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CHAPTER 2: CARBON COMPOUNDS 1. Write the formula of alkane. 2.

Explain why boiling point of alkanes increase descending the homologous series 3. Write the equation of combustion of pentane 1. Write the general formula of alkenes. 2. Explain why boiling point of alkenes increase descending the homologous series 3. Write the equation of combustion of pentene

B. 2.0

1. Define the carbon compound. 2. What is an organic compound? 3. List 3 examples of organic compound and 3 examples of nonorganic compound.

Alkane Carbon compound

2.1 2.2


1. Define isomerism 2. Draw structural formula of pentane isomers 3. Draw structural formula of pentene isomers

1. Define polymer. 2. Explain the coagulation process of latex when it is added with formic acid. 2. Explain why vulcanized rubber is stronger than natural rubber.


Natural2.9 rubber
2.8 2.7

2.5 2.6
1. Define the homologous series of alcohol 2. Write the chemical equation of combustion of propanol. 3. Describe a laboratory experiment to produce alcohol

Fat Ester
1. Define saturated fat and unsaturated fat. 2. Stated the difference between saturated fat and unsaturated fat. 3. What is the type of reaction that changes unsaturated fat to saturated fat?


Carboxylic acid

1. Define an ester. 2. Write the general formula of ester. 3. Describe an experiment to produce etil methanoic.

1. Define carboxylic acid. 2. Write the equation involved in the production of carboxylic acid from propanol. 3. Explain why methanoic acid cannot conduct an electric


B. 2.1

Compound consists of carbon element.

Definition of carbon compound

Examples Combustion of organic compounds sebatian organik ORGANIC CARBON COMPOUND

Type of compound
Saturated hydrocarbon s Unsaturated hydrocarbon s

Inorganic compound


Organic carbon compound

Inorganic carbon compound

Compound consists of carbon and did not come from the organism (animal or plant)

Examples; .

Compounds contain carbon and come from organism (living thing). Animal or plants

Examples: Carbonate of metal, Bicarbonate of metal, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, etc

Examples: Glucose, Protein, Fat, etc


B. 2.2 n 1 2 3 4 5 10 Molecular formula CH4 C2H6 .. C4H10 Name methane ethane propane butane pentane 1. Non soluble in water 2. Non conductor of electricity .. . Structural formula Members Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Size of molecule Small Melting point Low Density Low State Gas Gas Gas Gas Liquid Liquid




General formula and group members

Physical properties and the changes

Explanation to the physical properties change.

General formula ALKANE

CnH2n +2 n = 1,2,3, Substitution reactions

Non complete combustion CH4 + O2 C2H6 + O2 + .. C + 2H2O . + .. . +

Chemical properties

Sun light CH4 + Cl2 CH3Cl + Cl2 CH2Cl2 + .. Cl2 CH3Cl + HCl CH2Cl2 + HCl .. +


Complete combustion. CH4 + O2 C2H6 + O2 C4H10 + O2 CO2 + 2H2O +

+ .

+ .

.. + .


n 1 2 3 4 5 10

Molecular Formula C2H4 C3H6 .. C5H10

Name ethene propene butene pentene hexene

Structural Formula

B. 2.3 Members Ethene Propene Butene Pentene Hexene Heptene Molecul ar size Melting point Low Density Low State Gas Gas Gas Gas Liquid Liquid




General formula
CnH2n n = 2.3,4,

General formula and group members Homologous Series

Physical properties and the changes

1. Non soluble in water 2. Non conductor of electricity

Explanation to the changes

ALKENE Chemical properties

Test to differentiate alkenes using bromine water /Acidic potassium magnate (VII). Experiment.

