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formula of a soap : RCOO Na / RCOO K • R is an alkyl group which contain 12 to 18 carbon atoms. The history of soap manufacturing.
Purifying oils is recorded on Hebrew Tables around 4000 B.C. Ash + Lime – Caustic potash Caustic Potash + fats – soap
Babylonians made soap around 2800 B.C.
Process of making soap ashes or sodium carbonate from common salt is patented by Nicholas Leblane (French).
Michel Chevreul (French) discovered animal fats are cmposed of fatty acids and glycerol ( Causes rapid development of soap & candle.)
Sodium carbonate Na CO is produced cheaply & used for glass making , soaps and detergent.
After 20 years, Ernest Solvay ( Belgian Chemist) developed Solvay process.
Later on, vegetables oil is used to replace animal fats.
Solvay Process - Carbon dioxide ( obtained from heating CaCo ) is passed into concentrated NaCl solution which is saturated with ammonia . NaCl +NH +H O + CO – Na HCO +NH Cl - NaHCO is then heated to obtain soda. 2NaHCO – Na CO +H O +CO .
C H COONa 3) Sodium stearate. It is also the alkaline hydrolysis of esters using alkaline solutions.III) Preparation of Soap by Saponification Saponification is a process whereby the soaps are prepared by hydrolyzing fats or oils under alkaline conditions. ♦ Production of soap can be precipitated by adding common salt to the reaction mixture in order to reduce the solubility of soap in water. C H COONa ♦ To enhance the soap’s marketability.additives are used such as perfume. CH COOC H CHCOOC H CH COOC H (glyceryl tristearate) + 3 NaOH (concentrated alkali) 3C H COONa ( sodium stearate) Soap + CH OH CHOH CH OH (glycerol) Example of soap. colouring matter and antiseptic.tallow from cow) ( Vegetable oils – palm oil or olive oil) For example.Glyceryl tristearates is a naturally occuring esters found in fats or oils. 1) sodium palmitate. C H COONa 2) Sodium oleate. ♦ Properties of soap depends on a) type of alkali used for saponification b) type of animal fats or vegetable oils used 2 . . Fats/ Vegetable oils + concentrated alkalis – soap + glycerol (Fats.
is hydrophilic ( like to dissolves water) b) the ‘Tail’ 1. positively charged 2. contains the – C – O – ion 3.S – O Na R SO 3 . Head of the detergent particle contains a negatively charged ions. • The active substances in soap is carboxylate ions which consists two parts: a) the ‘ Head’ 1. a) Anionic Detergent. milder than sodium soap which can be used for bathing. IV) Structure of soap molecule. negatively charged 2. It is a kind of petrochemicals. is hydrophobic ( do not like to dissolves water) I )Definition of Detergent Detergent is a synthetic cleasing agents which is made from hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum fraction. Example : R – O – SO Na Divide into two types: Sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate ( detergent molecule with a benzene ring) R- .♦ Potassium soap are softer. • When soap is dissolved in water. it will dissociate and produce sodium ions and carboxylate ions. There are 3 types of detergent which depends on the charge on detergent ion. is a long hydrocarbon chain 3.
Sodium alkyl sulphate ( without a benzene ring) R – OSO b) Cationic Detergent Head of the detergent particle contains a positively charged ion. . Example : R – N(CH ) Br c) Non.can be prepared from alcohols with chain Sodium alkylbenzene sulphonates Starting materials .Step 1: Reaction with Concentrated sulphuric acid Step 2 : Sulphonation ( introduction of the sulphonic Step 2 : Neutralisation with sodium hydroxide solution acid group to an organic molrcule to form sulphonic acid) 4 . obtained from the cracking of petroleum.long chain alkene. RCH = CH . Step 1 : Alkylation ( introduction of the alkyl group to an organic molecule) lengths of 12 to 18 carbon atoms.ionic detergent Example : R –O –CH CH OH II) Preparation of Detergent Sodium alkyl sulphate .
hydrophilic ( like water) b) the ‘Tail’ ( long hydrocarbon chain) 1. 5 .ol. hydrophobic ( hates water) The cleansing action of soap and detergent The cleansing action of soaps and detergent results from • the ability to lower the surface tension of water.1. • to emulsify oil/ grease and • to hold them in suspension in water This can be occurred due to their chemical bonding and the structure. 1. . CH (CH ) CH OH Detergent prepared from dodecan – 1 – ol is called sodium dodecyl sulphate / sodium lauryl sulphate Sodium alkylbenzene sulphonates Step 3 : Neutralisation III) The Structure of Detergent Molecule • When a detergent is dissolved in water.Sodium alkyl sulphate Example : Dodecan . Oil cannot be washed away from clothing with water only as it is a covalent molecule which is insoluble in water. sodium soap dissolves in water to form soap (-ions) and sodium (+ions). • It consists of two parts: a) the ‘ Head’ (sulphate group.OSO / sulphonate group . negatively charged 2. it dissociates to form sodium ions and detergent ions. neutral 2.SO) 1.
