to the faoult7



U.a1versity 1n c.ZKl1c1aoy ror tho De&rH

Dootor at Phlloaoplq

ie<Jo;rrsDlole4 t01! ~
~Qt,.." ....





This i'tlpor introduce:;



of a non-cooporat!:vo ~ a:l&lyGla of ::uch ~..


dovclops Mthod. for the mathematical


and r-.y-ott 1"Unctiona de1"lned tor t.". oombinatlona of ?UN


end =,e.~ff


ot n:,:.mo.
an oq~


it d.eilG~1S on t.'1.a 4'0rusi:JUlty
alId a14e-pr.:;monta.

impoco1b1l1t:{ of coalit1cms.


Tho concept;a a a~u1;ioa. And 1n later at!



a aolut1o.u. a at;rong aa1ut1oa" by iOIAthaat1.oal dC'in.1ti4XW.

&Uld valuaa &nI lJ:l~

aoctlcmJ the 1ntorpretatian 1. cS1acuaae4.

of thoso ooncepta 1zl non-cooper-


pM ~

at lean one equ1l1br1ua po1J1t.



OiZer ruul.


00Il0C'l1 iJhtI &eo10-

Mtr1cal. atruoture ot the .et ot equ1l1brium point. ot • tu. with • 1 ' . ~ :;. lut1AD. t1w ptalMa, of .... oluts1oM. and the a1a'banoe of •• ~ .. , equ111brlUll po!n'tl !n • ~oa1




.J 1
J o

Joe an ~t1~


'!aple tbreo




of tile potq ..


tf4' appl1oat1aD .' Va.....

1 ta 1nolu&l4.


e 1, , a..,
W n


.lckDow'leclgelanta. "toker Gamo • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • •• D.. Geometr1oal p~ 7.. App11aationa.. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• 11.... 12.. B1bl~Ph1.Tabla ot Contents !:oction 1. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• ~ol:. 21 10..nt8 • • • • • • • •••• 4... Sj~tr1ee of Game. 26 27 27 • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• .~1.tionc • • 7 9 • • • • • • • •• ••••••••••• 6.atanco 01' Equilibrium . . ro~ ::e£!JlitiQ01l l'::!. uot1'ftLt1on and Interpretation. Introduction.. ot SolutiODD • • • • • • • • • • •• !!ethoda • • • • • • • •• lS Dominanoe and Contradiction A Throe-Mall 15 17 o. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• and ':erminoloC:t • • • • • • • • •• 1 2 5 z.

Introduction Von ?ieumann and Uort:.Qvicr. or o~ication oollaboration with any of the othero. out that tlle set of equili- brium points of a two-person :ero-cum ga::llS is 6imply the set of all pair. This notion yioldD a . As an oxo:lplo ot the application ot our theo1j" 1Ie include a solution or a simplif1ed Tho three person poker ~. tions without in in contradistinction.ui11br1um !>Oint 1a the 'basio 1n::.. Tho notion ot an !S. zero-sum games in their oontains theory book Theor" of Games ~nd Economio of n-:>erHon guoos ~.at each nBrtioipant aots indo~endeotly.a4 atrcmg aolfth111ty a shall 1ntrodUG. played in the thi8 paper.ecr:l or Q type whioh wo woulG call cco?eratlvo.~i~ book also 11tr.luation It turns or tho ooncO'Jt of the solu- tion of a twO-!lcraon sero-GWIl~.." we ahall define oqu1l1b!"ium In the 1:1::1edlatel.8natorn have developed a very fruitful of t"wo-"ersou 3er..enoro. ~ • sol_bIe gaM. the Jlotiona or solvability OIl of • JIODooOoop8l'atiftg_ and prove a th~ the ge. 'theor:r are reaCl1"'nld for d1scuaa1on in a speoial or . followinG aections points and prove that a.. Thi3 theorJ is baaed on an analys13 which can be i'or. motivation and 1ntorpretntioll or tho :athematlcal CODOept. of OPPOlling "good strategies. tr1cal atruoture at the Nt of equilibrium point. is based on the absenoe of coali- thnt it is as&UQOd ~. finite non-cooperat1ve alao game always has at least one equ111br1ua po1llt. Our thoory. a. ensection .rediont 1n our theorJ.'!lf)d or the 1ntorrelationahinG by the players of tho vnrious coalitions of the CQIlO.

nt such a mixed '. or rrure strategies into the real nu::tlher3..10.1 ••• Wo shall use the lIutr1xea tor player. with h1a with to repre . and "t. or ryosit1ons. A mixed strategy of player BUm will be a oolleat1on of non-tI8:. 'With each item ". I.at1ve nUlQberawhich have un1t pure :strateL. ti .8oo1ated a dU'.otntion. a-tuple. and Q auz-title inclcatj~g tho concept defined. whioh ::aPtJ tho aet ot all 'llhan we una tho term. of player .. and oil ~ J~ to $. be ilIlplic1t. . real vector 8!'1lce...od are in one to one oorr •• pondeoo. • eta. to each player. .J wUl 11:d1- . ruthor The non-coc~ i:!ca ~ill GeJ. wUl 1Jld1cate mixed atr~te{'.ne the 1:lesic concept a of this !l8f)cr and set I::lportaz::.In this u:> atnndard preceeded by erath-e soctic:1 "t. I .as: than oxplicit. .'e dei'1.t dol' ini tiona will bo -:. p. where the • W.or::U~ology D. -I are the pure strategi. n-tunlo we shall with always ::lean a sot 01' n ttema. a.1aJ~~s.. o£ plex whoae vertic. regard the as pointa in a 81m• This simplex ::lay be regarded proces.!'ercnt player. L-~ tr>J C(. a na~:fr funotion.-c.ioB.trategy.et linear are trA 1Tict'S or ..at1cn fer tho ::uxeci atrate!.. below. as a convex sub. civing WI a natural cotlb1D. Fiaite For U8 an n-oorson ~ame will be a set ot n .