Polymerization of alkene

Reaction 1. Addition reaction (a) Addition of hydrogen (hydrogenation) (b) Addition of bromine (c) Addition of steam (d) Oxidation 2. Combustion Combustion in the air (oxygen) C2H4 C3H6 C2H4 C2H4 + H2



+ Br2 C3H6Br2 H3PO4, 300oC, 60 atm. + H2O C2H5OH acidic KMnO4 + H2O + [O] C2H6O2 2CO2 + 2H2O . +

C2H4 + 3O2 C4H8 +


B.2.4 Isomers of pentane Isomers of butene

Compound with the same molecular formula but different structural formula

Example of isomer Definition of isomerism ISOMERISM

IUPAC naming

IUPAC name of isomer

Instruction: 1. Specify the number of carbon atom in the longest continuous carbon chain. 2. Numbering carbon atoms with 1,2,3, starting near functional group /and branch.. 3. Branch names -CH3 , methyl -CH2CH3, ethyl

Isomer of an alkene (pentene)

Isomer of alkane (hexane)


B.2.5 Misuse of the alcohol and the effect Carbon compound contained hydroxyl functional group, OH
CH3OH C2H5OH C3H7OH C4H9OH methanol ethanol propanol butanol

Fuel, solvent, Medical aspect, Cosmetic aspect.. Definition of alcohol Usage of alcohol Chemical properties of alcohol
Chemical properties of the ethanol 1. Combustion C2H5OH + O2 CO2 + H2O 2. Oxidation 2[O] C2H5OH CH3COOH + H2O 3. Dehydration Alumina C2H5OH C2H4 + H2O

Formula Am:

Physical properties and the changes downward series.

CnH2n+ 1OH
n = 1,2,3,


Homologous series of alcohol ALCOHOL

Isomerism in the alcohol


The physical properties of the ethanol

Preparation of ethanol

In industry: Steam + ethene

Cotton + Ethanol

Alumina Ethene

Dissolve in water Dissolve in organic solvent, Neutral, Non-conductor of electricity

In laboratory: Fermentation Process. Experiment Diagram

Heat Water

Dehydration of ethanol CnH2n+1COOH n = 0,1,2, General formula

Acid that contain the functional group carboxyl, -COOH
B. 2.6


methanoic acid ethanoic acid propanoic acid butanoic acid pentanoic acid

O R -C - OH where R is an alkyl group

Homologous Series Definition


Oxidation of ethanol Acidic KMnO4 C2H5OH CH3COOH + H2O Conc. H2SO4

Ketertiban dalam siri homolog


Preparation of ethanoic acid

The usage of carboxylic acid Chemical properties of ethanoic acid

Physical properties of the carboxylic acid karboksilik


Ethanoic acid + base CH3COOH + NaOH

salt + water CH3COONa + H2O salt + water + carbon dioxide 2CH3COOK + H2O + CO2 salt + hydrogen (CH3COO)2Mg + H2 esther + water ethyl ethanoat + water CH3COOC2H5 + H2O

2. Ethanoic acid + carbonate 2CH3COOH + K2CO3 3. Ethanoic acid + metal 2CH3COOH + Mg 4. Ethanoic acid + alcohol Ethanoic + ethanol CH3COOH + C2H5OH

Ethanoic acid + ethanol + concentrated sulphuric acid ( after boiling)


m 2 1 3

Molecular formula

Name of ester

CnH2n+1COOCmH2m+1 n = 0,1,2, m = 1,2,3,

0 1 2

General formula of ester Molecular formula and the name of ester Homologous series of ester
A group of homologous series with functional group of carboxyl, -COO-




Ethyl ethanoate etanoat Physical properties

The ester daily life usage Natural source of the ester To predict the formation of the ester


B. 5.3

is an ester formed from glycerol (alcohol) and carboxylic acid. Definition

The fat molecule that built of only singular covalent bond between carbon atom in the molecules.

The fat molecules that built of multiple bond between carbon atom in molecules.


? fat and oil.

Saturated fat

Examples: Chickens fat, Cows fat, Etc.

definition Unsaturated fat



Type of fat
Fat Higher melting point (more than 20oC) Solid at room temperature Found in animals & human Oil Lower melting point (less than 20oC) Liquid at room temperature Found in plants & fish


Conversion of the unsaturated fat to the saturated fat.

