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# MA286 1

..

1
(Improper Integrals)
b

(definite integral) f ( x) dx a b
a

f [a, b]
a b
f
(improper integral)
1.1 (Improper Integral of the First Kind)
b

f ( x) dx a b f
a

dx
x

1
2

e dx

1
2

x 1

dx

1.1.1 a f [a, )

t
lim f ( x) dx
t
a
t
lim f ( x) dx
t
a

5 x

1.1.1
x

f ( x) dx
1

f ( x) 12

f ( x) dx
f ( x) dx f ( x) dx tlim

dx

f [5, )

xt
t 1
1
1
1
1
lim
dx

lim
tlim

2
t
t x
t
5
5
x5
5 x
1
1
1

5 x

dx

5 x

dx

MA286 1

..

1.1.2
dx
x

1
2
f ( x) 1

x 1

f [2, )

x t 1
1
tlim
dx tlim
d ( x 1)
x 1
x 1
t

x 2

xt

tlim
n | x 1|
x2

tlim
n | t 1| n1

tlim
n | t 1|

1
x 1 dx
2

1.1.2 b f (, b]

b
lim f ( x) dx
t
t
b
lim f ( x) dx
t
t

f ( x) dx f ( x) dx t lim f ( x) dx
b

f ( x) dx

1.1.3 e dx

f ( x) e x f (, 0]

0 x
x0
lim e dx lim e x
t
lim e0 et
xt
t
t

t
0 x
0 x

e dx

e dx 1

MA286 1

..

1.1.4
f ( x)

x
x2 4

x 4

dx

f (, 3]

3
lim
t
t

x
2

x 4

dx

x 3

d ( x 4)

lim

x t

x3
2

t
lim
x 4

xt

lim

13 t 2 4

x 4

dx

1.1.3 c f (, )
c

f ( x) dx f ( x) dx

f ( x) dx

f ( x) dx f ( x) dx f ( x) dx

f ( x) dx f ( x) dx f ( x) dx

1.1.5
f ( x) 21

x 1

1
2

x 1

1
2

x 1

dx

f (, )

dx

1
2

0 x 1

dx

MA286 1

..

0 1
x0
lim
dx

lim arctan x
2
xt
t
t
t x 1
lim arctan 0 arctan t

0
2

2
t 1
xt
lim
dx tlim
arctan x x0
2
t

0 x 1
lim arctan t arctan 0

0
2

x 1

x 1

dx

dx

x
x2 4

x 4

x 4

x 4

dx

x 1

dx

2
2

dx

f (, )

dx

1.1.4

0 x 1

1.1.6
f ( x)

x 4

x 4

dx

dx

dx

MA286 1

..

1.1
1.
1.1
1.3
1.5
1.7
1.9
1.11
1.13
1.15
1.17
1.19

1
x 5 dx
3

1.2
1.4

dx

3 x 9

x e

1.6
1.8

dx

1
1 x dx

(2 x 3)
5 1

x 6
3

1.12

dx

1.14

dx

x cos x dx

1.16

1.18

x 25

2.

1 x

dx

x 9

1.20

dx

4 ( x 2)

dx

x 1
nx
dx

1 x

dx

x
2

x 1
0 2x

dx

e dx

xe dx

x
2

( x 1)

dx

dx
5
x
(
n
x
)
e
3
1
1.10
dx
5

( x 1) 2

0
2

sin x dx

0
2 x3

1
x

dx

dx

1
p 1 p 1
p 1
kx

3. k e dx 3

4. y e| x | X x (, )

MA286 1

..

## 1.2 (Improper Integral of the Second Kind)

b

f ( x) dx a b
a
2

[a, b] f [a, b]

1 (x 1)

x
4 x

dx

1
x ( n x)
e

2
3

dx

dx

1.2.1 a b a b f
(a, b] a

b
lim f ( x) dx
t a
t
b
lim f ( x) dx
t a
t

f ( x) dx f ( x) dx
a

b
lim f ( x) dx
t a
t

f ( x) dx
a

1 1

1.2.1

dx

f ( x) 1

f (0, 1] 0
1 1
x 1
lim
dx lim 2 d x
t 0
t 0
t x
x t
x1
lim 2 x
xt
t 0

lim 2 2 t
t 0

2
1 1

1 1

dx

dx 2

MA286 1

1.2.2
f ( x)

..
2

1 (x 1)

dx

1
( x 1)3

f (1, 2] 1
2
x2
1
1
lim
dx

lim
d ( x 1)
3
3

t 1
t

1
t (x 1)
x t (x 1)
x 2

1
lim
2
t 1 2(x 1) xt

t 1

18

lim

2(t 1)2

1 (x 1)

dx

1.2.2 a b a b f
[a, b) b

t
lim f ( x) dx
t b
a
t
lim f ( x) dx
t b
a

t
lim f ( x) dx
t b
a

f ( x) dx
a

1.2.3

f ( x)

f ( x) dx f ( x) dx

x
4 x

dx

x
4 x

f [0, 2) 2

MA286 1
t
lim
t 2
0

..
x

4 x

x t

dx lim

(1) d 4 x

t 2

x 0

xt
2

lim 4 x
x0
t 2

lim 4 t 2 (2)
t 2

2
2

4 x

dx

4 x

dx 2

0 1

1.2.4 x dx
e

f ( x) 1
x

f [e, 0) 0

t 1
xt
lim dx lim n | x |
lim n | t | n | e |
xe
x
t 0
t 0
t 0
e
0 1

x dx

1.2.3 { a, b, c } a c b f
(a, b) a b
c

f ( x) dx f ( x) dx

f ( x) dx
a

f ( x) dx f ( x) dx f ( x) dx
c

f ( x) dx f ( x) dx f ( x) dx

MA286 1

..
2

1.2.5

4 x

dx

f ( x)

4 x

f (2, 2) 2 2
0

4 x

x
2

4 x

lim
t 2
t

dx

4 x

dx

dx
x 0

lim

t 2

(1) d 4 x

x t

x0
lim 4 x2
xt
t 2

lim 2 4 t 2

t 2

4 x

0
2

4 x

1.2.3

dx

dx

4 x

dx 2
2

x
4 x

dx

0
2

x
4 x

x
4 x

dx 2

dx 2 2 0

1
dx
(
x

2)(
x

3)
3

1.2.6
f ( x)

1
( x 2)( x 3)

f (3, 2) 3 2

2.5

2
1
1
dx
dx

(
x

2)(
x

3)
(
x

2)(
x

3)
3
2.5

MA286 1

..
2.5 1
1
1
dx lim

dx
t 3
( x 2)( x 3)
x

2
x

2.5

lim

t 3

x2.5
lim n | x 2 | n | x 3| xt
t 3

lim

t 3

0 ln | t 2| ln | t 3|

2.5

1
dx
(
x

2)(
x

3)
3
2
1
dx

(
x

2)(
x

3)
3

## 1.2.4 n { c0 , c1, ... , cn1 }

c0 c1 ... cn1 f (c0 , cn1) { c1, ... , cn }
{ c1, ... , cn }

c i 1

f ( x) dx i

ci

c n1

f ( x) dx

c0

c n1

i 0

c0
c i 1

i f ( x) dx

c i 1

f ( x) dx f ( x) dx

ci

ci

c n1

f ( x) dx

c0

1.2.7

1
2

dx

1
x ( n x) 3
e

f ( x)

1
2

x ( n x) 3

f [ 1 , 1) ( 1, e] 1
e

1
2

1
x ( n x) 3
e

dx

1 x ( n x)

10

2
3

dx

MA286 1

..

t
1
lim
2
t 1 1
x ( n x) 3
e

x t

dx lim 3 d 3 n x

t 1

1
e

xt

lim 3 3 n x 1
x
t 1
e

1
lim 3 3 n t 3 3 n
e
t 1

e
1
lim
2
t 1
t x ( n x) 3

x e

dx lim 3 d 3 n x

t 1

x t

xe

lim 3 3 n x
xt
t 1

lim 3 3 n e 3 3 n t
t 1

1
x ( n x)
e
e
1

1
x ( n x)
e

dx

2
3

1 x ( n x)
e

dx

2
3

dx

2
3

1
x ( n x)
e

2
3

dx 3 3 6

1
dx
(
x

2)(
x

3)
5

1.2.8
f ( x)

1
( x 2)( x 3)

f [5, 3) (3, 2)
3 2
3

2
1
1
dx
dx
(
x

2)(
x

3)
(
x

2)(
x

3)
5
3
2
1
dx
1.2.6
(
x

2)(
x

3)
3

1
dx
(
x

2)(
x

3)
5

11

MA286 1

..

1.2
1.
1.1
1.3

1 ( x 1)
5
x

1.2

dx

1.4

dx

1.7

1.6

1.8

sec x dx

1.9

25 x
x 1

1.11
1.13
1.15

x 2
1

1.17
1.19

0 x 5 x 6

0 x

dx

x 1
1

dx

2 x 1

0 x x2

dx

sin x

dx

1 cos x

2
2

1.14

n3

dx

1.16

dx

1.18

1.20

dx

2 x 5
2

( x 5 x 6)

1
dx
x

x
4

1
p 1 p 1
1 p

12

x dx

1 ( x 1)

1
dx

(
x

2)(
x

1)(
x

3)(
x

4)
2
1 1

1
e

dx

1
dx
(
x

2)(
x

1)
1
1
1
1.12
dx
1

|
x
|
1

2.

1.10

dx

dx
2
x

2
x

15
5
3
1
dx

2
6
( x 2) 3
3

1 x nx

x 9
0.5
1
1.5
dx
5
2x 1
1
3

2
3

dx

MA286 1

..

## 1.3 (Improper Integral of the Third Kind)

b

f ( x) dx a b
a

f

0 1

dx

1
dx

(
x

2)(
x

3)
3

dx

1.3.1 a c a c f
(a, ) a
c

f ( x) dx f ( x) dx

f ( x) dx
a

f ( x) dx f ( x) dx f ( x) dx

a
c

f ( x) dx f ( x) dx f ( x) dx
1
e x

1.3.1

0 x

dx

1
e x

f ( x)

f (0, ) 0
1
1 e x

1
e x

dx

dx

13

MA286 1

..

1
1 e x

lim
t

t 0

1
x d 1
dx

lim
e

x
2
t 0

x
x t
1
x 1
lim
de x
x 1

t 0

x t

x1
1

lim e x
t 0

xt
1

1
lim e t
t 0 e

1
e

1
t e x

1
x d 1
lim
dx

lim
e

x
2
t
t

1 x
x 1
1

x t
lim
de x

x t

x 1

xt
1
x
tlim
e

x1
1

t 1
tlim
e

1
e

1
1
1 e x

0 x

1
e x

1
e x

dx

1 x

dx

1
e x

dx

14

dx

1
1

1 1
e
e

MA286 1

..
1

1.3.2

0 x

dx

f ( x) 12
x

f (0, ) 0
5 1

0 x

dx

5 x

dx

x5
5 1
1
1
1
lim
dx

lim

lim

t
t 0 x 2
t 0 x xt
t 0 5

t
5 1

dx
2
x
0
1
2 dx
0 x

1.3.2 b c c b f
(, b) b
c

f ( x) dx f ( x) dx

f ( x) dx

f ( x) dx f ( x) dx f ( x) dx

f ( x) dx f ( x) dx f ( x) dx

0 e

1.3.3

f ( x)

e
x

2
3

dx

x
2
3

f (, 0) 0
15

MA286 1
1 e

..
3

2
3

dx

1 e

lim
t
t

0 e

2
3

dx

dx

2
3

x 1

lim

3e

d 3 x

x t
x 1

3
t
lim d (3e x )

x t

x1
x

xt
3

3
t
lim 3e t

3
t
lim 3e

e
3

t e

lim
t 0
1

2
3

x t

dx lim

t 0

3e

x 1

d 3 x

x t

3
x
d (3e )

lim

t 0

x 1

xt
x

x1
3
3
lim 3e t
t 0
e

3
lim 3e
t 0

1 e

2
3

0 e

dx

0 e

dx

dx

2
3

2
3

0 e

16

2
3

dx
3 3

e
e

MA286 1

..
0 1

1.3.4 x dx

f ( x) 1
x
f (, 0) 0
e 1

0 1

x dx x dx
0 1

1.2.4 x dx
e

0 1

x dx

## 1.3.3 n { c0 , c1, ... , cn }

c0 c1 ... cn f (c0 , ) { c1, ... , cn }
{ c1, ... , cn }

c i 1

ci

cn

f ( x) dx i f ( x) dx

c0

f ( x) dx

n1 c i 1

f ( x) dx f ( x) dx f ( x) dx
i 0 c
c
c0
i
n

c i 1

f ( x) dx i f ( x) dx f ( x) dx
cn

1.3.5

f ( x)

c0

ci

1
| x|

dx

| x|

f [1, 0) (0, ) 0

17

MA286 1
1
| x|

0 e

..

t e
lim
2
t 0
1 x

dx

1
| x|

dx

1
| x|

1
t ex

dx lim

t 0

1 x

dx

1
1
lim ( e x ) d
t 0
x
x 1
1
x t
lim
d ( e x )
x t

t 0

x 1

xt
1

lim e x
t 0

x1
1

1
lim e t
e
t 0

1
| x|

1
e
1
e x

dx

1
e x

dx

1.3.1

0 x
1
| x|

0 e

dx

1
| x|

dx

0 x

1
| x|

dx

dx

1
e x

18

1
| x|

dx

1
1
e

dx 1

MA286 1

..

1
dx
(
x

2)(
x

3)
3

1.3.6
f ( x)

1
( x 2)( x 3)

f (3, 2) (2, )
3 2
2

1
1

dx
dx
(
x

2)(
x

3)
(
x

2)(
x

3)
3
2
2
1
1.2.6
dx
(
x

2)(
x

3)
3

1
dx
(
x

2)(
x

3)
3

## 1.3.4 n { c1, c2 , ... , cn1 }

c1 c2 ... cn1 f (, cn1) { c1, ... , cn }
{ c1, ... , cn }

c i 1

c1

ci

f ( x) dx i f ( x) dx

cn1

f ( x) dx

n c i 1

c1

f ( x) dx f ( x) dx f ( x) dx
i 1 c

c i 1
cn1
c n1

c1

f ( x) dx i f ( x) dx f ( x) dx

ci

1 e

1.3.7

f ( x)

e
x

2
3

dx

x
2
3

f (, 0) (0, 1] 0
19

MA286 1
3

0 e

..
3

2
3

dx

1 e

1.3.3

1 e

lim
t 0
t

dx

2
3

0 e

dx

2
3

2
3

0 e

x 1

dx lim 3e

t 0

x t

2
3

dx 3

d 3 x

x 1

3
lim d (3e x )

t 0

x t

3
lim 3e
t 0

x1
x

xt

lim 3e 3e t

t 0

3e 3
3

1 e

dx

2
3

1 e

1 e

dx 3e 3

2
3
3

2
3

dx

1 e

2
3

dx 3 (3e 3) 3e

1
dx
(
x

2)(
x

3)

1.3.8
f ( x)

1
( x 2)( x 3)

f (, 3) (3, 2) (2, 4]
3 2

20

MA286 1

..

1
dx

(
x

2)(
x

3)

1
dx
(
x

2)(
x

3)
3

1
dx
(
x

2)(
x

3)
2

1
dx
(
x

2)(
x

3)
3

1.2.6

1
dx
(
x

2)(
x

3)

## 1.3.5 n { c1, ... , cn }

c1 ... cn f (, ) { c1, ... , cn }
{ c1, ... , cn } n

c i 1

c1

ci

cn

f ( x) dx i f ( x) dx f ( x) dx

f ( x) dx

c i 1
c1

f ( x) dx f ( x) dx f ( x) dx f (x ) dx
i c

cn
i

c1

c i 1

cn

ci

f ( x) dx f ( x) dx i f ( x) dx

f ( x) dx

21

MA286 1

..

1.3.9 f ( x)

1
e x

x 0

x 0

f ( x) dx

f (, 0) (0, ) 0

f ( x) dx

f ( x) dx

0
1
e x

e dx

0 x

dx

1.3.1

e x

0 x

1
e x

0 x

dx

f ( x) dx

e dx 1

1.3.10

e dx

1.1.3

dx 1

f ( x) dx 1 1 2

dx

f ( x) 12
x

f (, 0) (0, ) 0
0

dx

1.3.2

0 x
1

0 x

dx

dx

dx

22

MA286 1

..

1.3
1.
1.1
1.3
1.5
1.7

0
1.5

1
3 2 x dx

1.4

1 | x | 1

5
3

x x

1
3

1.6

dx
| x|

1.8

dx

1
dx

(
x

2)(
x

1)

2. f ( x)

e
e

x0

x0

1.10

1
x

4
3

f ( x) dx

3.

0 x

1 1 x
3

1.9

1.2

dx

dx p

23

dx
1

4
3

2
3

dx

x x

1
dx

x
(
x

1)
1
2

1
dx
(
x

4)(
x

5)

1 e

dx

MA286 1

..

1.1
1.

1.3
1.6

1
4
1.11 1
2
1.14 1
2

1.9

1.2

1.4

1.5

1
3
1.10 1
12

1.7

1.13
1.16 1
1.19
3.

1
3

4.

1
8

1.1

1.8

1.17
1.20

1.12
1.15
1.18

1.3

1.6

1.2
1.

1.1

1.2

1.4

1.5

1.7
1.10
1.13
1.16
1.19

1.8
1.11
1.14
1.17
1.20

6
5

8
2

1.9
0
1.12 4
1.15
7
1.18 3 3 2

1.3
1.

1.1

2
1.4 3
2
3
1.7
8

1.2

1.5

3
2

1.6

1.8

1.9

1.10
2.

1.3

24