.€..mi3.::= (S...edstratsGY Th13 extonsion we 5..:1.) • The effect of suoeessive subot1tu. 01" COl.1t:..ence we introduce the substitution notation (A. which ic 11noar 1n the .oint ~D A.. -t-J) (1) 'rhus an oquilibriu:u pOint ia an a-tuple • .ccd 3tratacios ""ie aha'l I '. Sn).'1a11 alBo denote by or each p1a~l'Or n-11 no L nrJ.hall OQo lonally abbnviate •• .t.:t: to denotie an n-tu.lo and U' . th pure strategy..1.r. ~ I ••• Sn) then p.10e. vector 8':'1.· _.erl8 stratogy We .Yr~"':a -<2. pt._ -::::(SI/5&.•. t. S1..s.. a convex po1:rt0~' the product or the 81::1n11oo.· . (CA. repreaontln.. ···Sfl) ) /' -J.. of :ni.--<. such that each !llayer' a mixed stratcQ' maxWzoa his pal-otf held fl.th ~payer's ol.arded a .. • "ill also '.iea.lr2SC!.onto tho .) . For corrren1.. ~:.• 5.c:..ed. etc. or . eta.. Pi • writinG filS. other. ThU8 11' the atrate.:Jol"'8. t. oach l'a:. 0l) 11S Such an n-tlnle.ut mixed stratec:.. t.lea of the others are 1s optimal against those or the equillbri\a po1llt by oq.A.) tiona to atand for (Sl..

.ot. V\u'Mbe. • S...occsnnr. 1M . another necessary a. • Then we obtain to be the £0110\'1'111[. t 1s £ormsd freD a ~ other alcebraio vnrletiea....) = ~Cot Ho(02) which .• IT'. } S.. oonaoquentl:r for ( 3) to hold we 1s to •• 7 that . this .ti ....0t jll:~ R~0Z-) -= P. p. rn:'" [p. Actually.utficlent Sinoe a criterion oondition tor an equUibriua point. does not WI.!'1cicnt condi"tion for tr1 t an equilib~~um?Oint: (3) • . 5n) S.~ >0 &tieo cay thnt · rr in /~..' and su!'.:=(S'J51..gralc veri.t\d.) and (S'J S"" f... Tr. of apace.. J ...!. tho equating of two continuous tunct10na Cq_ pta.( < m~u.~e l!neari ty of (2) --- :U~~~ [P:f.waet aub.C~ and IT:ot and "G18 C..... pt. .(4...... .. Pi~8-1 .) • P:~) --<t::: f'..x.Ai.. . ~ if ?i:: 1..a{ (At:) 7f:0... mL-:ed strateGY Si ~ a pure strato:y 1T". can b. cut out by p10088 or alb.C--4. :)...r i• So ite .oc.. t:)] -=... a.iio say ~18t 0....4-.4.al o. (3) tor all eq. 0003 Tf. the obvioaaly !OMl a cloud . A uses :'l:'cmt. the apace of th~ or n-tuplea -4. CS.. ol. C'pressed OD... UDloaa 1~ iD an optical pure strnteO' for pla.

'!he 6t:r:ers.no tho following continuous funct10na q..~) + YA ~¢~(~. let --<2._uilibr1um point 8& limit !.. U' he uses hi..Gr oJ: . ¢.1ized fixed '. our 3tandard notation..ola'N based theoretl.oint.ul. n-tuple of mixed and tho pa:r-orr to ~lnyer ..rho proof S. A we dei'!...oi:!ta have all e<.PrOC.Ex1stenco I have previously or Equilibrium ~'01l:rtB 3(..'.n.s thoir rcspectivw miXed atrate- -4_ • l"or each 1ntet.").) 0(. • and ¢.!.ivan hera uses the Brouwer "tlleore. mthod 1a to !Set U? t\ oequence of ooutinuObS matpp lu..G pure atrat.4_ .. f1nite same has an ec.!!.) (1950) 48-49J point a publ1ahGdL.)J > • m~x¢t.~c :-eBul~ !.t~}. be 8Jl Proof' strategies./ (4. 1.) 0( • Ein.co all the operations 14 con- .. and tefino -4.•.~ ~.tur.JA) (l 1& cont1nuoua.)...} -q.l!.$(.i~ proof of t..:. A lilllit cappinC 'l'ill:. si) S{~.) .f<t~). Ever:. on i:aJ( u.x{-J.>~)::::: LTf:O{ (.libriux:l point....)= y~>C ~t(-<L21 L: ~.!.)= YnaX[O)¢. (:l) m~ H ~f4.t(4. Uaini.:H whoee fixed !.gy gies in lliot and the othflrs u.!. .'O.?i = Pi~{4.o{(~~).) ::-(s.

