Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution

Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution

For further information to each chapter:

High Voltage
Design of Air-insulated Outdoor Substations Fax.: ++49-9131-73 18 58 Gas-insulated Swichgear for Substations Fax.: ++49-9131-73 46 62 Gas-insulated Transmission Lines Fax.: ++49-9131-734490 Circuit Breakers for 72 kV up to 800 kV Fax.: ++49-3 03 86-2 58 67 High-voltage Direct Current Transmission Fax.: ++49-9131-73 35 66 Power Compensation in Transmission Systems Fax.: ++49-9131-73 45 54 Power Compensation in Distribution Systems Fax.: ++49-9131-73 13 74 Surge Arresters Fax.: ++49-3 03 86-2 67 21 Worldwide Service for High- and Mediumvoltage Switchgear and Substations Fax.: ++49-9131-73 44 49

Medium Voltage
Primary Distribution Fax.: ++49-9131-73 46 39 Containerized Switchgear Fax.: ++49-68 94-89 12 94 Secondary Distribution Fax.: ++49-9131-73 46 36

Your local representative:

Medium Voltage Devices Fax.: ++49-9131-73 46 54

Low Voltage
SIVACON Fax.: ++49-3 41-4 47 04 00

Transformers
Distribution Transformers Fax.: ++49-70 21-50 85 48 Power Transformers Fax.: ++49-9 11-4 34 2147

Power Cables
Low- and Medium-Voltage Cables Fax.: ++49-9131-73 24 55 and ++49-9131-7310 92 High- and Extra High Cables Fax.: ++49-9131-73 47 44 Accessories for Low- and Medium-Voltage Cables Fax.: ++49-23 31-35 7118 Accessories for High-Voltage Cables Fax.: ++49-23 31-35 71 18

Protection and Substation Control
Fax.: ++49-911-4 33-85 89

Power Systems Control Distributed by: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Power Transmission and Distribution Group International Business Development, Dept. EV IBD P.O. Box 3220 D-91050 Erlangen Phone: ++49 - 9131-73 45 40 Fax: ++49-9131-73 45 42 Power Transmission and Distribution group online: http://www.siemens.ev.de
SCADA/EMS/DMS Fax.: ++49-9 11-4 33-81 22 Control Room Technology Fax.: ++49-911-433-8183 Power Network Telecommunication Fax.: ++49-89-722-2 44 53 or ++49-89-7 22-4 1982

Energy Metering
Fax.: ++49-9 11-4 33-80 37

Overhead Power Lines
Fax.: ++49-9131-72 95 93

System Planning
Fax.: ++49-9131-73 44 45

High-Voltage Power Transmission Systems
Fax.: ++49-9131-734672

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

Contents

Foreword General Introduction

High Voltage

Medium Voltage

Low Voltage

Transformers

Power Cables

Protection and Substation Control

Power Systems Control

Energy Metering

Overhead Power Lines

System Planning

High-Voltage Power Transmission Systems Annex: Conversion Factors and Tables Supplement: Facts and Figures Adress Index of Local Siemens Partners

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

Quality and Environmental Policy

Quality – Our first priority Transmission and distribution equipment from Siemens means worldwide activities in engineering, design, development, manufacturing and service. The Power Transmission and Distribution Group of Siemens AG, with all of its divisions and relevant locations, has been awarded and maintains certification to DIN/ISO 9001 (EN 29001). Certified quality Siemens Quality Management System gives our customers confidence in the quality of Siemens products and services. Certified to be in compliance with DIN/ISO 9001 (EN 29001), it is the registered proof of our reliabilty.

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

Foreword by the Executive Management

Siemens AG is one of the world’s leading international electrical and electronics companies. With 370 000 employees in more than 190 countries worldwide, the company is divided into various groups. The Power Transmission and Distribution Group of Siemens with 22 500 employees around the world plans, develops, designs, manufactures and markets products, systems and complete turn-key electrical infrastructure installations. These involve high-voltage and HVDC, medium-voltage and lowvoltage components and systems, switchyards, switchgear and switchboards, transformers, cables, telecontrol systems and protection relays, network and substation control, powerfactor correction and load-flow management system. Also included are the required software, application engineering and technical services. The group owns a growing number of engineering and manufacturing facilities. Presently we account for 57 plants and more than 70 joint ventures in more than 100 countries throughout the world. All plants are, or are in the process of being certified to ISO 9000/9001 practices. This is of significant benefit for our customers. Our local manufacturing capability makes us strong in global sourcing, since we manufacture products to IEC as well as ANSI/NEMA standards in plants at various locations around the world.

This Power Engineering Guide is devised as an aid to electrical engineers who are engaged in the planning and specifying of electrical power generation, transmission, distribution, control, and utilization systems. Care has been taken to include the most important application, performance, physical and shipping data of the equipment listed in the guide which is needed to perform preliminary layout and engineering tasks for industrial- and utility-type installations. The equipment listed in this guide is designed, rated, manufactured and tested in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions (IEC) recommendations. However, a number of standardized equipment items in this guide are designed to take other national standards into account besides the above codes, and can be rated and tested to ANSI/ NEMA, BS, CSA, etc. On top of that, we manufacture a comprehensive range of transmission and distribution equipment specifically to ANSI/NEMA codes and regulations. Two thirds of our product range is less than five years old. For our customers this means energy efficiency, environmental compatibility, reliability and reduced life cycle cost. For details, please see the individual product listings or inquire. Whenever you need additional information to select suitable products from this guide, or when questions about their application arise, simply call your local Siemens office.

Siemens Power Transmission and Distribution Group is capable of providing everything you would expect from an electrical engineering company with a global reach. The Power Transmission and Distribution Group is prepared and competent, to perform all tasks and activities involving transmission and distribution of electrical energy. Siemens Power Transmission and Distribution Group is active worldwide in the field of power systems and components, protection, management and communication systems (details shown in supplement “Facts and Figures“). Siemens’ service includes the setting up of complete turnkey installations, offers advice, planning, operation and training and provides expertise and commitment as the complexity of this task requires. Backed by the experience of worldwide projects, Siemens can always offer its customers the optimum cost-effective concept individually tailored to their needs. We are there – wherever and whenever you need us – to help you build plants better, cheaper and faster.

Klaus Voges Vice President Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Power Transmission and Distribution

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

General Introduction – Transmission and Distribution

The sum of experience for integral solutions The world’s population is on the increase and the demand for electrical energy in the developing and newly industrializing nations is growing rapidly. Safe, reliable and environmentally sustainable power transmission and distribution is therefore one of the great challenges of our time. Siemens is making an important contribution towards solving this task, with futureoriented technologies for the construction, modernization and expansion of power systems at all voltage levels. The Siemens Power Engineering Guide Transmission and Distribution gives a short summary of the activities and products of the Power Transmission and Distribution Group. Transmission and distribution networks are the link between power generation and the consumers, whose requirements for electrical energy determine the actual generation. Industry, trade and commerce as well as public services (transportation and communication systems including data processing), not to mention the private sector (households), are highly dependent upon a reliable and adequate energy supply of high quality at utmost economical conditions. These are the basic conditions for installation and operation of transmission and distribution systems. Transmission The transmission of electrical energy from the generating plants, which are located under the major constraints of primary energy supply, cooling facilities and environmental impact, to the load centers, whose locations are dictated by high-density urban or industrial areas, requires a correspondingly extensive transmission system. These mostly interconnected systems, e.g. up to 550 kV, balance the daily and seasonal differences between local available generating capacity and load requirements and transport the energy to the individual regions of demand. For long-distances and/or high-capacity transmission, extra-high-voltage levels up to 800 kV or DC transmission systems are in use. In interconnected transmission systems, more and more substations for the subtransmission systems with high-voltage levels up to 145 kV are needed as close as possible to the densely populated areas, feeding the regional supply of urban or industrial areas. This calls for space-saving enclosed substations and the application of EHV and/or HV cable systems.

Power generation

Generator unit transformer

Remote hydro-electric power station Long-distance transmission EHV AC up to 800 kV or HV DC

Interconnected transmission system up to 550 kV

HV/HV transformer level feeding the subtransmission systems

Subtransmission system up to 145 kV
Regional supply system Urban and/or industrial areas, also with local power stations Internal supply system Large industrial complexes also with own power generation Regional supply system Rural areas

HV/MV Step-down transformer level

Main substation with transformers up to 63 MVA
HV switchgear MV switchgear

Fig. 1: Transmission: Principle configuration of transmission system

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

Especially for industrial supply systems with their high number of motors and high costs for supply interruptions. as well as by nature and dimensions of the area to be served. together with the high number of similar network elements. Siemens components and systems cater to these requirements based on worldwide experience in transmission and distribution networks. the subtransmission systems of voltage levels up to 145 kV have to penetrate even further into the populated load centers. industrial or rural distribution areas. Different consumer characteristics in public. Main substations have to be located next to the MV load center for economical reasons. chemical processes. Independent from individual supply characteristics in order to avoid uneconomical high losses. The wide range of power requirements for individual consumers from a few kW to some MW. LV switchgear design is of great importance for flexible and reliable operation. 2: Distribution: Principle configuration of distribution systems Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . transformers up to 1000 kVA LV fuses Circuit breaker Loadbreak switch Consumer-connection substation looped in or connected to feeder cable with circuit breaker and load-break switches for connection of spot system in different layout MV/LV transformer level Low-voltage supply system Public supply with pillars and house connections internal installation Large buildings with distributed transformers vertical LV risers and internal installation per floor Industrial supply with distributed transformers with subdistribution board and motor control center Consumers Fig. the substations with the MV/LV transformers should be located as close as possible to the LV load centers and should therefore be of compact design. etc. lamps. industry and large building centers. The far-reaching power distribution system in the load center areas is tailored exclusively to the needs of users with large numbers of appliances. are the main characteristics of the distribution system and the reason for the comparatively high specific costs. generation) and leads again to different solutions for urban or rural public supply. however. The structure of the low-voltage distribution system is determined by load and reliability requirements of the consumers. utmost standardization of equipment and use of maintenancefree components are of decisive importance for economical system layout. heating. HV/MV main substations are connected to the subtransmission systems. Most of these are connected to the lowvoltage level. common philosophy should be an utmost simple and clear network design to obtain s flexible system operation s clear protection coordination s short fault clearing time and s efficient system automation. industrial and commercial supply will need different LV network configurations and adequate switchgear and transformer layout. Main substation with transformers up to 63 MVA HV switchgear MV switchgear Local medium-voltage distribution system Ring type Public supply Feeder cable Connection of large consumer Spot system Industrial supply and large buildings Medium voltage substations MV/LV substation looped in MV cable by load-break switchgear in different combinations for individual substation design. The superposed medium-voltage system has to be configured to the needs of these substations and the available sources (main substation.General Introduction – Transmission and Distribution Distribution In order to feed local medium-voltage distribution systems of urban. Thus. motor drives. Therefore. Despite the individual layout of networks.

Visualization of system behavior and supply situation by advanced control room equipment assist the highly responsible function of systems operators. operation and control Safe. and the suitability for expansion and harmonious integration in existing networks are just a few of the factors which future-oriented power system planning must take into account. The open architecture of the power system control offers great flexibility for expansion to meet all the demands made and can be integrated into existing installations without any problems. protection of the countryside and of the environment. Peculiarities in urban development. reliable and economical energy supply is also a matter of fast. The components required for protection and operation benefit from the rapid development of information and communication technology. for the existing systems. protection and communication systems Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . supervision and control. data transmission and processing for system operation. Especially in countries where the increase in power consumption is well above the average besides the installation of generating capacity. Power system substation Power system switchgear Unit protection – Overcurrent – Distance – Differential etc. Integral power network solutions are far more than just a combination of products and components. Other unit Unit coordination level Unit switching interlocking Control Other unit Substation coordination level Substation protection Switchgear interlocking Substation control Data and signal input/output Data processing Automation Other substations Power network telecommunication systems Other substations Power line carrier communication Fiber-optic communication System coordination level SCADA functions Distribution management functions Grafical information systems Network analysis Power and scheduling applications Training simulator Control room equipment Fig. Powerful data processing and management system have been developed. 3: Protection. together with the need for replacement of aged equipment will require new installations. Siemens network control systems assure a complete overview of the current operating conditions – from the interconnected grid right up to the complete distribution network. Modular and open structures. Also. Modern digital relays provide extensive possibilities of selective relay setting and protection coordination for fast fault clearing and minimized interruption times. Overall solutions – System planning Of crucial importance for the quality of power transmission and distribution is the integration of diverse components to form overall solutions. operation and control: Principle configuration of operation. efficient and reliable system protection. Additional extensive system data and information are generated as an essential basis for systems supervision and control.General Introduction – Transmission and Distribution Protection. full-graphics user interface as well as state-of-the-art applications are a matter of course. construction and extension of transmission and distribution systems must be developed simultaneously and together with equipment for protection. changing load structure and/ or environmental regulations. This simplifies system management and at the same time makes it more reliable and more economical.

instrument transformers. interlocking and monitoring facilities commonly used for this type of installation.High-voltage Switchgear for Substations Introduction High-voltage substations form an important link in the power transmission chain between generation source and consumer. Air-insulated outdoor substations of open design are not completely safe to touch and are directly exposed to the effects of weather and the environment (Fig. grounding switches (regular or make-proof). Fig. 2). Each circuitbreaker bay is factory assembled and includes the full complement of isolator switches. 1). Gas-insulated indoor or outdoor switchgear (GIS) GIS compact dimensions and design make it possible to install substations up to 550 kV right in the middle of load centers of urban or industrial areas. 2: GIS substations in metropolitan areas 1/2 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . 1: Outdoor switchgear Fig. Two basic designs are possible: Air-insulated outdoor switchgear of open design (AIS) AIS are favorably priced high-voltage substations for rated voltages up to 800 kV which are popular wherever space restrictions and environmental circumstances do not have to be considered. The individual electrical and mechanical components of an AIS installation are assembled on site. The earthed metal enclosures of GIS assure not only insensitivity to contamination but also safety from electric shock (Fig. control and protection equipment.

comprising high-voltage switchgear. Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 1/3 . manufacture. The process of handling such an installation starts with preparation of a quotation. such as those encountered in earthquake zones. regardless of whether AIS. 3). fire precautions. the finite element method (FEM). Carrier. data exchange with other CAD systems is possible via standardized interfaces. High-voltage switchgear is normally combined with transformers and other equipment to complete transformer substations in order to s Step-up from generator voltage level Major components. along with the specialist departments in Germany. internationally accredited test laboratories and a certified QA system testify to the quality of our products and services. e. s 1989: Certification in accordance with DIN ISO 9001 by the German Association for Certification of Quality Systems (DQS) s 1992: Accreditation of the test laboratories in accordance with DIN EN 45001 by the German Accreditation Body for Technology (DATech). outdoor substations of longitudinal in-line design are still known in many countries under the Siemens registered tradename “Kiellinie”. The spectrum of installations supplied ranges from basic substations with single busbar to regional transformer substations with multiple busbars or 1 1/2 circuit-breaker arrangement for rated voltages up to 800 kV. control systems. Our own high-performance. installations can be reliably designed even for extreme stresses. foundations Env Fire protection to high-voltage system (MV/HV) s Transform voltage levels within the high-voltage grid system(HV/HV) s Step-down to medium-voltage level Design of distribution system (HV/MV) The High-Voltage Division plans and constructs individual high-voltage switchgear installations or complete transformer substations. Milestones along the road to certification: s 1983: Introduction of a quality system on the basis of Canadian standard CSA Z299 Level 1. rated currents up to 8000 A and short-circuit currents up to 100 kA. With the aid of high-performance computer programs. design.ent equipm Li ab gh iron pro menta tec tion l in g tn n Ve rc tila tio Po n Fig. A worldwide network of liaison and sales offices. e. etc. protection.High-voltage Switchgear for Substations A special application of gas-insulated equipment are: Gas-insulated transmission lines (GIL) Gas-insulated transmission lines (GIL) are always used where high-voltage cables come up against the limits of their performance. supply and cost-accounting until the project is finally billed. environmental protection and control systems (Fig. les Contro la signal c nd ables we rge s Su erter iv d g in th ar tem E s sy Ancillary equipment frequ. and all ancillary equipment such as auxiliaries. GIS or GIL has been concerned.g. 3: Engineering of high-voltage switchgear Every aspect of technology and each work stage is handled by experienced engineers. All these high-voltage installations have in common their high-standard of engineering. even before a new standard or specification is published.. our engineers are always fully informed of the state of the art. on a turnkey basis or even as general contractor. steel structures.g. AC/DC es ri auxililia Structural Steelwork Gantries and substructures Civil Engineering Buildings. Processing such an order hinges on methodical data processing that in turn contributes to systematic project handling. The services offered range from system planning to commissioning and after-sales service. transformer Substation Control Control and monitoring. and proceeds through clarification of the order. major components such as transformers. civil engineering. All planning documentation is produced on modern CAD systems. Siemens supplied the world’s first GIS substation using SF6 as insulating and quenching medium. etc. protective equipment. all over the world. medium-voltage switchgear. support and advise our customers in all matters of switchgear technology. which covers power systems. Siemens has for many years been a leading supplier of high-voltage equipment. including training of customer personnel. Back in 1968. For example. Gas-insulated transmission lines have featured in the range of products since 1976. By virtue of their active involvement in national and international associations and standardization bodies. measurement. roads.

The following basic principles apply: Accessibility and availability increase with the number of busbars.0 1. Therefore it has to be designed based on not only electrical but also environmental specifications. Protective measures against indirect touching by means of relevant grounding measures in accordance with DIN VDE 0141. obstruction or clearance and appropriately positioned protective devices and minimum heights. The circuit-breaker of the coupling feeder for the auxiliary bus allows uninterrupted replacement of each feeder circuit-breaker. Outdoor switchgear is directly exposed to the effects of the environment such as the weather. Systems with auxiliary or bypass busbars have proved to be economical. These effects can be calculated in an FEM simulation (Fig.e.6 -1. protection in the form of covering. Protective measures during work on equipment. however.6 1. caused by installation altitudes of more than 1000 m above sea level. but they offer only limited flexibility for operation management and maintenance. during installation must be planned such that the specifications of DIN VDE 0105 (e. i. e. clarity decreases. Owing to the additional shortcircuit forces between the subconductors (pinch effect). 5 safety rules) are complied with s Protective measures during operation.4 Horizontal displacement in m -1. The design must therefore be coordinated in close cooperation with the customer.4 e. multiple conductors cause higher mechanical stressing at the tension points.g. Designs involving 1 1/2 and 2 circuit-breaker arrangements assure a high redundancy. At the same time. e. This in turn results in higher mechanical stresses on the switchgear components.2 -1. Insulation coordination.2 0 0. is effected in accordance with IEC 71. Fig.0 -1. Protective measures Protective measures against direct contact. wind s Mechanical stresses (exceptional stresses).g.g. Relevant IEC specifications apply to outdoor switchgear equipment. Therefore. if applicable. Multiple conductors are required where currents are high. weight. 4). For busbars and feeder lines. or earthquakes Variables affecting switchgear installation Switchgear design is significantly influenced by: s Minimum clearances (depending on rated voltages) between various active parts and between active parts and earth s Arrangement of conductors s Rated and short-circuit currents s Clarity for operating staff s Availability during maintenance work.4 -1. availability and clarity.Design of Air-insulated Outdoor Substations Standards Air-insulated outdoor substations of open design must not be touched. to which authorized persons have access only. etc. e. redundancy s Availability of land and topography s Type and arrangement of the busbar disconnectors The design of a substation determines its accessibility. but they also entail the highest costs.g. i. Siemens designs AIS in accordance with DIN/VDE standards.0 -2. When wire conductors.6 -0. use of switchgear interlock equipment s Protective measures against voltage surges and lightning strike s Protective measures against fire. in line with national standards or customer specifications. adequate creepage distances and clearances s Mechanical stresses (normal stressing).2 0. air-insulated switchgear (AIS) is always set up in the form of a fenced-in electrical operating area. e. Currently there is no international standard covering the setup of air-insulated outdoor substations of open design.2 -1. e. including minimum phaseto-phase and phase-to-ground clearances.g. water and. weight and constant loads in simultaneous combination with maximum switching forces or shortcircuit forces. are used higher short-circuit currents cause a rise not only in the aforementioned pinch effect but in further force maxima in the event of swinging and dropping of the conductor bundle (cable pull). short-circuit current. however.8 -2.6 -0.g. ice. noise insulation. rated current. static and dynamic loads. Vertical displacement in m -0.8 -1. mostly wire conductors and aluminum are used.0 -0. Stresses s Electrical stresses. 4: FEM calculation of deflection of wire conductors in the event of short circuit 1/4 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . s Special stresses. Installations involving single busbars require minimum investment. particularly multiple conductors. The German standard DIN VDE 0101 (erection of power installations with rated voltages above 1 kV) demonstrates typically the protective measures and stresses that have to be taken into consideration for airinsulated switchgear.

or two-line arrangement. 6: Substation with rotary disconnector. preferable up to 170 kV The busbar disconnectors are lined up one behind the other and parallel to the longitudinal axis of the busbar. it is possible to arrange feeders going out on both sides of the busbar without a third conductor level (Fig. is therefore unique. Two overhead lines are connected with two transformers and interlinked by a single-bus coupler. the second busbar is arranged in U-form relative to the first busbar. The system design requires only two conductor levels and is therefore clear. with repeatedly used equipment and a scheme of one incoming and one outgoing line as well as two transformers together with medium-voltage switchgear and auxiliary equipment. aluminum tubes are increasingly used to replace wire conductors for busbars and feeder lines. Each outdoor switchgear. especially for step-up substations in connection with power stations and large transformer substations in the extra-highvoltage transmission system. It is preferable to have either wire-type or tubular busbars located at the top of the feeder conductors. 8400 48300 19400 Top view 6500 End bay 4500 Normal 9000 bay A Fig. with rotary disconnectors. Where tubular busbars are used. are more subject to a standardized design from the individual power supply companies. If. HV/MV transformer substations of the distribution system. Top view 6500 A 6500 C Section A-B 2500 8000 7000 6500 13300 27000 D B Dimensions in mm Section C-D 7500 13300 Fig. They can handle rated currents up to 8000 A and short-circuit currents up to 80 kA without difficulty. A one. there are also designs featuring withdrawable circuit-breakers without disconnectors for this voltage range. depending on the local conditions. but also the lay of the land. Not only the availability of land. The circuit-breaker is moved electrohydraulically from the connected position into the disconnected position and viceversa. gantries are required for the outgoing overhead lines only. the accessibility and location of incoming and outgoing overhead lines together with the number of transformers and voltage levels considerably influence the switchgear design as well. in-line design 9000 A In-line longitudinal layout. 5). and possibly a U arrangement. In comparison with a single busbar with rotary disconnectors. may be the proper solution. 5: Substation with withdrawable circuit-breaker Section A-A R1 S1 T1 T2 S2 R2 Dimensions in mm 2500 8000 20500 Preferred designs The multitude of conceivable designs include certain preferred versions. 6). This arrangement guarantees a high availability. roughly 50% less ground space is required (Fig. Special layout for single busbars up to 145 kV (withdrawable circuit-breaker arrangement) Further to the H arrangement that is built in many variants. Thus each feeder of the switchgear can be maintained without disturbance of the other feeders. which are dependent on the type and arrangement of the busbar disconnectors: H arrangement The H arrangement is preferrably used in applications for feeding industrial consumers. Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 1/5 .Design of Air-insulated Outdoor Substations When rated and short-circuit currents are high. in the case of duplicate busbars.

Wire-type busbars located at the top are commonly used. Wire and tubular conductors are customary. preferable up to 245 kV The 1 1/2 circuit-breaker arrangement assures high supply reliability. but the cost of the gantries is high (Fig. Vertical-break disconnectors are preferred for the feeders. feeders in H arrangement with two conductor levels (Fig. tubular busbars are also conceivable. rotary and vertical-break type. 7). The busbars located at the top can be of wire or tubular type. Of advantage are the equipment connections. which are very short and allow even in the case of multiple conductors that high short-circuit currents are mastered. preferable up to 245 kV The pantograph disconnectors are placed diagonally to the axis of the busbars and feeder. rated voltage 420 kV Dimensions in mm 4000 17500 8500 48000 29000 18000 Fig. The busbar disconnectors are of the pantograph. Diagonal layout with pantograph disconnectors. The busbars can be located above or below the feeder conductors (Fig. feeders in line with three conductor levels s Internal busbar. This results in a very clear. This arrangement enables the conductors to be easliy jumpered over the circuit-breakers and the bay width to be made smaller than that of in-line designs. 7: Central tower design Section Bus system 13300 10000 8000 28000 48000 Dimensions in mm By-pass bus 10000 10400 Top view 5000 18000 4000 4000 5000 Fig. 9: 1 1/2 circuit-breaker design 1/6 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . 1 1/2 circuit-breaker layout. With three conductor levels the system is relatively clear. 9). however.Design of Air-insulated Outdoor Substations Central tower layout with rotary disconnectors. Dimensions in mm 3000 12500 9000 7000 18000 17000 17000 16000 Fig. 8). spacesaving arrangement. 8: Busbar area with pantograph disconnector of diagonal design. expenditures for equipment are high as well. normally only for 245 kV The busbar disconnectors are arranged side by side and parallel to the longitudinal axis of the feeder. Two arrangements are customary: s External busbar.

