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No_ 2, pp_ 7-]6

**Mathematical Modeling of Heat Transfer for Steel Continuous Casting Process
**

M. Alizadeh'", H Edris2 and A Shafyei '

1, 2, 3- Department of }.;/alel'ials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 8 415683]11,. Iran

Abstract

He,lt transfer mechanisms and the solidification process are simulated for a continuous casting machine and the geometric shape of the liquid pool is predicted considering different conditions. A heat transfer and solidification model is described for the continuous casting of steel slabs. The model has been established on the basis of the technical conditions of the slab caster in the continuous casting unit of Mobarakeh Steel Company. This model involves a two-dimensional (2-D) transient energy equation The governing equation was solved using the finitevolume procedure. The boundary conditions of the mold, water spray cooling, and air cooling regions have been defined. The mathematical model is able to predict the shell thickness, temperature distribution in the mold and shell, and the interfacial gap between shell and mold. The modeling results were verified by the measured slab surface temperatures and a reasonable agreement was achieved. Keywords: Heat transfer, Solidification, Continuous casting, Mathematical modeling.

Introd action

Figure

A continuous casting process setup is shown in 1. Different regions of cooling in the

**continuous casting machine are shown in this figure.
**

Since heat transfer plays an important role in continuous casting, it is desirable to have a quantitative understanding of the heal flow processes which will permit the prediction of the shell profile and temperature distribution as a function of the casting variables.

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T(!I'("t:I Ctno_fi PIlau Shl1

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In the copper mold heat is transported to the cooling water. Below the mold, in the so-called secondary cooling zone; cooling is performed by water sprays, by contact with water cooled support rolls, and in the lower part of the machine, by radiation. The mold must be able to extract sufficient heat from the incoming molten steel to solidify a shell which can support the liquid pool at the mold's exit, and thereby minimize breakouts. It is also important for the mold to be able to remove the heat uniformly to avoid the formation of thin regions in the shell which could rupture and lead to breakouts or surface cracks. Therefore, the mold provides support for the newly solidified steel shell at a time when the shell is weak and sensitive to bulging due to ferrostatic pressure I). Heat transfer in the mold region is controlled by: the convection of liquid superheat 10 the shell surface, latent heat evolution in the mushy zone, heat conduction through the solid shell, the thickness and other properties of the interface between the shell and the mold, heat conduction through the copper mold, and heat convection to the mold-cooling water 2) The mechanism of heat transfer from the surface of the strand to the cooling water is complex. It involves resistances in the layer of flux or resolidified mold powder, in the air gap, the mold wall, and in the mold/cooling water interface.

1. PhD student, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfaha« University of Technology 2_Associate Professor, Department of Materials Engineering. Isfahan University of Technology 3_ Assistant Professor, Department of Materials Engineering. Isfahan University of Technology

**Fig. 1. Schematic of con tinuo us casting process.
**

• Corresponding author: Tel: +98· 311- 3912750-1 Fax: +98- 311- 3912752 E-mail: alizadeh@ma.iut.ac.ir Address: Dept. of Materials Engineering, Isfahan Universi ty ofTechnology. Isfahan, 8415683111. Iran