The effect of fat on health Palm oil

Production of margerine: Hydrogenation process of unsaturated fat (palm oil) Ni - C = C - + H2 -C C H H single bond

The needed to use palm oil

Extraction process of palm oil in industry

Double bond

Taken too much saturated fat may cause: 1. Obesity 2. Hardness of an artery 3. High blood pressure 4. Heart disease 5. Stroke


B. 5.4 R O R O R O R O + nH2O n

n H2N - CH - C - OH + H - N - CH C - OH H Amino acid (monomer) amino acid (monomer)

N - CH C - N - CH C H H protein (polymer)


nC6H12O6 glucose (monomer)

(C6H10O5)n + nH2O starch (polymer)

Giant molecule with long chain (macromolecule) consist of repeated sequence small molecules (micro molecule) called monomer found in an animal & plant


Definition of natural polymer

Usage of natural rubber


Several polymer and its monomer

Natural rubber

nC5H8 Isoprene (monomer)

(C5H8)n natural rubber (polymer)

Comparing the properties of the natural and vulcanized rubber -- Explain

Preventing coagulation of latex Definition

Coagulating of the latex


Vulcanization of rubber.

Experiment: 1. Vulcanization of natural rubber. 2. Comparison of properties between natural and vulcanized rubber


Latex is a colloid. It is a mixture of rubber particles and water. A rubber particle is made up of negatively charged protein membrane surrounds many rubber molecules. The negative charges are preventing the collision between molecules. When an acid is added to the latex, H+ from an acid is neutralized the negative charge at protein membrane to allow the collision between the rubber particles. The protein membrane breaks, and then the rubber molecules are free to clump together. Latex has coagulated

A. Analysing Alkanes 1. 2.. The general formula of alkanes are : ______________________________ Complete the table by writing the name , molecular formula and structural formula of alkanes. Number of Carbon atom per molecule 1 2 3 Molecular formula Name Structural formula

3. 4.

All alkanes _______________________ in water because they are _____________________ compounds. As the number of carbon atoms increases, a) b) the size of the molecule _____________________________ the boiling and melting point ___________________ because _____________________ ________________________________________________________________________ c) the amount of soot produced ______________________ because ___________________ ________________________________________________________________________



Complete combustion of alkanes produces carbon dioxide and water only. a) b) C2H6 + O2 O2

C5H12 +


Alkanes undergo substitution reaction with halogrns in the presence of ultra violet light. CH4 + Cl2

B. Analysing Alkenes 1. 2 The general formula for alkenes is __________________________________________ Complete the table below by writing the names, molecular formula and structural formula . Number of Carbon atom per molecule 2 3

Molecular formula


Structural formula


Alkenes undergo addition reaction due to the presence of the double bonds. a) Hydrogenation : C3H6 + H2

Condition of reaction : _________________________________ b) Halogenation : C3H6 + Br2 C C=C-




Hydration :

Condition of reaction : ____________________________________ e) Oxidation :

4 . Polimerization : The process whereby small molecules are joined together to form large molecules. 5. Compare and contrast between alkanes and alkenes. Alkanes General Formula Bonding Combustion Physical properties Alkenes

Chemical properties


Flowchart for the reaction of ethene

Ethane-1,2-diol C2H4(OH)2 IV Poliethene VI Ethanoic acid CH3COOH


Ethanea C2H6

Ethene C2H4 X




Ethyl ethanoate CH3COOC2H5

III V 1,2 dibromoethane C2H4Br2 Write the balanced equation for the processes labeled above. I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X

Ethanol C2H5OH

Carbon dioxide and water


Flowchart for the reaction of ethene

Butane-1,2-diol C4H8(OH)2 IV Polibutene VI

Butanoic Acid C3H7COOH VIII IX Butyl butanoate C3H7COOC4H9


Butane C4H10

Butene C4H8 X


III V 1,2 dibromobutane C4H8Br2 Write the balanced equation for the processes labeled above.