. (-<t. wh1ch whioh moana Si* WI.lGt be non- opt1llal OCa1Dat the others. uapt1on. it . ca:ponant R.L-II:J] I<~. /{!-4-) ) A. kuow that ?: Af4..riot C(~(. = t1xed po~... naw~upp_~Q" -. · · s #) la nCD-Opt!ral.__'A'8-. 1T~~ (S..o((~) .~i}:o]TlbAInc.=. lIence _4_*' ouzo. .."..o:..)) • wh1ch coaV'ad1ot:.?(.q..~..~itj..·t:Bd under the ::ap?~ • '* where 4. --4_ • 15 • coll.ti:IuoUSJ and sinoe the apace ot n-tuplea. = .~ (--4. ci an equ1l1br1ua point.. Sotl) __J. 14 SlOt ueed 1&1 I¥.a...[p. * ~ IlI. 5._) . "". *.'ii(:4r<lj .. .G • I[p. ~) ( %.~ ..O{ ~I"--' C.oI. there cuat bo n t1xoo point tor each # COZlVQrt:1nG to -<t.&<t~) + Y~cN <:'0 WheM€e which 18 ¢. 4" iu j. p..-<t1t" woro net on 8Ciuilibl"ium point..'I: (. 18 1Dd.»).r·) • <0) ¢i~ 0-tf4.I.* A· • Honea thero w1ll be a aubao<juonc.4.¥I purG l:X!ICUlD atrato~ that ["coo {If») f~·4--J :h1..0 From this laat equation .J N_fA.

cp to p~ i wbsn the n-tuple S 141.?ar::::.r of n CSJ'.... ~'""O otrnto..'.rer. A .-4.f'1os It' two atratoC1-a belont.e l1DRr .nducCQ ~'""t!on a tp of the Each . per::lUtod into another the !.:.ar1 tb1a by 7<...c-tuple at ?lU'e atratoc!oa 1a tharctaro no-tuplo oI :Jure strato&iOD.1&ra~.tat!. Gint.1O will bo a pon:tUtat1on of pW8 atrat86108 which _t1s...Ialon ot ¢ to the =1xe4 atrate.:uta- tion of t. the ~r .{~) ployed. .r :::w..nducod .trJ. by aD We aball alM We clet1..xtena1011 to the II1ad nrategUs. to Q OGrtail'l oonditionG."'4r.oe . ot a gue . -<t./ call -x.~ to A s~o pla. atnlt8l.1o pln~ Thua!1' Ci"1Qnbolaw... 'X = A it beinG Wldc'atood that X ~s penattatioZl derived ¢.-tr1o ll-'Wpl. An autoJ:lvlryhis~ its or a~.. It :he ext. The penm. tar all . t.• . • J which -= • oa:zpletea the det!n1 t10ll of a a~r'J.~ playees.~ CO into 1.. ¢ 1:1 t.on and Let S denote an JPtuplo oJ: pure atrategiea p. • e require that it' .i08 ~.1H cWtar~ ~tea _teM1on ~ or )( to th8 n-tuplaa of loILi.ho ?or. trca a a'_v).10'2".ttation ¢ baa Ii 'Wl1qv.10 .!oa 1~ !. '. oJ: theae n-tuplea.

= lS<+ (t-.4 bave to be ~trl0. • -'.d 111the proot 1: 11'4 of e:iatenoe thecra waa 1ntr1nD1call1 A'1. thia A /( 4. .... apt .:<. CODMJq~ _pp1ng tt» ad of ./ (A. • ts ~.r...<lX=AI. wUl haTo j\.--d.. he""" n-tuplea elo_d...+t. ?l"ooi': First we not.~ric air:..one that for uah A and the mapD1ng -<l. s... 'l'horerore~ 18 '~ .4.)¢ j'= i If J bo=e S._... ~ -4.~t~ morphilua at the r.A-k wh1ch lJGUl..=ts.r How ob. A. Any finite ~ hu a aytDItr10 equ1l1brll.l. .)..X:= = A. Since th1a set 18 • all fixed po1nt And. :J.-0) ¢ .'IA.) j(" defined..~trlc 1Dto ita.= ~/(-4. '" • =.. .) n-tupl. ~:r:+)X '" .l~ 18 a convex aubaet of • 'l'hia ahow6 that tho apace ot n-tuplea at .X. u.~'-£ /(-4..) A+~ gt _ ~ (SI+t ~ 4 J • •• $t'~1 UI\'e~ 1a so too because __.-.) A) trkl ~jX aDd tbeNtc. r.l¢'= tho Get LSI .tllt poiJ:Lt ..lIl !'Oint.. 1&. Ii" A -= (<>'1 ••• S.~c theN lIIU8t be a ..-8T".It...ce it ia obv1oual.ciBO..) . as in the proof' or tho n1a'bmco tbGorc _ OO\1ld obtain a lJ. 4. that tuple..."(.

