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in t c bn

Ch. 3 Transistor lng cc ni


(Bipolar junction Transistor)
I. Cu to
Gm 2 ni tip xc ghp xen k nhau.
C 2 loi Transistor ni: npn v pnp (h. 1)

C C C C
n p
B B B B
p n
n p
E E E E
loi npn loi pnp
S phn b in tch cn bng nhit ng
n p n
- - - - + + + - - - -
- - - - + + + - - - -
- -
- -
-
-
- - - Ei + Ei - - -
- - - + - - -
vng him vng him
- - -
- - -
II. Cc kiu hot ng-Phn cc
C 4 kiu phn cc Ni pht-nn EB
ty theo cch cp in phc.ngc phc. thun
-Ngng
-Bo ho Ni phc.ng
-Tc ng thun thu-nn
-Tc ng nghch CB
Ngng
(Off)
Tc ng
thun
(Forward
active)
Tc ng
nghch (
Reverse
active)
Bo ho
( On
Saturation
)
phc. th
4 kiu hot ng ca BJT
1.C 2 ni EB v CB u phn cc nghch :
Do 2 ni u ngng dn BJT ngng dn
Eex Eex (off)
n p n
vng him rng
V
EE
V
CC
Ei Ei
2.C 2 ni EB v CB u phn cc thun:
Do 2 ni u dn cc ht ti cng chy
vo vng nn.M vng nn hp nn b
trn ngp cc ht ti BJT dn bo
ha(On).
E
ex
E
ex
vng him hp
V
EE
V
CC
E
i
Cac kiu hot ng trn khng s dng
ring bit m kt hp nhau trong hot
ng giao hon ( chuyn mch)
Ic
Q1
Q2 V
CE
3.Phn cc thun EB, Phn cc nghch CB:
Do tc ng ca in trng ngoi,cc in t
t do b y vo cc nn. Ti y do cc nn
hp nn c ch 1 s t ttd b ti kt, a s ttd
cn li u b ht v cc thu BJT dn mnh (
kiu tc ng thun rt thng dng trong mch
khuch i) . Engoi E
ngoi
- + - +
In
E
E i Ei In
C
I E IpE ICO IC
+ - + VEE IB - + VCC
4.Phn cc nghch EB, phn cc thun CB
Cch hot ng ging nh kiu 3 nhng cc
ht ti di chuyn theo chiu t cc thu sang
cc pht . Do cu trc bt i xng cc dng
thu v dng pht u nh hn kiu tc ng
nghch BJT dn theo kiu tc ng nghch.
. n p n
E
ex
E
ex
Ei
Cach phan cc tac ong nghch
nay t c s dng , ngoi tr trong IC s
do cu trc i xng nn cc cc thu C v cc
pht E
c th thay th v tr cho nhau.
Ch :
1.Trong phn kho st transistor hot ng
khuch i ta xt n kiu tc ng (BE phn
cc thun, CB phn cc nghch)
2.Phn hot ng giao hon s xt n sau.
3.Biu thc dng in trong BJT
Theo nh lut Kirchhoff ta c:
I
E
= I
B
+ I
C
(1)
Theo cch hot ng ca BJT va xt c:
I
E
= I
nE
+ I
pE
= I
nE
(2)
I
C
= I
nc
+ I
co
(3)
Gi h s truyn t dng in pht thu :
s t td n cc thu I
nC
I
nC
sttd pht t cc pht I
nE
I
E
Thay vo (3) cho:
Ic = I
E
+ I
CO
= I
E
+ I
CBO
(4)


H s truyn dng in rt b
cng thc (4) thng ch s dng trong cch
rp cc nn chung ( CB).
Trong cc trng hp thng dng khc ( nh
cch rp CE) ta chuyn i thnh dng nh
sau bng cch vit li thnh:
Vi:
) 9998 , 0 95 , 0 1
)
1
1 (5)
1 1
C B
B CO CO
I
I I
I I



= + = + +

= +

=
1
1
1 ;
1
Nhn xt
li dng( khuch i) rt ln ( 20
500)
Dng r
rt b nhit bnh thng nhng li
tng nhanh theo nhit .
nhit bnh thng ( nhit trong
phng),ta cn li biu thc n gin :
I
C
= I
B
( 6)
Tng qut ta c th s dng (1) v (6)
trong cc php tnh phn gii v thit k
mch trasnsistor.

) )
1 1
EO CO CBO
I I I
= + < +

1. linh kin iu khin bng dng in.


2. linh kin iu khin bng ht ti thiu s.
3. TRANSISTOR l ch vit tt ca t
TRANSfert resISTOR (in tr chuyn ).
4.i vi transistor loi pnp, cch l lun
v hot ng cng ging nh
transistor npn nhng thay ttd bng l
trng, nn chiu dng in ngc li.
Ch :Transistor cn c gi l:
III.Cc cch rp v c tuyn V-I
C 3 cch rp (xc nh t ng vo v ng ra
ca mch transistor) : CB, CE, CC ( EF)
1. Cch rp cc nn chung (CB)
vo
+
-
vi
Q
RE RC
Ci
Co
RL
+
VEE
+
VCC
2.Cch rp cc pht chung ( CE)
Do:
Tn hiu vo nn pht BE
Tn hiu ra thu pht CE
C 2 ng vo v ra c cc pht chung
Vo
+
-
vi
Q
RB
RC
Ci
Co
RL
+
VBB
+
VCC
3. Cch rp thu chung (CC hay EF)
Mch in
Hoc:
Vo
+
-
vi
Q
RB
RE
Ci
Co
+
VBB
+
VCC
Vo
+
-
vi
Q
RB
RE
Ci
Co
RL
+
VBB
+
VCC
4. c tuyn cch rp CE
Gm c 3 dc tuyn thng dng sau:
a. c tuyn vo I
B
= f ( V
BE
) V
CE
= Cte
I
B
( mA)
V
CE
= 1V 2V
4 Q
0 0,7 V
BE
( V)
b. c tuyn ra I
C
= f ( V
CE
) I
B
=Cte
vg bo ho vng tc ng
IC ( mA) 60uA
6 I
B
= 50uA
40uA
4 Q
B
30uA
Q
A
20uA
2 10uA
0uA
0 5 10 15 20 25 VCE (V)
vng ngng ( cut off)
C. c tuyn truyn IC = f ( IB) V
CE
= Cte
Ic ( mA)
Trong di thay i
nh ca IB,IC thay i
tuyn tnh.
Khi dng IB ln , IC
khng cn tuyn tnh
( s xt trong chng 0 I
B
( A)
mch khuch i)
Q
4. li ( khuch i) dng
Ti im tnh iu hnh Q
A
ta c:
Ti im tnh iu hnh Q
B
, ta c:
3
6
3, 8 3, 8
10
95
40 40
10
A
C
Q
B
mA
I
A
I

= = = =
3
6
4, 2 4, 2
10
105
40 40
10
C
QB
B
mA
I
A
I

= = = =
ng thng ti tnh ( DCLL)
Phng trnh ng thng ti tnh :
T ( 5) vit li:
I
C
= (
VCC
V
CE
)/ R
C
= -V
CE
/ R
C
+ V
CC
/R
C
( 7)
ng ti tnh c v trn c tuyn ra qua
2 im xc nh sau:
Cho I
C
= 0 V
CEM
= V
CC
(im M)
Cho V
CE
= 0 I
CM
= V
CC
/ R
C
(im N)
ni 2 im M v N li ta c c ng ti tnh
Giao im ng ti tnh v ng phn cc
I
B
chn trc cho ta tr s im tnh Q.
ng thng ti tnh
V Ic (mA)
I
CM =
V
cc/
R
c
I
CQ
Q
0 V
CEQ
V
CEM
= V
CC
V
CE(V)
IV . Mch phn cc c bn
Mch phn cc bng 2 ngun cp in ring:
Tnh c tr s im Q:
V
BB
= R
B
I
B
+ V
BE
(1)
I
B
= ( V
BB
- V
BE
) / R
B
(2)
I
C
= I
B
(3)
V
CC
= R
C
I
C
+ V
CE
(4)
V
CE
= V
CC
- R
C
I
C
(6)
VBE
VCE
Q
RB
RC
+
VBB
+
VCC
IB
IC

I
C
( mA)
Bo ho
60uA
6 I
B
= 50uA
I
BQ
=40uA
4
o
Q
B
30uA
20uA
2 ngng
10uA
0uA
0 5 10 15 20 25 V
CE
(V)
V
CEQ
V
CC
Th d : Vi Vcc=18V; Rc = 3k , dng I
BQ
= 40uA
Tnh c Q ( I
C
= 4mA ,
( V
CE
= 6V ,
( V
BE
= 0,7V cho trc
;
Vai tr ca ng thng ti tnh
Phn gii mch Transistor.
Xc nh im tnh iu hnh Q.
Cho bit trng thi hot ng ca
transistor ( tc ng, bo ho, ngng).
Mch khuch i c tuyn tnh hay khng.
Thit k mch khuch theo nh ( chn
trc im tnh Q , tnh cc tr s linh kin)
Ch :
li dng in thay i theo v tr im
tnh iu hnh Q.
im tnh iu hnh Q thay i v tr theo
in th phn cc transistor v cn thay
i theo tn hiu xoay chiu ( AC) tc ng
vo mch .
Ta s xt cc dng mch phn cc (DC)
khc chng 4 v s khuch i trong
ch ng ( AC) chng 5 .
o li dong
Theo hnh tren ta co:
I
C
= 4 mA va I
B
= 40 A
Tnh c o li dong :
o Transistor co tnh khuech ai dong
o o li dong co the tnh nhanh t o
th.

Q
4
100
4
CQ
BQ
mA
I
A
I

Q
= = =
li dng v th ch ng (AC)
Xt th sau
Ta c:
- li dng
- li th
)
)
2 1
2 1
4 2
100
40 20
C C C
i
ac
B B B
Q Q
mA
I I I
A
I I I A

A
= = = = =
A
2 1
2 1
6 12
200
0, 68 0, 65
CE CE
CE
v
BE BE
BE
Q
Q
V
V V
A
V
V V
A
= = = =
A
Phn gii bng th
i
C ( mA)
i
B (uA)
6
I
B= 60uA 60
ic
4 40 40 ib
I
CQ
Q I
BQ
Q
2 20 20
0,68
0 5 10 15 20
v
CE 0,65
V
(BEQ
v
BE(V)
V
CEQ
V
CC vbe
vce