Butanol C4H9OH

Carbon dioxide and water




Flowchart for the reaction of propene

propane-1,2-diol C3H6(OH)2 IV Polipropene VI

Propanoic acid C2H5COOH VIII IX Propyl propanoate C2H5COOC3H7


Propane C3H8

Propena C3H6 X


III V 1,2 dibromopropane C3H6Br2

Propanol C3H7OH

Carbon dioxide and water

Write the balanced equation for the processes labeled above. I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X



Objective Questions 1. What is the functional group for alcohol? A. Carboxylate B. C. Hydroxide D. Diol Hydroxyl


Which process is involved in changing propene into propanol ? A. Oxidation B. Hydration C. Fermentation D. Combustion The equation below representsthe reaction in the industrial preparation of ethanol. X + H2O CH3CH2OH What is X ? A. C. Ethene Glucose B. Ethane D. Maltose



What are the products of the reaction between propanoic acid and sodium hydroxide ? A. water and carbon dioxide B. Ethyl ethanoate and sodium ethanoate C. Water and ethyl ethanoate D. Sodium ethanoate and water. Which of the following is not true about the difference between saturated fats and unsaturated fats A B C D Characteristic Melting Point Source Cholesterol content Physical state at room temperature Saturated Fats Low Animals High Solid Unsaturated fats High Plants Low Liquid



Coagulation of latex takes place by adding . I formic acid II nitric acid III aqueous ammonia IV hydrochloric acid A. C. I and II only I , II and III only B. II and III only D. I , II , III and IV.


Vulcanised rubber is harder because.. A. the polymers of rubber are arranged orderly B. the polymers of rubber combine to form longer chains C. the polymers are held by sulphur linkage D. the polymers became neutral. Structural Questions 1. The figure below shows the set up of apparatus for the preparation of ethyl ethanoate from the reaction of etanol with ethanoic acid.


Liebig condenser

Water bath

Mixture of ethanol ethanoic acid , and concentrated sulphuric acid


a) Y

On the Liebig condenser above, mark X to indicate where water flows in and where water flows out. [ 1 mark]


Why is the mixture heated using a water bath ? _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

[2 marks] c) (i) Name the reaction for the preparation of ethyl ethanoate.

___________________________________________________________ [1 mark] (ii) Write the chemical equation for the reaction in c (i) __________________________________________________________ _ [1 mark]



The experiment is reapeated by replacing ethanol with propanol. (i) Name the ester formed . __________________________________________________________ ___ [1 mark] (ii) State one physical property of the ester. __________________________________________________________ ___ [1 mark]

.e) ethanoic

The flow chart below shows the conversin of etanol to ethene and etanol to acid.
Process I Process II

Based on the flow chart below shows the conversin of etanol of ethene and etanol to ethanoic acid. (i) Process I

[ 1 mark ] (ii) Process II

[ 1 mark ] (f) An alkane has a structural formula as shown below. H C H C H C H C


What is the name of the alkane?

[ 1 mark ]
2. Propanol reacts with acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution to produce an organic

compound X.
Propanol Acidified potassium Manganate (VII) Solution Organic Compound X a) (i) the organic compound X. Name the reaction for changing propanol to Organic Compound X

_______________________________________________________________ [1 mark] (ii) Name the organic compound X. _______________________________________________________________ b) (i) [1 mark] Name a reagent which can be used to derive oranic compound Y when propanol and X react with one another. ______________________________________________________________ [1 mark] (ii) Name the homologous series to which compound Y belongs to. _______________________________________________________________ [1 mark] (iii) Draw the structural formula of compound Y.


Figure 2.1 shows changes of a carbon compound involving a series of reactions. Propane +H2 Heat Alkene Heat Alumina Propanol

Potassium dichromate(IV) in acid Propanoic acid Figure 2.1 (a) (b) Draw the structural formulae of two propanol isomers. Name both isomers. The information below is regarding alkene Y: Carbon 85.7% Hydrogen 14.3% Relative molecular mass = 42 Relative atomic mass of H = 1 and C = 12

[ 4 marks ]

Based on the information of the alkene Y: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Determine the molecular formula Draw the structural formula Name the alkene Write the general formula for its homologous series [ 8 marks ]

(c )


Table 2.2 shows the results of a test to differentiate between alkene Y and propane. Procedure Observations


Bromine water is added to alkene Y Bromine water is added to propane Table 2.2

Brown colour is decolourized Brown colour remains

Explain why there is difference in these observations. [ 4 marks ] (ii) Table 2.3 shows results of latex coagulation. Procedure Propanoic acid is added to latex Latex is left under natural conditions Table 2.3 Explain why there is a difference in these observations. [ 4 marks ] Observations Latex coagulates immediately Latex coagulates slowly