Olution.n. a aet . om d.oo it does ztronC aolutio. A non-coopara:l:iivo the 301ution dooa not alwa:J1J have a :lol.ict1 of playe:" .ef!_ • lUah that tor aU . The .s solvable 1t its sfIt.!. S'.'1:l ar-o solutions wi"::!! u'")Ccial l:l unique.d::od ~olYabUltYl A~ 1. or equU1brl\D point •• strong solw.. but wt. g.5 s.6 c..elution of a 1. or n-tuploa or r.eth Gtrate{.acl the ~b111V 801"ftlb1egu:.ol_hla 1t 115 bu a .efi!". set o£ ~ atrnte.4 . concl1t1on. 1ta . .bUl'tp A~ 18 atrond:l .. ~.8 here solutions. of equillbnua points .~olut1o= 1'.J.at1&- (1) '!h1a 1a ce.r::JD stronG solutions t and cub-sclutiotls.m denote a. stion.

and if call ~ d po1nta of a [. S.. $1. i"aotor uta.al rolnt!~ to t.c.~.. the set at ocull1br1:um st:-trtc[. ot the ra1xecl atrategy (a) 1: It aut"tl0•• to ..Da 8Jld 1ta tutor uta are the 'l'ffiXI.~17 (s Sa.uillbr1u:n oSuilibrium poin~. s. prodwrt • 1a the ot it...• wh1ch we neoded to abGIr. 1/ U111rl& tM oond1tlon (1) 121-1t1=ea we obtain a\ICCCII.how two th1n&..t.-10such tr~t tor point. 3:1 det1n1t10l'l ~.~O . s.l~ !llEO" 31 are cloaed and ?root.ies i• -=. -eJ_ 18 tba S./i&".) f J.. for ~u CCDI oonta1na ( .••• s. S ft) E-.t-.. S.:t. 1a a Dolut1o.:.nt £...1on~ J we doi'ino the 'tll tactar ~ ~at ot all S: IS ouch t!-.1aDd the last .uzaatra:t8bloa.a s.. S:) . 2J ~ • 18 the set of all c-tuples (S.) €oJ>. 5ate that a aub-ao1utlon.. · aet. of equU1br1. aat. · _.·· Sft) mob h" each $i e ~i where i th !'aat:or set ot ~ • o..r lat1s~1_ _J_ '!'18 1:3 a aub=et of the not of equilibrium <tODd1tian(1). ) (*.. S'" S 1..ttr1oally. when ~ue.:tiz the the n-tuple (... S1.) SCi:lO 16 an ac.t'.~. i th component oJ: call S. aub-401utlon.BmLI and 1D QIl-r'.J of r>lAyel" L 5." " •• ~ '" ot a aubooaolut10A ..)€-eL • 18 0.-. s~. The O~ taator aota as .. TIc Salle . it. aDd Sf• e S· • ..lll4 ?roo- perty then a aub-aolutlon" For any Gub-eolu'".

ve for any pt. .t €. Let ~ .ve lalow ~-t.Ill8nted set ?rom t!'1is . Adding these inequalities. lie d. be ill where this set & C:?t. + S.~ ••• S..eper value to player i ot the game.::t-E ~. ~j . of 3 for an aq. -:#- 111 a 11m! point of t all eq. and hence any point 1n ita cloaure 18 the •• t ot all sq. 1& a set at sq.:i-.) in ~ 5(A. pt..f1.ne ) . +S()/2. .I+_~J. using the linearity Si.. - .r ~ati~iez follow8 that To attack . (b) if then S7*f Si • Then we he. point oJ: _. S. aame argument aa tor • be the set of equilibrium poillt...t.-#..~ S. pt...inc. € S'.et at n-tuplea o~'the '5: € S. aLnce and dividing by 2. the (. and hence La.&Uta..I.[P: f:4}] VI . pt.nce ~ d. . #) va1uea. cl~QX1:.._ we 1I'1"its v/-::vi \. we Get S. limit Let Si*:::: {S.£ . Vi-~ _. by usin~ the oriterion of (I) J p~.. tor.. j) F:.. Si7E} all such eg.'~+ "'. • . theretrom S.. pt•• 1s cloaed ia an eq. for any C. was to be maximal it (b) note that the n-tuple (:t.l} J. S:~ . 01' a Yi+'J.':I[P:&li] -v.*) ana • is added to ai.i) that If the set of the aU(.. *:::: ($.\i"*.. pta.'. S.-11- then . p" (t-.')/7. couui"uion (1). limit point at the . s: :#=) 1'01'11.- • the u. pta.a p. 13 an eg. sinoe S. . (5.

ill obviOUGly have to oxiat 1.en Wiin.-12- Values .- 'mlueG .:or a .cn by reatriot1nc pta. the oame defining equationa as aboYD. .>ub-eolut!... aol'ftbloJ ~ lJolutio:18 GX!at only when tbero ia a "uddla po1ntD 111 .:. 1n tho 8uo-Golution IUld tl::.1' thero 1s but one equilibriuu 'Point. to ~he '~.J_ One can define associate.