• A piece of cloth is stained with grease and then dipped into soap/ detergent water. carboxylate group (hydrophilic) soluble in water. 4. The droplets is rinsed and washed away and leave the surface clean. IV) Additives in detergents Additives in detergent is used to increase their cleaning power and make the detergent more attractive and saleable. the hydrocarbon (hydrophobic)soluble in oil/ grease. These droplets are suspended in water to form emulsion.2. Process of the cleaning action of soap and detergent. 6 . the surface of cloth is wetted thouroughly. • Thus. • Through this. • The droplets do not coagulate and redeposit on the surface of the cloth due to the repulsion between the negative charges on th surface. the grease begins to be lifted off the surface when the water is agitated slightly. the wetting ability of water increases. 3. Anion consists of a long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxylate group on one end. • The hydrophobic part of the soap/ detergent anion dissolve in grease while the hydrophilic part is attracted to water molecule. • Mechanical agitation during scrubbing helps the process of emulsfication occurs whereby the grease is broken into small droplets. • Because of the forces of attraction between water molecules and negatively-charged heads.
To add to the bulk of the detergent and enable to pour it at ease.( water does not contain Mg & Ca ions) 2. To ensure that the detergent in powdered form is always in dry condition. cellulases and lipases Sodium perborate Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) Whitening agents V) The effectiveness of soaps and detergents as cleansing agents Cleansing agents Soap Advantages 1. Not effective in acid water. To prevent dirt particles removed from redepositing onto cleaned fabrics. 3.Additives Builders Function To enhance the cleaning efficiency of detergent by softening the water. Disadvantages 1. To increase the pH value of water. very effective in soft water to wash clothes. Example Sodium tripolyphosphate Drying agents Sodium sulphate Sodium silicate Fragrances Foam control agents Optical whitener Suspension agents Biological enzymes Fluorescent dyes Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) Amylases .( exist as molecules & do not have hydrophilic ends) . To remove protein stains such as blood. To make the fabrics whiter and more beautiful.proteases. Ineffective in hard water. To add brightness and whiteness to white fabrics. To break down fat and protein molecules in food stains. To add fragrance to both detergent anf fabrics.H ion from rainwater (acid) will react 7 . To control foaming in detergent. To convert stains into colourless substances. A grey scum (Magnesium stearate & calcium stearate) will be produced in hard water. 2. Do not cause pollution as soaps are made from fats and oils and can be decomposed by the action of bacteria.
( phosphates in detergents) 4. effective in soft water and hard water. 3.structure of hydrocarbon chain can be modified to produce detergent. Example. non-biodegradable 2. ( magnesium salt and calcium salts are formed aand soluble in water) ( scum is not formed) 1.As a result. 5. Synthetic cleansing agents .with soap ions to produce carboxylic acid molecules of large molecular size that are insoluble in water. water pollution occurs. 3. Decrease in oxygen content in water and the aquatic lives are given the harm. Detergent 1. 2. Additives (sodium hypochlorite ) releases chlorine gas that is highly toxic and kills aquatic life. effective in acidic water as H ions is not combine with detergent ions. fish and other aquatic lives face the death. a lot of foam will be produced in water that prevent oxygen from dissolving in water. 8 .
To prevent thr growth of yeast. taste or texture iii) prevent growth of microorganisms iv) prevent oxidation of fats and oils by oxygen in air v) restore the colour of food destroyed during food processing. This makes the food unpalatable. cheese and dried fish.added to food to i) pevent oxidation that causes rancid fats and brown foods ii) to slow down the oxidation process. sausage.B) FOOD ADDITIVES . To prevent food poisoning in canned food. . Provides acidic condition that inhibits the growth of microorganisms. . Maintain the colour and freshness of vegetables. To preserve sauces.salts. jams and margarine. .Definition of Food Additives – are natural or synthetic substance which are added to food to: i) prevent spoilage ii) improve its appaerance . Used as antioxidants to prevent browning in fuits. To preserve the meat. Preservatives – substance added to food to slow down and prevent the growth of microorganisms in order to kepp the lasts longer.Type of Food Additives and Their Functions 1. Preservatives Salt sugar Vinegar Sodium nitrite NaNO Sodium nitrate NaNO Molecular Formula Uses Drwas water out of the cells of microorganisms Retards the growth of microorganisms.food containing fats or oils are oxidised and become rancid when exposed to air. 9 . Benzoic acid Sodium benzoate Sulphur dioxide Sodium sulphate C H COOH C H COONa SO Na SO 2. fruit juice. Antioxidants. vinegar and sugar have been used for centuries to preserve food. Th rancid products are volatile organic compounds with 4 odours. To make the meat look fresh. To maintain the natural colour of meat.
