes or other damage. Never use damaged PPE. PPE
examples include lab coats, gloves, eye goggles, face shields, etc.
Wash hands or other skin surfaces thoroughly and immediately if contaminated.
When using sharp items (scalpels, needles, pipettes, etc.) that may be potentially contaminated, a puncture
resistant container must be used for storage and disposal after use.
If you think you’ve been exposed
If you have come in contact with blood or other potentially infectious bodily fluids, you’ve been involved in an
exposure incident. Stay calm, wash yourself thoroughly, and report to your supervisor right away. Inform your
supervisor of how, when, where and whose blood you came in contact with. If you’ve been involved in an exposure
incident, seek medical attention. A medical professional will provide you with appropriate testing, treatment and
education.
Bloodborne Pathogens Program
In 1991, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) began requiring employers with workers
potentially exposed to blood or other infectious materials to establish a Bloodborne Pathogens Program. The purpose
of a Bloodborne Pathogens Program is to protect employees from the health hazards associated with bloodborne
pathogens and to provide appropriate treatment and counseling should an employee be exposed to bloodborne
pathogens.
More Information
For more detailed information and updates, visit the website maintained by the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration at www.osha.gov/SLTC/bloodbornepathogens/.
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If you have any health concerns or questions, contact your health care provider.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

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Boiler Safety
Workers that use, maintain, and service boilers know that they can be potentially dangerous. Boilers are gas-fired or
electric closed vessels that heat water or other liquid to generate steam. The steam is superheated under pressure
and used for power, heating or other industrial purposes. Though boilers are usually equipped with a pressure relief
valve, if the boiler fails to contain the expansion pressure, the steam energy is released instantly. This combination of
exploding metal and superheated steam can be extremely dangerous.
Only trained and authorized workers should operate a boiler. Workers should be familiar with the boiler
manufacturer's operating manual and instructions. Boiler operators should frequently inspect boilers for leakage,
proper combustion, operation of safety devices and gauges, and other functions. Many older boilers and hot water and
steam piping may have asbestos insulation coatings, wraps, or “lagging.” Workers should periodically inspect these
areas to make sure that the materials are not damaged, flaking, or deteriorating. Damaged materials should be
reported and repaired or removed immediately by a certified asbestos contractor. Signs of cracked surfaces, bulges,
corrosion or other deformities should be repaired by an authorized technician immediately. Detailed logs of boiler
operation and maintenance can help ensure boiler safety.
Boilers should always be brought on line slowly and cold water should never be injected into a hot system. Sudden
changes in temperature can warp or rupture the boiler. Because many boilers are fire-operated by natural gas, diesel
or fuel oil, special precautions need to be taken. Boiler operators should ensure that the fuel system, including valves,
lines, and tanks, is operating properly with no leaks. To prevent furnace explosions, it is imperative that boiler
operators purge the boiler before ignition of the burner. Workers should check the fuel to air ratio, the condition of the
draft, and the flame to make sure that it is not too high and not smoky. Ventilation systems should also be inspected
and maintained to make sure that combustion gases do not build up in the boiler room.
The area around the boiler should be kept clean of dust and debris, and no flammable materials should be stored near
any boiler. Floors are often sealed concrete and can be very slippery when wet. Spills should be mopped or cleaned up
immediately. Make sure that adequate lighting is provided and that malfunctioning light fixtures are repaired
immediately. Because boilers have hot surface areas, there should be plenty of clearance for workers to move around
the room. Boiler rooms can be noisy, so the area should be posted and workers should wear hearing protection when
working inside the boiler room.
Boiler repairs are allowed only by authorized boiler repair technicians. Repair workers should wear personal protective
equipment such as hard hats, heavy-duty work gloves, eye protection and coveralls. When entering a boiler for
service or repair, authorized boiler repair workers should treat the vessel as a permit-required confined space. When
the boiler is shut down for repair, all sources of energy should be isolated using approved Lock-out / Tag-out
procedures and residual pressure in steam, water, and fuel lines should be relieved by following proper bleed and
block or capping procedures.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Cal/OSHA Inspections
Cal/OSHA inspectors make unannounced visits to ensure California workplaces are safe and healthy. If your business
has a documented uncontrolled hazard and, as a result, receives a Cal/OSHA citation, the resulting penalties, legal
issues, and lowered employee morale and publicity can have serious financial and business impacts. Managers,
supervisors, and employees need to know what to expect during a Cal/OSHA inspection and how to respond
appropriately.
Cal/OSHA conducts site inspections in cases of imminent danger or industrial accidents. A fatal injury to one or more
employees; a serious injury or illness; a serious exposure; or the inpatient hospitalization, regardless of duration, of
three (3) or more employees (a catastrophe) will trigger an accident investigation and must be reported to Cal/OSHA
within 8 hours. Inspectors also focus on high-hazard work sites and industries with loss rates at or above Bureau of
Labor Statistics averages.
Inspectors will also visit worksites as a response to employee complaints posing an imminent danger. At times,
employee complaints may be considered low risk. These are handled with a letter reporting general information and a
request to follow-up and report back within a certain time period. Conduct investigations into these complaints, gather
documentation, and submit it in writing on time to the Cal/OSHA office. Note that the name of the complaining
employee will be kept confidential. It is against the law to retaliate against employees for reporting safety hazards and
concerns.
Cal/OSHA inspectors will present their identification and request permission from a management representative to
conduct a site inspection. Instruct your receptionist and/or security personnel on which management staff should be
notified of a visit. Inspectors will wait on site about one hour for management contact. They will conduct an opening
conference to explain the reason for the visit. Inspection walkthroughs may include your entire facility, or a targeted
work area. Inspectors have the right to walk around the building (accompanied), interview employees in private, and
document hazards with photos and measurements.
When you work with an inspector, be courteous and friendly. Limit the inspection focus to only the documents and
facility areas listed in the opening conference. Accompany the inspector at all times, though private employee
interviews can be arranged in controlled access conference rooms. Provide neutral, fact-based answers to the
inspector’s questions; don’t offer opinions or guess at answers. It is okay to offer follow-up at a later date. Don’t
argue with an inspector. Also, don’t agree with comments as they may be incorrect. Don’t make jokes about health
and safety, worksite, or personnel matters. Keep notes, photos, and records during the visit. If the inspector takes
measurements or readings, conduct the same measurements and readings simultaneously.
After the walkthrough, the inspector should conduct a closing conference to provide inspection results, next steps, and
timelines. Inspectors may request protocols, work procedures, or other documents. Deadlines for submittal range
between 24 hours and 14 days. The Injury and Illness Prevention Program (IIPP) may be required immediately, since
it is required to be readily accessible to employees. Conduct follow-up investigations, corrective actions, and gather
requested documents and provide them to the inspector by the stated deadline. Missed deadlines can result in further
site inspections or citations.
Cal/OSHA inspections are unannounced. Start planning now so you can present a competent, organized, and
compliant response to a Cal/OSHA inspection. Designate and train staff to respond to Cal/OSHA inspectors. Maintain
your safety programs and employee training procedures at appropriate levels. Keep safety records organized and on
site and ensure key staff know how to access them.
Source: Cal/OSHA Web site: http://www.dir.ca.gov/DOSHPol/P&PC-1A.HTM
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The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

Meeting Attended By:





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Cal OSHA Recordkeeping and Reporting
The California Division of Occupational Health (CalOSHA) requires recordkeeping and reporting about safety in the
workplace. Required records include the OSHA 300 Log and documents about safety hazard analysis, inspections, and
accident investigations. Hazard-specific regulations such as asbestos, diving, mining, etc. also have additional
recordkeeping requirements. Keeping track of recordkeeping requirements is a challenge.
The OSHA 300 log is probably the most familiar to workers and employers. It records all work-related deaths along
with injuries and illnesses that require more than first aid treatment. An annual summary of injuries and illnesses is
required to be posted in the workplace. Some small businesses (less than 10 employees) and certain industries may
have limited exemptions from this recordkeeping requirement. All Employers must report to Cal OSHA any serious
injury, illness or death of an employee immediately, but no longer than 8 hours after the employer knows or with
diligent inquiry would have known. If the employer can demonstrate that exigent circumstances exist, the time frame
for the report may be made no longer than 24 hours after the incident. For instructions on keeping the 300 Log, see
the State Fund Loss Control Bulletin Required Recordkeeping Procedures at
http://www.scif.com/safety/losscontrol/Article.asp?ArticleID=311. For instructions on reporting illnesses and injuries
that require treatment beyond first aid, see First Aid Reporting Requirements at
http://www.scif.com/safety/losscontrol/Article.asp?ArticleID=301.
CalOSHA also requires employers to keep records on hazard evaluations and the corrective actions taken to reduce or
control safety risks in the workplace. Job hazard analysis (JHA) evaluates a worker’s job tasks, tools, equipment, and
procedures to determine the level of safety risk and how to control it. Also examine and plan for hazards associated
with new tools, equipment, chemicals, tasks, and work environments. Keeping records of these hazard evaluations
and risk reduction efforts can document that a business has diligently worked to protect workers. Communicate with
employees about these evaluations to make them aware of job hazards and help them work safer.
Periodic workplace safety inspections identify hazards in the workplace. Keep records of the identified hazards and the
actions that were taken to correct them. Investigate all employee accidents and near misses to determine the root
cause of the accident. Document any corrective actions taken to reduce the risk of further accidents. Take the same
steps when investigating employee complaints by recording the investigation process and any necessary corrective
actions. Communicate the results of inspections, accident investigations, and complaint response to employees.
Safety training is a key component in making employees aware of the risks and hazards involved with their work tasks
along with the appropriate work practices and personal protective equipment that keeps them safe. General safety
training may include ergonomics, first aid, CPR, and injury and illness prevention. Specific work task and hazards
safety training can target chemical use, fall protection, lockout/tagout, etc. Keep records of all employee safety
training.
With all of this recordkeeping, it may be confusing about how long to keep safety records. Storage time requirements
range between 1, 3, and 5 years. Check the specific regulations that apply to your industry, but as a best practice,
store safety and training records for 5 years. Note that some regulations have separate recordkeeping requirements
and timelines. For example, asbestos training records are required to be kept one year past the last date of
employment of a worker. Employee medical records need to be kept for the length of employment plus 30 years.
CalOSHA posting requirements ensure that you communicate about safety and hazards in the workplace. Every place
of employment should have the Job Safety and Health Protection poster placed in a prominent area. Copies of all
CalOSHA citations must be posted for 3 days or until the violations are corrected. Finally, post notices of Cal OSHA
investigations, complaints, and the required employer response for 3 days.
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Employers must provide their employees access to safety records within a reasonable timeframe (usually 7 days) and
must notify employees when monitoring indicates that they have been exposed to a hazard. Employees have a right
to information and records about hazardous chemicals in the workplace (Material Safety Data Sheets), hazard
exposure monitoring, and their own safety, personnel, and medical records. Employees also have the responsibility to
report all workplace hazards, illnesses, injuries, accidents, and near misses so they can be evaluated and prevented in
the future.
Comply with the law; go on record and document your safety efforts and statistics.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

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Carbon Monoxide
What is Carbon Monoxide?
Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a poisonous, colorless, tasteless, odorless gas. CO gas is generated as a waste product of
the incomplete combustion of coal, wood, oil, and other petroleum based fuels (e.g. gasoline, propane, etc). CO gas,
although odorless, usually occurs in a combination of combustion by-products that have distinctive odors. The primary
source of CO gas is the internal combustion engine. CO gas is also generated in industrial operations such as auto
repair, oil refining, steel and chemical manufacturing.
Hazards of Carbon Monoxide
Health Hazards:
CO is a chemical asphyxiant which means that it reduces the blood’s ability to carry oxygen. Asphyxiation, or
suffocation, occurs when the blood does not deliver enough oxygen to the body.
CO gas is absorbed through the lungs into the bloodstream. Inhalation of CO gas may cause headaches, nausea,
dizziness, weakness, rapid breathing, unconsciousness and death. High concentrations of CO may be rapidly fatal
without producing significant warning symptoms.
Exposure to this gas may aggravate preexisting heart and artery disease. As CO gas is odorless, there may be no odor
warning if toxic concentrations are present.
If you suspect CO poisoning, move the person immediately to the fresh air away from the source of the CO. Call 911
or your emergency number for medical assistance. CO poisoning can be reversed if caught in time.
Safety Hazards:
CO gas mixes very well with air. CO gas penetrates easily through walls and ceilings. It is an extremely flammable
gas. CO gas may react very strongly with oxygen, acetylene, chlorine, fluorine or nitrous oxide.
Who is at Risk?
Workers most likely to be exposed to carbon monoxide are welders, mechanics, firefighters, long shore workers,
diesel engine operators, forklift drivers, toll booth or tunnel attendants, police, taxi drivers, shipping and receiving
workers and warehouse personnel.
Methods of Control of Carbon Monoxide
To reduce the chances of CO poisoning in the workplace:
Install a ventilation system that will effectively remove CO from the work area.

Properly maintain equipment that may produce CO to enhance safe operation and to reduce CO generation.
Consider switching from gasoline-powered equipment to battery or electric equipment.
Prohibit the use of gasoline-powered equipment indoors or in poorly ventilated areas.
Consider installing CO detectors with audible alarms.
Educate workers about the sources, hazards, and controls of CO.
What Can You Do To Help?
Report any situation to your employer that might cause CO to build up.

Pay attention to ventilation problems, especially in enclosed areas.
Avoid the use of gas-powered equipment in enclosed spaces.
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More Information
For more detailed information visit the website maintained by the Occupational Safety & Health Administration at
http://www.osha-slc.gov/SLTC/healthguidelines/carbonmonoxide/. If you have any health concerns or questions,
contact your health care provider.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Date:

Location:

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Carpet Layer Safety
Carpet layers install a wide range of flooring products in homes and buildings to enhance style and comfort. The
hazards involved with this work include the use of sharp and cutting tools and materials, the use of chemical
adhesives and treatments, and physically demanding work that can result in ergonomic injuries.
If you install carpet for a living, focus on ergonomics. Before installation, you often have to clear out furniture and
haul old and new carpeting materials. Use proper lifting techniques to protect your back. Maintain a level of good
overall health and fitness. Take frequent mini-breaks to rest, and rotate your tasks as much as possible.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) reports that carpet layers account for 6% of all
reported knee injuries, a rate 100 times the national worker average. Because you spend about 75% of your work
time kneeling on hard sub-flooring, use knee pads to reduce the contact stress. Kneepads can also prevent accidental
punctures from tack strips, flooring irregularities, and other sharps.
Use of a knee-kicker to stretch carpet wall-to-wall in a room or to engage the room-edge tack strip can cause knee
injuries due to force and repetition. Workers must forcefully strike the knee kicker approximately 120-140 times each
day. A hand and arm operated power carpet stretcher accomplishes the same tasks with reduced force. Don’t trade a
knee injury for a hand, arm, or shoulder injury; get training and follow ergonomic principles when using the power
stretcher.
Carpet cutting tools, sharp tack strips, sewing materials, and staples can cause injuries if you do not use hand
protection and tool safety. Gloves should be of sufficient weight to protect you while still allowing full movement of
your hand; you may need several different pairs of gloves for different work tasks. Consider wearing eye protection to
protect against flying debris and sharp objects. Always use the correct tool for the job. Ensure that your cutting tools
are in good condition and sharp enough to do the job. Watch where you place your hands and knees so you do not
come into contact with sharp tacks, staples, or cutting tool edges. Use caution with heat-tape and carpet irons to
avoid burns.
When you use adhesives and glues to install carpet and padding, get training and read the material safety data sheet
(MSDS) for information on the handling, mixing, and personal protective equipment (PPE) required for safe use. Some
carpets may require special handling due to their contents or treatments. Read the carpet health information labels for
the flooring materials that you install and follow all of the directions for installation.
Knowledge of the hazards of carpet installation and the use of good ergonomics and work practices can keep you safe
wall-to-wall.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Cart Safety
Carts come in many sizes and styles and are used by workers in many industries. While carts and the reasons we use
them vary, they have some common hazards and safety issues to consider.
Hazards associated with carts include using the wrong type for the job or the wrong size of cart for the worker
(ergonomics). They can be hazardous when used in congested work areas and in areas of poor housekeeping. They
can cause injury to the handler who’s had inadequate training. And, carts can cause the handler injury if the cart has
not been properly maintained. All of these hazards require extra effort by the handler that may cause accidents that
can result in sprains and strains, crush injuries, and fractures.
Make sure that the cart has the design and capacity for the job tasks. Some carts have open sides or spring loaded
bottoms that assist the handler with loading and unloading. Carts should have enough room to store necessary
supplies and equipment. Use carts for the intended purpose; reckless horseplay can lead to injuries. Unless the cart
was designed to carry people, don’t allow passengers.
The floor or ground surface determines the best wheel type for the cart. Generally, larger and harder wheels are
easier and require less force to push. Steel wheels are the easiest, followed by hard rubber, and plastic; soft rubber
wheels are the hardest to push. For tight spaces and crowded work conditions, four swivel wheels or casters add
maneuverability. For pushing long distances, two swivel wheels and two straight wheels ease movement.
Carts need a wheel-locking mechanism to park them. Take care where you park your cart; don’t block walkways, exits
or doorways. A braking system adds additional control on slopes and ramps.
Handles should be located at the rear of the cart and at the proper height for pushing. It is easier on your back to
push than to pull. Lean in the direction in which you are going and use your arms and legs (not your back) for
leverage. If you must pull a cart, keep the cart at your side to avoid twisting your back.
Don’t overload the cart; you won’t see where you are going and it may overload the wheels. Don’t attempt to carry
extra items while you are pushing the cart; when pushing, keep both hands on the cart handle. Inspect your cart each
time you use it; it should be properly functioning and in good repair. Wheel bearings require periodic inspections and
maintenance and damaged wheels should be replaced.
With proper training, use, and maintenance, carts can help you keep rollin’ on the job.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Caught or Crushed Injuries
Each year, workers suffer approximately 125,000 caught or crushed by injuries that occur when body parts get caught
between two objects or entangled with machinery. These hazards are also referred to as “pinch points.” The physical
forces applied to a body part caught in a pinch point can vary and cause injuries ranging from bruises, cuts, and
scalping to mangled and amputated body parts, and even death.
Workers in field, industrial, and office settings are all affected by caught or crush hazards to some degree. Get
training and learn about the caught/crush hazards and pinch points specific to your tasks, tools, and equipment so
you can take precautions.
Dress appropriately for work with pants and sleeves that are not too long or too loose. Shirts should be fitted or
tucked in. Avoid wearing loose and dangling jewelry. Tie back long hair and tuck braids and ponytails behind you or
into your clothing. Wear the appropriate, well-fitting gloves for your job.
Look for possible pinch points before you start a task. Take the time to plan out your actions and decide on the
necessary steps to work safely. Give your work your full attention. Don’t joke around, daydream, or try to multi-task
on the job – most accidents occur when workers are distracted. Read and follow warning signs posted on equipment.
If you value all that your hands can do, THINK before you put them in a hazardous spot.
Machinery can pose a hazard with moving parts, conveyors, rollers and rotating shafts. NEVER reach into a moving
machine. Properly maintain and always use the machine and tool guards provided with your equipment; they act as
barriers between the moving parts and your body. Don’t reach around, under or through a guard and always r eport
missing or broken barriers to your supervisor. Turn equipment off and use lockout/tagout procedures before
adjusting, clearing a jam, repairing, or servicing a machine.
Caught/crush hazards are not limited to machinery. Vehicles, powered doors, and forklifts can pose a crush hazard
unless they have been blocked or tagged out. Never place your body under or between powered equipment unless it
is de-energized. Doors, file drawers, and heavy crates can pinch fingers and toes. Take care where you place your
fingers. Test the weight before lifting, carrying, and placing boxes; an awkward or heavy load can slip and pinch your
hands or feet. Get help or use tools to move large and/or heavy items.
If you have ever slammed your finger in a door, you can appreciate the pain associated with this common type of
caught/crush injury. Take the time to learn about the caught/crush hazards in your workplace so you don’t learn
about the consequences first hand.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Chainsaw Safety
Any tool powerful enough to slice through wood can do the same to human flesh, so chainsaw injuries are often
serious. Before you operate a chainsaw, make sure you read and understand the operator’s manual and make sure
you have the right chainsaw for the job. The instruction manual should describe the saw’s capabilities. If you rent a
saw, be sure to get a demonstration of how it works, including its safety features. Then make sure your saw is sharp,
properly tensioned, and in good condition.
When you’re going to use a chain saw, wear protective clothing which includes a hard hat, safety goggles, gloves to
give you a good grip, hearing protection, steel-toed shoes with nonslip soles, and trim-fitting clothes that won’t get
caught in the chain.
Start your chainsaw according to the manual’s direction. Clear the work area so the chain won’t touch anything but
the wood you want to cut and place the saw on a level surface; never rest a saw on your leg or drop-start it. Stand to
the side of the saw so you won’t follow the cut through into your leg and stand on the uphill side of your work so it
won’t roll into you. Hold the saw parallel to the ground with your left arm straight for better control and to reduce the
chance of the saw pushing into you if it kicks back.
Keep both hands on the saw while its running. Work slowly, don’t rush. Let the chainsaw do the work; never force it.
Avoid cutting above mid-chest height. Never attempt to cut a tree with a diameter greater than the length of the
chainsaw blade and watch for branches that may spring back as you cut. Always be aware of what is in the saw’s
downward path after the cut. It’s a good idea to take frequent breaks from cutting so you don’t operate the saw when
you’re tired.
Although some chainsaw injuries are caused by operator error, kickback is the greatest cause of chainsaw injuries. In
kickback, the upper chain “grabs” in the wood or an obstruction and forces the saw backward, causing operator to
either lose control of the saw or lose balance, bringing the saw into contact with the body. Some chainsaws have
chain brakes that are designed to instantly stop the saw after kickback. While these don’t prevent kickback, they can
reduce the severity of injury from it.
Carry the saw below your waist, with the engine off and guide bar pointed to the rear, so if you trip the saw drops
behind you.
If your saw is electric, make sure you use an extension cord that’s approved for outdoor use and don’t use the saw in
a damp environment. Fuel gasoline-powered chainsaws outdoors, being careful not to overfill or spill the fuel. Never
refuel a hot saw. Let it cool down first, and have a fire extinguisher nearby.
It’s dangerous to work alone with a chainsaw. Have a companion within calling distance, but keep bystanders and
helpers at a safe distance from operation so that they will not be injured by the saw, flying chips, sawdust or by what
you’re working on.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
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Chemical Storage Is A Matter Of Safety And Common Sense
There are many work situations where chemicals are routinely relied upon to get the work done. But just as important
as the safe handling of these chemicals, is their safe storage. If not stored properly, chemicals can cause a fire,
explosion or personal injury. There are some real and common sense safe storage procedures that should be followed
to keep workers and the workplace free of chemical-related accidents.
The most important factor in chemical storage safety is keeping chemicals in their original containers. Next, check that
each chemical container has a label. The label is a quick way of determining whether the material is a fire, health or
reactivity hazard. Read the chemical’s Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). The MSDS describes the chemical’s
properties, hazards, and what to do if there’s an accidental spill or exposure. Use the MSDS as a guide for making
storage decisions.
Store chemicals in well-ventilated areas, away from direct sunlight or other heat source, and away from sparks,
flames, static electricity or other sources of ignition. Make sure the storage shelving material is acid resistant, secured
to a permanent structure, and strong enough to support the weight of the containers. The shelving should be fitted
with a raised lip or tilted slightly backward so containers won’t slip off the edge. You may choose to color code the
containers to correspond to the color on the shelf where it should be stored for quick access and proper storage
return. Never store chemicals higher than eye level. If the chemical is accidentally knocked over you could risk being
showered with the chemical substance resulting in a burn or possible blindness. For added safety, make sure first aid
kits and materials for cleaning spilled chemicals is readily accessible.
Chemicals should be placed so that incompatible substances stored apart. You don’t want to store a water reactive
chemical next to a sink, oxides next to flammables, acids next to bases or poisons next to a desk. Chemicals should
never be stored or refrigerated with food. Chemical containers should not be stored on top of each other or on the
floor where they could accidentally be knocked over. Don’t casually leave chemical containers wherever you last use
them or set them aside to make room for other work. Take the time to return containers to their proper storage place.
Maintenance another important factor in safe chemical storage. Someone should be assigned to periodically inventory
the chemicals not only to check for proper storage but to also check for damaged or corroded containers, signs of
leakage or container pressure buildup. Make sure empty or damaged chemicals are disposed of properly.
Accidents caused by improper chemical storage can be prevented. Read labels, follow MSDS recommendations, and
use common sense. Instruct workers on safe chemical handling and enforce safe chemical storage procedures.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Chocking and Blocking Safety
Chocking and blocking prevent accidental or unintended movement of mobile equipment and cargo while workers are
loading, unloading, hitching, unhitching, or performing service or maintenance. Chocking the wheels of a truck, trailer,
tractor, or other piece of mobile equipment provides a physical stopper to the wheels to prevent runaways that can
crush and injure workers. Blocking stabilizes cargo loads to prevent shifting and trailer overturns or provides a
physical barrier on equipment to prevent accidental activation during maintenance.
When chocking, use specially designed truck wheel chocks of the appropriate size and material to securely hold the
vehicle. Don’t use lumber, cinder blocks, rocks, or other make-shift items to chock. Make it easy to find and use the
correct chocking equipment; store chocks inside trailers, truck rigs and/or other mobile equipment. Keep chocks
available at loading docks; chain the chocks to the dock to prevent them from being misplaced.
If you drive a truck, tractor, or other mobile equipment, use special caution when exiting the vehicle. Ensure that the
brakes are set, the vehicle is at a complete standstill, and that it will not roll forward or backward before you exit. If
you are performing maintenance or parking the vehicle for an extended period of time, chock the wheels. To properly
chock a free-standing vehicle, place chocks on the left and right rear axle wheels. It is safest to chock both the front
and back wheels on both sides of a vehicle. Some vehicle wheels may also need to be chocked at the front and back
of each tire.
Ensure that trailers are firmly placed against the loading dock edges and prevent rollaways by using chocks. Place
chocks on the left and right wheels that are closest to the loading dock. This placement allows a forklift to push down
on the trailer wheels and seat them more firmly against the chock. If only the front axle is chocked, a forklift could
push the trailer forward and loosen the chock or cause the wheel to jump the chock. The driver, dock workers, and
forklift drivers share the responsibility to ensure that the truck and trailer wheels are properly chocked.
Use extra caution when driving a forklift into a trailer from the dock edge; if the trailer rolls away from the dock edge,
the forklift can fall into the gap and cause severe injuries or death. Never drive a forklift into a trailer until you ensure
that the wheels are properly chocked. Ensure that the trailer floor is in good condition and that it can support the
weight of the forklift and its load.
Block or secure trailer cargo to prevent the load from shifting during transit and unloading. Shifting loads can strike,
injure, and engulf workers while a sudden shift in center of gravity can overturn a trailer. Securely block all cargo, not
just wheeled equipment and round items (e.g., wire reels). Block items separately and on all four sides using lumber
thick enough to prevent cargo movement. Use nails or spikes long enough to secure the lumber and drive them in at
opposing angles. Don’t use other freight or cargo as a block. When performing maintenance on equipment that could
pose a pinch hazard, block it to prevent accidental activation.
Don’t be a blockhead; chocking and blocking prevents serious injuries caused by runaway vehicles, shifting cargo, and
accidentally activated machinery.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
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Cleaning Pesticide Soiled Clothing
Clothing worn while applying pesticides normally becomes contaminated. From these clothes, the body can contact and absorb
the chemicals. Protective clothing (long-sleeve shirts, pants, gloves, hat, and boots) can reduce pesticide exposure, but unless
they are laundered properly, significant amounts of pesticides can remain on them or be passed onto other clothing. Keep in mind
the following to guard against pesticide exposure from clothing.
Launder clothing after each day’s wear. Clothing repeatedly soiled before cleaning can retain pesticides even after it’s later
laundered. Washing less frequently also puts more chemicals into the wash and rinse water.
Pre-rinse clothing before washing. As soon as possible, remove clothes, turn pockets and cuffs inside out, drop clothes into
a container or washing machine and rinse or hose off. Then wash hands thoroughly.
Wash and store pesticide soiled clothing away from other laundry. During laundering or storage, pesticides can be passed
to other clothing and linens.
Wash pesticide soiled clothing in hot water. Water 140o F or hotter removes more pesticide than lower water
temperatures.
Use a heavy-duty liquid detergent. Strong liquid detergents are more effective in removing pesticides, especially oil-based
pesticides.
Use a full tub of water and don’t overload. Water should circulate freely through pesticide soiled clothing.
Wash clothing several times if pesticide was moderately to highly toxic or if a large area was saturated. Do not dry clothes
between washings.
Clean the washer by running an empty load using detergent and hot water. Follow by wiping the drum with a damp cloth.
Dry clothing on an outside clothesline when possible. Sunlight exposure helps break down pesticides. Dryers don’t
decontaminate as thoroughly.
Properly discard clothing heavily contaminated with highly toxic pesticides. As the concentration of pesticide increases, the ability
to launder and remove the residue decreases. However, clothing soiled by low toxicity pesticides can be laundered safely and
effectively, even if large areas are soiled.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance
purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. We
do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws,
regulations or standards.
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Cleanroom Safety
Cleanrooms regulate air quality, temperature, and humidity to achieve the ideal manufacturing and experimental
environment for high technology applications. Cleanrooms require specific attire, personal protective equipment (PPE),
and the use of specialized equipment and chemicals. While modern air handlers manage the particle count, YOU are
the best source to control cleanroom safety.
You are required to wear protective head, foot, and body coverings in a cleanroom to reduce particulate
contamination. In addition, you must wear the required PPE to protect you from the materials and processes that you
use. Eye protection such as safety goggles and glasses protect sight in the case of a chemical splash or uncontrolled
reaction. Face masks and shields should be used for vacuum or pressurized processes if there is a danger of
shattering or explosion. Use the appropriate gloves for the chemicals you handle in order to protect your skin. If
necessary, you may need to wear a respirator to protect against airborne hazards. Remember that respirator use
requires special medical qualification, fit testing, and training.
Be familiar with the cleanroom protocols and layout at your facility. Don’t use equipment, materials, or processes that
you are unfamiliar with; get the proper training first. Locate and understand the proper operation of safety equipment
including fire extinguishers, safety showers, eye wash stations, and emergency shut off and bypass switches. Know
the facility emergency signals, alarms, and evacuation routes and procedures. Know and follow compressed gas
cylinder safety protocols; ensure that you are familiar with hazardous gas monitoring equipment and the associated
alarms.
Chemical handling, including acids, bases, solvents, carcinogens, and cryogenics, is common in cleanrooms. Read and
understand the material safety data sheets (MSDS) for the chemicals in the cleanroom to provide guidance on use,
required PPE, spill procedures and disposal. If you are splashed with a chemical, immediately flush the area with
copious quantities of water for 10 to 15 minutes and remove contaminated clothing.
Pay special attention to the use of hydrofluoric acid (HF) because skin or eye contact is extremely dangerous. HF
exposures may not cause pain at first, but the fluoride ion continues to burn through your tissue until it causes painful
bone destruction. Rinse any suspected skin or eye contact immediately with water, and seek immediate medical
attention. Calcium gluconate gel or other treatment methods may be needed, and these should be administered by a
qualified medical professional.
Always conduct chemical processes under fume hoods or in designated wet benches, if possible. Practice good
housekeeping with chemicals: clearly label containers, minimize quantities, and clean up materials after use. Ensure
that chemicals are stored in rated chemical cabinets and are separated by hazard class. Know the spill procedures and
the location of spill equipment in the cleanroom. Properly dispose of all chemicals, mixtures, and spill cleanup
materials as hazardous waste in designated waste streams.
Keep cleanroom safety state-of-the-art with proper training and attention to procedures.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
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Close Calls - Take a Close Look at Close Calls
A “close call” or accident without injury is easy to shrug off and forget. But, there is a danger in brushing off accidents that don’t
hurt, harm or damage. When a “close call” happens, it should immediately send up a red warning flag that something was wrong,
unplanned, unexpected, and could happen again. The next time it happens, it could result in serious damage, injury or death.
For every accident there are usually several contributing factors, most of which can be controlled. The best way to prevent the
reoccurrence of an accident is by looking at those “close calls.” By investigating the root causes of an accident, steps can be taken
to eliminate the hazard and improve the work system.
Sometimes there are multiple causes for an accident involving: equipment (unguarded machinery), environment (poor lighting or
noise level), people (procedures not understood or not followed) or management (allowed shortcuts). Don’t rush to judge.
Examine the facts and find what’s missing. Look for immediate and underlying causes. An immediate cause may be an unsafe
condition like a mechanical failure or it could be an unsafe action by an employee. The underlying cause could be poor machine
maintenance, a missing guard, a crowded work area or a lack of training.
All incidents should be reported to the supervisor so that accident/injury report forms can be completed. Once an investigation is
completed, solutions should be sought to prevent the accident from occurring again. Solutions may involve engineering controls,
administrative controls, additional training, or increased communication between management and workers.
Workers should daily inspect the work area for unsafe conditions or unsafe actions and, if found, report them to the supervisor.
Hazard awareness is key to preventing accidents before they happen. Take steps to eliminate hazards as soon as they are
discovered. Learn the real lesson from close calls. They can happen again and again until they cause injury, so tell your
supervisor about every accident, no matter how minor it may seem at the time. You never know when an incident may be
repeated and result in an injury or even death.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance
purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. We
do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws,
regulations or standards.
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Cold Storage Safety
Cold storage spaces include refrigerator or freezer boxes or rooms in which food and other materials can be stored or
processed at controlled, cool temperatures. When you work in and around such spaces, get training and be aware of
the hazards that might be involved with cold storage: cold stress, slips and trips, confined space, chemical storage,
and ergonomics.
Dress in warm, layered clothing for proper insulation to maintain your body temperature to prevent cold stress. Your
head loses the most body heat; for extra warmth, wear a warm cap with ear flaps. Fingers, hands, toes, and feet are
susceptible to frostbite with long term exposure to cold; protect them with insulated, moisture-proof gloves and boots.
Choose gloves appropriate to your job tasks; adequate gripping surfaces help you securely grasp cold or frozen
objects. These objects can be heavy; a firm grip and steel-toe boots protect your toes. Ensure that your boots have
no-slip soles; water and ice are common in cold storage and pose slip and trip hazards.
Because cold storage areas may be confined spaces, get training and become familiar with the safety features at your
worksite. For escape in an emergency, cold storage rooms should have at least one door that opens from the inside.
Lighting must be supplied through a constantly burning bulb or a light with an illuminated switch located inside the
cold room. Non-slip flooring mats protect workers in wet areas.
Ideally, cold storage spaces have doors that are designed not to freeze shut. If anti-freeze doors are not installed in
your workplace, ensure that a firefighter’s axe is stored in the room. Exceptions to this rule include mental and
corrective institutions and cold storage with temperatures above 32 degrees Fahrenheit.
Items in cold storage are often valuable and require security. Doors at your worksite may be locked from the outside
provided the door has an inside release mechanism. Other options include posting warning signage on the door and
providing audible and visible signal systems inside the room that are tested daily.
Ensure that chemicals in cold storage are stocked properly and with compatible materials. Take caution with dry ice
and liquid nitrogen which can pose an asphyxiation hazard by displacing oxygen. Note that forklifts and combustion
equipment can cause fumes to build up in enclosed spaces – use only with proper ventilation.
You can keep cold storage areas safe. Protect yourself from strains and sprains; always lift reasonable loads using
proper lifting techniques. Watch out for your co-workers and check cold storage areas periodically and at closing to
ensure no one is trapped. Clean up spills and clutter for good housekeeping and to prevent slip and trip hazards.
Follow cold storage safety principles and you won’t be left out in the cold.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Cold Stress
Working under cold conditions can lead to various injuries or health effects, which are collectively known as cold
stress. Construction workers may experience cold stress when working:
Outdoors on a cold day.

In a refrigerated room.
In an unheated building.
In cold water, rain, or snow.
While handling cold objects or materials.
Other workers who may be susceptible to cold stress include field workers, cold storage workers, and workers who
work with refrigerated or frozen foods.
The hazardous effects of cold on the body may include dehydration, numbness, shivering, frostbite, immersion foot
(trench foot), and hypothermia. Hazards associated with cold stress are categorized into systemic and local effects.
Local effects impact the part of the body where the exposure to cold is the greatest. Systemic effects impact more
than just the local area and can affect the whole body.
Numbness, frostbite, and immersion foot are all local effects. Immersion foot is the result of the skin’s having been
exposed too long to cold and dampness. Immersion foot can result in swelling, tingling, itching, loss of skin, or skin
ulcers. Hypothermia is the most serious effect of cold stress. Once the body loses the ability to maintain its normal
temperature, the body temperature lowers, and other symptoms such as violent shivering, slow or slurred speech,
confusion, hallucinations, a weak and irregular pulse, or unconsciousness occurs. Certain people are more susceptible
than others to cold stress. People who are not physically fit, have a chronic illness, drink alcohol or take drugs
(including prescription drugs), are wet or damp from work or weather, are fatigued, are exposed to vibration from
tools, don’t wear the right clothing, or are not used to working in cold have a higher risk from cold stress.
How can you recognize cold stress? Shivering is the body’s response to cold stress and serves as a protection
mechanism by increasing the rate of metabolism. Be on guard for cold stress if workers are shivering because it’s a
good sign of cold stress and possible hypothermia. Subjective responses of workers provide a good tool for
recognizing cold stress in the workplace. Worker behaviors that may indicate cold stress exposures include seeking
warm locations, adding layers of clothing, or increasing the work rate.
If there is a noticeable drop in manual dexterity for workers, local cold stress may be occurring. Manual dexterity
decreases with cold, which could result in safety hazards to the worker and coworkers.
Employers can help protect workers from cold stress by providing training, controlling temperature and wind when
possible by using heaters and windbreaks, rotating workers in cold jobs so that no one is exposed too long, scheduling
work at warmest times, encouraging self-pacing and extra breaks if necessary, establishing a buddy system, and
keeping first aid supplies and equipment available.
Equally important, employees can do their part to prevent cold stress. Proper insulation and good ventilation is critical
for clothing worn during cold stress exposures. Better insulation is achieved by layering clothes rather than by wearing
just one warm garment. Layering allows a person to add or remove layers to adjust for different insulation needs
during the work period.
Note that the insulation quality of clothing may be greatly decreased by moisture. Thus, water vapor permeability is
also important. A waterproof shell may not allow sweat to escape. A water repellent shell may keep a worker warmer.
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Seek warm locations during breaks and replace lost fluids with warm, sweet, non-caffeine-containing drinks to avoid
dehydration. By taking the necessary precautions, employers and workers together can minimize the potential for cold
stress.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Page 2 of 2 Cold Stress
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Common Sense Safety
There are a number of safety problems common to most workplaces and job sites that can be solved with a little
common sense. Planning and thinking ahead can help eliminate most of these hazards. Take a close look at your
workplace with these suggestions in mind.
Eliminate junk piles. Organize a clean up program to remove trash, broken parts, and scrap from work areas,
walkways, storerooms, and neglected corners. Look for materials that have been stacked improperly. An unstable
stack is a real danger to anyone who may be near if the material suddenly falls. Check such things as wood pallets,
dock freight, storeroom boxes, construction materials and even office files to see that materials are stacked properly.
Examine all the operations of your workplace to determine if personal protective clothing is needed, then make it
readily available. Ear protection, eye protection, hard hats, gloves, safety shoes or other protective clothing and
equipment must be worn according to the hazard exposure.
Make sure all electric power tools are grounded. Protect yourself from electric shock by using tools with three-prong
plugs, a ground-fault system or double insulation. Never cut off the ground plug on a three-prong plug. Check
electrical cords and wires for any damage. Guard power tools and moving machine parts. Tools and equipment should
never be operated with the guards or shields removed.
Inspect portable ladders to make sure they are secure and don’t shake or wiggle. Nonslip feet are a must. If a ladder
seems weak, get rid of it – don’t let others use a defective ladder. Mark it defective and throw it away.
Fire extinguishers are a must and should be mounted properly, readily accessible, and in working order. Check fire
regulations to make sure they are properly placed and the right type for your work area. When was the last time your
fire extinguishers were tested? Extinguisher inspections should be made regularly then tagged to show when and who
performed the tests.
Exits should be clearly marked with easy to read signs place above the doors. Signs with arrows should also be used
to guide people to the exit if the layout of the workplace is confusing to those unfamiliar with your facility. Illuminated
signs should be kept in working order at all times. Don’t block exits or signs with vehicles or material. Another good
idea is to mark doors that are not exits with “This is Not An Exit,” “Restroom,” “Storeroom” or “Closet.” Put rails on all
stairways. The stairs themselves should be in good shape with nonskid treads. Repair those that are damaged or
chipped.
Safety meetings are one of the most important parts of a good safety program, so hold them regularly. Impress upon
every worker that it’s important that they take every precaution to keep the workplace safe. Both employee and
employer attitudes toward safety provide a key to a successful safety program. Posters, handouts, and training
programs can all be part of your safety communication.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
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Page 2 of 2 Common Sense Safety
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Compressed Gas Cylinder (CGC) Safety
Compressed or liquefied gas cylinders are often used to store chemicals for industrial purposes. The compression of
the chemicals allows for a large quantity of material to be stored in a relatively small space. Because cylinder contents
are under high pressure (up to 2,500 pounds per square inch, or psi), there can be physical and chemical hazards
involved with the use of compressed gas cylinders.
Cylinders range in size from table-top lecture bottles to bottles that are almost 5 feet tall and weigh 155 pounds.
When in proper working order, cylinders are fitted with valves and regulators to control the release of the contents.
When there is a failure of the valve or when the cylinder is damaged or punctured, the pressurized contents can
release violently. This sudden release can propel a cylinder up into the air ¾ of a mile, or along the ground up to 30
miles per hour. The energy released may also cause the cylinder to spin, ricochet, or even crash through brick walls.
Uncontrolled releases from gas cylinders can pose a severe physical hazard.
The contents of compressed gas cylinders can also pose a chemical hazard if they are accidentally released. Gases
may be cryogenic, flammable, combustible, explosive, oxidizing, corrosive, toxic, poisonous or inert. The sudden
release of these materials can create fire and explosion dangers, worker exposure to toxic or poisonous gases, or even
asphyxiation (suffocation) danger if the released gas displaces room air.
In order to use compressed gas cylinders safely, workers should insure that they have the necessary training and
information on the proper storage, handling, usage and disposal of gas cylinders. Workers should also read the
Material Safety Data Sheet, MSDS, on the chemical components of the gas cylinders to understand the chemical
properties, required personal protective equipment, health hazards, appropriate first aid, and proper cleanup
procedures.
Gas cylinders should be properly labeled with their contents. The contents should be stenciled on the cylinder or
printed on a label. The color of a cylinder is not an indication of what material is in it because color coding is not
standardized. When cylinders are emptied, the valve should be closed and capped and the tank should be labeled
“empty.”
Proper storage of gas cylinders is paramount to safety. Because unsecured cylinders can be easily knocked over, they
should be individually secured to a stable object. Chains, straps or cages should be used and should be fixed at
approximately 2/3 the height of the cylinder. Cylinders should be stored in well-ventilated areas away from other
incompatible materials, sources of flame or heat, or areas where they may receive damage. Empty and full cylinders
should be stored separately. To prevent the main cylinder valve from being damaged or broken, the protective cap
should be kept in place whenever the cylinder is not in use.
Cylinders should not be dragged, carried, rolled, or slid across the floor. When transporting cylinders, ensure they are
not able to bump into each other. To move a large cylinder, a hand truck should be used. The cylinder should be
moved individually and should be secured to the hand truck with the protective cap in place at all times.
To use a gas cylinder, the valves should be cleared of any dust or dirt before attaching the regulator. Some regulators
are intended for specific gases and should not be interchanged. Connection fittings should not be forced and safety
devices in cylinder valves or regulators should not be altered. Cylinders should be placed with the valve accessible at
all times.
When opening the valve to a cylinder, the worker should stand off to the side and open it slowly. Valves should never
be left partly open—they should be opened all the way or closed. Leaking cylinders should be immediately removed
from service and the work environment, if it is safe to do so. Cylinders should be serviced and refilled only by trained
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and authorized supply contractors.
Follow gas cylinder safety precautions and you won't crack under the pressure.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Date:

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Concrete Construction Safety
Concrete is a versatile and strong material for construction. Concrete workers are just as versatile when performing
excavations, carpentry, metalworking, pouring, and smoothing to create concrete structures. Pay attention to the
variety of hazards while you work with concrete.
Personal protection equipment (PPE) keeps you safe on the job. For digging, forming, and exposure to concrete, wear
sturdy gloves and safety boots to protect your hands and feet. A hard hat protects your head from falling objects and
bumps. Consider ear plugs depending on the noise level of your equipment and job site. Safety glasses and face
shields protect your eyes from flying dust, wood chips, and concrete. A respirator protects your lungs from concrete
dust and dirt.
You may dig and remove vegetation before you lay forms for concrete. Check the work area for underground utilities
and services first. Use of sharpened tools makes digging footings and cutting back obstacles (such as roots and
branches) easier. When possible, use powered equipment for digging and moving most of the dirt and gravel. Finish
the final digging using hand tools.
Preparing concrete forms requires carpentry skills, and hand and power tools. Inspect your tools to ensure they are in
good working order. Saws should be properly guarded to protect your hands and fingers. Use power tools that are
double insulated or grounded with a three-prong plug and connected to ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI) to
prevent electric shock in case the tool comes into contact with moisture.
Design and build forms to adequately and safely hold the proper amount of concrete. Keep plans of the forms and
finished product on the worksite. If the forms need shoring, use sills that are rated for the load and in good condition.
Inspect shoring equipment before, during, and after you add concrete.
Take care when cutting and shaping reinforcing materials. Use a proper blade and cutting tool for the material you
use. Do not allow sparks to land on flammable materials while you cut. Support metal formations so they do not
collapse. Cover sharp rebar ends to prevent impalement injuries. Prevent wire mesh recoil by securing the ends or
turning the roll over.
Concrete can be applied to an area by hand, chute, pneumatic hoses, or buckets. For pneumatics, check the hoses
and couplings to prevent a breach. Anchor the hose in place to prevent excess movement. Do not ride concrete
buckets or hoist/swing the buckets over workers.
Once the forms are built and the concrete pumped, use tools with handles to smooth the surfaces. Use the larger
muscles of your shoulders to move the trowel and avoid twisting your back. If you are smoothing a walking surface,
bend your legs, not your back, and apply the trowel. Consider wide mats and knee pads to help you access areas that
need smoothing.
Do not remove forms and shores until the concrete has cured and gained strength. Form removal (except at grade)
should be done according to the specifications for the concrete cure time or if the concrete has been strength tested.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Construction Site Hygiene
Construction site hygiene encourages good housekeeping, provides workers with clean drinking water, sanitary
restrooms, and washing facilities to clean up. Access to clean water and restrooms encourages good hygiene on the
job and helps avoid cross contamination to safeguard worker health and safety.
Good housekeeping isn’t just important at home, it’s critical for construction safety. Ensure that trash and debris on
the jobsite make it to the proper receptacles. Clean up the jobsite after major tasks or at least daily; avoid the buildup
of hazardous, flammable, or combustible materials. Stack scrap lumber out of the way and remove protruding nails.
Keep walkways, stairs, and work areas clear. Walking surfaces should be as level as possible and have adequate fall
protection from heights.
Clean drinking water can be provided by plumbed drinking fountains or in clean portable containers. Make sure that
portable water containers are clearly labeled and have drinking fountain spouts or faucets that can be used to fill
single-use water cups; water should not be dipped from the container. If there is a nonpotable (non-drinkable) water
source on the site, it should be clearly labeled that the water is not safe for drinking, washing, or cooking.
Separate bathroom facilities are required for every 20 employees (or fewer) of each sex on a job site. For example, if
there are 30 men and 10 women, a total of 3 is bathrooms required. The bathrooms may contain a toilet and urinal,
but half must have a toilet. On job sites fewer than 5 employees, separate bathrooms for each sex are not required if
they can be locked and contain a toilet. Bathrooms should be private and in good working order with an adequate
supply of toilet paper. Ideally, inspect and clean bathroom facilities at least daily.
Washing facilities on the jobsite allow workers to wash their hands and avoid cross-contamination before eating,
drinking, smoking, and/or heading home for the day. Workers can wash away harmful substances and use the
washing area to service and decontaminate personal protective equipment (PPE). This is especially important to
workers using potentially harmful substances such as paints, coatings, solvents, or other materials.
One washing station is required for every twenty (or fewer) employees on a jobsite. Wash areas should be clean with
a good supply of water and soap, other skin cleansing agents, or special hazardous substance cleansing compounds.
Wash stations require single-use drying towels or a warm-air hand dryer. Washing facilities must be located outside,
but convenient to, bathroom facilities and should be labeled. On jobsites with fewer than 5 employees and only one
portable toilet facility, the washing facility may be located inside the portable toilet station.
Do your part on the job to ensure good hygiene. Participate in site cleanup activities, clean as you go, and keep the
worksite clear of debris, trash, and hazardous substances. Use washing facilities to clean your hands and avoid cross-
contamination. Immediately report unsanitary or hazardous conditions on the jobsite to your supervisor.
There’s no in-between when it comes to clean; practice good hygiene!
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Conveying A Safety Message
Conveyors are a wonderful invention. They move large amounts of materials quickly and safely. They allow workers to
reduce the amount of materials handled manually thereby increasing work capacity and production output. Decreasing
manual material handling also lessens the chance of injury to a worker’s back and hands.
Conveyors are safe when used correctly, but they can be dangerous, and even deadly, if workers fail to follow safety
procedures when working on or around them. Materials should be placed on the conveyor so that they will ride safely.
When removing material off conveyors, workers should remain alert and safeguard their hands; the moving material can
create pinch points. How someone is dressed - loose clothing, long hair, and jewelry – when working on or around
conveyors can present the risk of conveyor entanglement.
When repairing or cleaning a conveyor, all equipment must be locked or blocked and operating controls tagged. If it’s
necessary to clean belts or drums while the equipment in is motion, insure proper barrier guards are in place and that no
part of the equipment can be activated which could endanger the individual at work.
If the conveyor runs overhead, precautions must be taken to prevent injuries from materials that may fall from above. If
the conveyor runs at head height or carries material hung from hooks, workers in the area should remain alert to
possible danger and measures should be taken to prevent workers from being accidentally struck by moving material.
There are other general safety precautions which should be followed by everyone even if they don’t’ work directly with
conveyors. No one should ever climb over or crawl under a conveyor and NEVER ride on or otherwise use a conveyor for
transportation.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Crane Safety - Safety Precautions for Working Near Overhead Power Lines
For the safety of everyone who works with or around cranes, it is important to be aware of the electrocution hazards
around overhead power lines. Before beginning work near power lines, power line owners should be notified of the
date, time, and type of work involved and their permission should be requested to de-energize and ground power
lines or provide insulated barriers.
To protect workers against electrocution when operating or working around cranes near overhead power lines the
following safe work practices are recommended:
Participate in all crane safety programs offered.

Know the location and voltage of all overhead power lines at the job site.
Evaluate the job site before beginning work to decide the size and type of machinery to use and the safest
areas for machinery operation and material storage.
Before work begins, de-energize power lines, erect insulated barriers to prevent physical contact with the
energized lines, and establish safe clearance between the energized lines and boomed equipment.
Post warnings on cranes cautioning operators to maintain safe clearances between energized power lines and
their equipment.
Mark safe routes where cranes can travel beneath power lines.
Assume all power lines are energized and maintain Cal/OSHA crane clearances.
Operate cranes only if trained in safe operating procedures and Cal/OSHA regulations.
Operate cranes at a slower-than-normal rate in power line areas.
Use caution when moving over uneven ground that could cause the crane to weave or bob into power lines.
Use caution near long spans of overhead power lines, since wind can cause the power lines to sway back and
forth and reduce the clearance between the crane and the power line.
Limits the use of cage-type boom guards, insulated lines, ground rods, nonconductive links, and proximity
warning devices. Don't use these as a substitute for de-energizing and grounding lines or maintaining safe
clearances.
Where it is difficult for the crane operator to see the power lines or see the clearance during crane movement,
a signal person should be assigned to watch and give immediate warning when the crane comes close to the
limits of safe clearance.
No one should touch the crane or its load until the signal person says it's safe.
Cage-type boom guards, insulating links, and proximity warning devices should be limited and not used as a
substitute for de-energizing and grounding lines or maintaining safe clearance.
All workers should stay well away from the crane when it's close to power lines.
If contact is made between a crane and an energized line, the crane operator should stay inside the cab and try to
remove the crane from contact by moving it in the reverse direction from that which caused the contact. If the crane
cannot be moved away from contact, the operator should stay inside the cab until the lines have been de-energized.
Everyone else should keep away from the crane, ropes, and load, since the ground around the machine might be
energized. Workers should have a quick way of calling for or getting help when an emergency occurs and all workers
should be trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Cross Contamination
Cross contamination occurs when workers spread contaminants around the worksite and into their homes by soiled
clothing, shoes, and skin contact. Contaminants can be transferred to the items workers touch, sit on or walk on.
Using good personal hygiene at work by hand washing, showering, and changing dirty clothing and shoes can help
prevent cross contamination.
Workers that handle chemicals and contaminants in the workplace are aware that the use of personal protective
equipment (PPE) such as gloves, safety glasses, respirators, coveralls, and boots, can reduce or eliminate their
exposures. PPE can act as a barrier against the contaminants and protect the worker. If, however, a worker does not
properly wash, remove or decontaminate soiled PPE and skin after leaving the work area, they can spread the
contaminants outside the industrial work zone, to themselves, their coworkers, and to their family, homes, and cars.
The spread of contaminants is hazardous when unprotected workers, coworkers or family members come into contact
with dirty surfaces. Skin exposures occur if they touch a soiled surface, and accidental ingestion can occur if they eat
or drink something that has been contaminated. The contaminants of concern include chemicals such as solvents,
herbicides, and pesticides, and industrial materials such as lead, asbestos and fiberglass. Potentially infectious
materials such as blood and other body fluids pose a bloodborne pathogen hazard. Field workers should be aware that
they can contact and spread irritating plant oils from poison ivy and poison oak.
When workers hug family members, prepare food, and touch the furniture, bedding, and carpet in the home, they
could contaminate them if they have not washed their skin and removed or decontaminated soiled clothing and PPE.
Workers can contaminate their coworkers and the worksite when they contact areas such as the break room,
restroom, and office areas. Workers can also increase their own exposures if they eat, drink or smoke before washing
their hands and removing or cleaning their PPE.
Cross contamination of the workplace can be prevented by removing or decontaminating PPE and washing hands
before exiting the work zone. To prevent cross contamination at home, workers should wash their hands and faces at
the end of a work shift and change into clean clothes and shoes. Workers can also take a shower and wash their hair
before leaving work or as soon as they get home. Work clothes should be washed in hot water, separately from the
family clothing, and given two rinse cycles.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Cruise Control Driving
Cruise control can be used to automatically control the speed in your vehicle (usually over 25-35 miles per hour)
without keeping your foot on the accelerator. It is a great tool to prevent driver fatigue, speeding, and help with fuel
economy during long trips on flat, straight roads and highways. Cruise control can cause accidents if you use it
improperly or in hazardous road conditions such as city streets, heavy traffic, hills, winding roads, and wet, slippery
roads.
Controlling the speed of your car with your fingertips on cruise control lets you take your foot off the accelerator and
rest, but remember, you still control the vehicle steering and braking. Stay alert while you drive. Fatigue and a false
sense of security can lead to a lack of attention and an accident. Keep your brain engaged in your driving; scan the
road ahead for traffic, obstacles, and changing road conditions.
Read your vehicle owner’s manual on safely operating the cruise control for your vehicle. Heed manufacturer’s
warnings about cruise control use. Leave the cruise control button off unless you intend to use it. If you accidentally
activate cruise control, it could startle you into losing control of the vehicle.
Set your cruise control speed at a legal, safe speed for the road and the current driving conditions. Always wear your
seatbelt. During cruise control, your foot may take a rest from the accelerator, but keep both feet flat on the driver’s
side floor and ready for braking or maneuvering if you need to suddenly slow or emergency stop. Don’t lounge, curl
your foot up underneath you, or put it up on the dashboard, windowsill, etc. while you drive.
Don’t use your cruise control when the road is wet and slippery due to heavy rain, hail, snow, ice, or other conditions.
If your wheels begin to skid and you don’t step on the brake to stop, the continued acceleration can cause you to
overdrive the road conditions and lose wheel traction and control of the vehicle. If you do step on the brake to stop,
slow, or even turn off the cruise control, the change in tire speed can also cause the wheels to slip, lose traction and
skid out of control. If there is heavy rainfall, water puddles, and a slippery road surface, hydroplaning and serious
accidents can occur.
Note that vehicles equipped with Electronic Stability Control can alter the wheel speed for better traction, but read the
owner’s manual to see if cruise control is safe in slippery road conditions.
Cruise control on hills and winding roads can be hazardous. On hills, it is best to manually control your speed using
the accelerator and brake. Cruise control may not accelerate your vehicle properly up a hill, making you a slow-
moving hazard. A steep downhill grade can cause your vehicle to speed up faster than the cruise control setting and
safe road speeds. Watch your speedometer and manually accelerate and brake as needed. On twisting and winding
roads, brake and accelerate into and out of the turns. With cruise control on, you could approach a turn at an unsafe
speed and lose control.
Using cruise control in traffic and on city streets with lights and stop signs can be tedious, frustrating, and unsafe. In
these situations, you need to reset your cruise control each time you brake and it is unlikely you would be driving at
the minimum speeds needed for cruise control. It is best to manually control your vehicle in traffic and city streets
and leave cruise control for long journeys on dry, straight, and wide-open highways.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Demolition Safety Planning
Before the start of any demolition project, careful preparations must be made to ensure the safety of workers on the
job and of other individuals within the vicinity of the demolition site. Planning for a demolition project is as important
as actually doing the work; and according to Cal-OSHA, a competent person experienced in all phases of the
demolition should conduct the demolition planning. Planning should involve the entire demolition operation including
methods to be used to bring the structure down, necessary equipment to do the job, and measures to be taken to
perform the job safely.
Prior to the start of demolition, an engineering survey must be completed to assess the condition of the framing,
floors, and walls to prevent a possible premature collapse of the structure. The demolition contractor is responsible for
planning the wreckage of the structure, the equipment to do the work, informing worker of hazards and safety
requirements, and public safety. Planning should include necessary safety equipment such as specific respirators,
hearing protection, safety nets, lifelines, fall protection, warning signs, eye and face protection, and any other hazard
protection device needed for the job.
The engineering survey should determine if there are any chemicals, gases, explosives or flammable materials
previously used or stored at the work site, which may still present a hazard. Examples include asbestos containing
insulation or lead-based paint used in the initial construction. Service and utility companies should be notified in
advance of the demolition. Then before demolition begins, electric, gas, sewer, water, steam, and overhead lines etc.
must be located and shut off, capped or controlled. If it’s necessary to maintain some of the services, temporary
relocation should be performed and all workers notified of the new locations to avoid accidents.
If blasting is planned, a complete written blasting survey must be made by a qualified person. The survey should
include the transportation, storage, and inventory of explosives as well as any fire precautions to be taken. A post-
inspection of the area should be conducted after the blast to insure that no hazards remain. Enough time should be
allowed for dust, smoke, and fumes to leave the blasted area before allowing re-entry into the site.
Emergency preparation is a crucial element of the demolition planning process. Workers should know how to respond
to possible emergency situations and evacuation routes should be devised, explained, and posted. Local medical or
emergency responding facilities should be named and posted in a readily accessible location with phone numbers and
addresses. First aid and CPR equipment with the names of on-site certified individuals should also be available on-site.
The demolition area should be clearly marked as such to ensure that only authorized personnel are allowed within
restricted areas of the site. All site workers or authorized personnel should be dressed in appropriate personal
protective wear and be informed of safety practices and emergency procedures.
For additional information on this topic, visit the website maintained by the Occupational Safety & Health
Administration at http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/constructiondemolition/index.html.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
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Dermatitis
Dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin from exposure an irritant. The degree of inflammation is affected by the type
of skin (pigmentation, dryness, hairiness), age, sex, season of the year, history of previous skin disease or allergies,
and personal hygiene.
Although one exposure to a substance may be enough to cause a skin reaction, workers can become sensitized
through prolonged and repeated exposures to a substance. The delay can be as short as a day, but can be as long as
several months.
Generally, causes of dermatitis are chemical, mechanical, physical, or biological.
Chemicals can produce reactions ranging from chemical burns to mild skin irritation.

Mechanical causes of dermatitis include friction, pressure, and trauma resulting in abrasions, wounds, bruises,
or foreign bodies (like glass fiber) getting into the skin.
Physical agents that lead to dermatitis are excessive heat, cold, sunlight, ultraviolet light, X-rays or other
ionizing radiation.
Biological agents such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, poisonous plants, and insects can cause or complicate
dermatitis.
Dermatitis is easier to prevent than to cure. What can you do? If possible, eliminate skin contact with irritating
chemicals and substances or substitute less toxic and irritating ones. Use protective clothing and equipment including
aprons, eye and face shields, finger cots, gloves, and chemical-resistant clothing, provided they are kept clean and in
good repair. Make sure irritating materials are removed from all work clothing so they cannot be transported home.
Personal cleanliness is one of the best preventive measures against skin irritation and dermatitis. Workers should
wash their hands often with a mild, non-abrasive soap solution, and they should wash any skin area right away if it’s
been exposed to an irritating substance. Protective creams, when used properly, provide limited protection.
Engineering controls, such as enclosures, guards or mechanical handling devices, can help minimize worker contact
with hazardous substances.
The most important thing is for workers, who may be exposed to skin irritants, to be informed about the hazards,
understand the precautions to take, and know what processes and equipment to use to avoid or minimize exposure.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Detention Facility Worker
Personnel in detention and prison facilities should be continuously aware and constantly prepared for the risks they
face on the job. Work in these facilities can be extremely stressful both physically and mentally for guards, custodians,
or medical personnel. Workers also run the risk of exposure to physical attack or infection from bodily fluids.
Security personnel perform facility inspections to ensure inmate safety and custody. When walking the grounds and
perimeter, watch for uneven ground that can cause trips and falls. When you inspect roof vantage points, stay at least
6 feet from the edge if it does not have a guard rail.
Everyone should inspect the workplace for hazards and correct or report them. Maintain good housekeeping. No items
should be stored or even temporarily piled in walkways or exits. Ensure that lights, locks, and flooring are in good
repair. Equipment such as carts and communication devices must be in working order. Evaluate chemical storage and
use at your facility; prevent inmate access to concentrated chemicals that could be used as a weapon. Maintain strict
control of knives and other sharps that could be used as weapons.
You know how dangerous violence in your workplace can be. Inmates may fight each other or attack workers. Stay in
top physical condition and remain alert when you work in the facility. Get training such as managing aggressive
behavior and verbal judo to help control behavioral crises. Have an emergency code and response plan for these
incidents. Practice and drill the response frequently and in different scenarios.
Bloodborne pathogen exposure from splashes or contact with blood is a serious hazard when violence erupts. The
most common exposure is a splash of blood or other bodily fluids to a mucous membrane (eye, nose, mouth) or a
puncture from a bite, scratch, or other wound. If you are required to respond to these emergency incidents, wear
body armor, long sleeves, and pants to protect your body. Gloves and safety glasses or goggles protect you from
accidental splashes. Evaluate different equipment to ensure that it does not hamper your response while protecting
you.
Avoid situations where an inmate can use blood, urine, or feces as a potential weapon by controlling access to cups
and containers and wearing the appropriate protective gear. Use proper techniques to enter inmate cells. Know what
to do if you have an exposure, including who to report it to and how to follow-up with medical attention. Vaccination
for Hepatitis B, one of the most easily transmittable bloodborne diseases, protects your health.
Tuberculosis (TB), a respiratory disease, is a concern in detention facilities. If you suspect an inmate has TB, isolate
and transport them for medical attention. Use respiratory protection such as an N95 respirator when entering isolation
rooms or working with potentially infectious inmates. TB vaccination is not common in the United States, so get a
yearly TB test to ensure you have not been exposed.
Your work environment can be indoors, outdoors, and physically challenging. Wear comfortable layers of clothing and
sturdy, comfortable footwear. Get plenty of rest and eat healthfully to maintain your awareness on the job and help
your body cope with demanding shift work. Maintain your fitness so that you can respond to any type of emergency
on the job.
The level of required alertness and the unpredictable nature of the inmates in your workplace cause stress. Good
fitness and overall health help you better manage job stress. Get the training you need to feel prepared and in control
at work. Talk about your job tasks and stresses with your supervisor to get guidance on controlling stress. After
emergency incidents, get debriefing counseling individually or as a group to help you cope with the emotions and
stress.
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Diesel Exhaust
What is Diesel Exhaust?
The diesel engines in automobiles, buses, and trucks produce exhaust from the combustion of diesel fuel. Diesel
exhaust is made up of harmful chemicals including very small toxic particles and hazardous gases. Some of the
hazardous gases in diesel exhaust (e.g. nitrogen oxides, benzene, sulfur dioxide and formaldehyde) have been found
to possibly cause cancer.
Health Hazards of Diesel Exhaust
Breathing diesel exhaust is the most common method of exposure. As we breathe, the fine particles and toxic gases in
diesel exhaust can enter into the lungs. Being exposed to diesel exhaust for short periods of time may cause
headaches, nausea, chest tightness, wheezing, cough and irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat.
Exposure to diesel exhaust over long periods of time (usually years) may increase the chances of getting cancer.
Those workers who already have respiratory illnesses, such as bronchitis, emphysema and/or asthma, may be
adversely affected if they are exposed to long-term, or chronic exposure to diesel exhaust.
Who is at Risk?
Workers most likely to be exposed to diesel exhaust include bridge, tunnel, and loading dock workers, truck and bus
maintenance garage workers, miners, toll booth collectors, truck and forklift drivers, and material handling machine
operators.
Methods of Control of Diesel Exhaust
Substitution
Where possible, replace diesel engines with propane engines. Propane burns more completely with fewer emissions
than diesel fuel. However, it is important to ensure there is adequate ventilation when using any combustion engine
(diesel or propane) indoors, such as in warehouses or garages. Breathing harmful levels of combustion gases, such as
carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxides can be harmful to your health.
Ventilation
If you cannot replace your diesel engine, diesel exhaust can be removed by using local exhaust ventilation. Local
exhaust ventilation should include both intake and exhaust fans that remove diesel exhaust at its source. General
ventilation air movement by opening doors, windows, roof vents, roof fans and floor fans is helpful, but not as
effective as local exhaust ventilation.
Safe Work Practices
Some possible methods to reduce and/or minimize diesel exhaust emissions are:
When diesel equipment is not in use, the engine should not be allowed to idle.

Diesel equipment should be turned off and restarted as needed.
Enforce diesel equipment (bus, truck, etc) idling restrictions.
Check all ventilation systems to ensure proper functioning.
Conduct routine maintenance of engines to minimize emissions.
Diesel equipment that is producing visible, smoky exhaust should be removed from service until the condition
has been corrected. · Vehicles should be fitted with emission controls (e.g. collectors, air cleaners, ceramic
particle traps, etc.).
Emissions controls should be checked regularly and replaced when necessary.
More Information
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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For more detailed information and updates with new information, visit the website maintained by the Occupational
Safety & Health Administration at http://osha.gov/SLTC/dieselexhaust/
If you have any health concerns or questions, contact your health care provider.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Disposable Respirators
Filtering facepiece respirators are disposable and come in various styles and designs to protect you from non-
hazardous contaminants in the workplace. The filtering material in the disposable respirator can be made of cloth or
paper that cleans the air as you breathe it to prevent you from inhaling irritating substances. Some filtering facepiece
respirators (dust masks) are used to control nuisance contaminants such as dust, non hazardous fibers, animal
dander, and pollen. Other filtering facepiece respirators can have added features for use with infectious diseases,
organic vapors, chemical fumes, and nuisance odors.
While disposable respirators are convenient, you should be aware of their use guidelines and limitations in order to
wear them safely. Your disposable respirator should be certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH). Follow all of the manufacturer's instructions for respirator use and make sure you are medically fit to
wear a disposable respirator before you use it.
Your disposable respirator should be designed for the work you will be doing and the materials you use. Choose the
correct respirator by consulting the NIOSH certification on the package, or talking with your supervisor. Because
disposable respirators are not tight-fitting, they should not be worn in hazardous atmospheres. If you will be using
your disposable respirator in a hazardous environment to protect against infectious diseases or other chemical
exposure, contact your supervisor or safety personnel to determine the additional procedures required for this use.
To wear a disposable respirator, hold it in your hands with the nosepiece up and place it over your nose and mouth.
Pull the top strap over your head and position it above your ears. Pull the bottom strap over your head and position it
at the back of your neck. If the respirator has a nose clamp, use both hands to pinch it evenly over your nose. Adjust
the straps so that they fit comfortably and hold the respirator securely to your face.
It is important to check that your disposable respirator fits properly each time you wear it. To fit test a disposable
respirator, cup both of your hands over the mask and inhale. The mask should pull in toward your face. If the mask
does not pull in, or if you feel air leaks around the edges of the mask, readjust the nose piece and straps and try
again until you get a good fit.
Keep track of your disposable respirator and do not share it with other workers. Inspect it before and after each use.
Replace the respirator if it develops holes, the straps break or loosen, or it becomes dirty and overly contaminated. Be
sure to store your respirator in an area that is free of dirt and contaminants. If the disposable respirator gets splashed
with chemicals or other liquid materials while you are working, exit the work area and remove it immediately. If it
becomes difficult to breathe through the disposable respirator, exit the work area, throw it away, and replace it with a
new respirator. Properly adjust and fit test the new disposable respirator before you re-enter the work zone.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)

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Don't Get Caught in the Crush
Crushing accidents occur when the body or any part of the body is squeezed between two moving objects or caught
between one moving and one stationary object. Minor crushing accidents can cost workers in many ways, in pain,
disability, and the loss of a job. Major crushing accidents can even cost a life.
There are some simple things workers can do to lessen their chance of experiencing crushing injuries. The first, and
most important thing, is for workers to know when they are placing themselves or any of their body parts in a
situation of possible injury.
Workers must always be aware of where they are in relation to moving equipment around them. When in these
situations, workers must allow enough room to compensate for equipment failure or operator error. Workers should
stay within the equipment operator's vision at all times.
Workers should make it their business to stay out from under any load to avoid the possibility of being crushed from
above. "If it's in the air, it's dangerous." Employers should never permit a load to be raised, lowered, or swung over a
worker's head. It is also the workers' responsibility to shut-off, lock-out, or tag-out all energy sources, and to test to
assure that they are dead, BEFORE attempting to work on or clear equipment capable of any movement or activation.
Workers are the most important pieces of equipment in the workplace; make sure they are kept safe and in good
operating condition.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Dont Take Back Problems Sitting Down
Why do so many of us have back problems today? In part, it’s the way our work and lifestyle has evolved. As people
grow more sedentary in an increasingly automated world, we’re doing more sitting and adding extra pounds. As a
result, our backs are becoming more vulnerable to injury.
Sitting, especially slouching, is one of the most common positions during our waking hours. It also happens to be one
of the worst positions for our backs, by putting continuous pressure on the lower back muscles and disks.
Low back pain is a warning that something is wrong. Recognize this warning and take steps to prevent a back problem
from getting worse. Here are some helpful suggestions if you sit for long periods during the course of your workday.
Choose the right chair, a chair that supports the length and width of your back with adjustable armrests and a
seat height you can adjust.
Sit smart. Sit straight and close to your work, don’t slump forward. Your buttocks should rest against the back
of the seat. Your knees should stick out a hand’s width beyond the edge of the chair with your feet resting
comfortable on the floor or footrest.
Adjust your work height and angle. Your surface work and keyboard should be at elbow level. If you work at a
computer, the top of your screen should be at eye level.
If possible, get up regularly and stretch or, shift your sitting position at least once every 30 minutes.
Vehicular vibration adds additional stress to the backs of those who drive long distances. Here’s some back comfort
tips for drivers.
Position the seat forward so that your knees are bent. If the tilt of the seats can be adjusted, change the angle
slightly every so often.
Placing a cushion at the small of your back and sitting in a slightly reclining angle may ease pressure on your
lower back while driving.
Change your sitting position frequently or get out of the vehicle every hour and walk around for a few minutes.
Grip the steering wheel at the nine and three o’clock hand positions. This puts your arms and shoulders in a
more neutral position.
There are also some general lifestyle choices which can reduce stress on your back. Sleep on a firm mattress, control
your weight, getting some exercise, and for men, take that bulging wallet out of your back pocket when you sit. Make
sitting a pleasure not a pain.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Drive Safely
Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of workplace deaths. According to the California Highway Patrol (CHP),
10 people die on California roads every day. The CHP reports the most frequent accident causes on California roads
include unsafe speed, unsafe following, improper turns, and inattention to the road. Proper driver education,
seatbelts, following speed laws, obeying the rules of the road, and paying attention to the road and fellow drivers can
help reduce the risk of being injured or killed in a motor vehicle accident.
The California Vehicle Code requires you to follow posted speed limits on roads and highways. Excessive speed
reduces your ability to respond to unexpected road hazards. The higher the speed, the greater the risk of serious
injury or death in a crash.
Posted speed limits are maximums. Always maintain a speed that is reasonable for the road and the conditions at the
time. Take into account the weather, visibility, traffic, and the surface conditions of the road when you determine your
speed of travel. Never use a speed that endangers your safety, other persons, or property.
The CHP recommends you leave a 3-second cushion between your car and any vehicle you are following. This
applies if the pavement is dry, there's no heavy traffic, and your brakes are in top condition. In poor conditions, add
one more second for each weather condition or hazard encountered.
Avoid unsafe turns, never pull out in front of a car that has not committed to a stop or a turn.
Be a defensive driver and prevent accidents by scanning the road and other drivers. Watch the road ahead and behind
you. Keep your eyes moving and stay alert to be prepared to react to the unexpected.
Pay attention to what you and other drivers are doing on the road. Adjust your seat and mirrors and preset your
favorite radio stations and climate controls before you start the car. Don’t eat, drink, smoke, or read while driving.
The best and safest situation is to be stopped when using a cell phone. Never text or use a personal digital assistant
while driving. And, do your personal grooming at home, not in the car.
Get driver’s education training for California roads and know how to operate vehicles that you are assigned to take
on the road.
Always wear your seat belt when driving or riding in a vehicle. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration (NHTSA), seat belts reduce the risk of fatal injury by 45 percent in a car and by 60 percent in a light
truck. A lap and shoulder belt is best, but use a lap belt if it is present. Only transport people in a car or truck if you
have enough seatbelts for everyone.
When you get behind the wheel of a vehicle, follow the rules of the road. Do not drive if you have been drinking,
are on medication, or are very tired. Be a courteous and safe driver and yield the right of way when necessary.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
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Driverless Tractor Safety
We all know the most important safety feature on a tractor is YOU, the operator. In fact, drivers are so important for
safety, Cal OSHA created a rule requiring an operator at the controls whenever tractors or other mobile farming
equipment is moving in the field (Title 8, Section 3441, available online at www.dir.ca.gov/title8/3441.html.
This rule is designed to prevent the “driverless tractor,” a situation where the driver hops off a tractor while it is in
motion in order to assist field workers. This action leaves the tractor unguided by a human hand or head. Unguided,
moving tractors are dangerous. Workers, children, or animals could be killed if they fall in front of or under an
unmanned tractor.
Exceptions to this rule do allow the driver to control the tractor from an area other than the cab seat as long as the
controls for starting, accelerating, decelerating and stopping are provided (e.g. seedling planter). If the tractor
operates faster than 2 miles per hour (mph) OR requires guidance other than that from ground or furrow, steering
controls also have to be provided outside the cab. Operators can walk alongside furrow-guided, self-propelled
equipment as long as they are within 10 feet and have a clear view ahead and of nearby workers.
Some tractors are equipped with GPS guidance and computer control systems. While this helps make the work more
efficient, tractor drivers are still required to follow basic safety rules. Never sit on a tractor without a proper seat and
seatbelt. Don’t allow riders unless there is an extra seat and safety belt. Rollover protection systems (ROPS) protect
you from being crushed in a rollover or flip. Guard all moving and cutting parts. Don’t reach into moving parts, clear
jams, or do maintenance until the tractor is turned off and machinery is unhooked from power.
GPS and computer controls can help tractors precisely navigate along field rows and turn efficiently in the headlands
(open end of the crop field). The computer can control tractor speeds, turning radius, and the lifting and lowering of
implements. These tractors can operate longer hours and at higher speeds despite darkness, fog, and weather.
Drivers operating automated tractors and agricultural workers around them need training on their features.
Just because the tractor can go all day does not mean that the operator should. Limit work shifts to maintain a state
of alertness. Tractors will not sense someone or something in the field, so use enough lighting to see 50 feet in front
of the machine and provide an additional light in the back when operating before sunrise or after sunset. Post warning
signs of automated tractor use in fields and consider fencing to limit access. Machines that can run most of the day
require more frequent inspections and maintenance checks.
Tractor technology is still changing; the computer controlled tractors of today could soon be the completely
autonomous machines of tomorrow. But whatever the generation of tractor, properly trained and alert operators that
follow safe work practices will always be important to tractor safety.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Driving Distracted?
Driving down the road is no longer a lonely, quiet experience. With cellular phones, two-way radios, and stereos, the
interior of your vehicle no longer offers a quiet place to focus on driving.
These days with everyone’s life so busy, paying attention while driving can be difficult. Have you ever been driving down
the road and suddenly you notice you don’t remember the last three miles you traveled? Although your attention may only
be diverted for a split second, the ever-changing variables of the road and other vehicles can make you instantly
vulnerable to accidents.
The following rules can help you concentrate on what you should be doing...driving.
Tie up loose ends before you leave the office.

If you must travel in heavy traffic areas, plan your travel at times other then rush hour.
Know the condition of the roads on which you are travelling and drive only as fast as those conditions allow.
Wear your safety belt at all times.
Set the radio to a station and leave it there until you stop again.
Stay alert and drive defensively, with caution.
Watch out for and anticipate other drivers, pedestrians or children on or near the road.
Stay out of the other vehicle’s blind spot
Keep a safe distance from other drivers by maintaining a safety cushion around your car.
Safe drivers scan constantly for hazards, predicting how they may be affected by a hazard and pre-determining how to
avoid or reduce them.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that
it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Driving Vehicles and Moving Equipment Safely
Many workplace injuries and deaths involve vehicles and moving equipment, but sometimes this equipment is essential to the
work operation. All vehicle and equipment operators should be trained, competent, and safety-minded to avoid costly accidents
and injuries. Before operation, drivers should carefully read the operator's manual and observe the operating, maintenance,
and safety instructions.
Operators should be prepared for a safe day at the wheel, by getting enough rest and taking occasional breaks, especially on
hot days, to reduce fatigue. Vehicle operation should be limited or avoided when drivers are ill or taking medications that can
affect alertness. Operators should dress appropriately for the weather and work conditions, including head and eye protection.
If the vehicle doesn't have a protective cab, dust respirator and acoustic earmuffs or plugs may be required. Before driving,
seat belts should be securely fastened, even if the vehicle has roll over protection (ROPs). No one should ride on any part of a
moving vehicle, except areas intended for transport. If there are no passenger seats, there should be no riders. Operators
should see to it that everyone is at a safe distance from the equipment before moving. Only those with a driver's license should
drive equipment on public roads.
Vehicle ground speed should match operating conditions. Speed should be cut in turns, when near ditches and obstacles, on
rough, hilly or muddy ground, and when visibility is poor. All workers should be warned not be approach or get on equipment
that is under power. When the vehicle is stopped, brakes should be set securely, using park lock, and remove keys to keep
unauthorized persons or children from restarting the machinery. Operators should disengage the power take off, keeping
shields and guards in place, and turn off the engine before unclogging, refueling or working on any power-driven machine.
Other workers can avoid danger from moving equipment by staying alert, out of the way, and by never walking under or
alongside moving equipment. As an added safety precaution, a first-aid kit with emergency numbers should be kept in the
vehicle or close enough for quick access.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically
discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with
all laws, regulations or standards.
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Drywalling Safety
Drywallers put the finishing touches on our home and office interiors by installing and finishing sheetrock walls.
Physical stamina is required to lift, cut, and maneuver heavy sheets of drywall and fix them in place. Finishing and
sanding seams is also an ergonomic and physical challenge. Consider that this demanding work is often done on a
construction site and at heights, and it is clear that drywallers need to think safety on the job.
Lifting and maneuvering tools and heavy, awkward sheets of drywall pose an ergonomic risk for drywallers.
Maintaining good physical condition and using proper lifting techniques can reduce the chance of injury and strain.
Working in pairs makes it easier to lift, position, and control sheetrock. Seam taping and sanding tools with spring-
assisted or powered systems makes overhead finishing work easier by reducing the force that workers must apply.
Completing work one task at a time (hanging, taping, finishing, etc.) may be efficient, but is harder on the body;
completing one area at a time allows workers to rotate tasks and give muscles a break.
Because drywallers work at heights to install tall walls and ceilings, they need to use extra caution to prevent falls.
Workers can use ladders if the work can be done safely from them, but they should follow ladder safety rules. Lean-to
or jack scaffolds, shore scaffolds, nailed brackets, loose tile, loose brick, loose blocks, and other unstable objects
cannot be used as working platforms or for their supports. Stilts should never be used due to their instability. Sturdy
scaffolds or steps that are at least 20 inches wide provide safe, stable working platforms when installed and used
correctly.
Dust is a hazard for drywallers at the beginning and end of every job. When sheetrock is cut, the gypsum dust that is
released can be irritating to the eyes and lungs. Dust from dry mixing joint compound can be an irritant; pre-mixed
compounds can reduce worker dust exposure. Sanding finished joints can also create a lot of dust. Whenever job
tasks may create dust, safety glasses and respirators or dust masks should be used to protect workers’ eyes and
lungs. Proper ventilation on the jobsite can reduce dust in the air.
Electrical safety should be considered when drywallers are fastening sheetrock to wall frames. Workers should use
caution around interior wall wiring and ensure that electric boxes have proper shielding to prevent screws and nails
from penetrating them. Powered nail guns, fasteners, and drills should be properly grounded and in good working
order to reduce the risk of electric shock. Other tools, especially cutting tools, should be in good working order and
used properly.
Because drywalling is usually one of the last tasks on a construction job, it is often done under deadline pressure.
However, the need for speed is never an excuse to forget safety. Good planning and safety procedures give a
drywalling job a smooth finish.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Dust Explosions
When combustible or non-combustible materials are broken down into fine dusts or powders, they create a fire and
explosion hazard affecting many operations and materials: sugar, flour, animal feed, plastics, paper, wood, rubber,
furniture, textiles, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, paints and resins, dyes, coal, and metals.
To prevent fires from dust explosions, control the “dust explosion pentagon.” This includes the traditional fire triangle:
fuel, heat, and oxygen along with a dust cloud and enclosed space. Keep dust levels (fuel) in the workplace to a
minimum with dust control and housekeeping. Control flame and ignition sources (heat) such as pilot lights, open
flames, hot equipment, and static electricity. Never allow smoking in the worksite.
Due to the hazard of dust explosions, CalOSHA Title 8, Section 5174 limits combustible dust to a concentration of 25%
of its lower explosive limit (LEL) “unless all sources of ignition are eliminated or identified and specifically
controlled.” (See CalOSHA’s website at http://www.dir.ca.gov/Title8/5174.html).
Static electricity is a serious explosion and fire ignition source, but grounding prevents this. CalOSHA defines effective
grounding as linking equipment to earth through a connection that has “low impedance” and enough current-carrying
capacity to prevent hazardous voltages.
When you operate, service, and maintain equipment, ensure that the proper grounding is in place. Review facility
machines, conveyors, housings, and conductive surfaces for proper ground. Hoses and nozzles used to collect or blow
dust should be grounded along their entire lengths. Belts can be grounded through metal combs or other devices.
Dust collection, filtering, and treatment prevent explosions by removing dust from the air. Dust collectors should be
hooked up outdoors or in a separate room. Wet spray dust collectors can be located inside the building. For grinding,
shredding, or pulverizing equipment, use pneumatic or magnetic separators to remove metal and debris that could
ignite a fire. Lay out your facility so that machines with dust explosion hazards are enclosed or facing away from
populated work areas to minimize the fire and energy impact if there is an explosion.
Establish a routine cleaning schedule to remove dust from floors, ledges, beams, equipment, or other surfaces. Clean
often enough to prevent dust buildup. If production changes and dust piles up faster than your schedule, clean more
often. Create a checklist that identifies all areas to be cleaned so you don’t miss any. Use the proper tools, equipment,
and safety procedures to clean dust from heights.
Before you begin cleaning, shut down all flame and ignition sources. Allow dust to settle out of the air. Permanent,
grounded vacuum systems or wet methods are ideal for dust cleanup. Use caution with push brooms or brushes that
can make dust airborne. Choose natural bristle brushes; some synthetic fiber brushes can build up static. Using
compressed air to blow and clean up dust is not recommended because of the potential to make a dust cloud. If there
is no other alternative to compressed air, extinguish all flame and ignition sources and ground the hose and nozzle
before use.
Attention to housekeeping and cleaning can prevent secondary explosions, which occur when an initial dust cloud
ignites, explodes, and topples a duct, pipe, or other accumulation of dust. The newly airborne dust can then form a
second explosive dust cloud, often larger and more deadly than the first.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
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Earthquake Safety
According to the US Geological Survey, there is a 60% chance that a 6.7 magnitude or greater earthquake will occur
in California in the next 30 years. An earthquake of this size can pose an immediate hazard to worker safety, strain
public services and disrupt business. The best way to survive an earthquake, or any other emergency, safely is to
prepare, plan, and practice.
First, prepare your workplace for an earthquake. Large equipment such as boilers, tanks, and machines need to be
secured properly so they will not fall over in an earthquake. Furniture such as bookshelves and file cabinets along
with storage racks and shelving should be strapped or attached to the wall to keep it stable and upright. Survey your
workspace to make sure that heavy items are stored at lower heights or secured so they won’t fall. Photos and
pictures should be hung onto the wall with screws or earthquake “j” clips. Keep doors, exits, and aisle ways clear at
all times for quick access evacuations. Keep areas under desks and tables uncluttered to make room to take cover in
an earthquake. Store chemicals properly and in compatible groups.
Gather emergency supplies for the workplace. Fire extinguishers should be charged and inspected monthly so they
are always ready to use. Periodically test fire alarms, sprinklers, and emergency lighting. Keep flashlights, a radio,
extra batteries, and a first aid kit on hand at all times. Consider stockpiling food, water, blankets, and sanitary
supplies such as toilet paper and portable toilets. Keep enough supplies for the number of workers that may need to
shelter or work at your facility after an earthquake. Prepare personal emergency supplies for your desk and your car,
including comfortable clothes and shoes, a flashlight and batteries, first aid kit, food, water, and necessary
medications.
Make an emergency plan at work and at home. Businesses must have an emergency evacuation plan that details how
employees will evacuate from the building, where they will meet, how to account for everyone, and how to get further
instructions to act. Current emergency contact phone numbers for all employees and management are critical in an
emergency. Businesses should also list and prioritize their functions in a Business Continuity Plan (BCP) that ensures
access to the people, materials, and other supplies needed to continue work after an earthquake.
Workers should have family emergency plans in place at home in case they are stranded at work or required to work
after an earthquake. Keep enough emergency supplies on hand to maintain your family for at least 3 days. Make
lists of emergency contact phone numbers and determine a meeting place for the family after an emergency.
Finally, practice and train on your emergency procedures. Practice emergency evacuations. Get training on first aid
and CPR techniques. Train and remember to Duck, Cover and Hold in an earthquake. During an earthquake, duck or
drop down on the floor. Take cover under a sturdy desk or table and hold on to it so that you can move with it during
the shaking. If you cannot take cover, stand against an interior wall and protect your head and neck with your arms.
Practice your business recovery procedures by inspecting and restarting equipment and computers in the proper and
prioritized order.
Earthquakes aren’t planned, but YOU can plan and practice to survive.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
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Electric Equipment Guarding and Workspaces
Electrical current is found in power lines, transformers, breaker boxes, and power outlets and switches. Exposure to
electric current can cause shock, injury and electrocution. Workers that service electrical sources need to get training
on electrical safety, assume electrical equipment and lines are live, and use lock out/tag out procedures. Proper
guarding and clearance around electrical equipment can prevent accidental worker exposure to electrical currents.
A shock can occur when a worker’s body becomes part of the flow of an electrical circuit. The severity of injury
depends on the voltage and time that the electrical current passes through the body. Low voltage causes pain and
slight burns, a large voltage can cause severe burns and stop the heart. A minor shock may cause a large injury if a
surprised worker takes a fall.
To avoid the risk of accidental shock, live electrical components operating at 50 volts or more must be guarded with
covers or other permanent barriers to prevent accidental contact by workers and their tools. Equipment can also be
locked behind an enclosure, in a room, or at an elevated height. These areas should have restricted access and
warnings against unauthorized entry. Permanent markings on electrical equipment with the voltage, current or
wattage provide power output information for workers.
Electrical boxes and equipment are best stored in areas free from moisture, chemicals, and excessive temperatures.
Electric cabinets with ventilation holes need to remain clear to allow air circulation. Electric parts that ordinarily spark
or arc require covers and isolation from combustion sources. Equipment should be securely mounted to the surface
that it rests on.
There should be adequate working space to allow workers to safely maneuver around electrical equipment. Electrical
equipment with a voltage of 0-150 requires 36 inches of clearance. A voltage of 150-600, where there are energized
parts on one side, also needs 36 inches of clearance. Equipment with a voltage of 150-600 and exposed energized and
grounded parts on either side requires 42 inches clearance; equipment with exposed energized parts on both sides
must have 48 inches clearance.
The clearance workspace around electrical equipment is not intended for storage. The area should be kept clear to
allow safe movement and to prevent a fire hazard. Electric equipment workspaces require adequate lighting for safe
work; light operating switches should not be near live electrical feeds. Enclosures need at least one entrance and
enough headroom to work safely.
With adequate clearance and guarding around electrical equipment, workers can avoid accidental exposure to electric
shock.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Electric Pallet Jacks
Electric pallet jacks make quick work of moving loads around the workplace. Pallet jacks protect your back from
strains and injuries by moving heavy and awkward loads and objects that would be unsafe to lift manually. But, as
with any powered tool, if used improperly, electric pallet jacks can become a safety liability.
If you operate an electric pallet jack on the job, get training on the use of the equipment from an experienced worker.
Your training should include practical, hands on application exercises to ensure that you can safely operate the specific
equipment at your worksite. Only operate the pallet jack if you have been authorized to do so by your employer.
Be familiar with the electric pallet jack that you will use on the job. Review the manufacturer’s operating instructions
and details on the jack’s capacity. A lift rating capacity plate should be mounted on the jack; never exceed the
manufacturer's load rated capacity. Know how to use the power controls and brakes properly. Use the forks and
attachments correctly. Always inspect the equipment prior to each use; never operate an electric pallet jack if it is
malfunctioning. When charging the jack, use a GFCI outlet and ensure that you use precautions to avoid electric
shock.
Learn and follow the general safety rules for electric pallet jack use. Load the jack securely to prevent materials from
shifting during movement. Gradually start and stop the jack to prevent the load from slipping. Use extreme caution
when you are pulling the jack; ensure that your pathway is clear and that you will not trip backwards or run into
obstacles. Keep your body and your coworkers clear of the pallet jack to avoid being crushed by the machine. Never
ride on a pallet jack and avoid horseplay when you are using one.
Watch for coworkers and obstacles at all times when you are using an electric pallet jack. Give people the right of way
instead of expecting them to get out of your way. Slow down and proceed cautiously when you are at a crosswalk or
obscured throughway in the workplace. Try to stack and move loads in a manner that will not block your line of vision.
Always use a spotter to assist you if you cannot see around the load.
Use extra caution in narrow aisles, on slopes and inclines, and other restricted areas where your maneuverability will
be limited. If you are authorized to use the jack in an elevator, always enter it with the load first; do not back up into
the elevator. Use the same technique when entering any constricted space with a pallet jack. Ensure that trucks and
railcars that you are authorized to enter are properly blocked from movement.
Know the basics of electric pallet jack safety and keep up the good work!
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Electric Power Line Installation and Repair
Electric power line workers install, maintain, and repair electric networks between power plants and their customers.
This work is hazardous; contact with high-voltage power lines can instantly electrocute you. Get proper training and
safety equipment such as insulated protective clothing and tools.
Only qualified electrical workers can work on energized conductors or equipment connected to energized high-voltage
systems (equal or greater than 600 volts). CalOSHA defines a qualified electrical worker as a person with at least 2
years of training and experience.
Don’t work alone on high-voltage systems. A qualified electrical worker or experienced employee-in-training needs to
be available in case of an emergency. Some exceptions: replacing fuses, operating switches, or other operations on
de-energized conductors or equipment, clearing "trouble" tickets, or in life threatening emergencies.
Power lines are connected to utility poles and towers or located underground in trenches and vaults. During
installation, workers use construction equipment such as augers, trenchers, diggers, cranes, etc. Get training on
construction equipment you use. Inspect and maintain it to ensure it runs properly and that safety features (e.g.
backup horns, emergency lighting) work.
Know and understand the hazards of trenching and engulfment. Know how to dig, maintain, barricade, and enter a
trench safely. Get training in confined spaces if you enter work vaults or power utility holes. Monitor the environment
for hazards and have the safety equipment and backup team necessary to ensure your safe exit. Use proper
lockout/tagout procedures.
If you work from heights on power poles or towers, get training in fall protection equipment and safety and rescue
procedures. Know how to hoist your materials safely. Learn the safe operation of bucket trucks that access elevated
job tasks. Wear properly inspected and maintained fall protection equipment.
Hand and power tools, along with chemical epoxies and cleaners are used to install and maintain network equipment
(transformers, circuit breakers, switches, fuses, etc.). Use and maintain your tools properly. Get training in the safe
handling and disposal of chemicals; consult the material safety data sheet (MSDS) for additional guidance.
Power line work occurs year-round and often in remote areas, during bad weather or natural disasters, to repair and
restore power in emergencies. Work with backup employees when you can. Communicate your location and expected
return time with your coworkers. Wear light layers that protect you from the elements. Use reflective gear to keep you
visible along roadways.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Electric Tools - Grounds for Concern
Each year workers suffer shock when handling electrical tools and equipment. To protect workers against the hazards
of electricity, teach them the basic facts about the causes of shock and death. One of the big problems in
understanding the dangers of electrical shock is the mistaken belief that only high voltages kill. It’s not the voltage
that kills, but the amount of current that passes through the body. The condition and placement of the body has a lot
to do with the chance of getting a shock.
Water and electricity can be a fatal combination. Damp areas and metal objects can offer good shortcuts for electricity
to reach the ground. If a worker’s hands are sweaty, if socks and shoes are moist or damp, if the floor is wet, or if the
worker is standing in a puddle of water, the moisture will allow more current to pass through the body. If work is to
be done with metal objects or in damp areas, workers should recognize the hazards and take necessary precautions.
These precautions include rubber gloves and boots, rubber mats, insulated tools, and rubber sheets which can be used
to cover exposed metal.
Remembering a few tips can help avoid electrical accidents:
Treat every electric wire as if it were a live one.

Inspect equipment and extension cords before each use.
Take faulty equipment or plugs with bent or missing prongs out of service for repair.
Only qualified electricians should repair electrical equipment or work on energized lines.
If a plug doesn’t have three prongs or if the receptacle doesn’t have three openings, make sure the tool is
grounded in some other way before use.
Never try to bypass an electrical system by cutting off the third prong of a plug.
Turn off the power and report the smell of hot or burning plastic, smoke, sparks or flickering lights.
Stop using a tool or appliance if a slight shock or tingling is felt.
Never disconnect an electrical plug by pulling on the cord.
Whenever working on an electric circuit, the circuit should be turned off and locked out at the circuit breaker or
fuse box to ensure that the circuit cannot be accidentally turned on.
Those who regularly work on or around energized electrical equipment should be trained in emergency
response and CPR.
In wet, winter months, extra caution should be observed when working with electrical equipment or when working
near grounded objects.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) Safety
Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) provide 24 hour, 7 day-a-week emergency medical service to the public in all
kinds of weather. Acting as part of a fire department, ambulance service, or medical facility, EMTs handle medical
transports and respond to emergencies such as fires, accidents, traumas, and psychiatric/drug crises. A variety of job
tasks under extreme circumstances demands that EMTs work safely.
Providing basic and advanced life support services may expose you to patient blood and bodily fluids. This increases
the risk of bloodborne diseases such as Hepatitis B or HIV. Know what a blood exposure is – a splash of blood to a
mucous membrane (eye, nose, mouth) or an open cut/wound. Blood on intact skin is not an exposure and can be
washed off. If you do get exposed, flush the area, report the incident, and get medical treatment immediately, when it
is most effective.
Protect yourself while helping others. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) for the job you are doing.
Long sleeves/pants protect your skin while gloves protect your hands. Safety goggles and a face shield prevent a
splash of blood to the eyes, nose or mouth. Cover open wounds and sores while at work. Wash your hands frequently
and before you eat, drink or smoke. Decontaminate work surfaces and tools after each response and/or transport.
Driving to an emergency can be your most dangerous job task. Wear your seatbelt. Practice defensive driving by
scanning the road ahead for obstacles and other drivers. Do not assume that drivers will get out of your way, despite
the flashing lights and sirens. Avoid distractions on the road. Keep one person dedicated to driving and enough
personnel in the back of the rig to handle patient needs.
Irregular hours and shifts, life or death situations, and witnessing human suffering can impact your emotions and
stress. Potential violence from psychiatric, criminal, and drugged patients is stressful. Rescuers using and wearing
heavy safety equipment take a physical toll. Prepare your body and mind for this work by maintaining a healthy
lifestyle with proper rest, diet and exercise. Schedule sleep and nap periods around your shifts. Get counseling for
ongoing stress, and after large-scale or difficult responses.
Extricating and accessing patients in emergency situations is strenuous work. Attending to patient medical needs
requires kneeling, bending, and lifting. When kneeling, place your knee on a pad. Keep the supply kit close to you to
avoid twisting between medical supplies and the patient. Even in an emergency situation, do not rush a lift. Prepare
and plan it, then lift with a straight back and your head facing forward. Use backboards, team lifting techniques, and
mechanical lift equipment when available.
Medical emergencies call for quick action, but take the time to size up the situation before you respond. Look for and
remove hazards before you respond. Do not enter an area without the proper safety equipment. Failure to heed your
own safety may prevent you from providing life-saving support to the patient.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Emergency Wash Stations
Many new chemical products are introduced into the workplace each year and even with careful planning and safety
measures, harmful chemical-exposure accidents occur. Because of the potential for exposure, a list of all hazardous
substances should be maintained at each worksite. Material Safety Data Sheets on these substances should be readily
available with substance descriptions including their location, risks, manufacturer’s precautions, and treatment or
antidote measures should there be a harmful exposure.
Emergency wash fixtures must be provided in the workplace if there is a reasonable risk that workers may be exposed
to caustic chemicals or other hazardous substances. All workers at risk for exposure should be made aware of the
location and purpose of the emergency wash stations and receive regular training on their use. Keep in mind that
emergency wash fixtures are not substitutes for personal protective gear like safety eyewear, face shields, and
protective clothing.
Some chemicals have a harmful reaction when mixed with another substance and may endanger the handler or those
in the area. You can counteract a reaction by having emergency wash stations or showers that provide large amounts
of continually flowing water to flush the chemical. It is not recommended that neutralizing agents be used on the eyes
or skin. Combining certain chemicals can be dangerous, and may increase the damaging effects of chemical burns or
develop scar tissue if the wrong neutralizing agent is accidentally used.
The most effective first step in treating chemical contamination of the eye or skin is immediate flushing or washing
with potable water. This and the selection and placement of emergency wash stations or showers, are among the
most crucial steps you can take in effective emergency response.
Medical experts say that immediate access to an emergency wash station is critical. The chance of full recovery from
chemical contamination of the eye is excellent, if the victim reaches an eyewash station within 10 to 15 seconds.
Panic, pain, and obscured vision will slow response time, so it is important that emergency wash fixtures be highly
visible.
The length of time and amount of flushing or washing is key to the successful treatment of the eye or skin. The
minimum amount of time for flushing the eye is 15 minutes, although most medical experts say a full 20 to 30
minutes of flushing time is best. It is important that the water pressure of the eyewash station be closely regulated
because tender eye tissue can be easily damaged.
With the help of a trained medical professional, establish first-aid procedures for chemical injuries then review and
update these measures and all safety precautions on a regular schedule.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Employee Safety Responsibilities
California employers are responsible for maintaining a safe work place and adopting an Injury and Illness Prevention
Program (IIPP) to protect workers from job hazards. But employers are not the only ones responsible for safety on the
job – California workers have responsibilities for maintaining a safe workplace as well. Do you know your safety
responsibilities?
Know and follow all of your employer’s health and safety rules such as safe work practices and standard operating
procedures. Be familiar with the Cal OSHA safety requirements that regulate your industry. These regulations and
guidelines are designed to educate and protect you from hazards and injuries on the job. Know the emergency and
evacuation procedures and the location of emergency equipment on your jobsite; clear thinking and immediate action
in an emergency can save lives.
Attend all of the safety training that your employer offers. Training helps you identify job hazards and take the
appropriate precautions to protect yourself and co-workers. Never operate equipment unless you have been properly
trained. Read and understand the material safety data sheet (MSDS) and know the hazards and safe work practices
for all of the chemicals that you work with. If you have a question about equipment, a chemical, or a process, ask
your supervisor – taking a chance at work can mean taking a chance with your life.
You are responsible for the safety of your own actions while on the job. Conduct yourself professionally and with your
mind on your own safety and the safety of others at all times; the workplace is no place for horseplay or lack of
attention. Serve as a good role model to co-workers for safe work practices and behavior. Maintain your personal
work area and common areas in a clean and orderly manner; good housekeeping means a safer workplace. Always
wear the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) required for your job tasks.
Talk with your supervisor about safety. If you have a suggestion to make a process or equipment safer, speak up! No
one knows your job and tools better than you. Immediately warn co-workers and notify your supervisor of any
malfunctioning equipment, hazardous conditions, and unsafe behavior in the workplace – someone’s life may depend
on it. All accidents and near-misses should also be reported to your supervisor because investigating these incidents
can lead to a safer environment. If you have a job-related injury or illness, promptly report it to your employer and
seek appropriate treatment.
When you share the responsibility for safety in the workplace, everyone wins.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Engulfment
In many worksite situations, workers are at risk for engulfment hazards. Engulfment results when a worker is
surrounded and overcome by a granular substance such as soil, sand, gravel, sawdust, seed, grain or flour or if
submerged in a liquid such as water or a chemical. Engulfment causes physical harm when the material has enough
force on the body to cause injury or death by constriction, crushing or strangulation. Respiratory hazards associated
with engulfment includes suffocation from breathing in a fine substance that fills the lungs or from drowning in a
liquid.
Trenches or excavation pits at construction sites pose a n engulfment hazard when a cave-in or soil collapse engulf a
worker. These trenches or open pit s should have an adequate number of exit ladders, daily safety inspections, and
should include safety engineering such as proper shoring and sloping.
Piles of loose granular materials pose an engulfment hazard if they shift or slide. Workers should not stand, climb or
walk on piles of materials without safety equipment like a hoist with a boatswain's chair or a body harness. The hoist
operator should pay out and retrieve excess line to maintain reasonable tautness. The hoist should be able to stop and
hold any expected load including the impact of a fall.
Workers should be instructed on the hazards of over-sized containers and storage bins at the worksite as well as the
materials kept in them. They should also be instructed on safety protocols, rescue operations, and the use of life
safety equipment.
Trenches or excavation pits at construction sites pose a cave-in hazard where the collapsing soil can engulf workers.
Such operations should have an adequate number of exit ladders, daily safety inspections, and should include
engineering principles such as shoring and sloping.
Containers can be dangerous if workers need to enter them for maintenance or repair, or if they need to work over
them to load or unclog materials. Containers include storage bins, silos, vats, tanks, bunkers, and hoppers. The
dangers involved include entering or falling into a confined space, a hazardous atmosphere, and/or engulfment by the
materials.
Each container type at a site should be evaluated to determine if it is a confined space. Open containers should have a
railing and toe board around them. If there is no railing, there should be a grate or walkway with railings. If work is
necessary over an open container without railings or a grate, workers should wear safety harnesses with retrieval
lines.
Workers should not enter a container unless they are wearing a retrieval harness. They should have a buddy on the
outside of the container and a reliable form of communication between them. Use of lock out, tag out protocols should
be enforced to ensure that mechanical moving parts like augers do not activate and materials do not shift underneath
the worker.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
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Entering and Exiting Vehicles Safely
Truckers, delivery drivers, farmers, firemen, and workers that drive or ride in large commercial trucks and vans, farm
equipment, and fire apparatus get injured when they enter and exit vehicles unsafely. Due to inattention, speed, and
rushing in an emergency, workers slip and fall when they do not use vehicle steps and handhold devices. Jumps and
falls cause ergonomic strains and sprains, broken bones, and fatalities.
If you work around large vehicles, wear shoes with sturdy, no-slip soles and a heel. Clean and maintain the vehicle
steps; wet or oily “diamond plate” can be very slippery. Only climb on dedicated stepping areas; fuel tanks and
fenders can be slippery. In hot and cold weather, wear gloves to help you grip hand railings.
When you enter a vehicle, face it. Take hold of the grab bar and use it to help you climb up. If a grab bar is not
available, grip the seat or other fixed object in the vehicle. Don’t grab the steering wheel unless it is “locked;” it can
turn suddenly and throw you off balance. Don’t grab the door or handle because it can swing out and cause you to
fall. If grab bars are missing or improperly placed, add one or move it to a safer location.
Plan your steps into the vehicle so that you are standing on the same leg as the side that you are entering. To enter
the left/driver’s side, stand on your left leg and lift your right leg up. You may need to change hand and feet positions
while entering and exiting. Keep three points of contact with the vehicle at all times (one hand and two feet, or two
hands and one foot). To avoid falling out backwards, maintain the three point rule until you are securely seated or
firmly on the ground.
To exit the vehicle, examine the ground before you step out. Look for ice, water, cracks, and uneven surfaces. Face
the vehicle and step down backward while holding onto the grab bar or other stable surface. Use all of the steps until
you reach the ground. Don’t use some of the stairs, then jump and hurt yourself by skipping one. Never jump down or
"fall" down forward out of a vehicle; you can catch your clothing on the door handle, seat adjustments, seat belt, etc.
causing a serious, uncontrolled fall.
Jumping increases the force and strain on your bones and joints (mostly ankle, knee, and back). For example, in a
cab-over-engine tractor, jumping from the top step can apply 7.1 times your body weight to your back and leg joints
(1420 pounds of force for a 200 pound man). Jumping from a delivery step-van with a package in hand causes an
impact of 3.5 times the body weight plus package weight. Add these impacts to frequent entries and exits and you are
at risk for an ergonomic injury. Climbing down safely can save you pain and time in the long run.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Ergonomic Breaks, Rest Periods, and Stretches
Ergonomic injury risk factors include forceful movements, repetitive motions, awkward postures, and lack of rest.
Rest periods give the body time to recover from work; breaktime exercises and stretches strengthen the body.
Workers should think of themselves as Industrial Athletes; athletes wouldn’t participate in a sport without proper rest
and warm-up, so use the same preparation on the job.
Maintaining overall health reduces your risk of injury. Get a good night’s sleep to rest your body and maintain
alertness. Eat healthy foods and drink fluids to boost energy and stay hydrated. Aerobic exercise and weight training
increase strength and vitality. Stretching, yoga, and pilates improve flexibility and build core body strength.
Pay attention to signs of discomfort and fatigue on the job; these are warning signs from your body. As muscles tire
during a work task, slouching can lead to poor posture, sloppy, uncontrolled movements, and injuries. Rest breaks
mean recovery for the body. During a job task, take micro-breaks lasting 10-15 seconds every ten minutes. Take
mini-breaks lasting 3-5 minutes every thirty to sixty minutes. These short breaks give the body a rest, reduce
discomfort, and improve your performance.
Alternate your work activities and postures throughout the day. Rotating tasks may seem inefficient, but the rest and
use of different muscle groups increases energy and maintains productivity. For example, if you are a landscaper,
don’t trim all of the shrubs, sweep up the trimmings, and then leaf-blow the whole area; work in sections and trim,
sweep, and leaf-blow in alternating tasks. If you work at a single workstation and job task all day, move into different
postures while you work: first standing, then standing with one foot resting on a stool, then sitting.
Stretches help you warm-up before work and relax during breaks; they increase flexibility and boost blood flow and
oxygen to muscles. Perform stretches slowly and gently; avoid extreme postures and stop stretching if you feel pain
or discomfort. Physical and Occupational Therapists are the most qualified individuals to generate a specific stretching
and warm-up program.
Overall fitness and flexibility, adequate sleep, task rotation, and rest breaks can help limit the overall risk of injury.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Ergonomics
Ergonomics literally means “the rules of human strength”. Engineers interested in the design of work environments
originated the word in the 1950’s. Today, the purpose of ergonomics in the workplace is to create a better match
between the worker, the work they perform, and the equipment they use. A good match increases worker productivity
and reduces ergonomic injuries.
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 34% of all lost-workday injuries and illnesses are work-related
musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). WMSDs are a result of a bad match between the worker, the work they perform
and the equipment they use. More common names for WMSDs include repetitive stress injuries, cumulative trauma
disorders, tennis elbow, white finger, and the most common of all, carpal tunnel syndrome.
Nearly every type of work or occupation has the potential for causing WMSDs. To prevent these injuries, it is
important to understand the factors that contribute to them. Ergonomic factors refer to workplace conditions that pose
the risk of injury to the musculoskeletal system of the worker.
Factors that contribute to the development of WMSDs include:
Force – the strength to perform a task.

Repetition – the frequency or number of times a task is performed during a shift.
Posture – positioning of the body to perform a task.
Vibration – which might come from overuse of power hand tools.
Temperature – extreme temperatures are more harmful to the body.
Duration – the amount of time in a workday spent performing work tasks.
Non-work related issues – health, lifestyle, hobbies, sports may add to the ergonomic risk factors.
Identifying and preventing WMSDs requires a careful review of these risk factors. Prevention may require modification
of one or more of these factors.
The first step is to find out which jobs may be causing problems. This can be done by looking around your
workplace, talking to employees, and learning the early warning signs. Signs to look for include; employee
discomfort or fatigue, employees modifying tools or equipment, poor product quality, or employee reports of
problems. Another way to identify problem areas is to review the written records, i.e., OSHA 200 and 300 logs
and workers compensation information. Once the jobs have been identified, make a list of these jobs.
The second step is to look at the specific tasks that make up the jobs previously identified. When looking at
each task, determine how frequent it occurs (one time per shift or twenty times per hour), and how hard is
each task (from the employee’s point of view).
The third step is to observe the work tasks. Special attention should be paid to how many of the above risk
factors are associated with the job task. The higher the number of risk factors associated with a job, the
greater the chance that a WMSD might develop. Talking to the employees who perform the work can often
provide valuable information about how the work task may be improved.
It is important to remember to observe all work tasks associated with a job, because each task may have a risk
factor. WMSDs can be associated with a combination of risk factors from multiple tasks. For more detailed information
visit the website maintained by the Occupational Safety & Health Administration at
http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/ergonomics/index.html..
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
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specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
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Establishing A Hazard Communication Program
Every day at workplaces throughout California, employees work with or are incidentally exposed to hazardous
substances that can harm their health or cause other safety hazards. In response to this reality, Cal/OSHA enacted
the Hazard Communication standard. The standard requires that every workplace, which has or uses hazardous
substances, must have a written and effectively implemented Hazard Communication Program that specifically
addresses the potential hazards found at that particular site. The program must be accessible to employees (or their
representatives) and to Cal/OSHA.
Whatever the size of the facility or number of hazardous substances, it is essential that both employers and
employees know how to identify potentially hazardous substances, understand the health hazards associated with the
chemicals, and follow safe work practices. Employers who tailor their written program to meet the specific needs of
their workplace will maximize the benefits of workplace safety.
The written hazard communication (HazCom) program must describe the persons responsible for implementing,
maintaining, and periodically reviewing the program and the procedures for meeting all the requirements of the
standard, including:
A list of all hazardous substances in the workplace - The list may be compiled for the workplace as a whole or
for individual work areas and can serve as a checklist to ensure that all hazardous substances in the workplace
have MSDSs and labels.
A completed MSDS for each hazardous material listed/used in the workplace - The MSDS contains useful
information on the nature of the hazards and how to use, store, and dispose of the material. It also describes
what protective measures to take while using the material and what first aid measures to follow if an exposure
to the substance occurs. MSDSs must contain all of the sections required by the standard and be readily
available to employees.
Methods for employee training and awareness - Employees must receive training on the HazCom program
requirements including its location and availability; the identification and location of hazardous substances; and
how to read and understand MSDSs. Training should include how to read and understand label information
including physical and health hazards of the substance; how to detect the presence or release of the
substance; and what precautionary measures are needed to protect themselves from hazards during normal
use and in emergency conditions. Training must be done at the time of initial work assignment or when a new
material is introduced. Training must be appropriate in content and vocabulary for the education, literacy, and
language comprehension level of the employee(s).
Labels and hazard warning information - Employers are required to use legible labels and other forms of
warning to clearly and quickly communicate what’s in a container, its hazards, the safety precautions, and the
name and address of the manufacturer. Labels and other forms of warning are to be conspicuously placed on
containers so that the message is readily visible. Labels should not be removed and, if torn or defaced, they
must be replaced.
For a downloadable copy of Cal/OSHA’s Guide to the California Hazard Communication Regulation, visit its website at
http:/www.dir.ca.gov/dosh/dosh_publications/hazcom.pdf. For detailed or exact information, specifications, and
exceptions, refer directly to the California Code of Regulations Title 8 or the Labor Code.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
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Eye Protection - Seeing is Believing
In just the blink of an eye, an incident can injure or even blind a worker who is not wearing proper protective
eyewear. The type of eye protection-safety glasses, goggles, face shields, or helmets must meet the requirements of
the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). In
hazardous workplaces, streetwear eyeglasses should only be worn in conjunction with ANSI-approved additional cover
protection.
Eye safety requirement signs should be posted for anyone entering a work area that requires industrial-quality eye
protection. Warning signs should be placed near machines, equipment, or process areas that require specific eye
protection.
Eye injuries can be reduced when workers are trained to recognize the eye hazard they may encounter and to use and
care for eye protection equipment properly. Workers in hazardous areas should also know what to do in case of an
eye injury. In all eye injury cases, professional medical attention should be sought as soon as possible after taking
initial first-aid measures. There are several causes for eye injury:
Foreign particles such as dust, dirt, metal, wood chips, even an eyelash can cause eye damage. These get into
the eye from the wind or activities like chipping, grinding, sawing, brushing, hammering, or from power tools,
equipment, and machinery. Flush the object out with water. Never rub or try to remove objects embedded in
the eye. This can cause further damage. Loosely bandage eyes to stop movement then seek professional care.
Chemical splashes from solvents, paints, hot liquids, or other hazardous solutions can cause great damage. Go
immediately to the nearest emergency shower or water source. Look directly into the stream of water. With
fingers hold eyes open and flush eyes for at least 15 minutes.
Light burns can be caused from exposure to welding, lasers, or other radiant light. Their effect may not be felt
until hours later when the eyes begin to feel gritty and become sensitive to light, then redness or swelling may
occur. Keep eyes closed while awaiting medical attention.
Bumps and blows to the eyes can be helped if a cold compress is applied for 15 minutes to reduce pain and
swelling.
Cuts in or around the eyes should be loosely bandaged to stop any eye movement until professionally
attended. Don’t rub, press, or wash the cut; this can cause further damage.
Eye safety is no accident. Nothing can replace the loss of an eye. Protect your eyesight from workplace hazards by
wearing and caring for appropriate, approved protective eyewear. You’ll see the difference.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Fall Protection
It may seem that a job can be performed more efficiently without spending the time to protect against falls. However,
falls remain one of the top causes of fatalities in construction. Workers have fallen off edges of every description,
especially floors and roofs, and through openings in floors, roofs, and walls. Fall protection is required whenever a
worker faces serious risk of injury, including:
on structures where a worker could fall more than 7 feet

on thrustouts, trusses, beams, purlins, and plates at heights over 15 feet
on a sloped roof
To prevent accidental falls at worksites, guardrails and toeboards or other effective barriers to falls should be used.
However, there will be areas where guardrails or other barriers are not feasible. In these cases, workers must use
approved personal fall protection systems or positioning devices.
Two basic types of person fall protection systems that require tie off are fall arrest and travel restraint. Fall arrest
systems stop a fall within a few feet of the worker’s original position. A full body harness is required with a fall arrest
system. The system typically consists of a full body harness, a lanyard, a rope grab, a lifeline, and a lifeline anchor. A
fall arrest system must be worn when working on a rolling scaffold that is being moved or when a worker is getting
on, working from or getting off suspended access equipment.
A travel restraint system prevents falls by restraining a worker from getting too close to an unprotected edge. This
system usually consists of a safety belt or full body harness, a lanyard, a rope grab, a lifeline, and a lifeline anchor.
When conventional fall protection or personal fall protection are not practical, safety nets must be used instead.
Before using safety nets, check to see that the nets are hung with enough clearance to prevent a falling person from
hitting the surface or structure below.
Safety nets should be placed within 10 vertical feet and never more than 30 feet below the working surface. Nets
must extend at least eight feet beyond the building or structure. If the vertical distance from the working level to the
net is greater than 5 feet, then the net must extend 10 feet beyond the building. A net from 10 feet to 30 feet below
the working surface must extend 13 feet.
If you use any type of fall protection equipment, including personal fall protection or safety nets, be sure to check that
you are using the right equipment for the job, labeled as meeting the requirements of the American National
Standards Institute (ANSI), and that the equipment is in good condition.
Whenever feasible, employers should always set up temporary floors, guardrails, toeboards, or other physical barriers
to falls, instead of having workers rely on tying off and nets for fall protection. When not feasible, personal fall
protection or safety nets must be used. No work should proceed unless the necessary fall protection is in place. The
use of fall protection can prevent serious injury and save your life.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
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Falls
With predictable regularity, falls continue to be a leading cause of accidents and deaths on the job. Falls include those on
the same level (floor, ground), as well as from one level to another (stairs, ladders, roof, etcetera). They can be caused
by either or both of two reasons - an unsafe action of an individual (hurrying, overreaching, improper use of equipment,
etc.) or unsafe condition of the situation (poor housekeeping, unguarded opening, surface condition, etcetera).
Good footing is the best way to avoid falls and good housekeeping is the best way to ensure good footing. Trash, wires,
and slippery areas caused by water, grease, or oil can cause falls. Watch footing when working on slick flooring and
poorly lit areas; where floors are uneven from room to room; and where surfaces are uneven from broken concrete,
cracked asphalt or curled rugs. Always look in the direction you are walking. Avoid carrying large objects that may block
your view of a safe walking path. Walk slowly on stairs and use handrails to secure your step.
Cover, guard, or mark spills, potholes, and floor openings. Protect them with warning cones, guardrails, or toeboards.
Except for normal doorways, protect wall openings and stairways through which someone could fall. The protection
should be sufficiently strong and secured to prevent it from being removed.
Makeshift ladders or incorrect ladder selection can cause falls. Choose the ladder that’s made for the job. Be sure it’s in
good condition and placed securely. Face the ladder and keep both hands free while climbing.
Preventing falls is a matter of common sense. Watch where you’re walking. Take careful steps when you walk and
choose and use equipment properly.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
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Farm ATV Safety
Agricultural workers use All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) to inspect and maintain crops, property, livestock, and more.
While versatile, ATVs pose a safety hazard if they are not operated properly. The Consumer Product Safety
Commission reports that there were 125,000 ATV injuries nationwide in 2003 and almost 6,000 deaths since 1982.
Protective gear, inspections, and proper handling reduce ATV hazards for agricultural workers.
If you own or operate an ATV for agricultural work in California, ensure that it is sturdy, four-wheeled, and designed
for power, traction, and stability; recreational ATVs are lightweight and designed for speed. The ATV should be
licensed with the Department of Motor Vehicles.
Protective gear keeps you safe and in control of your ATV. Helmets certified for ATV use provide head protection and
cut death risk by half; they should be secure and impact resistant, yet still allow peripheral vision. A helmet face
shield, goggles, or glasses can provide eye protection from flying dirt, rocks, insects, or vegetation. Gloves and boots
protect your hands and feet, and allow you to maintain a firm grip and control over the ATV. Long sleeves and pants
protect exposed skin; padded and reinforced clothing is ideal.
ATV maintenance and pre-use inspections insure that you will not lose control due to a malfunction or end up walking
a long distance. Tires should be in good condition and maintained at the manufacturer’s recommended air pressure.
The ATV should have adequate oil and fuel levels. The chain, chassis, nuts, and other connections should be checked
and secured. Brakes, controls, and cables should be functional, properly adjusted, and operate smoothly.
Proper operation helps you maintain control of the ATV. You need practice and instruction on ATV handling techniques
prior to field use. Learn how to shift your weight and maintain speed during turns and up/down hill maneuvers. Most
ATVs are designed for a single rider, but some seat two. If you have a two-seat ATV, the vehicle weight and handling
will be altered when you carry a passenger; practice before you drive in the field.
When riding, scan ahead and to the side for obstacles, uneven terrain, vehicles, people, and animals. Reduce speed to
at least 15 miles per hour if you see a potential hazard. Pay attention to hazards such as guy wires and barbed wire
fences; they are low profile and difficult to see. Keep the ATV off of public roads; ATVs are only allowed to cross public
roads. If you must cross a road, remember that ATVs are low to the ground and may not be visible to vehicles; use
extreme caution. Lights, reflectors, and flags can make the ATV easier to see.
In California, there area specific regulations for riders under 18 years of age. For more information, call your local
Cal/OSHA office or visit the website www.atvsafety.org.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Fire Extinguishers
Even though your company may be equipped with automatic sprinklers or other means of fire protection, the portable fire
extinguisher is the first line of defense in the control of fires at their start.
Most fires, in the beginning stage, can be extinguished easily with portable equipment, but only if the equipment is readily
accessible and the employee knows how to use it. The reaction time, from when the fire is first realized, is extremely
important. If time is wasted in a search for the proper fire extinguisher and a review of the operating instructions, a small,
easily controlled fire will spread in size and intensity. The fire will get out of control and both lives and equipment will be
endangered.
A knowledge of the various types of extinguishers and their location in relation to the company layout or equipment, is
necessary for quick and effective employee action. This means that extinguishers should reflect the character of the fire
anticipated for the company and its operations. Fire extinguisher locations should be clearly marked and readily accessible.
An inspection and recharging program should be in place to insure that when an extinguisher is needed, it is fully charged
and operational. The program will run more effectively if the fire extinguishers are well-positioned and clearly marked.
Too many fires have spread because the wrong extinguisher was used, the extinguisher was empty, the employee did not
know how to operate the extinguisher, or the employee could not find an extinguisher in time to be of any help. Knowing
where the fire extinguishers are and how to use them should be basic to any effective injury and illness prevention
program (IIPP).
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that
it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Fire Safety - In Case of Fire
You are responsible for fire prevention at work for your safety and that of your co-workers. The best way to prevent
fire is to be on the lookout for possible fire hazards.
Be aware of potential fire hazards in the workplace. Report hazardous situations to the supervisor. Know the location
of fire extinguishers and other emergency equipment that is available to you. During an actual emergency, protect
yourself. If it is not safe for you to get involved, don't.
If you're ever confronted with a fire keep your cool, but think fast and act with caution. When a fire is discovered, size
it up fast. Knowing when to try to control the fire yourself and when to call for help is essential.
In case of fire, follow the company's fire response procedures. The important thing is to know what to do and do it
fast. The exact order to do the things depends on the established company procedures.
Sound the alarm and evacuate the area. Call the emergency numbers you've been given, and give the details about
the fire (location, how it started etc.). Never hesitate to call the fire department, even if the fire seems minor and you
manage to put it out before firefighters arrive. The quicker the alarm is sounded; the sooner firefighters can attempt
to get it under control. Have someone meet and tell the fire fighters where the fire is. They can lose valuable minutes
if they have to find it themselves.
You're responsible for preventing fires, but you aren't obligated to fight major fires. Fight the fire only if you can do it
safely with proper extinguishing materials at hand. In general, never join in the fire fighting unless the firefighters
request your help.
Warn others immediately. Warn anyone in the area so they can get to safety. This is especially important in case of
indoor fires. Most people die from smoke, poisonous gases and panic. Panic is usually the result of not knowing what
to do. If there is an escape plan, adapt it to the emergency.
Most fires start small, but they can rage out of control in a few minutes. It's important to know where the fire
extinguishers are located and how to operate them properly. Distinguish before you extinguish. Choose the correct
extinguisher for the type of fire (paper/wood, grease/gas/flammable liquids, electrical). If you are not trained or
authorized to use an extinguisher, don't try. The time you waste in figuring out an extinguisher could mean the
difference between minor damage and a major disaster.
Review your company's fire safety procedures often so you'll now what to do. Act with caution. Sound the alarm.
Warn others in the area. Evacuate and stay back unless you're asked to help. In case of fire, being informed and
prepared can keep you and your co-workers safe from injury.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
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First Aid for Burns
A burn can be painful or painless, according to the degree. The degree of a burn is determined by its location on the
body and the number of skin layers affected. A burn can be caused by heat, electricity, chemicals or radiation. The
first response in a burn situation is to stop the heat source or break contact between the heat source and the skin.
The body holds in the heat and continues to burn until the skin cools. In many cases you can cool the burn with water.
Unless told to by a medical professional, never use butter or ointments; they seal in heat and may cause infection. If
blisters form, they should not be broken because they protect the burn from infection.
For heat or thermal burns, rinse the burn (without scrubbing) or immerse the affected area in cool water until the pain
is gone. With a sterile cloth pat the burn area dry then cover. For accidents involving drenching by a hot liquid,
remove the liquid-soaked clothing or place clothed victim in water bath or shower. Smother any burning clothing by
dropping the victim to the ground and rolling them. Never peal stuck clothing from a burn.
In cases of electrical burns, turn off the electric power at the source. Do not touch the victim until all wires are clear.
Avoid contact with the electric current while removing the victim. Make sure the victim’s breathing and heartbeat are
regular. Treat the victim for shock and make sure they get medical attention. Check places where the electricity
entered and exited the victim’s body. Treat minor burns with cool water and have the victim seek medical attention.
With chemical burns, locate the chemical container and follow the label directions for emergencies. Consult the
chemical’s Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) or call the Poison Control Center. Remove any contaminated clothing. If
the eyes have been affected, flush them for 30 minutes. For acid chemicals, immediately flush the affected area for
15-20 minutes. For dry chemicals, brush the chemical off the skin then flush the area for 15-20 minutes. Make sure
the victim seeks medical attention.
The severity of a burn may not be obvious for up to 24 hours and infection may occur if improperly treated. Always
seek medical help if the victim:
shows symptoms of shock

has head or neck burns or has trouble breathing
has burns on the hands, feet or groin (making muscle and ligament damage more likely)
if second or third degree burns are present
if victim is over age 60 or under 5 years of age
Before an accident happens, know the location of the first aid kit, the nearest telephone, and medical facility. Burns
can be painful and cause irreparable damage in seconds. You must be able to respond appropriately and get medical
help as quickly as possible.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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First Aid
What would happen today, if there was an accident at your workplace? Would employees and management know what to do?
Would the injured person get the best possible care?
When an accident happens, a first aid program that meets the requirements of the law and is tailored to the type and size of
the workplace can literally make the difference between life and death, or between recovery and permanent disablement.
Employers should insure that all employees know where emergency information is posted at the work site. The emergency
notice should state the phone numbers of the closest ambulance service, fire/rescue unit, police station, and hospital. The
amount of time it takes to look up one of these important numbers can make a big difference to a seriously injured person.
The location of first aid equipment and rescue equipment, should also be posted prominently.
All work sites should have a person with first aid or medical training readily available in case of an emergency. First aid
equipment and supplies, including a variety of dressings and instruments, as well as an up-to-date first aid manual, should be
stored where they can be reached quickly and easily in case of an accident. These supplies should be inspected frequently,
making sure they are kept in sanitary and usable condition and re-stocked after use. Larger workplaces may need more than
one, fully-equipped first aid kit.
In isolated work sites, emergency supplies and an action plan are especially important. At least one person trained in
emergency first aid should always be on-site. If first aid is not given properly, it can sometimes hurt rather than help an
injured or ill person, or even be harmful to the person giving the first aid. All workers should know who on-site is trained to
give first aid, where the emergency first aid equipment is located, and what medical professional or medical facility should be
contacted if a medical emergency should occur.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically
discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with
all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Flagger Safety
As the weather gets nicer, there tends to be an increase in outdoor construction jobs. Many of these construction
operations necessitate equipment and worker activity to take place in areas of moving traffic. How can construction
site managers insure that their equipment and their workers are protected while working in these traffic areas? How
do they know when a flagger should be in place?
According to the Construction Safety Orders of the California Code of Regulations, flaggers are required at locations on
a construction site where barricades and warning signs can’t control the moving traffic. In these required situations,
flaggers must be placed in relation to the equipment or operation so they can give effective warning.
What should a flagger wear? A flagger must wear warning clothes in specific, highly visible colors. They can wear a
vest, jacket or shirt in colors of orange, strong yellow-green or fluorescent versions of these. These garments must be
worn rain or shine. If it’s dark, the flagger should be wearing reflectorized garments, visible from a minimum distance
of 1,000 feet. The flagger’s station should be lit so the flagger will be clearly visible to approaching traffic.
What training is required for a flagger? Before being assigned as a flagger, the individual must be trained in the
proper fundamentals of flagging moving traffic. Training, instruction, and signaling directions used by flaggers should
conform to the “Manual of Traffic Controls for Construction and Maintenance Work Zones,” published by the State
Department of Transportation.
Training should take into account the particular worksite condition and include the following:
flagger equipment which must be used

the layout of the work zone and flagging station
methods to signal traffic to stop, proceed or slow down
methods of one-way control
trainee demonstration of proper flagging methods
how to respond to emergency vehicles traveling through the work zone
how to handle emergency situations
methods of dealing with hostile drivers
flagging procedures when only a single flagger is used
Flaggers must be trained by someone with the qualifications and experience necessary to effectively instruct the
employee in the proper fundamentals of flagging moving traffic. And, as with all employee training, it should be
documented and kept on file in accordance with the company Injury and Illness Prevention Program (IIPP).
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)