Matel·ials Steel St 37 Copper Casting flux Water Radiation conductivity of gas gap Temperature.. Mathematical modeling Figure 2 shows the different regions of the continuous casting machine and the model considered for physical simulation of the caster. the spray water flux has the most effect ont11. New slices are generated periodically. These researchers have shown that under normal continuous casting conditions. Considering these functions. A typical method of modeling the strand thermal condition is shown in this figure. 8 . Comparison ofthermal conductivities of materials present in/he continuous casting mold [3]. only a quarter of the strand is considered due to. In this study the equation is solved in non-linear state.2 Table J.-v.<12.e heat transfer coefficient. the temperature of sprayed water does not have a large influence on the beat transfer coefficient 4) In the lower part of the secondary cooli. Vol. More researches were performed to show that the air gap was usually created in the lowest one-third of the mold length 3) [11 the upper part of the secondary cooling zone. heat transfer is preferred mainly by radiation and by roll contact.n sl"I'Il):oUtnmlltsh / / Fig. the strand is usually sprayed by water emerging from nozzles arranged in the spaces between the rolls. it should be considered that the oxide scales generated on the surface of the strand could cause a thermal resistance in this zone 5) In this study. the governing equation is a non-linear equation.International Journal ofISSI. The mathematical model is applied to slices of strand that start at the meniscus and travel through the machine at the casting speed. / . pouring temperature. In this model. mold length and spray conditions. 2.the symmetry of the heat 110wconditions (Figure 3). give an accurate representation of the thermal condition in each zone. The air gap or contact resistances can be generated by the shrinkage of the steel shell away from the mold walls. in the stated temperature range. surface temperature has a little effect on the heat transfer coefficient. steel heat capacity and steel thermal conductivity were considered as functions of steel temperature and chemical composition. the pattern of heat removal in the mold is dependent largely upon the dynamics of gap formation. eq 25 Thermal conductivity (W m'l I{"l) 1200 30-130 1000-1300 1000 29 385 0. Therefore. respectively. All studies agree that.043 !'. The rate at which heat is extracted from the strand surface by water sprays has been measured by many researchers.3 (2006). This model is also capable of predicting the temperature distribution. A sufficient number of slices exist in each cooling zone to.Iolt. Therefore. the air gap has the largest resistance to beat flow.62 0. In this model. r' z 0 v.ng zone.i![ The thermal conductivities of different layers are compared m Table ! As shown m this table. the mathematical model has been established 011 the basis of the technical conditions of the slab caster III the continuous casting unit of Mobarakeh Steel Company. while the other parts have a comparatively small resistance. including tile solidus and liquidus isotherm which defines the solid shell and mushy zone.5 to 1. especially after the flux is completely solid and unable to flow into thegaps.2 0. No. casting speed. steel composition. as a function of section size. Different regions and simulation domain in continuous casting process. Moreover. in which shell surface temperatures range between 700 and 1200 cC.

the variable profile between two points approximated by a parabola instead of a 9 .fIsT! + awHsw+ aNHsN + asHsS + b 0 8p = aw + aB + fls + aN + ap aE = aN ~ a~~'l(.: ilt H ~ H(x..P " • S el • E - (4) IE In the above equations "S' is a term for heat source due to the metal phase transformation (liquid to solid).. the Quadratic Upwind Interpolation (QUICK) algorithm is used 9) In the QUICK scheme.'H)~ '!_'(k</l fiT] + '!_'(k. J+_Q_[a OJ' fiN.10): (7) apH.2 Fig. No. (6) T:.~ J as = a~. Therefore this is: (3) I). y) to computational coordinates (.!_. "I} H ~ H.i4 Tf1q. a~~~ (~:J. 3. Tsol. (pH)+ . but specific heat capacity and heat conductivity of steel are functions of temperature and chemical composition and therefore not constant. The original partial differential equation is transformed from physical coordinates (x.!_.617 al + . (1) -The density of steel is constant. 1Il.. fJH. 17) by applying the chain rule of partial derivatives.' J ~ "I/J. To simplify the equation.:). C T 2: Twi I '1 .K.("Iil) +!_ [p. In general. 61·Jp aw= a~~ll(.e. A symmetric quarter oj strand width section with physical coordinate. Vo1. + H..'H) + i!(p.. Assumptions The following assumptions are made to simplify the mathematical model 6): -Conduction can take place only in the transverse directions -Forced convective heat flow in the liquid pool is considered by defining an effective liquid thermal conductivity as: K~=7. To approximate the variable values on the surface of the control volume. a transformation as S ""Z ~ wt is used. (2) . W.. 8): HI = I..International Journal ofISSI.!_(koJ[i!!_J ax fly 8 oJ. the latent heat contribution is specified as a function of temperature i.III Model formulation The energy conservation equation can be written as 7). ~ !""(a e. ( (8) apo= 6'.. A typical 2D cartesian control volume is shown in Figure 4.. a.< axay ayi): e. and S). The integral form of equation (4) is obtained on the control volume by the finite volume method 9. L f (5) Where Lf is the latent beat of the phase change and the liquid fraction (ji) is computed by: Fig. N. y. when when when T <! T. [11 • N :1 n W • ~ . this sort of transformation is used. A typical control volume and the notation used for a Cartesian 2D grid [9j. 4.. ~J fiN. I order to solve the governing equation. This C.p '" a. it IS necessary to transform the physical domain into a computational domain.3 (2006)..order to establish the region of phase change.. . .. V contains a central node (P) with four neighborhood points (E. 0)' J- 8H. and leads to a uniformly spaced grid in the computational domain but the points in physical domain may be unequally spaced.

