Hyperthermia is an elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation.

Hyperthermia occurs when the body produces or absorbs moreheat than it can dissipate. When the elevated body temperatures are sufficiently high, hyperthermia is a medical emergency and requires immediate treatment to prevent disability and death. The most common causes are heat stroke and adverse reactions to drugs. Heat stroke is an acute condition of hyperthermia that is caused by prolonged exposure to excessive heat and/or humidity. The heat-regulating mechanisms of the body eventually become overwhelmed and unable to effectively deal with the heat, causing the body temperature to climb uncontrollably. Hyperthermia is a relatively rare side effect of many drugs, particularly those that affect the central nervous system. Malignant hyperthermia is a rare complication of some types of general anesthesia. Hyperthermia can be created artificially by drugs or medical devices. Hyperthermia therapy may be used to treat some kinds of cancer and other conditions, most commonly in conjunction with radiotherapy.[1] Hyperthermia differs from fever in the mechanism that causes the elevated body temperatures: a fever is caused by a change in the body's temperature set-point. The opposite of hyperthermia is hypothermia, which occurs when an organism's temperature drops below that required for normal metabolism. Hypothermia is caused by prolonged exposure to low temperatures and is also a medical emergency requiring immediate treatment.

yperthermia is defined as a temperature greater than 37.5±38.3 °C (100±101 °F), depending on the reference, that occurs without a change in the body's temperature set-point.[4][5] The normal human body temperature in a healthy adult can be as high as 37.7 °C (99.9 °F) in the late afternoon.[8] Hyperthermia requires an elevation from the temperature that would otherwise be expected. Such elevations range from mild to extreme; body temperatures above 40 °C (104 °F) can be lifethreatening. [edit]Signs

and symptoms

Hot, dry skin is a typical sign of hyperthermia.[8] The skin may become red and hot as blood vessels dilate in an attempt to increase heat dissipation, sometimes leading to swollen lips. An inability to cool the body through perspiration causes the skin to feel dry. Other signs and symptoms vary depending on the cause. The dehydration associated with heat stroke can produce nausea, vomiting, headaches, and low blood pressure. This can lead tofainting or dizziness, especially if the person stands suddenly.

sweating. the body's tolerance for the excessive environmental temperatures can be too limited to cope with the heat.[8] Serotonin syndrome often presents following exposure to multiple drugs. monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). and diuretics. can cause hyperthermia. Some victims. Significant physical exertion on a very hot day can generate heat beyond a healthy body's ability to cool itself. In severe cases. such as anticholingeric drugs.[12] PCP. [edit]Drugs Some drugs cause excessive internal heat production. such as tremor in serotonin syndrome and "lead-pipe" muscle rigidity in neuroleptic malignant syndrome. and may seem intoxicated. and tricyclic antidepressants. and other heat-loss mechanisms.[8] In this situation.[10]These syndromes are differentiated by the other associated symptoms. Heart rate and respiration rate will increase (tachycardia and tachypnea) as blood pressure drops and the heart attempts to supply enough oxygen to the body. LSD. such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). because the heat and humidity of the environment reduces the efficiency of the body's normal [8] cooling mechanisms. resulting in a pale or bluish skin color in advanced cases of heat stroke. can exacerbate the condition. Non- exertional heat stroke is typically precipitated by medications that reduce vasodilation. [8]  Many illicit drugs. may have seizures.  [8] Many psychotropic medications. [8]  Malignant hyperthermia is a rare reaction to common anesthetic agents (such as halothane) or a reaction to the paralytic agent succinylcholine. as body organs begin to fail. and MDMA can produce hyperthermia as an adverse effect. especially young children. temperatures can exceed 40 °C (104 °F). such as drinking too little water. [edit]Differential [edit]Heat diagnosis stroke [8] [9] Heat stroke is due to an environmental exposure to heat. antihistamines. even while resting. unconsciousness and coma will result. resulting in an abnormally high body temperature. and can be fatal. Heat stroke may be exertional or non-exertional. including amphetamines. Eventually. [8] [edit]Personal protective equipment . depending on whether the person has been exercising in the heat.[8] The rate of drug-induced hyperthermia is higher where use of these drugs is higher. neuroleptic malignant syndrome is an uncommon reaction to neuroleptic agents. Malignant hyperthermia is a genetic condition. The decrease in blood pressure can then cause blood vessels to contract.[11] cocaine. Other factors.In the case of severe heat stroke. Similarly. even in normal temperature environments. the person may become confused or hostile.