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Floor Buffer Safety
Floor machines come in many styles and power levels from the standard electric stick model to battery and propane -
powered walk-behinds and ride-ons. They use different pad types and abrasive factors to clean, wax, buff, and strip
hard surface floors. Because floor maintenance involves using powered machinery and concentrated chemicals, it is
important to keep safety in mind.
Get training and read the manufacturer’s instructions for your floor machine. Read the material safety data sheets
(MSDS) for all floor maintenance chemicals and get training on the use and proper mix ratios. Because these
chemicals are sold in concentrated forms, use caution when pouring and mixing; they pose a hazard to skin, eyes and
the respiratory system if they are not used correctly.
Wear the proper safety equipment such as comfortable, slip-resistant shoes or boots and long pants. Always wear
gloves and splash goggles when mixing and dispensing chemicals. Safety glasses should be worn to protect your eyes
from debris that may be kicked up by the rotating pads and brushes.
Conduct floor maintenance when there are few people around; early mornings, late evenings and weekends are good
times. Use caution signs to warn others of the slippery floor. Gather the equipment and materials that you will need to
prevent unnecessary trips over slippery surfaces.
Check your floor machine before you begin work. Cords for electric stick models should not have cuts or exposed
wires. Apply the cleaning pad or brush while the machine is unplugged and tilted back. For battery and propane
models, ensure that you have a good charge or full tank; apply pads while the machine is off. Before use, test the
floor machine to make sure that parts are locked in place, it operates properly, and that the auto-stop safety feature
is working.
Keep a good grip on the handles to maintain control of the floor machine. Remain aware of your surroundings to avoid
hitting people, glass windows, and doors or falling down stairs or inclines and off raised surfaces. For electric models,
hold the cord over the handle to avoid damaging it or getting it tangled in the pads; don’t wrap the cord around the
handle because that can disable the auto-off safety feature.
To avoid trip hazards, store floor machines out of the way. Electric floor machines should be unplugged and the cord
loosely wrapped. Machines that are not in good working order should be turned off, unplugged, and tagged as out-of-
service for repair.
Polish your safety skills when using floor machines.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Floor Openings
Floor openings on a job site can occur during construction, renovations or repairs. There may be floor openings as
each new floor in a building is added, for personnel and material access, and for stairwells, elevators or skylights.
Floor openings are hazardous because workers may fall through them and/or may be struck by objects that fall
through openings. Workers should know about floor openings, guarding, and covers, and understand and use the fall
protection appropriate to their worksites and job duties.
One of the first ways to protect against floor opening hazards is to build floors or place temporary flooring below each
level of work. This ensures that every worker has a covered floor not more than two stories below his/her worksite.
Operations involving erection, riveting, bolting, welding or painting, require flooring directly underneath the work
area.
Wood planks or metal decking can serve as protective flooring. Flooring components should be tightly laid together to
avoid gaps in which people, tools or materials could fall through. For areas where the flooring cannot reach, wire mesh
or plywood may be used to close the gaps. The flooring should be of the proper thickness, grade, and span to carry
the working load, assumed to be at least 25 pounds per square foot. The flooring should be tightly secured to avoid
displacement by high winds or other forces.
In buildings or structures that can’t accommodate temporary floors, scaffolding or fall protection devices should be
used. Safety nets should be installed if scaffolding and fall protection aren’t used, and whenever the potential fall
distance is more than two stories or 30 feet.
If construction work in progress requires floor openings to be temporarily uncovered, access to the area should be
strictly controlled at all times. The floor area near the floor opening should be barricaded or covered when it’s not
attended by authorized personnel doing the work. A qualified person, prior to each shift and after strong wind
conditions, should verify the placement of floor opening covers.
All planking and other materials used to cover these temporary floor openings should support 400 pounds or twice the
weight of the employees, equipment, and materials that may access one square foot area of the cover at any time.
The floor covering should overlap the surrounding structure by 12 inches. It should have a sign that says, “OPENING-
DO NOT REMOVE” in 2-inch high, black, bold letters on a yellow background. When working on a job site with floor
coverings and floor openings, workers should mind their steps and the floor surfaces their feet will touch.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Food and Beverage Manufacturing
Food and beverage manufacturing, ranging from bakeries and bottling plants to meat and dairy processing, has one of
the highest rates of worker injuries and illnesses. Workers need to be aware of the risks and hazards in order to get
the proper training and work practices to stay safe.
Heavy materials, lifting, and repetitive motions can lead to ergonomics injuries. Ergonomics training can teach you
proper movements and neutral postures. Lifting and moving heavy raw ingredients and finished products can lead to
strains and sprains. Practice proper lifting techniques by lifting with your legs, keeping your back straight, and your
head facing forward. Use mechanical lifts, carts, and dollies when available. Separate loads into smaller, more
manageable sizes.
Repetitive tasks such as moving, washing, sorting, cutting, and trimming raw materials can lead to repetitive motion
injuries. Take your rest and meal breaks regularly to give your body a chance to recover from fatigue. Frequent
micro-breaks of 30 seconds every 20-30 minutes rest and relax your muscles. Where possible, rotate your tasks to
prevent overuse of muscle groups. If you stand for long periods of time, wear comfortable shoes. A foot rest allows
you to change positions at your post. Anti-fatigue mats cushion your legs and joints from hard floor surfaces.
Moving machinery and conveyor systems in food and beverage facilities pose a risk of caught/crush injuries. Rotating
shafts for mixers can you and pull you into the machine. Wear close-fitting clothing and avoid long, loose hair and
jewelry. Never reach into or around moving parts. Make sure powered equipment is turned off and use
lockout/tagout before you clear a jam, service or maintain it. Slicing, chopping, and cutting machines pose a risk of
cuts and amputations. Maintain this equipment properly, use blade guards, and watch where your hands are at all
times when the machine is active.
Steam and hot water is used for food safety and process cleanliness and both pose a danger of burns. Label water
and steam lines so you do not come into contact or work on them until they are drained. All of the water required to
wash, process and sterilize foods can accumulate on the facility floor and pose a slip hazard. Wear non-slip footwear.
Keep wet floors to a minimum by installing floor drains and mopping or squeegeeing floors frequently. Non-slip floor
coatings and rubber matting reduce water puddling and increase traction.
Work environments for food and beverage manufacturing can vary in temperature extremes. Steam processes can be
warm and humid. Refrigerators and freezers expose workers to the cold. Working around baking ovens exposes
workers to the heat. Wear layers of clothing to protect your skin and provide you protection whether you are working
in the heat, cold, or in between.
Anyway you bake it, mix it, or cut it, safety is important in food and beverage manufacturing.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Foot Safety - It's a Shoe in for Safety
The foot is something that doesn’t get much attention unless there is a problem. Therefore, to avoid possible injury,
it’s important to think about safeguarding the foot before undertaking any job.
Workers may be exposed to various hazardous conditions on the job, including slippery surfaces, climbing hazards,
handling or working around heavy equipment and machinery and working around electricity. These different working
conditions may require different safety footwear to protect the foot, and the worker, from injury.
When choosing safety footwear, you must select the legally approved shoe or boot required for the job activity,
equipment, and situation. Some situations may require metal-toed boots to protect the top part of the foot. These
steel-toed shoes provide extra protection over the top of the foot and can make a difference in preventing an injury in
an accident.
Safety shoes or boots with impact protection should be worn when workers carry or handle materials such as heavy
packages, objects, parts or tools and for other activities where objects may fall onto the foot. Workers should be
required to wear safety shoes or boots with impact protection when their work involves wheeling carts that carry
heavy materials; handling heavy, bulky tools (paper, fabric, carpet, lumber etc.); working around heavy pipes or in
situations where a heavy object may roll over a worker's foot.
Safety shoes or boots with puncture protection should be required where a worker could step on sharp objects such as
nails, wires, tacks, screws, large staples, scrap metal, etc. And special types of insulating shoes or conductive shoes
may be necessary for certain types of electrical work.
Employers should instruct their workers in the correct safety footwear necessary for the work they will be required to
perform or situation they may encounter on the job. They should also understand the importance of wearing the
protective footwear. Safety awareness and healthy workers comes from a total safety program that includes ongoing
education and training in personal protective equipment on the job.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Foundry Worker Safety
Foundries are a source of many hazards. There is a hot work environment and the potential for burns or fires around
furnaces and crucibles. Molten metals create fumes. Sand molding materials can create silica dust. Chipping,
sandblasting, and grinding create dust. Conveyors, crushers, and stamping machines pose a caught/crush hazard.
This combined activity creates a noisy atmosphere. Workers need proper work techniques, adequate ventilation, and
personal protective equipment (PPE) to stay safe.
PPE protects you from the foundry environment. Wear leather shoes, gloves, and safety glasses with a side shield. A
hat with a brim protects you from spatters. Use hearing protection in the noisy environment. When directly working
with molten metals, heat, and flame sources, add a hard hat, apron, jacket or cape, leggings, and spats made of
leather, aluminized glass fabrics, synthetic fabrics or treated wool. Consider a wire mesh face shield depending on the
job task.
Because foundry furnaces, crucibles, and metals are at such high temperatures, remain cautious while you work. Do
not work with equipment or processes that are unfamiliar to you. Be conscious of where your hands are when
working with conveyors and automated machinery. All equipment you use should operate properly. Inspect foundry
equipment on a frequent basis for cracks and signs of wear.
Never introduce water to the furnace or crucible. A trace amount of water can cause a large explosion. Pour and melt
in areas that have a nonflammable surface such as metal or sand. Molten metal that is spilled can travel a great
distance, so keep the work area clear. Have a Class D fire extinguisher handy along with a shovel and clean, dry sand
for extinguishing fires.
Melting metals create fumes that can be hazardous to breathe. When possible, use clean metal as feedstock. Melting
scrap metals can create fumes from old paints, lubricants, and coatings and lead, nickel, or chromium additives that
are hazardous to breathe. Use good ventilation through exhaust hoods and wear a respirator that you are medically
approved, fit-tested, and trained to wear.
Molding sand often contains silica. Silica dust exposure can lead to silicosis, a lung disease, or lung cancer. Use good
ventilation with dust control measures such as non-toxic binding materials to control silica dust. Packing the molds,
shaking them out, and cleaning the castings can also be a source of silica dust, so wear a respirator and work in a
well-ventilated area. Enclosed and/or automated processes can further reduce your airborne exposures.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Garage Door Installers
Garage door installers often work alone to take down old doors, install new ones, and wire automatic openers. The
many steps and tools for this job require attention to safety.
Wear your safety glasses to protect your eyes from falling or flying debris. Work gloves provide a good grip on doors
while they protect you from sharp metal edges. Coveralls protect your body from accidental cuts and scrapes. Work
boots protect your feet from dropped tools and materials while adding a good grip for climbing ladders.
Have the proper tools before arriving at the job site. Hammers, screwdrivers, and vise grips should be sturdy and in
good working order. Battery-powered drills, etc. need a full charge. Bring long, indoor/outdoor extension cords with a
ground plug if you will be using electric tools.
Before disassembling an old door, assess its condition inside and out, including the structure, railings, and spring. Be
cautious about removing the spring tension; an unexpected rebound can lead to serious injury. Disconnect the door
from the railings, but secure it with clamps.
Old doors can be bulky and heavy, so consider a rope and/or pulley to lower the door. Don’t try to move a large door
by yourself; the weight and awkward size could lead to strains and sprains. A saw can cut the door into smaller,
manageable pieces for you to carry. If the old door is paneled, disassemble the panels one at a time to break up the
load you will have to carry. Lift with your legs while keeping your back straight and your head looking forward.
When you install the rail system and hardware, avoid long overhead reaches by using a ladder or stepstool. Stay
below the top two rungs and move the ladder close to your work. Do not lean to the side on the ladder. Make sure
that the weight of you, plus your tools and job materials does not exceed the ladder’s rated capacity.
To install panel hardware, use a sawhorse to position the work to a comfortable height. Kneeling on your knees and/or
bending to the ground can lead to strains and sprains. When tracking the door, hook the panels one side at a time
securely so they don’t come loose as the door is raised.
Spring winding can be extremely dangerous. Only use the proper winding bars to wind the spring. Never use vise
grips, pipe wrenches, socket extensions, screwdrivers, rebar, or other tools. Do not touch any spring set screw
without a winding bar in place. Never stand in front of the springs when winding. Stand on the ladder off to the side
so that if a bar slips or a casting breaks, the spinning spring won't force the bar into you.
Use a ladder to install the automatic opener and ceiling brackets. Falls from ladders are often caused by electric
shock. Ensure that the electricity is off before you add the electric outlet or directly wire the opener.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Getting High On Safety
Constructing new buildings, especially high rises, can be hazardous work not only for those who work on the structure
but also for anyone on or around the work site. Before construction begins, a competent person should conduct a
hazard assessment of the project, noting where injuries or accidents could possibly occur. Then a plan should be
developed to eliminate or safeguard against those hazards. All project workers should be informed of the hazards and
be trained in safety practices and procedures to follow so that the project can be completed without an injury incident.
As falls are the number one cause of construction fatalities, the fall prevention program and fall arrest devices are a
must for training and discussion. They should be explained and fully understood by all workers. Training should
include demonstrations of how to wear, use or set up fall arrest equipment as well as how to recognize and when to
remove any damaged or defective fall protection devices.
The proper wear and care for personal protection equipment should also be covered in pre-project training. Because
work may be done on multiple floors simultaneously where tools or equipment may be moved from one level to
another, hard hats are crucial protection devices for workers or visitors on a construction project. Other protection
equipment for eyes or hearing, hands or feet should also be covered. An analysis should be conducted to determine if
there are any lead containing materials to be worked on. If so, respiratory protection may be necessary as lead could
be freed up by sandblasting, scaling or paint removal.
The weather can be a serious concern when working at heights as workers are more exposed to the elements. So
workers should dress appropriately to stay warm or cool as necessary. Dressing too warm on a hot day can cause
dehydration. If it’s raining or other liquids get on the walking surface, workers can slip and fall so foot traction is
important. If the wind or general temperature is cold, workers may have difficulty gripping tools or safety equipment.
They tend move slower when they’re cold and are more likely to have strain or sprain injuries. If it’s windy and
workers are carrying materials, their bodies can catch the wind and knock them off of the structure, so maintaining
balance on high is important.
Other hazards to be considered are those associated with welding. Welding creates metal fumes, high levels of heat,
hazardous levels of light (including ultraviolet and infrared), and high voltages. Hazards may also be created by
compressed gases and their storage cylinders. There are additional hazards created by cranes as they are used to
transport building materials. Moving heavy loads overhead creates a danger to anyone working beneath the load.
Workers and visitors need to be aware of the activities taking place above, below and all around them on the
construction site.
Although there are many hazardous situations that are common to most construction work sites, there are also
hazards particular to a specific project or work site. It’s important that safety plans and training programs address the
potential hazards specific to project and its site. Safety must be a high priority, especially for construction work done
at heights.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
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Give Jacks, Lifts, and Hoists the High Safety Priority They Deserve
Each year serious injuries and deaths occur in the workplace as a result of unsafe jack, stands, lifts, and hoist use.
Although safety responsibility for these devices must be shared between employer and employee, the ultimate
responsibility for safety lies with the individual worker. Even where there is close supervision, the worker makes the
final decision on how to do the job.
Jacks
Workers must select a jack with the rated lifting capacity that equals or exceeds the load it will support. Jacks must be
placed on a firm, level surface perpendicular to the load in order to work efficientially. If the jack slips out from under
a load, workers may not have enough time to get out of the way, so adjustable stands or other substantial support
should also be placed underneath the load so that it will not fall if the jack slips or fails. It should be clear to workers,
that they should never enter beneath or work under a load that is supported only by jacks. If a jack is bent or
defective, it should be tagged and removed from service.
Hoists
Only workers who have been trained in the proper use of hoists should be allowed to operate them. The lifting
capacity of the hoist must be clearly marked and visible to the operator and cage-controlled hoists must be equipped
with an effective warning devices. Before operation, operators should check that the hoist chains or ropes are of
sufficient strength and length to safely lift or otherwise handle the load. On a chain hoist, they should make sure the
hook has a safety clip so that if the chain is given slack the hook won’t come loose. The oil level on hydraulic hoists
should also be periodically checked. Operators should understand that they are prohibited from carrying loads over
people and any hoist malfunction should be reported to their supervisor immediately.
Lifts
Lifts should be marked with the name of the manufacturer, the approval number issued by the Division of Industrial
Safety or statement of compliance with ANSI B153.1-1974 (or if manufactured after 8/17/94, compliance with ANSI
B153.1-1990), and date of installation. No one should be inside a vehicle that will be lifted and for their safety,
workers should stand to one side as the lift operates, making sure the doors, hood, and trunk of the vehicle are closed
before the lift. The load should rest squarely on the lift and not overload the lift’s capacity. The floor under the lift
should be free of oil or grease to prevent slipping hazards. Oil levels on hydraulic lifts should be checked periodically
and lifts removed from service if there are any indications of malfunctioning.
Many accidents don’t just happen, they’re caused by unsafe work practices or taking chances. Give jacks, stands, lifts,
and hoists the high safety priority they deserve.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCI) are devices designed to prevent accidental electric shock and electrocution by
preventing ground faults. They also protect against electrical fires, tool/appliance overheating, and destruction of wire
insulation. GFCI’s are required by building code in “wet” locations like kitchens and bathrooms and by CalOSHA at
construction sites.
The most common electric shock hazard, ground faults can cause severe electrical shock or electrocution. In normal
conditions, electricity runs in a closed circuit; electricity flows out on the "hot" wire and returns on the "neutral" wire,
completing the circuit. A ground fault occurs when the electrical current does not complete its circuit and
unintentionally flows to the ground. Ground faults can cause fires and are dangerous when they flow through a person
to the ground.
Ground fault shocks can happen when a person comes into contact with the "hot" side of an electrical circuit with wet
hands or while standing in water or on a wet floor. GFCI’s protect against ground faults by measuring the current on
the electrical circuit; current in the hot and neutral wires should be equal or close to equal. If a ground fault occurs,
the GFCI outlet or GFCI circuit breaker senses the change in current and trips, breaking the circuit and stopping the
flow of electricity. The GFCI does not protect workers from line contact hazards (i.e. a person holding two "hot" wires,
a hot and a neutral wire in each hand, or contacting an overhead power line).
Different GFCI types are available for a variety of situations. GFCI circuit breakers snap into the main electrical panel
and provide ground fault protection on all outlets on that branch circuit. GFCI wall receptacle outlets provide ground
fault protection at that outlet and downstream. Portable GFCI units such as receptacles, extension cords, and cord-
connected devices contain GFCI circuitry. Portable GFCI devices should only be used on a temporary basis and should
be tested prior to every use.
GFCI’s have test and reset buttons for a reason; they must be tested regularly. For general use, GFCI’s should be
tested and inspected monthly. For construction site GFCI’s, a written inspection plan should be in place and a
competent person should conduct periodic tests and visual inspections before each day’s use. Records of the testing
must be kept.
GFCI Inspections should look for external defects such as deformed or missing pins, insulation damage, and
indications of internal damage. Damaged or defective equipment should not be used until repaired. Additional
inspections are required if an outlet is returned to service following repairs and after any incident which can be
reasonably suspected to have caused damage (for example, when a cord set is run over).
For specific information on testing procedures and OSHA requirements, including an assured equipment grounding
conductor program, visit the OSHA website at: www.dir.ca.gov.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Guard Against Machine Injuries
Cleaning a jammed conveyor, reaching for a wrench, or retrieving a dropped glove are common tasks. Yet, each of
these acts can lead to a serious injury. Many injuries occur during equipment maintenance. Sometimes workers try to
reach past the guards while trying to service equipment or get caught in power transmissions such as belts, pulleys,
running rolls, chains or sprockets. Other injuries occur when equipment is unguarded or when machinery starts
unexpectedly.
If some basic precautions are taken, protecting workers from these injuries can be simple, and inexpensive.
Inexpensive physical controls such as machine guards can prevent many injuries. The important thing is that the
guards remain in place. Bright, contrasting colors painted on machine guards and points of operation give workers a
visual warning and can make it easy to spot missing guards. Good lighting also helps spot dangerous conditions or
unguarded machinery.
Regular maintenance by experienced workers can make a big difference in preventing equipment jams and in reducing
the risk of injury from being caught by or falling into machinery. Employers should establish and train workers to
follow safe work practices around machinery and other electrical equipment. The law requires equipment to be turned
off and locked out during any maintenance to prevent someone from turning it on unexpectedly. Workers should
recognize and understand the following when working around machinery:
The location of machine guards and points of operation

The purpose of color-coded machinery alerting workers to hazards and to help pinpoint missing guards
The danger of pinch points and importance of guards on in-running rolls, belts, pulleys, chains, and sprockets
Know and follow established lockout/tagout procedures
Know when machines have been shut down for maintenance or to clear jams
Assure that machines remain off while they are shut down for maintenance
Know and observe electrical safety work practices developed by the company
Understand the importance of keeping machinery clean to prevent equipment jams
The surest way to safeguard worker hands and fingers is for everyone to stay alert when working around machinery
or moving equipment and to follow established company safety practices and use common sense.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Guarding Elevated Locations
A fall from elevation can seriously injure or kill a worker. Employers should implement a fall safety program by
identifying potential fall hazards throughout the workplace, training employees, providing fall protection equipment,
and placing guardrails around elevated locations. Guardrails protect workers from falls and act as a barrier to prevent
tools and equipment from falling on workers below.
In buildings, guardrails are required on all open sides of elevated work locations that are more than 30 inches above
the floor, ground, or other working areas. The elevated work locations include roof openings, open and glazed sides of
buildings, balconies, porches, platforms, runways, and ramps. For other worksites, guardrails are required on open
sides of the elevated work locations that are 4 feet or more above the ground.
There are exceptions to the guarding rules for specific industries and situations, including railroad car loading, gardens
and plazas, and auditorium stages and balconies. The exceptions have specific guarding requirements or may allow
removable guards. If removable guards are used, they should be fixed or tied off to prevent them falling on workers
below. For more specific information, see the full text of California Title 8, Section 3210: Guardrails at Elevated
Locations.
Wood, metal pipe, structural metal, and other suitable materials may be used to construct guardrails. They should
have a smooth top rail, midrail, and posts. The top rail’s upper surface should be 42 to 45 inches tall. The midrail
needs to be halfway between the top rail and the surface. If overhead clearance does not allow for a 42-inch
guardrail, a lower rail should be installed. The ends of the rails must not overhang the terminal posts so much that
people or equipment would run into them.
To protect employees from falls, guardrails and their connections and anchorages must withstand a live load of 20
pounds per linear foot applied outward or downward on the top rail. For heavy stresses from crowds, trucking, and
handling materials, additional strength is required by use of heavier stock, closer spacing of posts, bracing, or other
methods.
Toeboards are required if the elevated worksite is 6 feet or more above working employees to prevent a hazard from
falling tools, material, or equipment. They may be constructed of wood, concrete, metal, or at least 1-inch metal
mesh. The toeboard should be 3 1/2 inches tall. The bottom clearance (or gap) must not exceed 1/4-inch.
As the second leading cause of fatality in the workplace (homicide is the first), falls must be taken seriously on the
job. Guardrails, along with other fall protection measures, can protect workers when they are working at heights.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Hand Protection - Handle with Care
Next to our eyes, our hands are probably the most important part of our body when it comes to doing our work.
They’re involved in almost every thing we do. Yet many of the things we do with our hands are done without any
deliberate thought. Your hands have no fear. They’ll go anyplace they’re sent and they only act as wisely as the
person they belong to; so before you use your hands think of their safekeeping.
Here are the most common types of hand injuries and what you can do to prevent them:
Traumatic injuries often occur from careless use of machinery or tools. Hands and fingers get caught, pinched or
crushed in chains, wheels, rollers, or gears. They are punctured, torn or cut by spiked or jagged tools and edges that
shear or chop. Safety precautions should include using shields, guards, gloves, or safety locks; handling knives or
tools with care; and keeping hands, jewelry and clothing away from moving parts.
Contact injuries result from contact with solvents, acids, cleaning solutions, flammable liquids and other substances
that can cause burns or injure tissue. To protect against these injuries, read the product labels, use the right glove or
barrier cream, and wash hands frequently. result from contact with solvents, acids, cleaning solutions, flammable
liquids and other substances that can cause burns or injure tissue. To protect against these injuries, read the product
labels, use the right glove or barrier cream, and wash hands frequently.
Repetitive motion injuries happen when tasks require repeated, rapid hand movements for long periods of time.
Manufacturing, assembling, or computer work may lead to these injuries. Change your grip, hand position, or motion.
If possible, rotate tasks to give your hands a rest.
You can protect yourself from hand injuries by remembering the following basic safety rules:
Recognize hazards.

Think through each job before you begin.
Follow safety rules.
Avoid shortcuts.
If an accident happens, seek prompt treatment.
Report injuries to your supervisor.
Healthy hands are built to last a lifetime. Injuries can last a lifetime, too. Be aware of your hand placement and take
precautions to guard them.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Handle Glass Safely
The risk of injury from the storage, handling and disposal of glassware or broken glass exists in most workplaces.
Broken glass can cause lacerations, cuts, and puncture wounds which may result in severed arteries or tendons,
amputations, eye injuries, or exposure to disease.
For situations involving broken glass, workers should know the safe handling procedures, the necessity of proper
protective equipment, and the importance of obtaining prompt and effective first aid for injuries.
Workers should know to keep glass containers off machines, work benches, or window sills and off the floor. They
should never throw glass, whether broken or whole containers, into open receptacles. There is danger from flying
glass resulting from the impact. Glass light fixtures in the workplace should be guarded to prevent accidental
breakage.
Approved gloves and eye protection should be worn in environments where glass is handled frequently and where
there is the possibility of exposure to disease, toxics or harmful irritants. Safety glasses should be required in the
vicinity of machinery, conveyors, shipping operations and other locations where glass may be broken or where there is
any possible hazard of flying glass fragments.
When there is occasional glass breakage, the safe way to collect the glass is with pieces of cardboard, heavy paper, or
dustpan and brush. Never with bare hands. Smaller particles should be picked up with several thicknesses of wet
paper towels then discarded. Cloth napkins, cloth towels, sponges or ordinary mops should not be used for clean up
because they can harbor tiny glass particles. For broken glass containers with liquids, an ordinary long-range rubber
squeegee or broom used with a dustpan provides the safest removal. Until the glass breakage can be cleaned up, a
warning sign should be posted in the area to alert others of the danger.
A package containing broken glass should not be placed inside a waste basket or garbage can where it might injure
others. Broken and discarded glassware should always be separated from other waste to prevent serious injury,
especially if it is contaminated with hazardous material. It should be placed alongside the waste can and clearly
marked.
Where glass particles may be flushed down drains, solid interceptors should be installed to collect the particles. The
interceptors should be cleaned by wet vacuuming prior to starting any work on the lines.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Handle Tools for Your Safety
Many workers routinely use hand tools and don’t think of them as dangerous, but accidents continue to occur. Hand
tools include hammers, screwdrivers, saws, wrenches, cutters, tape measures, sledge hammers, cat’s paws, chisels,
punches, pipe wrenches, pliers, and planes, just to name a few. Each tool is designed to do a specific task. The
greatest hazards posed by a hand tool are from their misuse or improper maintenance. It’s up to you to select the
right tool for the job and to use and care for it properly.
Hand tool safety begins by selecting the right tool for the task and using it the way it was designed. Using the wrong
tool for a job is likely to result in an accident. Before you start a job, inspect the tool for defects. Check to be sure that
the handle fits tightly into the head, especially with a cutting tool such as an axe. Replace cracked, splintered or
broken handles and worn jaws on wrenches or pliers. Replace or repair broken tools and/or power cords. Keep tools
clean, sharp and in good condition so they’ll be ready for use the next time. When you’ve finished the job, return tools
to their proper storage position protected from unintended contact.
If possible, choose tools designed to keep your wrist straight not bent. Pull on wrenches or pliers don’t push on them
and avoid applying excessive force. When using a cutting tool, hold its handle firmly in the palm of your hand and cut
away from your body never towards it. Carry sharp tools away from your body, never in your pocket. Keep pointed or
sharp tools away from walkways where they could injure someone passing by.
Tools should never be tossed to another worker, surface or height; they should be handed securely to another worker
or placed directly on another surface or level. If working on a ladder or scaffold, tools should be raised or lowered
using a bucket and hand line. Never carry tools in a way that may interfere with your using both hands on a ladder or
climbing on a structure.
Remember to wear personal protective equipment when using certain tools. Wear hearing protection when using
power saws, drills or other noise-generating tools. If a task involves getting close to pointed objects or branches - like
when pruning- or if work could possibly generate flying objects or dust, protect your eyes by wearing safety glasses
with side shields or safety goggles. When gloves are necessary, make sure they fit properly. Gloves that are too loose,
tight or bulky could contribute to hand fatigue or injury.
As the tool handler, think of your safety first, but also be aware of others around you when using tool, so you don’t
involve them in an accident. If you have any question about the use, condition or care of a tool, talk to your
supervisor.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Handling Powder Actuated Tools (PATs) Safely
A powder-actuated tool (PAT) is a tool that gets its power from an explosive charge. The tool uses the expanding gas
from the explosion to drive a fastener into materials such as masonry, concrete, steel, and other hard surfaces. Only
trained, competent, and authorized persons are permitted to operate a powder-actuated tool (also known as
explosive-actuated tools). The training should be in accordance with the specific tool manufacturer’s criteria. A card
verifying training should be issued to the authorized person after training is completed. Unauthorized or improper use
of a powder-actuated tool could result in a serious injury or a death.
Even if you have been trained and authorized to use a PAT, test the tool each day before loading using the testing
method recommended by the manufacturer. Make sure the muzzle end of the tool has a protective shield centered
perpendicular to the barrel to stop flying fragments. (The tool should be designed not to fire unless this shield is in
place.) If you find that the tool is damaged or defective, tag it as such and remove it from service immediately.
A powder-actuated tool operates like a loaded gun so it should be handled with the same respect and safety
precautions. When a job calls for a PAT, be sure to choose the correct cartridge for the fastener being used then load
the tool just before you intend to use it, keeping your hands clear of the open barrel end. Never carry a loaded PAT
from job to job and don’t leave it unattended. As with a gun, always keep the tool pointed in a safe direction; never
point it anyone.
When using a PAT, be sure to wear the appropriate personal protection equipment including safety glasses or a face
shield and hearing protection. A powder-actuated tool must be held firmly against and perpendicular to the surface
into which it’s driving the fastener. Securely brace yourself when using PATs on ladders or scaffolds to maintain good
balance.
Only shoot into a surface you’re certain will safely contain the fastener; never shoot into a blind surface.
Take the time to check the other side of your surface to ensure that no one is in the path of the fastener. When
driving fasteners into materials like brick or concrete, stay at least 3 inches away from an edge or corner. With steel,
the fastener must not come any closer than one-half inch from a corner or edge. Keep bystanders away from the work
area. Shields for protecting workers against a possible ricochet may be necessary in the working area.
Never drive fasteners into very hard or brittle materials like cast iron, glass blocks, glazed tile or other material that
the fastener could shatter, ricochet off or pass through. And don’t drive fasteners into a spalled area or where a
previous fastening was unsuccessful. Be especially careful that you don’t use a powder-actuated tool in flammable,
combustible or explosive environments.
If a PAT misfires, wait at least 30 seconds, and then try firing it again. If it still doesn’t fire, wait another 30 seconds
so that the faulty cartridge is less likely to go off. Then, carefully remove the cartridge, and place it in water.
For more detailed information on PATs, visit the website maintained by the Occupational Safety & Health
Administration at http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/constructionhandpowertools/index.html.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
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Handyman Safety
A handyman or maintenance man is often called on to perform odd jobs in a variety of the trade fields including
plumbing, carpentry, roofing, electrical, painting, and concrete work. You need a broad range of work and safety skills
to get the job done.
You may do window and roof work, fix roofing leaks, or repair dry rot on roofs and eaves. Choose the correct
extension ladder for your work. Inspect the ladder before you use it. Set ladders up on a solid surface and at the
correct 4:1 angle ratio. Always face the ladder and hold on with both hands while you go up and down. Make sure the
ladder extends three feet beyond the access point and it is tied off to the structure. Bring tools up on a tool belt or by
rope. Use tool tethers to prevent dropping them. If you go up onto a roof or other elevated location, watch for
skylights, extreme slopes, and other hazards. Consider fall protection if you have to work at a height and close to an
unprotected roof or structure edge.
Learn about electrical currents and the requirements and clearances required to work around them. De-energize
electric lines and equipment before you work on them. Use a lockout/blockout system to prevent equipment from
energizing or starting while you work on it. When working with tools and equipment, watch for electrical sources,
boxes, panels, and overhead lines.
Read the material safety data sheets (MSDS) or the manufacturer’s package instructions on every chemical you use
so you know how to properly mix, apply, and dispose of them. Use the personal protective equipment (PPE)
recommended by the package directions. Inspect your hand and power tools before each use. Make sure they are in
proper working order. Keep cutting tools sharp to prevent accidental slips and cuts. Use the proper tool for the job.
Be prepared for a variety of different work environments and hazards. Get training so you can spot building materials
and locations that may contain asbestos materials. Use safe and compliant work practices around asbestos. Do not
grind, break, pulverize, or sand it unless you are certified to work with asbestos and you are using appropriate
containment, work, and disposal methods. Be familiar with lead paint and control activities such as scraping, sanding,
or grinding that might create lead dust. Get certification in order to conduct compliant lead renovation work properly.
You may cover a lot of territory while doing your work, so get familiar with field safety concepts such as safe driving,
handling aggressive dogs, snakes, ticks, stinging insects, and poison oak and ivy. Use proper postures and lifting
techniques to prevent musculoskeletal disorders.
You will need a variety of clothing and PPE to suit each job you do. Wear lightweight layers with long sleeves and
pants. Wear sturdy work boots with a heel and non-slip sole. Wear a high-visibility vest if you will be doing work at
night or near a road. Keep a PPE kit stocked with a nuisance dust mask, respirator, safety glasses, earplugs and
muffs, a variety of gloves, and a hardhat.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Hazardous Material Disposal
Many businesses generate wastes that are considered hazardous or harmful to human health or the environment
because they are flammable, corrosive, reactive, or toxic. Due to the harmful potential of hazardous materials,
workers must remain aware of the safety hazards and proper handling and disposal procedures in order to protect the
environment, themselves, and comply with state and federal regulations.
Workers that generate or handle hazardous waste require training on the hazards and safe, proper handling of these
materials. Training should cover the procedures for collection, labeling, and storage of the hazardous waste before it is
transported for final disposal or treatment. In addition, workers should be trained on emergency procedures and
accidental spill response for the materials that they work with.
Hazardous materials should never be disposed of down the drain or in regular trash receptacles. They should be put
into proper and compatible containers that can be securely sealed. Compatible container materials ensure that wastes
will not react with or corrode them. The containers should not be completely full; a “head space” allows for waste
expansion. The sealed containers should be labeled with the name and hazard class of the waste along with the words
‘Hazardous Waste’ and the date it was generated.
Waste containers should be stored in a secure manner and protected from extreme environments. They should be
segregated and stored in compatible hazard classes (flammable, corrosive, oxidizers, etc.) to prevent hazardous
reactions if the wastes combine. The containers should remain closed during storage, except when adding or removing
waste.
Proper handling and storage of waste containers can prevent ruptures, overturns, or other failures. They should not be
stacked or handled in a manner that could cause them to fail. Some flammable material containers may require
grounding and containers should be seismically secured, if possible, to prevent spills in an earthquake. Waste storage
time limits vary depending on the facility or material; workers should be familiar with the requirements for their
worksite and wastes.
Storage areas for hazardous wastes should be inspected at least weekly. Secondary containment can prevent spills,
but if a leak or spill occurs, workers should follow facility spill and emergency response procedures. Spill kits should be
available for such emergencies; all cleanup materials should be handled as hazardous waste.
Proper waste documentation is important to track and maintain accountability for hazardous waste prior to shipment.
Workers should be familiar with the documents required for their facility and waste types including EPA Identification
numbers issued by the Environmental Protection Agency and Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifests. Workers must
receive training before they can sign waste manifest documentation. Transportation of hazardous wastes should be
done according to regulation requirements and by dedicated hazardous waste haulers.
Proper training and knowledge can help workers ensure that hazardous wastes are safely and properly handled from
“cradle to grave.”
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
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Hazardous Material Warning Labels
Warning labels, found on all containers of hazardous materials, provide much of the information you need to know to
use the material safely. While you can get the same information (and more) from a Material Safety Data Sheet
(MSDS), only a warning label can tell you exactly which chemical is inside a particular container.
Labels are important because they are the first alert that there may be hazards associated with using the material
found in the container. Understanding warning labels will help you handle and use the material properly and avoid
potential health effects in your workplace. Making sure that hazardous materials are labeled is a responsibility that all
employees must share. If you find a container with no label or a torn or unreadable label, tell your supervisor
immediately. The one piece of information you need to protect yourself may be what is missing. Don’t use or handle
the material until you know for sure what it is!
The most important information on the label is the word that indicates how hazardous the material is. There are three
levels of hazard wording. They are Danger, Warning, and Caution.
Danger – means it is the most hazardous kind of material.

Warning – is less hazardous than Danger, but more hazardous than Caution.
Caution – is the least hazardous rating.
It’s important to understand that even materials labeled “Caution” can be harmful to your health, if you don’t follow
proper procedures. The label will also contain information about physical hazards, like if the material is flammable,
explosive or corrosive. Health hazard information on the label will list such dangers that could be caused by inhalation,
irritation to the eyes, burns to the skin or other ill health effects.
Warning labels may also tell you how to store and dispose of the material properly. The label may indicate precautions
to take, such as how to clean up, what personal protective equipment to use, and how to handle a spill of the
material. First aid instructions may include antidotes for poisons and what steps to take when someone is exposed to
the material.
When health and safety is at stake, it pays to double check. Always read the label before you begin a job using a
potentially hazardous material. Although you may have used the same material many times, the manufacturer may
have changed the formula or the concentration. Avoid identifying materials by the label’s color or design. If the label
raises any questions in your mind about the material, read the MSDS or discuss it with your supervisor.
If you transfer a hazardous material from the original container to a second container, and you will not use the
material by the end of the workday, you will need to label the secondary container. The minimum information required
is the identity of the hazardous material and appropriate hazard warnings.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Hearing Protection Devices
It is a noisy world we live in today, and excessive exposure to noise in the work place could cause permanent hearing
loss. In order to protect worker hearing, employers should conduct sound surveys, control noise exposures, enroll
affected employees in a hearing conservation program, and provide hearing protection.
Hearing protection devices (HPD) such as earmuffs and earplugs can be an effective measure to protect hearing in
noisy work environments. However, hearing protection devices are only effective if they are properly sized and
carefully fitted into or over the ear. The two common HPD categories are earplugs and earmuffs.
There are several common types of hearing protection devices:
Formable earplugs made of expandable foam. One size fits most people.

Premolded earplugs made from flexible plastics. Often sold in different sizes, they should be selected to provide
best fit for each ear.
Semi-aural devices, or canal caps, consisting of flexible tips on a lightweight headband. They provide less
protection than earplugs or earmuffs but may be good for intermittent use.
Earmuffs having rigid cups with soft plastic cushions that seal around the ears.
The formable foam earplug must be narrowed and compressed by rolling before it is inserted into the ear canal. Once
inserted, the earplug expands to fill the ear canal and to reduce noise transmission further into the ear. If it is inserted
incorrectly, the foam earplug will provide much less protection against noise.
To properly fit a formable foam earplug:
1. With clean hands, slowly roll and compress a foam earplug into a very thin cylinder.

2. Reach around the head with one hand to pull the top of the ear slightly outward and upward while inserting an
earplug into the ear canal with the other hand.
3. After insertion, hold foam earplugs in place with a fingertip for a few moments to ensure that the plug expands
in the ear canal without moving out of the ear. In a noisy environment, the reduction in perceived sound level
as the plug expands should be noticeable.
4. Have a coworker visually check the earplug.
If the half or more of the earplug is sticking out of the ear canal, it not fitted correctly and won’t provide the
designed protection.
To properly fit an earmuff:
1. Adjust the headband so that it sits comfortably on the head and so that the cushions exert even pressure
around the ears.
2. Pull hair back and out from beneath the cushions to ensure a proper seal.
3. Muffs should fully enclose the ears.
Employees may express concern about the potential for HPDs, particularly earplugs, to cause ear infections.
Precautions that can be taken involve the cleanliness of HPDs. Hands should be clean before rolling foam earplugs. If
feasible, disposable earplugs should be discarded after each use. If reused, earplugs should be washed with warm
water and soap and allowed to dry thoroughly before reuse.
In many worksites, keeping hands clean may not be feasible. Preformed earplugs often come with a plastic stick at
the outer end. This type of earplug allows for insertion and removal without touching the part of the earplug that
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enters the ear.
Earmuffs are less likely than earplugs to contribute to ear infections. However, earmuff cushions should be periodically
wiped or washed clean. Workers who experience multiple ear infections with earplugs should wear earmuffs. Workers
should let employers know which HPDs are best for them to wear, and feedback from workers should be considered in
purchasing HPDs. Employers’ and employees’ working together to select HPDs increases the likelihood that HPDs are
worn when needed to protect against hearing loss.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Importance of Safety Training
Routine work can dull alertness and a relaxed attitude can replace the caution that existed when the job was new and
interesting. In many jobs the same route is traveled daily over the same roads or the same tasks are repeated with little
conscious thought. Without some periodic reawakening to the ever-present hazards, lethargy deepens and the odds of an
accident occurring can increase.
Workers may not always recognize the importance of safety training or think of it as unnecessary because they’ve "been doing
it for years." But an important benefit of periodic safety training is the reminder that a danger can exist and the no one is
immune to accidents. Therefore, it is important for workers to understand the purpose of the training session, why it will be
useful to them, and what can result from not following safety rules and procedures.
The safety training should be organized so that the order in which the material is presented will match the steps that should be
taken on the job. Make sure every worker understands the training material; not just that they were present or a test was
given. Insist on questions from trainees after a session to tell you what did or didn't sink in. This will let you know what has to
be reviewed again. If there's a general lack of understanding of hazards or safety rules and practices, schedule another safety
meeting or plan a refresher course for a later date.
Employees should be able to immediately practice and apply new knowledge and skills. If workers don't understand safety
training information well enough to use it on the job, the training has not been effective. There should be immediate feedback
if workers are doing their job safely or not. Supervisors should watch employees do their jobs and question them, to identify
what they do, or don't, know.
Most of these tips are relatively simple and inexpensive solutions, but the safety payoff can be enormous. Remember, training
is only effective when workers understand, and use, what they've learned. It takes less than a second to lose the rest of your
life.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically
discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with
all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Injury and Illness Prevention Program
In California, every employer is required by law to provide a safe and healthful workplace to his/her employees. In
accordance with the California Code of Regulations, your employer needs to have an effective Injury and Illness
Prevention Program (IIPP) in writing. There is a specific IIPP required for the construction industry, the Construction
IIPP. What should you expect to see in an IIPP? It is a written plan that has the following elements:
Management commitment/assignment of responsibilities

Safety communications system with employees
System for assuring employee compliance with safe work practices
Scheduled inspections/evaluation system
Accident investigation
Procedures for correcting unsafe/unhealthy conditions
Safety and health training and instruction
Recordkeeping and documentation
The IIPP includes procedures that your employer puts into practice. Part of the employer’s responsibility is to control
potential workplace hazards and correct hazardous conditions or practices as they occur or are recognized. The
program includes a system for your employer to communicate with you on matters relating to occupational safety and
health, including provisions designed to encourage employees to inform the employer of hazards at the worksite
without fear of reprisal.
The safety communications system, one of the elements of the IIPP, should be in a form readily understandable by all
affected employees. The safety communication system may include:
meetings

training programs
postings
written communications
a system for anonymous notification by employees about hazards
labor/management safety and health committees
other means of ensuring communication with employees.
In addition to the above, the Construction IIPP requires that supervisors conduct “toolbox” or “tailgate” safety
meetings with their crews at least every ten working days to emphasize safety. Supervisors also need to hold periodic
meetings to discuss safety problems and accidents that have occurred.
In California, every employer is required by law to provide a safe and healthful workplace for his/her employees. If
your employer has ten or more employees, you should expect them to have a written IIPP in place. You should never
undertake a job that appears to be unsafe, and you should not perform a job until you have received instructions on
how to do it properly and safely. The goal of the IIPP is to ensure that worker safety and health are not compromised.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
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Insect and Spider Bites
Each year many workers experience insect and spider bites serious enough to make them lose time off the job.
If you are stung by a bee, remove the stinger gently (with tweezers, if possible) and avoid squeezing the poison sac.
Apply an ice pack or a cloth dipped in cold water to reduce swelling and itching. A sting from a yellow jacket can be
deadly. These insects feed on dead animals and can cause blood poisoning. If you have an allergic reaction to a bite,
get medical help immediately.
Of spiders causing serious medical problems only the black widow and brown recluse are considered serious threats.
The black widow has a shiny black body, about the size of a pea. With legs extended, it’s about an inch long. Females
have a red or yellow hourglass mark on their underside. The black widow spider is partial to outdoor latrines and other
places that attract flies. The black widow spider will attack with even the slightest provocation. Its bite is less painful
than a pinprick, and does not cause a hole in the skin, but soon, intense pain and stiffness set in. Symptoms also may
include fever, nausea, abdominal pain and chills. For children and the elderly, black widow bites can be lethal.
Also beware of the brown recluse spider. When it comes to insect bites, the bite of the brown recluse spider is one of
the most feared. This yellowish-tan to dark brown spider is 1/4-1/2 inch long. It has a characteristic fiddle-shaped
mark on its upper body. Its bite can have painful, disfiguring, and even deadly results. Within hours of a bite, victims
may suffer severe pain and stiffness, fever, weakness, vomiting or a rash. The recluse’s venom destroys cells and
clots blood, blocking blood vessels and leading to gangrene. Within 24 hours, the wound erupts into an open sore
ranging from the size of a thumbnail to that of an adult’s hand. Anyone bitten by either spider should seek medical
help immediately.
Experts say, spiders typically don’t go looking for human prey. Spiders are generally shy and try to avoid contact with
humans. Leave them to their dark, secluded spaces – under rocks, in debris piles, sheds, closets and attics, and
there’s no worry. Invade their space, though, and risk a bite. Spiders will attack if trapped or if pressed against the
skin.
Not all people react the same way to these spider bites. The variation may be due to the amount of venom injected or
the person’s physiology or immune system. The first line of treatment, if you suspect a bite is to apply a cold
compress. However, if you have a bite and experience other side effects, get medical treatment immediately.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Irrigation Pipe Work Safety
Irrigation pipes bring water to our agricultural fields, but they can bring danger if they are not installed, moved, and
maintained properly. Hazards include material handling and transportation, trenching, underground utilities, and most
importantly, overhead electrical lines.
Always remain aware of the location and height of overhead electrical lines in your work area, including the
installation field and equipment storage and transport areas. When cranes, lifting equipment, or metal irrigation pipes
come into contact with electrical lines, there is a serious hazard of electrical shock and death.
Irrigation pipes are usually 30 - 40 feet long; rural overhead electric lines may be as little as 18 feet high. Try to keep
pipe lengths horizontal while you are maneuvering them so you don’t lift them into a line by mistake. Store equipment
and pipe at least 100 feet from power lines and stay at least 10 feet from power lines that carry up to 50,000 volts;
use a greater clearance for higher voltages. Use these same precautions whether you are installing new pipe, moving
pipe, or lifting and clearing existing systems. (Note that irrigation pipes on wheels and "solid-set" (in-ground) pipes
can reduce the likelihood of accidental shock by reducing the need to maneuver the pipe systems.)
Hazards aren’t just overhead. Before you dig a pipe installation site, contact the local utility companies to mark the
location of all of the underground utilities. Do not dig if there are no markings. When you must dig near marked
utilities, use blunt hand digging tools. Watch for hidden underground utilities – if you see wires or pipes sticking out
from the ground, investigate before you dig.
When digging trenches to install irrigation pipes, use proper trenching and shoring techniques to safeguard against
collapse and engulfment. Mark trench areas clearly. Don’t park vehicles near the trench sides where they may cause a
collapse. Don’t trench more than you can complete and backfill in a day.
When handling irrigation pipes watch out for crush or pinch injuries. Know where your hands and fingers are when you
are moving, fitting, or dismantling the pipes. Communicate with your coworkers to coordinate your movements when
working as a team. Ensure that equipment loads on tractors and equipment are securely fastened before you
transport them. Follow tractor safety guidelines and take care when maneuvering. Remain aware of obstacles and
other workers; use a spotter when you cannot easily see to maneuver.
Get training on the procedures and equipment that you will use. Know the emergency procedures and first aid in case
there is an accident. Wear the proper clothing to protect you from the sun, insects, and heat and cold stress. Sturdy
work gloves and footwear will protect your hands and feet. Use good ergonomics, proper lifting techniques, rest
breaks, and task rotation to protect your back and avoid strains and sprains.
Be aware of irrigation pipe hazards on the job and keep your safety in the green zone.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
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Janitorial Safety
Janitors, custodians and housekeepers providing services in homes, schools and offices face a variety of tasks and
hazards. Prepare for these by seeking instruction and training for the janitorial work you will perform.
Wear comfortable, slip-resistant shoes to avoid slips and falls and long-sleeved shirts and long pants. Put on chemical-
resistant gloves and splash goggles when pouring, mixing, and using chemicals. Work gloves protect your hands when
you do odd jobs. Safety glasses protect your eyes from debris and dust. Wash your hands before smoking and eating
and between tasks for good personal hygiene.
You use chemicals to clean, disinfect, and strip surfaces; read their material safety data sheets (MSDS). Because
chemicals are often concentrated, know the proper mix ratio and use. Stay in well-ventilated areas and never mix
chemicals unless instructed to do so by the manufacturer. Take care around hot water to avoid burns.
Janitorial tasks include heavy lifting, material handling, and repetitive motions. To avoid back strains and injuries,
keep your muscles strong and stretch before, during and after work. Take mini breaks throughout the day and rotate
your tasks. Learn proper lifting techniques and know what you can safely lift; ask for help with heavy or awkward
loads.
Hand trucks, rolling buckets, and housekeeping carts help you move heavy loads and keep your supplies near you.
Keep them in good condition with easily rolling wheels. Keep the load in front of you and lean in the direction you are
going. Push the load; pulling can lead to strains and injuries. Watch for people, obstacles, slopes and drop offs in your
path. Remember, when working at heights, practice ladder safety.
Floor maintenance is a main duty for janitorial workers. Perform floor maintenance when few people are around and
always use caution signs for wet floors and spills. Mopping and sweeping are repetitive motions, so avoid a tight grip
and use proper posture. Vacuums and floor machines should be inspected daily before use; keep cords coiled and
close to you to avoid tripping.
Removing garbage, recycling, paper, and debris from the workplace is good housekeeping and fire prevention.
Garbage bags may contain broken glass and other sharp materials, so wear work gloves and carry the load away from
your body. Garbage may contain materials and needles that are contaminated with blood and body fluids. Never reach
into a garbage can and don’t pack it down with your feet.
Know the common hazards in your work environment. Because you move throughout the building, you may be the
first to spot one. Place a warning sign near hazards and report them immediately. Safety depends on you.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Keep Up With Ladder Safety
Ladder safety begins with selecting the right ladder for the job and includes inspection, setup, proper climbing or
standing, proper use, care, and storage. This combination of safe equipment and its safe use can eliminate most
ladder accidents.
Always check a ladder before using it. Inspect wood ladders for cracks or splits. Inspect metal and fiberglass ladders
for bends and breaks. Never use a damaged ladder. Tag it "Defective" and report it to your supervisor.
When setting up a ladder, make sure it's straight and sitting firmly on the ground or floor. If one foot sits lower, build
up the surface with firm material, don't set it on boxes, bricks or other unstable bases. Lean the ladder against
something solid, but not against a glass surface. Make sure the ladder is placed at a safe angle, with the base away
from the wall or edge of the upper level about one foot for every four feet of vertical height. Keep ladders away from
doorways or walkways, unless barriers can protect them.
Keep the steps and rungs of the ladder free of grease, paint, mud or other slippery material. And remember to clean
debris off your shoes before climbing. Always face the ladder when climbing up or down, using both hands to keep a
good grip on the rails or rungs. Never carry heavy or bulky loads up a ladder. Climb up yourself first, and then pull up
the material with a rope or bucket.
Many ladder accidents occur because of slipping or skidding. You can prevent these accidents by equipping the ladder
with non-slip safety feet, blocking its base or tying it to a sound, permanent structure.
Overreaching is probably the most common cause of falls from ladders. A good rule is to always keep your belt buckle
inside the rails of a ladder. Don't try to move a ladder while you're on it by rocking, jogging or pushing it away from
the supporting wall.
When you've finished the job, properly store the ladder so it won't be exposed to excessive heat or dampness and will
be in good condition for the next time.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Page 2 of 2 Keep Up With Ladder Safety
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Kitchen Safety
Food quality and fast service are often the main focus in a commercial kitchen, but without safety, the cuisine and the
workers can come up cold.
A kitchen with good housekeeping can reduce slip and trip hazards. Stored materials should not obstruct pathways
and exits. If liquids are spilled on the floor, they should be mopped up and a wet floor warning sign posted. Non-slip
floor mats ensure that spills don’t become slips.
Kitchen heat sources such as ovens, grills, range tops, deep fat fryers, and microwaves pose burn hazards. Using
caution near hot surfaces, pots and pans, and utensils can prevent burns. Workers should avoid splashing water or
drinks into hot oil or grease to prevent spattering. Cooking equipment and vents should be cooled before cleaning
them; it is best to clean equipment at the start of a shift.
Other heat sources include boiling water, steam baths, sinks and dish washers. Reaching over boiling pots and hot
water sources can lead to severe burns from steam. When opening pots or steam baths, workers should stand to the
side and use the lid as a shield.
To prevent fires, workers should monitor cooking food carefully. Hot grease and oil should never be left unattended.
Oils and grease should be cooled before transporting them. Grease traps and grill surfaces should be cleaned
frequently and flammable items should not be kept near flames or heat sources. It is important to know and practice
emergency procedures, first aid, and how to use a fire extinguisher.
Comfortable, supportive shoes are essential for kitchen workers due to long periods of standing; foot rests and anti-
fatigue mats can also help. Moving and stretching frequently and rotating tasks can help workers avoid static postures
and fatigue. To reduce overreaching, workers should keep their frequently used items closest to them and store
seldom used items further away. Proper lifting techniques when moving heavy pots and food items can prevent
strains.
Wearing close-fitting sleeves prevents catching them on pot handles, oven and stove knobs, or dangling them in
flames or hot oil. Shoes should have cushioned insteps and slip-resistant soles. Aprons provide an added layer of
protection from splashes of hot water or grease. Hand mitts and pot holders should be used when handling hot items
and hand protection such as mesh gloves may be worn when cutting and using sharp knives.
If you can’t work safely, stay out of the kitchen.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Know The Ground Rules for Electrical Safety
Electricity is an essential source of energy for most agricultural-related operations. However, fewer sources have a
greater potential to cause harm than electricity. Working safely with electricity is possible if you are trained in,
understand, and follow certain basic ground rules.
By its nature, electricity will take the path of least resistance to the ground. If your body happens to be in that path,
even a small amount of electric current can have fatal effects. The risk of shock or electrocution is greatest around
metal objects and in damp conditions. Therefore, make sure all electric equipment, switch enclosures, and conduit
systems are properly grounded and that all external or damp operations are wired for wet conditions. When working
in damp areas, wear personal protective equipment such as rubber gloves and boots; use rubber mats, insulated
tools, and rubber sheets to protect you from exposed metal.
Keep your electrical system in good operating condition. Damage and injuries can occur when equipment is defective.
So inspect your electrical equipment, outlets, plugs, and cords before each use. Remove, tag, and have repaired any
faulty equipment. Make sure outlets and cords are of adequate size and length to prevent electric overload. If cords
must cross a traffic area, protect them with planks or other means.
Make sure you and other workers follow lockout and tagout procedures. Treat every electric wire as if it were a live
one. Stop using a tool or appliance if a slight shock or tingling is felt.Turn off the power if the smell of hot or burning
substance is detected or if smoke, sparks, or flickering lights are noticed.
Contact with overhead power supply lines is one of he most frequent electrical-related killer in agriculture. Equipment
commonly involved in such contact includes portable elevators and augers, irrigation pipes, and harvesting machinery.
Workers using high clearance devices should continually be aware of the dangers and take sensible precautions to
avoid contact with overhead lines. If an overhead line breaks, keep away from the wire and everything it touches then
call the power company to shut off the electricity. Only qualified electricians should repair electrical equipment or work
on energized lines.
Because accidents can happen, make sure those who work on or around energized electrical equipment are trained in
emergency response and CPR.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Laboratory Safety
Laboratory (lab) workers prepare specimens and perform tests, reactions, and analyses for research and the detection
of disease and pathogens. They work with chemicals, glassware, flame, and manual and automatic laboratory
equipment. While lab workers experiment with specimens and reagents, safety in the laboratory should be a known
quantity.
Dress for safety in the laboratory. Wear close-fitting clothing and secure dangling hair or jewelry to prevent
entanglement with moving laboratory equipment and exposure to open flames. Wear long pants and long sleeves to
protect your skin. Wear a lab coat over this clothing at all times in the laboratory; take it off when it becomes soiled
or when you leave the lab. Use a lab apron made of impervious material when you are working with corrosives and
oxidizers. Avoid open-toed and woven shoes that could allow or absorb a chemical splash on your feet.
Wear the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) for the materials and chemicals you use. Read Material
Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and follow the PPE guidelines. Generally, safety glasses with side shields are adequate for
laboratory use. Where there is a danger of splashing chemicals, goggles are required. When using strong caustics,
acids, or conducting potentially explosive reactions, use a face shield and glasses. Know the emergency procedures for
your worksite.
Choose your gloves based on the materials you use. Butyl rubber gloves work for aromatic and halogenated
hydrocarbons, ketones, and inorganic solvents. Natural rubber, neoprene, or nitrile gloves work for concentrated acids
and alkalis and organic solvents. Check glove compatibility charts to ensure that you have the right glove material for
the chemical(s) you are using. Use insulated gloves made of leather or Nomex when handling hot objects over 100
degrees Centigrade or very cold or cryogenic materials. Use heavy cloth or leather gloves when working with sharps.
Inspect your gloves for tears or perforations before each use. Discard and replace gloves when they become overly
dirty, worn or contaminated.
Use chemical fume hoods to minimize exposure to fumes, mists and vapors in the laboratory. Respirators can protect
your lungs when exposures exceed Cal OSHA limits. Always use mechanical devices for pipetting procedures; never
use mouth suction. Avoid eating, drinking, and smoking in the laboratory. Maintain good housekeeping and hygiene in
the lab. Do not drink out of laboratory glassware, use the ice in laboratory ice machines or store food in lab
refrigerators. Wash your hands frequently while in the laboratory and always before leaving, eating, or smoking.
Practice good laboratory ergonomics. Repetitive motions and procedures can lead to injuries over time; take frequent
breaks and try to rotate tasks. To avoid contact stress, don’t rest your arms against a sharp or hard work surface. Use
ergonomic pipetting equipment that requires less pressure from the thumb or a finger to activate it. Keep your
materials and tools close to you in order to reduce reaches.
Safety in the laboratory makes good science.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
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Ladder Safety 2
Ladders are handy, simple tools to use, but if they are not maintained properly, they can be unsafe. Falls are the third
leading cause of worker deaths, with 609 workers killed and 272,000 injured in 2002. Half of these injuries and deaths
involved a ladder. Ladder accidents can occur if they are faulty, if they have been set up improperly, and if they are
used improperly.
While workers are familiar with the rules for safe ladder setup and use, it is important to know how to inspect,
maintain, and store ladders used in the workplace. The materials that go into ladders are designed and engineered to
last indefinitely if they are cared for and not abused. Proper maintenance, care, and an inspection checklist can guard
workers against using a faulty ladder.
Neglected ladders can become unsafe ladders, so workers should maintain them frequently. Before using a ladder, it
should be inspected to make sure it is in good working condition. If an inspection shows defects in a ladder, it should
be immediately tagged out of service. Broken or damaged ladders should be properly repaired by a qualified worker or
they should be discarded and replaced.
A ladder inspection begins from the top down. Workers should look for loose steps and rungs. The rungs should be
sturdy, clean, and not slippery from grease or oil. The upright ladder legs should be strong and free of cracks, splits,
and bent edges. The ladder's braces should be solid. Nails, screws, bolts or other fasteners should be tight. Finally,
the ladder feet should be examined and the non-slip base should be in good repair.
Different ladder types and materials have specific inspection points. Wood ladders should never be painted and should
not have cracks or splits. Metal and fiberglass ladders should be checked for bends and breaks. Metal ladders should
be inspected for signs of corrosion. Step ladders should not be wobbly, a possible indication of side strain, and the
hinges should be firm and straight. Extension ladders should have working extension locks that seat properly. The
extension rope should not be rotted or frayed.
Workers should try to prevent ladder damage during transport and use because this can weaken the ladder. When
hauling a ladder, workers should tie it securely to the vehicle to prevent nicks, gouges, or chafing. Damaged bolts and
joints can work loose and eventually cause the ladder to twist and become unstable. Straight ladders should be stored
flat or on wall brackets to prevent sagging or warping. Step ladders should be stored upright and in the closed
position. All ladders should be stored in covered, protected areas away from moisture sources.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Ladders - Make Ladder Safety a High Priority
Many work site injuries are caused by accidents involving ladders that are not placed or used safely. Following these
safety guidelines can help prevent ladder accidents.
Before using any ladder, check its condition. Make sure there are no broken, cracked, or missing rails and that rungs
are not slippery from grease or oil. Check for damage or corrosion on metal ladders. If a ladder is in poor condition,
don’t use it. Report the problem so it can be tagged and repaired. A competent person should periodically inspect all
ladders and remove damaged ladders from use until they are repaired.
When choosing and using a ladder, keep the following in mind:
Choose the appropriate type and size ladder for the job, including correct fittings, and safety feet.