'fie sho.td 1nequallt1e.:.:10_. • F.aGh such 1nequal1ty ly1J:lgOIl and to one lid.~.... tor til l'layor' £I :lot of for.II equWbzolua poUlt it and o.ll obta1:l the soma rosul'l. of the tara 1a e 1ther aatia1'1ed for all ~ Ia.1.. ~ now apply oOD!1tlcma (2) to (. .C !a co. through the atJ'ateIg' ... ..br1l.cal In the two-pcraon Fo. E.n be 5j at equll1bzolura atft..:T 1t SJ.al.• 1Ih1oh18 ~1ti¢n (3) 011 pas- if • An equivalent condition is for (2) Lft ua D.) SJ.. or phver j • w1ll be all lAt * the. s_.bplcr. 'l'beretore.f.a po1J:da.Cecmotr!.t.t.) .CM QOCAiQuo tbe tom of • .11l.solut!ona OAOG it lero-stml han boon shown thnt tho 8()t of st.. SlJlH H 1& n-l1near a. 1"raa (.r apace.cry . G7 eqt.t. n~ '2:! ($.tl4t&mb thoaeal'e a set of linNr 0 or tor tho..rm of .tl'teg. obta1A1ng Sj~ .) SJ . Tbao. the h~laDe pua1::l.

..-\- it b l ~ o{+ ~<..X pro~ertiss.nedin the ?npcr the 1e. ..ot 1 V.'"t.-+ 'oh. VI~ .. ..oC.e lCl.5. . + (5/1.) .. b o f.> 10 :~: :olut1on: 10 b c(._ :x• . .. 5 1 \0 0( a 1 -1 q ~ -4 -4 k) C{. 4 UJl801vableJ equU1br1U11l_po~ (a}~). ::. and ('Yi.Q(.. 1 0 ob~ EX. \}1.c{ 2 ~. ~ 4 -0 boe..:!~ ~t.:""'. C(/l. ate..i'~.-1O -1 b~ -1 14. -3 -4 C\. -10 1 b p> 1 Ex.:. r-> i o. + '/.v tl:o c()nce~t:3 cle.ot 1 -10 0.> -4 ~1oak Golut10n. =:. (kf3)~ o <1.. ..r> ObOf.~) V" -::. r.1oB in the laat case have maxi-min and . 1 a.-12aSimple :::xamp lae :!:cl3e ~ro ir:te:lded to illuutrc. Ex. 1a. 1"7 Cr<. -1 2b~ 1 Oc1.::U!li -!:lO.> 0 0 0 1 an aamp1e • with or 1Databl11ty. -:::. 5 v b r. 1 5 a.«.te:... -I Ex. <l.t.-10 -10 b 0(. 3 -100.

cloaure of: A i'1nits .nteraect1QIl or llal:.:t ci:tlplo.-JAca::lploto :let LWh10h U.c-S?80ea. oay concluuo that Skis the COOV6-"<.cUi 0: conditions wt.. .. t1nitoJ si::lultan$Oualy tec.ioG Lvor.."rlO convox polyhedral oubset of pla.t~ mixed 5trntGt. .J a oorollary "..at1od on ao.~. ice sJ..ror j "S stra- CI.ll all be sat!...

:t 5j <lev'ootO@ <. if ~or overy :his. .ad 18 ..n2 esuilibrium oo1.?lAyera becaUGGof the n-li.) OAt can prave a tfltt properUea of tba At of Wldor.!. tl--. a.~ ~ the ~ taou ot .m1natlon of olu .1 ••• a p".y =alca po. ~t " S.15. hibhcr r>6j-- ott than $: DO1'. 2 It 1aobvioua !nvolw ...i1&ttor lIhat the iitrll:ttl~io:J of the other plaj1)rs are. d~ted S.<. . atn:t:es1ee . POl" the OOPlpODtnta ot an equillbrl131 1IboM 0CIDp0bImta are all undam.ar -.t.netu- p~ • £ram the d.d It ia .lble CCIQO.f'onaIId b)' tM u./_ S..t IS &.D0J:l1oonCG I find Ccmtrad1ct1on :1ethodD '.aiblo the ol1m1na'blon ~ .ua:t.Gf1nitiona atratoQ ~. • I ':han tor • amll couch p :::a o . !motU' ot lIdHd nratet.J:xt !e. • that .1natod an all of that need be COJl81dered abd th1a .imp_.tra~'1t -ti'= ti + p(S.n1on or ScaD ooUtlO'fdon at The intonat1OA IM:¥ be r4 re~ obtawci by diaoovering doIIl1nano_ tor one ~ as tba .r. f): To a•• 'ffhArther • atrateQ' der on~ 1ty 01' dominates 5 i it aufl'icea to consi- pure atrategioa far tho other . ~~? to 10&:11::4.-nec!.n. new olaaa at for another play. po~ 1a to tho othen..0 c.1Wnatlne aamo or the stratez1M ana pla.:tUr I . I ~i"1tiB plD..