body armor and bomb suits. fire. and fever. and direct exposure to the sun. through the action of the pre-optic region of the anterior hypothalamus. small arms and even Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). sweating) becomes ineffective. due to an increase in thermal resistance and decrease in vapor permeability. hypothermia. the military and first responders must wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to protect themselves from hazardous threats such as chemical agents. status epilepticus. [edit]Other Other rare causes of hyperthermia may cause death such as a pheochromocytoma (a tumor on the adrenal gland) which increased heat production. This has caused what was the normal body temperature (in blue) to be considered hypothermic. Depending on its design. For example. PPE often µencapsulates¶ the wearer from a threat and creates what is known as a microclimate. while the hypothermic temperature is shown in blue. This PPE can include a range of hazmat suits. in response to . Fever: Characterized on the right: Normal body temperature is shown in green.. high ambient temperatures and humidity levels. gases. and other kinds of damage to the hypothalamus can also cause hyperthermia. Hypothermia: Characterized in the center: Normal body temperature is shown in green.[8] [edit]Pathophysiology A summary of the differences between hyperthermia. the body¶s natural method of thermoregulation (i. The net effect is that protection from one or more environmental threats inadvertently brings on the threat of heat stress. while the hyperthermic temperature is shown in red. This is compounded by increased work rates. hyperthermia can be conceptualized as an increase above the thermoregulatory set-point. A fever occurs when the body sets the core temperature to a higher temperature. among many other forms.[8] Damage to the central nervous system. Normal body temperature (thermoregulatory set-point) is shown in green. It reads "New Normal" because the thermoregulatory set-point has risen.People working in industry. As a person performs physical work.e. As can be seen. Hyperthermia: Characterized on the left. firefighting turnout gear. such as from a brain hemorrhage. hypothermia can be conceptualized as a decrease below the thermoregulatory set-point. As can be seen.

hot environments or wearing protective equipment it can be prevented or mitigated by taking frequent rest breaks. a personal cooling system is required as a matter of health and safety. Due to the broad variety of operating conditions.a bacterial or viral infection. the body will raise its temperature. even if the temperature does not return entirely to normal. may be caused by barrier dysfunction and subsequent endotoxemia. hyperthermia occurs when the body temperature rises without a change in the heat control centers. and conformance with health & safety regulations. staying hydrated and carefully monitoring body temperature. Law . In contrast.[8] Most commonly this means that the elevated temperature has appeared in a person that was working in a hot. humid environment (heat stroke) or that was taking a drug for which hyperthermia is a known side effect (drug-induced hyperthermia). The presence of other signs and symptoms related to hyperthermia syndromes. which in turn may cause multiorgan dysfunction. diarrhea. such as the rate and duration of cooling.[8] [edit]Prevention & Mitigation In cases where heat stress is caused by physical exertion. and gastrointestinal bleeding. access to power. Ultraendurance athletes have been found to have significantly increased plasma endotoxin levels. then hyperthermia is excluded. much like raising the temperature setting on a thermostat. active liquid systems operate on the basis of chilling water and circulating it through a garment that cools the skin surface area that it covers through conduction. For example. Some of the gastrointestinal symptoms of acute exertional heat stroke. monkeys treated with oral antibiotics prior to induction of heat stroke do not become endotoxemic. and the absence of signs and symptoms more commonly related to infection-related fevers. are also considered in making the diagnosis. A variety of active or passive technologies personal cooling systems exist which can be categorized by their power sources and whether they are man or vehicle-mounted. such as the extrapyramidal symptoms that are characteristic of neuroleptic malginant syndrome. such as vomiting. However. a personal cooling system must meet specific requirements. Endotoxin stimulates many inflammatory cytokines. in situations demanding prolonged exposure to a hot environment or wearing protective equipment. If fever-reducing drugs lower the body temperature. Furthermore. This type of system has proven successful in certain Military. need for physical mobility and autonomy. [13] [edit]Diagnosis approach Hyperthermia is generally diagnosed in the presence of an unexpectedly high body temperature and a history that suggests hyperthermia instead of a fever.