could be calculated by the following correlation [10]: 8TI_8Th-9Tp+Tw 811 b 3t1n Fig..200 9.004842 0.International Journal onSSI. finding the heat transfer coefficient for different regions such as: mold. thermal conductivity and the thickness of scale deposits on the surface of the cooling-water channel 11 ': ""'aJttJ':.300 0. several thermal resistance layers exist between the steel shell surface and the recirculation water.250 0.003975 0. No. as seen in equa.303 0. is estimated for different cooling zones. Zone 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Length ZODe (m) Segment N umber of spray nozzles Water flow rate (mJ/sec) Number 1"011 iazone Ron radius (m) 8 9 10 II 0.2 straight line (Figure 5).400 0 0 I 2 3 4.:: of gradients at cell faces [9J. Vol.140 0. Secondary cooling zones variables.200 0. w Fig.440 10 ."I.300 0. Thermal resistances existing between the she II surface and water channe I in the mold.440 0. on a uniform Cartesian grid leads to 9): 6 3 I ~=i~+i~-i~ 00 Therefore. No.3 (2006).380.006483 Air cooling 5 6 5 5 5 10 II 16 0.tion (l0). The effective thermal resistance of the water channel is estimated from the water channel heat transfer coefficient.004967 0.5 Ro1137-47 Roll 48-63 30 38 38 10 10 10 20 22 0.725 3. and air cooling. h. 6.220 0.475 1. water spray cooling.. in which the heat transfer coefficient..350 0. hw J (12) To determine the tempera hire of the boundaries. Secondary cooling of the slab caster. Table 2.003733 0. and air cooling is necessary.004858 0. Approximation Boundary conditions p E Fig. the boundary conditions are needed for different regions include the mold. -k-lb=h(Tb- aT [ an TwO/.725 1. 5.003975 0. To solve the above equation. 7. All the thermal resistances in the mold are shown in Figure 7. In the mold.950 5.925 1. the discretion of the ar I on boundary points is an b required. A general form of the boundary condition can be expressed through an equation (10). According to the QUICK scheme !~' Ib llhrad (11) T.439 0. water spray.) (10) d s_cak_ + ~I 1e.470 1.005667 0.0. Figure 6 shows some machine cooling layouts while the technical information belonging to each zone is shown in Table 2.