There are 2 types of flavourings : i) Flavour enchancers . It is added to savoury prepared and processed . .canned and dry soups . ii) artificial sweeteners Aspartame • Aspartame is a white .Exp : monosodium glutamate (MSG) MSG is a sodium salt of glutamic acid.Flavor enchancers are chemicals that are added to food to bring out the flavours/ to enhance the tastes of food. Inhibits the formation of carcinogeic nitrosamines. To stop fats from turning rancid. Vitamin E 3.spice mixes . Flavourings . C H COOH) Antioxidants Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) Sodium citrate Vitamin C Uses To retard rancidity in oils.( exp : butanoic acid. . MSG is not allowed in baby foods and less used for the adults.Function : to improve the taste of food restore taste loss due to processing. Stimulates the immune systems. It exists as solid fine white crystal. odourless powder.salad dressings . Preserve the colour of friut juice. Neutralizes free radical compounds before the cell membrane are damaged.frozen foods .meat and fish based products In order to protect the public health. • It is used in a variety of foodstuffs. Protects against chromosome breakage. . Reduce the risk of heart diseases and cancer.Flavourings are the largest group of food additives. 10 . approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar.
pectin Used in jams and jellies. CH COOC H – give banana flavour and is cheaper to use. . butter.They are natural carbohydrates. ice cream and salad cream. • Exp : diet drinks and soft drinks . jelly and wine. Dyes . Acacia gum To thicken chewing gum. .is used to add or restore the colour in food in order to • enhance its visual appeal • match consumer expectations 11 . 6. Gelatine To thicken yogurt. 4. mono. Can be considered as a beneficial and dietary fibre. Thickeners . .and di-glycerides of fatty acids. 5.exp : lecithin. Is not digested.They absorb water and thicken the liquid in food to produce a jelly-like structure. . .• It is stable when dry or frozen but breaks down and loses its sweetness over a time when stored in liquids at temperature above 30.Exp: Thickeners Explanation Modified starch Used in instant soups and puddings.Many of compounds are used to produce artificial flavours belong to the homologous series of esters.are chemicals that are added to food to thicken the liquid and to prevent the food from liquefying. .a substance which helps to prevent on emulsion ( oil /water droplets suspended in water/oil droplets) from separating out. o Exp :pentyl ethanoate. Forms a firm jel when there is sufficient sugar in a mixture.Synthetic Essences o contain chemicals which are made to resemble natural flavour.It is used in margarine.chemicals that are added to food to give the colour so as to improve the appearance of food. . Stabilizers .
less expensive and have brighter colours than natural food dyes. orange. sweets and apricot jam.artificial food dyes are oftenly used as they are more uniform. Cancer Caused by carcinogens(sodium nitrite) Nitrite reacts with amines to produce nitrosamine( cause cancer) Brain damage Caused by excessive intake of nitrites.5). BHA and BHT . Advantages To improve nutritional value Medical reasons 12 . custard powders. Cause an diseases named ‘ Chinese restaurant syndrome’ (giddiness. Effects Explanation Allergy Caused by Sodium sulphite.orang drinks. yellow) . * found in red grapes. The Rationale for Using Food Additives To prevent food spoilage. . Effect of Food Additives on Health. . iii) triphenyl compounds( blue-brilliant blue FCF. red cabbage sweet potatoes * have antioxidants properties. green) . Hyperactivity Caused by tartrazine (additives) Difficul to sleep or relax and felt restles.main trend in colour of food towards the use of natural colours is anthocyanin. MSG and food dyes( yellow No.many food dyes are i) azo compounds ( red . chest pain and difficulty in breathing) Cause ‘blue baby’ diseases occuring on babies which iits synptoms is lacking of oxygen and the presence of sodium nitrate /nitrite.• give colour to food that have no colour.