~ti CCII:IpOl1011t ·. bo used ill loC(lt~ uquil1briUL1 ~intG ~Let n.uct1on ~t there i3 no equil!. r:.hr!.al:.-t.lCr coc.d :?l"OCccdI! to ctld~ce tu..nathar ~rocoo.-:.-16. i:..e !.~ o'i~llib4"1.:.S:.g ~?othQC!..coa to eventually obtc.. :h:&:.'1ithin certain re.od ~.art cf :-ouon!.n a oontnu.ni..:!.{hie:!.di'.u:::l poi::t SAtW~~ t..!! the c. :ust 1Jo aat~!.::ions of l<?nCOCa.t.ho in!. tial ~7C- ..ure which tlaj..O.~roubh aov6Z"&l ato.!. t.l.. ~~ be ill- can-ie<i diaat~ thea1&."SilO.s ·tr.Utl !.?Oint e~i.3.3t:i.. t!'.'tG~iou lj'~t.Ol".cre one at.trtv1icticn-Wo . lm"11:lo ~ 3't~to£:" ar..

ticular . _:iokor ~ ~iV'6n 0010lIl'. of the pIa. equivalent JlSixed atrateciea 'at & p~ 1n ~ oS: aonae tl-. rcali=t!.. ..c case .o ai:!lpli.coDiDlaioT1or.. and .. makee the 1ndl vidual ohooe. -: with a hiQ! card at one'II laat opportun1 t:r to bert that thia w1ll not be . ot taldn& •• ch of tho poa. ar1.11 haw t14a _ ~ Gel:JIt. poa..." ~ .1blo _. _ell a_Uabla ~.pal1rwith 7hat i..ar:w enes Q.w the prcba.fter 0.'....ltuat1OQ :requ1rinG action Oll hi.bU1t1e. tbau III '. bebaY10r pattem ot1 the pan at the 1n- dlv1dual. tho ( 1) 71:... . nr10ua p.at each action 1n each parthe .1b18 act1OW$ 1A each at the ~10ua a1tlati0!28 whiCh llwa ~ dHcr1be bebarlor patterna...trateg!..'iac.ho uorml torm of "~ In tho non:al i'om repreaeatat1cm tiro ~ b...:.ll-_' hiGh and low cards. be In tDnI'e of behaTior panmaten the .e. include tr.e dec 1: is lar '"6 II Tli th ac \lUll '.. oall "behIIv:1Ol" ~ and F. - a ~d Qor~lata at ana card. Bel:aY1Dl" ~. ..." ::is. (3) The ?lDyora ~lay in rotation and tho .. thq ~ tbt __ 1"ntquenoy.

. or the c.«-I •I ..II raz:p (0.. 1'hea oOJltftd1ct1ou eliminate f4-"~.ralye1a aDd ~ 18 ..aoUoG can be . G }l. • These lfle Id 0(::. and with it &0 '{.reek ~er. to have but one . By dom~naM.F1rst lloveG r : 0<~ 01*1 .. Opon on low Call I Call II 8 ~ on law - low move.1 ~ = • ~.'aated 'S .U.r1ahlea 1ll tl:... 30~. law OIl OIl Call I and II ~ .aanoe.on.olution with the -.ow1n& bot moat JI1UiTt 'Vall1ah.~ ~+~ G( ol-tt.) tJ=." A" k ~ Contn. ~:= ~-. - low We looa1.\ _ 1. ayatcl ot a1aUtar. that DOC.1\- JO $31 € ~ li. -= t..bow.. / ~"J .. call 11 and II:r on ~ i !! ~ Call z I on ~ 7/ Call I::1 on open on hi~ 5' CUl!II and I on ~ E open on ~ ~._) 1.<l" . mainly with a 11ttl.. (..!!&a Opon on~ k Call I:': on low JE. ot ± \ ~ . oontrad1ot1on-t)'pe a.I0I"O or one and 1be equat1O!l8 aJ....cCra1c equa"t1ona.O all poGo1blo equll1br1\12:l po1nta b: t1rat ah.d1ct1an thua we obtain happ4t1'l ~1a a ..') • We Get . • t1 'by 4ca1. of the .!! I .

81tn1t1caDb o~ whore]]I.s~ - .1000 tr.. :as.SS ptl. 1-= '%. p~d.W and ~ but wUl not open 1£ ..~..pon 6 r>&ttC'1l 0: pl....4y- lI.n tl-.. ~1.'tAo( . Th1.:.'bloA _mbers ha'"1O the power to ag. . _ .y. =• 1.) o~ n= 1rJ III' : · a ?>rt~= y~1.I/~ 'ftlue to I: h\1h.€ == 3/1J «.#\d rr.openaftor two paa ••• l.q ~l'QI". ~= t= I ]I d VII.-\ III TCU"8U8 I 0<-= "73 -...1 s = Y. the r.()W bet P4. nr ~::o 311.am 1.lanned to pus on both hl.' ..IG'7:=: . value to .48 values J those are " 1- __ - • Oq<... became. value to ]]I eX = >/.. ~ss . 0-hlJ... actftnta&. 'r" I Q..: -. .rao u. l-=- G.ere is onl:.. OM equ111br1ut1 point the Gam8 1'... I .l/~'::: - The ooall.e case of coalition lIh8n I]I[ I h:ld .