to solve the algebraic equation. The calculation mentioned has been prograrnmed in the FORTRAN language..Jc.pro).t.3 (2006)..l· 6T (16) Where.T~.)(t.333 + 0." == .. Moreover.'W r.. As seen In equations (7) and (8). Vo1./+I)..o. do. which can be calculated by the thermal linear expansion relation of steel usmg following correlation for each control volume: 6f = .) (17) Heat transfer mechanisms in the spray cooling zones below the mold at-e defined in Figure 8. To update the amount of the latent enthalpy an iterative solution is used for each time step: Hk+l ~ +Hk 3l' (22) IP~ If' sP s: -tr: h. No. The heat extraction due to the water sprays is a function of the water flux..015Re" G I PrOl) ("-1 = 0. latent enthalpy could be updated tn the k+ 1ti.. by using the sensitive enthalpy that has been obtained by solving the enerb'Y equation (H.04(wt%Mn)-0.14(wt%Si)0...16%C. the carbon equivalent percentage calculated as 0. 0.lag can be found consumption per mass (M. Due to the high temperature of the strand surface and the exposure of water to the surface. (5 + 0. (I 8) -"oAlr+ Radiation + Convection ROII$ .05%Cr. ==co-(T.. l.24(wt% Ti)+O.0.. includes a gap due to shrinkage of the steel shell.~+T~'!)(T.24/(4 + PI"). o ~kaT==O ax (21) Computation and ver. ill the standard cases are verified by the measured temperatures on the shell surface of the strand.) is calculated assuming a turbulent "flow through an equivalent-diameter pipe (D) using the empirical conelation of SIeicher and Reusse II): important role in the beat transfer control. 1.6Pr = 0. ).lCwt%Mo)0. phase field lines are specified as simple linear functions of carbon equivalent content The carbon of the steel is applied as the carbon equivalent content that IS calculated by the following con-elation I~): wt%CE=wl%C+ O. x (1 ~ 0./"Ij = k.135 and also the equilibrium phase diagram model calculates Tliq=1528 -c. an oxide scale is produced on the surface of the strand. 1'01= 1494 °C. Heal transfer mechanisms in the secondary cooling zones (12j. The solid fraction- n .5 (13) -1I. the scale can have an As seen in the above equation. the equation for the heat transfer coefficient is given as follows: """I == 11(1(r/ -t.id = km(!/d ~ r. Despite the low thickness.2 The heat transfer coefficient between the water and the side walls of the water channel (h.. 0.3%Mn.International Journal ofISSI.~.. (14) Which d. the effective heat transfer coefficient should be considered as 121: J h".1 (wt%Cu) For a 0. "" 0.. Equilibrium lever-rule calculations are performed on a Fe-C phase diagram ill order to calculate steel phase fractions.5%Si. By this means..1_ (19) h.Jprrw h _0. -r. heat transfer is also achieved by natural convections. the cooling of the strand III the lower part of the secondary cooling zone is mainly done by radiation 12) Therefore. Other thermal resistances shown in Fig 7 can be calculated by the following con-elations [11]: dmclrl rn"._Soiling _ +R3dlatlon Flail Contact Cooling Fig.) (20) Besides the radiation. The relationship between the rate of heat extraction by the water sprays and the spray variables has been established ina number of experimental studies.... k:. d.log (kgllon): from the powder of product (15) d '"'i "M..OI%Ti plain carbon steel.03%Mo and O. The mathematic simulation starts by setting the initial steel temperature at the pouring temperature Input parameters.. inner iteration in each time step to achieve a certain convergence.. A is linear thermal expansion coefficient of steel and l is length of each control volume..+ TON.==~--k . Therefore. but this part is rather small and can be neglected in comparison to radiation cooling. 8.88 . One of the most widely used relations has been presented by Nozaki's 1Z): It bas already been mentioned that.!. the heat transfer coefficient due to radiation is calculated by: h.. it is necessary to know the latent enthalpy in a new time step (H J. in Table 3.)( P'148 WxN 2(W+N) Also. .04 (wt%Cr)-O. The symmetrical boundary condition has been considered for midplanes as follows: ).ification The algebraic equation of the boundary conditions has been solved with a Tridiagonal Matrix Algorithm (TDMA) solver I).0075)( T"arer).)(p. O..'"k.3925 x Q.._" +_.0.. == d"" .Wi:.

659 1. ks1ag Air conductivity.0553 272140 0.00 T.083 0. r« T? T.International Joumal of ISSI.0 7*43.334*T(oC) Steel conductivity.Tn T.. == 268 + 0_836 *T(oc) c. Carbon equivalent content. =787 Steel specific heat capacity [ 11].. Cp = 3849 . Vol.8 pet kg/m3 mxm 0. Osc Ji*k/iq + (J -IJ *k"Sol 33.2 temperature CUJve in the mushy zone obtained from the model is shown in Figure 9_ As seen in this figure the relation between temperature and solid fraction of steel in the mushy zone is non-linear. == 456 +0. Water flow rate entering the mold large plate. Vc Pour temperature. Solidified shell thickness is oue of the most important calculated parameters in the model. The comparison between the results of the model III this study and experimental measurement by some other researchers is shown in Figure ]0.0061 0. It is clear from Table 4 that when grid spacing is reduced. ks<: Scale conductivity on the surface of mold. and the influence of the grid spacing on this parameter should be considered. kmold Mold powder conductivity. kst ee 1 Solid steel conductivity. "T("C) *r(oc) W/mK W/mK mm3 °C m3/sec m3/sec Jlkg W/mK Tn500 500 n t:« 700 700n T 1t 750 c. is shown in Table 4. solidified thicknesses are changed and they are stable in a narrow limit with reduction of grid spacing lower than a certain limit.0 25x5x29 28 0. The thickness amounts in width and narrow sides are presented in this table.376 c. in exit point of the mold. T~(J/_ Working mold length Slab geometry. kliq Scale thickness on the surface of slab.650 0. s Mold copper plates thickness Total mold length Mold copper plates width Scale thickness on the surface of mold cold face Mold conductivity.0167 1546 1528. Lf Water conductivity. kseal• Water channel geometry. The influence of the grid spacing on the solidified shell thickness. T." Liquidus temperature.1q W/mK W/mK W/mK 0_001 m ]2 . T11e solid shell growth in this zone is complicated and the results of this study are compared to those of some other re sea rehers. Input.3. The figure shows the variation of growth of the solid shell thickness on the ingot for low carbon steel (0. 3 (2006). No. == 648 c.8 0.0 r n 11.rojs.030 0_704 m rnXl11 ill 2_220xO.215 0_00001 315 1. =772 c. = 143! c. k"oler 0_132 7500 0. ==268+0. p Steel emissivity. c. ksoJ Effective molten steel conductivity. kair Mold powder density.6 1494 0. Tliq_ Solidus temperature.043xO. P'llag Mold powder consumption rate. The mold zone is a complex and important area in continuous casting machine.766 750lt Tn 850 850::.615 & 22x5x26 c. data/or standard conditions. CE pet Steel density. Latent heat of the steel phase change. It can be concluded that the solidified shell thickness is independent of the mesh size with the reduction of grid spacing lower than a certain limit. large & small plates Average cooling water temperature in the mold Water flow rate entering the mold small plate. WxN Scale conductivity on the surface of slab.roj ~"J JlkgK IJOO::. It is clear that the results from numerical solution in this study have a very good compatibility with those of three 3-D model of Thomas and experimental measurement of Alberny and co-worker. Table 3.06% C).27 0. lvislag Casting speed.250xO_203 W/mK W/mK W/mK kg/m" kg/ton steel m/sec °C °C °C m mXJTI 0_5 1..

the model predicts a 200 "C reheating of the slab surface 13 on leaving the mold. mushy zone. which act as stress risers A combination of temperature.. One way to increase the comer temperature is to widen the strip of unsprayed strand at tile comer.."er --- . Wada fir al.0136 0.. whereas the slab corners are subject to 2-D cooling. If the air gap .2 Table 4.0136 0. FJfect a/mesh size on the shell thickness at mold exit..0145 0.4 4. Experimantal.. Sfeady. Downward. Comparison other references..753 rAO.3 (2006). It is indicated that the rate of solidified shell growth is clearly high in the mold region. the intensity of heat transfer of mist spray cooling is less than cooling in the lower part of the mold for all of the curves. the heat flux density usually decreases. Figure J 3 shows a set of data of the local beat flux density along the length of the mold [IS].0131 30 Shell thickness at middle of narrow face (m) O. " '" a 3 o • Narrow face middle Nurrowface middle-measured H'idejace middhHneaSIlf"txf Q.OIlI 0. However. Phase fraction variation with temperature in. ---+--.. Xs=O. Figure 12 shows the solidified shell thickness profiles of both the nan-ow and wide faces of the slab This figure shows a sudden change of slope at the beginning of the solidified shell growth curve. The slab comers can therefore become significantly colder than other parts of the inner wide face. 9. 3. as seen in Figure II. The slab comers tend to have meniscus marks. between model results and Results and discussion The calculated surface temperatures of a slab. Also. stress risers and a low ductility region in the 700-900 °C temperature range during the straightening process often leads to cracks in the comers. a hot spot will develop between the colder comer and the sprayed area. Control of comer cooling is critical tor much of continuously cast products. the slab corner temperature is 230 "c less than the temperature at the center of the wide face.Albemy ei el.xn.. No. There is a maximum of heat flux density somewhat below the meniscus.0118 0. 0 .0 0 10 20 30 (IU) 40 Distance below meniscus Fig. 1600 Casting 'pccd=I.6 0. for the Table 3 conditions as a function of the distance below the meniscus. Exp erlmam"I.0110 0. Thus.Thomas.-0 . Predicted surface temperature of strand. Xs=O. .. as the non-sprayed strip is widened. Grid system # n. E X 25- .• i< •.. o 10 20 30 40 50 TIme (sec) Fig. 11.Pefesall! model results . . 10.8 . because of this.0133 0..0117 0. This figure shows the calculated surface temperatures at the centers of the wide and narrow faces and at the comers of the slab caster.§ "0 IZl 20 <-b :"S1 ti O<l o 1494 1502 1510 1518 1526 1534 Temperature (ue) Fig.8 0.88 .:: 1000 ..0119 0. '" :13 <FJ 800 60. The central areas of the wide faces are cooled one-dimensionally.International Journal ofISSI. 817 tA o.1l mlmin E . 2SxlO 2Sx15 50xI5 50x20 lOOx20 100x30 Shell thickness 31 middle of wide face (m) 0. At the beginning of straightening. '" a 1400 1200 Wide/ace middle --Co. are presented in Figure 11.0135 0.Sra'e ~ 2 til 0. A similar situation also exists in water spray cooling and air cooling regions on the surface of the wide face slab.0117 T---------------------------------.§. the design must be in a way to ensure that it does not cause other quality problems. Vo1.0 model.

7 -!-.10 0. or it increases uniformly in the downward direction. Wide Face ~ '" 2: ]0 0..: 0... -----.50 0. Air gap size along the mold.. As seen 111 this figure. Effect of casting speed on shell thickness.2 1. Effect of casting speed on the pool depth. ~ j QI"I"oW face 15 5 10 Distance below meniscus (m) 20 Fig.---------. 100 til 80 Alberny Q) J:: 60 ~ Distance from meniscus z.1 s c Q) o m rnlrr ' a 200 c ·w "0 wide face and narrow face of the strand are shown in Figure 15.30 0. ~ of).20 Air gap size (mm) Fig.Narrow face '=.9 1.00 0.e '" '" '" .40 0.7 0.7 I .3 1.2 between the mold and strand approximately has uniform thickness.. total shrinkage value m narrow face is more than wide face as expected because width size of slab is much larger than thickness size in cross section of strand. 40 o+---------. thermal resistance due to the air gap 14 . :I Fig.-----~ 0. • Vc=1..05 0..0 0:: 35 30 25 Casting speed (mfmin) ~ -.6- 13 .0 "'/mill' r- ..::I ---- . The air gap size along the length of the mold is predicted by the model for both faces in Figure 16. mrn x.. Increase in casting speed decreases the holding time of the slab in the secondary cooling zones and increases the length of the liquid core. and the mold-cooling water interface. the shell thickness increases. Furthermore. . The solidified shell thickness as a function of the casting speed of both .0 0. It should be mentioned that steel composition and slab width in comparison to casting speed has no significant effect on the shell thickness.60 11. solidified shell thickness for wide face is higher than it is for narrow face. 16. the shell thickness in the initial solidification stage decreases at the high casting speed.. '" 0. the casting speed is limited.> 0. 13. This is because of the different air gap sizes between mold powder and mold wall m both wide and narrow faces.. Therefore. Therefore. 11.. '-" 0. Predicted solidified shell thickness.5 "" '-" ·2 '" . slab. Although. The relation of the "metallurgical length" (maximum length of the liqu. Heal flux density distribution along the length of the mold.20 0.---------~ 0. 3: e Fig. i:"S .ld change interfacial gap temperature for different layers. Heat transfer in the mold is governed by these three resistances: the casting-mold interface. to prevent this unfavorable defect. Since. 0. casting speed is the most important factor ill controlling mold heat extraction.5 Casnng speed (mimin) 0. 0.4 -r----------------.. this phenomenoncou. 14.~ 25· '0 E 20· Fig.::= Wlde/acc :E "0 . S 30· :: . '" E 400+---~--~----~--~--~----~-.7 1. As seen in this figure.1 1. ..s" " I-. No. Moreover.. which often easily causes the breakout of strand.3 (2006).15 0.00 0 caSlir!c speed« 1...7 E .1 3S~------------------------------.3 m rnlrr" c Vc=1..International Journal ofISSI.i . 20 15 E '-" 0. the mold wall. a lower casting speed provides more time for the heat to be extracted from the shell.id pool) with the casting speed is shown ill Figure l4.2 0.70 ? ..5 1.. 15._. . Vol. The casting speed is the most effective parameter in changing the position of the solidified shell thickness profiles.10 0... as shown in Figure 15. '1. the heat flux density along the length of the mold continuously decreases.. 12.

Since the air gap thickness in the nan-ow face is larger than the wide face. Centerline segregation and porosity are also reduced or eliminated. At first.~ Q Fig.0 ". 3. 2. 0 -. . Vo1. especially for the 113lTOW face... with increasing the superheat temperature. so it should be exactly kept at a low level. -T3Tcmp. 5. This has been verified with the temperature measurement of slab surface. the pattern of heat removal in the mold is dependent largely upon the dynamics of gap formation. near liquidus temperature. especially for the narrow face of strand... a •.r. 7 0 200 400 Temperature 600 --·T2Temp.1 0.2 0. therefore: (23) q=---=-rU1:1li I 1. TJ=mold wall temperature. the air gap size in narrow face of mold is higher than the wide face. = ~ ~: 'Q:j' ~.:. 15 . 10 8 6 0 U.2 should also be considered while the amount of air gap thermal resistance is usually quite large compared to the other resistances especially for the lower portion of the mold..c:> Q . --TJTomp.:l '0 18 16 t4 . 1:: 0. it has a strong influence on product quality and casting problems.. '" . ~ a <:: Q 0. Since the heat flux for steady state conditions will be constant and independent of distance. and T3=water channel wall temperature). Therefore. especially in the wide face of the strand. '" oS .. - TWr. No. 20 40 60 80 100 Superheat temperature ee) . the driving force for the heat transfer will increase. Predicted temperatures for Tb TJ and T3 paints in Fig 7 -raj wide face and (b) narrow face (TJ=slag layer/mold wall interface temperature. the existence of the air gap between the shell surface and mold wall causes the T I to increase both in wide and narrow faces of strand. High superheat temperature may cause breakouts at the mold exit.4 0.. Therefore..5 0. . 8 C - • • Wideface [] Narrow face . TIns. Low superheat. On the other hand.5 . • ..- 5 0.Q OA 0.Air gap existing in the casting-mold interface causes a large thermal resistance for heat transfer from the solidified shell to the mold. reduces the thickness of the steel shell. as seen in Figure 18.~ a <:: 0:. 280 330 Conclusions 1" A finite volume heat transfer and solidification model has been formulated to predict the temperature field and liquid pool position in the continuous casting process under different conditions.Casting speed is the most effective parameter on mold heat removal. 17.. in turn. T [Ill the narrow face is much higher than in the wide face. T2> and T 3· The results of the model predictions are shown in Figure 17(a) and Figure 17(b).. it is the most important factor in controll. mold wall (T3).ing solidified shell thickness and slab temperature. Therefore.International Journal ofISSI. z '" ~ '" '" 800 1000 (oC) Fig. 4. the solidification rate decreases. the breakout of strand often occurs in the narrow face. !~tJt T. Effect of steel superheat temperature on the shell thickness at mold exit. the superheat flux will increase and therefore.6 0. -. 0. entering the mold. and water channel wall (73) as shown in Figure 7 are predicted by the model. Internal quality is improved as the equated zone is made significantly larger.7 30 80 130 180 230 (C) --·T2Tomp. Therefore.: . -T.132% CE CaMill!? speed= 1..Imin . by increasing the superheat temperature. 18.3 (2006). As seen in these figures. a more desirable structure with greater resistance to halfway cracks is produced. Therefore.2 0.. Temperatures of three points: slag layer/mold wall interface (T/). Cns'ing speed-s [.1 0.0 m/m:ln The effect of the amount of superheat temperature of the molten steel. .JU/r r: .6 0.3 Tl Tcrnp. on the solidified shell thickness is shown in Figure 18. Temper-atur-e 0.0 m/rmn Narrow face TI Temp . T 1. is beneficial to continuous casting. It causes temperature difference to exist in solidified shell and has a strong influence on transverse cracks generation in the mold region.Since. the influence of the superheat temperature is insignificant to shell growth. The above relation represents three equations for the three unknowns.5 0. '" t2 - :g :.3 Casting Spf'Cd=1.0 0.

B. A. Int. Amaury and M. John Wiley & Sons. 74. Albemy.. Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer. Tannehill and R. 37 (1998). Can. Lait.3 (2006). Bejan. Heat Mass Trans. Lahousse. M. Shaping and Treating of Steel. Leclerdq. Brimacombe. North Carolina. Santos. Springer. Samarasekera and 1. Shibata and T. 953. and J. K. 34 (2003). Khodadadi. A.: is: Air gap thickness (m) Copper mold thickness (m) Slag layer thickness (m) Solid steel fraction Heal transfer coefficient due to radiation (W/m2K) p: a: Steel density (kg/Ill') Stefan Boltzrnan constant "'5_67xlOoS (W/m2K4) Refrences [1] C. No. Lan.545. Durham. The Making. E. and J Wang. [2] 1. Pletcher. (1984)..440_ [3] A W_ Crarnb. Trans.2 List of symbols dai. and G. [7] A. G_ Li.: h. Cho.'{C: k. [10] W. Emi. MetalL Quart. Handbook of Numerical Heat Transfer. (1993). 1. Minkowycz. (2003). Seetharaman.. ']084. D. Inc.: dmold: ds/ag: hrad: hspra. [14] A. (1988). 117.Chapter 4. Vol. Eng. 18. Anderson. MetalL Mater. 11111 Edition Casting Volume. 98. T. Sparrow. (1997). Pittsburgh Pa_. Yamauchi. E. USA. 1. 1-1. C. John Wiley & Sons. 38 (1998). Garcia. ISH Int.. K. and S. 42 (2002). A. 73 (1976).685_ [12] 1.213 [6J H. Journal of University of Science and Technology Beijing. Thomas and L. 11 (2004). 2. Emi. V.3 [4] B G.511. 18. M. Continuous Casting Vol.. USA. Zhang.International Journal ofISSI. and A. Schnrider. Metall. Peric. [13] D. 1. Spim.. [9] 1. 1181 [5] S_ H. Computational Methods for Fluid Dynamics. The AISE Steel Foundation. [8] X. A. 41 (2001). Heal transfer coefficient due to water spray (kWfm20C) kair: kmald: k.. Wang. 16 (2003). 1-1. ISH Int. Hemisphere. 1.'{Cale: ks/ag: k"!(Jterr' ImaM' rs/ag: W: a: Osc: e: Heal transfer coefficient due to water circulation in the mold (W fm2K) Total enthalpy (j/kg) Steel Latent enthalpy (j/kg) Steel sensitive enthalpy (j/kg) Steel thermal conductivity (W fmK) Air thermal conductivity/W ImK) Copper mold thermal conductivity (W fmK) Oxide scale thermal conductivity created on the surface of straud(W fmK) Oxide scale thermal conductivity in the water channel (W/mK) Mold powder thermal conductivity (W ImK) Water thermal conductivity (W ImK) Latent heat of steel (j/kg) Slab thickness (m) Waterflow rate in spray zone (lit/m2sec) Thermal resistance due to radiation (n) Thermal resistance due to air gap(O) Thermal resistance due to cupper mold (0) Thermal resistance due to slag layer (0) Thermal resistance due to water circulation channel (0) Steel temperature (OK) Steel temperature on the domain boundary's (OK) Mean water temperature in the mold channel (K) Slab width (m) Casting speed (rn/sec) Steel thermal diffusivity (m2/sec) Oxide scale thickness (m) Mean surface emissivltie$"0_8 16 . USA. Seyedein and M_ Hasan. (1984). [15] R. 140. ISH InL. Appl Artif Intel. [11] y_ Meng and B_ G_ Thomas. H Ferziger iand M. J. 44 (2001). E. BookCrafters Inc. Rev. Convection Heat Transfer..

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