. • Exp : garlic capsules combined with diabetes medication can cause a sudden decrease in blood sugar 13 .it is classified as i) traditional medicine • is a medicine derived from natural resources without being processed chemically. • Can be obtained from plants and animals.medicine is a substance used to prevent or cure diseases or to reduce pain and suffering due to illness. C) MEDICINE . • Any medicinal plant containing alkaloid is potentially toxic to liver.Life without food additives Food spoilage always occur Diseases will occur oftenly Malnutrition will occur particularly. • Some of it interacts with medications resulting in serious side reactions.
backache . Acidic. hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen elements. pills. Paracetamol neutral o To relieve mild to moderate pain (headache. Uesd in headache tablets and cough medicine Is synthesized from morphine 15 . Contains 2 functional o Acts as an ♦ Cause allergy groups(carboxylic anticoagulant – reactions.ii) Modern Medicine they usually contain a mixture of active ingredientsprepared in different forms such as capsules. period pains) o Does not irritate the stomach to bleed. blood disorders and acute inflammation of the pancreas. can be classified as follows based on their sffect on the human body : a) analgesics (painkillers) medicines that relieve pain without causing numbness or affecting consciousness. ♦ Cause liver damage. ♦ Cause bleeding in the (IUPAC name) o Treat arthritis stomach. Analgesics Uses Side effect Aspirin o Reduce fever ♦ Cause brain and liver o Relieve headaches. drownsiness Codeine Is an organic compounds that contains carbon. ♦ Causes skin rashes.muscle and joint pain. Pain relief and antidamage of illedinflammatory action. asthmatic attacks. solution and suspensions. ♦ Cause addiction. acid/ester) prevent clotting blood. skin rashes. nausea. muscle aches and joint Acetyl salicylic acid aches. o Reduce the risk of heart attack and strokes. depression. children. Exp: Alka-Seltzer (used as antacid) contains sodium bicarbonate (NaHCo ). citric acid and aspirin to neutralises the excess stomach acid.
Is a nacortic drugs. Is a strong analgesics. 16 .
naturally occuring stimulant found in coffee.vomitng. Psychotherapeutic medicines Stimulants A medicine which activates the level of arousal and alertness of the central nervous system to reduce fatigue and elevate moon in most people. • Produced by soil and and some forms dizziness. A group of dugs for treating mental / emotional ilness. tea and cola drinks. syphilis notatum people who and tuberculosis. o Treat tuberculosis. ♦ Cause • Streptomycin whooping cough nausea. ii) caffeine weak. rashes bacteris at the genus of pneumonia. Uses Side effects i) Adrenaline Cause addiction A need in demanding energetic activities. 17 . ♦ Cause daeth for mould penicillium gonorrhoea. Broken down by acid in the stomach. c) psychotherapeutic medicines. iii) Amphetamines Strong synthetic stimulants Increase alertness & physical ability. Antibiotics Uses Side effects Penicillin o Treat diseases ♦ Cause allergic caused by bacteria Derived from the reactions such as oneumonia. allergiuc at it. Will not cure the infection caused by viruses such as cold and flu. streptomyces ♦ Loss of hearing following long term use. and fever.b) antibiotics Cemicals that destroy / prevent the growth of infected microorganisms. Obtained from bacteria/fungi. Increase the heart *repiration rates & blood pressure.
Do not take medicine prescribed for someone else . Use biodegradable detergents . urimary retention. 18 . Food additives Be wise when we consume the food with food additives.Antidepressants Medicine used primarily in the treatment of depression. To treat psychiatrie illness such as Cause mild. Antipsychotic i) chlorpromazine ii) haloperidol iii) clozapine i) Barbituarates Cause sleep (high dose) To sedate. D) THE EXISTENCE OF CHEMICALS The chemicals for consumers such as soap.the examples of drugs are ectasy and ice. sleeplessness. Medicines No self medication . tremor and less rrest as well as sedation(more clmer/sleepy) ! Drug Abuse – taking drugs excessively and without a doctor’s prescription. habit forming Cause death. i) tranquilizers to clam down a person reduce tension & anxiety cause drowsiness. detergents . Avoid foods with additives which you are sensitive to . calm and relax individual Cause addiction and in low doses. respiratory difficulties. food additives and medicine play an important role in our life . coma and death if overdose. Avoid consuming too much salt and sugar . dry mouth. they can contribute negative effects to our health and the environment if these chemicals are not used wisely . Some proper management of these chemicals :Detergents Wear gloves when working with strong detergents to protect your hands . Use appropriate amounts of detergents. schizophrenia (loses touch with reality) blurred vision. constipation. poor coordination and light headedness. However. Avoid rewarding children with junk food .
Scientists must patient and persevere for their research and development to produce new chemicals in future . 19 . Keep away from children . Intensive scientific research must be carried out to produce new substances and this takes more time . Do not overdose . Check for expiry date . Follow your doctor’s instruction for taking medicine .
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