such as sponging the head. Requirements for Hazmat teams. Bomb disposal technicians wearing bomb suits to protect against an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) use a small. remove heat from the body and thereby speed the body's return to normal temperatures. In a hospital. as the underlying cause must be corrected. Sitting in a bathtub of tepid or cool water (immersion method) can remove a significant amount of heat in a relatively short period of time. Drinking water and turning a fan or dehumidifying air conditioningunit on the affected person may improve the effectiveness of the body's evaporative cooling mechanisms (sweating). and even hemodialysisto cool the blood. including intravenous hydration.[8] When the body temperature is significantly elevated. or if the affected person is unconscious or showing signs of confusion. Mild hyperthemia caused by exertion on a hot day might be adequately treated through self-care measures. and occasionally by other drugs to counteract them.[8] Passive cooling techniques. However.Enforcement and Industrial applications.[14] No superior cooling method found for nonexertional heat stroke. Active cooling methods. . as it causes vasoconstriction in the skin and thereby prevents heat from escaping the body core. such as resting in a cool. studies have shown that although there are practical limitations. worn over their torso to maintain their core temperature at safe levels. the medical community and workers in heavyindustry will vary further. gastric lavage with iced saline. cool water immersion is the most effective cooling technique and the biggest predictor of outcome is degree and duration of hyperthermia. Hyperthermia that results from drug exposures is frequently treated by cessation of that drug. immersion in very cold water is counterproductive. shady area and removing clothing can be applied immediately. mechanical methods of cooling are used to remove heat from the body and to restore the body's ability to regulate its own temperatures. [15] When the body temperature reaches about 40 C. usually a vest. neck. and trunk with cool water. In exertional heat stroke. Feverreducing drugs such as paracetamol and aspirin have no value in treating hyperthermia. such as drinking water and resting in a cool place. By contrast. ice-based chiller unit strapped to their leg with a Liquid Circulating Garment. more aggressive cooling measures are available. hyperthermia is considered a medical emergency that requires treatment in a proper medical facility.[8] [edit]Epidemiology The frequency of environmental hyperthermia can vary significantly from year to year depending on factors such as heat waves. soldiers traveling in combat vehicles can face microclimate temperatures in excesss of 150 degrees Fahrenheit and require a multiple-user vehicle-powered cooling system with rapid connection capabilities. [edit]Treatment Treatment for hyperthermia depends on its cause.

Today.the carefully controlled use of heat for medical purposes. Very high temperatures can kill cancer cells outright. Here. and hyperthermia is being studied for use against many types of cancer. This is why hyperthermia must be carefully controlled and should be done by doctors with experience in the procedure. This is commonly referred to as local hyperthermiaor thermal ablation. but they also can injure or kill normal cells and tissues. newer tools allow better control and more precise delivery of heat. How can hyperthermia be used to treat cancer? There are 2 main ways in which hyperthermia can be used:  Very high temperatures can be used to destroy a small area of cells. . The idea of using heat to treat cancer has been around for some time. High body temperatures are often caused by illness such as fever or heat stroke. These changes can make the cells more likely to be affected by radiation therapy or chemotherapy. And it was hard to maintain the right temperature in the right area while limiting the effects on other parts of the body.Hyperthermia Hyperthermia in general means a body temperature that is higher than normal. we will focus on how heat is used to treat cancer. When cells in the body are exposed to higher than normal temperatures. such as a tumor. But hyperthermia can also refer to heat treatment -. but early attempts to treat cancer with heat had mixed results. changes take place inside the cells.

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