Near electrical conductors or equipment, use only ladders with non-conductive side rails.
Set the ladder on solid footing, against a solid support.
Place the base of a straight ladder out away from the wall or edge of the upper level about one foot for every
four feet of vertical height.
Be sure straight ladders are long enough so that the side rails extend above the top support point by at least
36 inches.
Single cleat job-made ladders should be 15 to 20 inches wide with ladder cleats uniformly spaced 12 inches
apart.
Never try to increase the height of a ladder by standing it on other objects, such boxes or barrels, or by
splicing two ladders together.
Portable ladders should be tied, blocked or otherwise secured against movement.
Keep ladders away from doorways or walkways, unless they can be protected by barriers.
Keep the area around the top and base of the ladder clear. Don’t run hoses, extension cords, or ropes on a
ladder; these may create obstructions.
To avoid slipping on a ladder, check your shoes for oil, grease, or mud and wipe it off before climbing.
Climb the ladder carefully, facing it and using both hands. Use a tool belt or hand line to carry materials.
Most ladders are designed to hold only one person at a time. Two persons may cause the ladder to fail or be
thrown off balance.
Don’t lean out to the side when you’re on a ladder. If something is out of reach, get down and move the
ladder.
Ladders should never be used sideways as platforms, runways or scaffolds.
Choosing and using ladders wisely is a step in the right direction.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Landscaper Safety
Landscapers work outdoors to maintain and beautify the scenery. Their work involves tasks that could prove
hazardous: electric and gas power tools, ladders, mowers, noise, sun, and weather exposure. It is prudent for
landscapers to cultivate safety while they plant and prune the pansies
Landscapers use powered equipment such as trimmers, mowers, and chain saws to trim and prune grass and plants.
Inspect these tools each time you use them to ensure that they are in proper working order. When using flammable
fuels, ensure that the storage containers are approved for flammable liquids. Practice safe handling by limiting
container sizes to 5 gallons, don’t transport fuels in multiple passenger vehicles, and never smoke while you are
fueling. Use Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) cords or outlets to minimize the risk of shock from electric
equipment.
Use caution around pesticides and chemicals; read the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) and follow the
manufacturer’s use guidelines. A chemical resistant suit and gloves protect your skin and clothing from exposure.
Practice good hygiene by hand washing and changing out of contaminated clothing before you leave work. Wash
contaminated clothing separately from the rest of your laundry. Never eat or drink while working with these
chemicals.
Dress the part. Wear close-fitting layers of clothing to protect yourself from the weather and also from entanglement
in machinery. Long sleeves, long pants, and light colors protect you from the sun, insects, and plant irritants and
allergens. Sunscreen, a hat, and fluids protect you from sunburn and heat stress. Wear non-slip, sturdy work boots
with reinforced toes to protect your feet and sturdy work gloves to protect your hands.
Wear the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) for your job task. Safety glasses should be used to protect
your eyes from flying debris; wear goggles when working with chemicals. Hearing protection like ear plugs and/or ear
muffs protects your hearing around loud equipment. A respirator or dust mask protects your respiratory system from
irritating chemical fumes and dust. Gauntlets and chaps can protect the arms and legs when working with thorny
vegetation or chain saws.
Use safe work techniques. Practice ladder safety when you have to work at heights. Always inspect your ladder before
use and properly position it to easily and comfortably complete the job task without reaching or twisting. Remain
aware of electrical lines that may be near your work zone. Maintain neutral postures while you work. To prevent
ergonomic injuries avoid extreme reaches and awkward movements. Learn and practice safe lifting techniques to
avoid a back strain or injury. Use ergonomic tools and lifting/moving devices whenever possible.
Follow these guidelines and watch your safety bloom.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Landscaping Safety
Job tasks change seasonally for a landscaper, but power and hand tools and exposure to bugs and the elements last
all year long. Know safe work practices to avoid cuts, punctures and amputations. Protect yourself from critters, sun,
heat, and cold that you encounter outdoors.
Cuts, punctures, and amputations are common injuries for landscapers. Power equipment like mowers, blowers,
trimmers, cutting blades, trenchers, and tillers have rotating and cutting parts that can cause these severe
injuries. Read instructions and get training on each specific model of equipment you use. Keep your hands, feet, hair,
jewelry, and clothing away from moving parts.
Before you clear jams or perform maintenance, turn power equipment off and secure the power source. Wait for
moving parts to stop completely before you put your hands in the equipment. Inspect equipment before each use;
ensure that guards and safety switches work properly; never bypass these features.
Hand tools can also cause injuries. Keep them sharp and inspect before each use. Use the right tool for the job. Watch
where you are cutting and know where both hands are before you apply pressure to tools. To reduce ergonomic
injuries, choose a tool that fits your hand properly and allows you to work with a firm and straight grip. Cut plant
materials to small, manageable sizes. Use proper lifting techniques when you move debris. Rotate your tasks
throughout the day and take short breaks every 30 minutes to avoid fatigue.
Use personal protective equipment (PPE) and proper clothing on the job. Sturdy work boots protect your feet from
heavy equipment, cutting blades, and dropped landscape materials. Gloves protect your hands from blisters, splinters,
scratches, cuts, and punctures from tools, rough landscaping materials, and plants. Safety glasses and/or face shields
that are impact resistant protect your eyes from flying objects and chemicals. Use UV protective lenses outdoors. Ear
plugs or ear muffs protect your hearing from loud equipment. Wear chaps when using a chain saw.
Clothing in a high-visibility color makes you more visible to traffic in roads, parking lots, and your coworkers. Make
sure that your landscaping vehicles have back-up alarms when you move around the worksite. Always wear your
seatbelt while driving and ensure that passengers (if they are allowed and there is a designated seat) wear their seat
belts as well.
Long sleeved shirts and long pants protect your arms and legs from scratches, the sun, and bugs and snakes. Know
the first aid for bug and snake bites, watch these areas for infection, and get follow-up medical care when
needed. Wear a wide brim hat that covers your ears and protects your nose and neck from the sun and bugs. Apply
insect repellant and sunscreen to exposed areas of skin; you may need to re-apply through the day, so follow package
directions.
Layers of clothing help you regulate heat and cold exposure as seasons and conditions change. Lightweight, light-
colored clothing repels heat while moisture-proof thermal clothing can insulate your body heat during the cold
season. Get training in heat and cold stress in order to recognize the signs and symptoms. Stay hydrated and eat
properly for hot and cold environments – small, light meals in heat; warm, hearty meals in cold. Get proper rest,
maintain your health, and gradually acclimate your body to handle extreme temperatures.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
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Laser Safety
Laser-emitting tools and equipment are common to many work situations. Lasers in printers, grocery store scanners,
construction tools, and laser pointers are generally lower powered and designed to be safe, but when they are
misused or handled improperly, they can pose a hazard.
Because lasers emit high-intensity, directional light beams that vary in strength, they are a particular hazard to the
eyes. If a worker looks directly into a laser beam for an extended period of time, focused laser light can burn the
tissue of the retina and cause a startle reflex, flash blindness, permanent vision loss, or complete blindness. Tissue
damage and burns can also occur if body parts are exposed to laser light for an extended period.
Workers should keep body parts out of the laser beam and NEVER look directly into a laser. Even low powered lasers
can cause damage if workers stare into them. Lasers should never be deliberately pointed at another person.
Horseplay with lasers is a hazardous game that could result in vision loss.
The lasers used in printers are sealed within protective housings that do not allow the laser beam to escape. These
lasers are designed to shut off if the protective housing is opened. Workers should ensure that the protective housing
on laser products is intact and functional. Only trained and certified laser operators should open the housing and
perform maintenance on lasers. Note that while office photocopiers do not use laser technology, they do use visible
and ultraviolet light. It is safest to photocopy with the cover down; if the cover must be up, the user should avoid
looking into the light source.
Grocery and retail store scanners are used to scan product prices. They can be used in wands or flatbed
configurations, depending on the cash register layout. These scanners use quickly moving laser lights that sweep back
and forth over barcodes. They are designed to keep the laser moving and prevent it from focusing on a single spot
and causing damage. Additional safety features include a shut off mechanism that turns the scanner off after a few
seconds and a short light beam (300 millimeters) that prevents extended eye exposure to the laser beam.
Laser pointers are higher-powered lasers that focus and pinpoint the laser light for use in lectures and presentations.
For this reason, workers must take extra precaution to avoid staring into the laser and never point the laser at
another person. Construction tools such as saws and levels also use this same laser technology; the same safety rules
apply. Workers should ensure that the laser tool they use (be it pointer, saw, or level) is certified for consumer use;
some imported lasers may not meet safety standards.
Workers should be familiar with the type of laser that they use at work. Training and knowledge of proper laser use
and procedures insures a safe workplace.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)

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Lead In Construction
In the construction industry, lead exposure is a serious issue that many workers face every day. Lead exposure can
occur during a variety of job activities. Lead is common in a wide range of materials including paints and other
coatings, lead mortars, and base metals, which may be welded on or abrasive blasted. Lead presents a potentially
serious occupational health hazard when the lead-containing particulates become airborne. Common jobs on a
construction site that might expose a worker to lead include:
Renovating or demolishing structures that have lead-painted surfaces.

Removing lead-based paint or spray painting with lead-based paint.
Sandblasting steel structures that are painted with lead.
Grinding, cutting, or torching metal surfaces that are painted with lead.
Welding, cutting, or removing pipes, joints, or ductwork that contain lead or are painted with lead.
Lead soldering.
Cutting or stripping lead-sheathed cable.
Cleaning up sites where there is lead dust.
Exposure to lead occurs through breathing of lead dust, fumes, or mist and by ingestion of lead dust on cigarettes,
chewing tobacco, make-up, or food.
How can worker exposure to lead be minimized? Employers of job sites that might contain lead are required by
Cal/OSHA to recognize the potential hazard. For example, painted surfaces must be presumed to contain lead until all
layers of the paint are sampled and analyzed. The detection of any amount of lead in the paint will trigger numerous
requirements, even for common tasks such as drywall demolition, manual paint scraping, and manual paint sanding.
The employer is required to conduct air sampling to determine the exposure to lead during these tasks and during
other tasks that could result in lead exposure. Until actual exposures are determined, workers are required to wear
respirators that are appropriate to the task. Detailed requirements are published in the Cal-OSHA standard for lead in
construction.
All workers who may be exposed to lead must be trained in the hazards of lead. The results of air sampling are used
to determine if workers are exposed to lead above the action level (AL) of 30 micrograms per cubic meter of air or
above the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 50 micrograms of lead per cubic meter of air, averaged over an 8-hour
shift. Exposures above the AL or PEL will trigger additional requirements including engineering controls, proper
housekeeping, washing facilities for hand and face washing, additional worker training, respiratory protection, medical
monitoring, and additional air sampling. The employer must have a written compliance plan.
There are many precautions that workers can take to avoid getting overexposed:
Use safe work practices such as wetting down paints and coatings to keep dust out of the air.

Change clothes and wash up before eating, drinking, or smoking. Eat, drink, and smoke only in clean areas.
Use personal protective equipment like gloves, special clothing, and a respirator.
Make sure the respirator fits and is worn and maintained properly.
Change clothes and wash up before going home. Lead dust on clothes or in the car could expose the family to
lead. Children are more susceptible to lead than adults.
Lead may negatively affect the blood system, nervous system, kidneys, and reproductive organs. A worker who is
exposed to lead above the action level must have a blood test to determine the amount of lead in the blood. If the
blood test results indicate that the worker has been overexposed to lead, then the worker must be removed from
working with lead. The employer must maintain the worker’s earnings, seniority, and benefits during medical removal.
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The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Loading Dock Safety
Loading docks are busy areas. Trucks, trailers, and forklifts move throughout loading areas. Trailers, dock levelers,
and rolling doors can cause pinch points, and elevated docks pose a fall hazard. Workers must pay attention to these
hazards and focus on safety training, the proper equipment, and strict observation and supervision of work tasks.
Get training on loading dock safety, safe work practices, and equipment such as pallet movers and dock levelers or
bridges. Do not operate a forklift without proper training. Wear personal protective equipment such as gloves and
steel-toed boots with a grip sole and heel. Dress appropriately for hot and cold environments. Consider hearing
protection and eye protection depending on the environment in which you will be working.
Safety starts at the dock approach, so make sure it is in good repair, free from potholes and large cracks. Mark trailer
lanes and positions clearly for easy backing, parking, and spotting. Ensure that chocks and dock bumpers are present
and in good repair. Ideally, dock bumpers should be made of fire-resistant materials to avoid fires caused by trailer
lights. To decrease exposure to diesel exhaust, ensure that trucks do not idle at the dock.
The typical loading dock opens about 4 feet off of the ground, posing a fall hazard. Use safety barriers to mark ramps
and drop-offs. These prevent pedestrians and forklift operators from going over the edge. NEVER lean or hang out of a
loading dock – you could be crushed by a backing trailer. Do not walk into a trailer while a forklift is loading or
unloading – forklifts are harder to maneuver in tight spaces.
Dock levelers or bridges span the space between the dock and the trailer. Trailer locking devices prevent trailer creep
or dock walk, which could cause a gap to open between the trailer and the dock. Integrating dock levels and locking
devices into signal lights communicates to workers and truckers when it is safe to load and when it is safe to move the
trailer. This equipment should be regularly maintained and inspected for safety before each use.
Do not load a trailer unless it is chocked and firmly seated against the dock. Note and adhere to the weight capacity of
the leveler or bridge before loading begins. Inspect the trailer floorboards to ensure that they will withstand the load
of the materials, the lifting device, and you. Inspect the load itself to make sure that it is secure, that the pallets (if
any) are strong enough for the load, and that the load meets the capacity of your lifting equipment.
Maintain good housekeeping in the loading dock work environment. Keep aisles and work areas free of debris, trash,
and materials. Mark pedestrian walkways, work areas, and storage areas. Use mirrors on blind corners. When you are
walking in a loading dock area, be aware of your surroundings and watch for forklifts and moving trailers. When you
manually maneuver a load, use safe lifting and handling techniques.
Safety on the dock: Be sure to use those chocks!
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Log Cutting Safety
In the logging industry, cutting is used to fell, limb, and buck (cross cut) trees and limbs into pieces that are usable
and maneuverable. Log cutting can be hazardous because workers use powered chainsaws and the cut trees, limbs
and logs can pose a crushing hazard.
It is important to choose the right chainsaw for the cutting job. Read and understand the instructions for the saw,
keep it properly maintained and sharpened, and get the training to operate it safely. Wear appropriate safety gear for
log cutting such as safety goggles, hearing protection, steel-toed shoes, hard hat, and gloves. Chaps that are
chainsaw resistant can help prevent common chainsaw injuries to the legs.
When felling trees, evaluate each tree and look for hazards such as snow and ice accumulation, lean of the tree, other
trees that may block the downward path, and dead limbs. Plan and clear retreat paths in the area in case a tree falls
unpredictably. Use extra caution and clear the area when cutting a spring pole, a tree under stress, or a lodged tree.
Follow proper cutting techniques to control the direction of the fall with use of an undercut, backcut, and the
appropriate amount of hinge wood (equal to about 1/10 th of the tree diameter).
While limbing a tree, make sure that it is stable before you start cutting. Stand on the uphill side of the tree so that
any cut pieces will roll downhill and away from you. Start trimming the branches on the topside of the tree. Don't
undercut the limbs on the underside of the tree—roll it and stabilize it, then begin cutting again. Cut the branches on
the far side of the tree and then start on the near side. Take caution that the limbs you are removing are not under
stress and watch for spring back.
Follow the same general cutting principles when bucking a tree by staying uphill from the log and predicting the area
and direction that the cut pieces will fall. Support the trunk so it will not roll by blocking or wedging it in place. Cut
downward from the top of the trunk (overbuck) about one-third the diameter and then roll it over to make final cuts.
To prevent pinching the chainsaw, use plastic or wooden wedges (never metal) to keep the cut open. Avoid contacting
them with the chainsaw to prevent kickback.
You can stay a cut above in the logging industry by following these general safety principles.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Logging Safety
Logging is a hazardous occupation with more frequent and serious injuries and fatalities than other industries. The
majority of logging accidents occur when workers are struck by a falling or flying object or get caught and crushed
between objects. Loggers (including fellers, limbers, buckers, and choker setters), truck drivers, general laborers and
material machine operators are injured or killed most often. Training, the proper use of safety procedures and
equipment, and the proper tools can keep you safe while working in a logging operation.
Strict control of the work area is critical during logging operations. A Cal/OSHA-defined “competent person” must
evaluate each logging area for hazards and make an appropriate logging plan of action. Know and understand this
logging plan before starting work. Work areas are designed so that cut trees won't land in adjacent, occupied areas.
Respect the assigned work areas. Make sure that you are stationed at least two tree lengths away from the nearest
cutting zone.
When entering a cutting zone, evaluate the area for hazards. Note the slope of the land, wind conditions, and look for
signs of loose bark, broken limbs or other tree damage. Plan and prepare for retreat zones in case of an emergency.
Evaluate each tree and its falling path for hazards and potential problems before cutting. Don't work downhill from a
cutting area because trees or limbs can slide or roll after cutting.
Always follow the manufacturer's instructions on logging equipment and tools. Use the appropriate equipment and
tools for each job and keep them maintained. Repair or replace logging equipment and tools when necessary. Attend
and understand the training that your employer offers on logging operations, unpredictable situations, and medical
emergencies or first aid.
Be careful when working around mobile logging equipment such as trucks, skidders, and loaders. Wear your seatbelt
and don't allow coworkers to grab onto the equipment for a ride. Maintain the equipment and ensure it has
appropriate safety features such as a roll bar or falling object protective guards. Take care around loaded vehicles and
equipment because piles of logs can be unstable.
Wear your personal protective equipment (PPE). Gloves protect your hands while chaps or saw pants protect your
legs. Your head, face, and eyes should be protected with a hard hat that has a chin strap and the use of goggles or a
face shield. Use hearing protection such as ear plugs or ear muffs, but stay alert for emergency warning signals. Steel
toed shoes with a supportive ankle are a must to protect your feet. Lastly, know where you and your co-workers are
in relation to the activities that are going on nearby. Although your job is important, your safety is more important.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Machine Safety Moving Right Along
Machines are one of the leading causes of occupational injury. Improperly trained or careless operators are often the
victims. So, until you’ve been trained on a machine and are authorized to run it, hands off!
Before you turn on any machine, know the hazards and make a safety check. Is everybody clear? Are the guards and
safety devices in place and properly adjusted? Don’t start the machine unless they are. Never tie down or block a
guard or safety device. Safety features are there to protect you. Always follow established lockout/tagout procedures.
Keep your machine clean. If you have to clear an object from a running machine, follow established safety
procedures. Never use your hands! Don’t try to slow down a moving part with your hand or makeshift device, let the
machine stop completely, by itself. And never walk off and leave a machine running and unattended.
The right work clothes can help you stay safe and comfortable on the job. Wear tucked in short-sleeved shirts and
cuffless pants. Long sleeves, neckties, scarves, gloves, or jewelry can get caught in moving parts. Wear eye
protection where required and keep long hair covered and away from moving parts.
Machine safety requires a combination of proper training, safeguards, good judgment, and concentration. Machines
have hazards which can’t be completely eliminated. Even simple machines can pinch, cut, or crush. To avoid injury,
follow procedures and be on your guard. Allowing yourself to become distracted, even for a second, can have serious
consequences for you or the people you work with.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Managing and Reducing Stress
Stress is an everyday fact of life. When you have too much stress, or it lasts too long, it can be harmful. At work,
unmanaged stress can lead to illness or injury, low productivity, and unsafe acts. But not all stress is bad. The best level
of stress is that amount which improves a person’s performance without causing harmful side effects.
You can manage stress and make it a more positive force in your life when you identify your stressors, understand them,
and take charge of the stress by relieving or preventing it. Using alcohol or drugs will not help you manage your
stressors. In some cases, it can add to your stress. In any stressful situation, you have choices. You can:
Accept it - Some things are out of your control and all you can do is accept them and learn from them. Seek
helpful advice or support from friends or coworkers.
Avoid it - Stay away from recurring situations or sources of constant frustration. Remove yourself from the
situation or rearrange your surroundings. For time related stress, plan ahead.
Alter it - Communicate your feelings to your employer or supervisor. Change your feelings or ask someone else
to change their behavior. Ask for help with your job or take advantage of your company’s Employee Assistance
Program.
Adapt to it - Learn to cope with the situation or look at it as an opportunity. Focus on the positive things in your
life. Try to make time for the activities you enjoy. Maintain a healthy lifestyle including exercise, meditation, and
a balanced diet.
It is important for employers, supervisors, loss control personnel, and workers to recognize stressful jobs, situations,
and signs of stress in themselves or in their coworkers before accidents, injuries, or violent incidences occur.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Masonry and Concrete Saws
Masonry saws are used to cut tiles, bricks, and blocks of stone, concrete, and other materials. Concrete saws are used
to cut channels or openings through concrete blocks, slabs, and walls. Both types of saws can be hand-held, mounted
on a stand, or wheeled by hand or motor and may be powered by electricity, compressed air, or fuel. Working with
saws can expose workers to hazards such as cutting blades, kick-back, push-back, pull-ins, and dust; training and
proper work practices are the key to safety.
Workers require training on the safe use of masonry and concrete saws. Cutting blades should be the correct size,
installed properly, guarded at all times, and speed should not exceed the manufacturer’s suggested RPM. Workers
should use the correct blade for the job and inspect it for defects before each use. Saws should be maintained and
kept clean from dust build-up. Workers using concrete and masonry saws should always ensure that there are no gas
or electric utility lines embedded within their cutting zones.
Saws pose kick-back, push-back and pull-in dangers if they cannot run freely through the cutting material. Blades are
designed to go in a straight line; crooked or off-line cuts can cause blades to pinch or bite into the material and jam.
Though a blade may be jammed, the running motor builds up power and can cause a worker to lose control of the saw
and become exposed to the cutting blade. Loss of control includes kick-back where the saw thrusts up and backward,
push-back where the saw thrusts straight back, and pull-in where the saw pulls the worker in toward the blade.
Hand-held saws pose special dangers if kick-back occurs because the worker can lose control and drop the saw. Hand-
helds should never be used over shoulder height or on ladders and stepstools. Saw push-back at a height could cause
a worker to fall. If elevated cutting work is required, the saw should be mounted on guide tracks for the job. Walls
and bricks that are cut should be supported so they do not fall and pinch the blade or crush workers.
Mounted saws should be kept on firm, flat surfaces for stability. Workers should keep their hands clear of the cutting
blade while holding materials firmly against the backstop. Conveyor surfaces should be free of debris that could cause
products to slip and pinch the blade. Longer materials should be supported by scaffolds to prevent blade pinching.
Walk-behind saws keep the worker more removed from the cutting blade. These saws should be guided in a straight
line with several passes for each cut. Workers should not push against the saw; this could cause the blade to jump or
climb out of the cutting path and the operator could lose control.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) for masonry and concrete saws varies depending on the job task, but may
include hard hats, boots, safety glasses and face shields, hearing protection, gloves, and respiratory protection from
hazardous dusts.
The dust created by concrete and masonry saws can be a serious health hazard. Repeatedly breathing too much of
this dust can eventually lead to silicosis, lung cancer, chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), and decreased lung
function. The dust can be a hazard not only to the saw operator, but also to other workers in the area. In T8 CCR
Section 1530.1, Cal/OSHA requires dust reduction systems for powered tools or equipment to cut, grind, core, or drill
concrete or masonry materials (with some exceptions). These systems use the application of water or local exhaust
ventilation to reduce the amount of airborne dust generated. In addition, employees and supervisors must be trained
on the health hazards of the dust, the methods used by the employer to control employee exposures, and some
related topics. This training must be conducted at least annually. If overexposures to dust occur because dust
reduction systems are not used or because such systems do not sufficiently control exposures, respirators or other
control measures are required. For more guidance, consult with an industrial hygienist or other safety and health
professional.
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For more information on saw safety, see the Saws/Grinders Safety Meeting Topic.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Date:

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Material Safety Data Sheet
What is a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)?
A Material Safety Data Sheet is a document that contains information on the chemical make-up, use, storage,
handling, emergency procedures and potential health effects related to a hazardous material. The MSDS contains
much more information about the material than the label on the container. MSDSs are prepared and written by the
manufacturer of the material.
What is the purpose of an MSDS?
The purpose of an MSDS is to inform you of:
The material’s chemical make-up.

The material’s physical properties or fast acting health effects that makes it dangerous to handle.
The level of protective gear you need to wear to work safely with the material.
The first aid treatment to be provided when someone is exposed to the material.
The preplanning needed for safely handling spills, fires, and day-to-day operations.
How to respond to accidents.
What information is on the MSDS?
There are 9 categories of information that must be present on an MSDS. These are:
Chemical Identity

Health Hazard Data
Manufacturer information
Precautions for Safe Handling and Use
Hazardous ingredients
Exposure controls/personal protection
Physical and chemical properties
Fire and Explosion Hazard Data
Reactivity Data
Even with all of the above information on an MSDS, it might not have everything you need to know about a material.
For example, health hazard information is usually presented in general terms. Your health and safety specialist should
be able to help you find more information if it is needed.
Why is an MSDS hard to read?
Originally, MSDSs were intended to be used by industrial hygienists, chemical engineers and safety professionals.
Now, MSDSs are used by employers, employees, emergency responders and anyone else requiring information on a
material. Some MSDSs look very different from others. This is because law specifies the content of the MSDS, but the
format is left up to the manufacturer of the material.
When would I use an MSDS?
You should always know the hazards of a material before you start using it. For most people who work with a
material, there are sections of the MSDS that are more important than others. You should always read the name of
the material, know the hazards, understand the safe handling and storage requirements, and understand what to do
in an emergency.
Hazard Communication Standard
MSDSs form the cornerstone of this standard. The Hazard Communication standard requires employers to; maintain
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an inventory of hazardous materials, provide employees training on the potential hazards associated with a material,
obtain and maintain MSDSs for each material onsite, establish proper methods and types of labels, and inform
contractors of the hazards that their employees may be exposed to in their work area.
More Information
For more detailed information, discuss your questions with your safety and health representative, or visit the website
maintained by the Occupational Safety & Health Administration at
http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/hazardcommunications/index.html.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Page 2 of 2 Material Safety Data Sheet
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Metal Plating Safety
Metal plating puts metals such as tin, zinc, nickel, chrome, silver, gold, etc. onto a surface to change or protect it. The
plating method depends on the surface, the metal(s), and the finished product, but there are common hazards that
workers need to know.
Chemicals are used to prepare, clean, and degrease the surface before plating. They are also used to apply the metal,
clean, and polish the product. You MUST get training in chemical safety and proper work procedures. Read the
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) to understand the hazards and safe use of the chemicals. Know how to properly
store, transport, mix, and dispose of chemicals and wastes.
Mix chemicals only according to instructions. Mixing the wrong chemicals can create poisonous gases such as
hydrogen cyanide or phosgene. Splashes, gases, and sprays from plating, acid, and surface preparation baths can be
hot and hazardous. Cleaning solvents can irritate your eyes, nose, and lungs. Buffing and brushing metals creates
hazardous dusts. Long term exposure to these materials can cause poisoning and allergies.
To protect your skin, wear long sleeves and pants under chemical-resistant coveralls, gauntlets, and/or an apron.
Wear heat and chemical-resistant gloves when using chemicals or handling plating objects. Choose rubber or leather
safety shoes or boots with non-slip soles. Don’t tuck your pants into your boots. Wear safety goggles and/or a face
shield to protect your eyes from chemical splashes, dust, and flying particles. To protect your lungs, wear the correct
respirator and filter cartridges. See your doctor periodically to check for exposures.
Hot liquid splashes from plating baths and solvent tanks can cause burns. Don’t drop materials into baths or add
liquids too quickly. To avoid hot steam or vapors from the baths, don’t reach over or into them. Allow materials
coming out of hot liquid baths or drying/annealing ovens to cool before you handle them. Mix chemicals safely and
slowly to avoid splashes and explosions. Wear gloves and cover all exposed skin when you work around hot baths,
tanks, and materials. Think before you touch hot surfaces, equipment, and product.
Inspect and maintain your work area. Check electrical equipment and cords and tag damaged items out-of-service to
prevent electric shock. Use good ventilation and dust collection to prevent fume and dust buildup, fire, and
explosions. Use proper handling and storage of chemicals. Practice good housekeeping and clean up spills to prevent
slips, trips, and falls.
Don’t get caught and crushed by moving machinery such as hoists and conveyors. Use lockout/blockout procedures
during maintenance and clearing jams. Wear sturdy work gloves to prevent cuts, punctures and scrapes from sharp
tools, sheet metal edges, and jagged metal deposits on product jigs and equipment. Protect yourself from materials
hoisted overhead with a hard hat and by prohibiting transport over workers.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Metal Polishing
Metal polishing cleans, brightens, and restores solid or plated items made of gold, silver, stainless steel, brass,
copper, aluminum, nickel, chrome, or other metals and alloys. Achieving a smooth and shiny finish requires tools like
fixed, tabletop, or hand-held grinders, polishers and buffers. Solvents, acids, and various abrasive materials are used
to degrease, clean, buff, and polish metals. Metal polishing can create a variety of hazards including chemical
exposure, entrapment/entanglement, noise exposure, and ergonomics.
For protection, workers should follow safety precautions and use personal protective equipment (PPE). Gloves, safety
goggles and face shields provide protection for the hands and eyes. Barrier creams can be used to protect exposed
skin from absorption of chemicals or metals. Respiratory protection may be needed to prevent inhalation of chemical
fumes and metal dusts that are created during polishing. Ear plugs or ear muffs provide protection from noise
hazards.
Most of the tools to grind, polish and buff metals have moving or rotating parts that can be entanglement and pinch
point hazards. Fixed and table top machinery with exposed rotating spindles (or arbors) that hold polishing pads
should be guarded to prevent entanglement. The ends of the spindles should be covered with “acorn nuts” or “cap
nuts” with domed tops. Workers must secure their hair, jewelry, and clothing to ensure that it does not become
entangled in moving machinery.
Tools with safety features are best. Variable direction exhausts point metal exhaust away from the worker. Insulated
machinery housing helps to reduce noise. Hand-held tools with shock-resistant handles prevent vibration and hand
fatigue for better ergonomics. Tools with ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI) prevent electric shock.
The chemicals used for metal polishing may be flammable or hazardous. The material safety data sheet (MSDS) for
each chemical should be consulted prior to use. Chemicals should be used in well-ventilated areas away from smoking
and sources of flame. Chemicals should never be mixed and chemical-soaked rags should be properly disposed.
Housekeeping is important – too much fine dust suspended in the air can create an explosion hazard. Work areas
should be vacuumed and cleaned up frequently to reduce dust levels. Workers should change vacuums and cleaning
materials when changing metals; mixing dusts from different metals can be explosive. Tools, buffers, and cloths
should also be cleaned frequently and changed prior to switching metal work.
Use metal polishing tools and chemicals properly and keep a bright shine on your safety.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Metal Worker PPE for Hands and Eyes
Metal workers drill, press, punch, cut, bend, shape, and fasten pieces of sheet metal to make construction and
consumer products. The most common injuries to metal workers are hand lacerations and eye injuries from metal
pieces. Proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE) can prevent these.
Choose appropriate work gloves for the job task. They should be well-fitted so they don’t get caught by moving or
rotating machine parts. The gloves should be flexible enough to allow your hands to move freely while holding stock
materials and using tools. They should be sturdy enough to protect against cuts and punctures from sharp metal
edges, burrs, and pieces. Try out different pairs of gloves in different materials (leather, Kevlar, combinations, etc.)
to see which one(s) work best for you.
Another way to protect against hand lacerations is to change your work practices. Wear gloves whenever you touch,
move, or work with metal. Don’t run your fingers along raw metal edges. Don’t brush metal shavings or scraps into
the trash with your hands; use a brush or other tool. Work in a well-lit shop or area so you can see your tools and
materials. Take your time; know where your hands are at all times.
Use sharp, properly maintained tools. Don’t grip metal pieces too tightly; if they slip from your grasp, they could
move forcefully and cut/puncture deeply. When possible, use a vice or jig to grasp metal pieces while you work on
them. When hand cutting with snips, make long, even cuts to avoid creating metal burrs that can snag skin. When
you use metal working machines, make sure they are properly maintained and that all safety devices (emergency
shutoff, interlocks, restraints, guards, etc.) are working.
When you work with metal, there are many ways that large and small metal pieces can spring or fly into your eye and
cause pain, damage, and loss of eyesight. Cutting metal parts that are curved or bent can result in a “spring-back”
effect where the stock OR cut piece is released and flies toward the worker. Cutting and grinding with power tools can
fling small metal pieces and shavings at a high velocity toward a worker.
Make sure that you always wear proper safety eyewear when you work with or around metal. Change the type of
safety eyewear you use depending on the job task. Safety glasses act as a basic barrier against large metal pieces.
Use safety goggles that seal around the eyes to prevent small shavings and pieces from flying into your eye. A face
shield used with goggles is ideal to protect your face from cuts and punctures from large and small pieces of metal.
Where possible, consider a transparent work shield as a barrier between you and flying metal pieces.
There are other pieces of PPE you may need for safe metal work; check out the Sheet Metal Worker safety topic for
more information.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Mineral and Petroleum Extraction Safety
The extraction of minerals and petroleum requires heavy equipment, good planning, and trained workers to achieve
success and safety. Safe procedures for excavations, drilling, trenching, and shoring ensure that the extraction can be
done safely without cave-ins, engulfment hazards, or other accidents.
Before starting an excavation or drilling operation, study the worksite and plan the extraction procedures. Choose a
worksite with easy access and stable ground for working. Improve the site, if necessary, by clearing vegetation and
debris, or leveling the work area. Watch for overhead hazards such as trees, electrical lines, and bridges. Plan
drainage and storage of process, rain, and flood waters on the site.
Clear the work area of loose rocks, stumps, etc. that could slide or move unpredictably when operations begin. Use
safety barriers, flags, or safety lines to prevent falls from platforms, down steep slopes, or into old excavation areas.
Good housekeeping on the jobsite prevents slips, trips, and falls. Use dust control measures such as water and/or
sealant applications to control dust on the site. Keep firefighting, emergency equipment, and first aid supplies
available.
Large extraction equipment like excavators and drilling rigs should be inspected and maintained properly. Choose
equipment that is sized and powered for the job at hand. Use stable and level land for the excavator or drilling rig.
Level the site or use stabilizers if needed. Don’t undercut soil under the equipment during operations. Only trained
and experienced operators should operate excavation and drill rigs.
Excavation workers need personal protective equipment (PPE), such as hard hats, eye and hearing protection, as well
as steel-toed boots. Operators need special training and knowledge of the lift capacity and range of the equipment
they use. Ground workers near mobile equipment need high-visibility clothing. Know the operating range of the
excavator bucket and keep clear of it. Maintain eye contact with the operator when you are near equipment. Be aware
of the potential for slipping or unplanned movement of the bucket if there is excessive, lateral, or prying force applied.
Only work near the bucket operation if it is absolutely necessary.
Drill crew workers need training and supervised experience with specialized activities like raising or lowering rods,
casing a drill pipe, attaching hoist plugs, or setting clamps on rod joints. Keep your body parts away from rotating
equipment. Wear a hard hat, eye and hearing protection, and steel-toed, non-slip boots as PPE. Don’t wear loose
clothing on or near the rig. Don’t climb a rig mast with tools in your hand; use a tool bag and lanyards. Only perform
rig maintenance when equipment is offline.
During drilling operations, check that winching and hoisting equipment is in good condition. Keep guards over moving
parts like rotating rods, pulleys, belts, gears, and shafts. Hoses, couplings, and connectors should be in good working
order. High pressure hoses need chains and whip checks to control unplanned movement. Hydraulic clamps and rod-
handling equipment can prevent ergonomic injuries by assisting with heavy, repetitive movements.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
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Mobile Crane Safety
Mobile cranes are responsible for the most accidents, injuries, and fatalities of all of the crane types. Be aware of the
hazards if you operate or work around mobile cranes. Get proper training on crane operation and load preparation and
securing. Wear hard hats, safety boots, and high visibility clothing when operating or working around cranes.
Falling loads from mobile cranes pose a severe hazard to operators and nearby workers. Never exceed the load
capacity of the mobile crane. If you are unsure about the load size and weight, calculate the weight to ensure that it
meets your crane’s capacity. Load indicating devices, called load moment devices, can prevent an accidental overload.
Properly secure the loads that you will be lifting. Inspect all slings, chains, and hooks that will be used to lift and
secure the load.
Rotate, raise, and lower the crane boom slowly. Avoid sudden stops or accelerations that could jar the load. When
rotating the load, you can use taglines or guidelines to control the arc and swing. Try to avoid lifting loads over
workers or over the cab of the crane. If this type of lifting is necessary, use safety hooks or other approved devices. If
two cranes are required to lift a load, a qualified person should be in charge of planning and directing the lift.
Cranes can accidentally come in contact with electrical lines. Before you start work, survey the site for potential
electric hazards. Consider all lines energized unless they are certified by the owner/operator and visibly grounded at
the site. Always maintain the required clearances from electrical lines and sources as required by the Electrical Safety
Orders at www.dir.ca.gov/Title8/sb5g2a37.html.
Tip-overs and instability are another mobile crane hazard. Soft or unlevel ground can cause a crane to tip. Use
outriggers to stabilize the crane when the ground surface or the load requires it. Never operate a crane if the load or
slope lifts the wheels off the ground. For stability when traveling, keep the boom steady in the direction of the
movement. Boomstops should be used if there is a danger of the boom falling backward.
Workers near mobile cranes can get run over if they do not pay attention or if the operator loses sight of them.
Operators should use an audible warning and operating signal device to notify workers of movement. Workers should
stay out of the way of the load, the crane wheels, and outrigger wheels. If the operator has a limited view, a qualified
signals person should direct and communicate the operations. Never ride a load on a crane. Always lash or secure
empty hooks when moving the crane so they do not swing.
Lack of training is the leading cause of accidents. Certification as a crane operator is required unless you are operating
a mobile crane with a boom length of less than 25 feet or a maximum rated load capacity of less than 15,000 pounds.
More details on certification are available at the Department of Industrial Relations' Web site at
www.dir.ca.gov/Title8/5006_1.html.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Multi-employer Worksites
When more than one employer operates at a single site, Cal OSHA considers it a multi-employer worksite. A
construction site is an example of a multi-employer worksite with multiple contractors assigned the work, but not all
at the same time. Employers at multi-employer worksites need to know their responsibilities, assigned roles, and
accountability for employee health and safety. Note that a multi-employer worksite differs from a dual-employer
worksite, where an employee has two employers at the same time. For example, a temporary agency employee that
is assigned to another employer’s worksite.
On multi-employer worksites, all of the employers must work together to identify and control hazards to meet Cal
OSHA standards for employee health and safety. Property and project owners have the same responsibility for
employee safety. When Cal OSHA identifies safety violations at a worksite, the agency evaluates the owner and
employer hierarchy to determine which owner and/or employer(s) is/are responsible for the violation.

Cal OSHA identifies four categories of employers at a multi-employer worksite:
The Creating Employer creates the violation condition.

The Exposing Employer employs the workers exposed to a violation, regardless of whether that employer
created the condition.
The Controlling Employer is responsible, by contract or practice, for the safety and health conditions at the
worksite and has the authority to correct the violation.
The Correcting Employer has the specific responsibility to correct violation conditions.
Worksites may contain several or all of the employer categories. A single employer may also fit into more than one of
the categories. For example, an employer may be both a creating and a correcting employer or a correcting and a
controlling employer. The hierarchy on a multi-employer worksite is generally from the owner/employer to
general/prime contractors and then to subcontractors.
Contractors often hire subcontractors to work on construction sites. If the subcontractor creates a health and safety
violation, is the contractor subject to a Cal OSHA citation? Both the contractor and the sub may be responsible. Even
if the general contractor did not contribute to the hazard and had no employees in the area, as the top of the
employer hierarchy, the contractor is still responsible for overseeing the overall health and safety on the worksite.
Owners/contractors should pre-qualify subcontractors before hiring them. They or the controlling contractor should
examine the Injury and Illness Prevention Program (IIPP), insurance loss runs, and a three-year history of Cal OSHA
citations for all subcontractors.
Safety planning should be done before a new project and before each new phase. The plan should identify site-specific
hazards, safety precautions, and the responsible party; this information should be written into the site contracts. The
controlling employer must ensure that each contractor/subcontractor understands and agrees to follow the safety
requirements in the contract. Conducting periodic safety inspections based on the hazard level and daily meetings
between site safety managers and subcontractors can help keep everyone informed about changing worksite
conditions and potential problems.
The responsibility of the controlling employer does not end with communicating required safety precautions, or
notifying the other employers about unsafe conditions or behavior. The controlling employer must do everything
within his/her power, up to and including terminating the contract, to maintain a safe workplace and protect all
employees on site.
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Through cooperation and vigilance, all of the employers involved in a multi-employer worksite can maintain safety
standards and protect employee health.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Page 2 of 2 Multi-employer Worksites
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New Rules for Preventing Heat Illnesses
Cal OSHA adopted a heat illness prevention regulation to prevent heat-related illnesses and deaths. It includes
training, temperature monitoring, rest periods, and access to shade, all important factors you need to know to prevent
heat-related illnesses.
Your employer must evaluate your outdoor working location for air temperature, humidity, and radiant heat from the
sun to see if there is a risk for heat illnesses. Your employer must also evaluate your workload, the protective clothing
you are required to wear, and the personal protective gear you use to see how they add to the risk.
To evaluate the working conditions that you will face on the job, your employer may check the Heat Index, a
combination of temperature and humidity. When the heat index is at 80 or above when working in the open and at 90
or above when working in the shade, you are at an elevated risk of a heat illness and should take steps to control
these risks.
Drinking water is important to reduce the risk of heat illness. While doing heavy work in high heat conditions, the
human body loses up to two gallons of water per day. You need to consume about three - four cups of water every
hour starting at the beginning of your work shift and throughout the day. Your employer is required to make two
gallons of water per employee available for an eight hour shift. Not all of the water needs to be available at once, but
the water supply should allow at least one quart per employee at all times.
Rest breaks allow your body to recover from work in the heat. A rest break in the shade for at least five minutes can
reduce your heat stress and prevent heat illness. Use rest breaks to recover from hard work in the sun before any
heat illness symptoms appear. Your employer must allow you to take a rest break when you request it.
You will need shade for your rest breaks. Your employer is required to provide you with a shaded rest area that has
good air movement. You can use buildings, canopies, lean-tos, or even trees as rest areas. Don’t use car or other
vehicle interiors for shade unless they are air conditioned or kept cool in some other way. Your rest area should have
enough room to allow you to rest and sit comfortably. Your shaded rest area should not be hazardous, so do not rest
underneath tractors or in confined spaces.
Get training on the risk factors, signs, and symptoms of heat-related illnesses, and the first aid measures required to
treat them. Learn how to prevent heat illnesses by drinking water and slowly building up heat tolerance.
Know how to call emergency medical services to your worksite and give them accurate directions to avoid a delay in
life-saving service. When you and your coworkers cannot communicate directly with emergency services, your
employer must identify someone who can communicate with emergency services.
It’s better to beat the heat than treat the heat illness. Take rest breaks in a shaded area before your symptoms
appear and drink plenty of water while working in the heat.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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No Shortcut to Safety
Everyone takes a shortcut at one time or another. You cross the street between intersections instead of using the
crosswalk or jump a fence instead of using the gate. But in many cases, a shortcut can involve danger.
If you have the habit of taking dangerous shortcuts, break it. At work, it can be deadly. An iron worker who tried to
cross an opening by swinging on reinforcing rods, slipped and fell 20 feet onto a concrete floor. If he had taken a few
moments to walk around the opening, he’d still be tying rods.
If you are told to go to a particular work area, your employer expects you to take the safe route, not the shorter,
hazardous one. If there isn't a safe way to get where you need to go, let your supervisor know. The supervisor will
see to it that you are provided a safe means of access. It’s your responsibility to avoid dangerous shortcuts and to
warn against anyone else you see taking them.
Even if the job will only take a few minutes, it isn’t worth risking your safety and health for those few minutes. Wear
personal protection to safeguard your body parts. Use proper, well-maintained equipment. Don’t improvise to save
time. Ladders, steps, and walkways are built to insure your safety, as well as for your convenience. Use them. Don’t
go from one elevation to another by climbing a column or sliding down a rope. The safest way isn’t always the
shortest way, but it’s the surest way.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Noise - Hear Today Gone Tomorrow
Most workers take good hearing for granted. Hearing loss can happen so gradually that it can go unnoticed until it’s
too late. Then, even a hearing aid may not help. Some assume hearing loss is the unavoidable result of getting older,
yet most hearing loss is due to noise over a lifetime. While loss of hearing may result from a single exposure to a
noise or explosion, such traumatic losses are rare. Most cases of hearing loss begin gradually in frequencies slightly
above that of human speech and then subtly spread to lower and higher frequencies. Hearing loss can disrupt job
performance, cause stress-related problems, increased heart rate, fatigue, irritability, tension and lead to unnecessary
accidents or injuries on the job.
The workplace can be very noisy. Both the amount of noise and the duration of exposure determine the ability to
damage hearing. Workers may be exposed to noise from many sources: equipment, vehicles, or tools, to name a few.
Any of these things can damage hearing when exposure accumulates over extended periods of time. How can you tell
if work is too loud and may be causing hearing damage? It’s too loud if:
You have to raise your voice to be heard.

You can’t hear someone less than two feet away without shouting.
Speech around you sounds muffled or dull after you leave a noisy area.
You have ringing in your ears after exposure to noise.
What can employers do to prevent their workers from developing hearing problems?
Good planning can prevent problems caused by excessive noise exposure. Noise reduced at its source should be the
first consideration. Employers should invest in noise-controlled equipment. When purchasing, employers can ask
vendors if there is a "quiet" model or a noise-reducing option, such as enclosed or acoustically lined vehicular cabs
and equipment.Work schedules can be adjusted so that exposure to high noise levels does not occur for the entire
work day. This allows a noise recovery period to be part of the work shift. Equally important is the use of personal
protection devices, such as ear plugs and ear muffs. Employers should provide training on the protection devices
available and the effects of noise on hearing if workers do not use the protection. Training should include the fit, use,
and care of any hearing protection device.
Employers can’t always prevent noise, but they can lessen the chance of workers experiencing hearing loss by having
them follow established safety procedures and enforcing the use of proper hearing protection. Don’t risk losing a
worker’s hearing on the job. Silence may be a great thing, but not when it's permanent.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Occupational Vibration Exposure
Many workers do not think that their exposure to vibration could be a health hazard. Vibration exposure is more than
just a nuisance. Constant exposure to vibration has been known to cause serious health problems such as back pain,
carpal tunnel syndrome, and vascular disorders. Vibration related injury is especially prevalent in occupations that
require outdoor work, such as forestry, farming, transportation, shipping, and construction. There are two
classifications for vibration exposure: whole-body vibration and hand and arm vibration. These two types of vibration
have different sources, affect different areas of the body, and produce different symptoms.
Whole-body vibration is vibration transmitted to the entire body via the seat or the feet, or both, often through driving
or riding in motor vehicles (including fork trucks and off-road vehicles) or through standing on vibrating floors (e.g.,
near power presses in a stamping plant or near shakeout equipment in a foundry).
Hand and arm vibration, on the other hand, is limited to the hands and arms and usually results from the use of
power hand tools (e.g., screwdrivers, nutrunners, grinders, jackhammers, and chippers) and from vehicle controls.
Occupational health effects of vibration result from extended periods of contact between a worker and the vibrating
surface. What are the possible health effects of chronic whole-body vibration and hand and arm vibration exposure?
Whole-body Vibration:
Back pain

Hand and Arm Vibration:
Decreased grip strength

Decreased hand sensation and dexterity
Finger blanching or “white fingers”
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Currently, there are no legal standards that limit exposures to vibration. However, there are many ways employers
and workers can help to reduce workers’ exposure to vibration.
Whole-body vibration levels can often be reduced by using vibration isolation and by installing suspension systems
between the operator and the vibrating source.
Hand and arm vibration may be more difficult to control, but the proper selection and maintenance of tools can
dramatically decrease vibration exposure. Vibration levels associated with power hand tools depend on tool properties,
including size, weight, method of propulsion, handle location, and the tool drive mechanism. Primary prevention
through eliminating excessive vibration and shocks can be accomplished through better ergonomic tool designs.
Administrative controls can be very important. In high-risk situations, job rotation, rest periods, and reduction in the
intensity and duration of exposure can help reduce the risk of adverse health effects. All workers should be advised of
the potential vibration hazard and receive training on the necessity of regular tool maintenance and be taught to grip
the tools as lightly as possible within the bounds of safety.
Early prevention through exposure monitoring and through the early reporting of initial signs and symptoms of
vibration exposure can dramatically reduce chronic health effects.
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The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Page 2 of 2 Occupational Vibration Exposure
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Office Safety
Many workers think that the office environment is the safest workplace. But, a safe office workplace requires hazard
control, good housekeeping, and safe work practices.
Arrange your office to allow clear walkways and aisles throughout the rooms and near exits. Attach tall and heavy
office furniture to the wall to avoid tipovers in an earthquake. Do not store heavy items or hang pictures over your
head in your office or cube. Close file cabinet drawers, file doors, and pull-out work tables when not in use. To avoid
jamming your fingers or hands, make sure that cabinet and desk drawers do not open into walls or other furniture.
Close drawers and doors with the flat of your hand.
Prevent falls in the office by keeping walkways and floors clear of trash, cords, cables, and other items. Clean up work
areas after each project and periodically throughout the day. Clean up liquid spills immediately and mark the hazard
area with a “wet floor” sign until the floor dries. Walk slowly, and be aware of your surroundings. Use handrails when
going up and down stairs. Wear proper footwear at the office; a non-slip sole and a back strap are safest.
Store supplies and materials properly to maintain a safe workplace. Arrange your storage so that the heavier items
are stored on lower shelves and keep lighter-weight items on upper shelves. Keep a sturdy step stool in storage areas
to avoid reaching. Use good body mechanics when lifting and moving items. Request an ergonomic evaluation from
your supervisor if you feel discomfort while at your desk or performing other tasks at work.
Use only approved electrical equipment in the office. Examine electric cords and plugs for breaks, tears, and frayed
wires before use. Do not use extension cords as a permanent source of electrical power; install an extra electric outlet
if necessary. Do not create chains of extension cords and surge protectors (“daisy-chains”) because they can overload
your electrical outlets and create fire hazards.
Periodic workplace safety inspections can keep your office safe. Report hazards to your supervisor quickly and make
sure that they get corrected as soon as possible. Be prepared for an emergency in your building. Know your building
emergency procedures, evacuation routes, and assembly area. Know how to use a fire extinguisher and when it is
safe to do so. Keep exits and aisle walkways clear to allow a quick evacuation.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Supervisor's Signature:

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Page 2 of 2 Office Safety
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Painter Safety
Painters apply coatings and paint to interior and exterior building surfaces with a variety of jobsites, chemical use, and
physical and ergonomic demands.
A lot of painting work is done from heights. Inspect ladders daily, set them properly, and work from ladders safely.
Make sure a qualified person properly installed your scaffolding. Don’t use makeshift ladders or scaffolds that could fail
and cause a fall. Know when to use fall protection and how to use it properly.
Read the material safety data sheet (MSDS) to learn about the chemicals in paints and surface preparation materials
you use. Even though a material may be water-based and labeled “green,” it can still contain hazardous ingredients.
Good ventilation protects you from paint fumes. Spray booths, fans, open doors, and windows can move fresh air into
your workspace.
Choose and wear proper personal protective equipment. Goggles or safety glasses protect your eyes from paint
splashes during application and mixing. Gloves and coveralls protect your skin from absorbing chemicals. Wear a
respirator to protect yourself from dusts, spray paint droplets, and the fumes from solvents and paints.
Preparing surfaces by sanding and cleaning can expose you to dust. Get trained in the building hazards of asbestos,
mold, and lead. Make sure that trained workers clean up these hazards before you disturb them and make them
airborne. Practice good hygiene by washing up during and after work. Keep your work clothes and shoes separate
from your family to prevent cross-contamination at home.
Painting is a physical job, so maintain your overall health and fitness. Choose the correct tools for your job task. Use
tool handles long enough to prevent you from over-reaching. Handles should be soft, non-slip, and fit your hand. Try
different models until you get a comfortable fit.
Painting involves repetitive movements and awkward positions. Rotate your job tasks during the day and take rest
breaks to prevent fatigue. Use proper lifting techniques to protect your back. Wear comfortable work boots with non-
slip soles that will support your feet as you stand all day.
Indoors and out, all year long, painting jobsites expose you to hot and cold weather. Dress in light layers that protect
you from the sun and cold. Practice good housekeeping on the jobsite to prevent slips, trips, and falls. When you work
alone, secure your jobsite by locking doors; communicate your location and expected job duration with others.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Personal Hygiene
Personal hygiene is the basic concept of cleaning, grooming and caring for our bodies. While it is an important part of
our daily lives at home, personal hygiene isn't just about combed shiny hair and brushed teeth; it's important for
worker health and safety in the workplace. Workers who pay attention to personal hygiene can prevent the spread of
germs and disease, reduce their exposures to chemicals and contaminants, and avoid developing skin allergies, skin
conditions, and chemical sensitivities.
The first principle of good hygiene is to avoid an exposure by forming a barrier over the skin with personal protective
equipment (PPE) such as gloves, coveralls, and boots. It is important to check the PPE often for excessive
contamination, wear, tears, cuts, or pinholes. Workers should clean, decontaminate or replace protective equipment
frequently to make sure it doesn't collect or absorb irritants. If protective equipment becomes too soiled during the
job, the worker should stop and replace it with clean equipment.
Basic hand washing and skin care can prevent work exposures and disease. Good washing and scrubbing with water
and soap helps to remove germs, contaminants, and chemicals. It can also prevent exposure by ingestion and cross-
contamination of the surfaces and objects we touch.
Workers should periodically wash their hands on the during the day. In some jobs, regular hand washing is required
by law. Hand washing is important before and after using the restroom and before or after certain activities. Workers
should wash their hands before, during, and after preparing food and before they take breaks at work to eat, drink or
smoke. To control the spread of germs that can cause the flu or common cold, workers should wash their hands
whenever they cough, sneeze, or blow their noses, and whenever they are around someone that is sick.
Hand washing involves more than a quick rinse under a faucet. To wash hands properly, workers should first wet them
under the faucet and then use liquid or bar soap. Hands should be held out of the water until all skin surfaces are
scrubbed and lathered for at least twenty seconds. Workers can then rinse with clean water and dry their hands with a
disposable towel. To wash hands with a hand sanitizer, workers should apply the appropriate amount of sanitizer into
the palm of the hand, and then rub hands together until they are dry, being careful to cover all surfaces of the hands.
For some job activities, hand sanitizers are not an acceptable means of hand cleaning. Showering and face-washing
after work is also a good idea. Proper personal hygiene and hand protection can help keep workers productive and on
the job. Be safely clean with good hygiene.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Personal Protection Against Workplace Violence
Each year in the workplace, an estimated 1.7 million workers are injured in assaults and approximately 800 homicides
occur. Workplace violence incidents include verbal assault, simple or aggravated assault, robbery, rape and homicide.
Anyone can become the victim of a workplace assault, so it is important to know the risk factors.
Factors that increase the risk of workplace violence include contact with the public; the exchange of money; and
guarding or delivering valuable property. Other factors include mobile workplaces (cars or trucks); working in high-
crime areas, and working late night or early morning hours. Finally, workers that have contact with unstable and
volatile persons in health care, social services, and criminal justice settings can be at risk.
If you are at risk for workplace violence, know and follow the safety guards in place at your worksite. Respect
requirements for restricted access to the public. Ensure that visitors are screened when entering the workplace and
escort them throughout the building. Physical separations like glass walls, partitions, and deep counters can provide
distance between you and the public, so use them. Security measures like video cameras, two-way mirrors, and
personal or desk panic alarms can help you communicate if you are in distress.
Know and follow the policies for opening and closing your place of business and handling and transporting cash and
valuables. Make it a rule to work with a backup employee or enough staff coverage if you will be dealing with a
potentially hostile person. Keep possible offensive weapons like sharp or heavy instruments locked away and out of
the public eye.
Get training on recognizing and reporting the signs of a disturbed coworker, customer, or member of the public. You
should also seek training on handling hostile customers and diffusing violent situations. Immediately report violent
incidents and threats to management; often, violent threats can escalate to become violent acts.
When faced with a hostile person, respect their personal space and be aware of your body language, movements, and
tone of voice. Stay calm and diffuse the situation. Try to keep a barrier like a desk between yourself and the person,
but don’t block yourself into a corner. If there is no barrier available, stand at an angle and 4 to 6 feet from the
person; this keeps you at arms length and gives you a means to escape. Have plans should a dangerous situation
arise; note exits, phones, and potential defensive weapons. Use physical force as a defense only.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Personal Protective Equipment - Dressed for Protection
One way to prevent injury at work is to wear proper personal protective gear. Some protective equipment is necessary for
specific jobs, while other items are necessary for any work. Employers should know the hazards their workers face on the job,
then provide the proper equipment to protect against those hazards. It’s important that workers be trained on how to use and
care for the equipment so it will provide maximum protection.
Hard hats should be worn by all workers where there is a danger of flying, falling, and moving objects. Hard hats can mean the
difference between life and death. A bolt, rivet or tool dropped through a floor opening can hit a worker below with great force
and cause serious injury.
Safety boots with metal toe-caps protect the feet of the worker who handles heavy loads or who works around moving
equipment. Rubber boots with hard toes and puncture-proof inner soles protect the feet and legs of those who work with wet
concrete. Kneepads protect cement finishers and others who work on their knees for long periods.
Eyes can be damaged from chemical splashes, dust or flying particles. Protect eyes by wearing approved goggles or face
shields. A pair of eyes are not for gambling. Wear eye protection when working around chemicals, while cutting material, when
using power equipment and when spraying or sanding.
For some jobs, respirators are necessary to prevent noise and throat irritation or to prevent ingesting dangerous chemicals or
vapors. The type of respirator to use depends on the nature of the work. Respirators should be worn when there will be a lot of
dust, vapors or gases emitted into the air.
Even if the job will only take a few minutes, that’s all it would take for a chemical or fragment to fly into an unprotected eye or
a heavy object to fall on an unprotected head or foot. Wearing appropriate personal protective gear will greatly lessen a
worker’s chance of injury on the job.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically
discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with
all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Personal Safety In Public Places
Everyday activities like driving, going to work, or walking down the street include some risk to your personal safety.
Many workers commute long distances or have mobile jobs and contact with the public. Either through crime or
circumstance, people and events can be unpredictable. You can’t avoid all risk but it isn’t wise to act without taking
precautions. The best approach is to assess the risks involved with an activity and take the safety measures that are
required and logical.
Your best safety tools are your brain and common sense. Think how you would handle various emergency situations
and create a safety plan for each one. Arrange to contact coworkers and family members after a disaster such as an
earthquake. When driving, consider where you would steer if there was an oncoming car or an accident. If you are
attacked, decide if you will resist and how. Preparation before an emergency can keep you calm and making the right
choices.
When leaving the office, notify someone where you will be and when you will return. Plan your route and take a map.
Have your keys ready and look inside your car before getting in. Keep car doors locked and windows rolled up while
you are driving. Never pick up hitchhikers, and report accidents or stranded cars from a telephone instead of stopping
at the scene. Park in well-lit areas and check the surroundings before getting out.
On the street, keep to the inside of the sidewalk. Try to walk facing the oncoming traffic to watch for careening cars
and prevent someone from pulling you into one. If you carry a purse or bag, be prepared to let it go if it is grabbed.
Don’t wear headphones while walking – you won’t hear someone approaching you. Self defense and safety awareness
classes may help you feel more secure when you are out and about.
If you are physically assaulted, know that there is no “right” way to respond. You will need to assess your abilities and
the situation, then determine your best course of action. Sometimes, resistance and a shout for help are enough to
discourage an attacker. You can try to talk the attacker out of committing the crime or you can submit and try to
escape later. You should know that you have the right to reasonably defend yourself with whatever is at hand – but
carrying offensive weapons is against the law.
Finally, listen to your intuition and follow your instincts to safety. Don’t be afraid to be impolite, and never stay in an
uncomfortable situation.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Plumbing Safety
A plumber installs, repairs, and maintains plumbing fixtures or systems in businesses, industries, or residences. The
job may include installation and repair of pipes, fittings, and fixtures servicing the water supply, waste disposal, and
heating systems. Plumbers must also haul supplies, cut and assemble plumbing materials, and use equipment and
tools. Plumbing is a simple name for a job that has a wide variety of duties.
Chemical and material exposures are common for plumbers, so get training on the potential hazards at the job sites
that you are assigned. Find out if your jobsite has asbestos, lead paint, or mold. Make sure that it is abated and
cleaned up before you begin any work that may disturb it. If you must disturb lead, asbestos, or mold, get certified for
the work and use the required work practices.
Be familiar with chemicals like solder, adhesives, and solvents that you use on the job. Use material safety data
sheets (MSDS) to learn about the chemical properties, health hazards, and required personal protective equipment
(PPE) that you will need. Avoid exposure to sewage by wearing gloves, coveralls, washing your hands, and
decontaminating your equipment after use.
Plumbing work areas are not always easy to access or work in. Learn how to identify confined spaces and follow
confined space procedures if you must enter one. Avoid oxygen deficient atmospheres and be aware that hydrogen
sulfide, a byproduct of sewage decomposition, can build up to unhealthy levels. Use air monitors to assure your
safety.
Plumbers work in wet environments, so wear appropriate footwear to avoid slips, trips, and falls. Make sure you have
a sturdy shoe with a protective toe box and a non-slip sole. Keep your work areas clear of clutter and equipment to
make it easier to move around and avoid a fall. You can get burns from hot equipment parts, steam lines, and the
release of hot water or steam. Use heat-insulating gloves and eye/face shields and make sure to drain pipes before
you open them up.
To avoid electric shock, only use power tools that are safe for a wet environment and that have a ground fault circuit
interrupter (GFCI). Be cautious when working on metal pipes; if you feel tingling when touching a metal pipe, stop
work immediately.
A variety of hand tools, pipe cutting and bending equipment, and power tools is necessary for working on plumbing
materials. Keep your tools and equipment, and their safety features, in good working order. Keep cutting equipment
sharp so it will work properly. Cut away from your face and body to avoid cuts and punctures. Use eye protection
when cutting or grinding to avoid eye injuries from flying particles.
When you work in awkward positions or perform repetitive manual tasks, you are at risk for a musculoskeletal
disorder. Make sure to use proper lifting techniques and keep your back straight while working. Try to rotate your
tasks and take a quick break every 30 minutes.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Poison Oak - Leaves of Three, Let Them Be!
Thousands of California workers seek medical treatment for poison oak dermatitis every year. While some individuals
are less susceptible than others, no one is completely immune. There are some simple things you can do to prevent or
minimize the unpleasant often-disabling effects of poison oak exposure. Learn to recognize, avoid, and prevent
exposure, and get rid of it when possible.
Recognize - The poison oak leaf looks like a miniature oak leaf, a triple leaf pattern leading off one stem with
prominent veins and a shiny surface. In some regions the leaves remain green during the entire time they are on the
stem. In other areas the leaves change to various colors with the changing seasons. After the leaves fall off, the bare
wood is also dangerous and so are the roots. It can grow in the form of vines, trailing shrubs, or upright woody
shrubs. It may flourish in the deep woods where soil moisture is plentiful or it may be found in very dry soil on the
most exposed hillsides.
Avoid - Stay away from any vegetation that you suspect may be poison oak. Avoid contact with anything that touched
it, whether animal, clothing or tools.
Prevent - Sometimes you have to enter or work in areas where there is poison oak. When this is necessary, certain
precautions can be taken:
Wear protective clothing such as long-sleeved shirts, long pants tied around the ankles, leather gloves with
gauntlets and neckerchiefs.
Several protective creams are available which form barriers to protect against the toxic oil found in all parts of
the plant. There are also injections or tablets that provide protection for some people.
When removing clothing, take shoes off first and leave them outside for decontamination by washing.
Remove all clothing and wash it separately.
Any object you touch after having been exposed to poison oak can act as a carrier to contaminate others.
If you come in contact with poison oak, wash immediately or take a shower, not a bath, using strong soap or
detergent.
When dressing, put shoes on last so that any poisonous substance remaining on shoes does not contaminate
the inside of trousers.
For severe inflammation and itching, consult a physician.
No part of the plant should ever be eaten. It is a violent irritant and poisonous. It should never be destroyed by
burning. Inhalation of the smoke can be catastrophic. Destroy poison oak by using an approved vegetation spray to
eradicate it.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)

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Portable Fire Extinguishers
Virtually every employer provides portable fire extinguishers in the workplace. The California Code of Regulations
(CCR) Title 8, Section 6151details the regulatory standards for fire extinguishers; Cal OSHA is the government agency
that inspects and enforces the requirements. Employers are frequently cited for improper storage, maintenance,
recordkeeping, and employee training required with fire extinguishers. This article is a summary of the code and a tool
to help prevent violations and monetary penalties.
Employers must evaluate the fire hazards and sizes that might occur in their workplace and choose which type and
capacity fire extinguishers to provide:
Class A fires include wood, paper and textiles

Class B fires include flammable liquids
Class C fires include electrical equipment
Class D fires include metal powders and shavings
Class K fire extinguishers are required for commercial and restaurant kitchens
Cal OSHA mandates different distribution requirements within the building for each extinguisher class. Class A and D
fire extinguishers must be supplied every 75 feet or less; Class B extinguishers every 50 feet or less; Class K
extinguishers are required every 30 feet. Class C extinguishers should be distributed based on the pattern for existing
Class A or Class B hazards.
Fire extinguishers should be securely mounted on the wall or inside a cabinet. They must be accessible at all times.
Furniture and storage materials should not block access. Employees require training on building fire extinguisher
locations; evacuation maps can be marked with the locations.
Inspection, maintenance, and testing are required for fire extinguishers. They must be fully charged and in operable
condition at all times; when they are removed for service, equivalent equipment must be provided. An annual
maintenance check and recharge by a trained person are mandatory. For optimum service, fire extinguishers require
hydrostatic testing every 5 to 12 years by a trained person with suitable testing equipment and facilities. The annual
service and periodic testing must be documented on the fire extinguisher service tag.
The code requires monthly fire extinguisher inspections. The extinguisher must be operable and free of dents, leaks,
and other signs of damage. Pressure gauge arrows must be in the green “charged” zone. The date and initials of the
inspector must be noted monthly on an extinguisher service tag.
Employee training is required; it must cover the general principles of fire extinguisher use and the hazards involved
with beginning stage fire fighting. Training should include reporting fires, evaluating fire size, using the provided
extinguishers, and maintaining an exit route. This training should be provided when first employed, when assigned to
an emergency response team, and at least annually thereafter. Training records should be documented.
Proper fire extinguisher inspection, maintenance, distribution, and employee training can make the workplace fire safe
and ensure compliance with California Code.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
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Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts)
What is a Powered Industrial Truck?
A Powered Industrial Truck (PIT) is a mobile, power-driven vehicle used to carry, push, pull, lift or stack material.
There are twelve (12) different types of PITs, and designated types of PITs can be operated safely in varying
environments (e.g. flammable areas, dusty environments, etc.) Talk to your management team to find out what
specific type of PIT your company has and where it is OK to use them within your facility.
Operator Training
PITs are a very important part of material handling in many industries. They are also a source of serious accidents. All
personnel who operate PITs must be trained and certified in their safe operation every three years. The training
includes both classroom and vehicle operation. The training covers:
Features of the specific PIT to be operated

Operating procedures of the specific PIT to be operated
Safety concerns of specific PIT to be operated
Workplace conditions and safety concerns of areas where PITs will be operated.
Learn and practice actual operation of specific PITs to be operated.
Demonstrate proficiency performing the PIT operator duties specific to the workplace.
Powered Industrial Truck Stability
The PIT is based on the concept of two weights being balanced on opposite sides of a pivot point. The forward wheels
are the pivot point. This is the same concept as a teeter-tooter. The load on the forks must be balanced by the weight
of the PIT. The center of gravity is the single point where an object is balanced in all directions. Every object has a
center of gravity. When a PIT picks up a load, the truck and load have a new combined center of gravity. The stability
of the PIT is determined by the location of its center of gravity, or if the PIT is loaded, the combined center of gravity.
Operating a Powered Industrial Truck
Operating a PIT takes skill and knowledge. The PIT operator and those around the operator must treat the PIT with
respect. Using proper operating procedures will minimize the potential for accidents and injuries.
Forklifts must be removed from service when they are not in safe operating condition. PITs are required to be
inspected before use (at least once per shift) and should include, but not be limited to; brakes, steering, forks, mast
chain components, data plate, tires, counterweight, overhead guard, control levers, horn, lights, etc. Using an
inspection checklist makes this task easier and thorough.
A PIT is not a car. PITs are tall and narrow and tip over easily, so operators must drive cautiously. Stopping a PIT is
also not the same as stopping a car. The two small wheels are the braking wheels, so PITs do not stop quickly.
Powered Industrial Truck Safety
The most recent OSHA data indicates 95,000 workers are injured, and approximately 100 are killed each year in PIT
related incidents. Most PIT injuries are caused by tip over accidents. The primary causes of tip overs are excessive
speed while turning and raised, unbalanced loads. The best way to avoid tip overs is to properly counterbalance your
load. All loads must be placed as close to the back of the forks as possible.
General Safety Rules
Keep the load low

Never carry riders
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Plan your route
Follow safe speed limits
Park safely
Watch for pedestrians
Avoid sharp turns
Watch for chuckholes
Leave aisle room
Maintain safe visibility
Watch the slope
Use your horn when approaching
Follow all the rules of your company’s Powered Industrial Truck safety program.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Date:

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Practice Good Housekeeping
Good housekeeping is one of the surest ways to identify a safe workplace. You can tell how workers' feel about safety just by
looking at their housekeeping practices. Good housekeeping isn't the result of cleaning up once a week or even once a day.
It's the result of keeping cleaned-up all the time. It's an essential factor in a good safety program, promoting safety, health,
production, and morale.
Whose responsibility is housekeeping? It's everyone's. Clean work areas and aisles help eliminate tripping hazards.
Respecting "wet floor" signs and immediately cleaning up spills prevents slipping injuries. Keeping storage areas uncluttered
reduces the chances of disease and fire as well as slips, trips, and falls. Accumulated debris can cause fires, and clutter slows
movement of personnel and equipment during fires.
Other housekeeping practices include keeping tools and equipment clean and in good shape or keeping hoses and cables or
wires bundled when not in use. Broken glass should be picked up immediately with a broom and dustpan, never with bare
hands. Be aware of open cabinet drawers, electric wires, sharp corners or protruding nails. Either correct the unsafe condition
if you are able and it is safe to do so, or notify the person responsible for overall maintenance that something should be done.
How a workplace looks makes an impression on employees and visitors alike. A visitor's first impression of a business is
important because that image affects the amount of business it does. Good housekeeping goes hand-in-hand with good public
relations. It projects order, care, and pride.
Besides preventing accidents and injuries, good housekeeping saves space, time, and materials. When a workplace is clean,
orderly, and free of obstruction; work can get done safely and properly. Workers feel better, think better, do better work, and
increase the quantity and quality of their work.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically
discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies
with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Prevent Injuries From Falling Objects
Objects falling from above and striking people below have caused serious industrial injuries and account for a number
of fatalities every year. Although the exact number of “falling object” injuries is difficult to determine, documents
produced in several recent court cases suggest that the practice of “high stacking” materials and supplies poses a
serious safety threat to those below.
Provide Adequate Warning - Workers or customers below depend on those working above for their safety. If you’re
going to be doing work overhead, warn those in the area either verbally or with signs, ropes or barricades. For those
below, it’s their responsibility to be aware of the work being done overhead and observe the warnings and barricades.
Secure The Load - If you’ll be lifting a load to a higher level, make sure the load is balanced and secured so it won’t
slip off. Restraints such as nylon strapping bands can be used to secure overhead goods. In some cases, merchandise
to be stacked on top of racks can be shrink-wrapped in plastic to provide stability and keep loose boxes and other
items from falling. If using plastic wrap remember that the plastic may stretch due to the high heat at the top of the
racks and may cause the load to shift. Another safety precaution is to provide netting on stored items or restraining
bars to keep the load in place. If you’re placing a load on a scaffold or platform, make sure there are guard rails or toe
boards to prevent material from fall off.
Moving A Load - Never lift, lower or swing a load over anyone’s head! Block off areas where loads are being lifted or
lowered. Have a “spotter” in the adjoining aisle where items might be pushed off racks or platforms during moving or
stacking of materials. If possible, restrict these stacking and heavy moving operations to hours when fewer people are
present.
Practice Good Housekeeping - Keep tools and other materials away from edges and off of railings or sills. Stack them
on a flat surface; crosstie or cover them, if necessary, to keep them in place. If you’re working overhead, watch that
you don’t kick, throw or sweep material off that could fall on anyone below.
Whenever there’s a risk of falling objects at a worksite, an employer is required to provide protection for workers and
visitors to the site. Hard hats and safety shoes are examples of personal protection against falling objects.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Preventing Heat-Related Illnesses
When the body heats up faster than it can cool itself, mild to severe illnesses may develop. It’s important to recognize
the symptoms of heat-related illnesses and understand how to prevent, control and respond to their effects.
Air temperature, humidity and clothing can increase the risk of developing heat-related illnesses. So can age, sex,
weight, physical fitness, nutrition, alcohol or drug use, or pre-existing diseases like diabetes. How can you prevent or
control heat-related illnesses?
Drink water - Drink small amounts of water frequently, about a cup every 15-20 minutes. (Alcohol increases
the loss of body fluids.)
Limit exposure time and/or temperature - Try to schedule hot jobs for cooler times of the day or cooler seasons
of the year. Take rest breaks in cool areas. Add more workers to reduce workload or reduce the workday.
Acclimatization - Gradually adapting to heat will reduce the severity of heat stress.
Engineering controls - Mechanize heavy jobs or increase air movement with fans or coolers.
Wearing loose, lightweight clothing - Clothing can affect heat buildup.
Salt tablets should not be used - Taking salt tablets can raise blood pressure, cause stomach ulcers, and
seriously affect workers with heart disease.
Someone with a mild reaction to heat may have a rash called "prickly heat" or painful muscle spasms, called heat
cramps, during or after activity. A mild reaction may also include fatigue or dizziness. You may notice a change in
physical or mental performance and an increase in accidents. A person with a moderate reaction or heat exhaustion,
will have some or all of the following symptoms: excessive sweating, cold, moist, pale or flushed skin, thirst, extreme
weakness or fatigue, headache, nausea, lack of appetite, rapid weak pulse, or giddiness and if not properly treated,
the victim may collapse.
Anyone with mild or moderate symptoms should be moved to a cool, shaded place with circulating air. They should lie
down and, if conscious, be given small sips of cool water at frequent intervals. If symptoms continue, a doctor should
be called.
In severe cases of heat illness, a heat stroke may result. The victim’s face is flushed red and their skin is hot and dry
with no sweating. They develop a severe headache with deep, rapid breathing. They have a very high fever and may
become delirious. They may become unconscious, have convulsions, or lapse into a coma. This condition is fatal
unless emergency medical treatment is obtained. Immediately call for medical help. In the meantime, get them out of
the hot environment. Loosen clothing and pour water over the entire body. Get air circulating around the body.
Recognizing the warning signs and symptoms of heat-related illnesses and using preventive and control measures can
reduce the frequency and severity of heat illness while increasing worker productivity.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Preventing Silicosis
There is a general lack of awareness about the nature of the disease silicosis and about the sources of silica exposure
in the worksite. More than 1 million U.S. workers are exposed to crystalline silica (free silica). Overexposure to
crystalline silica can cause silicosis, a disabling lung disease.
Sand, rock, and soil are the most common materials that contain silica. The most common form of crystalline silica is
known as quartz. Inhalation of airborne dusts that contain crystalline silica can occur in a wide variety of settings:
mining, quarrying, and stone cutting; foundry operations; paint-blasting and sand-blasting; glass manufacturing and
etching; and in some types of construction work. When might you expect silica exposure?
During work with dry sand, quartz, or clay that contains silica

During demolition of concrete, brick, and mortar
During drilling of quartz-containing rock, clay, or sandy soil
During dry sweeping of concrete, rock, clay, or sand dust
Inhalation of crystalline silica can lead to chronic or accelerated silicosis. Chronic silicosis, the most common form of
the disease, usually occurs after 10 or more years of overexposure. As silicosis progresses, symptoms appear such as
severe cough and shortness of breath following physical exertion. Without adequate dust controls, tunnel construction
workers may develop accelerated silicosis, which results from very high silica exposures and develops over a period of
only 5-10 years.
There are many things that employers and workers can do to help prevent silicosis, including:
Control overall dust exposures by minimizing the dust around work areas.