II part101that ~ puta .quilibrium . ut11itr 14 that thore 1t baa beerlJlg on the prrtttJ... equ1llbrium..ntormat1ODon ~ puN achaAtacM at the 'ftJ'1oua atn.. 1Dterpr.eat ..J.. and no ..nce then is to be no oollaborat1oD bit ..1. shall ot tho 1ntrad\JDeC! _ 1Jl th1a paper...p1r1oa11. 11 • populatlO11 £1A tM poait1oa of the . cumulate' -.1p1t1ouDe.. by ~ ot the appropriate population.bUtt)' caap1_ reason1ncproo.. the pa)-Qt'1"s 01" d1ttereJ:lt pla1erl are et1'ecta1ft17 1ncompal'abl. an4 1tto11mtlOJl to fP tbl-oudl to ac- Bd the partlo~pante U. 18. 1a no f 1JAl. tzoac. try to ehow how po1nta and . there are no ccalit10M Decaua.. ". TM b. We ..hall take up the •. l1nearlra it .."la~1.t naS_ tna tb..ab eaoh PUN "aftftP .o.. pC'1nta an llaIf preHZ"98Cl W¥!er .. 1I&. It the to UalDt that th8 perillo1panta hfte M1 kDawl".. Wi 'Y1c1uala p~ in . Let ua alao &A18IJ that the ·a~ ot tba 1n'Io1..tat1on .. aUM that then b. the .1d .Hotivatlou In th1a section concepta .. aDd Interpretation . pa~.tructure of the p....elMted . ss. there utra-pme £'pa:r-otfJ tranater.a popu1atioM na- bla awt"aC..UGh tnnatanatiOll8. a-actlon· 1nterpr. telJ 18 ...tora the pq-att t'uDDt1cma Pi ~ a~ + b: Pi ... ~POH4 the_..l'II Thua. .... shall trJ' to oxpla1n the aicnUlcance l'hat 1..1d..ot atat1aUoV ot ~lo1puta tor ••• p~ II ca-."ci__at To 1Ibtt1r d1apoea1. bl' 1m:pllcatioA..0Il 1a ums--1&17 ".olutlona can be conneoted with obaorvabl • p}wJ1CD1aa.o11ft1ou b&w DC) of eliuUlbrlum po1DU. lID" deta1led ...ma. tnqueaDl' with 1IbS. S. In th1.o requirements Ihould be no pre-play I¥) tor a IlOn-oooperatlve pM cOlllmUJllcation among the pla:y.e or total 'aD)' ...

Jlate4 produce. tha1a • '~'17. ~.e •• 'Viol au. th1a 1& .'tft1...( S•..1 • Then the ex~ pay-ort to an 1lld1-vand emplo)'1nc the pure 111 the • th poa1t1on or the I}UIJII .~.noo on the pure . crU.reota the exper1eDO. thoae playlAc 1n poa! t10n • 0IIl. 1JbG.... leU to tbt ooaalua1oA tbd the JI1xed . larte tt tM ulllllptlOlW rim :-:'r~. ooa41t1oa tor AI. '~...~.ab. • t oona1der e£... r4 tha part10ipanta d1d..... To "CUM .trateQ" Now let will 1f.1 optSal pure But it they know thea. 1&1w ooC':'101enta '...-2%- d. pun ..::. indioatins or pure . tuple the probab1l1ty that a part10ular nin e. play1nc.[q...tn. £.:: ot the pma be •• C. 8UIIIpUoaa _ M4e 111tb1a ". ._ tarm an equ1l1brlua !he populat1oDII need: D01J b. they will eplOJ 1 ..J. 1clual playiAg s"') 1. ".' .tratep....:c !t: .xpre... .U"terent poalt10D8 ot the ~.. at their d1.. that they aoou.r~ 1'hua iIb4t ...Ci q rr 0( i......u1br1_ poiDt.ecu.. t. "~the behaT10r 1n _oh ot the populaUo_ . <'. tec'Si atftwp.1r10&1 1Ulat evid.ao.::( • .. '~ $. atta__ poet• oZl17 to ~ 10 that Bu". at • and let L..0( U..poeal 1_ to . to be aD .... 1rhe1r b8n1~ pure .S 1. .teb1oa wUl be caplo~d or the the &&me ONiDOG ahould be tha product at the probabUlt108 of tot paying the probability that -rrio( wUl be employC 111 a ranGcm S.4.0Il" lAWpret10A avarap po1At.

1t. can be found tor Daft'awing down the .l7. of couraa. .c~ . p.- (}ueatlon' By using the prlnclp1ea that . <... ita utU1r..d JmaJr the ~ 5.roup of interests 8WIlr8 non-cooperativo taM without belnc or it..tes1ea tln.ot at oquU1brl. Mba't!or or l'I.ClMtW. exper1mtll1J were carr1e4 the ~ out:.-.. We procHc1 'til 1nveatlp. able to deduce and make u•• at It.ituations in 8Occoaica or international are involved in poUtlca in lrhich. role of • aolut10n.eza. p~ the . leeSto 'the ao=ept ot a Hlut1ala 4etlDN Mt'ozoe. and which 18 applIcable to . ot ~ ahota14 be.Mlvea. w • Id. In an WUlolvabl. rational prediction IIhould be and unique. -Jor role. It U quite .. Theroan ... c.edg9 on the part at each pla~ ot what to expect the with tlJ8 pre- otbera 150do ahould not lead h1a to act out at coctonld. soma Ban at appro:d:llate and the 8tabUIty Actual. errootlwly . or tbG a'V8nbO troqueno1ea wlll bo 1::Jparfeot. ~ in on:1or to be able to deduce the pNdlot1Ob a zoat10zal1atlo th.-Z5:_:: hold... l tho •• 1n a 11Jl&le lub ... can onlyaxpoct euqU1b1"luz::a. the non-cnrel1088 ... olut1on. U ODe 1.til1g the qu. a1noo tho 1%lronat1Ol1.rl&:to--tbe sltuatioJ1 truly nCll-oDoperative. 0. that the p~ .nter- pNtat1oa. allDthcr interpretation. rao4 to ~ atru. oncain which aolutlona play p~ but once. happeaa that &004 beur1atlo ne...x. ca- 1t .~ &ad 1dM11aiDc 1.. We now akotab.cm.. tiolU what would be a nraUcmal..~oaal atta1MrQ Si SA plq1Dc 1D poelt1oa i 1ICIU1d d.um pointa to th.••• S" the -mloral" atSI . which tbeD.tr 41ctl... p~ - . help1." run tor IA th1I 1ntarprotat1oA . SIJS1. n:. tha~ such lalowl. .at tn..ation.bGuld b..p ~ a aolwb1e ~...

