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or Bulking in fine aggregates by displacement in water. Bulking of sand:- Increase in bulk volume

or Bulking in fine aggregates by displacement in water. Bulking of sand:- Increase in bulk volume of a quantity of sand in moist condition over the volume of the same quantity of sand when completely inundated. Procedure:In a 250ml measuring cylinder pour the damp sand (consolidating by shaking) until

it reaches 200ml mark. Then fill the cylinder with water and stir the sand well.(The water shall be sufficient to submerge the sand fully). It will be seen the sand surface is now below its original level. Suppose the surface is at the mark y ml, the percentage of bulking of the sand shall be calculated from the following formula;

Bulking % = 100(200-y)/y Note: The percentage of bulking of sand shall be rounded off to the nearest whole number. Therefore the volume of sand used shall be more than the quoted volume by above % in the specification.

II. Determination Of Silt Content (APSS 110).

Object:To determine the percentage of silt content. Sand shall be durable and free from adherent coatings and organic matter and shall

not contain any appreciable amount of clay balls or pellets. Procedure: A sample of sand to be tested shall be placed without drying in a200ml measuring

cylinder. The size of sample shall be such that it fills the cylinder up to 100ml mark. Clean water shall be added over it up to 150ml mark. The mixture then shall be shaken vigorously and the contents allowed to settle for 3 hours. The height of silt visible as settled layer above the sand shall be expressed as percentage of the height of sand below.

Limits:Clay, Fine Silt & Fine dust in natural sand or crushed gravel sand should not more than 4% by weigh