Substitute less hazardous abrasive-blasting materials for those containing crystalline silica.
Install engineering controls (local exhaust ventilation) and containment methods (blast-cleaning machines and
cabinets) to prevent dust from being released into the air.
Train workers about health effects of silica dust and good work practices that reduce dust.
Wet down surfaces before clean-up.
Use vacuums with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters or wet-sweeping for clean-up.
Never dry sweep or blow dust with compressed air.
Wear respirators, where necessary, to avoid breathing dusts.
Be aware that the highest silica concentrations may occur inside enclosed areas during tasks such as concrete
or masonry sawing or abrasive blasting. Wear air-supplied respirators under high dust conditions.
Shower or wash up and change into clean clothes before leaving the worksite.
The keys to preventing silicosis are to minimize the amount of silica-containing dust in the air and to avoid breathing
silica-containing dust. There is no cure for the disease once it develops, but it is 100 percent preventable if employers
and workers work together to minimize exposures.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
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Preventing Strains and Sprains
Lifting, pushing, and overreaching are common causes of strains and sprains. Any job that requires you to sit or stand bent in an
awkward position for long periods of time can cause excess stress and strain on muscles. Most strains and sprains affect the back,
arms, and shoulders. However, there are some very simple things you can do to prevent or minimize body strains and sprains.
Many strains and sprains occur because of poor material handling. Workers lift things that weigh too much or they lift incorrectly.
Lift correctly by bending your knees, not your back. Carry loads close to your body. Injuries can occur when workers try to pull or
lift a heavy or awkward object without help or lift an object while twisting from the waist. When carrying a load, avoid bending or
lifting upward unnecessarily. Keep as much of the load as you can at waist level.
Get help with heavy loads. Don't try to move or lift an object you can't handle. Instead of lifting a 75-pound load, break it down
into smaller parts. If you can't break it down, get help from a mechanical device or lift it with another worker. Make sure moving
equipment works properly or it will cause you to strain unnecessarily just trying to get it to work. If the wheels on a cart are not
aligned, you could strain your arms, shoulders, and back trying to move it.
Change your working positions frequently. Chronic strain due to an unchanging work position can weaken your back, arms, and
shoulders. Adjust working heights to prevent slumping or excessive reaching. A vicious cycle develops when chronic strain
continues; muscles become less able to withstand strenuous activity and grow more prone to injury of all kinds. Stretch during
the day to increase your flexibility. Take body relaxation breaks by letting your shoulders and neck muscles go limp; swivel your
head or arms or flex your hands and fingers.
Take care of your whole body with exercise, proper posture, a sensible diet and adequate rest. If your muscles or ligaments have
weakened over time from lack of exercise or age, you are more apt to get a strain or sprain than if your are physically fit.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance
purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. We
do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws,
regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Protect Yourself Against UV Radiation
Many workers say that worrying about their skin doesn't rank very high on their list of priorities; but outdoor workers
are at great risk of developing skin cancer as a result of overexposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR).
Working around reflective or hot surfaces and equipment compounds the danger of overexposure to the sun. The
most dangerous time of the day is between 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. when the sun's rays are strongest. If you must be
outdoors during these hours, follow these suggestions:
Use a sunscreen, not just any kind, but one with a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 15. The American
Cancer Society recommends applying sunscreen to all body surfaces not covered with hair, a hat or clothing,
about 20 minutes before going outside. If you perspire heavily or work around the water, use a waterproof
sunscreen reapplied periodically.
Cover exposed areas. Sweltering temperatures can lure you into unsafe sun behavior. Many workers complain,
"It's too hot to wear pants and long-sleeved shirts," so they choose shorts, tank tops or go shirtless. The body
of the less dressed becomes a target for the burning sun. To help prevent burning, wear lightweight, tightly
woven but opaque clothing.
A wide-brimmed safety hat should be worn to protect your head and face from direct sunlight. It should protect
ear tips, neck, temples, and lower face. A bandana worn around the neck provides further protection.
Wear sunglasses. UVR damage to the eyes is often overlooked by outdoor workers, yet eyes are six times more
sensitive than skin to ultraviolet radiation. Sunglasses or other protective eyewear is a must. Ultraviolet light
increases the risk of cataracts and photokeratitis (inflammation of the cornea). Make sure you wear sunglasses
that block out UVR rays. This type of protection is particularly important if working around water.
Even on cloudy days, outdoor workers are at risk of overexposure from the sun's ultraviolet rays. Clouds, wind or
other weather conditions, and shiny or reflective surfaces like water or metal intensify the sun's ability to burn the
skin. By paying attention to the day's sun forecast and taking the appropriate precautions, you can stay safe while
working under the sun.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Pruning Safety
Plant and tree pruning is a necessary part of many agricultural-related operations. And although pruning may seem
like a simple task, pruners need to be aware of the safety issues and hazards associated with pruning activities.
Before pruning begins, workers should receive training in pruning hazards; safe pruning techniques; safe tool
handling; ladder safety; and the proper personal protection to be worn.
Above all, pruners should be dressed for protection. Personal protective equipment like protective eyewear, gloves,
headwear, shoes, long-sleeved shirts, and pants help shield workers from many pruning hazards. Workers should be
appropriately dressed for the day’s weather conditions with light-colored, thin clothing for the hot days and warmer
layers for cold or wet days. And for all outdoor work, adequate sunscreen and a wide-brimmed hat provides protection
against the sun’s harmful rays.
One hazard of pruning is from the branches or foliage removed during the pruning process. As many pruning activities
require workers to get in close to the plant or tree to see where to make the best cut, an eye could be poked or cut by
a ricocheting branch, flying debris or sharp twig. So eye protection, such as safety glasses or face shields, is an
essential part of pruning equipment. To protect against other cuts and scrapes from foliage, workers should wear
long-sleeved shirts, neck scarves, and long pants. In some cases, a dust mask may be necessary to prevent inhaling
airborne particles during the cutting, grinding or sawing of limbs and foliage. Workers are also advised to wear hard
hats and sturdy or steel toed shoes to protect against falling limbs and debris.
Another hazard of pruning is from the cutting tools required to do the job. Tools include pruning knives and saws,
anvils and scissor shears, manual and electric hedge shears, branch loppers, pole pruners and power saws. These
tools have common hazards—sharp blades and pinching points. Workers can protect themselves from cutting injuries
by practicing safe tool handling techniques, maintaining and storing tools properly, and wearing protective gloves.
Well-fitting gloves can also provide a better tool grip and prevent blisters, cuts or puncture wounds.
Because tree and orchard pruners often work at heights, they should be trained in ladder safety, including proper
climbing techniques, ladder placement, and ladder maintenance. Shoes with good tread provide traction for climbing.
Tree pruners should also note the location and height of electrical lines and avoid touching them with foliage, pruning
equipment or lift equipment.
Other general safety tips for pruners include using proper lifting techniques; avoiding awkward postures; using ear
plugs working around power tools; drinking plenty of liquids to prevent heat exhaustion and dehydration; taking
short, frequent breaks from repetitive tasks; and stretching before, during and after work. Sometimes bees, wasps,
snakes, and ticks may be encountered while pruning, so workers should carefully observe areas for signs of insect or
reptile and avoid or take extra care in those locations. Lastly, maintaining good health and overall strength can reduce
injuries from the physical labor of pruning. If workers prune with safety in mind, they can snip hazards in the bud.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Punctures and Cuts
Punctures and cuts are common on-the-job injuries. Punctures occur when objects such as splinters, nails, glass, and
sharp tools such as scissors and knives pierce the skin and cause a small hole. Cuts occur when sharp objects,
including knives, scissors, sharp metal edges, and glass slice through the skin superficially or into the deeper layers of
fat, tendons, muscles, and even bone.
The best way to deal with cuts and punctures is to avoid getting them in the first place. Wear appropriate clothing on
the job such as sturdy shoes or work boots, long sleeve shirts, and long pants. Consider sturdy coveralls to protect
your skin from sharp and flying objects. Wear personal protective equipment (PPE) appropriate to your job tasks such
as gloves, safety glasses, work boots, gauntlets, and chaps.
Follow safe work practices and know how to use your tools properly. Inspect, maintain, and replace your tools when
necessary. Always use the correct tool for the job. Ensure that blades on cutting tools are sharpened; dull cutting
surfaces can cause accidents. When working with sharp tools, always know where both of your hands are at all times.
Practice good housekeeping with your sharp and cutting tools by sheathing and storing them properly. Place tools far
back on workbenches and shelves, not against the edge where someone walking by might get stuck.
If you have to pick up broken glass or metal shards, use a broom and a dustpan or pieces of cardboard. Never pick up
broken glass with your bare hands. Dispose of sharp objects properly in rigid sided containers that will not get
punctured and spill. Label these containers with the word “Sharp” to warn coworkers of the hazard. Never reach into a
garbage can with your hands or try to “tamp” it down with your hands or booted feet in case someone has improperly
disposed of a sharp object or even a syringe. To properly dispose of syringes, pick them up with tongs and place them
into hard plastic medical waste containers.
If you receive a puncture or cut on the job, notify your supervisor immediately. If you can, gently wash the area with
soap and water. To stop bleeding, apply gentle pressure to the wound with clean gauze, cotton, or other absorbent
material. When bleeding has stopped, apply an antibacterial ointment and a clean dressing to the wound. If you
cannot stop the bleeding, if the wound is very large, or if you are impaled with an object, seek medical attention.
Watch your wounds for signs of infection including fever, severe pain, redness beyond the wound edge, swelling,
warmth, or pus drainage. Get medical attention immediately if you suspect infection.
If your wound was caused by stepping on a nail or other sharp object in contact with the soil, you may be exposed to
the bacteria that cause tetanus. Consider getting regular boosters for tetanus every five to ten years. If your wound
was caused by a needlestick, seek medical testing and treatment due to a potential exposure to bloodborne
pathogens. Consider a Hepatitis B vaccination if you are exposed to potential needlesticks.
Any way you cut it, puncture and cut wounds expose you to pain and potential infection, so avoid them through good
work practices!
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Put Safety In Gear When Backing
There are probably several reasons for the frequency of accidents when backing up vehicles. One may be that the driver
fails to exercise the usual precautions, think that a backing accident is unlikely to result in personal injury. Then too, the
driver may think that little damage is done, because the vehicle is being operated at low speed.
Many backing accidents occur because operators rely too heavily on their vehicle mirrors. Even with the best of mirrors and
mirror arrangements, there still are blind spots to the sides of the vehicle and b behind it.
To reduce the number of backing accidents, we have to know and observe e necessary preventive measures. Here are
some guidelines:
1. Make every effort to avoid backing. Park so that you can move forward when starting. Avoid making "Y" turns in
driveways or roads.
2. Park in a location away from traveling or parked vehicles, thus avoiding setting yourself up for a collision.
3. If parked in one spot for any period of time, walk around your vehicle and check for any children, other vehicles or
obstacles. (Did you ever wonder why some companies require a cone to e placed at the rear of any parked service
vehicle? That's one reason.)
4. Whenever you can't see through a rear window, the law requires that a signal person be stationed where they can
view the rear of the vehicle and be seen by the operator.
5. Before backing, sound your horn with two quick beeps, check rear and side view mirrors, watch side clearances and
then back slowly.
Backing a vehicle is often said to be a true test of a driver's ability. Backing accidents can be prevented.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that
it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Railway Operations Safety
The passenger and freight railroad industry has a long history of hard work, long hours, and strict timelines. Railroad
worker injuries and fatalities have dropped over time, but they still occur at higher rates than many other industries.
Track work and rail yard work are the most dangerous in the industry with the highest fatality rates. Workers can get
struck by trains when working on active tracks, there is miscommunication with control centers and operators, and/or
limited line of sight. Plan maintenance work and limit it to inactive tracks. For routine and emergency repairs,
communicate with the yard, controller, and operators about where and when you work. Use switch controllers and
spotters as warning systems.
Caught/crush injuries are hazards during coupling, switching, operating doors and hatches, and loading cars. Wear
sturdy work gloves for these tasks. Check railcar doors for damage and stability. Open doors slowly to ensure that the
load has not shifted. Do not walk between cars unless they are secured (apply brakes, chock and block, derail, or use
bumper blocks). If winches or capstans are being used to move cars, don’t stand between them.
Keep the rail yard clear of debris and garbage to prevent slips, trips and falls. Clean and maintain walking surfaces of
stations and trains. Place guards and warning signs around elevated openings of trains and platforms. Never jump
from railcars; the impact of hitting the ground can cause strains and sprains. Wear protective footwear with a heel
and non-slip sole.
Railroad work is strenuous. It involves 24-hour, outdoor work all year. Maintain your level of fitness to adapt to
changing seasons, your work schedule, and stress. Follow guidelines for hours of service rest. Eat high-energy foods,
drink plenty of fluids, and exercise to maintain energy and alertness on shift work. Use good lifting techniques and
keep a straight back when moving cars or freight to avoid strains and sprains. Never use drugs or alcohol before or
during a work shift. Fatigue and lack of attention can cause serious errors, leading to injury or a fatal mistake.
Railcars and tankers carry hazardous materials and wastes that pose spill and fire hazards. Be prepared for
emergencies; know what materials are being transported and stored in the yard and cars. Material Safety Data Sheets
(MSDS) provide information on material properties and emergency procedures for firefighting and spill cleanup. Get
training on chemical safety, emergency response, and emergency equipment you may need to use.
Railway security such as vandalism, workplace violence, and terrorism are concerns due to remote locations and 24-
hour work in all types of neighborhoods. Restrict access and maintain adequate lighting in rail yards. Worker
identification (badge) systems help identify authorized workers. Secure trains and control centers from the inside to
prevent intruders and trespassing. Use radios and cell phones to communicate during operations and in case of
emergency.
To work safely, know your safety program and how to report hazards. Analyze your work hazards and outline training,
procedures, equipment, and protective gear for safety. If multiple users or contractors share the rail system,
coordinate safety programs.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Rebar / Impalement Protection
Steel reinforcing bars, or rebar, are a common hazard on construction sites. The thin steel bars can stick out from
construction projects and pose a hazard to workers who can cut or scratch themselves on the sharp ends. Workers
that stumble or fall onto the exposed steel bars can be pierced or impaled on them, resulting in serious internal
injuries and death.
To protect workers from this hazard, CalOSHA requires that rebar and other projections on the worksite "be guarded
to eliminate the hazard of impalement." Guarding from rebar impalement hazards must be done when workers will be
working around or at any height above exposed rebar. This also includes work situations where rebar is below grade
or in a basement.
Fall prevention methods such as guardrails and personal fall protection systems are the first level of protection for
workers. These should be used any time workers are exposed to potential falls of ten feet or greater; a fall from any
height can seriously injure a worker.
The next level of impalement protection is to use protective guard systems to cover the protruding ends. Steel
reinforced rebar caps provide the strongest and best impalement protection for workers. Proper protective rebar caps
should be at least 4” square or, if they are round, they should have a 4.5 inch diameter.
Some rebar caps are too narrow or not steel-reinforced. If a worker falls on a standard plastic cap, the impact
pressure can push the rebar through the cap and impale the worker, or impale the worker cap and all. Standard
mushroom rebar caps and/or covers are only appropriate to prevent cuts, abrasions or other minor injuries when
workers are working at grade with rebar and when there is no impalement hazard.
Long 2 x 4 wood caps or other manufactured troughs can be used to effectively protect exposed rebar. Protective
rebar caps and troughs must have passed a drop test of 250 pounds from 10 feet above to prove that they can
protect against impalement. If you construct protective wood troughs on the job site, they should be built according to
a registered engineer’s drawings (keep the plans on site), or to the Cal OSHA specifications set in Appendix Plate C-
25, available online at http://www.dir.ca.gov/Images/t8img/1938-48.gif
Workers should be vigilant around exposed rebar ends. Fall prevention is the first defense and covered rebar ends are
extra insurance against impalement in case of a fall. With the focus on safety and protected rebar ends, this is one
safety point workers will be glad to miss.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Refuse and Recycle Workers
Refuse and recycle workers keep our homes, streets, and alleyways clear of the debris created from everyday
living. They pick up the garbage for disposal, green waste for composting, and “blue stream” waste for recycle and
reuse. While the industry has more automated equipment in use than ever before, the hazards such as ergonomic
injuries, hazardous wastes, and vehicle accidents remain.
Vehicle safety is the single most important part of your job. Get driver safety and defensive driving training to protect
yourself on the road. Refuse and recycle workers are listed in the top ten most hazardous occupations because they
are often struck by vehicles impatient to pass a slow moving waste truck or because they fall underneath their own
trucks. The safest way to ride in a waste truck is to be seat belted into the cab.
If you must ride on a waste truck, stand only on the dedicated riding platforms and grasp the hand-holds firmly. Do
not lean out from the vehicle. Stay on the truck until it comes to a complete halt. Do not ride the vehicle if it is
backing, exceeds ten miles per hour, or travels more than 1000 feet. Never ride on a truck loading sill or in its
hoppers. Ideally, waste trucks with a foot crew should have backup beepers, plenty of mirrors, and technology such
as cameras, sensors, or two-way radios to promote communication and visibility between the driver and the workers
on foot.
To stay safe on the job, wear the personal protective equipment (PPE) necessary for your job site and tasks. Highly
visible clothing makes you more noticeable to coworkers and other drivers so you are less likely to be struck by a
vehicle. Safety footwear with wide cleats and a slip-resistant sole prevents you from falling off of riding platforms and
slipping underneath a moving vehicle. Sturdy work gloves protect your hands from the materials you handle.
Get the training you need to operate waste and recycle vehicles and equipment, which often use hydraulic
mechanisms to crush and compress materials. Watch for catch and crush points, use lock-out and tag-out procedures,
and never work on energized equipment that could start suddenly.
Take chemical safety training to understand the hazards of the materials you may find in your pickups. Wastes such
as explosives, chemicals, aerosol cans, and compressed gas tanks can be hazardous when they are disturbed, mixed,
punctured, or compressed. If you suspect a waste is hazardous, do not pick it up or disturb it. Follow your company
policy on the proper response and call-out for hazardous materials situations.
Sharps waste includes hypodermic needles, broken glass, and metal shards. Report medical waste that has improperly
entered the waste stream and ensure that it gets correct pickup and handling. Encourage your service users to double
bag or containerize broken glass and sharp metal pieces to reduce your exposure to them. Never tamp garbage down
with your feet or your hands to avoid cuts, scrapes, and puncture wounds.
Protect your back and muscles at work. Lift with your legs and NOT your back. Maintain neutral postures by keeping
your back straight, your head forward, and your arms and legs close to your body. Avoid awkward postures and know
your lifting limits. Take a short rest break every 20-30 minutes and rotate tasks throughout the day to avoid
repetition and overuse injuries.
Practice good safety sense when you are picking up refuse and recycle materials, anything else would be a waste.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Repetitive Motion Injuries - Preventing Repetitive Motion Injuries
Computers are as common in the workplace as telephones. We use them for everything: creating letters and forms,
writing reports, editing, electronic mail and surfing the Net. Computers require our hands and arms to be used more
than ever. Repeating the same motion over and over again at high speeds with little rest, and applying force to
muscles, joints, or tendons while in an awkward angle may be putting more stress on those body parts than is
necessary and can increase the chance of developing repetitive motion injuries (RMIs).
An ergonomically designed, adjustable workstation is one of the most effective ways to decrease the possibility of
developing RMIs. Here are some guidelines.
Raise or lower your desk, chair or computer screen to get the top of your screen at or slightly below eye level.
The screen should be easily viewed without straining your neck forward.
Use a document holder to position papers at the same level as the screen.
Your neck should be straight with your head centered above your spine. Have your arms bent roughly at 90-
degree angles with your wrists and hands straight or in a neutral position.
Your spine should have its normal curve supported with your feet resting in a relaxed position on the floor or
on a footrest.
Use wrist rests, telephone headsets, back supports and footrests to relieve strain on your arms, neck and lower
back.
Try to keep your hands, arms and shoulders loose and relaxed. It’s important to do stretching exercises before
and after long typing periods. Stretch your fingers, wrists, arms and shoulders frequently and vary your work
activities so as not to repeat the same motions for long periods of time.
Lighten your typing touch. The more force you use, either constantly or on impact, the more likely it is that you
may strain a muscle or sprain a tendon.
Rest or vary your tasks. Your body parts need rest each day. Your risk of injury increases if your body parts
don’t have time to repair and rest.
Let your Supervisor know if you need assistance in arranging your workstation and let your Supervisor know
immediately if you are experiencing any pain or discomfort.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

Meeting Attended By:

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Respiratory Protection
Respirators are a type of personal protective equipment used to provide protection against worker exposure to
airborne substances. Respirators are devices worn over the mouth, nose and sometimes the eyes, that help you
breathe safely in a hazardous area. The best method of controlling exposures to airborne substances is to prevent the
air from becoming contaminated in the first place. This should be accomplished as much as possible by engineering
controls, such as local exhaust ventilation. When airborne exposures cannot be controlled, or while controls are being
installed, appropriate respirators may be used.
The need for respiratory protection may exist in any line of work. It is the employer’s responsibility to determine if the
work you do should be performed while wearing a respirator. Your employer will provide you with the right respirator
for your job. You should not use any other respiratory protective device at work without the full understanding and
agreement of your employer. Before a worker may use a respirator, he/she must be pass a medical evaluation, be
trained in the use, maintenance, inspection, and care of the respirator, and be fit-tested.
There are three basic types of respirators.
1. Air-purifying respirator – these respirators remove air contaminants by filtering, absorbing, adsorbing, or
chemical reaction with the contaminants as they pass through the respirator cartridge. This respirator is to be
used only where adequate oxygen (19.5 to 23.5 percent) is available.
2. Supplied-air respirator – these respirators provide breathing air separate from the environment. The breathing
air is supplied to the respirator through an airline. This type of respirator is to be used when the hazardous
substance has little odor, taste, warning properties, or when the substance is in such high concentration or
toxicity, that an air-purifying respirator is inadequate to protect you.
3. Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) – this type of respirator allows the user complete independence
from an airline and offers the greatest degree of protection. However, it is also the most complex type of
respirator. Training and practice in its use and maintenance is essential.
The proper selection and use of respiratory protection is essential to controlling airborne exposures with respirators. A
written respiratory protection program must be established and implemented. Prior to the use of respiratory
protection, selection of the proper type of respirator by the employer should be based on the following:
Identify the substance or substances against which protection is necessary.

Determine the hazards of each substance.
Evaluate the conditions of exposure and the air concentrations of the substances.
Verify that there is adequate oxygen in the air.
Provide each employee who will be wearing a respirator with a medical evaluation prior to using a respirator.
Fit the respirator carefully and instruct the worker in its use.
Know the limitations of the respiratory protective device.
For more detailed information visit the website maintained by the Occupational Safety & Health Administration at
http://www.osha-slc.gov.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

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Page 2 of 2 Respiratory Protection
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Road Work Safety
Road workers install, maintain, and improve our roads to keep them safe, but over 100 California road workers are
killed each year while doing this work. Road work hazards such as moving vehicles and construction equipment
require workers to stay alert and follow safety procedures.
Before conducting roadwork jobs, review the required tasks, location, and time of day to determine the necessary
equipment, personnel, and materials. Plan how you will control traffic along the road and within the construction
zone. Have enough trained flaggers to complete your work. Gather the signs, cones, flags, drums, and/or message
boards that you will need for the job. Inspect your signage to make sure it is in good repair and highly visible. Clean
or discard dirty equipment with limited visibility.
Get training on traffic control and safe work practices. Set up and maintain your roadside work zone properly. Get
training on the equipment that you will use and drive, from the smallest tool to the largest moving vehicle. Operate
tools and equipment according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Know the hazards of the chemicals and
materials that you use.
Get training on the personal protective equipment (PPE) that you are required to wear, including its uses and
limitations. Wear high visibility garments on your legs and chest. Wear your assigned PPE, including a hardhat,
safety shoes, and work gloves. Consider earplugs or muffs, safety glasses, and fall protection depending on the job
task.
In the work zone, watch for fast-moving motorists and large construction equipment. Set up parking zones that have
safe entrances and exits. Group your vehicles on the same side of the road for visibility. Set up the job site and tasks
to minimize the need to cross the active road. Set up traffic lanes within the jobsite for clear access and visibility.
Work facing traffic and stay alert, or station a lookout to watch oncoming traffic. Have an escape route and/or plan of
action in place. Watch for backing vehicles because the driver often has a limited view. Practice good communication
and make sure all vehicles have backup alarms. If you are flagging, acting as a lookout, or traffic director, remain
alert. Do not drink, smoke, or have a conversation while performing these duties.
Road work is a physical job requiring strength and endurance. Stay fit so your body can do the work. Keep your back
straight and use proper lift techniques. Use anti-vibration gloves when working with vibrating equipment. Take
frequent micro-breaks every 30 minutes to stretch and relax your muscles. Rotate your tasks during the day to use
different muscle groups.
Road work occurs in all types of weather and throughout the year. Wear appropriate clothing for the climate. Light
colored layers and sunscreen protect you during the hot months while layers of moisture-wicking clothing protect you
in the cold. Get plenty of rest, eat right, and drink enough to stay healthy and alert on the job.
Take safety on the road!
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

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Roofing (Heat) Hazards
Roofing work using tar, torches, or welding exposes workers to heat, burns, and overexertion that can lead to serious
injuries and heat illness.
During work, wear light-colored, flame-resistant clothing with long sleeves and cuffless long pants to protect you from
heat and burns. Collars and cowls protect your face, neck and ears. Wear a hard hat, safety boots with a non-slip sole
and heel, and leather or heat-resistant gloves. Don’t tuck your pants into your boots. Face shields, side-shielded
safety glasses, or goggles protect your eyes. A respirator protects your lungs from fume exposures.
Check the weather before you work. Work in high temperatures and humidity can lead to heat illness. At the job site,
try to work in a cooling breeze and keep fumes away from workers. Do the heaviest work in shaded areas and the
coolest part of the day. Stay hydrated by drinking frequent, small amounts of water. Remove your protective
equipment when you take breaks.
To prevent fires, clear flammable material, gases and/or liquids off the roof. Mark and protect permanent building
fixtures, gas, and electrical lines. Seal off air intakes and roof openings to keep fumes and flame out of the building.
Have fire extinguishers available. Make an emergency plan. Know the roof escape routes. Set up communication
between the roof crew, building, and ground workers. Know the local emergency numbers for fire and medical
services. Know first aid for heat illness and severe burns.
For hot tar roofing, wear a face shield when you add tar chunks or kegs to the tanker truck or kettle. Pumping the hot
tar to a hot lugger tank on the roof and then to a mop cart is safest. Hot tar from hand-carried buckets can splash and
burn you. Don’t carry hot tar buckets up a ladder; use a hoist line. When you carry a hot tar bucket, walk cautiously
to avoid slips and falls. Keep buckets and carts covered until you use or dump the materials.
Hand-held or walk-behind roof torches can exceed 2000°F. Don't torch directly onto building materials, flashing, or
voids in the roof. Be careful on heavy slopes; walk-behinds can roll away or tip over. Don’t pull a walk-behind
backward on roofs that exceed a 4:12 slope. When you set the torch down, always turn it off and set it upright on its
legs. Don’t hang a torch over the roof edge. To turn the torch off, turn off the propane fuel tank first, then allow the
gas in the line to burn off. Stop work 2-3 hours before you leave the job to prevent hot spots or smoldering fires.
Welding machines to apply plastic roof membranes reach 1100°F and use up to 220 volts of electricity. To prevent
electric shock, use ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI) and avoid rain or wet areas. Don't touch grounded objects
such as pipes or scaffolding while operating the equipment. Don't overheat plastic membranes, they can emit toxic
compounds.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)

Page 1 of 2 Roofing (Heat) Hazards
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Supervisor's Signature: Date:
Location:

Meeting Attended By:





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Roofing Safety
Worker safety is important on any construction job. Working on roofs is no exception. Falls account for more serious
injuries and deaths in construction than anything else. Accidents occur not only to those building roofs, but also
people maintaining, cleaning, demolishing and inspecting roofs. Any work on a roof is a risk. The nature of the
precautions needed to work safe may vary from one job to another, but not providing safeguards is unacceptable.
There are several factors that contribute to avoidable accidents while working on roofs.
Pitch of the roof – the steeper the pitch, the more difficult it is to maintain your footing.

Moisture – rain, snow or frost may cause slippery conditions on the roof.
Dirt or Sawdust – may cause slippery conditions on the roof.
Footwear – the traction of shoes/boots varies, always wear good traction shoes/boots.
Tripping hazards – tools, electric cords, etc. can create a tripping hazard.
Considerations for roof work
Perform a risk assessment – identify the risks that will be encountered before performing the specific tasks
required for the job.
Getting on and off the roof – this is a major risk point, a secure way to enter and exit the roof is essential.
Fall arrest system – a fall arrest system is required if a worker may fall from an elevated position. As a general
rule, the fall arrest system should be used if the working height is greater than six feet. (Refer to the “Fall
Protection” tailgate topic for further information.)
Falling Material – maintain good housekeeping on the roof to stop material that could fall.
Training – roof workers need the knowledge, skills and experience to work safely.
Weather conditions – work should not occur during icy, rainy, or windy conditions. You can easily be blown off
a roof when carrying roofing materials.
Ladders and scaffolding – make sure they are structurally sound and installed properly. If you have questions,
talk to your supervisor.
Fragile Roof - A fragile roof is one that does not safely support the weight of a person. Fragility of a roof does not
depend on the composition of the roof material. A fragile roof may be caused by; thickness of the material, span
between supports, or the age of the material. The fragility of a roof should be determined prior to work starting.
Slate and Tile Roofs - Slate and tiles do not provide a safe footing, especially when wet. Properly designed roof
ladders or crawling boards need to be installed to work safely on these types of roofs.
Torch Applied Roofs - Torch applied roofing operations can be hazardous. Roofers may sustain serious burns from
the torch or the asphalt being applied. In addition, temperatures generated during torching can start smoldering fires
out of sight, only to burst into flame later. Take all appropriate fire precautions when performing this type of work.
Welding Thermoplastic Roof Membrane - The systems to conduct this type of work use electricity to heat the
membranes, welding them together. Burns and electrocution are potential hazards with this type of equipment.
Safe Work Practices
Keep your center of gravity low and over your feet.

Keep your knees bent and be aware of things around you.
Don’t carry too much or have your hands too full.
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Don’t drop things or let them roll off the roof.
Go up and down ladders facing the ladder.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

Meeting Attended By:





Page 2 of 2 Roofing Safety
1/13/2010 http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=105
Safe Handling of Flammable Liquids
Flammable liquids are used in many workplaces. They may range from cleaning fluids, paints, and gasoline to some
more volatile and dangerous liquids. If you remember a few simple, common sense rules when handling or storing
flammable liquids, you can help prevent injury to yourself and your coworkers or prevent your jobsite from going up
in flames.
Flammable liquids themselves will not burn, but as the liquid evaporates, it gives off vapors that mix with the air to
form dangerous gases that can be set off by a small spark. Gasoline, for example, evaporates at temperatures as low
as 45 degrees Fahrenheit below zero. As the temperature rises, the rate of evaporation increases and more and more
vapors are given off. Vapors are usually heavier than air so they collect in the lowest areas they can reach. Without
good ventilation to dissipate them, a small spark can set off a big disaster.
Carefully read the manufacturer’s label on the container of any flammable liquid before storing or using it. Practice
good housekeeping in flammable liquid storage areas. Clean up spills immediately then place the cleanup rags in a
closed, bottom ventilated, metal container. Only use approved metal safety containers or the original manufacturer’s
container to store flammable liquids. Keep the containers closed when not in use; stored away from exits or
passageways.
Don’t trust your nose to tell you whether an area or container is vapor free. Not all dangerous liquids give off vapors
you can smell. Some vapors are poisonous as well as flammable. Use flammable liquids only where there is plenty of
ventilation.
Be careful not to get a flammable liquid on you or your clothing. It could cause painful skin irritation or ignite your
clothing and envelop you in flames. If you get it on you, wash it off or change your clothes as soon as you can.
Keep flammable liquids away from any open flame or spark and never smoke where flammable liquids are present.
Treat flammable liquids with respect and follow the manufacturer’s suggestions for their use.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

Meeting Attended By:


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Safe Handling of Portable Power Drills
Portable power drills are one of our most useful tools and, with care, they can be among the safest. But electric drills
can be dangerous if not handled carefully. They can cause injuries in many ways – from being struck by flying drilling
material, if chips of the materials being drilled are flung into the operator’s eyes or if the bit punctures or bores into
flesh (usually a leg), and from electric shock.
When drills are treated roughly, dropped or hit against things, or if they get wet, their insulation can weaken. Without
proper insulation you may have a “live” drill in your hand. Then, if you stand in a wet place, sit on a steel beam or
floor plate or if you’re very sweaty, the drill can give you a shock which could be fatal.
Before starting a drilling job, look the drill over carefully. Locate any hazards and decide on a safe plan of action. Here
are some points to check:
The Drill - Is it clean? If it’s dirty or rusty, tag it and return it to supply for maintenance. Make sure the drill
speed is proper for the job. Pull the trigger to be sure it doesn’t work too easily or too hard and that power cuts
off when the trigger is released.
The Drill Bit - Be sure it’s set straight in the jaws. Hold up the drill and turn it on for a moment. The bit should
run perfectly true without any wobble. If it wobbles, either the bit isn’t straight or it’s in the jaws crooked. A
sharp bit will take hold without much pressure.
The Cord - Look for breaks, exposed wires, and looseness at the plug or housing connections. Unless the drill is
double insulated, be sure there is a ground wire and the third prong has not been cut off. Use only grounding
extension cords placed so they won’t cause tripping hazards. You don’t want to have an electric drill jerked out
of your hands and if someone else trips on your cord, both of you could be injured.
Tripping Hazards - Check the floor for loose or fixed objects. When you’re concentrating on a drilling job, it’s
easy to trip over something unexpected.
The Job - Starting the drill hole at just the right angle and keeping it straight, takes steadiness and care. If a
drill isn’t held just right, the bit may bend or break, sending metal flying. Use a pointed metal punch to start
your drill right.
The Material - When drilling into metal, much depends on the material’s hardness. Very soft metals like copper
or aluminum will cut with little pressure. Hard steel needs a different bit. More pressure must be applied, but
care is necessary because too much will make the drill overheat and bind.
When you finish drilling, find a safe place for the drill. Install a hanger so the drill can be hooked up out of the way but
still within easy reach. Never leave your power drill plugged in while not in active use. When returning the drill to the
tool room or carrying it to a jobsite, take out the bit. This eliminates the chance of your stabbing yourself or a co-
worker; even a dull bit can dig into flesh quickly.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

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Safe Lifting Techniques
Back injuries account for about one in every five job-related injuries in California workplaces. Disabling back injuries
are no laughing matter for workers who lose time from work or from personal activities. The sad truth is that most of
the pain and lost time can been prevented if you are aware of how the back functions and how to lift safely to protect
your back.
The back is a network of fragile ligaments, discs, and muscles which can easily be thrown out of order. The back’s
complex design breaks down when it’s forced to perform activities it was not designed to do. Lifting with the back
twisted or bent just begs for a pulled muscle or ruptured disc. One sure way to risk injuring the back is to lift heavy or
bulky loads improperly or unassisted. Never be afraid to ask for help with loads that you know you cannot lift safely.
Lift with good sense and a little extra help from a co-worker or mechanical aid when necessary.
If you decide you are capable of lifting a light load, make sure you lift correctly.
Move in so that your feet are close to the base of the object to be lifted.

Face the object squarely. Bend your knees and squat over the item to be lifted. In this position, the back gets
added lifting strength and power from the legs and arms.
Move up close to the item, because the backbone must act as a supporting column, and it takes the least strain
close in.
Tilt the item on edge with its long axis straight up so that the center of the weight is as high as possible above
the ground.
Still squatting, the feet should be set with legs pointed right at the load, with the back straightened, the worker
may then grasp the load with both arms and slowly stand up with it, pushing up with the leg muscles. If you
can’t lift slowly, you can’t lift safely.
A good way to learn the right from the wrong way to lift is to practice lifting correctly a few times. You will notice that
the correct way to lift is the easiest way to lift the load, with the least strain and awkwardness. To lift the wrong way
will, over time, cause injury and pain. The back can be damaged quickly but can take a long time to heal.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

Meeting Attended By:


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Safe Storage and Disposal of Oil or Solvent-Soaked Rags
Oil and solvent-soaked rags must be stored and disposed of properly to prevent combustion fires. It is important to maintain
proper fire extinguishing equipment and smoke detectors in all areas where flammable and combustible materials are being
used and stored.
Oil-soaked rags are a spontaneous combustion hazard because as the oil oxidizes, heat is released. If the heat is not
dissipated, it can build up and ignite the rags. Special oily-waste cans should be used to store oil-soaked rags. These
containers allow air to flow around the rags, thus dissipating the heat. The waste cans should not have plastic liners and they
should be emptied daily.
Solvent-soaked rags are not a spontaneous combustion hazard but may be a fire hazard, since many solvents are flammable.
In addition, the solvents can evaporate creating a health hazard. Solvent-soaked rags should be placed in closed containers to
reduce evaporation and minimize the chance of someone tossing a lit cigarette onto the rags and causing a fire. The container
should be emptied daily and the solvent should be allowed to evaporate outside.
The Department of Health Services’ Toxics Control Program recommends for rags:
Have an industrial laundry facility clean the rags.

Establish a company policy which instructs the users of rags as to when, where and how the rags should be used,
stored, transported, and laundered.
Do not use rags for spill clean-up because they may not be compatible with solvents already in the rags and they then
must be disposed of as hazardous waste.
Use proper oily-waste containers while accumulating rags for laundering (these are metal receptacles with lids and
ventilated bottoms).
Notify the laundry facility of what oils or solvents the rags contain.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically
discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with
all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

Meeting Attended By:





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Safety and Substance Abuse Don't Mix
Drug use and alcohol consumption are normally considered personal issues. They only become an employer's concern
when they affect safety and worker performance. Drug and alcohol abuse cost employers through high absenteeism and
sick pay. Abusers hurt themselves and their families if they lose their job as a result of their actions. If they are fired or
cannot function on the job, the company loses the services of an experienced worker. Those under the influence of drugs
or alcohol cause friction in the work group, lower morale and work efficiency, use poor judgment that results in bad
decisions, and give the company a poor public image.
Certain times of the year individuals should be especially aware of their alcohol and drug consumption. In the winter
months when the days are dark and dreary, some people experience a sense of depression or seasonal affected disorder
(SAD). They may turn to drugs or alcohol in the mistaken belief it will relieve the symptoms of the disorder.
The holiday season, with increased social gatherings or added financial stress, leads some people to misuse drugs or
alcohol, especially during this year of millennium celebration. Those who over-consumed alcohol or drugs yesterday and
are hung over today may feel out of sorts, still trying to recover, and may not give all their attention to the safety aspects
of their job. Their judgment and safety performance becomes impaired and the likelihood of an accident or injury to
themselves or coworkers increases.
Sometimes a personal or health problem persists. In most cases, the problem gets resolved. But if it is not resolved some
people turn to alcohol or drugs. Even some prescription drugs can interfere with job performance. The individual cannot
think clearly or becomes distracted. This can lead to accidents. Irresponsible consumption of drugs or alcohol not only
jeopardizes the safety and health of the worker and coworkers but it can impact the employer's business and affect the
future of all families involved.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that
it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

Meeting Attended By:





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Safety Is In Your Hands
Agricultural work is hard on the hands. Along with the wear and tear of using tools and handling heavy, sharp-edged
or coarse equipment, hands are exposed to weather, chemicals, dirt, solvents, fuels, grease, cutters, etc. While your
hands are one of the most used part of the body, they are also the most mistreated. Many injuries to the hands can
be prevented if you first think about what you’re asking your hands to do then make sure they’re protected.
Wear proper hand protection
Leather gloves can protect your hands in many jobs. They can provide protection when handling rough or abrasive
materials and give you better gripping power. They can also protect hands from sharp objects, thorns, and cutting
tools. Some gloves are especially designed to protect the hands from solvents, petroleum products, and many
agricultural chemicals. To work best, gloves should fit correctly. Overly large gloves can interfere with work or get
caught in moving parts, putting your hands in danger.
Hand protection can also include specific creams applied before work to guard against dermatitis causing grease,
paint, chemicals, etc. A good hand lotion can soothe and moisten dry or cracked hands after a job.
Keep hands out of harm’s way
Recognize the hazards of the job whether working with sharp objects, cutting tools, chemicals, pinch points or rotating
equipment. Follow safety procedures, even if you’ve gotten away with short cuts before. Even though a job may have
its own hazards, basic safety principles should always be remembered.
Think through each job before you do it, then work carefully and deliberately.

Keep your hands away from rotating equipment and never use your hands to stop rotating parts.
When lifting a load, check for protrusions, nails, splinters, screws, metal banding, broken glass, etc.
Watch your fingers and hands when lowering heavy loads; they could get pinched.
Keep your hands away from loads being moved mechanicaly.
Never use you fingers to test the temperature of gases, liquids or machinery.
If you do injure your hand, get prompt treatment and report it to your supervisor.
Your hands are like finely crafted tools of amazing strength and dexterity. They are your most valuable tools. Protect
them and keep them safe.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Supervisor's Signature:

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Safety Rules for Power Tools
Portable electric power tools are just what their name implies, power tools. Because they're powerful workers need to
be aware of their limitations and potential hazards.
Use and maintain tools with care. Keep them sharp and clean for their best and safest performance. Follow the
manufacturer's instructions for lubricating and changing tool accessories. Use the right tool for the job. Don't force a
small tool or attachment to do the job of a heavy-duty tool. It overstrains the tool and overloads the motor. Keep
guards in place and follow lockout/tagout procedures. Unless it's designed for it, never use a portable electric tool
where there are flammable vapors or gases present.
If the tool is equipped with a three-prong plug, it should be plugged into a three-hold electrical receptacle. If an
adapter is used to accommodate it to a two-prong receptacle, the adapter wire must be attached to a known ground.
Never remove the third prong.
Keep the cord in good condition. Keep it away from heat, oil, and sharp edges. Never carry a tool by its cord, or yank
the cord to disconnect it from a receptacle and never carry a plug-in tool with your finger on the switch. Report any
defective or broken plugs and insulation on cords. Take the tool out of service to be repaired or replaced.
The greatest hazard of power tools is electric shock, so make sure the tool is properly grounded before it's turned on.
It's dangerous to use power tools in damp or wet locations or if the worker is perspiring. Moisture helps electricity
flows more easily through the body. Rubber gloves and footwear are recommended when working outdoors where it's
damp.
Wear proper clothing and personal protective equipment when working with power tools. Loose clothing or jewelry
that can get caught in moving parts. Safety glasses or goggles can protect against flying particles or chips from
entering the eye. Keep others out of the plane of rotation so they won't be hit by flying particles.
Keep your balance and proper footing when working with power tools, being careful not to overreach. When you've
finished with the tool, put it down or store it so that it can't cause an injury to another worker. Keep the work area
well lit and clean. Cluttered areas and benches invite accidents.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Saws/Grinders - Portable Abrasive Saws and Grinders
Many workers have been near an operating portable, abrasive saw or grinder without ever realizing their danger.
Personal safety can be endangered by several functions of this type of machinery - by the power source, blade, wheel
or from a disk failure or hazard from flying or airborne particles.
Before use, tools, cords and accessories should be inspected to insure safe operation. The equipment operator should
be protected from electrocution by a ground-fault circuit interrupter or an assured equipment grounding conductor
program. No one should ever be permitted to use an electrical tool in wet or damp areas. Operators of compressed air
and hydraulically operated tools should make certain that supply pressure does not exceed the tool manufacturer’s
recommendations. Excessive pressure can rupture hoses, damage tools, and increase operating speed beyond safe
limits.
Some abrasive saws are gasoline powered and should only be used in well ventilated areas. Operators of gasoline
powered equipment should comply with all flammable liquid storage or transportation guidelines, and follow applicable
regulations. Here are some blade, wheel and disk tips worth remembering:
Never use an unguarded tool

Never force a blade, wheel or disk onto a tool
Never use a blade, wheel or disk that has been dropped or otherwise damaged
Never use excessive tool force
Never stand in front of an operating tool
Never exceed the safe maximum operating speed marked on the blade, wheel or disk
Workers should also be aware of the airborne health hazards which can come from abrasives and bonders in blades,
wheels, or disks and also from the materials on which the saws and grinders are used. They should be instructed in
the use of any personal protective equipment, including face or eye shields and respirators, necessary to protect them
from physical or airborne hazards when working with or around portable abrasive saws and grinders.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Scaffolding Safety
Scaffolding allows workers to do their jobs at elevated heights. Scaffolding includes suspended systems from
buildings, supported systems from the ground, and aerial systems on mobile equipment. If not properly trained, those
who work on scaffolding systems are at risk for falls or falling objects which could cause serious or even fatal injuries.
To prevent falls, scaffolding equipment should be properly installed and operated. A Cal/OSHA-defined “qualified
person” should study the load, bracing, and safety code requirements for each job site. Properly designed scaffolding
systems have work levels that are decked with regulation-sized planks and have appropriate worker access.
Depending on the height of the scaffold, fall protection can include safety harnesses, guardrails or toe boards.
A “competent person” as described by Cal/OSHA, should inspect the scaffolding before each use to see that it is in
good condition and operable. Scaffolding should be plumb and level and in firm contact with a stable surface. The
scaffolding should be sturdy with all nuts and bolts tightened. Damaged or improperly constructed equipment should
not be used. To avoid electrocution hazards, power lines should be at least 12 feet away the scaffold.
Before a scaffold job begins, all workers should receive training on that particular scaffolding system. Training should
cover all required personal fall protection equipment. Workers should be trained in how to correctly wear the
protection device, how to inspect it before each use, and how to recognize when the equipment should be removed
from service. Workers should know to keep their body belt or harness system drop lines away from sharp surfaces
and corrosive materials that may weaken the protection device and cause it to fail. They should also be instructed to
secure drop lines to separate, sturdy anchor points on structural members of the scaffolding.
Workers should only climb the scaffolding from designated areas on the structure or on properly installed ladders.
Workers should practice good climbing techniques including facing the rungs when climbing up or down; using tool
belts or approved hoists to carry materials up to the jobsite and thus allow the use of both hands; and establishing
solid footing and balance before climbing the structure.
Workers must practice safe behaviors on scaffolding at all times. Only one person should stand on an individual plank
at a time. Materials should not be hoisted or placed on cantilevered platforms unless they are designed for it. Bridges
between scaffold towers should not be constructed unless a “qualified person” designed them. Workers should also be
aware of activities taking place overhead and try to keep tools away from the edges of the scaffold and platform
openings so they don’t drop on workers below.
If workers have received proper training and education in scaffold systems, fall protection equipment, and proper
scaffold work practices, they can work safely and feel safe at elevated heights.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)

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Security Guard Safety
One million security guards in the U.S. patrol properties, enforce rules, respond to emergencies, and prevent criminal
activities. In the line of duty, guards may be expected to maintain order, detain criminal violators or even issue traffic
violation warnings while assigned to a single property or placed on patrol for various locations or territories. Work
settings may include retail stores, museums, educational institutions, office buildings, transportation terminals,
manufacturing facilities, entertainment venues, and financial institutions. With such a variety of locations and duties, a
security guard must put the highest priority on hazard awareness.
Most security work is routine. Hours of watching video monitors and walking a familiar beat may lull you into
complacency. Stay alert and attentive at all times. Get the training required and recommended by your professional
organization, employer of the state. Ensure that you have basic and refresher training on job duties, use of force, and
firearms. Get training on first aid, cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and universal precautions (e.g., gloves and
CPR masks) to protect yourself you from bloodborne disease. PRACTICE and drill what you have learned. Trouble can
occur at any time, so make sure you know the procedures along with correct and safe responses to emergencies.
The leading cause of security guard fatalities is workplace homicides: of 31 homicide fatalities, 25 involved a shooting.
To protect yourself from this serious risk, use good investigative and entry techniques. Know how to respond to,
diffuse, and control behavioral disturbances in the public. Know your clientele – are there potential domestic
disturbance spillovers, drug and alcohol abusers, or mental health issues? Consider protective body army and other
defensive techniques and training to stay safe.
If you work in traffic or parking enforcement, watch carefully for traffic around you. Wear high visibility clothing. Do
not exit your vehicle or approach another vehicle until it is at a stop and all other traffic is clear. Position yourself
protectively and safely when making a traffic stop. On the road, wear your seatbelt and practice defensive driving
techniques.
Seek site-specific training for the property or territory that you’ll be covering. Know the materials and processes on
site so you can respond appropriately to fires, earthquakes, and spills. Read and understand the Material Safety Data
Sheets (MSDS) for materials that you may encounter. Understand and follow spill and release procedures for the
facility. Ensure that you have the same or better level of personal protective equipment issued to the workers on the
site.
Become familiar with your security area during daylight and optimum weather conditions so that you can better focus
on safety when you are called to respond in an emergency, at night, or in bad weather. Wear protective footwear with
a sturdy heel and a non-slip sole. Protect yourself from sun, heat, and cold exposures and ensure that you wear layers
of light and comfortable clothing.
A security guard may encounter a variety of situations, locations, and behaviors. Always stop and assess a situation
before becoming involved. While you are the “go-to” person in an emergency, do not respond if it’s unsafe to do so or
if you do not have the proper equipment. You must first protect yourself in order to protect others.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Sharpen Your Safety Awareness
Sharp instruments and tools are essential to many kinds of work, but sharp or pointed objects can be hazardous and
often cause painful injures. Injuries include cuts, punctures, nicks, and gashes that can lead to serious infections or
diseases. These injuries can be prevented through employee training, protective gloves, machine guards, and proper
equipment maintenance.
Prevent injuries from sharp objects by taking safety precautions:
Select the right tool for the job. Use sharp items only as they were designed. Sharpen cutting tools and knives
on a regular basis. Dull blades require more force and may be more likely to slip, cutting the handler
Wear gloves resistant to punctures, cuts, or moisture. Choose gloves based on the hazards normally expected
for the task.
Let falling objects fall. Don't grab for falling cutting tools, sharp instruments or glassware. Its better to clean up
a mess or replace the item rather than risk injury or infection
Store sharps safety. Take the time to ensure that instruments can be reached easily but pose no threat of
injury. Don't carry loose sharp items in your pocket. Store cutting instruments in drawers or racks when not in
use.
Follow cleanup precautions at all times. Dispose of defective sharps and chipped or cracked glassware properly.
Wear gloves, or use a damp towel to pick up broken glass.
Don't reach into wastebaskets or disposal containers with bare hands, they could contain broken glass or
sharps. Sharp material poking through bags can easily cut unprotected hands or legs. Check disposal bags
before lifting to see if they are overloaded or likely to break. Lift plastic bags from their tie-off point and paper
bags by their edges whenever possible and hold bags away from the body. Never “bear hug” a bag.
Make sure guards are in place on machinery with cutting blades.
Improper handling of sharp objects is one of the leading causes of injuries from them. Don't rush or take shortcuts
when handling sharp equipment or tools. Protect yourself and others by handling sharp objects safely.
Know the risks

Follow safe handling and disposal procedures
Report all injuries and get proper medical treatment
Protecting yourself and your co-workers is an important part of your job. The right combination of attitude and action
can prevent most injuries from sharp instruments and tools.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Supervisor's Signature:

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Site Safety Inspections
Regular site safety inspections using site-specific checklists keep the workplace safe by identifying and correcting
hazards in the workplace. Inspection frequency depends on the hazard level of the workplace; sites may need checks
at every shift, daily, quarterly or annually. Document the inspection observations, identified hazards, and the
corrective actions taken.
Focus on the administrative records and postings at the workplace. MSDS binders, safety programs, procedures,
trainings, and records need to be up to date and accurate. Critical procedures (e.g. spill cleanup, evacuation) should
be posted in prominent locations. Required employer postings (e.g. Cal OSHA, Workers Compensation, and labor law)
must be “likely to be seen” by employees.
Floor surfaces should be clean and free of slip hazards such as dirt, granular substances, equipment parts, water, or
oil. Wet surfaces should be covered with non-slip materials. Holes in the floor, sidewalk, carpet, or other walking
surface should be repaired properly, covered, or made safe.
For good housekeeping, items and debris should be kept up off floors and out of walkways. Stored items need to be
stacked properly on shelving units firmly attached to the wall; heavier items should be on the bottom, lighter items
stored on top shelves. Items stored on tops shelves require 18” clearance from fire sprinkler systems. Unsecured
stacks on floors should not exceed 72” in height. Ensure areas under desks and tables are accessible to allow proper
ergonomic seating and access in case of an earthquake.
Electric panels should have 36” clearance in front. Power cords to equipment should be intact; repair or replace frayed
cords. Check that extension cords do not cross walkways and are used only temporarily. Additional power outlets
should be installed if extension cords are necessary on a permanent basis or there are “daisy chained” power strips.
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) outlets should be installed around wet areas.
Aisles and walkways need 36” clearance in an office and 44” in a shipping area. Clearly mark emergency exits so they
can be seen from any point in the facility. Keep exits clear of stacked material and other impediments. Label doors
that are not exits to avoid confusion. Fire doors should not be propped open.
Ensure equipment and tools are in good working order; place defective equipment out of service. Check that
equipment guards and protective coverings are in place. Store chemicals within their compatible classes; flammables
should be kept in a secured flammable cabinet. Personal protective equipment should be clean and accessible with
available areas and materials for decontamination and storage.
Test fire alarms and sprinkler systems annually. Fire extinguishers should be checked for charge monthly and
recharged annually. Inspect first aid kits periodically and replenish or replace supplies when needed.
Site safety inspections keep the workplace safe; a hazard left uncorrected can lead to accidents and injuries.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Sleep Deprivation
Whether it’s due to workloads, working side jobs for more income or after work activities the result is the same –
many workers are arriving on the job overly-tired or sleep-deprived. Sleep deprivation or fatigue can affect a worker’s
manual dexterity, reaction time, and alertness. Worker fatigue or lack of sleep can affect judgment and safety. And
workers aren’t the only ones suffering the consequences of sleepiness on the job it’s costing employers money and, in
some cases, putting the public’s safety at risk.
Studies show that workers are not only getting less sleep than they should; they’re getting less than they used to. The
real danger arises when workers don’t realize they’re tired and go to work as if they were fine. Workers who try to
function without enough sleep have a reduced ability to recognize or avoid risks. They have a slower reaction time and
fail to make appropriate responses. Their quality and quantity of work is reduced. They have a poorer safety record
and they contribute to higher workers’ compensation costs.
Workers should take responsibility for getting enough rest. They should decide how much sleep they need to perform
optimally. They should examine their off-work activities to see how they’re impacting sleep. If they feel they haven’t
gotten enough sleep to function well at work, they should take a sick or vacation day to recuperate. During their work
shift, they should notice when they lose concentration or start to nod off. When they find their attention wandering,
they should get up and stretch or walk around or grab a quick snack. Casual chats may help maintain alertness and
improve rather than detract of productivity. Since dehydration increases the effect of fatigue, workers should drink
more water during the day.
Although workers’ sleep habits are largely out of an employer’s control or even influence, employers need to be aware
of the effects of worker fatigue and make adjustments so that workers can do their jobs more safely and efficiently.
Although there’s no solution that will apply to all work situations, there are some simple things that employers or
supervisors can do about sleep-deprivation on the job. Employers can educate workers on the effects of inadequate
sleep and resulting fatigue. They can evaluate their work force and assign tasks to optimize performance and safety.
Requiring work beyond a regular shift, if a worker is too tired, may increase the risk of accidents or injuries.
To insure a good night’s sleep, the National Sleep Foundation suggests that individuals should exercise during the day,
establish a regular sleep schedule, and relax before bedtime. Before going to sleep, they should avoid heavy meals or
caffeine, consume less or avoid alcohol and nicotine, and drink fewer fluids that may disrupt sleep. The Foundation
cautions that certain drugs or sleep aids can sometimes interfere with natural sleep.
Worker fatigue due to inadequate rest can affect more than the individual involved. It can have catastrophic safety or
financial effects on co-workers, families, businesses, and even, depending on the job, the general public. Workers
need to get adequate sleep before going to work. They owe it to themselves and others.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Slips and Falls - Avoid Slip-Ups
Slips and falls are a leading cause of workplace injuries. What do experts recommend as the single most important step to
take in preventing slips and falls? Simple...keep floors clean, dry, and free of obstruction. When it comes to safeguards
against slips and falls, nothing is more important than good housekeeping.
When you walk through a work area, look for spills, grease spots or dust (flour and machine byproducts can be highly
slippery). Water spilled by drinking fountains or tracked in on wet or snowy days can create a major hazard. Look around and
be aware of wet areas or objects on the floor. Then take the time to do something about it. Clean up the hazard or place
cones or hazard signs nearby, warning of the danger. People can walk on extremely slippery surfaces by modifying their
speed and stride, provided they know about the dangerous condition. It’s the lack of warning that can cause problems. An
unexpected shift from a smooth to a slick surface heightens the likelihood of a slip or fall.
Look for signs of flooring change. Changes in lighting and floor color can conceal a change in friction or angle between
adjacent surfaces. Wherever possible, waxes and polishes should cover an entire area, extending to natural breaks in flooring.
Choose footwear according to floor surface.
Consider slips and falls when you’re doing a job. Some tasks, such as pushing loads, may require special attention to slip-
resistant floor surfaces or carefully selected sole material and treads. For some jobs, better lighting or a stable brace is
helpful. Carefully placed and mounted hand rails, poles or hip bars may help operators brace themselves. This reduces
reliance on foot/floor friction, which thereby reduces the potential for slipping.
Slips can occur because of how you walk on a surface. Some simple things you can do to minimize your chance of slipping
and falling would be to wear appropriate footwear; watch where you’re going; take slow, short steps where slip potential is
high; and use hand holds where possible.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically
discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies
with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Soil Compactor Safety
Soil compactors stabilize soil by compressing, kneading, or vibrating it to remove air pockets and increase density.
Different compactors are used depending on the type of soil. Due to weight, frequency, and force of movement, soil
compactors can cause serious or fatal injuries if used improperly.
Rammers drive a metal foot into the soil with a high impact force. Vibratory plates use low force, but a high frequency
movement to settle the soil. Rollers knead and compress soil with their weight and movement. Manual walk-behind
rollers have smooth or padded drums. Ride-on rollers can vibrate or use heavy metal or rubber tires to compact soil.
They can be small for patch jobs or large for big jobs like asphalt finishing work.
Read operating instructions and get hands-on training for each soil compactor you use. Know how to use all of the
controls before you operate one. Choose the correct soil compactor for the soil type (cohesive, granular, or mix). Use
machines only on stable ground. Work up or down a slope, not across it. Get training in trenching and excavation and
keep away from the edges of building pits and excavations. Face toward the soil compactor’s direction of travel.
Follow manufacturer’s maintenance schedules and inspect equipment before each use. Lockout energy controls and
blockout stored energy before you perform maintenance. Allow machines to cool before fueling or performing work.
Combustion engines emit carbon monoxide and other pollutants, so don’t operate them indoors or in a confined space.
To prevent caught/crush injuries, maintain guards on moving parts and at pinch points. Choose machines with safety
bars or switches that stop the machine if the operator lets go. Use backup alarms to warn pedestrians of ride-on
compactor movements. Rollover Protective Structures (ROPS) and seatbelts keep you safe. Don’t operate a soil
compactor if you are a minor or under the influence of medication, drugs, or alcohol.
Extended use of a vibrating soil compactor can lead to vibration syndrome, an ergonomic injury causing damage to
finger circulation and nerves. Symptoms include numbness, pain, and blanching. Soil compactor instructions include
vibration level ratings and maximum usage times. Most equipment has vibration isolation technology on handles and
seats. Excessive vibration may indicate poor maintenance or disrepair. Wear anti-vibration gloves if needed.
To avoid strains and sprains, maintain proper posture and a straight back when using/driving a soil compactor. Adjust
steering handles/wheels to fit your height and arm length without hunching over or reaching up. Keep equipment
controls close to your body with your arms at about waist height. Compactors are HEAVY. Don’t lift, wiggle, or force
their movement. Use loading ramps, integrated wheels, or get help when loading and unloading machines.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) like sturdy work boots protect your feet from puncture and crush injuries.
Consider additional toe protection for walk-behind compactors. Work gloves protect your hands from blisters, cuts,
and punctures. Safety glasses and face shields protect against flying debris and dust. Ear muffs or plugs restrict
hearing loss due to loud compaction equipment. A hard hat and comfortable work clothes are always needed on
construction sites. Consider a dust mask or respirator depending on the worksite and substrate being compacted.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Spill Prevention and Response
Spills in the workplace cause hazards from slips and falls, exposure to the spilled material, and accidental release into
the environment. Know the proper storage, handling, use, and spill response for the materials in your workplace.
Get training on your worksite spill response plan and the materials that you use and store. Read the material safety
data sheets (MSDS) that explain correct spill response techniques, cleanup methods, and disposal. Know when it is
safe for you to clean up a spill yourself and when to call your supervisor, the company spill response team, or an
outside resource for assistance. Know what equipment you will need to clean-up properly. Use appropriate personal
protective equipment (PPE) for spill response such as gloves, safety glasses, coveralls, and/or respirators. Know
where your spill response materials are located at work and how to use them.
In order to prevent spills, use good storage techniques. Place materials in compatible groups and appropriate storage
containers. Securely seal materials before storage. Keep materials sheltered and in the proper environment. Post
material storage areas with spill response procedures and emergency phone numbers.
Limit the amounts of new and hazardous materials stored on your site to minimize the risk and size of spills. Place
materials out of the lane of foot and vehicle traffic to prevent accidental spills. Store materials indoors and away from
exterior doors and sewer drains to prevent accidental releases to the environment. Consider double containers for
materials stored in large quantities, that may create a difficult cleanup task, or that can be toxic or hazardous even if
spilled in small amounts.
When you move or dispense materials, handle them properly to prevent spills. Consider double containers when you
are transporting materials. Carry one item at a time when you are moving or dispensing chemicals. Place multiple
items in a rolling cart or tray instead of trying to carry them all at once. Check storage equipment, material lines, and
dispensing areas for signs of leaks and maintain this equipment regularly. Never leave chemical filling stations
unattended.
If you cause a spill or find a spill, immediately notify your supervisor and coworkers in the area. If the spilled material
is flammable or volatile, shut off flame sources and air the area out if it is safe to do so. If possible, protect floor
drains or outside access areas from the spill. Cordon off the spill area to prevent further access and potential
exposures. If you or a coworker was exposed to the spilled material, use emergency eye washes or showers for at
least 15 minutes, get to a well-ventilated area, and seek medical attention if needed.
Using your worksite spill response plan and information about the material, determine if the spill is small enough and
of the type that you can clean up yourself. Generally, spills of one cup or less can be wiped up with paper toweling or
absorbent spill kit materials. Spills of approximately one gallon can be cleaned up with spill kit materials such as spill
socks, pads, or absorbents. If you use loose absorbent materials, spread them around the spill and work toward the
inside to reduce splashing or spreading the spill. Spills over 2 gallons in size may require emergency cleanup from a
worksite spill response team or an outside resource.
Use a brush or broom and a scoop or dustpan to gather spill absorbents and soaked towels, socks or pillows.
Decontaminate the floor, tools, and other surfaces that were exposed to the spill. Place used spill response materials,
including contaminated PPE and other items, in a double plastic bag and then place the bag inside a plastic or metal
drum. Label these materials as hazardous waste along with the date and the materials that were spilled. Arrange for
proper storage and disposal of all spill materials.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
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specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Page 2 of 2 Spill Prevention and Response
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Spray Painting Safety
Spray painting is a common and effective way to protect and beautify parts, products, vehicles, and buildings. Spray
painting allows coverage of large areas with even coats of primer, paint, sealers, and other coatings. However,
workers in spray painting operations need to recognize and guard against the hazard associated with spray painting
processes.
Many paints, coatings, catalysts, sealers, hardeners, and solvents contain hazardous chemicals. Exposure to chemicals
can occur during mixing of the coating, spraying the material, and grinding or sanding it. Even some surface
preparation and cleanup solvents can pose a hazard, if not handled properly. As such, workers should avoid using
solvents for cleaning paint from hands or skin. They should use water-based cleansers that are meant for personal
cleanup.
Hazardous chemicals in coatings and solvents can enter the body several ways. Workers can inhale chemical vapors
from spraying, absorb the chemical by skin contact or inject the chemical with high pressure spray painting
equipment. Symptoms of overexposure to hazardous chemicals include nausea, rashes, and long term illnesses like
asthma, lung cancer, and sensitization (becoming severely allergic to the paint). Before work begins, spray painters
should read the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) of the chemical they’ll be using then wear the appropriate
personal protective equipment such as safety glasses, a respirator (if medically qualified, properly fit-tested, and
trained), gloves or coveralls to protect themselves against its hazards.
As proper ventilation is important when working with paint coatings, a spray booth is an excellent way to remove
spray paint vapors and debris from a worker’s breathing zone. Many coatings contain flammable substances that are
aerosolized when sprayed through powered equipment and without proper ventilation, such as in a spray booth, these
vapors can build up and create an explosion and fire danger. But to provide maximum protection, the spray booth
must be properly maintained, including regular cleaning of filters and overspray. And to prevent sparking a flammable
substance, smoking and other sources of flame near spray painting operations should be prohibited and tools should
be properly rated and grounded for work in a spray painting area.
Because much of the equipment used for spray painting and surface preparation uses compressed air, workers should
be aware that noise can be a risk, so should wear hearing protection when working with air powered tools. Grinding
and sanding equipment not only generates noise, they also create fine dust particles so, workers should be advised to
use safety glasses and a dust mask or a respirator, if required and qualified to do so.
Consider ergonomics when spraying coatings. Often, workers must hold full paint pots and maneuver heavy, awkward
objects while spraying. Balanced spray guns that fit comfortably in the hand or using hoists and dollies to move
objects can reduce the chance of accidents and injuries. Also, workers should be encouraged to take frequent breaks
and stretch often to avoid strains and sprains. If workers can think about safety in and around spray paint
operations , they can avoid painting themselves into a hazardous corner.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
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Structural Iron and Steel Worker Safety
In the process of constructing the iron and steel backbone of buildings, bridges, and other major structures, structural
iron and steel workers hoist, maneuever, weld, rivet, and bolt heavy, awkward girders, columns, and plates all while
working at great heights. Because of the size and weight of the materials they handle, and the often dizzying heights
at which they work, iron and steel workers cannot ignore workplace hazards.
Falls are a serious hazard. If you’re an iron or steel worker, get training in your company fall prevention program,
which may include nets, scaffolding or fall protection harnesses. Ensure that you wear the appropriate fall protection
gear each and every time that you work at heights. All of the components of your fall protection should be compatible,
preferably from a single manufacturer. Make sure that you have the appropriate anchoring and positioning
mechanisms for your job task. Inspect your gear every time you put it on and don’t use it longer than the
manufacturer’s recommended lifetime for the materials.
Hoisting equipment is invaluable in providing the power you need to move heavy and awkward loads, but it poses a
risk when you place a load and cables under stress. Get training in your hoisting equipment and procedures. Inspect
the hoisting gear and line each time you use them. Ensure that the load is even and securely fastened. Do not operate
a hoist if it’s not in safe condition; a shifting load, a sudden loss of lifting power or a snapping cable could cause a
serious crush injury or death. Move the load slowly while watching for obstacles and other workers. Practice worksite
communication techniques so you can get positioning and emergency shut-off information immediately.
Because it’s your job to physically maneuver the structural components into place and fasten them down, be aware of
the ergonomic risks you take. Let the hoists do the heavy lifting for you; good communication with the hoist operator
can save you work and back muscle. When you’re using power tools, be aware of the potential for ergonomic vibration
injuries. Watch for symptoms such as finger blanching, tingling, and numbness. Use low-vibration tools and protective
gloves and remember to hold the tools with a light, secure grip. Practice good body mechanics. Avoid prolonged
awkward postures and take mini-breaks every 20-30 minutes to give your body a break.
Protect yourself and coworkers from falling objects. Ensure that you securely fasten the materials you’re working with
to the loading equipment or to the structure before you remove supporting cables. Use tool lanyards to ensure that
they will not fall if you misplace or drop them. A one-ounce bolt can feel like a bullet when coming from 10 stories up,
so always wear your hard hat.
A hard hat and fall protection gear aren’t the only protection you’ll need on the job. Wear all of the personal protective
equipment (PPE) necessary for your job site and the tasks you will be assigned. This may include safety shoes, safety
glasses, sturdy work gloves, and/or life jackets for over-water operations. Because a construction site can be an
extremely noisy environment; use hearing protection. Also, as you’re often exposed to the heat and the cold, wear
layers of appropriate clothing to protect you from the elements.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Suspension Trauma
Personal fall protection is important when you perform job tasks at heights. If you fall and your fall protection gear
saves you, you may be suspended in the air for several minutes. During this time, blood can pool in your legs,
deprive the brain of oxygen, and cause orthostatic intolerance, or suspension trauma. If you are not rescued
promptly and with correct procedures, suspension trauma can have lasting effects and even cause death.
You have probably seen examples of orthostatic intolerance without knowing the term. When soldiers lock their legs
straight at attention or nervous bridegrooms stand too long at the altar, they experience orthostatic intolerance and
faint. Because the muscles of the leg are not moving enough to pump the blood back up to the heart and brain, it
pools in the legs and causes the person to faint. With the body in a horizontal position, the blood flow is restored and
the person can recover.
If you are suspended in fall protection gear, you will be hanging straight up with your feet dangling. Holding this
position for a long period of time can lead to orthostatic intolerance and you may faint. You will not, however, fall to a
horizontal position, and your blood will continue to pool. Your inactive leg muscles will use up the oxygen in the
pooled blood and begin to burn fats to stay alive. If you are suddenly put into a horizontal position, such as during a
rescue, this deoxygenated blood can flow back into the body (reflow syndrome) and cause damage to your organs,
brain, and even cause your heart to stop.
To avoid suspension trauma when your fall protection is in use, first be aware of the symptoms you may experience
such as faintness, nausea, dizziness, sweating, paleness, and a narrowing of vision. The risk of experiencing
suspension trauma can be affected by the weather conditions, the shock and injuries sustained during your fall, blood
loss, and your overall health.
Learn techniques that can help pump your leg muscles such as tensing and relaxing them and straightening them and
pulling them up to a “sitting position.” Maintaining these exercises may be very difficult after a fall, so consider
adding foot straps to your fall protection gear to support the legs and give you something to strain and push against.
Pay close attention to the rescue procedures that are appropriate to suspension trauma and to prevent reflow
syndrome. Have a plan in place to rescue suspended workers quickly and get them immediate medical attention.
When rescuing a suspended worker, do not lay them flat into a horizontal position. Keep them sitting up with their
legs straight out in front of them. Keep the worker calm and quiet and monitor them constantly so they do not faint
and fall into a horizontal position. Get a rescued worker immediate medical attention and ensure that medical
personnel are aware of the possibility of suspension trauma.
Don’t leave safety hanging. Learn proper prevention and prompt rescue techniques to prevent suspension trauma.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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The Aging Workforce
The 76 million “baby boomers” are growing older and our workforce is graying with them. According to the Bureau of
Labor Statistics, the proportion of “older” workers (over age 55) will increase steadily from 12% in 2000 to 20% by
2025. The physical changes associated with aging could affect workers and their safety on the job. Employers and
employees should prepare for the aging workforce now to ensure that job tasks and worksites remain safe.
Physical changes vary by individual, but as we age, we tend to lose muscle mass and flexibility; a 15-20% decrease in
strength by age 60 is typical. Employers should prepare for this by examining work tasks and determining the physical
requirements for each job. Job tasks should not require that employees work at their maximum power repeatedly or
over extended periods of time; this can lead to injury to a worker of any age. Altering job tasks and processes and
providing assistive devices such as hand trucks, dollies, and hoists can reduce worker effort on the job.
A worker’s balance, vision and hearing may also change with age. For example, a worker age 60 generally requires
eight times the amount of light to see as clearly as a 20-year-old. Employers can prepare now by examining the
current workplace lighting and upgrading it as necessary. Additional lighting will allow all workers to see their job
tasks and each other more clearly. Non-skid flooring, the addition of handrails, and an emphasis on good
housekeeping can prevent slips and falls. Communication methods may also need evaluation because verbal
commands may be more difficult for an older worker to hear, resulting in hazardous mistakes.
Employees can minimize the effects of aging by maintaining a healthy diet, exercise, and strength-training program to
build muscle and bone mass. Because sleep regulation is more difficult with age, employees should adjust their sleep
habits to remain well-rested. Sleep deprivation can cause reduced attention and reaction times, a safety hazard. Older
workers need to know that the ability to adapt to temperature changes (thermoregulation) decreases with age. They
should be prepared with layers of clothing and close monitoring because heat and cold will affect them faster than
when they were younger.
Both employers and employees will need to work together to make sure that the older worker can do the job safely
within their physical abilities. Employers should always try to fit the job task and tools to the individual for maximum
safety and this is especially important for older workers. Likewise, older employees need to know their limits. If there
are job tasks that they cannot safely do anymore, they need to communicate with their supervisor and consider job
accommodations to protect themselves and their coworkers.
Does the workplace need a complete overhaul to suit older workers? No; but it is always best to adjust the job tasks
and tools to the individual, regardless of age. Good risk management such as job hazard analyses, ergonomics, and
wellness programs can maximize safety for older workers as well as their younger counterparts.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)

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The Mohave Rattlesnake
What is the Mohave Rattlesnake?
Commonly known as the Mohave (or Mohave) Green Rattlesnake, Mohave Diamond Rattlesnake, and the Desert
Diamondback, it’s a venomous pit viper, best known for its especially potent venom. It has a reputation for being
particularly aggressive and deadly to humans; however the scientific and medical literature does not support this.
Nevertheless, it is a dangerous snake worthy of respect and caution.
Where are they found?
Mohave Rattlesnakes are desert animals. In California, they are found in the desert areas of San Bernardino, Los
Angeles, and Kern Counties, as well as the southern edge of Inyo County. Wild rattlesnakes encountered in northern
California or in the mountains and coastal areas of southern California are other species.
Their habitat is primarily open desert areas among scrub brush such as mesquite and creosote, but may also reside
among cacti, Joshua tree forests, or grassy plains. They often shelter in rodent burrows. Construction in areas that
were previously wilderness can create snake “hot spots”.
How can snakebites be prevented and what should you do in the event of a snake bite?
Steps to prevent snakebites and first-aid recommendations in the event of snakebite are similar to other poisonous
snakes.
What are the symptoms of a Mohave Rattlesnake bite?
The venom of the Mohave Rattlesnake contains a potent neurotoxin that has proven to be one of the most lethal to
mice in laboratory tests. As with all snakebites, the amount of venom injected is highly variable and not immediately
obvious. In the case of the Mohave rattlesnake, the severity of the bite is sometimes initially underestimated because
the onset of serious signs and symptoms can be delayed and because severe envenomation may occur with little or no
bruising or swelling at the bite location (which is typical of most other rattlesnake species).
Although there may be few local effects, there may be significant neurologic poisoning, eventually producing a variety
of effects including vision abnormalities and difficulty swallowing and speaking. In severe cases, skeletal muscle
weakness can lead to difficulty in breathing and even respiratory failure. Fatalities, however, are uncommon. Note:
contrary to popular myth, pencil-sized newborn rattlesnakes are not more dangerous than adults. Regardless of how
much of their venom they inject or any difference in potency, they have far less venom available than big snakes.
Research shows that severe bites are usually caused by large rattlesnakes; they simply have much more venom to
inject.
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Where are they found?
This snake grows to a length of two to four feet. The
color varies from shades of brown to pale green
depending on the surroundings. It closely resembles
the Western Diamondback rattlesnake; both have a
dark, diamond pattern down their backs and tails ringed
with black and white bands. However, on the Mohave
Rattlesnake, the white bands tend to be wider than the
black and the diamonds fade toward the tail; whereas in
the Diamondback, the band width is usually more equal
and the diamonds do not fade so noticeably.

Page 1 of 2 The Mohave Rattlesnake
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The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

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Page 2 of 2 The Mohave Rattlesnake
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The Silent Dangers of Confined Space
Workers tend to put their faith in most indoor or confined atmospheres, thinking someone else has checked for safety.
Air, whether life sustaining or killing, is usually colorless, odorless, and tasteless. The atmosphere in a confined space,
for example, may seem like any other. But that is one work place that must never be taken for granted. Confined
spaces have fooled scores of workers killed or injured every year because they thought someone had checked for
safety or because they “followed their noses” and guessed the air smelled OK. The air may look safe and smell safe,
yet be filled with enough toxic contaminants to kill.
Be on guard for a lack of adequate oxygen, for the presence of asphyxiates, toxic gases and vapors, and remember
that all of these can be present at the same time. This is especially true in sewers, pipelines, manholes, storm drains,
tunnels, vaults, chemical and oil tanks, storage bins, farm silos, winery tanks, and brewery vats.
There are no set rules to avoid trouble in these confined places, because there are so many different types of hazards
and kinds of toxic materials. Begin the safety check by knowing the substances that have been stored in the confined
place and the processes that were most recently used there. It is important to understand the space’s use, whether
for storage, fermentation or mixing. These facts will determine how to correctly test the space for safe entry.
Employers should have a "qualified person" determine if a confined space exists at the work site. This person should
be able to identify the hazards workers may face in the space and be familiar with instruments and procedures to test
for oxygen levels, flammability, and exceeded limits of air contaminants or toxic substances.
Before allowing worker entry, the confined space should be tested from the outside to determine whether the confined
space atmosphere is safe. The qualified person should decide on the necessary tools for safe work in the confined
space. (Explosion-proof tools and equipment are essential if the atmosphere is combustible.) The confined space
should be continuously monitored to determine whether the space has changed due to the work being performed. If
testing can’t be done continuously, it should be done often enough to ensure that the space doesn’t get dangerously
contaminated or lack oxygen. Monitoring should be done with one instrument for lack of oxygen and another
instrument for toxic and combustible hazards. Testing instruments should be regularly calibrated noting maintenance
checks. The qualified person must also determine what type of ventilation should be used to draw air out of and blow
fresh air into the space.
Never rush into a confined place to rescue a worker overcome by a poisonous atmosphere unless you’re wearing
approved safety equipment, self-contained breathing apparatus, and a safety belt and line. A dangerously low level of
oxygen or the presence of toxic vapors and gases affects everyone, including those with the best of motives.
Thoughtlessness and panic help no one, not even the selfless hero.
While observing precautions, it’s also wise to periodically re-check the air after working in a confined place for any
length of time. Following the rules of safety can safeguard against the silent dangers of confined spaces.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Tire Wear
The condition of your tires is one of the most important mechanical factors in vehicle safety. There are four ways you
can improve the safety and performance of your tires.
Keep tires properly inflated. Check them at least monthly to notice if tire pressure appears to be getting low. Incorrect
tire pressure can cause uneven tire wear, poor handling, excessive heat build up, and possible tire failure. Check your
vehicle manual for recommended tire pressures. If you have new tires installed, check their pressure. Recommended
tire pressures can vary depending on the brand of tire. When you check tire pressure, do so the first thing in the
morning for an accurate reading. Driving the car heats up the tires and changes their pressure.
Rotate tires to increase life. Follow the rotation schedule in your car’s owner’s manual.
Keep tires balanced and aligned. Improperly balanced tires can produce an uneven ride that can result in poor
handling. Defective alignment can cause excessive tire wear and the vehicle to pull to the side.
Replace tires when the tread gets too low. What is too low? All tires have “treadwear indicators” built right into them.
These indicators are molded into the bottom of the tread groves and will appear as “bands” when the tread depth
reduces to the size of 1/16th of an inch. When the indicators appear in two or more adjacent grooves, the tire should
be replaced. Look in your vehicle’s manual for more information. Usually the manual will have a picture showing what
the tread wear indicators look like. Take a look at your tires on a regular basis. Have a professional check them out
further if you have any doubts about their safety.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Tow Truck Operations
Tow truck operators transport cars and trucks that are damaged, non-operational, or parked illegally, aid motorists,
and keep streets and highways clear. Traffic never stops, so tow truck operators are called out at all times of day,
year-round. The job involves personal safety, driving, heavy equipment, and traffic safety, so operators should learn
safety basics for tow truck operations.
Mind your personal safety; ensure that someone is tracking or has a record of your planned route. Don’t enter a
situation that looks or feels dangerous; be calm and diplomatic when dealing with customers. When exiting your
truck, be aware of the traffic around you; look and think before you make a move. To avoid a fall, use the steps and
handles getting in and out of the truck; never jump in or out of the cab or bed.
Maintain your fitness for the job which may require stretching, bending, lifting, and climbing. Use good body
mechanics and lifting techniques to avoid back injuries. Don’t strain, twist, or over-reach, and avoid extreme or
awkward positions as much as possible.
Drive defensively and stay alert. Avoid alcohol, drugs, and medications that cause drowsiness. Follow safe hours of
service guidelines. Wear your seatbelt. Obey speed limits and road regulations. Don’t multi-task; keep your eyes and
mind on the road. When towing, use your lights or a light bar to signal your intentions and show the rig length.
Know your equipment rating and capacity; overloading may cause an accident. Be aware of your truck height for
maneuvering under overpasses and bridges. Inspect the truck before each use. Check the utility body and mounts and
fix broken bolts, cracked welds, or stress fractures. Inspect the chains and hooks on the rig; make sure the security
pins are not bent or falling out and the chain has no bent, stretched, or hammered links.
Inspect the winch and cable often, keep it clean and lubricated; repair or replace if necessary. Use hooks and clamps
rated at the same capacity as the wire. Maintain 3 to 5 wraps on the winch drum and rewind it periodically to lay the
cable flat and even. Watch the lines so that they don’t get tangled; placing continued pressure can shear the cable
and send it flying at high speed.
When hooking up a towed vehicle, block and chock the wheels before disengaging the driveshaft or the brakes. Try
not to work under a lifted truck; if you must do so, block and chock the wheels, front and back. Use lockout/tagout
procedures on the wheel lift, boom and winches while working under a truck or between the truck and towed vehicle.
If you have a remote to the lift, boom or winch, do not leave it in your pocket or on the ground where it could be
accidentally activated; lockout and secure the remote inside your truck until you are ready to use it.
When working in the tow-away zone, stay in the safety zone.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Traffic Control Safety
When road workers build, maintain, repair, or conduct other work on public streets or highways, they must be
protected from traffic or haulage hazards. A variety of traffic control measures such as signs, lights, and other
devices, along with continuous patrol, detours, and barricades can be used as traffic control measures, depending on
the type of road and the work being done.
Cal/OSHA requires road workers to choose traffic control measures that meet the requirements of the California
Vehicle Code, Section 21400, and comply with the "California Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets
and Highways," (September 26, 2006)." This manual is available online at
www.dot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/signtech/mutcdsupp/ca_mutcd.htm.
When you start work near a road, evaluate the work site for hazards. Look for blind corners, how heavy the traffic is,
and how fast it flows. Note the weather, temperature, and visibility and how they will affect the work that you are
doing and how motorists will respond. Plan and draw out a diagram of your work site layout including the staging
area, buffer area, transition area, and work area. Determine, based on the road type and the typical vehicle speeds,
how many advanced warning signs you will need and how long the buffer area and tapers need to be.
Use at least one warning sign before the road work area begins to inform motorists that they are approaching an area
where workers may be in the road. You may need more signs depending on sight distance along the road. Use a
tapered line of cones to establish and separate the work area and redirect traffic away from workers. Use clean,
unbroken, and highly visible safety cones to outline traffic lanes. Inspect all signs, signals, and lights to make sure
they are working properly.
Notify law enforcement if you are going to be controlling traffic and request an enforcement zone if necessary. You
can also notify and request the presence of the local Department of Transportation. Keep an emergency vehicle,
lights, flares, air horns, and signs available on the work site in case there is an accident or other emergency. Inspect
all of your tools, equipment, and signage to ensure that they function properly. Ensure that all mobile equipment has
a backup warning device or use spotters with radios when moving equipment.
Road workers should be visible to all other workers in the area and to the motorists passing by. Wear warning
garments such as vests, jackets, shirts or pants in orange, strong yellow-green, or fluorescent colors. In rainy
weather, wear orange, strong yellow-green, or yellow rainwear.
During hours of darkness, your warning garments should be retroreflective, meaning that light shined on the clothing
from a headlight or a work light will reflect back toward the driver or user to increase visibility. The retroreflective
material should be visible from at least 1,000 feet. Your clothing should have at least one horizontal stripe of
retroreflective material around the torso. White clothing with retroreflective material is also allowed.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Tree Trimming Safety
Tree trimming operations require climbing, pruning, and felling trees. Hand and portable power tools such as loppers,
trimmers, and chainsaws make the necessary cuts. Aerial lifts and chippers bring workers to the right height and clean
up the worksite. The two leading causes of tree trimmer deaths are electrocutions and falls, so extra care and training
is needed for work at heights and near power lines.
Energized overhead or downed power lines can cause electrocutions if you come into direct or indirect contact with
them. Don’t use conductive tools, ladders, or pole trimmers where they may contact overhead power lines or electrical
conductors. Treat all power lines as “hot” until you verify they are de-energized.
Follow minimum working distances from powered lines when you are in an aerial lift or when you are trimming trees
and branches. If you must work close to power lines, contact the utility company to de-energize the lines or get them
covered with insulating hoses or blankets. Don’t de-energize power lines unless you are trained and authorized.
Practice good timber management during tree trimming; know where to cut limbs and trunks and which direction they
will fall. Inspect trees and limbs for weakness and cracks before you climb them. Don’t use dead, split, or weak
branches for support. Place your hands and feet on separate limbs and move only one hand or foot at a time. Break or
cut off dead limbs as you climb. Always work with another person who stays on the ground. Training in first aid and
CPR are important to ensure quick response in an emergency.
Assess each tree and job to determine the appropriate gear for access. If you use a ladder, tie it off on a secure
branch. Fall protection harnesses and climbing ropes may be needed for higher climbs. Inspect harnesses, latches,
and ropes before and after each use. Watch where you cut to avoid accidentally cutting or damaging ropes and
lanyards. For diseased or weakened trees, an aerial lift may be best. Get training before using an aerial lift.
On the jobsite, conduct a daily inspection to look for hazards such as broken limbs and electrical lines. Call off
climbing or aerial access during wet, icy, or very windy weather. Inspect and sharpen tools to ensure that they
operate properly. Mark off the work area around the tree to protect coworkers and bystanders. If you are working
near or over a roadway, wear high visibility clothing and assess the road speed and shoulder width to determine what
cones and signs are needed.
Personal protective equipment needed for tree trimming operations includes leather lineman’s gloves and sleeves for
electrical work and non-conductive hard hats. Wear eye protection and hearing protection, as well as safety footwear
with a heel and slip-resistant soles. Choose close-fitting, long-sleeved clothing that will not get hung up on tree limbs.
Use chaps and gauntlets during chainsaw operations.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)

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Trenching Safety
A trench is a narrow channel that is deeper than it is wide, made below the surface of the ground. A trench can be up
to 15 feet wide. An excavation is any man-made hole or trench that is made by removing earth. Trenching is
recognized as one of the most hazardous construction activities. The greatest risk is a cave-in. Even a small job can
present serious safety hazards. The key to preventing this type of accident is good planning.
Each year trenching cave-ins result in more than 5,000 serious injuries and 100 deaths in the United States. Trenches
are needed for the installation and repair of utility lines, water and sewer lines, television cable, to build roads, and
many other uses. (The list of the types of workers that might be involved in working in or around a trench is too long
to include here.) Anyone whose work requires them to work in or around a trench should be aware of the hazards so
they are not involved in or cause an accident to happen.
Obtain a permit from DOSH if workers are required to enter an excavation that is five feet or deeper. Cal/OSHA
requires a competent person to inspect, on a daily basis, trenches for possible cave-ins, failures of protective systems
and equipment, hazardous atmospheres, or other hazardous conditions. Refer to the Cal/OSHA Web site listed below
for the complete list of the requirements of a competent person.
In trenching, soil is defined as any material removed from the ground to form a trench or hole. Soil can weigh more
than 100 pounds per cubic foot. Most soil is thought of in terms of cubic yards. One cubic yard of soil may weigh more
than 2700 pounds. OSHA classifies soil into four groups: solid rock, Type A, Type B, and Type C. Solid rock is the
most stable, with Type C soil being the least stable. If you are unsure of the soil type, always assume it is Type C. Soil
removed from a trench must be kept at least two feet back from the edge of the trench.
Safety Hazards
Cave-ins - can be caused by:
Vibration of nearby construction equipment or vehicle traffic.
Weight of equipment that is too close to the edge of the trench.
Soils that do not hold tightly together.
Soil that has been dug in before is not as stable as undisturbed earth.
Water weakening the strength of the trench sides.
Hazardous atmospheres – may be generated as toxic gases can be released by the digging, or accumulate in
the bottom of the trench.
Underground utilities – the location of any utility services must be located before digging. Call 811.
Protective systems are methods of protecting workers from cave-ins of material that can fall or roll into an
excavation/trench, or from the collapse of nearby soil structures. Protective systems include shoring, sheeting,
shielding, sloping, and benching. For trenches between five feet and 20 feet deep, protective measures must be
taken. It is up to the planners of the construction project and the competent person on site to determine which
systems will work best. If an excavation is greater than 20 feet deep, a registered professional engineer must design
the protective system.
Trenches deeper than four feet must have a way to get in and out (access and egress), usually a ladder, for every 25
feet of horizontal travel within the trench.
For more detailed information visit the Web site maintained by Cal/OSHA at
http://www.dir.ca.gov/dosh/dosh_publications/htmlconst/ExcavationTrenchesAndEarthwork.htm.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Page 2 of 2 Trenching Safety
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Truck Tarping
Truckers use tarps to cover and protect their loads and other drivers. Falls during tarping are a serious safety concern
for garbage trucks, gravel trucks, tank cars and trucks, flatbeds, and others.
Because you can’t use hand- or footholds while maneuvering on top of a truck, your first choice should be to tarp from
the ground. Use truck or facility mechanical devices to help. At facilities, spreader bars, shipper’s racks, and T-posts
make tarping safer and easier. Buy or retrofit trucks with flip arms, soft sides, curtains, or sliding tarps that have
ground-level handles and controls. Many forklift manufacturers provide compatible kits for applying tarps.
Fall prevention methods such as facility loading platforms and catwalks with handrails and steps provide safe working
surfaces at a proper height for tarping. Old flatbeds can be retrofitted with railings and steps to become tarping
platforms. For flatbed trucks, temporary nets or railings made of metal, plastic or canvas can be installed to prevent
falls. Railed ladders, rack arms, and ramps can be safe tarping platforms.
When you MUST climb the truck and load to apply a tarp, use a fall arrest system to securely tie-in and limit the
distance and severity you could fall. Consider a helmet with a 3-point harness to protect your head. Overhead lines
and T-posts can be used at facilities. Trucks can be rigged with sliding cable and security bars that you can hook into.
Before you climb onto a truck, evaluate and adjust the load for stability. Use steps or a small ladder to climb and
dismount. Face the truck and keep three points in contact at all times while you climb and move around. Never jump
from the load or truck. Use caution when you walk around and over the load; watch for voids and gaps between
items. When you dismount a truck or walk around to apply a tarp, watch for oncoming traffic.
Tarps can be heavy and awkward; choose the right tarp for the job to control the size, weight, and force needed to
handle it. Smooth undersides keep the tarp from sticking to the load. Use mechanical aids to apply and remove tarps.
If you move the tarp by hand, use good body mechanics. Face the tarp, keep your back straight, and pull the tarp
out with your hands at about waist height. Avoid twisting or pulling down with your arms overhead.
Keep a firm grip on the tarp and ropes to prevent slipping. Spread your feet to shoulder width apart and stagger
them slightly for the most power and stability. Watch for surface winds or gusts from traffic that could cause the tarp
to fly away. Securely fix tarps to the load.
To remove a tarp, loosen it by fanning to move air underneath. Use your arms, legs and body weight to pull the tarp
off the truck; watch for unstable loads! Lay the tarp out on a flat area and check for holes or damage. Don’t walk on
tarps to avoid slips and damage. Get help to fold it.
Plan a pickup or delivery job before you drive to a site. Know the site layout for the customers you visit most. Get
advanced information on the load or material details and loading/unloading procedures, including available equipment
and help. Consider the truck type, height, and access points before you go. Ask directly about the tarping policy; can
it be done on site, or will you need to find a safe area outside the facility? Never tarp on the side of a busy road or
highway.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Trucking Safety
Commercial trucking is vital to our economic system, but those highway and freeway miles can be dangerous without
trucking safety.
The truck driver is the most important link in trucking safety. Stay healthy, fit and well rested. Driver fatigue and
inattention to the road can increase the probability of an accident. To maintain your most alert state when driving,
avoid alcohol, drugs, and medications that cause drowsiness. Learn and follow the hours of service requirements that
apply to you. Don’t multi-task while driving; keep your eyes and mind on the road.
Safe driving techniques can also reduce truck crashes. Follow posted speed limits and local road regulations. Always
wear your seatbelt. Seatbelts keep you in your truck, in your seat, and in control. Drive defensively and never assume
that you can predict another driver’s intentions. Be aware of your truck’s “no zones” (blindspots) and check carefully
before making slow, deliberate maneuvers.
On the road, keep a safe speed and maintain adequate braking distances from other vehicles. Avoid aggressive
drivers and do not use aggressive moves like high speed, tailgating, and frequent or abrupt lane changes. Always slow
down in construction and road work zones and as you pass stalled or stopped vehicles.
A truck driver’s most important safety equipment is a well-maintained and inspected vehicle and trailer. Conduct pre-
and post-trip inspections to check for wear and tear. Make sure that all brakes and the steering system work properly.
Inspect the tires for excessive wear and proper inflation. Check the headlights, brake lights and signaling devices.
Frame and suspension systems should be structurally sound with no cracked or broken frame members. Examine the
mirrors, windshield, and windows for cracks and damage.
Make sure that your truck is equipped with safety gear such as a fire extinguisher and road warning signals. The truck
and trailer should have proper decals and reflective markings. Under-ride prevention bumpers should be in place.
Dash sensors and warning devices should work properly.
Inspect your trailer and load for safety before you agree to haul it. Make sure that trailer couplings and fifth wheel
assemblies are securely attached. Check the load factor; loads should be balanced and securely fastened. Tankers
should be at least 3/4 full to avoid sloshing and the danger of rollover.
Follow-up on all of your hard work! Maintain your truck inspection records, hours of service logs, and repair and
maintenance logs. Periodically, read trucking safety materials and attend training to practice safety maneuvers and
“keep on trucking” safely.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Types of Injuries - How Workers Get Hurt
Accidents can happen anywhere and at any time. Many workplace accidents and injuries can be prevented if workers
know the causes of accidents and they are taught how to protect themselves to avoid injury. Although no one wants
to get hurt at work, there are four major causes for injuries on the job.
Back injuries
The number one cause of on-the-job injuries is physical overload. These injuries are cause by lifting (too heavy a load
or lifting improperly), straining, overreaching, bending, and twisting. To protect your back against injury, learn and
use proper lifting techniques, never bend or twist while lifting or carrying, and whenever possible, use a mechanical
aid or get help with the load from another worker.
Hitting or striking against
The second most common cause of worker injury is being hit by or hitting against an object. The best way to protect
against these accidents is to be alert to the potential hazards and to use appropriate protective equipment (hard hats,
eye protection, gloves). Be aware of your body and the space around you. Give yourself enough clearance when
passing by or ducking under equipment or going through a passageway.
Falls
To avoid injuries from falls, be sure that your footing is firm and wear slip-resistant soled shoes. Watch where you're
walking. Don't walk backward to direct equipment or leap from one level to another. Make sure you can see over the
load you carry and that walkways are well-lighted and clear of obstacles. Clean up spills or grease spots and use
handrails when walking on stairs.
Machine Accidents
The fourth major cause of on-the-job injury is machine-related accidents, that is, getting caught by moving machine
parts. When working around any moving equipment (a machine that rotates, slides, or presses) always use safety
shields, guards, and lock-out procedures. Only work on a machine that you have been trained to use. Never wear
jewelry or loose-fitting clothing that could get caught in the moving equipment.
Be alert to the hazards you face on your job and learn what you should do to protect yourself against accidents and
injuries and follow your company's established safety guidelines.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

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Use Your Head, Wear Your Hard Hat
Your head is the most important part of your body. You think, feel, talk, smell, and hear with your head. Therefore, it makes
sense that you should protect your head from any injury.
Wearing a hard hat is the first line of defense against head injuries on the job. A hard hat can protect your head against the
hazard of falling material and guard against accidental bumping. The hard hat softens any blow to the head. It resists and
deflects the blow and distributes the impact over a large area. The hat’s suspension acts as a shock absorber.Even if the hat
dents or shatters, it still takes some of the force out of the blow and off your head. It can also shield your scalp, face, neck,
and shoulders against spills or splashes.
Choose the hard hat most suitable for the work being performed and only wear approved hard hats manufactured to meet
required standards. These are made to give your head maximum protection. Make sure your hat fits correctly. Hats that fit
right provide you with the most comfort and protection.
The ability of a hard hat to protect a worker depends on the shock absorbing space between the shell and head by the
suspension provided. Therefore, it is important that sweat bands and suspension straps by properly adjusted to obtain the
maximum protection. Sunlight and heat can rot the sweatband and straps, so don’t leave your hard hat on the window ledge
of your car. Take good care of your hard hat. Don’t drop it, throw it or drill holes in it. Inspect your hard hat every day for
cracks, gouges, and frays or breaks in the straps.
Colors can be used to identify different crafts and supervisory personnel, and should be encouraged and given consideration
when purchasing such equipment. All levels of supervision should set the example by wearing hard hats. Observe and comply
with "Hard Hat Area” sites. Remember! A hard hat is a status symbol; it identifies a safe worker, one who believes in and
practices safety.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically
discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies
with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Vector Waste
What do cockroaches, rats, mice, birds, and bats all have in common? They can invade our homes, offices, pipes,
barns or other out-buildings and leave behind waste in the form of feces, urine, insect parts, hair, and carcasses. They
are also considered vectors capable of transmitting disease or causing harm to people and/or animals. If you work in a
situation where you may be exposed to vector waste (agriculture, landscaping, construction, warehousing, janitorial
services, etc.) make sure you have been trained to recognize these signs of waste and have been instructed to report
them to your supervisor for proper cleanup and disposal.
Cockroach feces, saliva, and body parts and mouse and rat urine contain proteins that can dry up, become airborne,
and create allergy symptoms in humans. The symptoms include itchy skin and eyes, a scratchy throat and nose, and
with increased exposure, severe asthma. In addition, some mice and rat species, through their urine, droppings, and
saliva spread hantavirus, a disease that can cause severe respiratory distress and death.
Birds and bats often roost together in large numbers. The buildup of their droppings, carcasses, and debris can host
mites, funguses, and bacteria that can cause disease in humans. Symptoms of these diseases range from loss of
appetite and headaches to fever, muscle weakness, and chest pain.
Prevention is preferred, but when vector waste is found, it should only be removed or cleaned by someone trained to
do so safely and adequately. If you are responsible for removing and cleaning up vector waste, make sure you’ve
been trained in its potential hazards and take the proper precautions to protect your health and safety. Precautions
may include airing out an enclosed space for at least 30 minutes; wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) such
as safety glasses, rubber gloves, disposable protective clothing, and rubber boots; and wearing a respirator that is
equipped with a HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) filter (P100).
Avoid vacuuming, sweeping, dry scooping and pressure washing vector waste, which can create airborne dust. Gentle
wet method cleanups is often recommended; using a 10 percent bleach solution to thoroughly soak the entire area
and allow it to sit for at least 15 minutes. A rag, sponge or mop soaked in the bleach solution is then commonly used
to wipe up fine debris and to decontaminate any tools and other affected items. Other contaminated debris should be
placed it in heavy, plastic, double bags by an individual wearing proper personal protective equipment. The debris
should then be disposed of in designated trash bins. Lastly, a wet bleach-solution-soaked mop is generally
recommended to clean all surfaces.
Proper cleanup can prevent the potential spread of disease or allergens. Other workers who have been exposed to
vector waste should shower or thoroughly wash their hands and exposed skin surfaces with soap and hot water. Any
contaminated clothing should be washed in hot water separately from other laundry.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)

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Vehicle Backing
The California Highway Patrol (CHP) reports the most common type of vehicle accident is a backing accident. Due to
limited vision out of the back windows or around long truck beds and equipment bodies, drivers may not see other
vehicles, obstacles, or even coworkers and pedestrians when they are driving their vehicles backward. Whether in a
parking lot, on the road, a construction site, or an agricultural field, workers who learn the proper techniques can help
prevent backing accidents.
Before you back your vehicle, do a vehicle walk around to check underneath and all around it for obstructions and
other dangerous situations. Inspect the doors and tailgates for proper closing and safe and secure storage for items
and materials. Insure that there is plenty of clearance around the vehicle for backing.
Some employers may use a “cone policy” that requires you to place orange safety cones at either end of the vehicle
whenever you park. Walking around the vehicle to pick up the cones before you leave gives you a chance to inspect
the vehicle and your surroundings. The cones also provide good visibility and a warning to other drivers that you are
working nearby.
While CHP reports backing as the most common type of vehicle accident, speed is the most common cause of
accidents. When you are backing, make sure that you do so slowly.
Before you move, if possible, place your arm along the seat backs and turn your head to the left and right to look
directly out the sides and back of the vehicle. As the next step, or if you cannot look directly out of the vehicle, use
your side and rear-view mirror to look in all directions to the rear of the vehicle. Backup cameras and sensors are
good tools that can help you keep watch around your vehicle.
If your vehicle is equipped with a backup alarm and/or is required to use the alarm, make sure that it is working
properly. If you do not have a backup alarm but feel that it is necessary to notify others that you are backing, you
can put on your flashers and honk the horn as you back. Make sure that the area behind you is clear of obstacles,
pedestrians and, other vehicles before you move. If you see pedestrians or vehicles approaching, judge their speed
and distance before backing.
At times, spotters can assist you with a backing maneuver by sharing the responsibility for watching the rear of the
vehicle. If possible, don’t ask a spotter to exit the vehicle. If you must use a spotter outside the vehicle, make sure
that you can see each other in the side-view mirror at all times. Do not proceed with backing if you lose sight of the
spotter. Two-way radios and/or hand signals can be used to help communicate.
If you are acting as a spotter or work near backing vehicles, listen for the backup alarms and watch vehicle
movement. Never assume that the driver sees you and knows where you are going. Do not walk alongside or ride a
backing vehicle. Wear highly visible clothing if you are going to be working on foot around backing vehicles.
If you are in a hurry, you may have cause to worry. With care and caution, you can safely back your vehicle.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Vehicles for Worker Transport
Employers use worker transport vehicles like trucks, buses, and vans to move crews around large sites, to multiple
locations, and for carpooling. When an employer uses a worker transport vehicle, it needs to meet specific safety
requirements and operating procedures.
All transport vehicle equipment (lamps, brakes, horn, mirrors, windshields, turn signals, etc.) must be in good repair.
The passenger capacity should be listed on the exterior near the door and must not be exceeded. Trucks and buses
need entrance and exit doors with an unobstructed opening 24 inches wide and 60 inches high. The passenger interior
should be in good condition with the seats secured in place. Handholds, steps, and stirrups allow employees to safely
mount or dismount the vehicle.
If a transport vehicle has open passenger areas, a rail or enclosure at least 46 inches high should be provided on the
sides and back to prevent falls. Employees may ride in the properly enclosed back of flat-bed trucks, pickups, or dump
trucks only if they sit on the truck bed with the tailgate closed and secured. Two employees may be permitted to ride
on beds of trucks if they stand or sit immediately behind the cab, holding on to suitable grab irons which are rigidly
fastened to the truck. Employees may never ride on the top of side rails, top of cabs, running boards, fenders, the
hood, or with their legs hanging over the end or sides.
Buses used as employee transport have special requirements. They should provide a minimum of 18 inches of seat
space for each passenger. The seats must have 36 inch backrests. If the bus seats face each other, the aisle way
must be 24 inches wide.
Any bus or crew truck with an enclosed seating capacity of seven or more employees requires an emergency exit.
Emergency exits should have a 7 square foot opening with a width of 24 inches. Rear emergency windows must have
openings of at least 16 inches by 54 inches. A sign reading “Exit” should be painted on the exterior and interior of the
emergency exit. Exit signs should be in English and in the language of the employees being transported.
Emergency exits should open outward from both the interior and exterior of the vehicle with controls operable from
the exterior and the interior. The exits need positive-locking devices to ensure that they stay closed, but handles
should be readily opened in an emergency. Only a clear plastic protective cover should be placed over the handle.
Transport vehicles must not carry explosives, injurious pesticides, or substances with a flashpoint below 150 degrees
Fahrenheit, when carrying passengers. Such substances may be carried in properly designed safe containers outside
the driver or occupied passenger compartments. Tools, equipment, or materials carried in the passenger compartment
must be secured. Sharp edged tools should be sheathed or covered. Tools must not be carried in the aisles.
If the transport vehicle has a separate driver’s cab, passengers should be able to communicate with the driver via
buzzers, speaker horns, or other means in case of emergency. In addition, the vehicle should have three approved
reflector flares and a fully charged and operable fire extinguisher.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Walking / Working Surfaces
Slips, trips and falls are a major cause of injuries and fatalities in the construction industry. The walking surfaces and
ladders on a construction site may pose a potential hazard to the workers moving about the site. Construction sites
are dynamic places to work, i.e., the working conditions change on a daily, if not hourly, basis. Therefore, care must
be exercised every day as you move about the work site, identifying hazards that may cause you to trip, slip or fall.
Falls occur because of various factors; a slip, stumble, trip over an object or a sudden quick movement throwing the
body off balance. Slips generally occur as a result of the loss of traction between a person’s foot and the walking
surface. If loss of balance occurs, a fall results. The construction site safety and health programs contain provisions to
protect workers from falls.
Almost all construction sites have unprotected sides and edges, wall openings or floor holes at some point in
time. These openings and sides must be protected at the work site, or falls may occur. These potential hazards may
be avoided by:
Covering or guard floor holes as soon as they are created.

Using a fall prevention (e.g. guard rails) or protection (fall arrest device) system if the workers are exposed to
a fall of six feet or more.
Surveying the work site prior to start of work, and continually throughout the day to identify and guard any
openings or holes.
Many construction sites utilize scaffolding for the workers to gain access to the elevated parts of the building or
structure. If the scaffolding is improperly constructed or has unsafe access, it becomes hazardous. Scaffolding hazards
can be avoided by:
Erecting all scaffolding according to manufacturer’s directions and have it inspected by a competent person
prior to use.
Providing safe access to the scaffolding platforms.
Installing guardrails along all open sides and ends according to established OSHA criteria.
Portable ladders are another common method of accessing elevated parts of the building or structure. If ladders are
not positioned safely and securely fastened, they may move and cause a worker to fall. To avoid potential ladder
hazards:
Inspect the ladder before each use for cracked or broken parts. A broken ladder should be taken out of service
and clearly marked as being unsafe.
Do not place more weight on the ladder than what it was designed to hold.
Secure the top of the ladder to a rigid support.
The ladder should extend 3 feet above the landing you are accessing.
Ensure the feet of the ladder are securely placed and will not slip out from under you.
Ladders made on site must be able to safely hold the weight of the worker and his tools.
Slips and trips result from an unintended or unexpected change between the feet and the walking surface. Good
housekeeping is the first and most important way of preventing falls due to slips and trips. Other ways to avoid
creating slip and trip hazards are to:
Wear work boots with slip resistant soles.

Clean up any liquid spills right away.
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Take your time and pay attention to where you are going.
Ensure things you are carrying do not prevent you from seeing obstructions or spills.
For more information visit the website maintained by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration at
http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/constructionwalking/index.html.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Warehouse Safety
Warehouses range from product distribution centers to popular retailers that sell oversize and bulk products. Whether
it is an industrial, commercial or retail facility, warehouse workers should follow safety guidelines for loading docks,
conveyor systems, forklifts and pallet jacks, material storage and handling, and good housekeeping.
Products enter and exit warehouses through truck and loading dock systems that are usually at a height from the
ground. When loading and unloading materials, workers should pay special attention to avoid falls from elevated
docks and ramps; yellow striping can draw attention to edges. Trucks delivering goods should be treated cautiously
while they are parked at the loading dock. The area between the dock and truck is hazardous because a rolling truck
can cause a crush injury; truck wheels should be chocked while unloading.
In some warehouses, products may be placed on conveyor systems that distribute them to different areas in the
facility. Workers must avoid placing body parts or hair near conveyors because moving wheels and belts pose a pinch
point hazard. Elevated conveyors should have safety nets to avoid dropping products on workers below. Workers need
training on the location of on/off buttons and emergency stop buttons for conveyor systems and lock out/tag out
procedures are required whenever servicing conveyors.
Forklifts and pallet jacks help move products from the shipping area into and around the warehouse. Forklifts are
powered industrial trucks; forklift operators require training and certification while pallet jack operators require
training only. Loads should be properly lifted on forks and stabilized, then slowly and deliberately taken to their
assigned location. Forklifts and pallet jacks should never be used as rides or man lifts.
When large, awkward, and/or heavy items are warehoused, they become a challenge to store in a safe manner.
Storage shelving and rack systems should be sturdy, braced, and spacious enough to allow people and equipment to
move freely. When goods are shelved, they require slow and careful placement to avoid disturbing or pushing
products off the facing aisle on to coworkers below. Products should be stored flat and inside the shelving units with
aisle ways kept clear.
Pallets used for stacking products should be sturdy and in good condition; damaged or unstable pallet items should be
restacked on a new one. Where possible, palleted products should be shrink-wrapped or baled for stability.
Workers can protect themselves on the job with personal protective equipment (PPE) such as steel-toed shoes,
gloves, and hard hats or bump caps. Proper lifting techniques protect backs. Safe lifting also prevents loads from
shifting, falling, and crushing fingers, hands and toes.
Good housekeeping in a warehouse requires keeping dirt, oil, and debris off the docks and floors. Floors should be
non-slippery and free from pits and dents. Excess garbage, boxes, baling materials, and other recyclables should be
removed and stored properly.
Training on the hazards and attention to procedures will make sure warehouse workers stay safe
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Warning: Welding May be Hazardous to your Health
You’ve heard the expression, “You are what you eat.” Well, with welding, one could say you are what you breathe.
Welding smoke is a complex mixture of very small, condensed solids (fumes) and gases. The base and filler metals,
fluxes, coatings, and shielding gases all contribute. Even chemical changes to the surrounding atmosphere from the
intense radiation and heat can add to the mix.
The effects of welding smoke on a person will depend on the particular components of the smoke and how much of it
the welder breathes. Some effects may occur shortly after exposure; these are acute effects. Long-term or chronic
effects may not become apparent until after years of exposure.
Metal fume fever is the most common acute respiratory illness experienced by welders. It is a flu-like illness that
lasts 24–48 hours. It is typically caused by exposure to zinc fumes, but copper, magnesium, and cadmium are also
known to cause metal fume fever. Acute exposures to high concentrations of cadmium can be more serious though,
producing severe lung irritation, pulmonary edema, or even death.
Long-term exposure to welding fumes may pose the risk of serious respiratory, nervous system, and reproductive
effects, but more research is needed. Some metals we know are especially hazardous. These metals include lead,
cadmium, beryllium, and mercury. But even welders who don’t work with these toxic materials may be at risk.
Carbon steel, which includes mild steel, is the most common material welded. The manganese in the steel and the
filler metal sometimes results in overexposure to manganese. Chronic manganese poisoning can cause Parkinson’s-
like disease and other neurological effects.
Stainless steel, high alloy steels, and nickel alloys expose workers to chromium and/or nickel fumes. Both nickel and
hexavalent chromium are classified as human carcinogens.
Hazardous gases can also be produced during welding. Depending on the specifics of your process, these could
include ozone, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and fluorine compounds. These gases may cause both short and
long-term effects.
To protect workers from welding fumes and gases, ventilation is often necessary, especially when welding with
particularly hazardous materials or for long periods. It’s essential in enclosed or confined spaces. While air-purifying
respirators can filter out metal fumes, they don’t protect workers from all of the hazardous gases produced or oxygen
deficiency.
Additional Resources
More information on welding hazards – www.osha.gov
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Wash Your Hands - Give Yourself a Hand
We assume everyone knows how to wash their hands, but many workers don't realize how important hand washing
and skin care can be in the prevention of disease. Proper skin care and hand protection help keep workers productive
and on the job.
The best defense against the spread of illness or skin ailments is to prevent them where possible by washing them
often, using barrier creams and wearing gloves designed to protect skin from contact with a variety of harmful agents
and irritants. If gloves are worn, clean or replace them frequently to make sure they don’t collect or absorb irritants.
Check gloves often for wear, cuts or pinholes. Be sure the gloves you choose are the proper type and material to
protect against the specific chemical or situation you’ll encounter. Wearing gloves and practicing personal hygiene,
especially regular hand washing, helps prevent:
Ingestion and absorption of harmful substances

Spread of infection and diseases
Occupational skin disease
Absenteeism due to illness
Lost work time
There are things employers can do to help workers improve attention to skin care and understand the importance of
regular hand washing. For example:
Include personal hygiene and skin care in the employee orientation program and in regular safety training.
Videos, education booklets and trainers' guides are available from State Fund and skin care product
manufacturers.
Maintain an ongoing awareness program to remind workers of the importance of proper skin care. Posters and
pamphlets are excellent vehicles for generating awareness about personal hygiene throughout the year.
Help workers understand that regular hand washing protects against the spread of illness to their family
members.
Conduct a site survey to ensure that proper hand washing/cleaning products are provided in all suitable places
throughout the work environment. Washing facilities and skin care products must be accessible to encourage
regular hand washing.
Education and awareness set the pace for good hygiene practices for everyone. It’s a simple matter to use plenty of
soap and water, appropriate creams and/or gloves to protect the health and safety of your hands.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Wastewater Treatment Workers
Wastewater treatment workers treat sewer and storm water to remove impurities and then release the water to
rivers, oceans, or recycled irrigation and landscaping networks. Operators in waste water plants use mechanical
equipment, treatment tanks, and chemicals to clean the water. This variety of processes can pose a mixture of
hazards to workers.
Because there is so much water involved in the treatment process, slips, trips, and falls are the main hazard for waste
water treatment workers. Practice good housekeeping by sweeping up or squeegeeing water puddles. Mark areas that
are prone to puddling. Fix leaks promptly. Use flooring surfaces that provide traction. Wear shoes that have a non-slip
sole.
Confined spaces are a serious concern at water treatment facilities. Exposures to a low oxygen environment or high
levels of hydrogen sulfide, methane gas, or ammonia can cause serious illness or death. Survey the areas for
explosion potential from flammable gas and water engulfment in times such as heavy rain and flooding. Survey the
entire facility for areas with limited egress and other hazard potential. Use proper confined space procedures, personal
protective equipment (PPE), and ambient air and personal monitoring to ensure your safety.
Engulfment and/or drowning in treatment tanks are hazards at treatment plants. Put guard rails around all open water
sources. Keep rescue equipment such as floats and hooks available near all tanks. If you will be doing work at height
over an unguarded tank, consider fall protection gear and keep a coworker nearby to monitor you. When you lift
grates over waterways and tanks for access, cordon off the area and place hazard warning signs to prevent accidental
falls.
Water treatment plants have pumps and valves for moving water and many moving parts such as screens, belt
presses, and conveyors remove debris and move sludge. This equipment can cause caught/crush hazards if you place
a hand, arm, or foot too near a moving part. Guard all moving machinery and watch for these hazards while you
work. Operating this equipment in a wet environment requires maintenance and repair work, so use good work
practices. Electrical safety is key when working in a wet environment, so work carefully. Also follow lockout/tagout
procedures to guard against accidental equipment startup while you are working on it.
Chemicals and biological hazards abound in water treatment. Use material safety data sheets (MSDS) to understand
the properties, exposure limits, PPE, and emergency actions for your treatment chemicals. Good housekeeping
controls odor and pests. Practice good hygiene by wearing gloves and washing your hands frequently. Decontaminate
your clothing or change before you go home from work. Speak to your doctor and consider vaccination for some of
the hazards that you may encounter.
Waste water treatment can be a challenging work environment. Plants often operate continuously, so shift work and
emergency work are common. Long work shifts wearing PPE can be tiring. To deal with the work load and job
demands, get the rest you need and maintain your overall health. Outdoor work can expose you to cold, heat and the
sun, so dress in comfortable layers and use sunscreen.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Watch Out For Snakes
Snakes are found in many parts of California and may pose a hazard for those who work outdoors. Although snakes
generally avoid humans or animals, they can attack, particularly if they're surprised or are protecting their young or
territory. Some snakes are considered “harmless,” but others release a poisonous venom when they bite. If you'll be
working or walking where snakes are found, be aware of their habits, dress for protection, and know what to do or not
to do if you encounter or are bitten by a snake.
Poisonous snakes commonly found in California are rattlesnakes. A bite from one of these snakes should always be
considered a medical emergency. Although deaths from snakebites are relatively rare, people who are bitten can't
always positively identify the snake, so should get prompt medical care. Even a bite from a so-called “harmless” snake
can cause an infection or allergic reaction in some people.
The key to avoiding snakebites is understanding their habits and staying alert. Snake seasons are spring, summer,
and early fall. They're usually found where food (rodents), water, and protection are available such as abandoned
structures, irrigation ditches, water holes, and in rock piles. They like places that offer both a place to sun and a place
to hide. At night when it's cool, snakes become active hunting their prey.
If you'll be working or walking in snake infested areas, wear protective clothing such as long pants, leather boots, and
gloves. Be aware of your surroundings. Be cautious in tall grass and watch where you step. Walk in areas where the
ground is clear so you can see where you step. Watch where you put your hands. Don't reach blindly into rock cracks,
wood piles, animal burrows or under bushes. And when you sit, look first, especially in shady areas.
Most snakebites happen when a snake is accidentally stepped on, handled or harassed. Many people are bitten
because they try to get a closer look or try to kill it. So, leave snakes alone ! If you encounter a snake, stay calm and
freeze in place. The snake will often move away. If it doesn't move then you should slowly walk around it, keeping as
far away as possible. Usually snakes are not aggressive and will not “chase” a person. They'd rather escape from
noise and commotion or remain quiet and hidden.
The symptoms of a poisonous snake bite vary depending on the snake's size and species, the amount of poison in its
venom, the bite's location, and the victim's age and underlying medical problems. Specific treatment for a snake bite
should be left to the emergency medical personnel. Most medical professionals recommend against incisions in the
wound, tourniquets, ice or any other type of cooling on the bite and against electric shock. However, if someone is
bitten, the American Red Cross suggests a few basic first-aid steps:
Keep the victim calm and still.

Have the victim lie down, with the affected limb immobilized and placed lower than the heart.
Remove rings, bracelets, boots or other restricting items from the bitten extremity.
Get medical care. Responding quickly is crucial.
Use common sense when you're in areas where there may be snakes. Keep in mind that an unprovoked snake doesn't
want trouble any more than you do. Caution and respect are your best weapons against snake bites.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Wear Your Seatbelt
Thousands of people, apparently believing themselves immune to the laws of physics, die each day as a result of vehicle
accidents because they were not wearing seatbelts. According to the laws of physics, if a vehicle is traveling at 30 miles
per hour, its contents and passengers are also moving at 30 miles per hour. The vehicle's sudden stop at 30 miles per hour
can mean the difference of life or death to the passengers wearing seatbelts.
People are a vehicle's most valuable content and seatbelts keep people in place. In a crash, unbelted passengers will fly
toward the point of impact, colliding with anything in their path, like dashboards, windshield or steering wheels with several
pounds of moving force. While it's dangerous to smash into a dashboard or windshield, it can be deadly to be "thrown
clear." Thrown clear of what? Telephone poles, trees, or oncoming traffic? Thrown through what? The windshield or door?
Airborne objects maintain momentum as they sail, without the option of where or how they land. In a collision, passengers
launched from a vehicle are 25 times more likely to die.
In a vehicle accident, the safest place to be is inside the vehicle, attached to the vehicle's seat. It's the seatbelt that keeps
passengers in place. In a collision, the one part of the vehicle that stays reasonable intact, no matter how battered its
outsides might be, is the vehicle's seats.
For high speeds, nighttime driving, and bad weather many passengers do buckle up, but the fact is that most fatalities
occur in dry, sunny weather, at speeds under 40 miles per hour and within 25 miles of work or home. Perhaps you are a
safe driver in control of your vehicle, but there are a lot of other drivers not in control of their vehicles, drivers who've
drunk too much, not had enough sleep, didn't see the light change. You can't control them. Seatbelts are your best
protection against those drivers. In California, wearing seatbelts is the law. Buckle up and protect yourself so you don't
become another statistic in the accident and fatality records.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that
it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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Welding Safely
Welding hazards pose an unusual combination of safety and health risks. By its nature, welding produces fumes and
noise, gives off radiation, involves electricity or gases, and has the potential for burns, shock, fire, and explosions.
Some hazards are common to both electric arc and oxygen-fuel gas welding. If you work with or near a welding
operation, the following general precautions should help you to work more safely.
Weld only in designated areas.

Only operate welding equipment you have been trained to use.
Know what the substance is that’s being welded and any coating on it.
Wear protective clothing to cover all exposed areas of the body for protection sparks, hot spatter, and
radiation.
Protective clothing should be dry and free of holes, grease, oil, and other substances which may burn.
Wear flameproof gauntlet gloves, a leather or asbestos apron, and high-top shoes to provide good protection
against sparks and spatter.
Wear specifically designed, leak-proof helmets equipped with filter plates to protect against ultraviolet,
infrared, and visible radiation.
Never look at a flash, even for an instant.
Keep your head away from the plume by staying back and to the side of the work.
Use your helmet and head position to minimize fume inhalation in your breathing zone.
Make sure there is good local exhaust ventilation to keep the air in your breathing zone clear.
Don’t weld in a confined space without adequate ventilation and a NIOSH-approved respirator.
Don’t weld in wet areas, wear wet or damp clothing or weld with wet hands.
Don’t weld on containers which have held combustible materials or on drums, barrels or tanks until proper
safety precautions have been taken to prevent explosions.
If others are working in the area be sure they are warned and protected against arcs, fumes, sparks, and other
welding hazards.
Don’t coil the electrode cable around your body.
Ground both the frame of the welding equipment and metal being welded.
Check for leaks in gas hoses using an inert gas.
Check area around you before welding to be sure no flammable material or degreasing solvents are in the
welding area.
Keep a fire watch in the area during and after welding to be sure there are no smoldering materials, hot slag or
live sparks which could start a fire.
Locate the nearest fire extinguisher before welding.
Deposit all scraps and electrode butts in proper waste container to avoid fire and toxic fumes.
If you have any questions about your welding operation relating to health and safety, talk to your supervisor or call
the nearest office of the Cal/OSHA Consultation Service.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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West Nile Virus
If you work outdoors, West Nile virus may be of concern to you, since it can be spread by bites from infected
mosquitoes. It’s important to note that most people infected with West Nile virus will not get sick. However, some
people after being bitten may become ill in 3 to 15 days. They develop a mild illness with fever, headache, body aches
and sometimes skin rash and swollen glands. At this time, there are no known long-term effects due to this mild
illness.
On rare occasions, a West Nile virus infection will result in a severe illness known as West Nile encephalitis
(encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain). In a small number of cases, this more serious disease can be fatal.
Spread of the Virus
West Nile virus is typically spread by birds and mosquitoes. A mosquito becomes infected when it feeds on a bird
carrying the virus. The infected mosquito can then transmit the virus when it bites another bird, person, or other
animal. At this time, transmission of the virus from person to person is only thought to be possible during blood
transfusions, organ transplants, or through breast milk.
West Nile virus was first recognized in New York City in 1999. It is not known how the virus was introduced into the
United States, but it has spread from New York to almost every State in the U.S., and it continues to spread. The
virus has been found in humans, horses, many types of birds, and some other animals.
Risk of Exposure
You are at highest risk of exposure to the virus if you work outdoors when mosquitoes are actively biting. Dawn and
dusk are the most likely times to be bitten by a mosquito. In northern states, this is during the summer months, but
in southern states, mosquitoes are active year-round. Persons 50 years of age or older have a greater risk of
contracting the more serious illness, West Nile encephalitis.
Protecting Yourself
You can protect yourself from becoming infected in a number of ways. If you work outdoors, you can use these
personal protective measures to reduce contact with mosquitoes:
Wear long-sleeved shirts, long pants and socks when possible.

Spray exposed skin with insect repellant.
READ AND FOLLOW LABEL DIRECTIONS FOR REPELLANT USE.
Use DEET (N-N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) at concentrations of 35% or less.
Do not apply repellants to cuts, wounds, or irritated skin.
When needed, reapply repellants according to label directions.
Spray clothing with repellant, as mosquitoes may bite through thin clothing.
DO NOT APPLY repellants under clothing.
Wash treated clothing before wearing it again.
You can also protect yourself by not letting mosquitoes breed in your area. Eliminate as many sources of standing
water as possible, because mosquitoes lay their eggs in standing water. Turn over, cover, or remove equipment such
as tarps, buckets, barrels and wheelbarrows that may accumulate water. Place drain holes in containers that cannot
be discarded. Routinely empty water from containers that collect water in which mosquitoes can lay their eggs.
More Information
For more detailed information and updates with new information, visit the website maintained by the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention at www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/index.htm.
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
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If you have any health concerns or questions, contact your health care provider.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Wildlife Safety Precautions
California workers in field assignments and/or remote locations sometimes encounter deer, mountain lions, coyotes,
raccoons or bears while on the job. To protect yourself and stay safe in the event of a wildlife encounter, understand
animal behavior and learn how to respond appropriately.
Wild animals generally avoid human contact, but if you do see an animal in the wild, maintain your distance. Don’t
attempt to feed, catch or pet a wild animal. Never approach wildlife babies or animal mothers with their babies; the
mother’s protective response can be very fierce. Report injured or aggressive animals to authorities; don’t attempt to
give aid to injured wildlife. If an injured animal approaches you, move slowly away.
Mountain lion sightings are rare, but they have been known to attack humans. If you do encounter a mountain lion,
don’t run. Stay calm and hold your position or back away slowly. Convince the animal that you’re not prey and that
you might be dangerous. Face the lion and try to appear as large as possible by standing upright and raising your
arms. If the lion acts aggressively, wave your arms and shout. Grab a stick or throw objects at the lion. If you are
attacked, fight back.
Bears try to avoid people, but if you do see one, make as much noise as possible. Do not corner a bear. If the bear
feels trapped, it may act aggressively. To avoid attracting hungry animals don’t carry food products, don’t keep food
near you, and don’t leave food in your opened vehicle.
Normally, coyotes and deer are not a threat to humans. Avoid them and do not feed them. When driving, watch for
deer crossing signs. Adjust your speed according to the distance you can see up the road. If you see one deer cross
the road, wait for others because they often travel together. If you cannot avoid a deer or other animal on the road,
it’s better to hit it rather than risk skidding off of the road and into a ditch or swerving into another vehicle or tree.
Wildlife encounters can expose you to rabies, a disease that causes brain swelling and death. Because the virus that
causes the disease is present in animal saliva, a bite or even a lick from an infected animal can be serious. Infected
animals may not show the symptoms of rabies such as frothing at the mouth. They may act aggressive or out of
character, such as a nocturnal animal being active during the day.
Avoiding animals is the best prevention for rabies, but if you are bitten, scratched, or licked by a wild animal, wash
the area with soap and water immediately. If it is possible and safe to do so, try to trap the animal for testing. Seek
medical treatment right away. If you are in frequent contact with wild animals, there are vaccines available to
prevent rabies.
As a last means of defense against aggressive animals, pepper spray can be used. To be effective, it must be sprayed
directly into the animal’s face. However, a breeze could blow the spray away or into your face. If you do decide to
use pepper spray, get training to use it properly and safely.
For safety, keep your distance and keep your cool when encountering wild animals.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
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Winter Driving
In case you haven’t noticed, winter is on its way. That can mean fog, rain, ice, snow, slippery roads, and poor visibility. It’s a time
that can be dangerous for pedestrians, drivers, and other vehicle operators. There are some simple precautions you can take to
minimize the risk of accidents and injuries.
This winter season, before you get into a vehicle, take a little extra time to make sure everything in and about the vehicle is in
good condition and operating correctly.
Are the windshield and side windows clear?

Do the windshield wipers work?
Are the blades in good condition?
Can you see in all the mirrors?
Are the headlights clean enough to allow for proper visibility?
Do the tail and the brake lights work?
Do the emergency lights work?
Does the defroster work or is there so much on the dash that the defroster couldn’t possibly work?
Do the tires have good tread and adequate pressure?
Are the brakes working properly?
Is there more than a quarter tank of gas?
Do you have emergency or repair equipment in the vehicle, including flashlights, flares, fire extinguishers, and chains
where applicable?
Check all of these things before winter weather comes. Remember also to reduce driving speed on wet, muddy, oily, or icy roads
and be especially alert for pedestrians and animals. It will make your driving experience easier and safer. Winter is inevitable and
nothing can be done to avoid it. But preventive maintenance and extra caution can be important factors in accident prevention.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance
purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. We
do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws,
regulations or standards.
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Wood Chipper Safety
Mobile wood chippers chop up branches and trunk pieces from tree trimming operations. Workers feed materials
through a hopper where the materials are grabbed by a feed mechanism. The materials then pass under rotating
chipper knives moving at rates of 1,000 and 2,000 rpm until the tiny pieces are discharged out of the machine. Wood
chippers can cause serious or fatal injuries and amputations, so use them with extreme caution and attention to safe
work practices.
When operating a chipper, wear close-fitting clothing, cuff-less gloves, cuff-less trousers, and safety boots with non-
skid soles. Tie back your hair, take off jewelry, and keep your clothing tucked in. Keep your hands and feet outside
the hopper at all times. Know what your coworkers are doing and where they are; working with a buddy ensures that
help is nearby if an emergency occurs.
Two-thirds of wood chipper-related fatalities occur when workers get caught and crushed by the chipper feed
mechanism and/or get pulled into the cutting knives. You could be seriously injured or killed if you fall into the chipper
hopper, get entangled in tree branches, or try to push short branches and debris into the hopper. Clearing jams while
the machine is still operating or slowing down can pull you into the cutting knives.
Keep the work area around the chipper clear and free from tripping hazards to avoid falls into the hopper. Rake up
small debris like twigs and leaves and place them directly into the trailer or a bag for disposal. Follow the chipper
manufacturer’s recommendations for the safest position to stand when feeding limbs into the hopper. Feed the trunk
or “butt end” of branches into the hopper first. Always lay short branches on top of longer branches, or use a long
branch to push materials into the hopper. Never reach into the feed area to push small debris into the hopper. Once
the feed mechanism has grabbed the materials, let go and allow the feed mechanism to draw the materials into the
cutting knives.
The remaining one-third of chipper fatalities occur when workers get struck by chipper hood guards, which can fly off
forcefully if they are opened or closed while the chipper knives are rotating. Before use, inspect the chipper hood for
missing pins or cracked, worn hinges. Ensure the hood is properly latched closed and completely covers the knives.
Start the chipper at the lowest speed and listen for sounds of loose or broken parts. The knives should come to a
complete stop before opening the chipper hood.
Get training on safe work procedures based on chipper manufacturer recommendations. Know how to use the safety
devices and controls, especially the emergency shutoff switch. Learn where the caught/crush points on the machine
are, where to stand, and where to keep your hands and feet during operation. Learn how to open and close the hood,
clear jams, and feed branches. Keep the chipper well maintained. Perform safety checks before each use to ensure
safety devices work properly. Do not allow workers less than 18 years of age to operate a chipper.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Wood Dust Exposure
What is wood dust?
Wood dust is not just dust! Wood dust is tiny particles of wood produced during the processing and handling of wood,
chipboard, and/or hardboard. Exposure to wood dust occurs in many industries, including logging and sawmill
operations, furniture and paper manufacturing, and construction of residential and commercial buildings. Workers are
potentially exposed when wood is sawn, chipped, routed or sanded.
Health Hazards
Exposure to wood dust may cause health problems. Negative health effects associated with wood dust exposure
include dermatitis and/or allergic respiratory effects. When a worker becomes sensitized to wood dust, he or she can
suffer an allergic reaction after repeated exposures. Other health effects from wood dust are eye irritation, asthma,
nasal dryness and obstruction, and frequent headaches. The natural chemicals in the wood that appear to be
associated with allergic reactions are found in the inner parts of the tree or heartwood.
Wood may also contain biological or chemical contaminants. Biological contaminants include molds and fungi, which
often grow on the bark of the tree. Wood may also be treated with chemicals to assist in preservation of the wood.
Common wood preservatives are arsenic, chromium, copper, and creosote. Processing preserved wood may generate
wood dusts that contain the chemical preservatives, compounding the potential health effects.
Safety Hazards
Concentrations of small dust particles in the air can form a mixture that will explode if ignited. This type of situation
may occur in dust collection equipment. Wood dust will also burn easily if ignited. Overheated motors or sparks can
start wood dust fires.
Wood dust on the floor can cause tripping or slipping. Vision can be impaired be airborne dust generated during wood
processing. Wood dust is classified by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) as a hazardous
chemical and is subject to the Hazard Communication Standard.
Regulating Wood Dust
Until 1985, wood dust was regulated by OSHA under the Nuisance Dust Standard. Research has shown us that wood
dust is not just dust. Different types of wood dust have different effects on workers. Hardwoods and softwoods have
different airborne levels of Permissible Exposure Limits. Hardwoods, such as beech and oak, are listed as having more
severe health hazards associated with them than softwoods. Western Red Cedar was placed in a category by itself as
an allergic species of wood.
Safe Work Practices
Some possible methods to reduce and/or minimize wood dust levels are:
Good housekeeping.

Do NOT use compressed air to clean work surfaces (sweep or vacuum the dust).
If feasible, use local exhaust ventilation to capture and remove dust from woodworking equipment.
Ensure dust control equipment is properly maintained
Use wet methods where appropriate to minimize dust generation
More Information
For more detailed information and updates, visit the website maintained by the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration at http://www.osha-slc.gov/SLTC/wooddust.
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If you have any concerns or questions, contact your company’s health and safety representative.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Woodworking Tool Safety
Woodworkers use power tools such as saws, drills, routers, planers, sanders, and lathes along with hand tools such as
chisels, carvers, and augers to shape wood into functional and artistic objects. While wood crafting, woodworkers
need to keep safety in mind.
Get training on the power and hand tools that you work with on the job. Read the power tool manuals and make sure
that you understand and follow the instructions. Always inspect your tools before each use. Make sure that power
cords are in good shape with proper grounding. Tag-out, discard, or repair the tools if they are not in good working
order. Make sure that cutting blades and surfaces are clean and sharp to give you the best control. Conduct periodic
maintenance on the tools depending on the amount of use they get.
Wear appropriate, close-fitting clothing and tie back long hair for woodworking. Avoid jewelry and loose clothing that
could be pulled into moving and rotating parts. Wear slip-resistant footwear to prevent falls. Safety glasses protect
your eyes from sawdust and flying objects. Dust masks and a well-ventilated work area protect your lungs from
inhaling small wood particles. Hearing protection protects your ears from the noise of the shop. Close-fitting work
gloves, when appropriate, can protect your hands when handling materials.
Use safe work practices when woodworking. Think first before you place your materials or your hands near the cutting
blade. Pay attention to the cutting blade the entire time until your cut is completed. A distraction while watching
television, listening to the radio, or talking to a coworker or customer can lead to a lost finger or hand. Keep your
hands away from the blade or moving parts by using push sticks or other guides to move materials into the cutting
area.
Always remove nails, burls, or other imperfections and additives that could cause the materials to jam or “kick-back.”
Secure your materials to the work surface to avoid having the material and/or the cutting blade slip when you apply
pressure to it. If your saw or other machine is resisting the cut, don’t force the material through. Stop and investigate
the problem. Always give the power tool time to run down and the blade to completely stop before you try to handle
it. Turn the power off completely and lockout-tagout before you clear a jam or clean a machine. Never leave power
cutting equipment running while unattended.
Keep your woodworking shop a safe place from slips and bumps with good housekeeping. Make sure that power cords
are coiled neatly and out of pathways. Keep your work area clean and clutter-free. Clean up spills immediately. Keep
sawdust to a minimum by cleaning regularly through the day.
Use neutral postures and avoid awkward reaches or positions to avoid ergonomic injuries. Rotate your tasks
throughout the day and take frequent rest breaks to give your body a rest. If necessary, wear anti-vibration gloves to
prevent hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS).
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Work Safely with Concrete and Cement
Concrete is a common building material that can be used in a variety of ways. It’s generally made by combining
cement, sand, aggregate (small stones) and water. When these materials are mixed in the correct amounts and if
they’re further strengthened by adding re-bar, fiberglass strands or plastic rods, the concrete can be used to build
roads, bridges, buildings, septic tanks, floors, concrete blocks, and even countertops for homes. However, anyone
who uses or works around concrete and cement should understand the potential health hazards and follow safe
handling procedures to prevent harmful exposures.
There are some applications of concrete that necessitate the addition of other materials that could adversely affect
health if improperly handled. Additions may include alkaline compounds (such as lime) that are corrosive to human
tissue, small amounts of crystalline silica that are abrasive to skin and causes damage to lungs or small amounts of
chromium that can cause allergic reactions. The risk of illness or injury from these additions in the concrete depends
on the level and length of exposure and the sensitivity of the individual.
Adverse health effects from concrete or cement are generally the result of exposure through skin contact, eye contact
or inhalation.
Skin Contact – getting cement dust or wet concrete on your skin can cause burns, rashes, and skin irritations.
Sometimes workers become allergic if they’ve had skin contact with cement over a long period of time.
Eye Contact – getting concrete or cement dust in your eyes may cause immediate or delayed irritation of the
eyes. Depending upon how much and for how long you get the dust in your eyes, effects to your eyes can
range from redness to painful chemical burns.
Inhalation – inhaling cement dust may occur when workers empty bags of cement to make concrete. When
sanding, grinding, cutting, drilling or breaking up concrete, the dust generated has the same hazards as the
dust from cement. Exposure to cement or concrete dust can cause nose and throat irritation. Long term
exposure to concrete dust containing crystalline silica can lead to a disabling lung disease called silicosis.
There are ways to prevent or control negative health effects when working with concrete and cement. First of all,
dress for protection. Wear alkali resistant gloves, long sleeves and pants to reduce skin exposure to concrete or
cement dust, and waterproof boots that are taller than the concrete is deep. Wear safety glasses with side shields to
protect the eyes or if it’s very dusty, goggles. Don’t wear contact lenses. When dust can’t be avoided, wear employer-
approved respiratory protection. And remember to wash your hands and face before eating, drinking, smoking or
using the toilet at the end of the day.
Secondly, follow all safe work practices and procedures. Work in ways that minimize the release of cement dust. Stay
out of dusty areas, when possible. Mix dry cement in well-ventilated areas. Wet down the work to keep dust out of the
air and use wet cut rather than dry cut masonry products. If it’s necessary to kneel on fresh concrete, use a dry board
or waterproof kneepads. Finally, if wet or dry concrete gets on your skin, wash it off as soon as possible.
For more detailed information, visit the website maintained by the Occupational Safety & Health Administration at
http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/constructionconcrete/index.html.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
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Working Against Violence
Perhaps workplace violence can’t be totally eliminated, but there are things that can be done to minimize it.
Awareness and preparation are key factors.
Evaluate the security of all work sites, establish a security plan for each location, and update the plan on a regular
basis. The chance of violence is greater for certain jobs including jobs of contact with the public, working in late or
early hours, exchanging money, delivering goods or services, high stress jobs, high crime areas, and if working alone
or in small numbers.
Initiate safety measures. Increase security with alarms, closed-circuit cameras or guards. Lock doors to limit public
access. Increase visibility with lighted entrances and exists. Shields workers with windows, partitions or high and wide
counters. Alter cash handling policies or install drop safes. Arrange furniture so workers can't be trapped by an
attacker. Remove potential weapons from desktops (scissors, staplers, and paperweights).
Hire responsibly. No one should be hired without a reference check.
Clearly communicate company policy about violence and reprisals. Employee manuals should clearly explain what
behavior is acceptable, what is not, and what will be done by whom, if violence occurs. It should contain written
criteria for reporting incidents and repercussions if an incident occurs. Employer response should be predictable and
consistent.
Create clear levels of authority and procedures for dealing with the risk of and response to violence in advance. If a
threat of violence is identified, potential victims or targets should be alerted along with others who may be affected,
such as supervisors or front office personnel.
Train workers to recognize early signs of potential violence. The most commonly mentioned warning signs are: a
history of violent behavior, an obsession with weapons, carrying a concealed weapon, verbal threats of harm, being
paranoid, being a loner, obsessive involvement with the job, holding a grudge, workplace physical actions, bizarre
comments or expressing extreme desperation over recent family, financial or personal problems. Employees should
take all threats seriously and report any bizarre or suspicious behavior.
Give workers training in nonviolent response techniques and conflict resolution, to reduce the risk of volatile situations
leading to physical violence. Training should also be given in how to respond to a violent situation.
Workplace violence takes a toll on both employers and employees. It affects not only those assaulted, but also those
who are witnesses. It can negatively affect the future reputation of a business.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Working Safely Around Electricity
Industry runs on electricity. It’s safe to use when you know what you’re doing and take proper precautions. When
precautions are not taken, electricity can be a killer.
How you are affected by electric shock depends on the following factors:
The rate the current flows through your body. This depends on how good your body conducts electricity. If you
have dry hands and are standing on a non-conductive surface such as a rubber mat, you may not even feel a
shock. If you are perspiring and are standing in water, you could be killed.
The length of time the current flows through your body. The longer the electric contact, the greater the current
flow and the greater the shock.
The path the current takes through your body. The most dangerous path is through vital organs.
Your actions can protect your safety.
Read and follow instructions before handling anything electrical. If you don’t understand the instructions, get
qualified help-don’t guess.
Plugs should only be inserted in receptacle outlets with the same slot or blade pattern, unless proper adapters
are used. Don’t force or alter a plug by bending, twisting or removing blades to make it fit into a receptacle
outlet.
Water conducts electricity. Keep wet hands from touching electrical equipment or light switches.
Firmly grip the plug, not the cord, when disconnecting equipment. Yanking the cord can damage the cord, plug,
or receptacle outlet and result in a shock or fire.
Because electricity is present even when the switch is in the "off" position, unplug equipment, appliances and
extension cords when not in use and before inspecting, cleaning, or fixing them.
Recognize signs of overloaded circuits including flickering or dimming lights, blown fuses, warm wall plates or
extension cords, and tripped circuit breakers.
Receptacle outlets and switches should not be painted or covered with wallpaper paste.
There’s no margin for error when working with electricity. Conditions vary so much that without the facts, you may
make a mistake and cause injury to yourself or fellow workers.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Working Safely Around Forklifts
Forklift vehicles are not like automobiles; they’re about twice as heavy, due to the counterbalance weight needed to
carry large loads. Because forklifts are so heavy, when a pedestrian worker gets injured by a forklift vehicle, the injury
is often very serious and sometimes fatal. To avoid becoming a victim of a forklift accident, be constantly aware of the
forklift activities around you both in your immediate work area and in other areas of the workplace you may need to
go.
Forklifts don’t maneuver like automobiles. Forklifts can turn in a very small radius. They’re rear-wheel driven, so their
rear end swings out wider than an automobile’s pathway. So, always give a forklift PLENTY of room to maneuver.
Don’t stand near a forklift when it begins to move. Their extra weight means a forklift can’t stop as fast as an auto.
Don’t try to squeeze by an operating forklift; their unexpected movements can crush you between the vehicle and a
stationary object.
Forklifts have limited visibility. The forks and lifting mechanism block the line of sight for the driver. If there’s a load
on the lift, visibility is even more limited. So, it’s up to YOU, the pedestrian, to watch for and avoid forklifts. Don’t rely
on the forklift driver to see you. If you MUST move around near an active forklift, maintain eye contact with the driver
at all times. And, always provide enough space for the forklift to move safely out of your way.
Never stand near or under loaded forklift tines/forks. Forklifts can drop their load or knock over a stack of materials,
causing a possible caught/crush injury. Always wait until a forklift is idle and the parking brake is ON, before entering
an active forklift working zone. Evaluate work areas around you to ensure that forklift activities can’t impact you. For
example, a forklift in one aisle can push a product off a shelf from that side of the aisle into the adjacent aisle you
may be in and crush you.
Listen carefully and look both ways before you step out from an aisle, around a corner, or across a pathway. Avoid
crossing in front of a moving forklift and don’t try to “beat” one to a crossing. Install mirrors in blind entry areas to
help pedestrians and forklift drivers keep track of each other. Paint wide, safe pathways on work area floors to
separate pedestrians from forklift travels zones. Adequate lighting can also ensure that drivers and pedestrians see
each other.
Finally, stay alert and work at a safe pace; distracted or hurrying workers and quick paced forklift driving can lead to
an accident or injury. Get periodic training on forklift safety to remember safe work practices and the consequences if
you don’t follow them. If there are forklifts present where you work, think about your surroundings and how you can
keep yourself safe from a forklift injury.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Working Safely with Chemicals
Chemicals come in various forms and can affect those exposed in different ways. A chemical can take the form of a
mist, vapor, liquid, dust, fume or gas. The type of chemical, the way it is used, and the form that it takes determine
its effect and what should be done to avoid harmful exposure.
Some basic safety precautions should be understood and followed including:
Know what to do in an emergency. If there is a leak or spill, keep away from the area, unless you know what
the chemical is and how to safely clean it up. Know where emergency protective equipment and supplies kept
and how to use them.
Use appropriate protective clothing and equipment (glasses, aprons, boots, gloves, etc.) as required or as
necessary.
If the clothing becomes contaminated by the chemical, shower or wash the skin areas exposed. Change and
decontaminate clothing (or dispose of clothing if it is designed to single use).
Do not take contaminated clothing home to be laundered because by doing so, it could expose family members
to the contaminant.
When working with chemicals, always wash hands thoroughly before eating. If necessary, shower and change
clothes before going home.
Never take food into the work area where chemicals are being used or stored.
If work will be done in an area where there is a possibility of exposure to toxic substances, use a buddy system
or establish an emergency communication system. A worker can be dangerously exposed or overcome by a
chemical and need immediate assistance.
Keep the workplace clean to reduce the risk of contamination. Where possible, wipe up and absorb the
contaminant, using proper protective equipment as required. Clean up spills immediately and dispose of
contaminated material properly. With some chemicals a vacuum is recommended for clean up rather than a
broom or compressed air. The idea is to collect and confine the contaminant, not just spread it around.
Workers should know the company's system for identifying hazardous chemicals. They should know and understand
the specific health and safety hazards of the chemicals with which they work and follow the recommended safety
precautions. All workers should be trained in proper chemical storage and disposal procedures and know what to do
for first aid and emergencies.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

Meeting Attended By:
Page 1 of 2 Working Safely with Chemicals
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Working Safely with Corrosives
Corrosives are materials so powerful that they can damage or destroy metal. In humans, they can attack and
chemically destroy body tissues as soon as they touch the skin, eyes or lungs. Although corrosives can be dangerous,
they needn’t be harmful if they are handled, stored, and disposed of safely. Everyone who works with corrosives
should be aware of their potential hazards and follow all safety precautions and recommended handling and storage
procedures.
Corrosive materials are present in almost any workplace either by themselves or contained in other products.
Common acid corrosives include hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, acetic acid, and nitric acid. Common alkaline/bases
include ammonium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide (caustic soda). Cement contains lime,
which is a base or caustic compound. Cleaning compounds may contain acids or bases. Before using a material,
always read the MSDS to know what’s in the material and to learn how to use it safely.
Corrosives can burn and destroy body tissues on contact. The stronger or more concentrated the corrosive material is
and the longer it touches the body, the worse the injuries will be. Some corrosives are toxic and can cause other
health effects. Check the MSDS and the label on the container for warnings of possible health effects.
Following these basic safe work practices will help protect you and your coworkers from the hazards of corrosive
materials:
Obtain and read the MSDS for all of the materials you work with

Be aware of all of the hazards (fire, health, reactivity) of the materials you work with
Know which of the materials you work with are corrosives
Wear the proper personal protective equipment when working with corrosive materials
Store corrosives in suitable containers away from incompatible materials
Store, handle, and use corrosives in well-ventilated areas
Handle containers safely to avoid damaging them
Dispense corrosives carefully and keep containers closed when not in use
Stir corrosives slowly and carefully into cold water when the job requires mixing corrosives and water. (Rule to
remember: AAA - Always Add Acids to water - this also applies to bases).
Handle and dispose of corrosive wastes safely
Practice good housekeeping, personal cleanliness, and equipment maintenance
Know how to handle emergencies (spills, fires, injuries) involving corrosive materials
Always follow the health and safety rules that apply to you job
If you should get corrosive material on you, remove any contaminated clothing, rinse yourself off immediately, and
seek medical attention.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Page 1 of 2 Working Safely with Corrosives
1/13/2010 http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=127
Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

Meeting Attended By:





Page 2 of 2 Working Safely with Corrosives
1/13/2010 http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=127
Working Safely With Solvents
Solvents are so common in many work places that workers forget how dangerous they are. A solvent can be generally
described as a substance, usually a liquid, that is used to dissolve another substance. Although solvents can be used
safely, health problems can result from skin contact with solvents or from inhalation of their vapors. In addition to the
health hazards, many solvent vapors are flammable and explosive.
One of the most common health hazards associated with exposure to solvents is dermatitis. Contact dermatitis can
develop from a single or from multiple exposures. It can leave the skin susceptible to a short-term infection or to a
chronic condition. Exposure can also result in sensitization to the solvent, which is a delayed allergic reaction that
often becomes more severe with subsequent exposures.
One big danger with solvents is that they can cause trouble before you realize what’s happening. Depending on the
type and concentration of the solvent, exposure effects can range from mild respiratory irritation to severe damage to
body organs and systems. In extreme cases, overexposure to solvent vapors can cause respiratory failure and death.
When working with solvents, it’s important to know what solvents are being used and what steps should be taken to
protect against harmful or dangerous exposures. To optimize safety follow these suggestions:
Know what solvents you’re working with.

Read the labels and the material safety data sheets of the solvents. They list the hazards, health effects, and
safe handling procedures.
Make sure the workspace is properly ventilated.
Use recommended gloves, eye and face protection, boots, other protective clothing, or barrier creams as
required.
If respiratory equipment is used, make sure it gives appropriate protection for the exposure.
Take care when pouring solvents from one container to another, as fire or explosions can occur from static
electricity buildup.
Clean up solvent spills promptly.
Never wash your hands with solvents.
Prohibit welding, cutting, soldering, and other sources of ignition in areas where solvents are used.
Store flammable solvents in well-ventilated areas constructed of fire-resistant materials.
Ground and bond all tanks and equipment for storage.
Install readily accessible fire extinguishers in storage and work areas.
As with other toxic substances in the workplace, the preferred methods of hazard control are substitution of a less
toxic substance in an operation, local exhaust ventilation, and enclosure.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Page 1 of 2 Working Safely With Solvents
1/13/2010 http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=109
Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

Meeting Attended By:





Page 2 of 2 Working Safely With Solvents
1/13/2010 http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=109
Workplace Distractions
Some workplace distractions and interruptions are unavoidable but others – if not properly controlled or regulated --
could lead to injuries, lost productivity, and a decrease in worker morale.
Work interruptions are a distraction that can result in work errors or accidents. Before addressing or responding to
another person, workers should shut down or disengage any work tool, equipment, or processes. Job training should
include instructions not to interrupt others during a critical job phase or process. Instruction manuals and procedural
guidebooks should be kept on site to answer frequently asked questions and thereby eliminate the need to interrupt
or distract other workers.
External noise from tools, mobile equipment, and processes can be distracting in industrial and construction work
environments. In work situations where loud or constant noise is unavoidable, hearing protection devices can
eliminate or decrease unwanted and distracting noise. In other work environments even not-so-loud sounds can be a
distracting annoyance. Constantly ringing phones, conversations, and loud faxes, copiers, and printers can distract
workers from their job tasks or -- depending on the level or duration of the noise -- can contribute to workplace
stress.
Electronic devices such as cell phones, IPODS, and PDAs can be the source of serious distractions in some work
environments. Check with your supervisor to find out if these electronics are allowed where you work. If these devices
are approved in your workplace, as a courtesy to your co-workers, make sure you keep your cell phone on a low
volume or silent when you work. To maximize work safety and performance, turn email notifications off and disable
instant messaging. Don’t answer the phone or emails when you’re in the middle of a task – let it ring to voicemail
then check messages later -- preferably on your break time.
In some work environments wearing a headset with low volume music can be relaxing to workers and help them to
safely focus on their work. However, wearing headphones on a construction or industrial site can be dangerous if it
prevents workers from hearing warning signals, mobile equipment backup alarms, and safety instructions.Walking
around while talking on the phone or wearing a headset distracts your attention from safety and could result in a slip
or fall or cause you to run into or be struck by something or someone.
Workplace distractions and interruptions are common, but training can help you remember to keep your mind on the
task at hand. Speak up about repeated and/or unsafe distractions and think and take responsibility for not
interrupting or distracting others.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

Page 1 of 2 Workplace Distractions
1/13/2010 http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=577
Meeting Attended By:





Page 2 of 2 Workplace Distractions
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X-Ray Technician Safety
As the main focus of their jobs, X-Ray Technicians operate medical x-ray machines in the healthcare setting to provide
valuable and often life-saving diagnostic information. But there is more to this job than positioning a machine and
pushing a button. X-Ray Technicians should know and prepare for the hazards that can accompany their various job
functions.
An X-Ray Technician’s primary job duty is to operate medical x-ray machines. Because x-ray machines emit radiation,
it is important to learn the appropriate machine settings and the exposure limits for radiation. ALWAYS be aware when
the x-ray tube is active. Warning lights, shielding, and other safety devices should be maintained in good working
order. Get the training to adjust, maintain and operate the equipment properly. Step behind protective walls or wear a
shielded apron when the x-ray is active. Personal dosimetry can be used to monitor your potential exposures to
radiation and make sure that you are within safe limits.
X-ray machines can be in a fixed radiology lab, or they can be portable machines used in clinical and surgical settings.
Either way, the patients receiving the x-rays may be injured or undergoing medical and/or surgical procedures that
can involve exposure to blood and other body fluids. Make sure that you take universal precautions when working with
patients. Wear gloves at all times and goggles, a mask, and gown when necessary. Wash and sterilize equipment after
each use to practice infection control; this protects you and the patients.
To get the best quality x-ray films, X-Ray Technicians are required to manipulate the equipment and the patient for
perfect alignment. When moving x-ray equipment, make sure to use good ergonomic techniques. Avoid static
postures and don’t over reach or over extend your body to move the equipment. Be aware that patients that have
been injured or are in pain may act unpredictably. Get assistance from other workers when transporting and assisting
patients. Use good lifting techniques with a straight back and soft knees to protect your back.
Developing the x-ray films requires the use of various chemicals and film processing equipment. Read the material
safety data sheets (MSDS) for the developing chemicals and ensure that you know how to operate the equipment
properly. Know and understand the mix ratios and fill levels for all of the chemicals. Wear chemical resistant gloves
and splash goggles when working with wet chemicals.
Know and prepare for the hazards involved with medical x-rays and get a clear picture of safety.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

Meeting Attended By:
Page 1 of 2 X-Ray Technician Safety
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Page 2 of 2 X-Ray Technician Safety
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Yarding Safety
Yarding is the logging operation that moves felled trees from the slash pile to the landing or storage area prior to
transportation. Rigging crews hook cable systems (simple, high-lead, shotgun, skyline, etc.) to the felled trees.
Yarding workers manually or mechanically (using skidders and yarders) activate the cable systems to move the logs
and slash to the appropriate areas. Moving these heavy materials on often unstable and/or sloping terrain makes
yarding a dangerous part of the logging operation.
With careful planning at the felling stage, you can improve the safety of the system for everyone working on the
yarding. Ensure that the logging plan leaves plenty of the correct type and size of trees to provide anchor and
deflection points for your systems; mark the trees that you will need. If the logging plan requires only partial removal,
ensure that the plan allows you flexibility to cut dangerous, dead or poorly placed trees, and substitute suitable trees
to provide safe yarding activities. Plan the best yarding system given your circumstances of tree sizes and amounts,
slash, terrain, the distance from the felling area to the landing site, and the size and location of your landing site.
Whether you are yarding manually or mechanically, choose the equipment that works for your site and the materials
that you will be moving. Make sure that the cables, blocks, and spars are of sufficient size and weight. Choose your
landing or storage areas with care. Plan a wide enough area to allow for the safe movement of people and machines
and to keep workers out of the load-bearing cable zones. Ensure that the area is stable and as flat as possible. Make
sure that logging trucks can maneuver around the area when empty or when fully loaded.
During operations, use extreme caution when working with the cabling systems. The heavy cables can operate under
extreme pressure from the weight of the felled trees. This can cause the cables to break loose and “whip” through an
area of slash or where workers are present. Loose cables can be propelled slash materials or root balls by. The
whipping cables can even fell trees.
Inspect every component of your cabling system for wear and signs of breakage. Stop and replace any items that are
not working properly. Don’t “jump” lines when re-setting operations – the slack in the line can create a hazard that is
not worth the extra time it would take to do things right. When you place a new tailhold, always run the lines in and
pull a new layout in a straight, unimpeded line to ensure that the cables cannot launch materials or snag. String extra
lines to prevent hang-ups as much as possible. BEFORE signaling to move a cable, be sure to EXIT the area and
maintain a safe distance from the cabling. Following these rules, your hands and your body should be nowhere near
the rigging when the cabling pulls taut.
To further ensure your safety, get training on safe and proper yarding methods. Wear personal protective gear such
as steel-toed work boots, sturdy work gloves, and head protection. Use good lifting techniques and watch your body
mechanics to prevent ergonomic injuries. Get plenty of rest and make sure that you’re alert to your surroundings at
all times. Communicate the yarding plan and any changes to the whole yarding crew. Practice communication
signals to make sure everyone on the team understands what to do or what will happen.
The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal
compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions
specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or
that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards.
Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund
Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Page 1 of 2 Yarding Safety
1/13/2010 http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=406

Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

Location:

Meeting Attended By:





Page 2 of 2 Yarding Safety
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AGSC Tailgate – Toolbox Tips From AGSC - where Safety is #1

AGSC Tailgate – Toolbox Tips From AGSC - where Safety is #1

TULE FOG


Tule Fog is a thick ground Fog that settles in the San Joaquin Valley and Sacramento Valley areas of
California's Great Central Valley. Similar fog conditions occur in other areas of the country and worksite
locations at which AGSC employees work and travel.

Tule Fog forms during the late fall and winter (California's rainy season) after the first significant rainfall,
generally between November 1 to March 31. Tule Fog is named after the tule grass wetlands (tulares) of the
Central Valley. Accidents caused by the Tule Fog are a leading cause of weather-related casualties.
In California, Tule Fog can extend from Bakersfield to Chico. Tule Fog occasionally drifts as far west as the
San Francisco Bay Area, even drifting westward out the Golden Gate. Tule Fog is a low cloud, usually
below one thousand feet in altitude.
VISIBILITY

There is not much one can see in Tule Fog. Visibility is usually less than an eighth of a mile (about 600 feet),
but can be less than 10 feet. Visibility can vary rapidly; in only a few feet visibility can go from 10 feet to
near zero. This rapid loss of visibility creates a serious road hazard which has caused multiple vehicle pile
ups, fatalities and serious injury.

FREEZING DRIZZLE AND BLACK ICE

Lack of visibility in Tule Fog creates significant challenges, but these Fog events are often accompanied by
freezing drizzle and an invisible glaze of black ice on roadways, making travel especially treacherous.

SAFETY TIPS

• Know the conditions which create Tule Fog (e.g. fall/winter following a rain).
• Consider postponing your trip until the Fog clears.
• Program your vehicles radio to the weather information channel (e.g. AM 1610).
• Drive with lights on low beam.
• Reduce speed. Give yourself plenty of time.
• Avoid crossing traffic unless absolutely necessary.
• Listen for traffic you cannot see.
• Use wipers and defroster as necessary for maximum vision.
• Be patient! Don't pass lines of traffic.
• Unless absolutely necessary, don't stop on any freeway or other heavily traveled road. If there is an
emergency, and you need to pull your vehicle over, pull the vehicle completely off the road and use
flares to alert other drivers. Do not leave your vehicle lights or parking lights on once the vehicle
has been pulled over as other drivers may steer off the road in an attempt to stay lined up behind
your car. It may also be dangerous to remain in or in front of your car.
• Heed instructions of the California Highway Patrol, especially if they are providing escorts.
• Before leaving home, check on road conditions:
o California: 1-800-427-7623 or the CalTrans website (http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/roadinfo/)
o AAA Emergency Road Service: 1-800-AAA-HELP (1-800-222-4357)
For more information, contact your Local Safety + Health Coordinator or Corporate Safety.
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H He ea at t S St tr re es ss s I Il ll ln ne es ss s & & P Pr re ev ve en nt ti io on n
( (C Ca al li if fo or rn ni ia a) )

Things to Do Before Training

• Be familiar with Heat Stress/Illness signs and symptoms and Cal OSHA’s Heat Illness Prevention
Requirements.
• Identify tasks at the worksite that may lead to heat stress/illness.
• Have available copies of OSHA’s Heat Stress Card if able to do so.
• Have available any equipment/materials that will promote understanding such as bottled water or
water coolers/cups, shade cover (canopies, umbrellas, etc).

Introduction

• Workers must be trained about the heat stress/illness and prevention. Heat stress/illness can be
dangerous and even fatal if you ignore the signs and symptoms of heat illness and you fail to take
the necessary steps to protect yourself.


QUESTIONS TO ASK
• What are the heat stress/illness hazards at this worksite?
• What are the different types of heat stress/illness?
• What are the signs and symptoms of heat stress/illness?
• Do you know of anyone who has experienced any of these problems?
• What steps can you take to prevent heat stress/illness?
• What should be done in case of heat stress/illness emergencies?


ACTIONS TO TAKE
• If there is any protective equipment (e.g. locations of water, shade materials) that is
needed, make sure the workers have it available.

KEY POINTS TO KNOW AND DISCUSS

Heat Stress Illnesses:
Heat stroke: the most serious health problem for workers in hot environments is caused by the failure of
the body’s internal mechanism to regulate its core temperature. Sweating stops and the body can no
longer rid itself of excess heat. Signs include: mental confusion, delirium, loss of consciousness,
convulsions or coma; a body temperature of 106 degrees Fahrenheit or higher; and hot dry skin which
may be red, mottled or bluish. Victims of heat stroke will die unless treated promptly. While medical help
should be called, the victim must be removed immediately to a cool area and his/her clothing soaked with
cool water. He/she should be fanned vigorously to increase cooling. Prompt first aid can prevent
permanent injury to the brain and other vital organs.
Heat exhaustion: develops as a result of loss of fluid through sweating when a worker has failed to drink
enough fluids or take in enough salt, or both. The worker with heat exhaustion still sweats, but
AHTNA
TAILGATE/TOOLBOX

experiences extreme weakness or fatigue, giddiness, nausea, or headache. The skin is clammy and
moist, the complexion pale or flushed, and the body temperature normal or slightly higher. Treatment is
usually simple: the victim should rest in a cool place and drink salted liquids. Salt tablets are not
recommended. Severe cases involving victims who vomit or lose consciousness may require longer
treatment under medical supervision.
Heat cramps: painful spasms of the bone muscles are caused when workers drink large quantities of
water but fail to replace their bodies’ salt loss. Tired muscles, those used for performing the work, are
usually the ones most susceptible to cramps. Cramps may occur during or after working hours and may
be relieved by taking salted liquids by mouth or saline solutions intravenously for quicker relief, if
medically determined to be required.
Fainting: may be a problem for the worker un-acclimatized to a hot environment that simply stands still
in the heat. Victims usually recover quickly after a brief period of lying down. Moving around, rather that
standing still, will usually reduce the possibility of fainting.
Heat rash: also known as prickly heat may occur in hot and humid environments where sweat is not
easily removed from the surface of the skin by evaporation. When extensive or complicated by infection,
heat rash can be so uncomfortable that it inhibits sleep and impairs a worker’s performance or even
results in temporary total disability. It can be prevented by showering, resting in a cool place, and allowing
the skin to dry.
Medical Conditions Aggravated by Heat Stress: Persons with heart or circulatory diseases or those
who are on "low salt" diets should consult with their physicians prior to working in hot environments.
General Safe Work Practices
PREVENT HEAT STRESS: minimize heat in the workplace whenever possible. Wherever possible
distribute the workload evenly over the day and incorporate “work-rest cycles”.
• When new to a hot work environment, gradually adjust. It takes between 7 to 10 days to become
acclimatized (adjusted) to working in the heat
• Use general ventilation (e.g. cooling fans) when possible, open windows in a hot environment
• Shield heat sources (e.g. ovens, incinerators, boilers)
• Postpone nonessential tasks until later in the day or early in the morning when it is cooler
• Wear comfortable, lightweight loose fitting clothing, light colored clothing if working outdoors
• Get help if performing a strenuous task during a heat episode
• Work at a controlled steady pace and avoid overexertion
• Take breaks in a cool shaded area if available
• Drink water before and frequently during wok in the heat
o Water intake during the workday should be about equal to the amount of sweat produced
o Do not depend on thirst to signal when and how much to drink. Instead, drink up to 4
cups per hour under extreme conditions of work or heat
• Avoid alcohol, caffeine when working in hot environments
• If you are taking prescription medications, talk with your health care professional and let them
know that you will be working in a hot environment as some medications can have adverse
reactions when the worker is working in a hot environment
• Report to supervisor any symptoms or signs of heat stress illness in yourself or in co-workers
• Know how to contact emergency medical services, and direct them to the worksite
• Supervisors need to know what to do when an employee exhibits symptoms of possible heat
illness including emergency response procedures.
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SUPPORT INFORMATION FOR TAILGATE/TOOLBOX TRAINING

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CAL-OSHA
Heat Illness Prevention
Guidance for Workers

Awareness of heat illness symptoms can save your life or the life of a co-worker.

• If you are coming back to work from an illness or an extended break or you are just starting a
job working in the heat, it is important to be aware that you are more vulnerable to heat stress
until your body has time to adjust. Let your employer know you are not used to the heat. It
takes about 5 – 7 days for your body to adjust.

• Drinking plenty of water frequently is vital to workers exposed to the heat. An individual
may produce as much as 2 to 3 gallons of sweat per day. In order to replenish that fluid the
worker should drink 3 to 4 cups of water every hour starting at the beginning of your shift.

• Taking your breaks in a cool shaded area and allowing time for recovery from the heat during
the day are effective ways to avoid heat illness.

• Avoid or limit the use of alcohol and caffeine during periods of extreme heat. Both dehydrate
the body.

• If you or a co-worker start to feel symptoms such as nausea, dizziness, weakness or unusual
fatigue, let your supervisor know and rest in a cool shaded area. If symptoms persist or
worsen seek immediate medical attention.

• Whenever possible, wear clothing that provides protection from the sun but allows airflow to
the body. Protect your head and shade your eyes if working outdoors.

• When working in the heat be sure to pay extra attention to your coworkers and be sure you
know how to call for medical attention.

For more information call Cal/OSHA or visit our Web site at:
www.dir.ca.gov

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Aerial Platform Safety

Page 1 of 2

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Aerial Platform Safety
Jobsites are not always at ground level. Sometimes, workers need to use aerial platforms, aerial ladders, articulating boom platforms, vertical towers, or ladder trucks to reach their work. All work has hazards and risks involved in it, but when you work at an elevated height, extra training and attention to safety procedures is a necessity. In order to work safely with aerial platforms, get training on the operating procedures for your job site and task. Get specialized training on each aerial lift model you will use. Know the risks and hazards involved with aerial work, including your own risk of falling and the hazard of dropping objects on to coworkers below. Learn to tether your tools and equipment and ensure that coworkers underneath the platform are wearing hard hats. Formal inspections and maintenance of aerial platforms should be scheduled based on the environment and how often the machine is used. Before performing maintenance on an aerial platform, lower it to the full down position. Switch all of the controls to the off position. Apply the brakes and/or use chock blocks. Lock out the power and bleed the hydraulic lines. Never modify or alter your aerial platform without written permission from the manufacturer because changes could alter the structure and stability. Never operate the aerial platform from a scaffold, trailer, or boat without written permission from the manufacturer. In addition to regular inspections and maintenance, inspect the platform each time before you use it. Look for proper function of the controls. Make sure that the emergency lowering mechanism works. Watch for wear and tear. Check for proper fluid levels and no leaks. Never use equipment if it is not working properly. Tag it out of service until it can be repaired. When you are planning your work, first ensure that the platform is appropriate to the task. Make sure that loads are within the capacity limit and are stowed properly for stability. Always use the outriggers and stabilizers required for the aerial platform and check for uneven surfaces and debris in the work area. Look for overhead obstructions and electrical lines. Avoid using aerial platforms outside in bad weather and high winds. Don’t use an aerial platform if it has to be stabilized against another building or object. Never use your aerial platform as a crane. Before working on an aerial platform, put on the appropriate fall protection gear. Consider a fall limiter so that you do not fall too far off of the platform. Make sure that guardrails are installed and access gates are closed before you raise the platform. Keep both feet on the platform at all times and do not reach too far out. Do not use lumber or ladders to get additional height on the platform. Do not step on guardrails or gate rungs and do not climb out of the platform for any reason. If you will travel with the aerial platform, go slowly in order to watch for overhead hazards and people down below. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=432

1/13/2010

Aerial Platform Safety

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Location: Meeting Attended By:

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1/13/2010

Africanized Honey Bees

Page 1 of 2

Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Africanized Honey Bees
In 1956, a breed of African honey bee was brought to Brazil in an effort to increase honey production. When these bees interbred with European honey bees, they produced a new variety of bee called the "Africanized honey bee." These bees are sometimes referred to as "killer bees" because of their aggressively defensive behavior around their nests. Although bee keeping and bee transportation are regulated by the government, the Africanized honey bee has now become part of California's environment and can be found in areas along with the European honey bee. Both varieties of bees are valued for pollination, honey, and beeswax. The Africanized honey bee looks and sounds like a European honey bee. Both types of bees sting once and the effect of the sting is similar. However, the two types of bees differ in several important ways: Africanized honey bees build nests any place that provides some protection from the weather. They nest in walls or empty structures like old tractors, trailers, cars or equipment. They find hollow trees, stumps, and animal holes a good place to build nests. They even nest underground in irrigation pipes, meter boxes and drainage ditches. They can be found nesting around trash areas, in woodpiles, and in bushes or shrubs. A key difference from the European honey bee is how Africanized honey bees behave when their nests are disturbed. They are aggressively protective of their young and respond quickly by viciously stinging a suspected intruder. They may attack within five feet or more from the nest. Equipment vibration can activate bees from a distance of 100 feet or more. Africanized honey bees may continue the defense of their nest, by pursuing an individual for a distance of 1/4 mile or more, and in some cases, for a period lasting several hours. What should you do if you encounter Africanized honey bees? Protect the head, eyes, nose, and mouth with hands, arms or clothing. Stingers, which remain in the skin, leave an odor that attracts other bees to sting in that spot. Get out of the area as quickly as possible. Get into a shelter such as a vehicle or building. Some bees may follow you in, but you will get away from the majority of bees in the swarm. Seek professional medical care. Although the toxicity of the Africanized honey bee is similar to the European honey bee, multiple stings can cause troubled breathing or trigger an allergic reaction that could lead to death. Report suspicious bee activity to a supervisor or employer. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

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Date:

http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=1

1/13/2010

Africanized Honey Bees

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1/13/2010

Aggressive Driving

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Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Aggressive Driving
Every year, the California Highway Patrol (CHP) reports approximately 500,000 collisions with 200,000 injuries and 4,000 fatalities as a result. Unsafe speed, improper turning, failure to yield the right of way, and obey traffic signals were the most frequent causes, which led the Department of Transportation (DOT) to estimate that two-thirds of traffic fatalities may be caused by aggressive driving. Aggressive driving can be caused by longer commutes, traffic congestion, and other drivers’ behaviors. It can also be caused by your own mood, reactions, and ability to deal with stress on and off the road. Aggressive driving is triggered by anger – yours or another driver’s. Aggressive drivers are more likely to speed, make unsafe lane changes, ignore the right of way, and violate traffic signals. Aggressive driving behavior includes tailgating, unsafe passing, honking your horn, making rude gestures, or swearing at other drivers. Don’t confuse aggressive driving with road rage. Blaring your horn in traffic or making rude gestures are not illegal, but they can escalate and lead to road rage. Road rage is a criminal act where a driver tries to intentionally injure or kill another driver, passenger, or pedestrian. Help prevent aggressive driving (and road rage) by first adjusting your attitude. Forget the idea of “winning” on the road. Driving is not a race; it should not be a contest to see who finishes first. Leave plenty of time for a trip so that if traffic or another delay occurs, you can keep your cool. Think of the highway as a conveyor belt – everyone will get to their destination eventually, so there is no need to speed or act impolite to save a few minutes. Put yourself in the other driver’s shoes. Have you ever made a mistake on the road, been lost, or unsure of your turnoff point? Instead of being angry at another driver making the same mistakes, give them the benefit of the doubt. When you make mistakes, acknowledge them and give the drivers around you a friendly nod or wave. Polite behavior makes driving safer. Whether on Wall Street, in a casino, or on the highway, there will always be bad actors that want to break the rules. Ignore rude and bad drivers on the road. Unless you are a traffic safety officer, it is not your job to enforce the rules of the road or punish the bad behavior of others behind the wheel. Do not try to teach other drivers “a lesson.” If you encounter an angry or aggressive driver on the road, don’t engage them. Avoid eye contact and do not make (or return) rude gestures or comments. Give an angry driver a lot of room by putting distance between you. Slow down or exit the roadway if necessary, but do not pull off to the side of the road or try to “reason” with an angry driver. Get help by using your cell phone or driving to a public area such as a police station or shopping center. If you think you have a problem with anger on the road or aggressive driving, get help. Anger management classes or counseling can help you deal with the stress in your life and in your car that may be contributing to your behavior. Keep your cool on the road and live to work and play another day. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=448

1/13/2010

Aggressive Driving

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Date:

http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=448

1/13/2010

Agricultural Pesticide Use Regulations

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1/13/2010

Agricultural Pesticide Use Regulations

Page 2 of 2

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1/13/2010

Agricultural Worker Transport

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Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Agricultural Worker Transport
Agricultural workers use trucks, cars, station wagons, and buses as transportation on and off farms and fields in California. As with any motor vehicle, there is a risk of an accident and injury when using agricultural transport on the roadway. Agricultural workers need to know that there are safety rules for agricultural transport designed to keep them safe on the job. Workers should make certain that the vehicle they are using is in good operating condition and meets the safety standards required by law. Transport vehicles require functional steering, working lights and turn signals, brakes, a leak-free fuel system, a horn, door latches, and tires with adequate tread. To provide good visibility, the vehicle needs mirrors (rear-view and side), a clean, functional windshield, and windshield wipers. For good ventilation, the exhaust system should discharge away from the passengers and the windows should be operable to allow fresh air. The agricultural transport vehicle should have a certification sticker and a safety inspection sticker. The vehicle body should be free of openings and rust areas that may cause passenger injuries. Overloading of the vehicle should be avoided; the passenger load should not exceed the vehicle manufacturer’s gross vehicle weight rating. There should be a proper seat and a seatbelt in the vehicle for every riding passenger. Drivers of agricultural transport vehicles require a valid driver’s license and should be familiar with the traffic rules for safe driving. Drivers should always wear their seatbelts. They should never operate a vehicle while under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Drivers that are too sleepy or fatigued should not operate an agricultural transport vehicle. Transport drivers should maintain a safe speed for the roadway by following posted signs. They should maintain a slower, safer speed for bad weather, traffic, and other road conditions. Care is required for roadway conditions that include uneven pavement, potholes, dirt and gravel roads, or other obstacles. Drivers should pay attention to the road and not get distracted by tasks like eating, talking to passengers, or talking on the phone. Extreme caution is required when crossing lanes of traffic, when turning, and while making u-turns. With a properly working transport vehicle and a licensed and careful driver, agricultural worker transports can get workers to the fields and home again safely. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By:

Date:

http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=322

1/13/2010

Agricultural Worker Transport

Page 2 of 2

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1/13/2010

Air Bag Safety

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Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Air Bag Safety
Vehicle air bags (including front, side and head curtains) rapidly inflate to cushion and protect drivers and passengers in traffic accidents. Air bags have deployed 3.8 million times since first used in the 1980’s and have saved 5,000 lives. Installed in 56 million vehicles, the air bag is a supplemental vehicle safety device; the first line of defense is the seatbelt. The risk of death in an accident is reduced by 65% with seat belts alone; seat belt use in combination with an air bag reduces risk by an additional 15%. Air bag benefits are proven, but most of us have seen the safety warnings posted in vehicles and heard the news that they can kill. To date, air bag deployment has killed 147 people due to the force of the airbag itself, not wearing a seatbelt, and sitting too close to the airbag. Air bags are not soft pillows; they are balloons of air that inflate with a blast of energy. Workers that drive on the job should be aware of the ways to increase air bag effectiveness for themselves and their passengers. Drivers should review the vehicle owner’s manual to determine the type and location of the vehicle air bags. Drivers should wear shoulder and lap belts securely and move the seat back as far as possible and recline it slightly. This helps maintain at least 10 to 12 inches between the steering wheel air bag and the breastbone. Pedal extenders can help smaller adults maintain this distance. To reduce the risk of arm and hand injuries, drivers should hold the steering wheel from the sides (the traditional 10 o’clock and 2 o’clock positions). Tilting the steering wheel down directs the air bag deployment force away from the head and neck. Passengers should always wear their lap and shoulder belts securely. Passengers in the front seat should move the seat as far back as possible and slightly recline it. Pregnant women, children age 13 and up, small statured adults (5 feet, two inches or shorter), adults with medical conditions, and the elderly may sit in the front seat with an air bag if they are securely belted, move the seat back, recline it slightly, and sit straight in the seat with feet on the floor. Those with eyeglasses and pacemakers can also sit by an air bag. All vehicle passengers should keep their arms and feet off of the air bag areas and avoid leaning against side impact air bags. Drivers that transport children on the job should note the specific safety requirements for children and air bag safety. Infants and children should ride in the rear seat buckled up or secured in child safety seats appropriate for their age and weight. Air bag fatalities are a rare occurrence, but with attention to safety precautions, we can all ensure that they save more lives than they take. For more information on air bag safety, visit the National Highway and Transportation Safety Association website at www.nhtsa.dot.gov. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

Supervisor's Signature:

Date:

http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=355

1/13/2010

Air Bag Safety

Page 2 of 2

Location: Meeting Attended By:

http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=355

1/13/2010

Aircraft Maintenance Safety

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Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual)
Aircraft Maintenance Safety
Aircraft maintenance work includes inspection and repair of aircraft structures, coatings, and systems in hangars and on the air field. Good training and work practices ensure aircraft and worker safety. Tall, heavy aircraft make it hard to see people on the ground when maneuvering in the hangar or maintenance area. Watch and communicate with the aircraft operator to avoid caught/crush accidents (getting run over by a tire or colliding with a wing or tail). Never enter the ramp or flightline without permission from the air field controller. Work at a steady pace. Rushing your work increases aircraft turnaround and accidents. To avoid a fall, watch for ground lines to the aircraft. Well-lit work areas are safer. Watch sharp leading edges like wing tips and pointy antennas, probes, and “Remove Before Flight” flags that stick out from the aircraft. Colliding with hard, sharp surfaces or protrusions causes bumps, bruises, and cuts. Stay inside painted hazard lines and keep clear of aircraft “prop arcs.” Contact with a propeller, rotor, or exposed rotating part can cause severe injuries. Keep hair tied back and avoid loose clothing and jewelry to prevent entanglement with moving parts. Don’t lean on or place your hands or feet near engine intake areas. Keep tools away and pick up debris near the engine. If an engine starts, you could be severely injured, or small items could be turned into projectiles. Tall aircraft require ladders, platforms, and scaffolds to reach work areas. Follow ladder safety guidelines. Use a fall protection harness where required. You may need to work in cramped quarters while performing aircraft maintenance. Evaluate aircraft access areas and job tasks with limited egress and follow confined space procedures if needed. Aircraft chemicals include lubricants, fuels, coating strippers, paints, and solvents. These can be concentrated and contain hazardous materials; use material safety data sheets (MSDS). MSDS explain how to handle chemicals, proper storage and disposal, and the required personal protective equipment (PPE) for safe work. Do not smoke around aircraft maintenance areas where chemicals and fuels are flammable. Fabrication and repair work requires tools such as welding torches, drills, rivets, or grinders. Properly maintain your tools and follow safety procedures. When moving large, bulky aircraft parts and materials, use assistive devices or get help to make the lift safe. Use good ergonomic practices such as frequent 30-second micro-breaks and job task rotation to prevent fatigue and injury. PPE varies with the job task. Bump caps protect you from an accidental collision with an aircraft part. Hard hats protect you from falling objects. Safety glasses, a face shield, and goggles protect your face and eyes, depending on the task and materials. Coveralls and rubber gloves and boots protect your hands and feet from chemicals. Sturdy work gloves protect your hands from cuts and scrapes while steel-toe work boots with non-slip soles protect your toes and decrease the chance of falls. Wear adequate hearing protection (ear plugs, muffs, etc.) to protect you from aircraft noise. A respirator may be needed to control dusts from grinding and sanding operations. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty, expressed or implied, that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws, regulations or standards. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund

http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=532

1/13/2010

Aircraft Maintenance Safety Page 2 of 2 Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=532 1/13/2010 .scif.

For housekeeping purposes. and metals. or other materials break down. to disinfect water. acids.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. Store ammonia in a cool. make sure that “escape” respirators with supplied air are available to you in case of an accidental release.scif. compost. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. wear gloves and consider a lab coat or coverall with long sleeves to protect your skin. despite its common usage. dry area away from incompatible materials such as chlorine. irritation. to manufacture pharmaceuticals. Workers in all industries should know that. Never mix ammonia with chlorine (bleach) because the combination creates chloramines. The reason ammonia is considered a hazardous chemical is that it is corrosive to the skin. oxidizers. and burns. remove the contaminated clothing and flush your skin with water for at least 15 minutes. and lungs. Wear an air-supplying respirator if you will be entering an area that has high ammonia concentrations. or as an anti-fungal treatment for citrus. Do not store food and beverages near ammonia products. We do not make any warranty. or used in compressed gas as anhydrous ammonia (meaning without water). wear splash goggles or consider a face shield to protect your eyes.Ammonia Safety Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Ammonia Safety Ammonia is a commonly used chemical in commercial and household cleaners. Ammonia can be mixed with water and sold as ammonium hydroxide. In industry. ammonia is used in petroleum refining. and stomach and can be fatal. An ammonia splash in the eye can cause pain and burns and lead to eye damage and temporary or permanent blindness. pain. Always wash your hands after using ammonia products and before you smoke. regulations or standards. eyes. an extremely toxic and irritating gas. Ammonia can also be produced naturally when stored materials such as manure. and properties of the materials that you work with. If you use or mix concentrated ammonia. If you work with household cleaners. so your nose is usually the first warning of exposure. Swallowing ammonia can cause burns to the mouth. wheeze. flush them with water for 15 minutes and get immediate medical attention. Use ammonia products and materials in well-ventilated areas. Wear the appropriate PPE for the job task and the strength of the ammonia you use. always spray the materials down and away from your face to avoid exposure. you may cough. fertilizers. Skin contact with ammonia can cause redness. Know where these respirators are located and how to use them. that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws. If your eyes are exposed. If your clothes are splashed with ammonia. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund http://www. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. ammonia can be used for crop processing. expressed or implied. If your workplace stores large amounts of ammonia. or feel shortness of breath. Ammonia has a distinct and irritating odor when it is released. wear gloves to protect your skin when using ammonia cleaning products. When using higher concentrations in industrial and laboratory settings. throat. Inspect and maintain ammonia storage and processing equipment to prevent leaks and exposures. concentrations. eat or drink. If you breathe ammonia into your lungs. ammonia poses health risks and hazards that require proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and safe use and handling procedures. and as a refrigerant. know the amounts. To prevent overexposure to ammonia. In agriculture.asp?ArticleID=433 1/13/2010 .

scif.asp?ArticleID=433 1/13/2010 .Ammonia Safety Page 2 of 2 Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.

If injured by an animal or potentially exposed to a diseased animal. Additional restraints or help may be needed to handle that animal safely. Extra caution should be used when handling animals that are sick. workers should immediately report to their supervisor and seek the appropriate medical attention and follow-up. These vary with animal breeds. Generally. Protective eyewear and respirators may also be needed for diseases transmitted by breathing contaminated farm and field dusts. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. Knowledge and training can prevent workers from experiencing the painful side of animal instincts.scif. poking. Some herd animals may be calmer when handled in small groups. hurt. or new mothers. Workers should watch for warning signs of animal aggressiveness and fear. but may include raised fur. and zoonosis (diseases spread from animals to humans). The potential for zoonosis (diseases transmitted by animals) varies depending on the animal breed. If workers must capture animals or administer treatments that may cause pain. Animal hazards may include injuries due to sudden animal movements. slow and deliberate movements should be used around animals. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund http://www. but is generally caused by dirty hands or inhalation of contaminated dusts. Cornering. workers should practice good ergonomics by keeping their backs straight and their joints “soft. twitching tails. bites and scratches. For safety on the job. Animal handling techniques should be taught to inexperienced workers and used consistently by everyone. workers need protective footwear with non-slip soles. regulations or standards. If an animal begins thrashing around too violently to safely control. or bared teeth. that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws. Handling an animal safely begins with knowing the animal’s typical behavior. therefore workers should remain constantly alert when handling them.asp?ArticleID=343 1/13/2010 . It is advisable to keep an open route of escape when working with animals.” This can prevent injury and a “whiplash” effect if the animal moves suddenly. Workers should approach animals from the front and avoid their blind spots and the “kick zone” behind cattle and horses. teasing. they should do so with assistance from animal capture devices and/or other workers. When capturing or handling a tethered animal. The types of animals may vary. and animal services industries may handle animals as a part of their job duties. and gloves. Animal behavior can be unpredictable. veterinary. but workers should get training on their potential hazards and safe handling techniques. sturdy clothing.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. We do not make any warranty.Animal Handling Safety Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Animal Handling Safety Workers in farming. or needlessly hurting animals can cause them to react violently. flattened ears. the handler should release the animal if it is safe to do so. sudden animal movements could cause a stick injury. workers should avoid handling these animals until they are in a calmer state. Workers should use extreme caution when giving injections and handling sharps around animals. If possible. Frequent hand washing is the best defense against diseases caused by touching animal saliva and wastes. expressed or implied. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. Aggressive (or sick) animals and their pens should be labeled to ensure that everyone uses extra caution around them.

scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=343 1/13/2010 .Animal Handling Safety Page 2 of 2 Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www.

ultraviolet light (UV). We do not make any warranty. Some cleaning and degreasing compounds may also be hazardous. Welders can be stationary. Keep welding cables clean and intact and position them so they do not get sparks or hot metal on them. and UV light. or equipment failure. wear rubber gloves underneath your leather gloves. Overloading circuits or improper installation can lead to fire. Do not add fuel to the engine while it is running or near open flame. beryllium. use an insulating mat when you weld steel or other conductive materials. barrels.000 degrees F. tears. that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws. Weld inside a screened area to protect coworkers. or worn spots.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. lead. Stop the engine and lockout the ignition before performing maintenance or repairs. A skull cap protects your head and hair. It may be necessary to set a “fire watch” to ensure that a fire does not start. electric powered or portable. Use respiratory protection for galvanized items and metals. and mercury. cuffless. and openings. Mount a safety disconnect switch near the user work area. wear dark colored coveralls with long sleeves and pant legs.Arc Welding Safety Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Arc Welding Safety Arc welders use a powerful electric arc to make and repair plain. where residual fumes can ignite and explode. molten metal. posing a fire and explosion hazard. Don’t arc weld near flammables or combustibles. cadmium. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. Keep an ABC fire extinguisher. Goggles or safety glasses and welding helmets/shields protect your eyes from flying sparks. The coveralls should be fire retardant. diesel/gas powered. Welding metals may be hazardous or lead to an oxygen deficient atmosphere and are best handled in a ventilation hood exhausted to the outside. cutting. Weld on a firebrick surface on concrete or other fire-resistant flooring surrounded by spark curtains.asp?ArticleID=553 1/13/2010 . Use the correct filter setting for the power output of the arc welder. and fluxes that contain fluorine compounds. To avoid electric shock from arc welding. gaps. coated. coatings. Install electric-powered arc welders to code. a ground fault. Leather gauntlet gloves and safety boots protect your hands and feet. Ground equipment and place it on an independent circuit with the correct-sized fuse or circuit breaker. Fill cracks in the flooring to prevent sparks and hot metal from entering and smoldering. and pocketless with no holes. and sparks. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund http://www. Portable screens. Avoid welding. fire blanket. or treated metal items. or hot work on used drums. Wear hearing protection in noisy environments and to keep sparks out of your ears. Operate diesel/gas powered arc welders in well-ventilated areas to control combustion fumes. and anti-flash goggles can also be used to protect visitors and coworkers. If you are welding in a wet or damp area or perspiring heavily. If you weld or cut metals with hazardous coatings or treatments use a supplied-air respirator or a respirator with a specialty cartridge to filter specific metal fumes. chipped slag. and first aid kit available at all times. or tanks. zinc.scif. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. Welding helmets and shields should be non-reflective and free of cracks. expressed or implied. shields. To protect your body from burns due to arc welding heat. Arc welders can reach temperatures greater than 10. Use arc welders in well-ventilated areas. regulations or standards.

asp?ArticleID=553 1/13/2010 .Arc Welding Safety Page 2 of 2 Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.scif.

ambulance. etc. etc.g. chemical spill or workplace violence. Management commitment and worker involvement are essential to an effective emergency action plan. oxygen tanks. but if you have an emergency action plan in place and have trained workers to respond quickly and appropriately you can optimize efficiency. Spills Does the worksite have absorbent material that matches the quantity and type of chemicals which could spill? Do you have relevant personal protective equipment that would be needed to respond to a chemical spill? Have workers been properly trained in how to safely respond to a chemical spill? Once you have established your emergency action plan. and in the location of emergency response equipment and phone number. save lives. How good is your emergency action plan? Find out by asking yourself and your workers the following questions: General Is there a means of reporting emergencies and accounting for personnel before and after an incident? Who is the person responsible for decision-making during emergency conditions? Does everyone in the workplace know the procedures to follow in various emergency scenarios (e. The action plan should be explained to workers and reviewed whenever the plan or responsibilities change. etc. explosion.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.scif. earthquake. and in some cases. fire. ice packs. any first aid or rescue procedures. medical facility.) clearly posted where they can be readily accessed? Fire Does the worksite have fire extinguishers that match the possible fire hazards? Have workers practiced using the fire extinguishers so that they’re aware of their operation and limitations? Have the fire extinguishers been recharged within the last year? (They must be tagged to indicate the recharge date. the business operation.asp?ArticleID=37 1/13/2010 .) Are emergency response phone numbers (fire department. relieve anxiety.g. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal http://www.)? Do workers know the escape routes and evacuations procedures including where to reassemble for a headcount or for further instruction? Do workers know where emergency supplies are located? Medical Do workers know how to respond in the event of a medical emergency? Are there workers trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and first aid? Does the worksite have first aid equipment which corresponds to the possible injuries workers may encounter? (e. In an emergency an immediate and educated response can save individual lives.Are You Prepared For An Emergency? Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Are You Prepared For An Emergency? Emergencies in the workplace cannot be eliminated. emergency wash stations. personal protective equipment. make sure workers are trained and retrained in the possible emergencies they may encounter. and thousands of dollars in potential losses. the emergency procedures they should follow.

that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws.asp?ArticleID=37 1/13/2010 . Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www. We do not make any warranty. expressed or implied. regulations or standards. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.Are You Prepared For An Emergency? Page 2 of 2 compliance purposes.

Asbestos in Construction Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Asbestos in Construction What is Asbestos? Asbestos is the name given to a group of naturally occurring minerals. Asbestos fibers are naturally occurring and stay airborne very well. the asbestos fibers do not become airborne and do not pose a health threat. cement and wallboard materials. Asbestos differs from other minerals. Mesothelioma– is a type of cancer. renovation or demolition of older buildings. The time between exposure to asbestos and the occurrence of lung cancer may take 20 to 30 years. How can you become exposed? Disturbing asbestos materials may generate airborne asbestos fibers. There are six different minerals. sheet metal workers. Mesothelioma is considered to be exclusively related to asbestos exposure. Asbestosis– is a scarring of the lung tissue. and steel workers. invading and blocking the air passages of the lungs. plumbers.asp?ArticleID=2 1/13/2010 . Asbestos fibers then accumulate in the lungs. Chrysotile (a member of the Serpentine group) is the most common type of asbestos found in buildings. in that it forms long thin fibers instead of crystals. roofers. Asbestosis is a slowly progressive disease. divided into two groups. Asbestos is only dangerous if it becomes airborne. called the pleura. Asbestos related diseases. The tumor grows through the surrounding tissues. Where do you find asbestos? Asbestos is used in many products because of their high tensile strength. Asbestos is used in insulation. How to protect yourself? Before you disturb asbestos (loosen the fibers) you must have special training. Lung Cancer– is a malignant tumor in the lungs. Serpentine forms a sheet or layered structure. taking 15 to 30 years to fully develop. and resistance to chemical and thermal breakdown. OSHA requires a “competent person” to be designated for all worksites that will involve asbestos work. The competent person should inspect the jobsite regularly. As exposure increases. Chrysotile makes up 90-95% of all the asbestos in the United States. flexibility. pipefitters.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. Installation of these products continued into the early 1980’s. floor tiles and roofing materials. remodeling. the risk of asbestos related diseases also increase. Amphiboles form a chain-like structure. bricklayers. Who is at risk of asbestos exposure? The construction trades most at risk from asbestos are insulators. This disease attacks the lining of the space holding the lungs. As long as asbestos containing materials are not damaged. electricians. painters. It should be noted that there is a multiplying effect between smoking and asbestos exposure. To be a significant health concern. The two groups are Serpentine and Amphibole. http://www. Any construction worker may be exposed occur during maintenance. asbestos fibers must be inhaled over an extended period of time. Mesothelioma may take 30 to 40 years to develop. The federal government declared a moratorium on asbestos production in the early 1970’s. which creates a high susceptibility to lung cancer. be knowledgeable of personal protective equipment.scif. The scarring impacts the elasticity of the lungs and lowers its ability to transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide. automotive brakes. fireproofing materials. and supervise the work to be done to ensure all safety measures are being taken to prevent exposure to asbestos. and are based on the differences of their crystalline structure. included in the asbestos family.

that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws.gov/SLTC/asbestos. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. visit the website maintained by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration at http://www. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. regulations or standards. If you have any concerns or questions. We do not make any warranty.asp?ArticleID=2 1/13/2010 .Asbestos in Construction Page 2 of 2 More Information For more detailed information and updates. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www.osha-slc.scif. expressed or implied.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. contact your company’s health and safety representative.

highly irritating or toxic.) should be kept away from the area where the hot asphalt is being used. There are many different types and grades of asphalt in current use. waterproofing and some glues. substitute a less hazardous form of asphalt in your construction project. Workers most likely to be exposed to asphalt fumes are road workers. It is used in paving. for possible fires. let your supervisor know right away. use thermally insulated gloves. discuss with your supervisor/employer the appropriate personal protective equipment necessary for the work being performed. so burns are a common form of injuries. This can lead to potential fires and explosions.scif. consult the Material Safety Data Sheet from your employer. Stirring asphalt in an open kettle exposes you to fumes. If you feel ill while working with asphalt. which is made worse by sunlight exposure. If possible. drinking. Exposure to asphalt fumes (and the solvents in them) over long periods of time (chronic exposure) may cause lung and stomach cancer. employees at hot-mix asphalt facilities and general construction workers. Sources of ignition (e. not oil. These solvents are hazardous substances.asp?ArticleID=3 1/13/2010 .g. fatigue. Asphalt is almost always used hot. roofing. Eye protection – wear indirect vent goggles when working with liquids.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. and cough.000 workers are exposed to asphalt fumes each year. Health Dangers Breathing asphalt fumes is the most common method of exposure. Where possible. cigarettes. Long-term contact of asphalt with your skin can cause pigment change. Methods of Control Substitution – there are many types of asphalt. solvent vapors and possible burns. Isolation – isolating asphalt operations will minimize worker exposure. sparks. The acute (immediate) health effects of asphalt fumes include. http://www. Some of the solvents used to mix with asphalt are naphtha. If the liquids are corrosive.Asphalt Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Asphalt Asphalt is a black. Asphalt is often confused with coal tar or pitch. smoke or drink where asphalt is handled. transfer the asphalt automatically by pump to minimize exposures. Wash hands carefully before eating. smoking or using the toilet. toluene. It is mixed with solvents to make it more liquid. Do not use a fire extinguisher unless you have been fully trained in its use. very smelly and increase the potential hazards of working with asphalt. flammable. of the correct type. and xylene. etc. Many forms of asphalt are flammable. Enclosure – enclose the mixing and stirring operations. Asphalt is a solid or semisolid substance. Coal tar and pitch come from coal. eye and throat irritation. headache. Prior to starting any job. and easier to work with. Gloves – for the best protection. Safe Work Practices Do not eat. Who is at risk? It is estimated that 350. skin rash. Some are more hazardous than others. sticky material that comes from crude oil. Clothes – wear long sleeve shirts and long pants. wear a face shield along with the goggles. Have a fire extinguisher available. roofers. flames. To find out the specific hazards associated with the type of asphalt you are working with.

They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed.scif. regulations or standards. We do not make any warranty.gov The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes.asp?ArticleID=3 1/13/2010 . that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws. visit the website maintained by the Occupational Safety & Health Administration at http://www.Asphalt Page 2 of 2 For more information and updates of new information.osha-slc. expressed or implied. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.

crushed rock. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. Long term exposure can lead to bronchitis or emphysema. toluene. binders. or lung irritation. Wear long sleeves and pants or coveralls. Avoid breathing asphalt fumes by staying upwind of application areas and enclosing kettles and mixing operations. and nervous system. Hot asphalt can release hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) that can cause lung irritation. and recycled rubber. a scratchy throat. regulations or standards.asp?ArticleID=512 1/13/2010 . Do not smoke around flammable vapors. Don’t stick your head over an open tank or kettle and avoid open stirring to prevent burns and overexposure to fumes. Eyes can be irritated by asphalt fumes or if you touch them with dirty hands. Heated asphalt is a fire and explosion hazard. Where possible. kerosene. kidneys. Keep the correct type of fire extinguisher handy when using asphalt. smoke. or death. Thermally insulated gloves prevent asphalt burns and stop solvents from soaking into your skin. Check the product label or material safety data sheet (MSDS) to get health and safety information about the specific asphalt mix and ingredients that you use. Do not allow water to splash into hot asphalt because it can bubble up explosively. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund Supervisor's Signature: Location: Date: http://www. Use your PPE to keep asphalt off of your skin and out of your eyes. so check the MSDS. expressed or implied. It is made from petroleum products and is usually heated between 150-200 degrees F. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. Safety boots protect your feet. Exposure to asphalt fumes can cause serious health effects. roofing. Wash your hands frequently and before you eat. We do not make any warranty. Wear personal protective equipment (PPE) when working with asphalt. Safety glasses and a face shield protect your eyes and face. Skin contact with hot asphalt can cause burns while absorbing the chemicals can lead to allergies and rashes. concrete work. Rapid cure asphalts contain solvents to help them evaporate faster. When asphalt is heated. If necessary.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. Asphalt is often mixed with solvents (diesel. suffocation. that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws. Find out about the asphalt products you work with. Slower cure and lower temperature asphalt applications reduce the fumes and the fire hazard. drink. hardening and bonding agents (resins). but this increases the risk of vapors and fire. Do not weld an asphalt tank or kettle unless you are certain that it does not contain flammable vapors. so get training and use safe work practices. use respiratory protection to prevent overexposure to asphalt fumes. Asphalt additives may create vapors that can cause damage to the liver. Avoid heat and sparks around your asphalt work. or use the restroom.Asphalt Worker Safety Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Asphalt Worker Safety Asphalt is used for paving and surfacing roads. and xylene). the fumes can cause coughing. Some asphalt additives can be flammable. The Cal OSHA permissible exposure level (PEL) for asphalt fumes is 5mg/M3.scif. sand. naphtha. choose asphalt products that are safer to use. Asphalt additives may also have their own PEL limits. and paints.

Asphalt Worker Safety Page 2 of 2 Meeting Attended By: http://www.asp?ArticleID=512 1/13/2010 .scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.

Repairs may require computer analysis. Use caution with jacks and aerial lifts. Hot fluids can scald your skin. Know the rated capacity and the weight and center of gravity of the vehicle. Avoid burns. When you use the aerial lift. test to see if the vehicle is supported before you work underneath. Tie back long hair. Wear gloves when you work with chemicals. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund http://www. Emergency eyewash stations and showers should be available. easily accessible. Store flammable rags in fire-safety cans with self-closing lids. comfortable shoes with a non-slip sole. Don’t smoke or get sparks near the battery. Eye protection protects eyes from dirt. and liquid splashes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. Never open the radiator cap on a hot engine. Use caution when working on fuel lines.asp?ArticleID=628 1/13/2010 . Wear hearing protection when using pneumatic tools or doing loud tasks. Get the proper training you need to safely use your equipment and tools.scif. Take frequent mini-breaks and rotate your work tasks throughout the day. Periodically inspect and maintain your jacks and lifts. Respiratory protection prevents inhaling dusts and fumes. Get training. and tool and machinery safety concerns. disable it before you begin work. Wear proper personal protective equipment and clothing. maintenance. so use proper lifting methods. Prevent shop fires. Bleed line pressure and use a rag to absorb drips and sprays. chemicals. pulleys and fans. exposing workers to fire and explosion hazards. Don’t wear loose clothing. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. Use support stands to protect you if the vehicle falls. Pay special attention to mechanical hazards in the shop. jewelry. Other mechanical hazards include moving engine parts such as drive belts. Moving in and around a vehicle and reaching into cramped engine and electrical compartments may require awkward postures that can lead to ergonomic strains and sprains. debris. or bulky gloves. ergonomic strains. awkward postures. Don’t lean over or reach into the engine compartment while someone else is behind the ignition key or revving the engine. Know where emergency exits and equipment are located. allow the engine to cool before you work with hot parts and fluids.Automobile Repair Services Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Automobile Repair Services Automobile repair services include inspections. and repairs to vehicles. or major mechanical work. fluid changes.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. parts changes. and arm and cause severe injury. When you use a jack. read. Take caution around air bag technology. Automotive work can require long days. watch for hot engine and exhaust parts. pace yourself to prevent fatigue. that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws. Auto parts are heavy. Get the proper tools to allow you to reach your tasks comfortably and safely. We do not make any warranty. sleeve. Watch for rotating parts that can pull in your hand. and ready to use if you need them. regulations or standards. Know where these parts are and keep your hands clear of them. expressed or implied. and understand the material safety data sheet on the chemicals you use. Get fire extinguisher training. Wear sturdy. Long sleeved coveralls protect your skin. know the vehicle’s lift points to ensure a balanced and stable lift. it can off-gas explosive hydrogen. Don’t smoke around fuels or fuel-related parts.

com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.scif.Automobile Repair Services Page 2 of 2 Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www.asp?ArticleID=628 1/13/2010 .

asthma. avoid direct contact with latex products until a doctor experienced in latex allergies sees you. Prevention strategies should be evaluated whenever a worker is diagnosed with a latex allergy. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. If you have a latex allergy. Learn to recognize latex allergy symptoms. call 1-800-356-4674.gov/niosh/homepage. monitoring symptoms. ventilation ducts. When wearing latex gloves. don't use oil-based hand creams or lotions unless they reduce latex-related problems. High-risk workers should be periodically screened for latex allergy symptoms. nasal. Non-latex gloves should be used when contact with infectious materials is not likely (food preparation. training and education. Those who work where latex products are manufactured or who have multiple allergic conditions may also be affected. and when possible. but some workers. After removing latex gloves.).cdc. expressed or implied. carpets. physicians.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. eye. using appropriate work practices.html The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. Frequently change ventilation filters and vacuum bags used in latex-contaminate areas. which include skin rashes. If allergy symptoms develop. nurses and dentists and wear a medical alert bracelet. Workers with ongoing exposure to natural rubber latex should follow the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's (NIOSH) recommendations which include: reducing exposure. use powder-free gloves with reduced protein content. develop allergic reactions. etc. flushing. tell your employer. itching. We do not make any warranty. A latex allergy can result in serious health problems. If latex gloves are required. or sinus irritations. regulations or standards. that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws. maintenance. substituting non-latex products. Identify and frequently clean work areas contaminated with latex dust (upholstery. For additional information about latex allergy. wash hands with a mild soap and dry thoroughly.asp?ArticleID=9 1/13/2010 . Workers with latex allergy should talk to a doctor about precautions in areas where powder from latex gloves worn by others might be inhaled. routine housekeeping. hives. and (rarely) shock. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www. You can take steps to avoid or minimizing allergic reactions to natural rubber latex.Avoiding Allergic Reactions to Latex Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Avoiding Allergic Reactions to Latex Most people who encounter latex products have no health problems. or visit the NIOSH Web page at http://www.scif. continually exposed to latex gloves and other products containing natural rubber latex. and plenums).

asp?ArticleID=9 1/13/2010 .Avoiding Allergic Reactions to Latex Page 2 of 2 http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.

cause injury and pain and then no one will be laughing. the worker may then grasp the load with both arms and slowly stand up with it. Teach workers to tilt the item on edge with its long axis straight up so the the center of the weight is as high as possible above the ground. The back’s complex design breaks down when it is forced to perform activities it was not designed to do. and face it squarely. In this position. discs. is to have them practice lifting correctly a few times. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www. The back can be damaged quickly but can take a long time to heal.asp?ArticleID=4 1/13/2010 . and it takes the least strain close in. The sad truth is that most of the pain and lost time could have been prevented if workers had been more aware of how their backs function and how to safely lift bulky or heavy loads. Lifting with the back twisted or bent just begs for a pulled muscle or ruptured disc. but back strains and sprains are not at all funny. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. with the least strain and awkwardness. They will notice that the correct way to lift is the easiest way to lift the load. So workers should be encouraged to do their lifting with good sense and a little extra help from a co-worker or mechanical aid. the back gets added lifting strength and power from the legs and arms. nor should they be an unavoidable curse to anyone. Back injuries suffered in California’s workplaces last year ran up a bill of millions of dollars. the feet should be set with legs pointed right at the load. expressed or implied. with the back straightened. the worker should move up close to the item. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. and muscles which can easily be thrown out of order.Back Injuries . The unsupported back cannot operate like a derrick or a crane boom. because the backbone must act as a supporting column. One sure way to risk injuring the back is to lift heavy or bulky loads improperly or unassisted. A good way to help workers learn the right from the wrong way to lift. regulations or standards.Get Your Workers Back in Control Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Back Injuries . Workers should learn to squat over the item to be lifted. the worker is ready to lift. Next. To lift the wrong way will. Those disabling back injuries were no laughing matter for the workers who lost time from work or from their personal activities. that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws.Get Your Workers Back in Control Jokes about nagging back pain get standup comedians a lot of laughs. In this position. The back is a network of fragile ligaments. We do not make any warranty. over time. Still squatting.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.

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manufacturing. or ease the loading process. and other public entities to compress waste materials into smaller. Do not allow workers younger that 18 to operate a compactor or baler. garbage and recycling facilities. Always clear the area and account for all workers before you activate a compactor or baler. expressed or implied. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund Supervisor's Signature: Location: Date: http://www. Know how the machine at your jobsite works. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. Follow the safe work practices designed for your machine and job tasks.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. ALWAYS use lockout/tagout procedures before you perform maintenance. Do not try to bypass safety features in order to perform maintenance. or clear jams.Baling and Compacting Work Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Baling and Compacting Work Compactors and balers are used in industries such as wholesalers. Workers can get seriously injured or killed if they reach inside or fall into a compactor or baler. Jams are a frequent occurrence in baling and compacting operations. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. Using powered rams. and plastic can be compressed and packed into containers or baled for transport. Use access ladders and platforms. Never overload the machine beyond the recommended capacity. semiautomatic devices turn on and cycle only after a worker hits the switch. Guards. Get training on the use of the compactor or baler in your work area. so design your lockout/tagout procedures to be efficient and effective by marking the power points and wiring the machinery together to reduce the number of lockouts needed. metals. control switches. cardboard. regulations or standards. remote chutes. Don’t let a compactor or baler put the squeeze on your safety. Follow manufacturer’s recommendations on the maintenance. does it operate manually or on semiautomatic or automatic cycles? Does the machine have capacity sensors and when are they activated? With manual devices. and safety interlocks for doors and ports are designed to keep you out of the compression chamber and harm’s way. more manageable loads. Be familiar with and use all of the safety devices on compactors and balers. NEVER reach into or enter a baler or compactor unless it has been de-energized. Watch out for the baling materials because they are under pressure and can snap if they are overloaded. while automatic devices trigger the compression ram based on a capacity sensor. that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws. waste materials such as garbage. conveyors.asp?ArticleID=460 1/13/2010 . cotton. clear a jam.scif. Know and use these features because they tell you when and how the machine will activate so you can avoid the powered ram. inspections. paper. retailers. the operator controls the ram. We do not make any warranty. Use safe access points and consider fall protection if you are working over gravity-fed chutes or chambers. or walk around moving conveyers. inspection. and use of the machine.

Baling and Compacting Work Page 2 of 2 Meeting Attended By: http://www.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.scif.asp?ArticleID=460 1/13/2010 .

They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. Acid exposure can lead to skin irritation. Always practice good hygiene and wash your hands after handling a battery and before eating. and lead-calcium batteries. Cigarettes. Be aware of the chemical hazards posed by batteries. maintain. These can be explosive at high levels. Make sure that a battery is properly secured and upright in the vehicle or equipment. For this reason. The electrical voltage created by batteries can ignite flammable materials and cause severe burns.scif. Overcharging batteries can also create flammable gases. To avoid sparking. Place protective rubber boots on battery cable connections to prevent sparking on impact if a tool does accidentally hit a terminal. Be careful with flammable fluids when working on a battery-powered engine. tractors. gel cells.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. Batteries can be very dense and heavy. Clean the battery terminals with a plastic brush because wire brushes could create static and sparks. The chemical reaction by-products from a battery include oxygen and hydrogen gas. Do not tuck your pant legs into your boots because spilled acid can form a pool in your boots. Before working with a battery. In marine environments. replace it with a new one. trucks. chemical reaction by-products. constipation with cramping. Signs of lead exposure include loss of appetite. Finally. and boots. If a battery shows signs of damage to the terminals. you should have training in proper handling procedures. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. case or cover. Consult the vehicle and battery owners’ manuals for specific instructions on battery handling and hazard identification. difficulty sleeping. and recharge batteries should use caution. it can produce hazardous chlorine gas. and fatigue. Battery maintenance tools should be covered with several layers of electrical tape to avoid sparking. and tooth enamel erosion.Battery Handling Safety Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Battery Handling Safety Batteries are used to power our automobiles. A short-circuit current can weld a ring or bracelet to metal and cause severe burns.asp?ArticleID=10 1/13/2010 . Workers that operate. flames or sparks could cause a battery to explode. diarrhea. wear personal protective equipment (PPE) such as chemical splash goggles and a face shield. The sulfuric acid (electrolyte) in batteries is highly corrosive. Wear acidresistant equipment such as gauntlet style gloves. If you handle the lead plates in a battery and don’t wash your hands properly. Most batteries contain sulfuric acid and lead. that your workplace is safe or healthful or http://www. they should be handled carefully to avoid an acid spill. Always remove your personal jewelry before working on a battery. If acid splashes on your skin or eyes. Workers have been injured and killed when loose or sparking battery connections ignited gasoline and solvent fumes during vehicle maintenance. so use proper lifting techniques to avoid back injuries. and construction or power equipment. you could be exposed to lead. always disconnect the negative battery cable first and reconnect it last. it is very important to store and maintain batteries in a well-ventilated work area away from all ignition sources and incompatible materials. remember to dispose of old batteries properly. do not allow the battery solution to mix with salt water. Before working on a battery. Never lean over a battery while boosting. immediately flood the area with cool running water for at least 15 minutes and seek medical attention immediately. Because batteries contain chemicals. testing or charging it. expressed or implied. disconnect the battery cables. Battery casings can be brittle and break easily. There are different types of batteries such as lead-acid batteries. and an electrical current they can pose a hazard to workers if not handled properly. respiratory irritation. eye damage. an apron. To avoid splashing acid in your face. We do not make any warranty.

asp?ArticleID=10 1/13/2010 . regulations or standards.Battery Handling Safety Page 2 of 2 that it complies with all laws.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.scif. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www.

seat. Even the very best drivers must learn to operate their vehicles with life-saving EXTRAS. Before getting behind the wheel. Drivers should take extra care of their vehicles’ maintenance by keeping them in good operating condition. We do not make any warranty. locate the lights. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. pedestrians or children on or near the road. and see that windshields are clean and wipers blades are sharp.asp?ArticleID=22 1/13/2010 . Be extra cautious by staying alert and expecting the unexpected. they might personally discover why vehicle deaths and serious injuries now total more than all the wartime wounded and fatalities since 1776. adjust the mirrors. On the roadways. As an extra precaution. Watch out for and anticipate other drivers. and aggressive driving contribute to many vehicle accidents. drivers should take the extra time to check the gas gage. A driver may be trained. Safe drivers scan constantly for hazards. and seatbelt to a comfortable position and. do a simple walk around the vehicle to insure that tires are properly inflated and have good tread. predicting how they may be affected by a hazard and pre-determining how to avoid or reduce them.scif. Although the common factors of inexperience. Once inside the vehicle. so make sure they operate properly. keep a safe distance from other drivers by maintaining that extra safety cushion of driving space between your vehicle and those around you. and wipers. If drivers don’t practice these life-saving extras on the road. Instead. check that lights are clear and working. and other warning devices are not just accessories but vital parts of the extra safety built into any vehicle. recklessness. and competent behind the wheel.Be An Extra-Safe Driver Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Be An Extra-Safe Driver Those who drive for a living would be the first to agree it can be mighty dangerous out there on California’s crowded roads. know the condition of the weather and road and drive only as fast as those conditions allow. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. but the very flood of vehicles competing for space on the roads today presents added danger to all drivers.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. it doesn’t explain why so many professional drivers get into accidents. expressed or implied. The ever-changing variable of the road and other vehicles can make drivers instantly vulnerable to accidents. flasher lights. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www. if it’s an unfamiliar vehicle. be extra careful by driving defensively. Horns. experienced. brakes. regulations or standards. Stay out of the other vehicle’s blind spot and avoid tailgating. Following the rules of the road can help you concentrate on what your should be doing…driving. that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws.

com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.scif.Be An Extra-Safe Driver Page 2 of 2 http://www.asp?ArticleID=22 1/13/2010 .

holes or other damage. Never use damaged PPE. dentists. Any kind of opening or break in the skin provides a place for infected blood or fluids to enter your body. If you think you’ve been exposed If you have come in contact with blood or other potentially infectious bodily fluids. face shields. pipettes.scif. Your eyes.asp?ArticleID=11 1/13/2010 . Universal precautions assume all body fluids are infected with bloodborne pathogens. paramedics. and are also openings for diseases to enter. Hepatitis C and syphilis. nurses. Non-health care workers may become exposed at work while providing help to an injured co-worker and coming in contact with the injured person’s blood or body fluids. Always inspect PPE for cracks. Who is at Risk? Workers in health care and public safety jobs could be potentially exposed to these disease pathogens. The purpose of a Bloodborne Pathogens Program is to protect employees from the health hazards associated with bloodborne pathogens and to provide appropriate treatment and counseling should an employee be exposed to bloodborne pathogens. More Information For more detailed information and updates. needles. Inform your supervisor of how. These workers include. treatment and education. The most common diseases spread in this manner are Hepatitis B (HBV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). etc.osha. cuts. visit the website maintained by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration at www. Scrapes. How can you become exposed? Exposure to bloodborne pathogens may occur in many ways. Wash hands or other skin surfaces thoroughly and immediately if contaminated. A medical professional will provide you with appropriate testing. wash yourself thoroughly. Stay calm. a puncture resistant container must be used for storage and disposal after use. and report to your supervisor right away. PPE examples include lab coats. the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) began requiring employers with workers potentially exposed to blood or other infectious materials to establish a Bloodborne Pathogens Program. Examples of other bloodborne diseases include malaria. nose and mouth are mucous membranes.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. gloves. etc.gov/SLTC/bloodbornepathogens/. Needlestick injuries are the most common method of exposure for health care workers. eye goggles. rashes. The microorganisms are capable of causing serious illness and death. but are not limited to.) that may be potentially contaminated.Bloodborne Pathogens Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Bloodborne Pathogens What are Bloodborne Pathogens? Bloodborne pathogens (BBP) are microorganisms that can cause disease when transferred from an infected person to another person through blood or other potentially infected body fluids. where and whose blood you came in contact with. laboratory workers and housekeeping workers in the health care industry. you’ve been involved in an exposure incident. Universal precautions include: Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) – to be used at all times to prevent skin or mucous membrane contact with bodily fluids. police. When using sharp items (scalpels. If you’ve been involved in an exposure incident. Bloodborne Pathogens Program In 1991. when. http://www. seek medical attention. burns and other minor injuries that create an opening in the skin are entryways for bloodborne pathogens. doctors. Universal Precautions Universal precautions are methods of protecting yourself from bloodborne pathogens.

We do not make any warranty.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www. expressed or implied. contact your health care provider. that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws.Bloodborne Pathogens Page 2 of 2 If you have any health concerns or questions. regulations or standards.scif.asp?ArticleID=11 1/13/2010 . They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes.

expressed or implied. Repair workers should wear personal protective equipment such as hard hats. heavy-duty work gloves. is operating properly with no leaks. and other functions. Ventilation systems should also be inspected and maintained to make sure that combustion gases do not build up in the boiler room. corrosion or other deformities should be repaired by an authorized technician immediately. regulations or standards.scif. eye protection and coveralls. When entering a boiler for service or repair. Because many boilers are fire-operated by natural gas. Sudden changes in temperature can warp or rupture the boiler. heating or other industrial purposes. and service boilers know that they can be potentially dangerous. proper combustion. Boilers should always be brought on line slowly and cold water should never be injected into a hot system. Many older boilers and hot water and steam piping may have asbestos insulation coatings. water. Make sure that adequate lighting is provided and that malfunctioning light fixtures are repaired immediately. diesel or fuel oil. Boiler rooms can be noisy. and the flame to make sure that it is not too high and not smoky. flaking. it is imperative that boiler operators purge the boiler before ignition of the burner. Boiler operators should frequently inspect boilers for leakage. Though boilers are usually equipped with a pressure relief valve. Signs of cracked surfaces. This combination of exploding metal and superheated steam can be extremely dangerous. The area around the boiler should be kept clean of dust and debris. Boiler repairs are allowed only by authorized boiler repair technicians. Damaged materials should be reported and repaired or removed immediately by a certified asbestos contractor. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. bulges. if the boiler fails to contain the expansion pressure. Boilers are gas-fired or electric closed vessels that heat water or other liquid to generate steam. authorized boiler repair workers should treat the vessel as a permit-required confined space. To prevent furnace explosions. maintain. including valves. The steam is superheated under pressure and used for power. the steam energy is released instantly.Boiler Safety Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Boiler Safety Workers that use. or “lagging. special precautions need to be taken. Detailed logs of boiler operation and maintenance can help ensure boiler safety. operation of safety devices and gauges. there should be plenty of clearance for workers to move around the room. When the boiler is shut down for repair. lines. Floors are often sealed concrete and can be very slippery when wet. that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. We do not make any warranty. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund http://www. Boiler operators should ensure that the fuel system. Because boilers have hot surface areas. all sources of energy should be isolated using approved Lock-out / Tag-out procedures and residual pressure in steam. Only trained and authorized workers should operate a boiler. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. the condition of the draft. so the area should be posted and workers should wear hearing protection when working inside the boiler room.asp?ArticleID=5 1/13/2010 . Workers should be familiar with the boiler manufacturer's operating manual and instructions. and no flammable materials should be stored near any boiler. wraps. or deteriorating. Spills should be mopped or cleaned up immediately. and fuel lines should be relieved by following proper bleed and block or capping procedures. Workers should check the fuel to air ratio. and tanks.” Workers should periodically inspect these areas to make sure that the materials are not damaged.

com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.Boiler Safety Page 2 of 2 Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www.asp?ArticleID=5 1/13/2010 .scif.

Cal/OSHA inspections are unannounced. Cal/OSHA inspectors will present their identification and request permission from a management representative to conduct a site inspection. the resulting penalties. Conduct follow-up investigations. Instruct your receptionist and/or security personnel on which management staff should be notified of a visit. and employees need to know what to expect during a Cal/OSHA inspection and how to respond appropriately. It is okay to offer follow-up at a later date. or personnel matters. Missed deadlines can result in further site inspections or citations. gather documentation. receives a Cal/OSHA citation. Managers. It is against the law to retaliate against employees for reporting safety hazards and concerns. since it is required to be readily accessible to employees. Conduct investigations into these complaints. don’t agree with comments as they may be incorrect. legal issues. and lowered employee morale and publicity can have serious financial and business impacts. photos. work procedures. though private employee interviews can be arranged in controlled access conference rooms. and document hazards with photos and measurements. regardless of duration. interview employees in private.Cal/OSHA Inspections Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Cal/OSHA Inspections Cal/OSHA inspectors make unannounced visits to ensure California workplaces are safe and healthy. When you work with an inspector. Inspectors will also visit worksites as a response to employee complaints posing an imminent danger. Provide neutral. be courteous and friendly. supervisors. Inspectors will wait on site about one hour for management contact. Inspectors may request protocols.HTM http://www. organized.asp?ArticleID=575 1/13/2010 . Inspectors have the right to walk around the building (accompanied). Keep notes. Inspection walkthroughs may include your entire facility. Deadlines for submittal range between 24 hours and 14 days.ca. After the walkthrough.scif. Don’t argue with an inspector. don’t offer opinions or guess at answers. The Injury and Illness Prevention Program (IIPP) may be required immediately.gov/DOSHPol/P&PC-1A. and records during the visit. Inspectors also focus on high-hazard work sites and industries with loss rates at or above Bureau of Labor Statistics averages. the inspector should conduct a closing conference to provide inspection results. Limit the inspection focus to only the documents and facility areas listed in the opening conference. Source: Cal/OSHA Web site: http://www. Start planning now so you can present a competent. Also. and submit it in writing on time to the Cal/OSHA office. or other documents. employee complaints may be considered low risk. Don’t make jokes about health and safety. Keep safety records organized and on site and ensure key staff know how to access them. or a targeted work area. of three (3) or more employees (a catastrophe) will trigger an accident investigation and must be reported to Cal/OSHA within 8 hours. and gather requested documents and provide them to the inspector by the stated deadline. fact-based answers to the inspector’s questions. corrective actions. If the inspector takes measurements or readings.dir. and timelines. next steps. conduct the same measurements and readings simultaneously. Accompany the inspector at all times. At times. If your business has a documented uncontrolled hazard and. and compliant response to a Cal/OSHA inspection. Designate and train staff to respond to Cal/OSHA inspectors. worksite. Note that the name of the complaining employee will be kept confidential. Cal/OSHA conducts site inspections in cases of imminent danger or industrial accidents. Maintain your safety programs and employee training procedures at appropriate levels. or the inpatient hospitalization. These are handled with a letter reporting general information and a request to follow-up and report back within a certain time period. a serious injury or illness. a serious exposure.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. A fatal injury to one or more employees. They will conduct an opening conference to explain the reason for the visit. as a result.

scif. that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws. regulations or standards.Cal/OSHA Inspections Page 2 of 2 The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. expressed or implied.asp?ArticleID=575 1/13/2010 . Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. We do not make any warranty.

com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. but as a best practice. Some small businesses (less than 10 employees) and certain industries may have limited exemptions from this recordkeeping requirement.asp?ArticleID=301.Cal OSHA Recordkeeping and Reporting Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Cal OSHA Recordkeeping and Reporting The California Division of Occupational Health (CalOSHA) requires recordkeeping and reporting about safety in the workplace. Keeping records of these hazard evaluations and risk reduction efforts can document that a business has diligently worked to protect workers. diving. but no longer than 8 hours after the employer knows or with diligent inquiry would have known. Storage time requirements range between 1. Also examine and plan for hazards associated with new tools.scif. equipment. Every place of employment should have the Job Safety and Health Protection poster placed in a prominent area. store safety and training records for 5 years.scif. It records all work-related deaths along with injuries and illnesses that require more than first aid treatment. inspections. fall protection.com/safety/losscontrol/Article. post notices of Cal OSHA investigations. and accident investigations. tasks. An annual summary of injuries and illnesses is required to be posted in the workplace. If the employer can demonstrate that exigent circumstances exist. CalOSHA also requires employers to keep records on hazard evaluations and the corrective actions taken to reduce or control safety risks in the workplace. and complaint response to employees. For instructions on keeping the 300 Log. chemicals. and the required employer response for 3 days. Required records include the OSHA 300 Log and documents about safety hazard analysis. Keep records of all employee safety training.com/safety/losscontrol/Article. Safety training is a key component in making employees aware of the risks and hazards involved with their work tasks along with the appropriate work practices and personal protective equipment that keeps them safe. tools. illness or death of an employee immediately. also have additional recordkeeping requirements. lockout/tagout. Communicate with employees about these evaluations to make them aware of job hazards and help them work safer. etc. With all of this recordkeeping. and injury and illness prevention. Copies of all CalOSHA citations must be posted for 3 days or until the violations are corrected. For instructions on reporting illnesses and injuries that require treatment beyond first aid. see First Aid Reporting Requirements at http://www. CPR. Keep records of the identified hazards and the actions that were taken to correct them. and 5 years. 3.asp?ArticleID=311. and work environments. Keeping track of recordkeeping requirements is a challenge. mining. Employee medical records need to be kept for the length of employment plus 30 years. complaints.asp?ArticleID=462 1/13/2010 . see the State Fund Loss Control Bulletin Required Recordkeeping Procedures at http://www. and procedures to determine the level of safety risk and how to control it. Investigate all employee accidents and near misses to determine the root cause of the accident. asbestos training records are required to be kept one year past the last date of employment of a worker.scif. Specific work task and hazards safety training can target chemical use. Communicate the results of inspections. For example. etc. The OSHA 300 log is probably the most familiar to workers and employers. General safety training may include ergonomics. Check the specific regulations that apply to your industry. CalOSHA posting requirements ensure that you communicate about safety and hazards in the workplace. Finally. Document any corrective actions taken to reduce the risk of further accidents. the time frame for the report may be made no longer than 24 hours after the incident. Hazard-specific regulations such as asbestos. it may be confusing about how long to keep safety records. first aid. equipment. All Employers must report to Cal OSHA any serious injury. Job hazard analysis (JHA) evaluates a worker’s job tasks. accident investigations. Periodic workplace safety inspections identify hazards in the workplace. Note that some regulations have separate recordkeeping requirements and timelines. Take the same steps when investigating employee complaints by recording the investigation process and any necessary corrective actions. http://www.

The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. hazard exposure monitoring. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. personnel. go on record and document your safety efforts and statistics. regulations or standards.asp?ArticleID=462 1/13/2010 . that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws. Employees also have the responsibility to report all workplace hazards.Cal OSHA Recordkeeping and Reporting Page 2 of 2 Employers must provide their employees access to safety records within a reasonable timeframe (usually 7 days) and must notify employees when monitoring indicates that they have been exposed to a hazard. and medical records. Employees have a right to information and records about hazardous chemicals in the workplace (Material Safety Data Sheets). expressed or implied. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www. accidents. injuries. and their own safety. Comply with the law.scif. and near misses so they can be evaluated and prevented in the future. We do not make any warranty. illnesses.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.

unconsciousness and death. Exposure to this gas may aggravate preexisting heart and artery disease. move the person immediately to the fresh air away from the source of the CO. forklift drivers. mechanics. propane. Hazards of Carbon Monoxide Health Hazards: CO is a chemical asphyxiant which means that it reduces the blood’s ability to carry oxygen. CO gas may react very strongly with oxygen. especially in enclosed areas. there may be no odor warning if toxic concentrations are present. weakness. Avoid the use of gas-powered equipment in enclosed spaces. nausea. High concentrations of CO may be rapidly fatal without producing significant warning symptoms. CO gas. The primary source of CO gas is the internal combustion engine. firefighters. long shore workers. toll booth or tunnel attendants. Properly maintain equipment that may produce CO to enhance safe operation and to reduce CO generation. or suffocation. acetylene. Consider switching from gasoline-powered equipment to battery or electric equipment. Safety Hazards: CO gas mixes very well with air. although odorless. If you suspect CO poisoning. gasoline. oil refining. wood. fluorine or nitrous oxide. steel and chemical manufacturing.scif. shipping and receiving workers and warehouse personnel. It is an extremely flammable gas.Carbon Monoxide Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Carbon Monoxide What is Carbon Monoxide? Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a poisonous.asp?ArticleID=6 1/13/2010 . tasteless. police. Inhalation of CO gas may cause headaches. rapid breathing. etc). As CO gas is odorless. Educate workers about the sources. usually occurs in a combination of combustion by-products that have distinctive odors. Prohibit the use of gasoline-powered equipment indoors or in poorly ventilated areas. Pay attention to ventilation problems. chlorine. and controls of CO.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.g. taxi drivers. CO poisoning can be reversed if caught in time. Consider installing CO detectors with audible alarms. CO gas is generated as a waste product of the incomplete combustion of coal. Methods of Control of Carbon Monoxide To reduce the chances of CO poisoning in the workplace: Install a ventilation system that will effectively remove CO from the work area. dizziness. diesel engine operators. and other petroleum based fuels (e. http://www. Asphyxiation. odorless gas. Who is at Risk? Workers most likely to be exposed to carbon monoxide are welders. CO gas is absorbed through the lungs into the bloodstream. What Can You Do To Help? Report any situation to your employer that might cause CO to build up. CO gas penetrates easily through walls and ceilings. hazards. CO gas is also generated in industrial operations such as auto repair. occurs when the blood does not deliver enough oxygen to the body. Call 911 or your emergency number for medical assistance. colorless. oil.

osha-slc.Carbon Monoxide Page 2 of 2 More Information For more detailed information visit the website maintained by the Occupational Safety & Health Administration at http://www.gov/SLTC/healthguidelines/carbonmonoxide/. regulations or standards. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws. If you have any health concerns or questions.scif. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. contact your health care provider. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. We do not make any warranty. expressed or implied.asp?ArticleID=6 1/13/2010 .

and physically demanding work that can result in ergonomic injuries. Use of a knee-kicker to stretch carpet wall-to-wall in a room or to engage the room-edge tack strip can cause knee injuries due to force and repetition. and other sharps.asp?ArticleID=375 1/13/2010 . Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund http://www. arm. A hand and arm operated power carpet stretcher accomplishes the same tasks with reduced force. Gloves should be of sufficient weight to protect you while still allowing full movement of your hand. Use proper lifting techniques to protect your back. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) reports that carpet layers account for 6% of all reported knee injuries. Consider wearing eye protection to protect against flying debris and sharp objects. Don’t trade a knee injury for a hand. you may need several different pairs of gloves for different work tasks. a rate 100 times the national worker average. get training and follow ergonomic principles when using the power stretcher.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. and personal protective equipment (PPE) required for safe use. Maintain a level of good overall health and fitness. you often have to clear out furniture and haul old and new carpeting materials. We do not make any warranty. Before installation. or shoulder injury. expressed or implied. Because you spend about 75% of your work time kneeling on hard sub-flooring. sewing materials. sharp tack strips. Kneepads can also prevent accidental punctures from tack strips. and rotate your tasks as much as possible. Workers must forcefully strike the knee kicker approximately 120-140 times each day. Always use the correct tool for the job. Use caution with heat-tape and carpet irons to avoid burns.Carpet Layer Safety Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Carpet Layer Safety Carpet layers install a wide range of flooring products in homes and buildings to enhance style and comfort. Take frequent mini-breaks to rest. Read the carpet health information labels for the flooring materials that you install and follow all of the directions for installation. or cutting tool edges. Carpet cutting tools. If you install carpet for a living. focus on ergonomics. and staples can cause injuries if you do not use hand protection and tool safety. Ensure that your cutting tools are in good condition and sharp enough to do the job. mixing. use knee pads to reduce the contact stress. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. the use of chemical adhesives and treatments. Watch where you place your hands and knees so you do not come into contact with sharp tacks.scif. The hazards involved with this work include the use of sharp and cutting tools and materials. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. Some carpets may require special handling due to their contents or treatments. When you use adhesives and glues to install carpet and padding. staples. regulations or standards. flooring irregularities. get training and read the material safety data sheet (MSDS) for information on the handling. Knowledge of the hazards of carpet installation and the use of good ergonomics and work practices can keep you safe wall-to-wall. that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws.

scif.Carpet Layer Safety Page 2 of 2 Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www.asp?ArticleID=375 1/13/2010 .com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.

Make sure that the cart has the design and capacity for the job tasks. Steel wheels are the easiest. followed by hard rubber.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund Supervisor's Signature: Date: http://www. Some carts have open sides or spring loaded bottoms that assist the handler with loading and unloading. larger and harder wheels are easier and require less force to push. crush injuries. A braking system adds additional control on slopes and ramps.asp?ArticleID=12 1/13/2010 . and maintenance. The floor or ground surface determines the best wheel type for the cart. Inspect your cart each time you use it. keep the cart at your side to avoid twisting your back. expressed or implied. Unless the cart was designed to carry people. soft rubber wheels are the hardest to push. carts can cause the handler injury if the cart has not been properly maintained. carts can help you keep rollin’ on the job. Hazards associated with carts include using the wrong type for the job or the wrong size of cart for the worker (ergonomics). and plastic. Handles should be located at the rear of the cart and at the proper height for pushing. For tight spaces and crowded work conditions. two swivel wheels and two straight wheels ease movement. They can be hazardous when used in congested work areas and in areas of poor housekeeping.Cart Safety Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Cart Safety Carts come in many sizes and styles and are used by workers in many industries.scif. when pushing. Take care where you park your cart. Use carts for the intended purpose. and fractures. All of these hazards require extra effort by the handler that may cause accidents that can result in sprains and strains. don’t block walkways. While carts and the reasons we use them vary. Wheel bearings require periodic inspections and maintenance and damaged wheels should be replaced. it should be properly functioning and in good repair. We do not make any warranty. that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws. exits or doorways. If you must pull a cart. don’t allow passengers. you won’t see where you are going and it may overload the wheels. Carts need a wheel-locking mechanism to park them. Don’t attempt to carry extra items while you are pushing the cart. It is easier on your back to push than to pull. Generally. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. four swivel wheels or casters add maneuverability. use. they have some common hazards and safety issues to consider. With proper training. regulations or standards. Carts should have enough room to store necessary supplies and equipment. keep both hands on the cart handle. They can cause injury to the handler who’s had inadequate training. Lean in the direction in which you are going and use your arms and legs (not your back) for leverage. And. For pushing long distances. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. Don’t overload the cart. reckless horseplay can lead to injuries.

com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.scif.asp?ArticleID=12 1/13/2010 .Cart Safety Page 2 of 2 Location: Meeting Attended By: http://www.

THINK before you put them in a hazardous spot. We do not make any warranty.asp?ArticleID=13 1/13/2010 . Give your work your full attention. an awkward or heavy load can slip and pinch your hands or feet. Turn equipment off and use lockout/tagout procedures before adjusting. they act as barriers between the moving parts and your body. that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws. under or through a guard and always r eport missing or broken barriers to your supervisor.Caught or Crushed Injuries Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Caught or Crushed Injuries Each year. Wear the appropriate. clearing a jam. and forklifts can pose a crush hazard unless they have been blocked or tagged out. Properly maintain and always use the machine and tool guards provided with your equipment. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. Take the time to learn about the caught/crush hazards in your workplace so you don’t learn about the consequences first hand. Doors. These hazards are also referred to as “pinch points. Workers in field. or try to multi-task on the job – most accidents occur when workers are distracted. Take care where you place your fingers. and placing boxes. Caught/crush hazards are not limited to machinery. Never place your body under or between powered equipment unless it is de-energized. and heavy crates can pinch fingers and toes. Dress appropriately for work with pants and sleeves that are not too long or too loose. and even death. tools. Machinery can pose a hazard with moving parts. and office settings are all affected by caught or crush hazards to some degree. Look for possible pinch points before you start a task. and equipment so you can take precautions. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund Supervisor's Signature: Date: http://www. carrying. file drawers. workers suffer approximately 125. or servicing a machine. conveyors.000 caught or crushed by injuries that occur when body parts get caught between two objects or entangled with machinery. Take the time to plan out your actions and decide on the necessary steps to work safely. Don’t joke around. Shirts should be fitted or tucked in. Vehicles. Read and follow warning signs posted on equipment. cuts. expressed or implied. regulations or standards. repairing. Get training and learn about the caught/crush hazards and pinch points specific to your tasks.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. Test the weight before lifting. Get help or use tools to move large and/or heavy items. well-fitting gloves for your job. Avoid wearing loose and dangling jewelry. If you value all that your hands can do. If you have ever slammed your finger in a door. and scalping to mangled and amputated body parts. NEVER reach into a moving machine. Don’t reach around.” The physical forces applied to a body part caught in a pinch point can vary and cause injuries ranging from bruises. Tie back long hair and tuck braids and ponytails behind you or into your clothing. you can appreciate the pain associated with this common type of caught/crush injury. daydream. rollers and rotating shafts. powered doors. industrial.

scif.asp?ArticleID=13 1/13/2010 .Caught or Crushed Injuries Page 2 of 2 Location: Meeting Attended By: http://www.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.

Although some chainsaw injuries are caused by operator error. Stand to the side of the saw so you won’t follow the cut through into your leg and stand on the uphill side of your work so it won’t roll into you. so chainsaw injuries are often serious. the upper chain “grabs” in the wood or an obstruction and forces the saw backward. Before you operate a chainsaw. causing operator to either lose control of the saw or lose balance. flying chips. Start your chainsaw according to the manual’s direction. make sure you use an extension cord that’s approved for outdoor use and don’t use the saw in a damp environment.Chainsaw Safety Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Chainsaw Safety Any tool powerful enough to slice through wood can do the same to human flesh. but keep bystanders and helpers at a safe distance from operation so that they will not be injured by the saw. In kickback. Clear the work area so the chain won’t touch anything but the wood you want to cut and place the saw on a level surface. sawdust or by what you’re working on. never rest a saw on your leg or drop-start it. so if you trip the saw drops behind you. bringing the saw into contact with the body. be sure to get a demonstration of how it works. regulations or standards. and trim-fitting clothes that won’t get caught in the chain. Let the chainsaw do the work. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund http://www. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. We do not make any warranty. expressed or implied. If you rent a saw. being careful not to overfill or spill the fuel. hearing protection. and have a fire extinguisher nearby. Keep both hands on the saw while its running. with the engine off and guide bar pointed to the rear. kickback is the greatest cause of chainsaw injuries. It’s a good idea to take frequent breaks from cutting so you don’t operate the saw when you’re tired. wear protective clothing which includes a hard hat. If your saw is electric. that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws. Some chainsaws have chain brakes that are designed to instantly stop the saw after kickback. Have a companion within calling distance. and in good condition. properly tensioned. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. they can reduce the severity of injury from it. Always be aware of what is in the saw’s downward path after the cut. Let it cool down first. don’t rush.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. It’s dangerous to work alone with a chainsaw. Never refuel a hot saw. The instruction manual should describe the saw’s capabilities. While these don’t prevent kickback. Avoid cutting above mid-chest height. Carry the saw below your waist. safety goggles. including its safety features. Then make sure your saw is sharp. steel-toed shoes with nonslip soles. never force it. Never attempt to cut a tree with a diameter greater than the length of the chainsaw blade and watch for branches that may spring back as you cut. Hold the saw parallel to the ground with your left arm straight for better control and to reduce the chance of the saw pushing into you if it kicks back.asp?ArticleID=15 1/13/2010 . make sure you read and understand the operator’s manual and make sure you have the right chainsaw for the job. gloves to give you a good grip. Fuel gasoline-powered chainsaws outdoors. Work slowly.scif. When you’re going to use a chain saw.

com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.scif.asp?ArticleID=15 1/13/2010 .Chainsaw Safety Page 2 of 2 Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www.

Someone should be assigned to periodically inventory the chemicals not only to check for proper storage but to also check for damaged or corroded containers. is their safe storage. Take the time to return containers to their proper storage place. flames. The shelving should be fitted with a raised lip or tilted slightly backward so containers won’t slip off the edge. Chemical containers should not be stored on top of each other or on the floor where they could accidentally be knocked over. regulations or standards. We do not make any warranty. that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws. make sure first aid kits and materials for cleaning spilled chemicals is readily accessible. You may choose to color code the containers to correspond to the color on the shelf where it should be stored for quick access and proper storage return. There are some real and common sense safe storage procedures that should be followed to keep workers and the workplace free of chemical-related accidents. oxides next to flammables. follow MSDS recommendations. Never store chemicals higher than eye level. health or reactivity hazard. If not stored properly. check that each chemical container has a label. and strong enough to support the weight of the containers. But just as important as the safe handling of these chemicals. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. and what to do if there’s an accidental spill or exposure. and away from sparks. Read the chemical’s Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). and use common sense. The most important factor in chemical storage safety is keeping chemicals in their original containers. Read labels. chemicals can cause a fire. Chemicals should never be stored or refrigerated with food. acids next to bases or poisons next to a desk.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. Next.asp?ArticleID=16 1/13/2010 . static electricity or other sources of ignition. The MSDS describes the chemical’s properties. If the chemical is accidentally knocked over you could risk being showered with the chemical substance resulting in a burn or possible blindness.scif. Maintenance another important factor in safe chemical storage. expressed or implied. secured to a permanent structure. Accidents caused by improper chemical storage can be prevented. Use the MSDS as a guide for making storage decisions. Instruct workers on safe chemical handling and enforce safe chemical storage procedures. Don’t casually leave chemical containers wherever you last use them or set them aside to make room for other work. signs of leakage or container pressure buildup.Chemical Storage Is A Matter Of Safety And Common Sense Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Chemical Storage Is A Matter Of Safety And Common Sense There are many work situations where chemicals are routinely relied upon to get the work done. The label is a quick way of determining whether the material is a fire. Store chemicals in well-ventilated areas. Make sure empty or damaged chemicals are disposed of properly. Make sure the storage shelving material is acid resistant. For added safety. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund Supervisor's Signature: Location: Date: http://www. hazards. away from direct sunlight or other heat source. explosion or personal injury. You don’t want to store a water reactive chemical next to a sink. Chemicals should be placed so that incompatible substances stored apart.

com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=16 1/13/2010 .Chemical Storage Is A Matter Of Safety And Common Sense Page 2 of 2 Meeting Attended By: http://www.scif.

Block or secure trailer cargo to prevent the load from shifting during transit and unloading. expressed or implied. use specially designed truck wheel chocks of the appropriate size and material to securely hold the vehicle. tractor. To properly chock a free-standing vehicle. Use extra caution when driving a forklift into a trailer from the dock edge. use special caution when exiting the vehicle. We do not make any warranty. Ensure that the trailer floor is in good condition and that it can support the weight of the forklift and its load. Blocking stabilizes cargo loads to prevent shifting and trailer overturns or provides a physical barrier on equipment to prevent accidental activation during maintenance. hitching.Chocking and Blocking Safety Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Chocking and Blocking Safety Chocking and blocking prevent accidental or unintended movement of mobile equipment and cargo while workers are loading. Ensure that trailers are firmly placed against the loading dock edges and prevent rollaways by using chocks. or performing service or maintenance. trailer. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund http://www.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. and forklift drivers share the responsibility to ensure that the truck and trailer wheels are properly chocked. injure. Ensure that the brakes are set. Place chocks on the left and right wheels that are closest to the loading dock.. Use nails or spikes long enough to secure the lumber and drive them in at opposing angles. and that it will not roll forward or backward before you exit. cinder blocks. Some vehicle wheels may also need to be chocked at the front and back of each tire. the forklift can fall into the gap and cause severe injuries or death. or other mobile equipment. a forklift could push the trailer forward and loosen the chock or cause the wheel to jump the chock. This placement allows a forklift to push down on the trailer wheels and seat them more firmly against the chock. When performing maintenance on equipment that could pose a pinch hazard. It is safest to chock both the front and back wheels on both sides of a vehicle. not just wheeled equipment and round items (e. rocks. chocking and blocking prevents serious injuries caused by runaway vehicles. or other piece of mobile equipment provides a physical stopper to the wheels to prevent runaways that can crush and injure workers. if the trailer rolls away from the dock edge. Never drive a forklift into a trailer until you ensure that the wheels are properly chocked. store chocks inside trailers. Make it easy to find and use the correct chocking equipment. Block items separately and on all four sides using lumber thick enough to prevent cargo movement. If only the front axle is chocked.g. truck rigs and/or other mobile equipment. regulations or standards. Securely block all cargo. wire reels). Keep chocks available at loading docks.asp?ArticleID=377 1/13/2010 . place chocks on the left and right rear axle wheels. Chocking the wheels of a truck. unloading. Don’t use lumber. and engulf workers while a sudden shift in center of gravity can overturn a trailer. block it to prevent accidental activation. chain the chocks to the dock to prevent them from being misplaced. the vehicle is at a complete standstill. shifting cargo. unhitching. chock the wheels. Don’t be a blockhead. When chocking.scif. or other make-shift items to chock. If you drive a truck. The driver. dock workers. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws. Don’t use other freight or cargo as a block. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. and accidentally activated machinery. If you are performing maintenance or parking the vehicle for an extended period of time. tractor. Shifting loads can strike.

Chocking and Blocking Safety Page 2 of 2 Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=377 1/13/2010 .scif.

Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www. drop clothes into a container or washing machine and rinse or hose off. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. but unless they are laundered properly. Use a full tub of water and don’t overload. Clean the washer by running an empty load using detergent and hot water. Wash clothing several times if pesticide was moderately to highly toxic or if a large area was saturated. Keep in mind the following to guard against pesticide exposure from clothing. Washing less frequently also puts more chemicals into the wash and rinse water. Do not dry clothes between washings. From these clothes.Cleaning Pesticide Soiled Clothing Page 1 of 1 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Cleaning Pesticide Soiled Clothing Clothing worn while applying pesticides normally becomes contaminated. Use a heavy-duty liquid detergent. Properly discard clothing heavily contaminated with highly toxic pesticides. remove clothes. especially oil-based pesticides. significant amounts of pesticides can remain on them or be passed onto other clothing. clothing soiled by low toxicity pesticides can be laundered safely and effectively. hat. Water should circulate freely through pesticide soiled clothing. that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws. even if large areas are soiled. Strong liquid detergents are more effective in removing pesticides. gloves.scif. Wash pesticide soiled clothing in hot water. Dry clothing on an outside clothesline when possible. pants. However. Launder clothing after each day’s wear.asp?ArticleID=83 1/13/2010 .com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. Clothing repeatedly soiled before cleaning can retain pesticides even after it’s later laundered. regulations or standards. Dryers don’t decontaminate as thoroughly. Sunlight exposure helps break down pesticides. We do not make any warranty. Pre-rinse clothing before washing. Water 140o F or hotter removes more pesticide than lower water temperatures. and boots) can reduce pesticide exposure. pesticides can be passed to other clothing and linens. As the concentration of pesticide increases. the body can contact and absorb the chemicals. As soon as possible. During laundering or storage. Wash and store pesticide soiled clothing away from other laundry. Protective clothing (long-sleeve shirts. expressed or implied. Then wash hands thoroughly. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. Follow by wiping the drum with a damp cloth. turn pockets and cuffs inside out. the ability to launder and remove the residue decreases.

and training. foot. and spill cleanup materials as hazardous waste in designated waste streams. fit testing. Don’t use equipment. Know and follow compressed gas cylinder safety protocols. YOU are the best source to control cleanroom safety. and body coverings in a cleanroom to reduce particulate contamination. and emergency shut off and bypass switches. HF exposures may not cause pain at first. Read and understand the material safety data sheets (MSDS) for the chemicals in the cleanroom to provide guidance on use. that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws. Chemical handling. regulations or standards. temperature. and evacuation routes and procedures. If necessary. Ensure that chemicals are stored in rated chemical cabinets and are separated by hazard class.scif. Cleanrooms require specific attire. safety showers. Face masks and shields should be used for vacuum or pressurized processes if there is a danger of shattering or explosion. spill procedures and disposal.Cleanroom Safety Page 1 of 2 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Cleanroom Safety Cleanrooms regulate air quality. including acids. We do not make any warranty. required PPE. expressed or implied. eye wash stations. or processes that you are unfamiliar with. Practice good housekeeping with chemicals: clearly label containers. and cryogenics. While modern air handlers manage the particle count. you must wear the required PPE to protect you from the materials and processes that you use. bases. minimize quantities. Know the spill procedures and the location of spill equipment in the cleanroom. If you are splashed with a chemical. alarms. materials. get the proper training first. In addition. Keep cleanroom safety state-of-the-art with proper training and attention to procedures. You are required to wear protective head. Rinse any suspected skin or eye contact immediately with water. and these should be administered by a qualified medical professional. carcinogens.asp?ArticleID=361 1/13/2010 . and humidity to achieve the ideal manufacturing and experimental environment for high technology applications. is common in cleanrooms. Eye protection such as safety goggles and glasses protect sight in the case of a chemical splash or uncontrolled reaction. Properly dispose of all chemicals. ensure that you are familiar with hazardous gas monitoring equipment and the associated alarms. solvents. Know the facility emergency signals. Pay special attention to the use of hydrofluoric acid (HF) because skin or eye contact is extremely dangerous. Locate and understand the proper operation of safety equipment including fire extinguishers. and clean up materials after use. Always conduct chemical processes under fume hoods or in designated wet benches. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund http://www. Remember that respirator use requires special medical qualification. immediately flush the area with copious quantities of water for 10 to 15 minutes and remove contaminated clothing. Be familiar with the cleanroom protocols and layout at your facility. but the fluoride ion continues to burn through your tissue until it causes painful bone destruction. and seek immediate medical attention. you may need to wear a respirator to protect against airborne hazards. Calcium gluconate gel or other treatment methods may be needed. personal protective equipment (PPE). They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. Use the appropriate gloves for the chemicals you handle in order to protect your skin. and the use of specialized equipment and chemicals. if possible. mixtures.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes.

Cleanroom Safety Page 2 of 2 Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www.scif.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article.asp?ArticleID=361 1/13/2010 .

But. Take steps to eliminate hazards as soon as they are discovered.” By investigating the root causes of an accident. or increased communication between management and workers. An immediate cause may be an unsafe condition like a mechanical failure or it could be an unsafe action by an employee. so tell your supervisor about every accident. report them to the supervisor.Take a Close Look at Close Calls Page 1 of 1 Safety Meeting Topics (Bilingual) Close Calls . Don’t rush to judge.scif. unexpected. steps can be taken to eliminate the hazard and improve the work system. Look for immediate and underlying causes. regulations or standards.Take a Close Look at Close Calls A “close call” or accident without injury is easy to shrug off and forget. solutions should be sought to prevent the accident from occurring again. They can happen again and again until they cause injury. All incidents should be reported to the supervisor so that accident/injury report forms can be completed. a crowded work area or a lack of training. expressed or implied. most of which can be controlled. Hazard awareness is key to preventing accidents before they happen. harm or damage. it should immediately send up a red warning flag that something was wrong. injury or death. Once an investigation is completed. people (procedures not understood or not followed) or management (allowed shortcuts). administrative controls. Sometimes there are multiple causes for an accident involving: equipment (unguarded machinery). The next time it happens. Workers should daily inspect the work area for unsafe conditions or unsafe actions and. When a “close call” happens. Solutions may involve engineering controls. unplanned. Examine the facts and find what’s missing.com/safety/safetymeeting/Article. no matter how minor it may seem at the time. Copyright © 2000-2007 State Compensation Insurance Fund Supervisor's Signature: Location: Meeting Attended By: Date: http://www. it could result in serious damage. For every accident there are usually several contributing factors. there is a danger in brushing off accidents that don’t hurt. environment (poor lighting or noise level). that your workplace is safe or healthful or that it complies with all laws. You never know when an incident may be repeated and result in an injury or even death. additional training.asp?ArticleID=8 1/13/2010 . Learn the real lesson from close calls. The above evaluations and/or recommendations are for general guidance only and should not be relied upon for legal compliance purposes. a missing guard. The underlying cause could be poor machine maintenance. if found. We do not make any warranty.Close Calls . The best way to prevent the reoccurrence of an accident is by looking at those “close calls. and could happen again. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed.

hands. They are based solely on the information provided to us and relate only to those conditions specifically discussed. Take caution with dry ice and liquid nitrogen which can pose an asphyxiation hazard by displacing oxygen. Fingers. We do not make any warranty. toes. get training and become familiar with the safety features at your worksite. Watch out for your co-workers and check cold storage areas periodically and at closing to ensure no one is trapped. For escape in an emergency. Ideally. chemical storage. You can keep cold storage areas safe.asp?ArticleID=230 1/13/2010 . These objects can be heavy. Other options include posting warning signage on the door and providing audible and visible signal systems inside the room that are tested daily. The above evaluations and/or recom