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Robby Pantellas Millersville University Dr. Buchanan Math 467.01 Partial Differential Equations

heat is not going to flow radially outward. Find the solution to the heat equation in this situation.Problem Statement Consider heat conduction in a cylindrical (hollow) pipe of length L and radius a. Let the initial temperature distribution on the pipe be given by the function f( . so we can neglect the thickness of the pipe s wall. Since the wall of the pipe is so thin. Suppose the ends of the pipe are insulated. . z) = 1 + (z/L) cos . We will see this come into play in the separation of variables.

Starting the Problem First. we have to change coordinate systems from Cartesian coordinates to cylindrical coordinates. Below is the heat equation and the conversion of the Laplacian operator from Cartesian to cylindrical coordinates: ut = k uxx (for this problem we will assume the thermal diffusivity is 1 since the material of the pipe is not specified) ² = 2/ x2 + 2/ y2 + 2/ z2 (in Cartesian coordinates) ² = 2/ r2 + (1/r) / r + (1/r2) 2/ 2 + 2/ z2 (in cylindrical coordinates) . then once we do that we will plug this conversion into the Laplacian operator.

Separation of Variables As usual. so we can get rid of the R s in our equation. We want to look for a solution in the form: T = R(r) ( ) Z(z) (t) Taking the partial derivatives according the Laplacian operator we get the following: R Z + (1/r) R Z + (1/r2)R Z + R Z =R Z and dividing both sides by R Z and canceling we get: R /R + (1/r)R /R + (1/r2) 2/ + Z /Z = / Recall that we are going to neglect the thickness of the pipe s wall. separation of variables still works for this problem. we can move the Z s to the right side and substitute a for r for the radius and we get the following: (1/a2) / = / Z /Z and / = a2 ( / Z /Z) = - 2 . Also.

.Finding the Solution Now we want to get the different parts of our solution. so we will start with our second order homogeneous ODE + ² = 0. we have another second order homogeneous ODE Z + ²Z = 0..1. and we need to satisfy the boundary conditions Z (0) = 0 = Z (L).1. This ODE has a solution in the form ( ) = An cos n + Bn sin n where n = 0. since the ends of the pipe are insulated. This ODE has a solution in the form Zm(Z) = cos m /L where m = 0. Similarly.2 .2 .

mt cos m /L (4/n ) (-1)n cos n where (the summations are n.Finding the Solution (cont d) Next.mt Putting all our solutions together.n. we have a first order homogeneous ODE + [(n2/a2) + (m2 2/L2)] = 0.n. m from 0 -> . . This ODE has a solution of the form n.t) = e. we get the following solution to the heat equation: u ( .z.m(t) = e.

and let A1 = (1/L) and we get the following: u ( .z) = 1 + An Cm cos m /L cos n We will factor out the An. we still need to satisfy the initial conditions. C is 0.z) = 1 + (1/L)cos Cm cos m /L Evaluating Cm using the Fourier Integral Formula we get Cn = . and when n is odd we get (-4/n2 2). We need our solution to equal the initial temperature distribution f( . We will let A0 = 1. ( . get rid of the one summation.Finishing the Problem We are not done yet. we get the following: u ( .z) = An Cm cos m /L cos n = 1 + (z/L) cos . and we get: u ( . So.4zL/n2 2. z) = 1 + (z/L) cos . When n is even.

4 0. and yellows are the cold areas and the blues. oranges.Mathematica Analysis 1 0.2 0 0 1 2 3 q 4 5 6 This plot shows the temperature distribution throughout the pipe.8 0. where the red. .6 z 0. indigos. and violets are the hot areas.

if the wall of the pipe was of significant thickness. . We satisfied both the boundary conditions (slide 5) and the initial conditions (slide 7). Going further.Conclusion We are now done solving the problem. then our solution would have another part to it to compensate for the heat flowing radially through the thickness of the pipe.

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