y be looked at . ~.. tonrW:lg a coherent whole.l a .brium poiJlta. a .. a natural .at at The subequilibrium . .et or mtually oompatible solutions equU1. appeer to &i. subdivision 1:he o:i.III cooen. po1nta f4 •...ub-eolutioJl u.

1 pa we ~ .. ~.impl..-to .... baa 4. ph..s amllfor'CClteJ"J1 tbeor.1el or tala PN plq ~1aUoA ao iaha1l .ing appran- A 1etus obYtou...y.... hoaewr. JIIOdel should be quite an int. .lope4 a -4)l1twSoal· app~ openUw .iia1oaa wh1~ Y1l1 be . p..-. 08D aDd wUl aollaboa .. . po•• wtv to41tt . And poker 18 the moat obv1oU8 target • poker gaDI The analyat.reat1D& aftair. the pla..p.. 1N4 tnurerabWt. the ca-J 80 thaD the GUIp'-... ru.. 1tuatlO1l 1nvolv1n& a •• t u uaualJ but with t...l'ab11- C1Ih1oh Ihou14 b... pa\ lAto 11Mc.. tott. upoA ~ to XlGl-oGOpC'a'ti1w ODe p"o- . in ... 1d1l haft an 1J:It1D1V at atn. -~ -. tha1J the Br.. uaumpt10D pta.l1"8 • -.. ccmplexthat it HGI&I that ana1:... orne 1n ut1l1't1 ClaD '- ClClllpt. ~ OCW'm1oa'" lora u ooal. oCllpU't:a1s1oaa1 .~ &D7 truaterabU.teg1-J 4oacr1b1Dc the 1n t..tbocl•• u. 117 ~ negotiation n...per ... .1tnaUon...aboftt1on. The oomplexity of tho mathozat1oalwork needed tor a oanplete 1n- VMtigat10n 1ncr. tba7 do 111 tbe ~ ". ~ tOl1la at 00- The _1.Appl1cat1ona The atu4y play ot n-perSOll guea tor 'Whioh the accopted playing ethios ot tair imply non-oooperatl'" -" 1&... or course. t:fptI ~ appl1cat1cm 18 to tho studJ of oooperatiw ~. all obvious d1reotiO&l in which .ra1a of a batIO :much aore oae- 1V at pla at.v.. ~ Mo'" .......11rM1t 1D- USI1nc1t band 1bt..apply -thi8 thGo17.. t4 a mere rea11st1c than our 'WIr"'-J . rutr1otiw. AIJ:'I cS.. to . in the extr..1J" IUIIMI _In..ooll..tJtoroed b7 an I1l 1a UADIIO . . Itrate.V. ot .. with 1ncreaa1lq.-nn ..arpr pM SA the treaW or tM ~ fit tbU pr.ooopeR1J1 pur.ha r4 N1<1 p~... rather' rapidly...s.c.. ~ ncm-ooopcU1w .. . bcMnv. Thb . 1"7 of the pq-ott.iwn hAre 1IOUld 0Ill7 be teaa1bl. ~ L"Wb1ah . l.....

to .. or T~ tho problem anal~1ng a 6 cooperati'ft . the 1nt1n1t. ob'ta1ned valuea tor all fillite .. ~ and it . are obtained they are taken lusd value. vincing. treatment.. '!'he writer baa..· ..robl_ obtaining suitable. and con- non-cool"Oft. - £extended. . by 8uoh.tlw model for the negotiation. .. or the cooperatbe beGQMI tho cam.

awl Aulm pvo ve. p:'ojan ~ DaY1dGale at .....ton Un1venlt7 Pre ••• "Theory of Games and Economic Behavior". Pr1. Gal. the author wa. the 1nve.DaU. a. 0-.no.-.atlon a jolJll. 1944.5 •• P!..l.yzaetr1c pmu. in N-Per8011 J. Jr •• "EquU1brlum l'o1nta A. augs-ned .uablo criticiaa a. Alna. do:Ie.llor. . period 1949-60 cluriAg whiCh tid . s.. N.B1bllogra~ (1) (2) von NGumann.. ~ (1950) 48-49..tmII tor 1mprov1ngthe expoelt1on of the mater1al in thil paper. ~. wort . W8ta1.1101'.. 11)'LloJd The aolut1on at the Poker Sbaplq &Df1 b a.DIi G~CNlt.tt• ?roc.11.tl..i.. F...1 .. llaah.. .oec1 t1DaDo1al4 by tbe Atcmo JDercr •ioa 1D .enatern.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful