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o lc a

Bn cht S lin quan n lc a H ng thc vt (mi hnh thnh) H ng thc vt (sau ) Cc loi ng thc vt in hnh o in hnh L mt phn ca ca lc a b tch ra do mt nguyn nhn a cht no C lin quan Khng c g khc so vi thnh phn ln cn ca lc a. Do s cch li a l nn h ng vt pht trin theo hng khc, to nn cc phn loi c hu Nai nhiu gc, mo rng, th rng o Coocx tch t lc a chu u, h ng vt ging min ven bin a Trung Hi, tuy nhin c mt s phn loi c hu nh nai nhiu gc, mo rng, th rng

o i dng
Hnh thnh do mt vng y bin b nng cao Khng lin quan Mi hnh thnh th y cha c h thng sinh vt

C mt s loi di c t vng ln cn n, thng l nhng loi c kh nng vt bin Di, chim, mt s su b, dng a phng Qun o Galapagot cch b bin pha Ty ca Nam M 1000 km, c 105 loi chim, trong c 82 loi l dng a phng, trong 48 loi thn mm c 41 loi l dng a phng. Tt c cc loi ng vt u mang vt Nam M. Thc vt c hoa qun o ny khong 700 loi, 250 loi l dng a phng

Qun th ng thc vt

Qun th ng thc vt

Nai nhiu sng

S t bin

Rng Iguana

Chim c mo

B st

Ra

i bng

H ng thc vt trn o Vit Nam


Vit Nam nm bn b Bin ng, c vng bin rng trn 1 triu km2. B bin Vit Nam di trn 3.260 km c 3 hng: ng, Nam v Ty Nam, trung bnh khong 100 km2 t lin c 1 km b bin (cao gp 6 ln t l ny ca th gii), khng mt ni no trn t nc ta li cch xa bin hn 500 km. Ven b c khong 3.000 hn o ln, nh cc loi, ch yu nm Vnh Bc B, vi din tch khong l.700 km2, trong , c 3 o c din tch ln hn 100 km2, 23 o c din tch ln hn 10 km2, 82 o c din tch ln hn l km2 v khong trn l.400 o cha c tn.

H ng thc vt: 1. Vnh H Long:


H sinh thi rng kn thng xanh ma m nhit i:
vnh H Long rt c trng, phong ph vi tng s loi thc vt sng trn cc o khong trn 1.000 loi. Mt s qun x cc loi thc vt khc nhau bao gm cc loi ngp mn, cc loi thc vt b ct ven o, cc loi mc trn sn ni v vch , trn nh ni hoc mc ca hang hay khe . Cc nh nghin cu ca Hip hi Bo tn thin nhin th gii pht hin 7 loi thc vt c hu ca vnh H Long. Nhng loi ny ch thch nghi sng cc o vi vnh H Long m khng ni no trn th gii c c, l: thin tu H Long, kh c i tm (Chirieta halongensis), c H Long (Livisona halongensis)[26], kh c i nhung (Chirieta hiepii), mng tai H Long, ng gia b H Long, hi v n hoa vng [3][27][28]. Mt s ti liu khc[4] m rng danh sch thc vt c hu ca H Long ln 14 loi, bao gm c nhng loi c ngi Php khm ph v t tn gn vi a danh t trc nh sung H Long, nhi H Long, sng b H Long, ging H Long, pht d ni, phong lan H Long v.v. Danh sch nhng loi thc vt c hu khc ti vnh H Long rt c th cn c b sung nhiu hn, do cha c mt cng trnh nghin cu no thc s y , ton din v thc vt trn tt c cc o trong khu

vc Vnh v vng ln cn. Chng hn loi trc mc ngc m my nm gn y cc nh khoa hc mi pht hin ra trn mt s o ca vnh H Long, mt ging trc c cnh cha xung t, khc cc ging trc thng thng cha cnh ln tri[3]. Theo thng k, h sinh thi rng kn thng xanh ma m nhit i vnh H Long v vnh Bi T Long c 477 loi mc lan, 12 loi dng x v 20 loi thc vt ngp mn; i vi ng vt ngi ta cng thng k c 4 loi lng c, 10 loi b st, 40 loi chim v 14 loi th. vng ny cn c loi kh thn nh, hin c nui theo phng php c bit ti o Kh.

H sinh thi bin v ven b

o vi vch ni vi dng ng v thm thc vt xanh tiu biu cho h sinh thi bin v ven b ca vnh H Long H sinh thi bin v ven b ca vnh H Long bao gm trong "h sinh thi t t" v "h sinh thi bin"[3] vi nhng im c th: H sinh thi t ngp nc:

Sinh thi vng triu v vng ngp mn trn Vnh: bao gm 20 loi thc vt ngp mn; l ni sng cho 169 loi giun nhiu t, 91 loi rong bin, 200 loi chim, 10 loi b st v 6 loi khc. Dng sinh thi y cng, rn san h: tp trung Hang Trai, Cng , Vn Gi, c 232 loi san h c tm thy. Rng sinh thi y cng, san h l ni sinh c ca 81 loi chn bng, 130 loi hai mnh v, 55 loi giun nhiu t, 57 loi cua. Dng sinh thi hang ng v tng, ng: dng sinh thi ny ti vnh H Long rt tiu biu v him ni c c. c bit khu vc Tng Ngn l ni c tr ca 65 loi san h, 40 loi ng vt y, 18 loi rong bin. Ti y cng c 4 loi sinh vt qu him c ghi trong sch Vit Nam. Dng sinh thi y mm: y l dng sinh thi ca qun x c bin vi 5 loi, l ni sng ca 140 loi rong bin, 3 loi giun nhiu t, 29 loi nhuyn th, 9 loi gip xc. Dng sinh thi bi triu khng c rng ngp mn: sinh vt sng trn vng triu c trng l ng vt nhuyn th hai mnh v v giun bin c gi tr dinh dng cao nh s sng, hi sm, s, ngao v.v[3].

H sinh thi bin:


Thc vt ph du: vnh H Long c 185 loi. ng vt ph du: vng H Long-Ct B c 140 loi ng vt ph du sinh sng. ng vt y: thng k s b, vng H Long c n 500 loi ng vt y, trong c 300 loi ng vt nhuyn th, 200 loi giun nhiu t, 13 loi da gai. ng vt t du: xc nh c 326 loi ng vt t du, phn b trong vnh H Long[3].

n nay s b nh gi h thc vt trong vng vnh H Long c khong 347 loi, thc vt c mch thuc 232 chi v 95 h. Trong tng s 347 loi thc vt bit, c 16 loi ang nm trong danh sch ca Vit Nam nguy cp v sp nguy cp. Trong cc loi thc vt qu him, c 95 loi thuc cy lm thuc, 37 loi cy lm cnh, 13 loi cy n qu v 10 nhm c kh nng s dng khc nhau[28]. Cc o ti vnh H Long c cc loi ng vt thn mm a dng, c bit l cc loi c tr trong hc , v c ti 60 loi ng vt c hu[5]. Hi sn H Long c khai thc v nui trng bao gm bo ng, hi sm, s sng, tm, c, mc (mc ng, mc nang, mc thc), bch tuc, s huyt, trai v ip nui ly ngc [14]. Ti liu ca Phn vin Hi dng hc Hi Phng cho thy trong 1.151 loi ng vt ti H Long th c ti gn 500 loi c, 57 loi cua[20].

2. C Lao Chm:
H ng thc vt phong ph, c bit l ngun hi sn v ngun ti nguyn yn so. Cc rng san h khu vc bin c lao Chm cng c cc nh khoa hc nh gi cao v a vo danh sch bo v.

3. Nha Trang:
Vnh Nha Trang

B bin thnh ph Nha Trang.

Vnh Nha Trang c din tch khong 507km bao gm 19 hn o ln nh, trong Hn Tre l o ln nht, vi din tch 3.250 ha; o nh nht l Hn Nc ch khong 4 ha. Vnh c kh hu hai ma r rt Ma kh ko di t thng ging n thng 8, ma ma t thng 9 n thng 12; nhit bnh qun hng nm l 26C; nng nht 39C, lnh nht 14,4C. V mt sinh thi, vnh Nha Trang l mt trong nhng hnh mu t nhin him c ca h thng vng, vnh trn th gii bi n c hu ht cc h sinh thi in hnh, qu him ca vng bin nhit i. l h sinh thi t ngp nc, rn san h, rng ngp mn, thm c bin, h sinh thi ca sng, h sinh thi o bin, h sinh thi bi ct ven b. c bit khu vc Hn Mun ca Vnh Nha Trang c a dng sinh hc cao nht vi 350 loi rn san h chim 40% san h trn th gii[11]. Trong s cc o trong vnh c nhiu o l cc thng cnh ni ting nh:

Hn Mun l mt o nh trong Vnh, s d c tn l "Hn Mun" v pha ng nam ca o c nhng mm nh cao, vch dng him tr to thnh hang ng, c bit y en tuyn nh g mun, rt him thy nhng ni khc. Kt qu kho st a dng sinh hc Khu bo tn bin cho thy Hn Mun l ni c rn san h phong ph v a dng nht Vit Nam. ngi ta cng tm thy 340 trong tng s hn 800 loi san h cng trn th gii[12]. T nm 2001, Khu bo tn bin Hn Mun ra i bao gm cc o nh Hn Tre, Hn Miu, Hn Tm, Hn Mt, Hn Mun, Hn Cau, Hn Vung, Hn Rm, Hn Nc v vng nc xung quanh. Din tch khong 160km2 bao gm khong 38 km2 mt t v khong 122 km2 vng nc xung quanh cc o. y l khu bo tn bin duy nht ti Vit Nam hin nay. Hn Nhiu (cn gi o Bng Nguyn) ni c Thy Cung Tr Nguyn vi nhng sinh vt bin k l. Cch h l bi si mu, dng, tri thnh tng lp trn b thay cho ct trng Hn Tm mt im du lch sinh thi bin o hp dn, ni y vn cn lu li v hoang s ca thin nhin vi thm rng nhit i xanh mt, b ct di lng mn. Pha sau o ny c mt hang rt c bit, k b mi c ngnh du lch pht hin v a vo khai thc. l hang Di, ni c rt nhiu n di c tr trn nhng vch cheo leo cao 60m. o c u t pht trin nhiu loi hnh th thao bi bin nh d bay, bng chuyn bi bin, ua xung Kayak, leo ni. Hn Tre o ln nht trong vnh Nha Trang vi din tch trn 32.5 km, nm cch trung tm thnh ph Nha Trang khong 5km v pha ng, cch cng Cu 3,5km v tr tng i bit lp, c bi tm thin nhin p vo bc nht Vit Nam, thm thc vt trong khu vc cn nguyn s, kh hu n ho, t gi bo, rt thun li cho vic pht trin du lch sinh thi v ngh dng bin. Khu vc quy hoch o bao gm 2 khu vc chc nng: Khu Vng Me - Bi Tr - m Gi - Bi Rn c quy hoch hng ti mt qun th cc d n du lch cao cp bao gm 7 d n hin c: Khu du lch Con s tre, Vinpearl resort & spa, Khu du lch sinh thi v Th gii nc Vinpearl, Cng vin vn ha Vinpearl, Cng vin vn ha Hn Tre, Khu du lch sinh thi Bi Si, Khu bit th v sn golf Vinpearl, giao thng i ngoi ca phn khu ch yu thng qua 2 cng du lch ti Vng Me v tuyn

cp treo Vinpear (tuyn cp treo vt bin di nht th gii[13]). Khu m By c quy hoch theo m hnh khu du lch cng ng bao gm khu vc d n Khu du lch th gii bin v d n Lng du lch sinh thi m By [14].

Hn Chng-Hn V gm 2 cm ln nm bn b bin di chn i Lasan. Di chn i l bi ngn ngang c th l do s xm thc ca thy triu ln ngn i ny. Cm ln ngoi bin gi l Hn Chng, gm mt khi ln vung vc nm trn mt tng bng phng v rng hn, pha mt quay ra bin c mt vt lm hnh bn tay rt ln Cm th hai c hnh dng mt ngi ph n ngi trng ra bin - c t mt ci tn c ngha gn gi vi Hn Chng - l Hn V, cm ny t c du khch hn. o yn: y khng phi l tn ring ca mt o no, m c o no c yn lm t th gi vy. Nhng trong 19 hn o Vnh Nha Trang th Hn Ni v Hn Ngoi l ni c nhiu yn nht. Hn Ni l o nm pha trong, cn Hn Ngoi nm pha ngoi. Hn Ni c bi tm i (c hai b bin mt mt hng ra Vnh Nha Trang mt cn li hng vo mt vng ln b c lp trong o ma nc ln, nc s trn qua doi ct vo vng) vi ct trng rt p nhng t dng cho du lch ch hot ng ch yu trn o l khai thc Yn so

Cc loi c hu:

S sng

Nhng con s sng cn ti. S sng l mt loi hi sn (thuc ngnh S sng), i khi cn c gi l giun bin, thng gp vng bin huyn Vn n v th x Mng Ci, tnh Qung Ninh, Nha Trang, (Ca B, Hn Ra...), Cn o, ngoi ra cn c bi bin Vn M, ng Hng, Trung Quc. Cc tn gi ph bin cho cc loi ny l s sng, sa sng, su t, n t, cht khoai, hay a sm ti min Nam [1][2]. S sng l loi thn mm ch sng nhng bi ct ven bin ni thy triu ln, xung to ra nhng doi ct. Con s sng khi cn ti di khong 5 n 10 cm c bit c con di n 15 cm. Ma khai thc thch hp t thng 3 n thng 7, Ng dn thng o s sng khi

nc bin xung, em v ch bin bng cch phi kh. y l loi hi sn c gi tr kinh t rt cao, nhng do nh bt qu mc nn s lng gim ng k. Theo nh th trng hin nay nh gi, s sng ca o Quan Ln, huyn Vn n l loi s sng ngon v c cht lng cao nht[3][4]. S sng thng c s dng c lc cn ti (nu canh, xo) hay kh (rang) u rt ngon. V vy gi ca s sng rt t: 1 kg s sng kh thng c gi tr tng ng 1 ch vng. Tuy nhin ch bin s sng phi c k thut nu khng s c rt nhiu ct do vy thng ch nhng ngi dn ven bin mi hay s dng s sng.

Hi sm
Hi sm

Hi sm hay tn gi dn gian l a bin l tn gi chung ca mt nhm ng vt bin thuc lp Holothuroidea vi thn hnh di v da c lng, c xng trong nm ngay di da, sng trong lng bin trn khp th gii. Tn ting Anh ca loi ny l Sea cucumber ngha l da bin do thn hnh loi vt ny ging qu da. Trong ting Php, loi ny c gi l Bche-de-mer ngha l c mai bin, ting M Lai gi l trepang, ting Hoa v ting Vit gi l (hi sm), ting Nht gi l "namako", ting Hn gi l "HaeSam()" ngha l hi sm. Hi sm l loi vt chuyn n xc cht ca ng vt di bin, l v sinh vin ca bin. Thc n ca chng l loi ph du v cc cht hu c tm thy di bin. Mt trong nhng cch chng bt mi l nm trong sng v bt nhng loi tri trong bng cc xc tu khi cc xc tu m ra. C th tm thy chng vi s lng ln cnh cc trang tri nui c bin ca con ngi. Hi sm sinh sn bng cch phng tinh trng v trng vo nc bin. Ty vo iu khin thi tit, mt c th c th sn xut hng ngn giao t.

thin tu H Long, kh c i tm (Chirieta halongensis), c H Long (Livisona halongensis)[26], kh c i nhung (Chirieta hiepii), mng tai H Long, ng gia b H Long, hi v n hoa vng

Bo ng
Bo ng

Bo ng (c cu khng) l tn gi chung cho cc loi thn mm chn bng trong chi duy nht Haliotis ca h Haliotidae, lin h Haliotoidea.

c im sinh hc
Hnh dng
Bo ng c v tng thn pht trin ln tng xon c, khin ton thn bo ng nom nh mt khi dt.[2] T mp v gn ming c khong 7-9 g, xon to thnh cc l (l do tn gi c cu khng) th vi s thot nc t mang. L trn v bo ng V bo ng pha ngoi c nhiu vn tm, nu, xanh xen k nhau, ph thuc vo tng loi thch nghi vi mi trng sng ring c; mt trong c lp x c ng nh. V rt cng lm ch yu t canxi cacbonat gm nhiu lp xp chng ln nhau, c tc dng phn tn lc khi bo ng b tn cng. Chn bo ng rng, c c bm chc vo y bin, gip cho n c th sng c cc vng nc chy mnh.

Sinh thi hc
Bo ng bm vo vng nc bin c mn cao 25-30%, hay c sng gi, xa ca sng, nc trong. Thc n ca bo ng gm cc loi rong to bin, mn b hu c. Bo ng sinh sn hu tnh, th tinh ngoi, trng vo ma nng, ngh hot ng sinh dc ma lnh.