Design of Air-insulated Outdoor Substations Planning principles For air-insulated outdoor substations of open design.9131. the following planning principles must be taken into account: s High reliability – Reliable mastering of normal and exceptional stresses – Protection against surges and lightning strikes – Protection against surges directly on the equipment to be protected (e. transformer. maintenance and transportation work – Adequately dimensioned transport routes s Positive incorporation into surroundings – As few overhead conductors as possible – Tubular instead of wire-type busbars – Unobtrusive steel structures – Minimal noise and disturbance level s EMC grounding system for modern control and protection s Fire precautions and environmental protection – Adherence to fire protection specifications and use of flame-retardant and nonflammable materials – Use of environmentally compatible technology and products For further information please contact: Fax: ++ 49 .g. HV cable) s Good clarity and accessibility – Clear conductor routing with few conductor levels – Free accessibility to all areas (no equipment located at inaccessible depth) – Adequate protective clearances for installation.73 18 58 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 1/7 .

in permafrost zones. other arrangements can be supplied such as single-bus. Combined circuitbreaker and load-break switch feeder. Siting problems arise in s Large towns s Industrial conurbations s Mountainous regions with narrow valleys s Underground power stations In cases such as these. etc. 10: Typical circuit arrangements of SF 6-switchgear 1/8 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . Other advantages are the short erections times and the fact that switchgear installed indoors can be serviced regardless of the climate or the weather. e. Protection of the environment The necessity to protect the environment often makes it difficult to erect outdoor switchgear of conventional design. commonly used for this type of installation (Fig.g. The compact switchgear can be installed in buildings of simple design in order to minimize the cost of cleaning and inspection and to make necessary repairs independent of weather conditions. Beside the conventional circuit-breaker field. due to the modular system. Fig. SF6-insulated switchgear is replacing conventional switchgear because of its very small space requirements. interlocking and monitoring facilities. bay for triplicate bus. Siemens has been a leader in this sector from the very start. as well as sandstorms. whereas buildings containing compact SF6-insulated switchgear can almost always be designed so that they blend well with the surroundings. singlebus arrangement with bypass-bus. SF6 insulated switchgear (GIS) is gaining constantly on other types.500 installations in all parts of the world. Each circuit-breaker bay includes the full complement of disconnecting and grounding switches (regular or make-proof).Gas-insulated Switchgear for Substations Common characteristic features of switchgear installation Because of its small size and outstanding compatibility with the environment. Protection against pollution Its metal enclosure fully protects the switchgear interior against environmental effects such as salt deposits in coastal regions. SF6-insulated metal-enclosed switchgear is. 10). industrial vapors and precipitates. ring cable with load-break switches. control and protection equipment. Free choice of installation site The small site area required for SF6-insulated switchgear saves expensive grading and foundation work. Small space requirements The availability and price of land play an important part in selecting the type of switchgear to be used. coupler. ring cable with loadbreak switches and circuit-breakers. instrument transformers. Full protection against contact with live parts The all-round metal enclosure affords maximum safety to the personnel under all operating and fault conditions.000 bay operating years in over 5. The concept of SF6 -insulated metal-enclosed high-voltage switchgear has proved itself in more than 64. are furthermore available for the 145 kV level. It offers the following outstanding advantages. very flexible and can meet all requirements of configuration given by network design and operating conditions.

Safe encapsulation means an outstanding level of safety based on new manufacturing methods and optimized shape of enclosures.0 up to 135 up to 4. all of which are motorized.Gas-insulated Switchgear for Substations Main product range of GIS for substations SF6 switchgear up to 550 kV (the total product range covers GIS from 66 up to 800 kV rated voltage). which guarantees the achievement of the high technical standards required of the HV switchgear whilst providing the maximum customer benefit. corrosion-free enclosure.3 up to 6. Reliability means our overall product concept which includes. 11: Main product range [bar] > 20 years > 20 years > 20 years 4480 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 1/9 . Environmental compatibility means no restrictions on choice of location by means of minimum space requirement. threedimensional design programs. Plug connection of all switches. less space taken up by the switchgear. This objective is attained only by incorporating all processes in the quality management system.5 SF6-gas pressure [bar] (gauge) switchgear SF6-gas pressure (gauge) circuitbreaker Inspection All dimensions in mm Fig. quality and reliability demands such as Compact space-saving design means uncomplicated foundations. further improve the speediness of site installation and substantially reduce field wiring errors.3 up to 6. and electrical field development programs assures the high standard of quality. which enables quick access to measured data even if years have passed. Routine tests All measurements are automatically documented and stored in the EDP information system. but is not limited to. extremely low noise emission and effective gas sealing system (leakage < 1% per year per gas compartment).0 up to 170 up to 4.0 up to 6. the use of finite elements method (FEM). a wide range of options in the utilization of space.g. e. Minimal weight by lightweight construction through the use of aluminum-alloy and the exploitation of innovations in development such as computer-aided design tools. Economical transport means simplified and fast transport and reduced costs because of maximum possible size of shipping units. motor-operated mechanisms self-lubricating for life. 5170 3800 3200 3400 5000 500 Switchgear type Details on page Bay width Rated voltage Rated power frequency withstand voltage Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage Rated switching impulse withstand voltage Rated normal current busbars Rated normal current 8DN9 1/10 8DP3 1/11-1/12 2200 up to 300 up to 460 8DQ1 1/13 3600 up to 550 up to 740 [mm] [kV] [kV] 1200 up to 145 up to 275 [kV] up to 650 up to 1050 up to 1550 [kV] – up to 850 up to 1250 [A] [A] up to 3150 up to 2500 up to 40 up to 40 up to 5000 up to 4000 up to 50 up to 50 up to 6300 up to 4000 up to 63 up to 63 feeder Rated breaking current Rated short-time withstand current (1s) Rated peak withstand current [kA] [kA] [kA] up to 100 up to 4. The development of the switchgear is always based on an overall production concept. Siemens GIS switchgear meets all the performance. contacts of circuit-breakers and disconnectors designed for extremely long endurance. This ensures that the first inspection will not be necessary until after 25 years of operation. Minimal operating costs means the switchgear is practically maintenance-free. which has been introduced and certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001 (EN 29001). stereolithography. Smooth and efficient installation and commissioning transport units are fully assembled and tested at the factory and filled with SF6 gas at reduced pressure.

The modules are connected to each other by a standard interface which allows an extensive range of bay structures. The three-phase encapsulated passive busbar is partitioned off from the active equipment. The other bay modules – of single-phase encapsulated design like the circuit-breaker module – are located on top of the circuit-breaker. even unconventional arrangements can be set up out of a pool of only 20 different modules. Two bays at a time undergo mechanical and electrical testing with the aid of computer-controlled stands. The horizontally arranged circuit-breaker forms the basis of every bay configuration. voltage and power s Protection of all auxiliary current and voltage transformer circuits s Transmission of all feeder information to the substation control and protection system Factory assembly and tests are significant parts of the overall production concept mentioned above.Gas-insulated Switchgear for Substations SF6-insulated switchgear up to 145 kV. The operating mechanism is easily accessible from the operator area. 13: 8DN9 switchgear for operating voltage 145 kV 1/10 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . tested in the factory and filled with SF6 gas at reduced pressure. Thanks to “single-function” assemblies (assignment of just one task to each module) and the versatile modular structure. type 8DN9 The clear bay configuration of the lightweight and small 8DN9 switchgear is evident at first sight. together with measured values for current. The following major feeder control level functions are performed in the local control cabinet for each bay. which guarantees smooth and efficient installation and commissioning. Control and monitoring facilities are easily accessible in spite of the compact design of the switchgear. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 9 16 15 10 11 14 13 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Busbar I Busbar II Busbar disconnector I Busbar disconnector isolator II Grounding switch Make-proof grounding switch Cable isolator Voltage transformer Cable sealing end 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Current transformer Grounding switch Circuit-breaker Hydraulic storage cylinder Electrohydraulic operating unit Oil tank Circuit-breaker control with gas monitoring unit 17 Local control cabinet 1 2 3 4 5 12 10 7 9 11 6 Fig. which is integrated in the operating front of the 8DN9 switchgear: s Fully interlocked local operation and state-indication of all switching devices managed reliably by the Siemens digital switchgear interlock system s Practical dialogue between the digital feeder protection system and central processor of the feeder control system s Visual display of all signals required for operation and monitoring. The switchgear design with standardized modules and the scope of services mean that all kinds of bay structures can be set up in a minimal area. 12: Switchgear bay 8DN9 up to 145 kV Fig. The compact design permits the supply of double bays fully assembled.

type 8DP3 A switchgear system with entirely individual enclosure of all modules for the threephase system. as well as high switching capacities require circuitbreaker units with two interrupter units per pole. Voltages above 245 kV. For example. Naturally all other common circuit requirements for this voltage level. 14: Switchgear bay 8DP3 up to 245 kV Fig.Gas-insulated Switchgear for Substations SF6-insulated switchgear up to 300 kV.2 m. including the associated busbar section. One grounding switch serves as a work-in-progress grounding device for the circuit-breaker. This solution allows preassembly and testing at the factory to a large extent. whereas the other external switch may be of the standard slow-moving type or be equipped with a spring-drive mechanism to achieve “fault making” capabilities. 15: Complete 8DP3 bay for operating voltage 245 kV being unloaded at site Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 1/11 . does not exceed 2. or both devices. Similar to the design concept of the 8DN9 switchgear. the current transformer was integrated in the circuit-breaker enclosure. This feature is often required at incoming or outgoing feeder terminations. however. a horizontally arranged circuitbreaker has been chosen to be the base unit for the 8DP3 switchgear although the encapsulation is entirely single-phase instead of three-phase (busbar). Mounted on top of the circuit-breaker tank are housings containing disconnectors. The standard design is arranged to accommodate the double-bus-bar circuits primarily used. Making use of the experience gained with previous 145 kV GIS. can be fulfilled as well. Circuit-breaker modules with one interrupter unit will meet the requirements for operating voltages up to 245 kV normally. Care has been taken to design the bus sections in such a way that the standard width of each bay. Depending on the application up to two grounding switches can be installed in these enclosures. 4 3 2 1 18 17 16 15 5 14 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 9 10 11 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 12 13 4 2 3 1 5 12 13 18 17 16 15 14 Busbar disconnector II Busbar II Busbar disconnector I Busbar I Grounding switch Local control cabinet Gas monitoring unit Circuit-breaker control unit Oil tank Electrohydraulic operating unit Hydraulic storage cylinder Circuit-breaker Current transformer Cable sealing end Voltage transformer Make-proof grounding switch Cable disconnector Grounding switch Fig. a complete 245 kV bay of the GIS type 8DP3 can be shipped pre-tested and only requiring a minimum amount of installation work on site. such as double or single bus with bypass and the 1 1/2 circuit-breaker arrangement. or grounding switches.

16: 8DP3 switchgear for operating voltage 245 kV and 40 kA Fig.Gas-insulated Switchgear for Substations Fig. 18: Switchgear bay 8DP3 up to 300 kV 1/12 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . 17: 8DP3 switchgear for operating voltage 245 kV and 50 kA 4 3 2 1 18 17 16 15 14 5 13 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Busbar disconnector II Busbar II Busbar disconnector I Busbar I Grounding switch Local control cabinet Gas monitoring unit Circuit-breaker control unit Oil tank 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 9 10 11 12 4 2 3 1 5 12 13 18 17 16 15 14 Electrohydraulic operating unit Hydraulic storage cylinder Circuit-breaker Current transformer Cable sealing end Voltage transformer Make-proof grounding switch Cable disconnector Grounding switch Fig.

The design concept of the 8DQ1 switchgear follows in principle that of the 8DP3 for voltages above 245 kV. the base unit for the switchgear forms a horizontally arranged circuit-breaker on top of which are mounted the housings containing disconnectors. Additional main characteristic features of the switchgear installation are: s Circuit-breakers with two interrupter 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Busbar disconnector I Busbar I Busbar II Busbar disconnector II Grounding switch Circuit-breaker Voltage transformer Make-proof grounding switch 9 Cable disconnector 14 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 15 16 17 18 2 3 1 4 5 6 11 10 9 8 7 12 units up to operating voltages of 550 kV and breaking currents of 63 kA (from 63 kA to 100 kA. As a matter of course the busbar modules of this switchgear system are passive elements. 19: Switchgear bay 8DQ1 up to 550 kV Fig. i. current transformers. etc. too. 20: 8DQ1 switchgear for operating voltage 420 kV Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 1/13 . circuit-breakers with four interrupter units have to be considered) s Low switchgear center of gravity by means of circuit-breaker arranged horizontally in the lower portion s Utilization of the circuit-breaker transport frame as supporting device for the entire bay s The use of only a few modules and combinations of equipment in one enclosure reduces the length of sealing faces and consequently lowers the risk of leakage Grounding switch Current transformer Cable sealing end Local control cabinet Gas monitoring unit (as part of control unit) Circuit-breaker control unit Electrohydraulic operating unit Oil tank Hydraulic storage cylinder Fig.Gas-insulated Switchgear for Substations SF6-insulated switchgear up to 550 kV. The busbar modules are also single-phase encapsulated and partitioned off from the active equipment. grounding switches.e. type 8DQ1 A modular switchgear system for high power switching stations with individual enclosure of all modules for the threephase system.

20 -1. s Hydraulic oil for all circuit-breaker operating mechanisms is supplied with the equipment.90 Relay room Scope of supply and battery limits For all types of GIS Siemens supplies the following items and observes these interface points: s Switchgear bay with circuit-breaker interrupters. For the different feeder types. the following battery limits apply: – Overhead line feeder: the connecting stud at the SF6-to-air bushing without the line clamp. 24 on page 1/18). The local grounding network and the connections to the switchgear are in the delivery scope of the installation contractor. and busbar housings as specified. disconnectors and grounding switches.8 kV switchgear Shunt reactor 11. monitoring. All gas interconnections from the switchgear bay to the integral gas service and monitoring panel are supplied by Siemens as well.50 Fig. Feeder circuits and cables. 23. and interlocking panels are supplied for each circuitbreaker bay to form completely operational systems. while the cable stress cone with matching flange is part of the cable supply (see Fig.50 Cable duct 8. s Each feeder bay is equipped with grounding pads. s Terminals and circuit protection for auxiliary drive and control power are provided with the equipment. s Mechanical support structures above ground are supplied by Siemens. s Local control. The SF6to-oil bushings plus terminal enclosures are part of the transformer delivery. and installation material for them are part of the installation contractor’s supply.20 Grounding resistor Gas-insulated switchgear type 8DN9 15. 25 on page 1/18)*. Terminals for remote monitoring and control are provided. Sectional view of a building showing the compact nature of gas-insulated substations 1/14 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . unless agreed otherwise (see Fig. s Initial SF6-gas filling for the entire switchgear as supplied by Siemens is included. and connecting plate are part of the GIS delivery.95 13.90 Compensator Radiators 40 MVA transformer 2. – Cable feeder: according to IEC 859 the termination housing. – Transformer feeder: connecting flange at switchgear bay and connecting bus ducts to transformer including any compensator are delivered by Siemens. * Note: this interface point should always be closely coordinated between switchgear manufacturer and transformer supplier. conductor coupling. instrument transformers. 21: Special arrangement for limited space. embedded steel and foundation work is part of the installation contractor’s scope.Gas-insulated Switchgear for Substations Air conditioning system 26.

Mobile containerized switchgear – even for high voltage At medium-voltage levels. has already issued a test certificate for an even higher container construction. and adaptation to local circumstances is not a problem. significant advantages for the operators. GIS up to 300 kV in a container The 8DP3 switchgear requires a container with a length of 7550 mm. it is merely necessary to set up the containers. installed either in a sheet-steel container or in a block house made of prefabricated concrete elements. For smaller switching stations. Considerable cost reductions are achieved in the planning. this will not cause any problems during transportation as proven by previously supplied equipment. This allows extensively independent operation of the installation on site. If necessary. The heart is the metal-enclosed SF6-insulated switchgear. grounding switch) and the local control cabinet in a standard container. These are the possible applications for containerized stations: s Intermediate solutions for the modernization of switching stations s Low-cost transitional solutions when tedious formalities are involved in the new construction of transformer substations. Mobile containerized switchgear requires little space and usually fits in well with the environment. cable adapter boxes and SF6 tubular connections. The floor area of 20 ft x 8 ft complies with the ISO 668 standard. an approval authority. lighting and an air-conditioning and ventilation unit. 22: Containerized 8DN9 switchgear with stub feed in this example Building authority approvals are either not required or only in a simple form. 21). 23: 8DP3 switching bay being hoisted into a container The standard dimensions and ISO corner fittings will facilitate handling during transport in the 20 ft frame of containership and on a low-loader truck. But even high-voltage switching stations can be built in this way and economically operated in many applications.Gas-insulated Switchgear for Substations Some examples for special arrangement Gas-insulated switchgear – usually accommodated in buildings (as shown in a towertype substation) – is expedient whenever the floor area is very expensive or restricted or whenever ambient conditions necessitate their use (Fig. Mobile containerized switching stations can be of single or multi-bay design using a large number of different circuits and arrangements. Operating staff can enter the container through two access doors. In any case. geothermal power plants 145 kV GIS in a standard container The dimensions of the new 8DN9 switchgear made it possible to accommodate all active components of the switchgear (circuit-breaker. mobile switching stations have their own ”building“. disconnector. On site. Fig. All the usual connection components can be employed. 22). Rapid availability and short commissioning times are additional. Transformer OHL -Z1 -051 -08 -Z1 -09 -Z2 -Z2 Overhead line 3500 -T1 -00 -Z2 -08 -09 -T5 -T2 -052 -00 -T1 -051 -Z1 -T5 -T2 -052 5806 Transformer Fig. there is no need for complicated constructions. a width of 2800 mm and a height of 3590 mm. such as in the procurement of land or establishing cable routes s Quick erection as an emergency station in the event of malfunctions in existing switchgear s Switching stations for movable. or in cases of expansion when there is no advantage in constructing a building. Shifting the switchgear assembly work to the factory enhances the quality and operational reliability. a favorable solution is to install the substation in a container (Fig. such as outdoor bushings. all the equipment for control and protection and for the local supply can be accommodated in the container. In contrast to conventional stationary switchgear. Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 1/15 . the container equipment can include full thermal insulation. Although the container is higher than the standard dimension of 8 ft. construction work and assembly. German Lloyd. fit the exterior system parts and make the external connections. Containerized switchgear is preassembled in the factory and ready for operation. mobile containerized switchgear is the state of the art. The installation can be operated at various locations in succession.

000 operations at full load current or 20 operations at rated short-circuit current. Thereafter the housings shall be painted with no particular thickness required but to visually cover the surface only. e. A minor inspection shall only become necessary after ten years and a major inspection preferably after a period exceeding 20 years of operation unless the permissible number of operations is met at an earlier date. might be monitored by density gauges fitted in circuitbreaker control units. The switchgear shall be equipped with adjustable supports (feet). but are a selection of the important ones. For design purposes indoor temperatures of – 5 °C to +40 °C and outdoor temperatures of – 25 °C to +40 °C shall be considered. For supervision of the gas within the enclosures. For parts to be installed outdoors (overhead line connections) the applicable conditions in IEC-Publication 517 or IEEE 0468-1 shall also be observed. Suitable lightweight. Only a flat concrete floor will be provided by the buyer with possible cutouts in case of cable installation. Other standards are also met. In case painted the outside color of the enclosures shall be grey preferably. however. safe and reliable system after installation. i. IEEE P 468-1 Gas-Insulated Substation (GIS) Standards. 129 “Alternating current disconnectors (isolators) and grounding switches”.5 kV and above”. 1/16 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . Work. The size of the sub-assemblies shall be only limited by the transport conditions. All joints shall be machined and all castings spotfaced for bolt heads. General These specifications cover the technical data applicable to metal-enclosed SF6 gasinsulated switchgear for switching and distribution of power in cable and/or overhead line systems and at transformers. IEC-Publ. however. Material and process specifications needed for welding must meet the applicable requirements of the country of manufacture. Each gas-filled compartment shall be equipped with static filters of a capacity to absorb any water vapor penetrating into the switchgear installation over a period of at least 20 years. If done for aesthetic reasons. 56 “Highvoltage alternating-current circuit-breakers”). Horizontally mounted bushings require cleaning openings in the enclosure. IEC-Publ. 517 “High-voltage metal-enclosed switchgear for rated voltages of 72.e.g. Subassemblies must be erected and tested in the factory to the maximum extent. referred to a shortcircuit current of 40 kA. The circuit. nuts and washers.Gas-insulated Switchgear for Substations Specification guide for metal-enclosed SF6-insulated switchgear The points below are not considered to be comprehensive. The manufacturer guarantees that the pressure loss within each individual gas compartment – and not referred to the total switchgear installation only – will be not more than 1% per year per gas compartment. surfaces shall be appropriately prepared before painting. Assemblies shall have reliable provisions to absorb thermal expansion and contractions created by temperature cycling. Factory welders must be specially qualified personnel under continuous supervision of the associated welding society. Normally exterior surfaces of the switchgear shall not require painting. material and design Field welding at the switchgear is not permitted.breakers. Key technical data are contained in the data sheet and the single-line diagram attached to the inquiry. If steel support structures are required for the switchgear. All solid post insulators shall be provided with ribs (skirts). even if certain parts required to this end are not specifically called for. prefabricated buildings shall be quoted if available from the supplier. The switchgear quoted shall be complete to form a functional. The interior color shall be light (white or light grey). For this purpose metal bellows-type compensators shall be installed. Maximum reliability through minimum amount of erection work on site is required. these shall be provided by the supplier. manufacturer’s standard paint color is acceptable. all enclosures are free of grease and blasted. Long intervals between the necessary inspections shall keep the maintenance cost to a minimum. They must be provided with adjustable tensioners. The material and thickness of the enclosure shall be selected to withstand an internal arc and to prevent a burn-through or puncturing of the housing within the first stage of protection. Local conditions The equipment described herein will be installed indoors. 6. A satin mat finish with a high scratch resistance is preferred. tested and installed to the latest revisions of the applicable IEC standards (IECPubl. A general “Single-line diagram” and a sketch showing the general arrangement of the substation and the transmission line exist and shall form part of a proposal. Applicable standards All equipment shall be designed. density monitors with electrical contacts for at least two pressure levels shall be installed at a central and easily accessible location (central gas supervisory cabinet) of each switchgear bay. built.

Each motor drive shall be self-contained and equipped with auxiliary position switches in addition to the mechanical indicators. Disconnectors All three-phase isolating switches shall be of the single-break type. 220 or 250 V). Modular design. jets. Each motor-drive shall be self-contained and equipped with auxiliary switches in addition to the mechanical indicators. Grounding switches Work-in-progress grounding switches shall generally be provided on either side of the circuit-breaker. no internal relief devices may be installed because adjacent compartments would be affected. until the last pole has been closed or opened. 220 or 250 V). The circuit-breaker shall be designed to minimize switching overvoltages and also to be suitable for out-of-phase switching. The control system shall provide alarm signals and internal interlocks. Circuit-breakers The circuit-breaker shall be of the single pressure (puffer) type with one interrupter per phase*. The hydraulic storage cylinder will hold sufficient energy for all standard closeopen duty cycles. 220 or 250 V). but inhibit tripping or closing of the circuit-breaker when there is insufficient energy capacity in the hydraulic storage cylinder. completely suitable for remote operation. DC motor operation (110. Voltage transformers shall be of the inductive type. A highly reliable hydraulic operating mechanism shall be employed for closing and opening the circuit-breaker. Life lubrication of the bearings is required. SF6 gas) shall be designed to withstand at least 20 operations at full short-circuit rating without the necessity to open the circuit-breaker for service or maintenance. arc-proof bushings and “plug-in” connection pieces shall allow ready removal of any section and replacement with minimum disturbance of the remaining pressurized switchgear. High-speed grounding switches Make-proof high-speed grounding switches shall generally be installed at cable and overhead-line terminals. Each motor drive shall be self-contained and equipped with auxiliary position switches in addition to the mechanical indicators. T. These switches shall be equipped with a rapid closing mechanism to provide faultmaking capability. The circuit-breaker shall be arranged horizontally and the arc chambers and contacts shall be freely accessible.) shall be of the dry-type design not using epoxy resin as insulation material. They shall be foil-gas-insulated and removable without disturbing the gas compartment to which they are attached. The assembly shall consist of completely separate pressurized sections designed to minimize the risk of damage to personnel or adjacent sections in the event of a failure occurring within the equipment. The maximum tolerance for phase disagreement shall be 3 ms. completely suitable for remote operation. 125. completely suitable for remote operation. clusters. Life lubrication of the bearings is required. DC motor operation (110. i. Rupture diaphragms shall be provided to prevent the enclosures from uncontrolled bursting and suitable deflectors provide protection for the operating personnel. Busbars All busbars shall be three-phase or singlephase enclosed and be plug-connected from bay to bay. 125. or the SF6 density within the circuit-breaker has dropped below a minimum permissible level.Gas-insulated Switchgear for Substations Arrangement and modules Arrangement The arrangement shall be single-phase enclosed preferably. The specified arc interruption performance must be consistent over the entire operating range. Cores shall be provided with the accuracies and burdens as shown on the SLD. Heaters for the SF6 gas are not permitted. A standard station battery required for control and tripping may also be used for recharging the hydraulic operating mechanism. Instrument transformers Current transformers (C. with ratings up to 200 VA. complete segregation. * two interrupters for voltages exceeding 245 kV Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 1/17 . and a manual emergency drive mechanism is required. and a manual emergency drive mechanism is required. Additional grounding switches may be used for the grounding of bus sections or other groups of the assembly. In order to achieve maximum operating reliability. from line-charging currents to full short-circuit currents. DC motor operation (110. and a manual emergency drive mechanism is required.e. 125. respectively after the first. Life lubrication of the bearings is required. The complete contact system (fingers.

This test ensures maximum safety against insulator failure. This failsafe interlock system will positively prevent maloperations.or three-phase. will be made available by the switchgear supplier. 24: Cable termination module – Cable termination modules conforming to IEC are available for connecting the switchgear to high-voltage cables. 1/18 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . gas-pressure-type and plasticinsulated (PE. 0. They can be matched economically to various transformer dimensions by way of standardized modules.1 line-to-line voltage (approx. and that the guaranteed leakage rate will not be exceeded. etc. good longterm performance and thus a very high degree of reliability. Power frequency tests Fig. Fig. Pressure tests Each enclosure of the switchgear shall be pressure-tested to at least double the service pressure. metal-enclosed cable-end housings shall be provided. Facilities to safely isolate a feeder cable and to connect a high-voltage test cable to the switchgear or the cable shall be provided. but without line clamps. Mimic diagrams and position indicators shall give clear demonstration of the operation to the operating personnel. PVC. Fig. twice the phase-to-ground voltage).Gas-insulated Switchgear for Substations Cable terminations Single. 26: Outdoor termination module – High-voltage bushings are used for transition from SF 6-to-air as insulating medium. The standardized construction of these modules allows connection of various cross-sections and insulation types. Fig. Leakage tests Leakage tests are performed on the subassemblies shall ensure that the flanges and covers faces are clean. 25: Transformer/reactor termination module – These termination modules form the direct connection between the GIS and oil-insulated transformers or reactance coils. Tests required Partial discharge tests All solid insulators fitted into the switchgear shall be subjected to a routine partial discharge test prior to being installed. The stress cone and suitable sealings to prevent oil or gas from leaking into the SF6 switchgear are part of the cable manufacturer’s supply. The connection with the switchgear is made by means of variabledesign angular-type modules. SF6 gas-insulated. Each assembly shall be subjected to power-frequency withstand tests to verify the correct installation of the conductors and also the fact that the insulator surfaces are clean and the switchgear as a whole is not polluted inside.) cables as specified on the SLD. so that the risk of material defects will be fully excluded. Overhead line terminations Terminations for the connection of overhead lines shall be supplied complete with SF6-to-air bushings. which has to be fitted to the cable end. Parallel cable connections for higher rated currents are also possible using the same module. A mating connection piece. The bushings can be matched to the particular requirements with regard to arcing and creepage distances.4 µV measured at 60 ohms (less than 1 pC). 27: Typical arrangements of bay termination modules Control An electromechanical or solid-state interlocking control board shall be supplied as a standard for each switchgear bay. Tolerance: max. or the data sheets. Provisions for remote control shall be supplied. No measurable partial discharge is allowed at 1. The cable end housing shall be suitable for oil-type.

28: 8DN9 circuit-breaker control cubicle with gas monitoring devices Fig. 30: 8DN9 circuit-breaker operating mechanism with plug connections of control circuits Fig. Drawings showing the assembly of the switchgear shall be part of the quotation. For further information please contact: Fax: ++ 49-9131-7-3 46 62 Fig. Instructions Detailed instruction manuals about installation. 33: 8DP3 transformer termination modules Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 1/19 . 29: OHL connection of a 420 kV system Fig. 32: 8DP3 cable termination modules Fig. weights and other applicable data of the switchgear that may affect the local conditions and handling of the equipment.Gas-insulated Switchgear for Substations Additional technical data The supplier shall point out all dimensions. operation and maintenance of the equipment shall be supplied by the contractor in case of an order. 31: Double-bay arrangement of 8DN9 switchgear being loaded for transport Fig.

Basic design In order to meet mechanical stability criteria. Due to the gas as insulating medium. Fig. Fig. high power transmission ratings are given. as there has been no indication of any weak point. in vertical shafts and in open air installation. The GIL exhibits the following differences in comparison with cables: s High power ratings (transmission capacity up to 3000 MVA per System) s Suitable for long distances (100 km and more without compensation of reactive power) s High short-circuit withstand capability (including internal arc faults) s Possibility of direct connection to gasinsulated switchgear (GIS) and gas-insulated arresters without cable entrance fitting s Multiple earthing points possible s Not inflammable The innovations in the latest Siemens GIL development are the considerable reduction of costs and the introduction of buried laying technique for GIL for long-distance power transmission. Flanging as well as welding has been applied as jointing technique. the basis was found for the development of gas-insulated switchgear (GIS). In the early 1970s initial projects were planned and implemented. it can run reliably without any dielectrical or mechanical failures reported over the course of 20 years. SF6 has been replaced by a gas mixture of SF6 and N 2 as insulating medium. Such gas-insulated lines were usually used within substations as busbars or bus ducts to connect gas-insulated switchgear with overhead lines. On the basis of GIS experience. For example. 35: Siemens lab prototype for dielectric tests The gas-insulated transmission line technique has proved a highly reliable system in terms of mechanical and electrical failures. even for long distances of 100 km and more.Gas-insulated Transmission Lines (GIL) Introduction For high-power transmission systems where overhead lines are not suitable. low capacitive loads are assured so that compensation of reactive power is not needed. 34 shows the arrangement of six phases in a tunnel. Once a system is commissioned and in service. Siemens experience Back in the 1960s with the introduction of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) as an insulating and switching gas. in service since 1975) Fig. one particular Siemens GIL will not undergo its scheduled inspection after 20 years of service. in sloping galleries. alternatives are gas-insulated transmission lines (GIL). gas-insulated lines need minimum cross-sections of enclosure and conductor. the aim being to reduce clearances in comparison to air-insulated overhead lines. 1/20 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . 34: GIL arrangement in the tunnel of the Wehr pumped storage station (4000 m length. With these minimum cross-sections. Siemens developed SF6 gas-insulated lines to transmit electrical energy too. Implemented projects include GIL laying in tunnels.

To determine the percentage of SF6 an optimization process was needed to find the best possible ratio between SF6 content. Technical data Rated voltage Rated current lr Transmission capacity Overload capacity Capacitance Typical length Gas mixture SF6/N2 ranging from Laying up to 550 kV 2000–4600 A 1500–3000 MVA 2. 34). The technical data of the GIL are shown in Fig. An important requirement taken into account is the situation of an earth fault with a high current of up to 63 kA to earth. The assembly area needs to be protected against dust. welding has been chosen to join the various GIL construction units. The 420 kV GIL is laid in a tunnel through a mountain and has a length of 4000 m (Fig. A clean assembly tent is essential. 1. The first GIL stretch built by Siemens is the connection of the turbine generator/ pumping motor of a pumped storage station with the switchyard. The reliability of the welding process is controlled by an integrated computerized quality assurance system. flanges have been avoided as jointing technique. Dielectric tests have been undertaken on a lab prototype as shown in Fig. 37: GIL laying technique P/MCD Jointing technique In order to improve the gas-tightness and to facilitate laying. 36: GIL technical data Fig. Clean assembly therefore plays a major role in setting up cross-country GILs under normal environmental conditions. Results of these investigations show that the bulk of the insulating gas for industrial projects involving a considerable amount of such a substance should be nitrogen. a nontoxic natural gas. The passive corrosion protection system comprises a PE or PP coating and assures at least 40 years of protection. Instead. For further information please contact: Fax ++ 49-9131-7-34490 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 1/21 . The welding process is highly automated. particles.2*lr for 10 min. an insulating capability of 70–80% of pure SF6 can be attained at the same gas pressure. Laying The most recently developed Siemens GILs are scheduled for directly buried laying. The combination of clean assembly and productivity is enhanced by a high level of automation of the overall process. The laying technique must be as compatible as possible with the landscape and must take account of the sequence of seasons. with the use of an orbital welding machine to ensure high quality of the joints. gas pressure and enclosure diameter. Anti-corrosion protection Directly buried gas-insulated transmission lines will be safeguarded by a passive and active corrosion protection system. humidity and other environmental factors that might disturb the dielectric system. Reduction of SF6 content However. 36.9*lr for 1 h ≈ 60 nF/km 1–100 km 10%/90% up to 35%/65% directly buried in tunnels/ sloping galleries/ vertical shafts open air installation Fig. 37. This connection was commissioned in 1975 at the Wehr pumped storage station in the Black Forest in Southern Germany. A N2/SF6 gas mixture with high nitrogen content (and sulphur hexafluoride portion as low as possible) was finally chosen as insulating medium. The laying process is illustrated in Fig. This orbital welding machine contributes to high productivity in the welding process and therefore speeds up laying. The active corrosion protection system provides protection potential in relation to the aluminum sheath. The laying techniques for pipelines have been developed over many years and have proved reliable. The basic behaviour of N2/SF 6 gas mixtures shows that with an SF6 content of only 15–25%. another insulating gas should be added to nitrogen in order to improve the insulating capability and to minimize size and pressure. The highvoltage gas-insulated transmission line needs special treatment where the pipeline technique has to be adapted.Gas-insulated Transmission Lines (GIL) Several development tests have been carried out in Siemens test labs as well as in cooperation with the French utility company Electricité de France (EDF). 35. References Siemens has gathered experience with gas-insulated transmission lines at rated voltages of up to 550 kV and with system lengths totalling more than 30 km.

whether air. The comprehensive quality system. Test laboratories are accredited to EN 45001 and PEHLA/STL. ISO 9001 certified. grounding switches (regular or proven). consist of the same components of a parts family. installation and aftersales service.Circuit Breakers for 72 kV up to 800 kV Introduction SF6-insulated circuit breakers Circuit breakers are the main module of both AIS and GIS switchgear. instrument transformers. This makes Siemens circuit breakers able to meet all the demands placed on high-voltage switchgear. Interrupter units Sealing systems Control elements Operating mechanism Parts family Fig. commonly used for this type of installation (See chapter GIS. All Siemens circuit breaker types. sales. Main construction elements Each circuit breaker bay for gas-insulated switchgear includes the full complement of isolator switches. reliable maintenancefree operating mechanisms. page 1/8 and following). interlocking and monitoring facilities. Circuit breakers for air-insulated switchgear are individual components and are assembled together with all individual electrical and mechanical components of an AIS installation on site. Technology reflecting the latest state of the art and years of operating experience are put to use in constant further development and optimization of Siemens circuit breakers.or gas-insulated. control and protection equipment. manufacture.e.: s Interrupter unit s Operating mechanism s Sealing system s Operating rod s Control elements. i. covers development. They have to meet high requirements in terms of: s Reliable opening and closing s Consistent quenching performance with rated and short-circuit currents even after many switching operations s High-performance. 38: Circuit breaker parts family 1/22 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .

Arc-quenching assembly The fixed tubes (2) are connected by the contact tube (3) when the breaker is closed. the fixed tubes (2) and the spring-loaded contact fingers arranged in a ring in the moving contact tube (3). Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 1/23 . which acts as a shutoff valve. The contact tube (3) is rigidly coupled to the blast cylinder (4). Two different mechanism families are available for Siemens circuit breakers: s Electrohydraulic mechanism for all AIS and GIS types s Spring-stored energy mechanism for AIS types up to 170 kV. even after a number of short-circuit switching operations. releases the SF6. The working capacity is indicated by the permanent self-monitoring system. the contact tube (3) moves into the open position. When the contacts separate. An arc is drawn between one nozzle (6) and the contact tube (3). whether for 72 kV circuit breakers with one interrupter unit per pole or breakers from the 800 kV level with four interrupter units per pole. The compressed SF6 flows radially into the break by the shortest route and is discharged axially through the nozzles (6). Major features s Erosion-resistant graphite nozzles s Consistently high dielectric strength s Consistent quenching capability across The operating mechanism The operating mechanism is a central module of the high-voltage circuit breakers. The blast cylinder (4) encloses the arcquenching arrangement like a pressure chamber. handling of test voltages in accordance with IEC and ANSI is fully guaranteed. the switching speed is high and the storage capacity substantial. 39: The interrupter unit The interrupter unit Current-path assembly The conducting path is made up of the terminal plates (1 and 7). the moving contact tube (3). It is driven in a matter of milliseconds between the nozzles (6) by the gas jet and its own electrodynamic forces and is safely extinguished.Circuit Breakers for 72 kV up to 800 kV Breaker in closed position Precompression Gas flow during arc quenching Breaker in open position 1 1 Upper terminal plate 2 3 6 4 5 2 8 2 Fixed tubes 3 Moving contact tube Arc 4 Blast cylinder 5 Blast piston 6 Arc-quenching nozzles 7 Lower terminal plate 8 Operating rod 7 Fig. The power reserves are ample. The electrohydraulic operating mechanism All hydraulically operated Siemens circuit breakers have a uniform operating mechanism concept. In the final position. The moving part is driven by an operating rod (8) to the effect that the SF6 pressure between the piston (5) and the blast cylinder (4) increases. The electrohydraulic operating mechanisms have proved their worth all over the world. the entire performance range s High number of short-circuit breaking operations s High levels of availability s Long maintenance intervals. Identical operating mechanisms (modules) are used for single or triple-pole switching of outdoor circuit breakers. the two together with a fixed annular piston (5) in between forming the moving part of the break chamber. After arc extinction.

A hydraulic storage cylinder filled with compressed nitrogen provides the necessary energy. The breaker is closed via couplers and operating rods moved by the force which acts on the larger surface of the piston. in the event of a pressure loss. Pressure from the hydraulic storage cylinder is thereby applied to the piston with two different surface areas. 43: Schematic diagram of a Q-range operating mechanism 1/24 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . thus relieving the larger piston surface of pressure and causing the piston to move onto the OFF position. 42: Operating cylinder with valve block and magnetic releases Monitoring unit and hydraulic pump with motor P P P P Oil tank Hydraulic storage cylinder N2 M M Operating cylinder Operating piston Main valve Auxiliary switch Pilot control Releases On Off Fig. 40: Operating unit of the Q-range AIS circuit breakers Fig. Fig. the breaker remains in the particular position. The breaker is ready for instant operation because the smaller piston surface is under constant pressure.and low-pressure side in the form of a closed circuit.Circuit Breakers for 72 kV up to 800 kV The force required to move the piston and piston rod is provided by differential oil pressure inside a sealed system. even when the auxiliary supply fails Excessive strong foundations Low-noise switching No oil-leakage and consequently environmentally compatible Maintenancefree. Electromagnetic valves control the oil flow between the high. Main features: s Plenty of operating energy s Long switching sequences s Reliable check of energy reserves at any time s Switching positions are reliably s s s s maintained. Two electrically separate tripping circuits are available for changing the valve over for tripping. The operating mechanism is designed to ensure that. Fig. 41: Q-range operating unit for GIS circuit breaker 8DN9 Description of function s Closing: The hydraulic valve is opened by electromagnetic means. s Tripping: The hydraulic valve is changed over electromagnetically.

These drives are based on the same principle. the control and monitoring equipment and all terminal blocks are arranged compact and yet clear in one cabinet. the energy required for switching is provided by individual compression springs (i. size and arrangement of the opening and closing springs.Circuit Breakers for 72 kV up to 800 kV The spring-stored energy operating mechanism Optional to the hydraulic operating mechanism. robust construction s s s s s 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 2 3 9 4 5 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Corner gears Coupling linkage Operating rod Closing release Cam plate Charging shaft Closing spring connecting rod Closing spring Hand-wound mechanism Charging mechanism Roller level Closing damper Operating shaft Opening damper Opening release Opening spring connecting rod Mechanism housing Opening spring with few moving parts Maintenancefree Vibration-isolated latches Load-free uncoupling of charging mechanism Ease of access 10. 45: Combined operating mechanism and monitoring cabinet Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 1/25 . one per pole) or by springs that function jointly on a triple-pole basis.000 operating cycles 8 18 Fig. 44 Fig. The differences between mechanism types are in the number. The design is simple and robust with few moving parts and a vibration-isolated latch system of highest reliability. Depending on the design of the operating mechanism. Siemens circuit breakers for voltages up to 170 kV can be equipped with springstored energy operating mechanisms. All components of the operating mechanism. The principle of the operating mechanism with charging gear and latching is identical on all types. Major features at a glance s Uncomplicated. which has been proving its worth in Siemens low and medium voltage circuit breakers for decades.e.

If desired. The interrupter unit for example has proven its reliability in more than 60. installation and commissioning are performed with expertise and efficiency. such as interrupter units. 48: 245 kV circuit breaker 3AQ2 1/26 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . operating rods and control cabinets.Circuit Breakers for 72 kV up to 800 kV Circuit breakers for air-insulated switchgear standard live-tank breakers The construction All circuit breakers are of the same general design. 47: 800 kV circuit breaker 3AT5 (if applicable) Relays for alarms and lockout Antipumping devices Operation counters (upon request) Local breaker control (upon request) Anticondensation heaters. The control unit includes all necessary devices for circuit-breaker control and monitoring. 46: 145 kV circuit breaker 3AQ1FG with triple-pole spring stored-energy operating mechanism Fig. such as: s Pressure/SF6 density monitors s Gauges for SF6 and hydraulic pressure s s s s s Fig. They consist of the following main components: 1) Interrupter unit 2) Closing resistor (if applicable) 3) Operating mechanism 4) Insulator column (AIS) 5) Operating rod 6) Breaker base 7) Control unit The simple design of the breakers and the use of many similar components. Siemens can provide appropriately qualified personnel for installation and commissioning. as shown in the illustrations. Fig. The tested circuit breaker is shipped in the form of a small number of compact units. ensure high reliability because the experience of many breakers in service could be used for the improvement of the design.000 units all over the world. Transport.

50: Type 3AQ1-E Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 11 4 9 1/27 .Circuit Breakers for 72 kV up to 800 kV 1 1 2 2 7 3 5 6 8 5 1 2 3 4 Interrupter unit Closing resistor Valve unit Electrohydraulic operating mechanism 5 Insulator columns 6 Breaker base 7 Control unit 9 13 12 10 11 4 3 4 7 6 Fig. 49: Type 3AT4/5 1 2 5 6 3 1 Interrupter unit 2 Arc-quenching nozzles 3 Moving contact 4 Filter 5 Blast piston 6 Blast cylinder 7 Bell-crank mechanism 8 Insulator column 9 Operating rod 10 Hydraulic operating mechanism 11 ON/OFF indicator 12 Oil tank 13 Control unit Fig. 51: Type 3AQ2 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Interrupter unit Arc-quenching nozzles Moving contact Filter Blast cylinder Blast piston Insulator column Operating rod Hydraulic operating mechanism Control unit SF6 density monitor 10 Fig.

and triple-pole 3 cycles (3AP/3AQ) 48…250= or ~120…240 V/50 Hz. 52: Product range/ratings 1/28 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . no tests with switching impulse withstand voltage prescribed 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 40 40 40 40/50 50 100 100 100 100/125 125 Triple-pole or single.Circuit Breakers for 72 kV up to 800 kV h h d d Type Electrical data Rated voltage Interrupter units per pole Type of operating mechanism Standards Rated power frequency withstand voltage 1 min Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage 1.5 123 3AP1/3AQ1 145 170 1 Spring-stored-energy/Electrohydraulic 245 [kV] [kV] [kV] [A] [kA] [kA] 140 325 230 550 275 650 325 750 460 1050 For rated voltage < 300 kV.2/50 µs Switching impulse withstand voltage 250/2500 µs Rated current up to Rated-short-time current (1–3 s) Rated peak withstand current Autoreclosure Break time 3AP/3AQ 3AT Rated duty cycle Auxiliary power supply for operating mechanism motor Control voltages Basic design Minimum striking distance Minimum creepage distance Circuit breaker weight approx. 120…280 V/60 Hz 48…250 V= 1250 3625 1500 660 4360 1500 4250 2000 1280 4065 2200 6150 3000 1280 5485 25 years or 6000 operating cycles The values stated are nominal (VDE. Main dimensions: Depth d Height h Maintenance Inspection due after [mm] [mm] [kg] [mm] [mm] 700 1813 1350 660 3810 1250 3625 1500 660 4360 72. IEC). Other values on request. Fig.

IEC. ANSI 520 1175 950 4000 50/63 125/160 420 550 362 420 Electrohydraulic 550 4 765/800 460 1050 435 1050 850 4000 50/63 125/160 610 1425 1050 4000 50/63 125/160 800 1550 450/520 1175 520/610 1425 1050 4000 80 200 620/760 1550 1175 4000 80 200 830/1100 2100 1425/1550 4000 63 160 4000 50/80 125/200 1175 950 4000 4000 50/63 80 125/160 200 Single.3 sec-CO-3 min-CO or CO-15 sec-CO 48…250 V= or ~ 280/120…500/298 48…250 V= 2200 6150/6050 3600/5980 2995/4060 3790/4490 2750/2200 7875/6050 4390/6430 3895/4025 4385/4490 2750/2200 7875/7165 5010/9090 3695/4280 4400/9300 3300 10375/9075 5500/8600 4195/4280 10500/10100 3800 13750 12500 5135 13690 2700 7165 14400 6830 4990 3300 9075 14700 6830 6000 3800 10190 19200 7505 6550 5000 13860 23400 9060 8400 25/20 years or 6000 operating cycles 20 years or 6000 operating cycles * with closing resistor Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 1/29 .Circuit Breakers for 72 kV up to 800 kV d d h h 3AQ2/3AT2/3AT3* 3AT4/3AT5* 245 300 362 2 Electrohydraulic DIN VDE.and triple-pole 2cycles (3AT) O-0.

dead-tank circuit breakers might be required instead of the standard live-tank breakers. 25. quick installation process s Long maintenance intervals s High number of operating cycles s Long service life Individual service s Close proximity to the customer s Order specific documentation s Solutions tailored to specific problems s After-sales service available promptly Control cabinet and SE-4 spring mechanism Base legs worldwide The right qualifications s Expertise in all power supply matters s 30 years of experience with SF6-insulat- Fig. Bushings Current transformers Main features at a glance Reliable opening and closing s Proven contact and arc-quenching system s Consistent quenching performance with rated and short-circuit currents even after many switching operations s Similar uncomplicated design for all voltages High performance.5 or 40 kA. covering development. definite-purpose breakers for application at maximum rated voltages of 121 and 145 kV.Circuit Breakers for 72 kV up to 800 kV Circuit breakers in dead-tank design For certain substation designs. 31. For these purposes Siemens can offer the dead-tank circuit breaker types. ed circuit breakers s A quality system certified to ISO 9001. Rated interrupting capacities are 20. reliable operating mechanisms s Easy-to-actuate spring operating Pressure gauges Interrupters mechanisms s Hydraulic operating mechanisms with on-line monitoring Economy s Perfect finish s Simplified. sales. manufacture. 53: SPS-circuit breaker 145 kV Subtransmission breaker Type SPS power circuit breakers are designed as general. installation and after-sales service s Test laboratories accredited to EN 45001 and PEHLA/STL 1/30 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . Continuous current ratings are up to 3000 A (Fig. 53).

5 breaker SE-4 spring mechanism s Light weight. Shipped with 0.5. Truck shipment to site s Easy access for final wiring s Negligible foundation loading s Location of control cabinet allows for easy. The breakers are designed and tested to meet ANSI. 169 and 242 kV. 54/55). testing and timing Fig. 145.Circuit Breakers for 72 kV up to 800 kV Transmission class puffer Type TCP (transmission class puffer) breakers are designed as general. simple design s Porcelain bushings s Bushing current transformers (space for 3 per bushing) s Low operating pressure s Tested and verified for seismic appli- cation s Minimal noise s 40 °C / –50 °C application s Shipped fully assembled. Continuous current ratings are up to 3000 A. The 169 and 242 kV units have interrupting ratings of up to 60 kA.5 bar positive pressure s Minimal transportation and equipment handling. Features are: s Dead-tank construction s State-of-the-art interrupter design s Extension of the high quality. Rated interrupting capacities for the 121 and 145 kV breakers are 20. Savings in installation s Factory preassembly. Fig. 31. NEMA.5 kV Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 1/31 . 54: TCP-circuit breaker 145 kV with no internal field adjustments s Minimal gas handling. 40 or 50 kA. direct breaker replacement for system upratings s Compact design allows use of existing foundations. IEEE. 55: SP-circuit breaker 72. 25. reliable SP-72. definitepurpose breakers for application at maximum rated voltages of 121. IEC standards (Fig.

The spring operating mechanism is the same design as used with the Siemens SP breakers. The type SE-4 closing and opening springs hold a charge for storing ”open-close-open“ operations (Fig. The SF6 serves as both insulation and arc-quenching medium. The interrupters use the latest Siemens puffer arcquenching system. heater and motor) are mounted on a control panel. latch check switch. This design has been in service for years. sealed with rubber gaskets.5 bar. Operating mechanism The type SE-4 mechanically and electrically tripfree spring mechanism is used on type SPS breakers. A control cabinet mounted at one end of the breaker houses the spring operating mechanism and breaker control components. Anticondensation units (475 W) offer continuous inside/outside temperature differential for prevention of condensation. cutoff switch. Terminal blocks on the side and rear of the housing are available for control and transformer wiring. up to six) bushing type current transformers (CT) per phase. Customers can specify up to four (in some cases. The opening and closing force of the SE-4 spring operating mechanism is transferred to the moving contacts of the interrupter through a system of connecting rods and a rotating seal at the side of each phase. Transformer terminal blocks Control terminal blocks Auxiliary switch Closing mechanism SF6 monitoring equipment Control panel Closing spring Motor Fig. A weatherproof control cabinet has a large door. For further information please contact: Fax: ++49 -3 03 86 -2 58 67 1/32 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .Circuit Breakers for 72 kV up to 800 kV The construction The type SPS breaker consists of three identical pole units mounted on a common support frame. for easy access during inspection and maintenance. mounted externally on the aluminum housings. These CTs. 56: Operating mechanism Included in the control cabinet are necessary auxiliary switches. The control relays and three control knife switches (one each for the control. Interrupters are located in the aluminum housings of each pole unit. alarm switch and operation counter. The SE-4 is ideally suited for high-speed reclosing. The tanks and the porcelain bushings are charged with SF6 gas at a nominal pressure of 5. and has a well documented reliability record. Reclosing speeds of 10 cycles from the instant of initial tripping impulse until the current is reestablished are common. can be removed without disturbing the bushings. 56).

The bushings and the metal tank of the circuit breaker surround a common gas volume. Field grading is implemented by means of a specially shaped screening electrode in the lower part of the composite insulator.Circuit Breakers for 72 kV up to 800 kV The new 3AT2/3-DT Circuit Breaker Composite insulators The new 3AT2/3-DT is available with bushings made from composite insulators – this has many practical advantages. even at high switching frequencies. optimisation and consistent quality assurance. For further information please contact: Fax: ++ 49 . In this respect. The tried and tested Siemens contact system with double graphite nozzles guarantees faultless operation. Hydraulic drives provide high amounts of energy economically and reliably. As is the case with porcelain insulators. which is manufactured inhouse by Siemens. In this way. the external shape of the insulator has a multished profile.3 03 86 . consistently high arc-quenching capacity and a long operating life. The SIMOTEC® composite insulators manufactured by Siemens consist of a basic body made of epoxy resin reinforced glass fibre tubes. Siemens hydraulic drives have proven themselves through decades of operation. The external tube surface is coated with vulcanised silicone. The composite insulator used on the bushing of the 3AT2/3-DT is a onepiece insulating unit. Hydraulic Drive The operating energy required for the 3AT2/3-DT interrupters is provided by the hydraulic drive. 57: The new 3AT2/3-DT circuit breaker with SIMOTEC composite insulator bushings Siemens hydraulic drives are maintenancefree and have a particulary long operating life. composite insulators offer a wide range of advantages in terms of economy. Fig. too. They meet the strictest criteria for enviromental acceptability. Siemens arc-quencing systems meet all the requirements placed on modern high voltage technology. The functional principle of the hydraulic drive constitutes a technically clear solution which offers certain fundamental advantages. even the most demanding switching requirements can be mastered in short opening times. Interrupter unit The 3AT2/3-DT pole consists of two breaking units in series impressive in the sheer simplicity of their design. Thanks to constant further development.2 58 67 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 1/33 . efficiency and safety. Compared with conventional housings.

58: Product range/ratings 1/34 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .5/40 54/67/85/108 310 650 3000 20/25/31.2/50 µs [kV] [A] [kA] [kA] 480 (730) 1280 (1850) 1750 1600 (2400) 3330 (3500) 1160 2360 3250 2100 2780 1160 2360 3250 2100 2780 6 years/2000 operating cycles * The design of these breakers is slightly different. Main dimensions: Maintenance Inspection due after Depth d Height h [mm] [kg] [mm] [mm] [cycles] 1 min [kV] [kV] 72.5/40 54/67/85/108 1. For details please inquire. Fig.5/40 54/85/108 Triple-pole 3 O-CO-15 s-CO 250/125 VDC or 110/230 VAC single-phase 125/250 VDC 3 3 260 550 3000 20/25/31.Circuit Breakers for 72 kV up to 800 kV d d h h Type Electrical data Rated voltage Interrupter units per pole Type of operating mechanism Standards Rated power frequency withstand voltage Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage Rated current up to Rated-short-time current (1–3 s) Rated peak withstand current Autoreclosure Break time Rated duty cycle Auxiliary power supply for operating mechanism motor Control voltages Basic design Minimum striking distance [mm] Minimum creepage distance Circuit breaker weight approx.5 1 SP/SPS* SPS 121 1 145 1 Spring-stored-energy ANSI/IEEE/NEMA/IEC 160 350 3000 20/31.

Circuit Breakers for 72 kV up to 800 kV d d h h TCP* 3AT2/3-DT 121 1 Electrohydraulic 145 1 169 1 242 1 550 2 Hydraulic ANSI/IEC ANSI/IEEE/NEMA/IEC 260 550 3000 20/31.5/40/50/63 54/85/108/135/170 425 900 3000 860 1800 4000 63 170 Single.and triple-pole 2 O-0.3 s-CO-3 s-CO or CO-15 s-O 60…250 VDC or 120…380 VAC 60…250 VDC 1190 2330 4300 2330 4036 1190 2330 4300 2330 4036 1620 3550 5500 2590 4780 1620 3550 5500 2590 4780 4460 11000 21800 2250 (single-pole) 8440 25 years Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 1/35 .5/40/50 54/85/108/135 Triple-pole 3 O-CO-15 s-CO 250/125 VDC or 110/230 VAC single-phase 125/250 VDC 3 3 3 310 650 3000 365 750 3000 20/31.

are available. 59: Interconnected system operation Cable transmission (CT): To transmit power across the sea with cables to supply islands/offshore platforms from the mainland and vice versa. CA (LD).. e.g. Active filters. Fig. double. where the AC system reaches the short-circuit capability.. Wherever possible. 1000 km and more.High-voltage Direct Current Transmission HVDC Where AC technology reaches its limits. 62: Earthquakeproof. 3000 MW (bipolar) Where the lower value is mainly determined by economic aspects and the upper value is limited by the constraints of the connected networks.and triple-tuned as well as high-pass passive filters..g. Siemens offers HVDC systems as s Back-to-Back (B/B) s Cable Transmission (CT) and s Long-distance Transmission Systems Fig. Use of ”state-of-the-art“ microprocessor systems for all functions. General services Studies for: s System dynamic response s Load flow and reactive power balance s HVDC system basic design s Interference of radio and PLC s Harmonic voltage distorsion s Insulation coordination s Assistance for drafting the specification s Maintenance s Upgrading/replacement of components/ redesign for older schemes. or any combination thereof. e. can be installed. e. DC expands the possibilities. Fig. mercury-arc valves or relay-based controls s General support from the very beginning of a HVDC planning to assistance during operation. Redundant design for fault-tolerant systems.. Los Angeles. 60: Cable transmission Long-distance transmission (LD): To transmit bulk power over long distances. Special features Valve technology s Simple. Typical values Typical values are found in but not limited to the following ranges: B/B: 100 . mainly for the DC circuit.. 600 MW CT: 100 . identical filters are selected so that the performance does not significantly change when one filter has to be switched off. 800 MW LD: 300 .g. Back-to-Back (B/B): To connect asynchronous high voltage power systems or systems with different frequencies. design s Use of fire-retardant. Filter technology Single-. After about 20 years of operation the valves have demonstrated the superiority of these design criteria as well as excellent reliability.. 61: Long-distance transmission 1/36 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . To stabilize weak AC links or to supply even more active power. Control system High-performance standard system with many applications in different fields. self-extinguish- ing material s Minimized number of electrical Fig. easy-to-maintain mechanical Turnkey service Experienced staff is prepared to design and install the whole HVDC system on a trurnkey basis and ready for operation. Siemens is also able to assist in finding a proper project financing. connections s Minimized number of components s Avoidance of potential sources of failure s ”Parallel“ cooling for the valve levels s Oxygen-saturated cooling water. s For economic transmission of bulk power over long distances s For power across the sea over a distance of ≈ 50 km s For the connection of asynchronous power grid systems s For the connection of synchronous but weak power grid systems s For additional active power exchange without increasing the short-circuit power s For the increase of transmission capacity on existing rights-of-way. fire-retardent thyristor valves in Sylmar East.

g. The new Man-Machine Interface (MMI) system enhances the user friendliness and increases the reliability considerably due to the operator guidance. 64: Man-machine Interface with structure of HVDC control system Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 1/37 .9131-73 35 66 Fig. s Higher availability s Fewer outages s Fewer losses s Better performance values s Less maintenance.High-voltage Direct Current Transmission Rehabilitation and modernization of existing HVDC stations The integration of state-of-the-art microprocessor systems or thyristors allows the owner better utilization of his investment. For further information please contact: Fax: ++49 . Higher availability means more operating hours. 63: HVDC outdoor valves. e. This excludes a maloperation by the operator. because an incorrect command will be ignored by the MMI. better utilization and higher profits for the owner. 533 kV MMI GPS LAN SER VCS Pole 1 OLC Pole 1 CLC VBE Pole 1 OLC SC OLC Pole 2 CLC VBE Pole 2 VCS Pole 2 Communication link to the load dispatch center MMI GPS OLC CLC VBE VCS SER Man-machine Interface Global Positioning System Open Loop Control Closed Loop Control Valve Base Electronics Valve Cooling Systems Sequence of Event Recording TFR Transient Fault Recording LAN Local Area Network Communication link to the remote station TFR DC Protection DC Yard TFR Communication link to the remote station Fig.

if not instantaneously damped. s The transport of reactive power through a grid system produces additional losses and limits the transmission of active power via overhead lines or cables.Power Compensation in Transmission Systems Introduction In many countries increasing power consumption leads to growing and more interconnected AC power systems. Fig. One line could be loaded up to its limit. The most common application is the series capactior. cables etc. Such operating conditions limit the actual transmittable amount of active power. Reactive power compensation helps to avoid these and some other problems. which are connected parallel to the transmission network at a power system node. controlled compensation (SVC. transmission systems do not behave in an ideal manner. s Load-flow distribution on parallel lines is often a problem. and also for transient events. Since power is often generated in those areas of a country with little demand.. However. switchgear transformers. the same basic requirements apply: s Power transmission must be economical s The risk of power system failure must Types of reactive power compensation Parallel compensation Parallel compensation is defined as any type of reactive power compensation employing either switched or controlled units. In order to find the best solution for a grid system problem. thus maintaining reactive power balance. Series compensation Series compensation is defined as insertion of reactive power elements into transmission lines. the transmission and distribution system has to provide the link between power generation and load centers. while another only carries half or less of the rated current. Study facilities which cover digital simulations via computer as well as analog ones in a transient network analyser laboratory are available at Siemens. can destabilize the complete grid system and then result in a “Black Out”. 65) offers the advantage that rapid dynamic control of the reactive power is possible within narrow limits. In comparison to mechanically-switched reactive power compensation. studies have to be carried out simulating the behavior of the system during normal and continuous operating conditions. such as power plants. s In some systems load switching and/or load rejection can lead to power swings which. Fig. and the consumers. 67) scheme offers several advantages to conventional fixed series capacitor installations. These complex systems consist of all types of electrical equipment. the Advanced Series Compensation (ASC. a high load flow across the same line will decrease the voltage at its end. 66: Duties of SVCs Fig. capacitor banks or filters) can provide an economical solution for reactive power compensation using conventional switchgear. The systems react dynamically to changes in active and reactive power. 66 is a general outline of the problemsolving applications of SVCs in high-voltage systems. influencing the magnitude and profile of the power systems voltage. 67: Advanced Series Compensation (ASC). In many cases switched compensation (reactors. Fig. Wherever power is to be transported. These advantages include continuous control of the desired compensation level. Examples: s A load rejection at the end of a long-dis- tance transmission line will cause high overvoltages at the line end. be low s The quality of the power supply must 1 be high However. By providing continuous control of transmission line impendance. 2 1 2 3 4 4 4 3 Transformer Thyristo-controlled reactor (TCR) Fixed connected capacitor/filter bank Thyristor-switched capacitor bank (TSC) Voltage control Reactive power control Overvoltage limitation at load rejection Improvement of AC-system stability Damping of power oscillations Reactive power flow control Increase of transmission capability Load reduction by voltage reduction Subsynchronous oscillation damping Fig. transmission lines. 65: Typical single-line diagram of static VAr compensator (SVC) Damping circuit Circuit breaker Damping circuit Circuit breaker MOV arrester MOV arrester MOV arrester Thyristor valve Conventional series capacitor 40 Ω Conventional series capacitor 55 Ω Reactors ASC 15 to 60 Ω Fig. Example: Single-line diagram ASC Kayenta 1/38 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . direct smooth control of power flow within the network and improved capacitor-bank protection.

Power Compensation in Transmission Systems Comparison of reactive power compensation facilities Below are the characteristics and application areas of series and parallel compensation and the influence on various parameter such as short-circuit rating.9131-73 45 54 Behavior of compensation element Compensation element 1 Shunt capacitor Location Shortcircuit level Little influence Voltage influence Transmission phase angle Little influence Voltage after load rejection High Good for Voltage rise Voltage stabilization at high load E U 2 Shunt reactor Little influence Voltage drop Little influence Low E U Reactive power compensation at low load. 68: Components for reactive power compensation Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 1/39 . C. Power flow distribution between parallel lines and SSR damping Fig. Further information please contact: Fax: ++ 49 . limitation of temporary overvoltage 3 Static VAr compensator (SVC) Little influence Controlled Little influence Limited by control E SVC U Reactive power and voltage control. transmission phase angle and voltage behavior at the load. limitation of S. power E U 6 Advanced series compensation (ASC) scheme ASC Variable Very good Much smaller (Very) low E U Long transmission lines. damping of power swings to improve system stability 4 Series capacitor Increased Very good Much smaller (Very) low E U Long transmission lines with high transmission power rating 5 Series reactor Reduced (Very) slight (Much) larger (Very) high Short lines.

is reflected in this system. the initial of the coupling method is attached to the name SIPCON. rather than supplied by the network. Grid Load Transformer Diode bridge DC link capacitor Fig. with regards to the rating and price of power semiconductor technology. Power factor control (cos ϕ-control) is also possible in this mode. The SIPCON-U is a combination of the other two variants and unites their capabilities. It improves the network current.and negative-sequence currents into the PCC. The tremendous progress of recent years. 3.To fullfill its control task. 2. Harmonic reduction Besides the fundamental voltage it is also possible to generate harmonic voltages. Dynamic reactive power compensation The SIPCON-P can dynamically supply stepless reactive power. The SIPCON-S can be viewed as a controlled voltage source connected in series with the network. SIPCON-U improves the network currents and the supply voltage The SIPCON-U is a combination of the SIPCON-P and SIPCON-S systems. in both capacitive and inductive modes. 4. The SIPCON-S improves the quality of the voltage supplied by the network to the load.Power Compensation in Distribution Systems Introduction SIPCON (Siemens Power Conditioner) is a system for the improvement of power quality in low. forming a single DC link capacitor used by both systems (Fig. thereby performing active load balancing. Flicker is caused by sudden. It improves the supply voltage quality. It is possible to go from no-load operation to nominal operation in about two network periods. SIPCON-P Grid PCC Coupling inductivity IGBT converter DC link capacitor Fig. 70). SIPCON-P improves network currents The coupling of the SIPCON-P is threephase. 2. the SIPCON-S can add up to three discrete voltage harmonics to the network voltage. In general. A special flicker algorithm has been developed for SIPCON-P. 5. the SIPCON-P injects currents into the PCC (point of common coupling). If the supply voltage contains harmonic distortion. The DC link capacitors of both systems are connected in parallel. The possible applications of such a system are given by the union of the features of each single system. 70: SIPCON-S connection IGBT converter Possible applications 1. Voltage sags and swells It is possible for the SIPCON-S to add an additional voltage component to the network voltage. To distinguish between the various configurations. SIPCON-U Grid Load Transformer IGBT converter DC link capacitor Fig. The load thus sees a less distorted supply voltage. 69). The SIPCON-P injects currents such that load harmonic currents are exclusively exchanged between the SIPCON-P and the load. Possible applications SIPCON-S 1. In addition. Active power exchange An energy source can be connected to the DC link capacitor. stochastic load current peaks which cause voltage drops at the PCC across the network impedance. leading to the names SIPCON-P (parallel). SIPCON-S (series) and SIPCON-U (unified). Active filtering The current flowing from the load into the network is measured and divided into fundamental and harmonic components. Flicker compensation Variation in the brightness of lighting systems that is uncomfortable to humans is called flicker. the SIPCON-U can transfer active power in both directions. It is thus possible to eliminate negativesequence currents associated with unbalanced load conditions. so that one SIPCON-U can be used to compensate both voltage sags and swells. there are various SIPCON configurations. 71: SIPCON-U Coupling inductivity IGBT converter 1/40 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . The SIPCON-U is in fact a UPFC (Unified Power Flow Controller) for distribution networks. causing practically no harmonics below 3 kHz. the SIPCON-P is intended for conditioning of the current flowing from a load into the network. Active load balancing SIPCON-P can inject both positive. Using the same hardware. improvement of the network current. 71).and medium-voltage distribution networks. thereby compensating voltage sags and swells. whereby the peak load currents are exchanged between the SIPCON-P and the load. 69: SIPCON-P connection Load SIPCON-S improves the supply voltage The series-connected SIPCON-S is coupled directly into the power flow via a transformer (Fig. The SIPCON-P injects energy in a very network-friendly manner. This system fits within the general framework of EQM equipment (Energy Quality Management). Harmonic currents thus do not flow on the network side. thus allowing energy transfer into the network from the converter. Areas of application The manner in which SIPCON is coupled to the network is dependent on the tasks the system will perform. Each configuration is coupled to the electrical network in a different manner and has one or more specific tasks to fulfill. in parallel to the network and the load (Fig.

harmonic voltages. the higher its power factor cosϕ is. and the less reactive power a plant consumes. Generators. The harmonic currents are injected in the three-phase power supply system. in the case of static converters. Inductive-type capacitors and power-factor correction units should be selected and employed in the same manner as normal capacitors and control units. the number of converter-fed loads has increased considerably in recent years. i. drives with variable speed and output can be operated more economically by using converter-fed motors. This is uneconomical. The harmonic currents of the converters are thus largely absorbed by the filter circuits. The transmission losses are less. So the voltage is distorted to a lesser degree and interference with other loads is largely obviated. It has become standard practice for many utilities to specify a power factor greater than or equal to 0. For further information please contact: Fax: ++ 49 . transformers and switchgear are required for generation and distribution of electric power.Power Compensation in Distribution Systems Power Factor Correction and Harmonic suppression Basic principles The vast majority of electrical loads draw not only active power but also reactive power which. reactive power must also be generated and distributed. For example.13 M Converter Filter circuits or inductive-type capacitors Fig. in the case of motors and transformers. which is almost zero and thus negligible in comparison to the impedance of the power system.9. Their design is similar to that of filter circuits. the lower are the power costs for the plant. overhead transmission lines. Capacitors may be employed for individual compensation. cables. for group compensation or for centralized compensation. the power costs are lower and expensive uprating of the distribution system can be avoided since more active power can now be transmitted by the existing equipment. with a fundamental power frequency component and a series of harmonics. It is recommended that inductive-type capacitors be used for cases where more than 20% of the load is made up of equipment which generates harmonics (Fig. As a result. are superimposed on the fundamental frequency and thus distort the system voltage. is required for magnetization and. 20 kV Incoming feeder from power system UPh IL I(5) I(7) ϕt 400 V I(1) Iw Ib 0 π 2π M Fig. The resonant circuits are tuned so as to present an impedance for the individual harmonic currents. but their resonant frequency lies below the 5th harmonic. 74).e. 72: Principle of power factor correction employing low voltage power capacitors Fig. In addition to active power. Design and operation of filter circuits The effect of harmonic currents on the power supply system can be reduced to a significant extent by connecting filter circuits which comprise series resonant circuits employing reactors in series with capacitors. for example.9131-7 3 13 74 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 1/41 . The load on the electrical distribution system can be reduced by installing powerfactor correction capacitors close to the loads in the low-voltage system since the reactive power is then supplied by the capacitors. Advanced technology employing thyristors is now common to a broad range of applications. 74: Removing the harmonic currents by means of filter circuits or inductive-type capacitors As a result. as control and communication reactive power. Primary distribution system to power system Transformer Low-voltage from to filter converter circuits ΣI(υ) υ=5 υ=7 υ= 11. whose frequency is an integer multiple of the power frequency. 73: Resolving of converter current into fundamental-frequency and harmonic components The converter current is composed of a series of sinusoidal currents. Harmonics As a result of continuing development of power electronic equipment. Only the remainder flows into the power supply system. the capacitor unit presents an inductive reactance to all the harmonics contained in the converter current so that resonant frequencies cannot occur. This can lead to disturbances in the system and may cause failure of other loads. which appear across the power system impedances. Power-factor correction by means of inductive-type capacitors The use of inductive-type capacitors for power-factor correction is often necessary in order to avoid resonance effects.

distribution systems and transmission systems. cables and substations. These two kinds of resistors have different degrees of nonlinearity. MO arresters. RC control devices are used (Fig. 1/42 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . traction vehicles. For this reason. there is only a small flow of current when continuous operating voltage is being applied. normally do not need series gaps. series gaps have to be connected in series to the resistors. Siemens has many years of experience with arresters – whether SiC or MO-based – in low-voltage systems. When SiC resistors are used. Otherwise. an excessively large amount of current would flow with this kind of resistor during normal operation. the arrester must be able to withstand typical surges without incurring any damage. Nonlinear resistors. so as to avoid negative effects on the power system and s Sufficient energy absorption capability for stable operation With this kind of nonlinear resistor. 75 shows the current/voltage characteristics of both types. however.Surge Arresters The main task of an arrester is to protect equipment from the effects of overvoltages. 76: Equivalent circuit diagrams of the two kinds of arresters s Thyristors in HVDC transmission earthquakes or heavy pollution s Surge-sensitive motors and dry-type transformers s Generators in power stations with arresters which posses a high degree of short-circuit current strength s Gas-insulated high-voltage metalenclosed switchgear (GIS) installations s Static compensators s Airport lighting systems s Electric smelting furnaces in the glass and metals industries s High-voltage cable sheaths s Test laboratory apparatus. have proved especially suitable for this. During normal operation. capacitors. it should have no negative effect on the power system. They are usually used for protecting transformers. When there are surges. whereby the series gaps separate the resistors from the power system under power-frequency voltage conditions. Fig. excess energy can be quickly removed from the power system by a high discharge current. Moreover. motors. There are special applications such as the protection of s Equipment in areas subject to Arrester voltage referred to continuous operating voltage Û/ÛC SiC ZnO Rated voltage ÛR Continuous operating voltage ÛC 2 1 20 °C 115 °C 150 °C 0 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 10 102 103 104 Current through arrester Ia [A] Fig. Nonlinear resistors with the following properties fulfill these requirements: s Low resistance during surges so that overvoltages are limited s High resistance during normal operation. as the arresters with ZnO resistors are known today. whether comprising silicon (SiC) carbide or the metal oxide (ZnO). In order to stabilize the sparkover voltage of the series gaps. generators. The nonlinearity of ZnO is considerably more pronounced than of SiC. 76). 75: Current/voltage characteristics of non-linear SiC and ZnO resistors SiC arrester MO arrester Series spark gap and RC control SiC discharge resistor MO discharge resistor Fig.

In addition to what has been usual up to now – the porcelain housing – Siemens offers also the latest generation of high-voltage surge arresters with polymeric housing. Please find an overview about the complete range of Siemens arresters in Fig. Furthermore. high mechanical stability and ease of disposal. 79a and 79b. The very good mechanical features mean that Siemens arresters with polymeric housing (type 3EQ/R) can serve as post insulators as well. for example in coastal and desert areas. In addition. Fig. or regions affected by heavy industrial air pollution. Because of the simpler base materials and manufacturing procedures of SiC resistors.3 03 86 -2 67 21 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 1/43 . Fig. Here. 77 shows two Siemens MO arresters with different types of housing. 77: Measurement of residual voltage on porcelain-housed (foreground) and polymeric-housed (background) arresters The availability of both technologies. The advantages of this design are absolutely safe and reliable pressure relief characteristics. One instance is the protection of capacitor banks in series reactive-power compensation equipment which requires extremly high energy absorption capabilities. especially for distribution systems. ensures that arresters can be inexpensively provided for any kind of overvoltage problem whatsoever. In contrast. which even transfers its effects to pollution. MO arresters are best used in high and extra-high-voltage power systems with solid neutral earthing.Surge Arresters Flange with gas diverter nozzle Seal Pressure relief diaphragm Compressing spring Metal oxide resistors Composite polymeric housing FRP tube/silicone sheds Fig. For high voltage levels. SiC arresters are less expensive than MO arresters. The polymeric-housed high-voltage arrester design chosen by Siemens and the highquality materials used by Siemens provide a whole series of advantages including long life and suitability for outdoor use. the special current/ voltage characteristic of SiC is more favourable for certain applications. The pollutionresistant properties are the result of the water-repellent effect (hydrophobicity) of the silicone rubber. For further information please contact: Fax: ++ 49 . the very low protection level and the high energy ab- sorption capability provided during switching surges are especially important. Another very important advantage of MO arresters is their high degree of reliability when used in areas with a problematic climate. 78: Cross section of a polymeric-housed arrester Fig. Due to the different ways in which they work and their different operating characteristics. each kind of arrester technology has its own very specific advantages. SiC and MO. high mechanical strength even after pressure relief and excellent pollution-resistant properties. 78 shows the sectional view of such an arrester. The housing consists of a fiberglass-reinforced plastic tube with insulating sheds made of silicone rubber. It makes sense to use SiC arrester where the qualities of the MO arrester cannot be fully exploited. the simple construction of MO arresters is always an advantage. some special applications have become possible only with the introduction of MO arresters. SiC arresters for higher voltages are becoming increasingly complicated in structure and therefore less economical.

Surge Arresters Type Silicon Carbide (SiC) (gapped type) 3EG4 3EE1 3EA1 Metal Oxide MO (gapless type) 3EA2 3EF1 3EF2 3EF3 Surge limiters. vehicles Distribution systems. electric furnaces. generators. enclosed switchgasgear insulated switchgear (GIS) with plugin connection Distribution systems.and medium-voltage arresters 1/44 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . 6 arrester connections. 79a: Low. motors. power plants 36 Overhead line systems DC systems. switchgear Distribution systems. motors. dry-type transformers. motors.8 4 – 15 2.8 0. airfield lighting systems 3EC2 3EE2 3EH2 3EG5 3EG6 3EK5 3EK6 Application Overhead line systems Distribution systems. switchgear Distribution systems.2 2.2 5 4. 2 ms [A] Maximum pressure relief current [kA] 150 150 (1ms) 700 150 200 200 1300 800 1700 200 200 250 500 300 5A 20 Disconnector 300 5A Disconnector Polymeric 40 20 300 16 20 16 20 20 Housing material Polymeric Porcelain Porcelain Polymeric Porcelain Polymeric Porcelain Porcelain Metal Porcelain Polymeric Porcelain Polymeric Fig. switchgear Maximum system voltage 1 24 1 12 4 52 36 24 36 36 [kV] 1 24 42 1 12 4 45 52 45 30 45 45 Maximum rated voltage [kVr] Nominal discharge current 5 5 1 5 1 10 10 5 5/10 5/10 10 10 [kA] – 0.1 – 0.5 Maximum energy absorption capability (thermal stability condition) [kJ/kVr] Maximum long duration discharge current. generators. power plants 36 DistriDistribution bution systems. switchgear Distribution systems.2 2. sysmetaltems. electric furnaces. 6 arrester connections.3 2. traction systems.

Surge Arresters Type Silicon Carbide (SiC) (gapped type) 3EM2 Metal Oxide MO (gapless type) 3EP1 3EP2 3EP3 3EQ1-B 3EQ1 3EQ2 3EQ3 3ER3 Transmission systems. 2 ms [A] Maximum pressure relief current [kA] Maximum permissible cantilever moment [kNm] Housing material 2. substations. substations Transmission systems. to DIN 48113 ** 1. metalenclosed gasinsulated switchgear (GIS. substations.5* 34* 2 20** 4. substations. vehicles Transmission systems.5 · M. SVC DC systems. traction systems.6** 60** (> 50 % after pressure relief) – – – Porcelain Porcelain Porcelain Porcelain Polymeric Polymeric Polymeric Polymeric Metal Metal Metal * Dynamic load acc. acc. metalenclosed gasinsulated switchgear (GIS) Transmission systems. 79b: High-voltage arresters Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 1/45 . substations Transmission systems. HVDC.5* 2. substations Transmission systems. substations. threephase) 170 Transmission systems.M. substations Transmission systems.1 5 10 20 8 8 13 20 10 10 13 700 500 1200 3900 800 800 1600 3900 1200 1200 1600 50/63 40 50/63 100 40 40 63 80 63 63 63 12. substations Transmission systems.1* 12.L. HVDC. SVC 3EP2-K 3EP2-K3 3EP3-K Application Transmission systems. metalenclosed gasinsulated switchgear (GIS) Maximum system voltage Maximum rated voltage Nominal discharge current 245 170 420 765 25 245 525 525 170 525 [kV] 216 180 384 612 37 (AC) 4 (DC) 10 225 444 444 168 168 444 [kVr] 10 10 20 20 10 20 20 20 20 20 [kA] 2 2 4 5 3 3 5 5 4 4 5 Maximum line discharge class Maximum energy absorption capability (thermal stability condition) [kJ/kVr] Maximum long duration discharge current. substations. to IEC 36/118/CD Fig.

80: Extended visual check on site – visual inspection – extended visual inspection – overhaul Emergency troubleshooting – simply call Phone: ++ 49 . number of years in operation with normal switching frequencies) Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 1/46 . storage. low voltage – protection and control.9131. medium voltage. cable accessories – interlocking device. generator. station control systems. For further information please contact: Fax: ++ 49 .73 44 49 Fault detection and repair – by experts who will go to the site on short notice Spare parts delivery – Reliable. Visual inspection: to be carried out by suitably trained customer personnel or Siemens maintenance staff Extended visual inspection: to be carried out by suitably trained customer personnel or Siemens maintenance staff Overhaul: to be carried out by Siemens maintenance staff together with customer personnel Fig.Worldwide Service for High.9131-73 44 49 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Number of years – for switchgear and substations s Regular maintenance s s s s s s Fig. transformer.171. 81: View of the internal components of control unit of an outdoor type high-voltage circuit-breaker Fig. organization of final disposal Personnel training for e. – high voltage.9131. 82: Example for a maintenance plan (high voltage. quick and specifically for each serial number Documentation – for spare parts and maintenance kits Assistance in final disposal – classification.3 37 86 53 Fax: ++ 49 .and Medium-voltage Switchgear and Substations Siemens provides services for s s s s Scope of service: s Maintenance contracts Circuit-breakers and devices SF6-insulated switchgear Air-insulated switchgear plants Personnel training.g.74 33 33 Mobile: ++ 49 .

Medium-Voltage Switchgear

Introduction
Primary and secondary distribution stands for the two basic functions of the mediumvoltage level in the distribution system (Fig. 1).

‘Primary distribution’ means the switchgear installation in the HV/MV transformer main substations. The capacity of equipment must be sufficient to transport the electrical energy from the HV/MV transformers input (up to 63 MVA) via busbar to the outgoing distribution lines or cable feeders. The switchgear in these main substations is of high importance for the safe and flexible operation of the distribution system. It has to be very reliable during its lifetime, flexible in configuration, easy to operate with a minimum of maintenance. The type of switchgear insulation (air or SF6) is determined by local conditions, e.g. space available, economic considerations, building costs, environmental conditions and the relative importance of maintenance. Design and configuration of the busbar are determined by the requirements of the local distribution system. These are:
s The number of feeders is given by the

outgoing lines of the system
s The busbar configuration depends on

the system (ring, feeder lines, opposite station, etc.) s Mode of operation under normal conditions and in case of faults s Reliability requirements of consumer, etc. Double busbars with longitudinal sectionalizing give the best flexibility in operation. However, for most of the operating situations, single busbars are sufficient if the distribution system has adequate redundancy (e.g. ring-type system). If there are only a few feeder lines which call for higher security, a mixed configuration is advisable. It is important to prepare enough spare feeders or at least space in order to extend the switchgear in case of further development and the need of additional feeders. As these substations, especially in densely populated areas, have to be located right in the load center, the switchgear must be space-saving and easy to install. The installation of this switchgear needs thorough planning in advance, including the system configuration and future area development. Especially where existing installations have to be upgraded, the situation of the distribution system should be analyzed for simplification (system planning and architectural system design).

‘Secondary distribution’ is the local area supply of the individual MV/LV substations or consumer connecting stations. The power capacity of MV/LV substations depends on the requirements of the LV system. To reduce the network losses, the transformer substations should be installed directly at the load centers with its typical transformer ratings of 400 kVA to max. 1000 kVA. Due to the great number of stations, they must be space-saving and maintenance-free. For high availability, MV/LV substations are mostly looped in by load-break switches. The line configuration is mostly of the open-operated ring type or of radial strands with opposite switching station. In case of a line fault, the disturbed section will be switched free and the supply is continued by the second side of the line. This calls for reliable switchgear in the substations. Such transformer substations can be prefabricated units or single components, installed in any building or rooms existing on site, consisting of medium-voltage switchgear, transformers and low-voltage distribution. Because of the extremely high number of units in the network high standardization of equipment is necessary. The most economical solution for such substations should have climate-independent and maintenancefree equipment, so that operation of equipment does not require any maintenance during its lifetime. Consumers with high power requirements have mostly their own distribution system on their building area. In this case, a consumer connection station with metering is necessary. Depending on the downstream consumer system, circuit breakers or loadbreak switches have to be installed. For such transformer substations nonextensible and extensible switchgear, for instance RMUs, have been developed using SF6 gas as insulation and arc-quenching medium in the case of load-break systems (RMU), and SF6-gas insulation and vacuum as arc-quenching medium in the case of extensible modular switchgear, consisting of load break panels with or without fuses, circuit-breaker panels and measuring panels.

2/2

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

Medium-Voltage Switchgear

Main substation

Subtransmission up to 145 kV

HV/MV transformers up to 63 MVA

Primary distribution MV up to 36 kV

Secondary distribution

open ring

closed ring

Diagram 1:

Diagram 2:

Diagram 3:

Substation

Customer station with circuit breaker incoming panel and load break switch outgoing panels

Extensible switchgear for substation with circuit-breakers e.g. Type 8DH

Fig. 1: Medium voltage up to 36 kV – Distribution system with two basic functions: Primary distribution and secondary distribution

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

2/3

Primary Distribution Selection Criteria and Explanations

General
Codes, standards and specifications Design, rating manufacture and testing of our medium-voltage switchboards is governed by international and national standards. Mainly all applicable IEC recommendations and narrative VDE/DIN standards apply to our products, whereby it should be noted that in Europe all national electrotechnical standards have been harmonized within the framework of the current IEC recommendations. Our major products in this section comply specifically with the following code publications: s IEC 298 AC metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 72.5 kV s IEC 694 Common clauses for highvoltage switchgear and controlgear standards s IEC 56 High-voltage alternating-current circuit breakers s IEC 265-1 High-voltage switches s IEC 470 High-voltage alternating current contactors s IEC 129 Alternating current disconnectors (isolators) and grounding switches s IEC 185 Current transformers s IEC 186 Voltage transformers s IEC 282 High-voltage fuses In terms of electrical rating and testing, other national codes and specifications can be met as well, e.g. ANSI C37, 20C, BS 5227, etc. In case of switchgear manufactured outside of Germany in Siemens factories or workshops, certain local standards can also be met; for specifics please inquire. Busbar system Switchgear installations for normal service conditions are preferably equipped with single-busbar systems. These switchboards are clear in their arrangement, simple to operate, require relatively little space, and are low in inital cost and operating expenses. Double-busbar switchboards can offer advantages in the following cases:
s Operation with asynchronous feeders s Feeders with different degrees of impor-

Single busbar with bus-tie breaker

Double busbars with dual-feeder breakers

Double busbars with single-feeder breakers

Double-busbars switchboard with single busbar feeders

Fig. 2: Basic basbar configurations for medium voltage switchgear
s Balancing of feeders on two systems

during operation s Access to busbars required during operation. In double-busbars switchboards with dual feeder breakers it is possible to connect consumers of less importance by singlebusbar panels. This guarantees the high availability of a double-busbar switchboard for important panels as, e.g. incoming feeders, with the low costs and the low space requirement of a single-busbar switchboard for less important panels. These composite switchboards can be achieved with the types 8BK20, 8BJ50 and 8DC11. Type of insulation The most common insulating medium has been air at atmospheric pressure, plus some solid dielectric materials. Under severe climatic conditions this requires precautions to be taken against internal contamination, condensation, corrosion, or reduced dielectric strength in high altitudes.

tance to maintain operation during emergency conditions s Isolation of consumers with shock loading from the normal network

Since 1982, insulating sulfur-hexafluoride gas (SF6-gas) at slight overpressure has also been used inside totally encapsulated switchboards as insulating medium for medium voltages to totally exclude these disturbing effects. All switchgear types in this section, with the exception of the gas-insulated models 8D, use air as their primary insulation medium. Ribbed vacuum-potted epoxy-resin post insulators are used as structural supports for busbars and circuit breakers throughout. In the gas-insulated metal-clad switchgear 8D, all effects of the environment on highvoltage-carrying parts are eliminated. Thus, not only an extremely compact and safe, but also an exceptionally reliable piece of switchgear is available. The additional effort for encapsulating and sealing the high-voltage-carrying parts requires a higher price – at least in voltage ratings below 24 kV. For a price comparison, see the curves on the following page (Fig. 3, 4).

2/4

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

Primary Distribution Selection Criteria and Explanations

Enclosure, Compartmentalization IEC Publ. 298 subdivides metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear into three types: s Metal-clad switchgear and controlgear s Compartmented switchgear and controlgear s Cubicle switchgear and controlgear. Thus “metal-clad” and “cubicle” are subdivisions of metal-enclosed switchgear, further describing construction details. In metal-clad switchgear the components are arranged in 3 seperate compartments as:
s Busbar compartment s Circuit-breaker compartment s Feeder-circuit compartment

Single busbar
! Percentage (8BK20 = 100) 160

Double busbar
! Percentage (8BK20 = 100) 160

130 120 110 100 90 80 70 0

8BK20 8DA10 8DC11 8BJ50
7.2 12 15 24 kV 36 Voltage

130 120 110 100 90 80 70 0

8BK20 8DB10 8BJ50
7.2 12 15 24 kV 36 Voltage

Fig. 3: Price relation

Fig. 4: Price relation

with earthed metal partitions between each compartment. Whereas the cubicle switchgear (type 8BJ50) has no compartments within the panel. The protection against contact with live busbar is granted by a removeable protective barrier. The protective barrier can be inserted into the panel without opening the front door and fulfills the conditions for partitions according IEC 298. IEC 298-1990-12 Annex AA specifies a “Method for testing the metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear under conditions of arcing due to an internal fault“. Basically, the purpose of this test is to show that persons standing in front of, or adjacent to a switchboard during internal arcing are not endangered by the effects of such arcs. All switchboards described in this section have successfully passed these type tests. Isolating method To perform maintenance operations safely, one of two basic precautions must be taken before grounding and short-circuiting the feeder:
s 1. Opening of an isolator switch with

rupters and instrument transformers. Therefore, if interrupters and instrument transformers are available that do not require maintenance during their lifetime, the withdrawable feature becomes obsolete. With the introduction of maintenancefree vacuum circuit-breaker bottles, and instrument transformers which are not subject to dielectric stressing by high voltage, it is possible and safe to utilize totally enclosed, fixed-mounted and gas-insulated switchgear. Models 8DA, 8DB and 8DC described in this section are of this design. Due to their much fewer moving parts and their total shielding from the environment, they have proved to be much more reliable. All air-insulated switchgear models in this section except the 8FG10 are of the withdrawable type. Switching device Depending on the switching duty in individual switchboards and feeders, basically the following types of primary switching devices are used in the switchgear cubicles in this section:
(Note: Not all types of switching devices can be used in all types of cubicle.)

and it is recommended for all generalpurpose applications. If high numbers of switching operations are anticipated (especially autoreclosing in overhead line systems and switching of high-voltage motors), their use is indicated. They are available in all ratings – see selection matrix on page 2/66–2/67 for all power switchgear listed in this section. Due to their freedom of maintenance these breakers can be installed inside totally enclosed and gas-insulated switchgear. To 2: Vacuum contactors Vacuum contactors with rated current up to 450 A are used for frequent switching operations in motor, transformer, and capacitor bank feeders. They are type-tested, extremely reliable and compact devices and they are totally maintenancefree. Since contactors cannot interrupt fault currents, they must always be used with currentlimiting fuses to protect the equipment connected. Vacuum contactors can be installed in the metal-enclosed, metal-clad switchgear type 8BK20 and 8BK30. To 3: Vacuum switches or … Vacuum switches and gas-insulated threeposition switch disconnectors in primary distribution switchboards are used mostly for small transformer feeders such as auxiliary transformers or load center substations. Because of their inability to interrupt fault currents they must always be used with current-limiting fuses. Vacuum switches can be installed in the air-insulated switchboard type 8BK20 and 8BJ50. Gasinsulated three-position switch disconnectors can be installed in the switchboard type 8DC11. For details of these switching devices see the following pages!

clear indication of the OPEN condition.
s 2. Withdrawal of the interrupter carrier

s 1. Vacuum circuit-breakers s 2. Vacuum contactors in conjunction

from the operating into the isolation position. In both cases, the isolation gap must be larger than the sparkover distance from live parts to ground to avoid sparkover of incoming overvoltages across the gap. The first method is commonly found in fixed mounted interrupter switchgear, whereas the second method is applied in withdrawable switchgear. Withdrawable switchgear has primarily been designed to provide a safe environment for maintenance work on circuit inter-

with HRC-fuses
s 3. Vacuum switches or gas-insulated

three-position switch disconnector in conjunction with HRC-fuses. To 1: Vacuum circuit breaker In the continuing strive for safer and more reliable medium-voltage circuit breakers, the vacuum interrupter is clearly the first choice of buyers of new circuit breakers on a worldwide basis. It is maintenancefree up to 10,000 operating cycles without any limitation by time

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

2/5

Primary Distribution Selection Matrix

Standards

Insulation

Busbar system

Enclosure, compartmentalization

Isolating method

Metal-enclosed, cubicle-type

Draw-out section

Metal-enclosed, metal-clad

Draw-out section

Single busbar

Metal-enclosed, metal-clad

Draw-out section

Metal-enclosed, metal-clad

Draw-out section

Type-tested indoor switchgear to DIN VDE 0670, Part 6 IEC 298

Air-insulated

Generator circuit-breaker

Metal-enclosed, metal-clad

Draw-out section

Metal-enclosed, cubicle-type Double busbar Metal-enclosed, metal-clad

Draw-out section

Draw-out section

Single busbar

Triple-pole metal-enclosed, metal-clad Single-pole metal-enclosed, metal-clad Triple-pole metal-enclosed, metal-clad Single-pole metal-enclosed, metal-clad

Disconnector, fixed-mounted

Disconnector, fixed-mounted

SF6-insulated

Disconnector, fixed-mounted

Double busbar

Disconnector, fixed-mounted

Switchgear to DIN VDE 0101

Air-insulated

Generator circuit-breaker

Metal-enclosed, cubicle-type

Disconnector, fixed-mounted

Containerized switchgear equipped with air-insulated or SF6-insulated switchgear

Fig. 5: Primary Distribution Selection Matrix

2/6

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

Primary Distribution Selection Matrix

Switching device

Switchgear type

Technical data Maximum rated short-time current [kA], 1/3 s
7.2 kV 12 kV 40 17.5/24 36 kV kV 25 –

Page Maximum busbar rated current [A]
7.2 kV 12/15 17.5/24 36 kV kV kV 2500 –

Maximum feeder rated current [A]
7.2 kV 2500 12/15 17.5/24 36 kV kV kV 2500 2000

Vacuum circuit-breaker Vacuum switch

8BJ50

40

2500 2500

2/8

Vacuum circuit-breaker Vacuum switch Vacuum contactor Vacuum contactor

8BK20

50

50

25

31.5*

4000 4000

2500

2500*

4000

4000

2000 2500*

2/12

8BK30

50

50

4000 4000

400

400

2/17

Vacuum circuit-breaker

8BK40

63

63

63**

5000 5000

5000** –

5000

5000

5000** –

2/20

Vacuum circuit-breaker

8BK41

80

80

80**

12 500 12500 12500** –

2/24

Vacuum circuit-breaker

8BJ50

40

40

25

2500 2500

2500

2 500

2500

2000

2/8

Vacuum circuit-breaker Vacuum switch Vacuum contactor Vacuum circuit-breaker Switch-disconnector

8BK20

50

50

25

31.5*

4000 4000

2500

2500*

4000

4000

2000 2500*

2/12

8DC11

25

25

25

1250 1250

1250

1250

1250

1250

2/26

Vacuum circuit-breaker

8DA10

40

40

40

40

3150 3150

3150

2500

2500

2500

2500 2500

2/32

Vacuum circuit-breaker Switch-disconnector

8DC11

25

25

25

1250 1250

1250

1250

1250

1250

2/26

Vacuum circuit-breaker

8DB10

40

40

40

40

3150 3150

3150

2500

2500

2500

2500 2500

2/32

Vacuum circuit-breaker

8FG10

80

80

80**

12 500 12 500 12500** –

2/39

8FF1

ratings acc. to the installed switchgear type
* 36 kV panel: metal enclosed, compartmented

2/41
** up to 17.5 kV

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

2/7

e.and double-busbar s s s s s s s (back-to-back or face-to-face) Air-insulated Type-tested Metal-enclosed Cubicle-type Withdrawable vacuum breaker Vacuum switch optional For indoor installation Specific features s General-purpose switchgear s Circuit breaker mounted on horizontal slide behind front door s Cable connections from front Safety of operating and maintenance personnel s All switching operations behind closed s s s s s doors Positive and robust mechanical interlocks Arc-fault-tested metal enclosure Complete protection against contact with live parts Line test with breaker inserted (option) Maintenancefree vacuum breaker Fig. Full or partial plexiglass windows. A fully isolated low-voltage compartment is integrated. Breaker carriage The carriage normally supports a vacuum circuit breaker with the associated operating mechanism and auxiliary devices. The switchgear cubicles and interrupters are factory-assembled and type-tested as per the applicable standards. are optional. Cubicles for rated voltages up to 24 kV are of identical construction. the circuitbreaker carriage can be equipped for motor operation. bolted or riveted together from rolled galvanized steel sheets and profiles. with or without HV HRC fuses. A removable protective barrier is used for shielding the busbars without isolating them in order. this partition provides same safety features as a metal-clad design. the arc. The protective barrier can be inserted into the panel without opening the front door and fulfills the conditions for partitions according IEC 298. To reduce internal arcing times and thus consequential damages. All commonly used feeder circuits and auxiliary devices are available. For complete remote control. or mimic diagrams are available for these doors.Air-insulated Switchgear Type 8BJ50 Cubicle-type switchgear 8BJ50. Inspection can easily and safely be carried out with the circuit breaker in the “Disconnected/Test” position. air-insulated s From 7. Local mechanical ON/OFF pushbuttons are actived through the door as well. Any overpressure inside the cubicle resulting from fault arcing is released by pressure relief flaps. “Disconnected/Test” position. 2/8 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . Therefore. By manually moving the carriage with the spindle drive it can be brought into a distinct “Connected” and Tolerance to environment s Sealed metal enclosure with optional gaskets s Complete corrosion protection and tropicalization of all parts (option) s Vacuum-potted ribbed epoxy-insulators with high tracking resistance General description 8BJ50 switchboards consist of metal enclosed cubicles of air-insulated switchgear with withdrawable vacuum circuit breakers. pressure switches can be installed that trip the incoming feeder circuit breaker(s) in less than 100 msec. to work inside the cubicle. cabling troughs and the central LV terminal strip(s) are located behind a separate lockable door.2 to 24 kV s Single. It is manually moved in horizontal direction from the “Connected” position behind the closed front door and without the use of auxiliary equipment. Low-voltage compartment All protective relays as well as monitoring and control devices of a feeder can be accommodated in a metal-enclosed LV compartment on top. Vacuum switches.g. All electrical and mechanical parts are easily accessible in this position. To this effect. a central service truck is used.and pressure-proof front door remains closed. This is an economic alternative to busbar differential protection. Mechanical spring-charge and contactposition indicators are visible through the closed door.. 6: Panel of cubicle-type switchgear 8BJ50 (inter-cubicle partition removed) Fig. The breaker carriage is fully interlocked with the interrupter and the stationary cubicle. Device mounting plates. 7: Cross section through cubicle-type switchgear 8BJ50 Stationary part The cubicle is built as a self-supporting structure. To remove the switching element completely from its cubicle.

and naturally against contact with live parts. and moving the carriage into this position with the grounding switch engaged. s Engaging the grounding switch with the carriage in the “Connected” position. and the fixed contacts of the grounding switch.T. Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/9 . Degrees of protection Degree of protection IP 4X: In the “Connected” and the “Disconnected/Test” position of the carriage. stress cones are installed conveniently inside the cubicle. entrance from above requires an auxiliary structure behind the cubicle. The parallel connecting arms are designed to increase contact pressure during short circuits.Air-insulated Switchgear Type 8BJ50 Main enclosure The totally enclosed and sealed cubicle permits installation in most equipment rooms. small animals and rodents. the switchgear is totally protected against contact with live parts by objects larger than 1 mm in diameter. s Switching the breaker in any but the locked “Connected” or “Disconnected/ Test” position. positively preventing the following: s Moving the carriage with the breaker closed and protective barrier inserted. engaging contacts behind the cable lugs.T. The C. Fig. Operation of the fully interlocked grounding switch is possible only with the breaker carriage in the “Disconnected/ Test” position. They are mounted in standard cast-resin bushings supported in the inter-cubicle partitions. Busbars and primary disconnects Rectangular busbars drawn from pure copper are used exclusively. Instrument transformers Up to three multicore block-type current transformers plus three single-phase potential transformers can be installed within the termination zone. This eliminates the usual reasons for arc faults. Bus bar metering PTs can be fixed installed within the busbar zone or in a metering cubicle. The movable parts of the line and loadside primary disconnects have flat. springloaded and silver-plated hemispherical pressure contacts for low contact resistance and good ventilation. With the degree of protection of IP4X/IP3XD. The taps to the upper fixed isolating contact are mounted on ribbed. All common burden and accuracy ratings of instrument transformers are available. 8: Double busbar: back-to-back arrangement (cross section) Interlocking system A series of sturdy mechanical interlocks forces the operator into the only safe operating sequence of the switchgear. cast-resin post insulators which are sized to take up the dynamic forces resulting from short circuits. the switchgear is safeguarded against internal contamination.s carry the cable-connecting bars and lugs. Cable and bar connections Cables and bars are connected from below. Make-proof grounding switches with manual operation can be installed below the C. Single-phase or three-phase solid-dielectric cables can be connected from the front of the cubicle. withdrawable PTs and optionally with current-limiting fuses.s. The fixed isolating contacts are silverplated stubs. 9: Double busbar: face-to-face arrangement (cross section) Fig.

2 800 2150 1125 2250 500 12 800 2150 1125 2250 500 17. 11 2/10 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . The switchboard can be installed against the wall or freestanding.5/24 width 1000 mm 95/125 38/50 * 40 kA/1 s Fig. Cable feed-in is through corresponding cutouts in the floor. Double-busbar installations in back-to-back configuration are installed freestanding.5/24 800/1000 2150 1430 2860 700 Technical data Rated voltage Rated lightningimpulse test voltage [kV] Rated powerfrequency withstand voltage [kV] Rated short-circuit breaking current/ short-time current (1 s or 3 s available) [kA] (rms) 16 20 25 31. plans for which are part of the switchgear supply.2 60 20 12 75 28 17. Three-phase (armored) cables for voltages above 12 kV require sufficient clearance below the switchgear to split up the phases (cable floor. Depth single busbar double busbar Approx. weight incl. 10 [kV] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] 7. These sections are bolted or spot-welded to channel iron sections embedded in a flat and level concrete floor.).5/24 width 800 mm 95/125 38/50 17. breaker (single busbar cubicle) Fig. Circuit breakers are shipped mounted on their carriages inside the switchgear cubicles.5 40* 16 20 25 31. etc. Weights and dimensions Rated voltage Width Height min. see the table to the right.Air-insulated Switchgear Type 8BJ50 Installation The switchboards are shipped in sections of up to three cubicles on stable wooden pallets which are suitable for rolling and forklift handling. For preliminary dimensions and weights.5 40* 16 20 25 16 20 25 Rated shortcircuit making current Rated feeder currents Rated busbar currents [kV] [kA] (peak) 40 50 63 80 100 40 50 63 80 100 40 50 63 40 50 63 630 [A] s s s – – s s s – – s – – s – – 1250 [A] s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s 2000 [A] – – – – – – – – – – – – – – s s 2500 [A] – – s s s – – s s s – – – – – – 1250 [A] s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s 2500 [A] s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s 7.

Air-insulated Switchgear Type 8BJ50 8BJ50 Panel Fixed parts Withdraw.Busbar able parts modules Sectionalizer Bus riser panel Metering Busbar connection panel panel Fig. 12: Available circuit options Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/11 .

13: Metal-clad switchgear type 8BK20 (inter-cubicle partition removed) doors s Positive and robust mechanical interlocks s Arc-fault-tested metal enclosure s Complete protection against contact The switchgear cubicles and interrupters are factory-assembled and type-tested as per the applicable standards. All electrical and mechanical parts are easily accessible in this position. Each compartment in every model has its own pressure-relief device. This is an economical alternative to busbar differential protection. effectively maintaining the compartmentalization in all operating conditions of the switchgear. Inspection can easily and safely be carried out with the circuit breaker in the ”Disconnected/Test“ position. It is manually moved in horizontal direction from the ”Connected“ position behind the closed front door and without the use of auxiliary equipment. In the 24 kV version. the circuitbreaker carriage can be equipped for motor operation. with live parts s Line test with breaker inserted (option) s Maintenancefree vacuum breaker Tolerance to environment s Metal enclosure with optional gaskets s Complete corrosion protection and tropicalization of all parts. the compartments are formed by internal barriers made of fiberglass-reinforced epoxy plates with individual-phase safety shutters that seal in both directions. Breaker carriage The carriage normally supports a vacuum circuit breaker with the associated operating mechanism and auxiliary devices. The bushings are covered by automatic steel safety shutters upon removal of the circuit-breaker carriage from the ”Connected“ position. s Vacuum-potted ribbed epoxy insulators with high tracking resistance General description 8BK20 switchboards consist of metal-clad cubicles (compartmented above 24 kV) of air-insulated switchgear with withdrawable vacuum circuit breakers. Each cubicle is divided into three sealed and isolated compartments by partitions. In the 36 kV version. To remove the switching element completely from its compartment. By manually moving the carriage with the a spindle drive it can be brought into a distinct ”Connected“ and ”Disconnected/ Test“ position. Cubicles for rated voltages up to 24 kV are of identical construction. Mechanical spring-charge and contactposition indicators are visible through the closed door. cable connection and circuit-breaker compartment. To reduce internal arcing times and thus consequential damages. i. For complete remote control.e. Vacuum contactors up to 12 kV and fused vacuum switches up to 24 kV are optional. Stationary part The cubicle is built as a self-supporting structure. A fully isolated low-voltage compartment is integrated. Local mechanical ON/OFF pushbuttons are actived through the door as well.Air-insulated Switchgear Type 8BK20 Metal-clad switchgear 8BK20. The breaker carriage is fully interlocked with the interrupter and the stationary cubicle. Fused vacuum switches up to 24 kV/800 A and vacuum contactors up to 12 kV and 400 A can be used optionally. the fixed contacts of the primary disconnects are located within bushings. a central service truck is used.and pressure-proof front door remains closed. 2/12 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . All commonly used feeder circuits and auxiliary devices are available. making it compartmented.2 to 36/38 kV s Single. the busbar. air-insulated s From 7. the 36/38 kV model is larger and uses fiberglass-reinforced epoxy internal partitions. To this effect. pressure switches can be installed that trip the incoming feeder circuit breaker(s) in less than 100 msec.and double-busbar s s s s s s s s s (back-to-back or face-to-face) Air-insulated Type-tested Metal-enclosed Metal-clad up to 24 kV Compartmented above 24 kV Withdrawable vacuum breaker Vacuum contactor optional Vacuum switch optional For indoor installation Specific features s General-purpose switchgear s Circuit breaker mounted on horizontal slide behind front door s Cable connections from front or rear Safety of operating and maintenance personnel s All switching operations behind closed Fig. bolted together from rolled galvanized steel sheets and profiles. the arc.

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/13 . engaging contacts behind the cable lugs. cabling troughs. or the busbar mounts (36 kV). and the central LV terminal strip(s) are located behind a separate lockable door.s.s carry the cable-connecting bars and lugs. Busbars and primary disconnects Rectangular busbars drawn from pure copper are used exclusively. Instrument transformers Up to three multicore block-type current transformers plus three single-phase potential transformers can be installed in the lower compartment.and loadside primary disconnects have flat. cast-resin post insulators which are sized to take up the dynamic forces resulting from short circuits. the switchgear is totally protected against contact with live parts by objects larger than 1 mm in diameter. The parallel connecting arms are designed to increase contact pressure during short circuits. Should arcing occur. and moving the carriage into this position with the grounding switch engaged. and the fixed contacts of the (optional) grounding switch. They are mounted on ribbed. locked ”Connected“ or ”Disconnected/ Test“ position s Engaging the grounding switch with the carriage in the ”Connected“ position. stress cones are installed conveniently inside the cubicle. s Switching the breaker in any but the Fig. parititions between individual cubicles of the same bus sections are normally not used. preventing positively the following: s Moving the carriage with the breaker closed. 14: Cross-section through 8BK20 cubicle Low-voltage compartment All protective relays. the cubicles can be protected against harmful internal deposits of dust and against dripping water (IP 51). Main enclosure The totally enclosed and sealed cubicle permits installation in most equipment rooms. Degrees of protection Degree of protection IP 4X: In the ”Connected“ and the ”Disconnected/Test“position of the carriage. This eliminates the usual reasons for arc faults. or mimic diagrams are available for these doors. identically to breaker carriages. Optionally. nevertheless. The fixed contacts are silver-plated stubs within the circuit-beaker bushings (24 kV). the switchgear is safeguarded against internal contamination. The C. monitoring and control devices of a feeder can be accommodated in a metal-enclosed LV compartment on top (up to 24 kV) or alongside (36/38 kV) the HV enclosure. With the optional dust protection.T. Full or partial plexiglass windows. entrance from above requires an auxiliary structure behind the cubicle. springloaded and silver-plated hemipherical pressure contacts for low contact resistance and good ventilation. small animals and rodents. where damages are repaired most easily. Single-phase or three-phase solid-dielectric cables can be connected from the front or the rear of the cubicle (specify). Busbar metering PTs with their current-limiting fuses are installed on withdrawable carriages. For the latter reason. Regular and make-proof grounding switches with manual operation can be installed below the C. Device-mounting plates. Soliddielectric busbar insulation is available.T. PTs optionally on withdrawable modules up to 24 kV. Operation of the fully interlocked grounding switch is possible only with the breaker carriage in the ”Disconnected/Test“ position. The movable parts of the line. Interlocking system A series of sturdy mechanical interlocks forces the operator into the only safe operating sequence of the switchgear. All common burden and accuracy ratings of instrument transformers are available. the arc can be guided towards the end of the lineup. and naturally against contact with live parts.Air-insulated Switchgear Type 8BK20 Cable and bar connections Cables and bars are connected from below.

16: Cross section through switchgear type 8BK20 in single-busbar arrangement for front cable connection and 36/38 kV 170 kV/BIL Weights and dimensions Rated voltage Panel spacing Width Depth front conn. Cable feed-in is through corresponding cutouts in the floor. weight incl. etc. plans for which are part of the switchgear supply. without channel with channel Depth rear conn. Front-connected types can be installed against the wall or freestanding. 17 [kV] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] 7. breaker Fig. 15: Cross section through switchgear type 8BK20 in back-to-back double-busbar arrangement for rated voltages up to 24 kV Fig.2 800 2050 1650 1775 1775 800 12 800 2050 1650 1775 1775 800 15 800 2050 1650 1775 1775 800 17.17. rear-connected cubicles require service aisles. Approx.). Double-busbar installations in back-to-back configuration are installed freestanding. For dimensions and weights.5 1000 2250 2025 2150 2150 1000 24 1000 2250 2025 2150 2150 1000 36/38 1500 2220 – 2220 2245 1600 2/14 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . These sections are bolted or spot-welded to channel iron sections embedded in a flat and level concrete floor.Air-insulated Switchgear Type 8BK20 Installation The switchboards are shipped in sections of up to three cubicles on stable wooden pallets which are suitable for rolling and forklift handling. Circuit breakers are shipped mounted on their carriages inside the switchgear cubicles. Fig. see Fig. Three-phase (armored) cables for voltages above 12 kV require sufficient clearance below the switchgear to split up the phases (cablefloor.

5 40* 50* 16 20 25 31. 18 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/15 . Fig.5 40* 50* 16 20 25 16 20 25 16 25 31.Air-insulated Switchgear Type 8BK20 Technical data Rated voltage Lightning impulse test voltage Power frequency test voltage Rated shortcircuit-breaking current/short time current (1 or 3s available) [kA](rms) 16 20 25 31.5 95 38 24 125 50 36/38 170 70/80 *1s 1) Ventilation unit with or without fan and ventilation slots in the front of the cubicle required.5 Rated shortcircuit making current Rated feeder current* Rated busbar current [kV] 7.2 [kV] 60 [kV] 20 [kA] 40 50 63 80 110 125 40 50 63 80 110 125 40 50 63 80 110 125 40 50 63 40 50 63 40 63 80 630 1250 2000 2500 3150 4000 1) [A] [A] [A] [A] [A] [A] s s s – – – s s s – – – s s s – – – s s s s s – – – – s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s – – s s s – – – s s s – – – s s s – – – s – s s – – – – – s s s s – – s s s s – – s s s s – – – – – – s s s – – – – s s – – – – s s – – – – s s – – – – – – – – – – – – – s s – – – – s s – – – – s s – – – – – – – – – 1250 2000 2500 3150 4000 [A] [A] [A] [A] [A] s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s – – – – – – – – – s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s – – – – – – – – – 12 75 28 15 95 36 17.5 40* 50* 16 20 25 31.

19: Available circuit options 2/16 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .Air-insulated Switchgear Type 8BK20 8BK20 switchgear up to 24 kV Panel Fixed parts Withdrawableparts Busbar modules Sectionalizer Bus riser panel Metering Busbar connecpanel tion panel 8BK20 switchgear 36/38 kV Panel Fixed busbar Withdrawableparts Busbar modules Sectionalizer Model 1 Two panels Model 2 Two panels with underpass Metering panel Busbar connection panel (left end panel only) On right end cubicle or bus sectonalizer with solid-insulated busbars between two cubicles Fig.

21 [kV] 40 60 60 [kV] 10 20 28 [A] 400 400 400 1250 [A] s s s 2000 [A] s s s 2500 [A] s s s 3150 [A] s s s 4000 [A] s s s Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/17 . 20: Metal-clad switchgear type 8BK30 with vacuum contactor (inter-cubicle partition removed) calization of all parts s Vacuum-potted ribbed expoy insulators Technical data Rated voltage BIL PFWV Maximum rating of motor [kW] 1000 2000 3000 with high tracking resistance Feeder rating Rated busbar current [kV] 3.6–12 kV Single-busbar Type-tested Metal-enclosed Metal-clad Withdrawable vacuum contactors and HRC current-limiting fuses s For direct lineup with 8BK20 switchgear s For indoor installation s s s s s s Specific features s Designed as extension to 8BK20 switch- gear with identical cross section s Contactor mounted on horizontally mov- ing truck – 400 mm panel spacing s Cable connection from front or rear s Central or individual control power trans- former s Integrally-mounted electronic multifunc- tion motor-protection relays available. Safety of operating and maintenance personnel s All switching operations behind closed doors s Positive and robust mechanical inter- locks s Arc-fault-tested metal enclosure s Complete protection against contact with live parts s Absolutely safe fuse replacement s Maintenancefree vacuum interrupter tubes Tolerance to environment s Metal enclosure with optional gaskets s Complete corrosion protection and tropi- Fig.2 12 Fig.Air-insulated Switchgear Type 8BK30 Vacuum contactor motor starters 8BK30. air-insulated From 3.6 7.

plus the primary disconnects complete the assembly. are used in conjunction with current-limiting fuses as starter devices. All commonly used starter circuits and auxiliary devices are available.T. air-insulated and metal-clad cubicles.s and cable connection Due to the limited let-through current of the HRC fuse. with the exception of the contactor truck. HRC fuses. Vacuum contactors on withdrawable trucks. Grounding switches or surge-voltage limiters are installed optionally below the current transformers. plus the usual auxiliary relays for starter control. Low-voltage compartment Space is provided for regular bimetallic or electronic motor-protection relays. Main enclosure Practically identical to the associated 8BK20 switchgear. and control power transformer with fuses (if ordered) are mounted on the withdrawable truck. C. The truck is fully interlocked with the structure and is manually moved from the ”Connected“ to the ”Disconnected/Test“ position.T. Busbars and primary disconnects Horizontal busbars are identical to the ones in the associated 8BK20 switchgear.Air-insulated Switchgear Type 8BK30 Full-voltage nonreversing (FVNR) Reduced-voltage nonreversing (RVNR) with starter (reactor starting) Reduced-voltage nonreversing (RVNR) with external reactor autotransformer ”Korndorffer Method“ Fig. The starter cubicles and contactors are factory-assembled and type-tested as per applicable standards. Primary disconnects are adapted to the low feeder fault currents of these starters. terminals. C. The compartment is metal-enclosed and has its own lockable door. 22: Available circuits General description 8BK30 motor starters consist of metalenclosed. All commonly used feeder cables up to 300 mm2 can be terminated and connected at the lower C. block-type C. The stationary part The cubicle is constructed basically the same as the matching switchgear cubicles 8BK20.s with one or two secondary windings are installed. Depending on the protection scheme used. Silver-plated tulip contacts with round contact rods are used.s with lower thermal rating can be used. with or without control power transformers. All customer wiring is terminated on a central terminal strip within this compartment. Auxiliary devices and interlocking components. Contactor truck Vacuum contactor.T. 2/18 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . A fully isolated low-voltage compartment is integrated.T.

contactor Fig. 23: Cross section through switchgear type 8BK30 Weights and dimensions Rated voltage Width Height Depth Approx. Degrees o protection Degree of protection IP 4X: In the ”Connected“ and the ”Disconnected/Test“ positions of the truck.6 2 x 400 2050 1650 700 7. s The LV plug cannot be disconnected with the truck in the ”Connected“ position.2 2 x 400 2050 1650 700 12 2 x 400 2050 1650 700 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/19 . Only the HRC fuses are shipped outside the enclosure. separately packed. truck and low-voltage plugs are integrated into the interlocking system to guarantee the following safeguards: s The truck cannot be moved into the ”Connected“ position before the LV plug is inserted. the starters can be protected against harmful internal deposits of dust and against dripping or spray water in the ”Operating“ position (IP 51).Air-insulated Switchgear Type 8BK30 Interlocking system Contactor. weight incl. s The grounding switch cannot be engaged with the truck in the ”Connected“ position. 24 [kV] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] 3. s The truck cannot be brought into the ”Connected“ position with the grounding switch engaged. Optionally. Fig. Installation Identical to the procedures outlined for 8BK20 switchgear. s The contactor cannot be operated with the truck in any other but the locked ”Connected“ or ”Disconnected/Test“ position. the starter is totally protected against contact with live parts with objects larger than 1 mm in diameter. s The truck cannot be moved with the contactor in the ON position.

2 to 17. hydro and pumped-storage power plants s Suitable for use in horizontal. 25: Metal-clad switchgear type 8BK40 with vacuum circuit breaker 3AH (inter-cubicle partition removed) Tolerance to environment s Sealed metal enclosure with optional gaskets s Complete corrosion protection and tropi- calization of all parts s Vacuum-potted ribbed epoxy-insulators with high tracking resistance Generator vacuum circuit breaker panel s Suitable for use in steam. 26: Cross section through type 8BK40 generator panel 2/20 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . L-shaped or vertical generator lead routing Fig.5 kV s Single. air-insulated s From 7.Air-insulated Switchgear Type 8BK40 Metal-clad switchgear 8BK40. gas-turbine.and double-busbar s s s s s s (back-to-back or face-to-face) Air-insulated Type-tested Metal-enclosed Metal-clad Withdrawable vacuum breaker For indoor installation Specific features s General-purpose switchgear for rated feeder/busbar current up to 5000 A and short-circuit breaking current up to 63 kA s Circuit breaker mounted on horizontally moving truck s Cable connections from front Safety of operating and maintenance personnel s All switching operations behind closed s s s s doors Positive and robust mechanical interlocks Complete protection against contact with live parts Line test with breaker inserted (option) Maintenancefree vacuum circuit breaker Fig.

or mimic diagrams are available for these doors. springloaded and silver-plated hemispherical pressure contacts for low contact resistance and good ventilation.and loadside primary disconnects have flat. the switchgear is safeguarded against internal contamination. They are mounted on ribbed. pressure-switches can be installed that trip the incoming-feeder circuit breaker(s) in less than 100 msec. The bushings are covered by automatic steel safety shutters upon removal of the circuit-breaker element from the ”Connected“ position. Interrupter truck The truck normally supports a vacuum circuit breaker with the associated operating mechanism and auxiliary devices. 27: Cross-section through panel type 8BK40 Mechanical spring-charge and contact-position indicators are visible through the closed door. Inspection can easily and safely be carried out with the circuit breaker in the ”Disconnected/Test“ position. The parallel connecting arms are designed to increase contact pressure during short circuits. Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/21 . partitions between individual cubicles of the same bus sections are normally not used. Each compartment in every model has its own pressure-relief device. nevertheless. Main enclosure The totally enclosed and sealed cubicle permits installation in most equipment rooms. This eliminates the usual reasons for arc faults. the busbar. cabling troughs. the front door remains closed.e. For complete remote control. Should arcing occur.5 kV are of identical construction. small animals and rodents. Device-mounting plates. All commonly used feeder circuits and auxiliary devices are available. Busbars and primary disconnects Rectangular busbars drawn from pure copper are used exclusively. effectively maintaining the compartmentalization in all operating conditions of the switchgear. Each cubicle is divided into three sealed and isolated compartments by partitions. A fully isolated lowvoltage compartment is integrated. The movable parts of the line. Full or partial plexiglass-windows. PTs optionally on withdrawable modules. To this effect. Stationary part The cubicle is built as a self-supporting structure. By manually moving the truck with the a spindle drive it can be brought into a distinct ”Connected“ and ”Disconnected/ Test“ position. bolted together from rolled galvanized steel sheets and profiles. the arc can be guided towards the end of the lineup. With the optional dust protection. and naturally against contact with live parts. where damages are repaired most easily. and the central LV terminal strip(s) are located behind a separate lockable door. Cubicles for rated voltages up to 17. This is an economic alternative to busbar differential protection. It is manually moved in horizontal direction from the ”Connected“ position behind the closed front door and without the use of auxiliary equipment. cast-resin post insulators which are sized to take up the dynamic forces resulting from short circuits. All electrical and mechanical parts are easily accessible in this position. Local mechanical ON/OFF pushbuttons are actived through the door as well. The breaker truck is fully interlocked with the interrupter and the stationary cubicle. The switchgear cubicles and interrupters are factory-assembled and type-tested as per applicable standards. Low-voltage compartment All protective relays. To reduce internal arcing times and thus consequential damages. The fixed contacts are silver-plated stubs within the circuit-breaker bushings.Air-insulated Switchgear Type 8BK40 General description 8BK40 switchboards consist of metal-clad cubicles of air-insulated switchgear with withdrawable vacuum circuit breakers. Instrument transformers Up to three multicore block-type current transformers plus three single-phase potential transformers can be installed in the lower compartment. i. Fig. cable connection and circuit-breaker compartment. The fixed contacts of the primary disconnects are located within insulating breaker bushings. the circuit breaker carriage can be equipped for motor operation. For the latter reason. monitoring and control devices of a feeder can be accommodated in a metal-enclosed LV compartment on top the HV enclosure.

Degrees of protection Degree of protection IP 4X: In the ”Connected“ and the ”Disconnected/Test“ position of the truck. Cable and bar connections Cables and bars are connected from below. engaging contacts behind the cable lugs.T. Weight and dimensions Rated voltage Width Height Depth Approx. the cubicles can be protected against harmful internal deposits of dust and against drip water (IP 51). Installation The switchboards are shipped in sections of one cubicle on stable wooden palletts which are suitable for rolling and forklift handling. see Fig. s Switching the breaker in any but the locked ”Connected“ or ”Disconnected/ Test“ position.2 12 15 17. breaker Fig.Powerimpulse frequency test test voltage Rated shortcircuitbreaking current/ short time current kA [rms] 50 63 50 63 50 63 50 63 Rated shortcircuitmaking current Rated feeder current Rated busbar current [kV] 7. etc. 29 Front-connected types can be installed against the wall or freestanding. identical to the breaker truck. 28 [kV] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] 7.5 [kV] 60 [kV] 20 [kA] 125 160 125 160 125 160 125 160 1250 2500 3150 5000 [A] [A] [A] [A] 5000 [A] 75 28 95 36 95 38 Fig.5 1100 2500 2300 2800 Technical data Rated voltage Lightning. Optionally. Operation of the fully interlocked grounding switch is possible only with the breaker carriage in the ”Disconnected/Test“ position. weight incl. 28. stress cones are installed conveniently inside the cubicle. preventing positively the following: s Moving the truck with the breaker closed. Single-phase or three-phase solid-dielectric cables can be connected from the front of the cubicle. s Engaging the grounding switch with the truck in the ”Connected“ position.Air-insulated Switchgear Type 8BK40 The C. Three-phase (armored) cables for voltages above 12 kV require sufficient clearance below the switchgear to split up the phases (cable floor. entrance from above requires an auxiliary structure behind the cubicle.s carry the cable-connecting bars and lugs. Circuit breakers are shipped mounted on their trucks inside the switchgear cubicles. and the fixed contacts of the (optional) grounding switch.T. Doublebusbar installations in back-to-back configuration are installed freestanding.2 1100 2500 2300 2800 12 1100 2500 2300 2800 15 1100 2500 2300 2800 17. Interlocking system A series of sturdy mechanical interlocks forces the operator into the only safe operating sequence of the switchgear. Busbar metering PTs with their current-limiting fuses are installed on a withdrawable truck. Regular and make-proof grounding switches with manual operation can be installed below the C. plans for which are part of the switchgear supply. All common burden and accuracy ratings of instrument transformers are available. For preliminary dimensions and weights.). Cable feed-in is through corresponding cutouts in the floor.s. and moving the truck into this position with the grounding switch engaged. the switchgear is totally protected against contact with live parts by objects larger than 2 mm in diameter. These sections are bolted or spot-welded to channel iron sections embedded in a flat and level concrete floor. 2/22 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .

Air-insulated Switchgear Type 8BK40

8BK40 switchgear up to 17.5 kV

Panel Fixed parts

Withdraw- Metering Busbar ableparts panel modules

Sectionalizer

Bus riser panel

8BK40 generator vacuum c.b. panel

Variants

Additional parts

Optional parts

Fig. 30: Available circuit options for switchgear/generator panel type 8BK40

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

2/23

Air-insulated Switchgear Type 8BK41

Generator circuit breaker unit 8BK41, air-insulated
s s s s s s s

From 7.2 to 17.5 kV Air-insulated Type-tested Metal-enclosed Metal-clad Withdrawable vacuum breaker For indoor installation

Specific features
s One cubicle 8BK40 per generator phase s Circuit breaker mounted on horizontally

moving truck
s Suitable for installation in walk-in switch-

gear containers
s Antimagnetic sheet steel for frames,

partitions and barriers Safety of operating and maintenance personnel
s All switching operations behind closed

doors which are part of the interlocking
s Positive and robust mechanical

Fig. 31: Metal-clad generator c. b. unit type 8BK41 (inter-cubicle partition removed)

interlocks s Complete protection against contact with live parts s Line test with breaker inserted (option) s Maintenancefree vacuum circuitbreaker Tolerance to environment
s Sealed metal enclosure with optional

Weights and dimensions Rated voltage Width Height Depth Approx. weight incl. breaker
Fig. 32

[kV] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg]

7.2 3 x 1200 2500 2300 3 x 2800

12 3 x 1200 2500 2300 3 x 2800

15 3 x 1200 2500 2300 3 x 2800

17.5 3 x 1200 2500 2300 3 x 2800

gaskets
s Complete corrosion protection and tropi-

calization of all parts s Vacuum-potted ribbed epoxy-insulators with high tracking resistance Performance ranges
s Rated voltages from 7.2 to 17.5 kV s Rated short-circuit breaking currents

Installation The generator c. b. unit 8BK41 is shipped divided into three single cubicles on stable wooden palletts which are suitable for rolling and forklift handling. These cubicles are bolted or spot-welded to channel iron sections embedded in a flat and level concrete floor. Circuit breakers are shipped mounted on their trucks in one packing unit. For preliminary dimensions and weights, see Fig. 32.

up to 80 kA s Rated currents up to 12.000 A s Generator ratings up to 220 MVA at 10.5 kV 285 MVA at 13.8 kV 325 MVA at 15.75 kV Applications
s Combined-cycle power plants s Hydro and pumped-storage power plants s Heating and general industrial power

plants

2/24

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

Air-insulated Switchgear Type 8BK41

Technical data Rated voltage Lightning impulse test voltage Power frequency test voltage Rated shortcircuitbreaking current/ short time current kA [rms]
40 50 63 80 40 50 63 80 40 50 63 80 50 63 80

Rated shortcircuitmaking current [kA]
110 150 190 225 110 150 190 225 110 150 190 225 150 190 225

Rated current

[kV]
7.2

[kV]
60

[kV]
20

4000 [A]

6300 [A]

8000 [A]

10000 [A]
– –

12500 [A]
– – – – – – – – – – –

12

75

28

– –

15

95

36

– –

17.5

95

38

Fig. 33

Basic equipment

Standard equipment

Maximum equipment

6 4

6 4 5 7

6 4 5 9 2 1 2

2 1 2

2 1 2 3

3 8

1 Vacuum circuit breaker,
type 3AH on truck

2 Isolating contacts 3 Grounding switch
(optionally make-proof)

4 Voltage transfomer 5 Protective capacitor 6 Grounding switch with
remanence switching capacity

7 Generator-side CT 8 Transfomer-side CT 9 Lightning arrester

Fig. 34: Available circuit options for generator c. b. unit type 8BK41

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

2/25

SF6-insulated Switchgear Type 8DC11

Gas-insulated switchgear type 8DC11
s s s s s s s s s s

From 3.6 up to 24 kV Triple-pole primary enclosure SF6-insulated Vacuum circuit breakers, fixed-mounted Hermetically-sealed, welded, stainlesssteel switchgear enclosure Three-position disconnector as busbar disconnector and feeder earthing switch Make-proof grounding with vacuum circuit breaker Width 600 mm for all versions up to 24 kV Plug-in, single-pole, solid-insulated busbars with outer conductive coating Cable termination with external cone connection system to DIN 47 636 and CEN HD50651

Operator safety
s Safe-to-touch and hermetically-sealed

primary enclosure
s All high-voltage parts, including the cable

s s

s

s s

sealing ends, busbars and voltage transformers are surrounded by grounded layers or metal enclosures Capacitive voltage indication for checking for ”dead“ state Operating mechanisms and auxiliary switches safely accessible outside the primary enclosure (switchgear enclosure) Type-tested enclosure and interrogation interlocking provide high degree of internal arcing protection Arc-fault-tested acc. to IEC 298 No need to interfere with the SF 6-insulation

Fig. 35: Gas-insulated swichgear with vacuum circuit breakers

Operational reliability
s Hermetically-sealed primary enclosure

General description Due to the excellent experience with vacuum circuit breaker, gas-insulated switchgear, there is a worldwide rapidly increasing demand of this kind of switchgear even in the so-called low-range field. The 8DC11 is the result of the economical combination of the SF6-insulation and the vacuum technology. The insulating gas SF6 is used for internal insulation only; circuit interruption takes place in standard vacuum breaker bottles. The safety for the personnel and the environment is maximized. The 8DC11 is completely maintenancefree. The welded gas-tight enclosure of the primary part assures an endurance of 30 years without any gasworks.

s

s

s

s

s s s s s

for protection against environmental effects (dirt, moisture and insects and rodents). Degree of protection IP65 Operating mechanism components maintenancefree in indoor environment (DIN VDE 0670 Part 1000) Breaker-operating mechanisms accessible outside the enclosure (primary enclosure) Inductive voltage transformer metalenclosed for plug-in mounting outside the main circuit Toroidal-core current transformers located outside the primary enclosure, i.e. free of dielectric stress Complete switchgear interlocking with mechanical interrogation interlocks Welded switchgear enclosure, permanently sealed Minimum fire contribution Installation independent of attitude for feeders without HRC fuses Corrosion protection for all climates

2/26

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

SF6-insulated Switchgear Type 8DC11

1. Modular design and compact dimensions The 8DC switchboards consist of: s The maintenancefree SF 6-gas-insulated switching module is three-phase encapsulated and contains vacuum circuit breaker and 3 position selector switch (ON/OFF/READY TO EARTH) s Parts for which single-phase encapsulation is essential are safe to touch, easily accessible and not located in the switching module, e.g. current and potential transformers s The busbars are even single-phase encapsulated, i.e. they are insulated by silicone rubber with an outer grounded coating. The plugable design guarantees a high degree of flexibility and makes also the installation of busbar c.t.s. and p.t.s. simple. 2. Factory-assembled well-proven tested components A switchgear based on well-proven components! The 8DC switchgear design is based on assembling methods and components which have been used for years in our SF6insulated Ring Main Units (RMU). For example, the stainless-steel switchgear enclosure is hermetically-sealed by welding without any gaskets. Bushings for the busbar, cable and PT connection are welded in this enclosure, as well as the bursting disc, which is installed for pressure relief in the unlikely event of an internal fault. Siemens has had experience with this technique since 1982 because 50,000 RMUs are running troublefree. Cable plugs with the so-called outer-cone system have been on the market for many years. The gas pressure monitoring system is neither affected by temperature fluctuations nor by pressure fluctuations and shows clearly whether the switchpanel is ”ready for service“ or not. The monitor is magnetically coupled to an internal gas-pressure reference cell, mechanical penetration through the housing is not required. A design safe and reliable and, of course, wellproven in our RMUs. The vacuum circuit breaker, i.e. the vacuum interrupters and the drive mechanism, is also used in our standard switchboards. The driving force for the primary contacts of the vacuum interrupters is transferred via metal bellows into the SF6-gas-filled enclosure. A technology that has been successfully in operation in more than 100,000 vacuum interrupters over 20 years. 1 1 Low-voltage compartment 2 Busbar voltage transformer 3 Busbar current transformer 2 4 Busbar 5 SF6-filled enclosure 3 4 5 6 Three-position switch 7 Three-position switch operating mechanism 8 Circuit-breaker operating mechanism 9 Circuit-breaker (Vacuum interrupter) 8 9 10 11 12 10 Current transformers 11 Double cable connection with T-plugs 12 PT-disconnector 13 Voltage transformers 13 14 Cable 15 Pressure relief duct

7

6

14 15
Fig. 36: Cross section through switchgear type 8DC11

4

7

5 1 Signalling contact 2 Magnet 3 3 ”Ready for service“ indicator 4 Pressure cell

Stainless-steel enclosure filled with SF6 gas at 0.5 bar (gauge) at 20 °C

5 Red indicator: Not ready 6 6 Green indicator: Ready 7 Magnetic coupling

Fig. 37: Principle of gas monitoring (with ”Ready for service“ indicator)

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

2/27

SF6-insulated Switchgear Type 8DC11

3. Current and potential transformers as per user’s application A step forward in switchgear design without any restriction to the existing system! New switchgear developments are sometimes overdesigned with the need for highly sophisticated secondary monitoring and protection equipment, because currentand potential-measuring devices are used with limited rated outputs. The result: Limited application in distribution systems due to interface problems with existing devices; difficult operation and resetting of parameters. The Siemens 8DC switchgear has no restrictions. Current and potential transformers with conventional characteristics are available for all kinds of protection requirements. They are always fitted outside the SF6-gas-filled container in areas of singlepole accessibility, the safe-to-touch design of both makes any kind of setting and testing under all service conditions easy. Current transformers can be installed in the cable connection compartment at the bushings and, if required additionally, at the cables (inside the cable connection compartment). Busbar CTs for measuring and protection can be placed around the silicone-rubber-insulated busbars in any panel. Potential transformers are of the metalclad plugable design. Busbar PTs are designed for repeated tests with 80% of the rated power-frequency withstand voltage, cable PTs can be isolated from the live parts by means of a disconnection device which is part of the SF6-gas-filled switching module. This allows high-voltage testing of the switchboard with AC and the cable with DC without having to remove the PTs.

4. No gas work at site and simplified installation The demand for reliable, economical and maintenancefree switchgear is increasing more and more in all power supply systems. Industrial companies and power supply utilities are aware of the high investment and service costs needed to keep a reliable network running. Preventive maintenance must be carried out by trained and costly personnel. A modern switchgear design should not only reduce the investment costs, also the service costs in the long run! The Siemens 8DC switchgear has been developed to fulfill those requirements. The modular concept with the maintenancefree units does not call for installation specialists and expensive testing and commissioning procedures. The switching module with the circuit breaker and the three-position isolator is sealed for life by gas-tight welding without any gaskets. All other high-voltage components are connected by means of plugs, a technology well-known from cable plugs with longlasting service and proven experience. All cables will be connected by cable plugs with external cone connection system. In case of XLPE cables, several manufacturers even offer cable plugs with an outer conductive coating (also standard for the busbars). Paper-insulated mass-impregnated cables can be connected as well by Raychem heat-shrinkable sealing ends and adapters. The pluggable busbars and PTs do not require work on SF 6 system at site. Installation costs are considerably reduced (all components are pluggable) because, contrary to standard GIS, even the site HV tests can be omitted. Factory-tested quality is ensured thanks to simplified installation without any final adjustments or difficult assembly work.

5. Minimum space and maintenancefree, cost-saving factors Panel dimensions reduced, cable-connection compartment enlarged! The panel width of 600 mm and the depth of 1225 mm are just half of the truth. More important is the maximized size of the 8DC switchgear cable-connection compartment. The access is from the switchgear front and the gap from the cable terminal to the switchgear floor amounts to 740 mm. There is no need for any aisle behind the switchgear lineup and a cable cellar is superfluous. A cable trench saves civil engineering costs and is fully sufficient with compact dimensions, such as width 500 mm and depth 600 mm. Consequently, the costs for the plot of land and civil work are reduced. Even more, a substation can be located closer to the consumer which can also solve cable routing problems. Busbar Features
s Single-pole, plug-in version s Made of round-bar copper, silicon-

insulated
s Busbar connection with cross pieces

and end pieces, silicon-insulated
s Field control with the aid of electro-

s s s s

conductive layers on the silicon-rubber insulation (both inside and outside) External layers earthed with the switchgear enclosure to permit access Intensive to dirt and condensation Shock-hazard protected in form of metal covering Switchgear can be extended or panels replaced without affecting the SF6 gas enclosures.

Fig. 38: Plug-in busbar (front view with removed low-voltage panel)

2/28

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

41: Switchpanel versions 1) Current transformer. 40: Vacuum circuit-breaker (sectional view) 1 Primary part SF6-insulated. its actual physical location. however. electrically. with vacuum interrupter 2 Part of swtichgear enclosure 3 Operating-mechanism box (open) 4 Fixed contact element 5 Pole support 6 Vacuum interrupter 7 Movable contact element 8 Metal bellows 9 Operating mechanism Circuit-breaker panel Disconnector panel Switch-disconnector panel with fuses Busbar section Busbar make-proof earthing switch 1) Basic versions Vacuum circuit breaker panel and three-position disconnector Disconnector panel with three-position disconnector Switch-disconnector panel with three-position switch disconnector and HV HCR fuses Busbar section with 2 three-position disconnectors and vacuum circuit breaker in one panel Busbar make-proof grounding switch Optional equipment indicated by means of broken lines can be installed/omitted in part or whole. 39: Vacuum circuit-breaker (open on operating-mechanism side) 4 5 6 7 8 2 9 3 1 Fig. Fig.SF6-insulated Switchgear Type 8DC11 Fig. is on the adjacent panel. this is assigned to the switchpanel. Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/29 .

[A] Rated current of switchdisconnector panels with fuses max. if necessary. 43 max.g.2 12 15 17. Internal arc test Tests have been carried out with 8DC11 switchgear in order to verify its behavior under conditions of internal arcing. [kA] 25 25 25 25 25 Cable connection systems Features [kA] [A] 63 1250 1250 63 1250 1250 63 1250 1250 63 1250 1250 40 1250 1250 s 8DC11 switchgear for thermoplastic- s s s max. simplifying assembly and cable-testing work Phase reversal simple. with plug-in connection according to DIN 47 636 Parts 3 and 4.84 These guidelines have been applied in accordance with PEHLA Guideline No. s All medium-voltage switching devices are enclosed in a stainless-steel housing. due to symmetrical arrangement of cable sealing ends Cover panel of cable termination compartment earthed Nonconnected feeders: – Isolate – Ground – Secure against re-energizing (e. Switch disconnector panels with elbow cable plugs for ASG 24-250 bushings.) double-busbar [kg] Fig. 4. 42: Technical data of switchgear type 8DC11 s Climate and ambient conditions The 8DC11 fixed-mounted circuit breaker is fully enclosed and entirely unaffected by ambient conditions. with M16 terminal thread according to DIN 47 636 Part 6. 2/30 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . which is welded gas-tight and filled with SF6 gas s Live parts outside the switchgear enclosure are single-pole enclosed s There are no points at which leakage currents of high-voltage potentials are able to flow off to ground s All essential components of the operating mechanism are made of noncorroding materials s Ambient temperature range: –5 to +55°C. 9. fuse [A] 100 100 100 100 100 s Fig. Protection against electric shock and the ingress of water and solid foreign bodies The 8DC11 fixed-mounted circuit breaker offer the following degrees of protection: s IP3XD for external enclosure s IP65 for high-voltage components of switchpanels without HV HRC fuses in accordance with: – DIN VDE 0470 Part 1 – IEC 298 and 529 – DIN VDE 0670 Part 6 insulated cables with cross setions up to 630 mm2 Standard cable termination height of 740 mm High connection point. with padlock) Types of cable termination Circuit-breaker and disconnector panels with cable T-plugs for ASG 36-400 bushings.5 24 [mm] [mm] single-busbar [mm] double-busbar [mm] 600 2250 1225 2400 700 1200 Depth [kV] 60 75 95 95 125 Weight single-busbar [kg] (approx.SF6-insulated Switchgear Type 8DC11 Technical data Weights and dimensions Width Height [kV] 20 28 36 38 50 Rated voltage Rated power-frequency withstand voltage Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage Rated short-circuit breaking current Rated short-time current. The resistance to internal arcing complies with the requirements of: s IEC 298 AA s DIN VDE 0670 Part 601. 3s Rated short-circuit making current Rated busbar current Rated feeder current [kV] 7.

45: Types of cable termination. 44: Double busbar: Back-to-back arrangement (cross section) Single cable Double cable Termination for surge arrester Termination for switch disconnector panel Fig. outer cone system Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/31 .SF6-insulated Switchgear Type 8DC11 1 Low voltage compartment 5 1 2 Operating mechanism 3 Cable connection 4 Current transformer 6 5 Panel link 7 2 8 6 Busbar 7 Gas compartment 8 Three-position switch 9 Voltage transformer 3 4 9 Fig.

maintenancefree three-way switch arranged between the busbars and the vacuum breaker bottles. fully insulated plug-in terminations are used. This switch is mechanically interlocked with the circuit breaker. 1. maintenancefree vacuum circuit breakers.5 kV Safety and reliability s Safe to touch – hermetically-sealed s s s s s s s s s s grounded metal enclosure. The grounding of the feeder is completed by closing the circuit breaker. moisture. The two housings are sealed against each other. Busbar enclosure and breaker enclosures form separate gas compartments. rendering the terminations maintenance-free as well. The upper container carries the copper busbars with its associated vacuum-potted epoxy insulators. The guaranteed leakage rate of any gas compartment is less than 1% per year. In special cases. Feeder connections All commonly used solid-dielectric insulated single. Tolerance to environment s Hermetically-sealed enclosure protects all high-voltage parts from the environment s Installation independent of altitude s Corrosion protection for all climates. Normally. Three-position switch and circuit breaker The required isolation of any feeder from the busbar. The number of operating cycles is 30. 2/32 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . Also. Vacuum-potted cast-resin insulators and bushings supplement the gas and can withstand the operating voltage in the extremely unlikely case of a total gas loss in a compartment. secondaries freely and safely accessible Fully insulated cable and busbar connections available Positive mechanical interlocking External parts of instrument transformers free of dielectric stresses. and against the cable connecting area by arc-proof and gas-tight epoxy bushings with O-ring seals. The SF6 gas serves additionally as corrosion inhibiter by keeping oxygen away from the inner components. Each compartment has its own gas supervision by contact-pressure gauges. which are arranged at 90° angles to each other. Since any switching that occurs arc is contained within the vacuum tube. The vacuum circuit breakers used are of the type 3AH described on pages 2/66 ff of this section. air-insulated conventional cable connection is available. This reduces the requirement for maintenance and the probability of a fault due to the above to practically zero. All moving parts and items requiring inspection and occasional lubrication are readily accessible. 5. The other housing contains the vacuum breaker interrupter. The hermetical sealing of all HV components prevents contamination. fully insulated and gas-insulated busbar systems of the DURESCA/GAS LINK type can be used.s and secondary connections are readily accessible. contamination of the insulating gas is not possible.2 to 40.and double-busbar Gas-insulated Type-tested Metal-clad (encapsulated) Compartmented Fixed-mounted vacuum breaker Specific features s Practically maintenancefree compact s s s s switchgear for the most severe service conditions Fixed-mounted maintenancefree vacuum breakers Only two moving parts and two dynamic seals in gas enclosure of each pole Feeder grounding via circuit breaker Only 600 mm bay width and identical dimensions from 7. 2. Bus metering and measuring are by inductive. Encapsulation All high-voltage conductors and interrupter elements are enclosed in two identical cast-aluminum housings. Thus no scheduled replenishment of gas is required.and three-phase cables can be connected conveniently to the breaker enclosures from below. and foreign objects of any kind – the leading cause of arcing faults – from entering the switchgear.000. and the three-way selector switch for the feeder with the three positions ON/ISOLATED/GROUNDING SELECTED. Mounted in the gas-insulated switchgear. 4.t. The operations ”On/Isolated“ and ”Isolated/ Grounding selected“ are carried out by means of two different rotary levers. and its often desired grounding is provided by means of a sturdy. 3. To facilitate replacement of a vacuum tube with the busbars live. The latter two termination methods maintain the fully insulated and safe-to-touch concept of the entire switchgear. All commonly used burden and accuracy ratings are available. the switch is located entirely within the busbar compartment. Insulation medium Sulfur-hexafluoride (SF6) gas is the prime insulation medium in this swichgear.2 to 40. All HV and internal drive parts maintenancefree for 20 years Minor gas service only after 10 years Arc-fault-tested Single-phase encapsulation – no phase-to-phase arcing All switching operations from dead-front operating panel Live line test facility on panel front Drive mechanism and c. the operating mechanism is placed at the switchgear front and the vacuum interrupters are located inside the gas filled enclosures.5 kV Single. The insulating gas SF6 is used for internal insulation only. Instrument transformers Toroidal-type current transformers with multiple secondary wingdings are arranged outside the metallic enclosure around the cable terminations. Double-busbar: type 8DB From 7. Thus there is no high potential exposed on these c. gas-insulated potential transformers which are plugged into fully insulated and gas-tight bushings on top of the switchgear.t. The aluminum alloy used is corrosionfree. circuit interruption takes place in standard vacuum breaker bottles.SF6-insulated Switchgear Type 8DA/8DB10 Gas-insulated switchgear type 8DA/8DB10 s Single-busbar: type 8DA s s s s s s s General description The switchgear type 8DA10 represents the successful generation of gas-insulated medium-voltage switchgear with fixed-mounted.

pole with upper and lower bushings C. double-busbar Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/33 . B. B.SF6-insulated Switchgear Type 8DA/8DB10 8DA10 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 Low-voltage cubicle Secondary equipment Busbar Cast-aluminum Disconnector Operating mechanism and interlocking device for three-position switch Three-position switch C. operating mechanism Vacuum interrupter Connection Current transformer Rack 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Fig. 47: Schematic cross section for switchtgear type 8DB10. single-busbar 8DB10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Fig. 46: Schematic cross section for switchgear type 8DA10.

busbar grounding can be done via the three-way switch and the corresponding circuit breaker of these panels. single-busbar 850** 2350 (2550*) 2660 *) dependent on height of frame Fig. double-busbar The double-busbar switchgear is developed from the components of the switchgear type 8DA10. and measuring and indicating devices are installed in metal-enclosed low-voltage cabinets on top of each breaker bay. The actual isolator position is positively desplayed by rigid mechanical indicators. double-busbar 2/34 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . For parallel bus couplings.SF6-insulated Switchgear Type 8DA/8DB10 6. Switchgear type 8DB10. A central terminal strip of the lineup type is also located there for all LV customer wiring. PCB-type protection relays and individual-type protection devices are normally used. They have their own gasfilled components. Actual grounding is done via the circuit breaker itself. The second busbar system is located phasewise behind the first busbar system. 7. Interlocking system The circuit breaker is fully interlocked with the isolator/grounding switch by means of solid mechanical linkages. only one bay is required. The bay width of the switchgear remains unchanged. depth and height of each bay are increased (see dimension drawings Fig. Two three-position switches are used for the selection of the busbars. Low-voltage cabinet All feeder-related electronic protection devices. It is impossible to operate the isolator with the breaker closed. or to remove the switch from the GROUND SELECTED position with the breaker closed. 48: Dimensions of switchgear type 8DA10. 49). If a bus sectionalizer or bus coupler is installed. Busbar grounding is possible with the available make-proof grounding switch. 2250 600 1525 Fig. 49: Dimensions of switchgear type 8DB10. depending on the number of protective functions required. auxiliary relays.

Degree of protection IP 3XD: The operating mechanism and the lowvoltage cubicle have degree of protection IP 3XD against contact with live parts with objects larger than 1 mm in diameter. or with conventional air-insulated stress cones. Cable cross sections for plug-in terminations Plug size Rated voltage 7. either with fully insulated plugin terminations (preferred).2/12/15 kV Cable cross section [mm2] 1 2 3 4 Fig. 52 = = = = = 110% 105% 100% 90% 80% Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/35 . suitable for rolling. The switchgear is designed for indoor operation. Installation The switchgear bays are shipped in prefabricated assemblies up to 5 bays wide on solid wooden pallets. without any HV-carrying parts exposed. Space heaters inside the operating mechanism and the LV cabinet are available for tropical climates. Each bay is set onto embedded steel profiles in a flat concrete floor. All conventional cables can be connected. with suitable cutouts for the cables or busbars. skidding and fork-lift handling. outdoor prefabricated enclosures are available. Operating aisles are required in front of and (in case of double-busbar systems) behind the switchgear lineup. Fully insulated busbars are also connected directly.5/24 kV [mm2] to 185 95 to 300 400 to 630 up to 1200 36 kV [mm2] – to 185 240 to 500 up to 1200 to 240 120 to 300 400 to 630 up to 1200 Weights and dimensions Width Height single-busbar (8DA) double-busbar (8DB) single-busbar (8DA) double-busbar (8DB) single-busbar (8DA) double-busbar (8DB) [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [kg] 600 2250 2350/2550 1525 2660 600 1150 Depth Weight per bay Fig. Double-busbar sections are shipped as single or double bays. dust and water jets. the equipment must be derated as follows (expressed in percent of current at rated ambient conditions). 40 °C 35 °C –5 °C 30 °C 35 °C 40 °C 45 °C 50 °C Fig. Protection against dripping water is optionally available. 50 17. all highvoltage-carrying parts are totally protected against contact with live parts.SF6-insulated Switchgear Type 8DA/8DB10 Degrees of protection Degree of protection IP 65: By the nature of the enclosure. 51 Ambient temperature and current-carrying capacity: Rated ambient temperature (peak) Rated 24-h mean temperature Minimum temperature At elevated ambient temperatures.

SF6-insulated Switchgear Type 8DA/8DB10 Options for circuit-breaker feeder of switchgear type 8DA10. nondisconnectible or disconnectible Sectionalizer without additional space required Busbar current transformer Mounted on panel connections or or or Totally solid-insulated bar with plug-in voltage transformer or Air-insulated cable termination or Surge arrester Air-insulated bar Fig. single-busbar Busbar accessories Mounted on breaker housing Mounted on current transformer housing Panel connection options Voltage transformer. nondisconnectible or disconnectible or Make-proof earthing switch or Totally gas or solid-insulated bar or 3 x plug-in cable sizes 1 or 2 or 3 x plug-in cable size 3 or 5 x plug-in cable sizes 1 or 2 or 2 x plug-in cable sizes 1 to 3 with plug-in voltage transformer Mounted on panel connections Mounted on panel connections Mounted on panel connections Current transformer Mounted on panel connections 1 x plug-in cable sizes 1 to 3 Mounted on panel connections or Cable or bar connection. 53 2/36 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .

SF6-insulated Switchgear Type 8DA/8DB10 Options for circuit-breaker feeder of switchgear type 8DB10. disconnectible BB1 BB2 or BB1 and BB2 Current transformer BB1 or BB2 Busbar current transformer or 2 x plug-in cable sizes 1 to 3 with plug-in voltage transformer Mounted on panel connections or BB1 Sectionalizer BB2 without additional space required or Totally solid insulated bar with plug-in voltage transformer or Air-insulated cable termination or Air-insulated bar Surge arrester Fig. nondisconnectible Cable or bar connection. 54 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/37 . double-busbar BB1 BB2 Mounted on breaker housing Busbar accessories Mounted on current transformer housing Mounted on panel connections BB1 BB2 Voltage transformer. nondisconnectible 1 x plug-in cable sizes 1 to 3 or Totally gas or solid-insulated bar BB1 or BB2 Voltage transformer. disconnectible Mounted on panel connections BB1 or BB2 Make-proof earthing switch or 3 x plug-in cable sizes 1 or 2 or 3 x plug-in cable size 3 or 5 x plug-in cable sizes 1 or 2 Mounted on panel connections BB1 BB2 or and BB1 BB2 Cable or bar connection.

91 31-73 46 39 2/38 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .SF6-insulated Switchgear Type 8DA/8DB10 Technical data Rated voltage Rated power-frequency withstand voltage Rated lightning-impulse withstand voltage Rated short-circuit breaking current and rated short-time current 3s.5 max. Rated short-circuit making current Rated current busbar Rated current feeder Fig.2 20 12 28 15 36 17. [A] max. [kA] 40 40 40 40 40 40 31. 55 [kV] [kV] 7. [A] 3150 2500 3150 2500 3150 2500 3150 2500 3150 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 For further information please contact: ++ 49 .5 80 [kV] 60 75 95 95 125 170 180 max. [kA] 110 110 110 110 110 110 80 max.5 38 24 50 36 70 40.

500 15 3200 3200 6300 10.75 kV [kV] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] 7.500 12 3200 3200 6300 10. module type 8FG10 up to 80 kA s Rated currents up to 12. 57: Cross section through generator c. weight incl.500 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/39 .5 kV s Air-insulated s Metal-enclosed Applications s Combined-cycle power plants s Hydro and pumped-storage power plants s Heating and general industrial power plants Safety of operating and maintenance personnel s All switching operations behind closed doors which are part of the interlocking s Positive and robust mechanical interlocks s Complete protection against contact with live parts s Line test with breaker inserted (option) s Maintenancefree vacuum breaker Tolerance to environment s Sealed metal enclosure with optional Fig.2 to 17.500 A s Generator ratings up to Weights and dimensions Rated voltage Width Height Depth Approx.500 17. module type 8FG10 with vacuum circuit breakers 3AH gaskets s Complete corrosion protection and tropi- Generator Transformer calization of all parts s Vacuum-potted ribbed epoxy-insulators with high tracking resistance Specific features s Arrangement of circuit breaker and disconnector in the horizontal bus run without current loops s Suitable for indoor or outdoor installation Technical data s Rated voltages from 7. 58 220 MVA at 10. breaker Fig.8 kV 325 MVA at 15.2 3200 3200 6300 10. b.5 3200 3200 6300 10. b. 56: Metal-enclosed generator c.5 kV s Rated short-circuit breaking currents Fig.Generator Switchgear Type 8FG10 Generator circuit breaker module type 8FG10 s From 7.5 kV 285 MVA at 13.2 to 17.

module type 8FG10 2/40 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . module type 8FG10 Generator side Transformer side 1 2 3 Standard 1 3AH vacuum circuit breaker 2 Disconnector 3 Grounding switch (optionally make-proof) 4 4 Voltage transformer 5 Protective capacitor 6 Grounding switch Frequent complement 6 with remanence switching capacity 7 Generator-side CT 8 Transformer-side CT 9 Lightning arrester 10 Disconnector for starting equipment 5 7 8 Maximum complement 10 9 Fig. 60: Circuit options: Generator c.b.5 95 38 – Fig. b.Generator Switchgear Type 8FG10 Technical data Rated voltage Lightningimpulse test voltage Powerfrequency test voltage Rated shortcircuitbreaking current/ short time current kA [rms] 40 50 63 80 40 50 63 80 40 50 63 80 50 63 80 Rated shortcircuitmaking current [kA] 110 150 190 225 110 150 190 225 110 150 190 225 150 190 225 Rated current [kV] 7.2 [kV] 60 [kV] 20 4000 [A] 6300 [A] 8000 [A] – 10000 [A] – – 12500 [A] – – – – – – – – – – – 12 75 28 – – – 15 95 36 – – – 17. 59: Ratings for generator c.

61: Packaged Substation Hauted el Hamra in the desert Sahara Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/41 . sized to optimally house the specified electrical and auxiliary equipment.Containerized Switchgear Containerized switchgear and controlgear in modular design Projects in developing countries or on fasttrack schedules frequently do not allow for the use of conventionally installed electrical equipment due to the lack of facilities. including the prefabrication of electrical substations. and other control and automation equipment centers. telecommunications and telecontrol stations for remote and hostile locations. For further information please contact: ++ 49 . Direct cost savings are possible. etc. offshore platform supply systems. pipeline compressor supply and control stations. A variety of standardized and customengineered containers is available from Siemens to meet these requirements. they are metal-enclosed weatherproof enclosures in self-supporting design. Containers are installed on flat or raised-pier foundations before the field cables are connected and the unit is placed in service.68 94 . high-power variable-speed drive system supply and control equipment. skilled labor. Examples of such prefabricated substations include power distribution centers.89 12 94 Fig. diesel and gas-turbine generating systems. The containers are outfitted per customer’s specifications on the manufacturer’s premises under his direct supervision and are then shipped as single units to the jobsite. Modular construction of the plants has been used successfully in these cases. For details on our standardized containers see the following pages. Basically. or simply time. Recognized advantages of this concept are: s Fabrication of critical electrical subsystems under controlled conditions at manufacturer’s location s Pretested and commissioned subsystems. installed ready for connection of field cables s Shifting of some detailed engineering to the manufacturer This results in lower overall construction periods and reduced risks in engineering and scheduling.

The side walls consist of single panels placed between the central uprights. wall panels removable. Special features of the individual substation ranges Type 8FF11 range Wall panels in sandwich construction. The frame consists of the floor. s s s s Fig. standby diesel generator. Large switchgear is installed preferably through a temporary opening on the front face of the substation. and welded. office space. with 1-mm-thick smooth outer and inner sheets. store room. The wall panels and doors can be arranged as required. can be moved without difficulty s Substations (containers) can be placed together in rows s Fully air-conditioned and pressurized if required s Special versions available. workshop. four corner uprights and several central uprights. 62: Packaged substation type 8FF11 including complete Power Control Center Brief description All containers are of the same basic construction. etc.g. for this purpose one of the uprights is bolted in position rather than welded. where switchgear or batteries are located) can be welded into the floor frame. The cross beams required for the load points (e. with battery compartment. e. personnel accomodation. 63: Packaged substation type 8FF11 wall element construction Joint plate Inside Wall panel Outside Ribbed steel plate Fig. cooking facilities.g. Inside Wall panel Outside Joint plate Fig.Containerized Switchgear Standard containers for switchgear Factory-assembled packaged substations s Walk-in switchgear containers s Switchgear operated from the container aisle Application/General features Versatile product range Wide range of container dimensions Ready for connection Installation in any location. 64: Packaged substation type 8FF12 wall element construction 2/42 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . The load bearing sections are of hot-dip galvanized steel with folded edges. fitted and clamped from outside.

7 Permitted load Roof Floor structure Wall panels Colour of load bearing parts wall panel K-value of roof K-value of wall panels.56 W/m2 °K IP 54 DIN 4102 approx. with 1-mm-thick smooth inner sheet. with primer and top coat. sendzimir galvanized. distance between each beam depending on switchpanel arrangement 6 Base structure hot-dip galvanized and welded steel plates. 50 mm 5 Cross beams PE 120. with folded edges.Containerized Switchgear 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 Roof rim 2 Roof structure 3 Threaded bush for transport frame 4 Filter 5 Central upright with cover strip 6 Crane lifting lug 7 Corner support 8 Grounding connection 9 Foundation reinforcement 10 Steel outer door with panic hardware 11 Opening bar 12 Wall panel 13 Floor structure 7 8 9 11 10 12 13 Fig. type 8FF11 Type 8FF12 range Wall panels in sandwich construction. 4 mm thick Fig. 10 years approx. exterior consisting of continuous welded steel sections (3 mm thick). 66 1 2 3 3 Wall panels inside and outside smooth. The wall panels are fixed and clamped from the inside. 1 mm thick. 65: Packaged substation. with primer and top coat. 67: Design features. Type 8FF14 range Special large-dimension container for major projects. 100 mm thick mineral wool filling 2 Roof structure hot-dip galvanized and welded steel plates with folded edges. doors Degree of protection Fire resistance Corrosion resistance Operating life Fig. packaged substation. 20 years 9 1 Roof inside and outside trapezoidal sections 1 mm thick. 60 mm thick polyester foam fillling 4 Switchgear floor 3 x U sections. 35 mm thick 8 Cable compartment for internal wiring 9 Continuous foundations concrete (supplied by customer) 4 5 6 8 150 kg/m2 500 kg/m2 300 kg/m2 RAL 1019 RAL 1015 0. type 8FF11 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/43 .41 W/m2 °K 0. sendzimir galvanized. Type 8FF13 range Special lightweight containers of small dimensions. 5 mm thick 7 Aisle compressed impregnated wooden floor boards.

suffixes suffixes 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 8. for packaged substation containers Battery Auxiliary transformer Switchboard Fluorescent lamps Emergency lighting 2778 Battery charger Filter Distribution box Heater Light switch Heater Filter fan 11734 Filter fan Power socket Dimensions in mm Fig. Digit Internal Internal dimensions* dimensions [mm] [mm] Length Length 11734 11734 10236 10236 8738 8738 7240 7240 5742 5742 3500 3500 3250 3250 2750 2750 2500 2500 3420 3420 3206 3206 2996 2996 2778 2778 1 1 2 2 1 1 8 8 2 2 F F 3 3 F F 4 4 1 1 Order No. type 8FF11 2/44 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . Digit From switchgear flooring or aisle surface 7.Containerized Switchgear 6. 69: Example: Plan view of packaged station (Container). Order No. Digit Width Width Height Height 5. Digit 1 = With smooth individual outer wall panels 2 = With continuous welded steel section outer wall Substation substation type type 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 – *External dimensions = internal dimensions + x for length (Floor structure) x = 208 mm (Roof structure) x = 250 mm for height x = 520 mm for width x = 208 mm Fig. 68: Determining Order Nos.

Containerized Switchgear Transport The substations can be transported by road or ship. The substations are supplied ready for connection. The substation can be placed on flat concrete or steel foundations or on raised strip or pier foundations. Special models in the type 8FF14 range above 18 m length are split up for transport. 71: Substation type 8FF11 with control room. 70: Substation type 8FF11 with split-type air conditioners Fig. 73: Substation type 8FF11 with mimic board installed Fig. but they can also be arranged as shown in the illustration. Four diagonal tie bars are attached to each side. fitted sun roof and exterior lighting Individual End to end ≥ 60° Side by side L-shaped arrangement Fig. For loading and unloading. For sea transport. with all equipment installed. the connecting walls are temporary and are removed prior to installation. split double housing Fig. Fig. 75: Lifting substation by single crane Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/45 . If containers are combined on-site. Installation Packaged substation containers are preferably installed individually. 74: Arrangement variations substation type 8FF1 Fig. including the transformer. 72: Substation type 8FF11 with medium-voltage and low-voltage switchgear. the units are sealed and protected against water ingress and damage of the jointing surfaces. bolted to the two roof crossbeams. these are removed after unloading. four crane lifting lugs are provided.

all-climate. reliable. consisting of load break panels with or without fuses. metal-enclosed. Ring-main units type 8DJ10. for instance RMUs. all-climate HV HRC fuse assembly Environmental compatibility s Simple. The described switchgear will show such qualities. They are installed with an extremely high number of units in the distribution network. transformers and low-voltage distribution can be designed as prefabricated units or single components installed in any building or rooms existing on site. Therefore. maintenancefree switching devices In accordance with the harmonization agreement reached by the IEC member states.91 31-73 46 36 Excellent resistance to ambient conditions s Robust. For such transformer substations nonextensible and extensible switchgear. Due to the large number of units in the networks the most economical solution for such substations should have climate-independent and maintenancefree equipment so that operation of the equipment does not need any maintenance work during its lifetime. They verifiably meet all the demands encountered in network operation by virtue of the following features: Features Maximum personnel safety s High-grade steel housing and cable con- Standards s The fixed-mounted ring-main units s s s s s nection compartment tested for resistance to internal arcing Logical interlocking Guided operating procedures Capacitive voltage indication integrated in unit Safe testing for dead state on the closed-off operating front Locked. 8DJ40 and 8DH10 comply with the following standards: IEC Standard IEC 694 IEC 298 IEC 129 IEC 282 IEC 265–1 IEC 420 IEC 56 Fig.Secondary Distribution Switchgear and Transformer Substations General The secondary distribution network with its basic design of ring-main systems with counter stations as well as radial-feed transformer substations are designed in order to reduce network losses and to provide an economical solution for switchgear and transformer substations. that their national specifications conform to IEC Publication No. 8DJ30. safe-to- touch cable terminations s Creepage-proof and free from partial discharges s Maintenancefree. 8DJ20. SF6-insulated indoor switchgear installations. maintenancefree s Corrosion-resistant hermetically welded s s s s s high-grade steel housing without seals and resistant to pressure cycles Insulating gas retaining its insulating and quenching properties throughout the service life Single-phase encapsulation outside the housing Clear indication of readiness for operation. Siemens developed RMUs in accordance with these requirements. To reduce the network losses the transformer substations should be installed directly at the load centers. corrosion-resistant and mainte- nancefree operating mechanisms s Maintenancefree. even in the event of thermal overload of the HV HRC fuse (thermal protection function) Reliable. 8DJ20. 8DJ40 and 8DH10 are type-tested. problemfree disposal of the SF6 gas s Housing material can be recycled by normal methods 2/46 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . circuit-breaker panels and measuring panels. The transformer substations consisting of medium-voltage switchgear. have been developed using SF6-gas as insulation and arc-quenching medium in the case of load-break systems (RMU). and SF 6-gas insulation and vacuum as arc-quenching medium in the case of extensible modular switchgear. 8DJ30. For further information please contact: Fax: ++ 49 . unaffected by temperature or altitude Complete protection of the switch disconnector/fuse combination. factory-finished. grounded covers for fuse assembly and cable connection compartments type 8DJ10. 76 VDE Standard VDE 0670 part 1000 VDE 0670 part 6 VDE 0670 part 2 VDE 0670 part 4 VDE 0670 part 301 VDE 0670 part 303 VDE 0670 part 101–107 Safe. 298. safe-to-touch. high standardization of equipment is necessary and economical.

77: Secondary Distribution Network Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/47 .Secondary Distribution Switchgear and Transformer Substations Primary distribution G Secondary distribution RMU for transformer substations Type 8DJ Extensible switchgear for consumer substations Type 8DH or 8AA Extensible switchgear for substations with circuit breakers Type 8DH or 8AA Fig.

Secondary Distribution Selection Matrix Switchgear Codes. b. Measurement panels SF6 -gas-insulated Metal -enclosed fixed-mounted Extensible Load-break switch Vacuum c. standards Type of installation Insulation Enclosure Switching device Non extensible SF6-gas-insulated Metal -enclosed fixed-mounted Load-break switch Medium-voltage indoor switchgear. Part 6 Load-break switch Vacuum c. Measurement panels Air-insulated Metal-enclosed Transformer-substations Execution of the transformer substation Prefabricated. b. type-tested according to: IEC 298 DIN VDE 0670. factory-assembled substation Fig. 78 2/48 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .

switchgear 25 20 1250 up to 630 2/58 8DH10 60/75 95/125 17.5 7.5–24 Package substation type (Example) Type of housing HV-section Medium-voltage switchgear type 8DJ10 8DJ20 8DJ30 8DJ40 Transformer rating 630 kVA Page 8FB1 8FB10 8FB11 8FB12 8FB15 8FB16 8FB17 2/64 up to 1000/1250 kVA Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/49 .5/24 7. fused for one transformer 8DJ20 60/75 95/125 7. b.2–12 25 20 630 up to 630 2/54 RMU for extreme low substation housings 8DJ40 60/75 95/125 7.2–24 25 20 630 up to 630 2/53 Ultracompact RMU up to 12 kV 8DJ30 60/75 95/125 7.2–24 25 20 630 up to 630 2/50 Single panel. switchgear 20 16 11.2–24 20 20 630 up to 630 2/56 7. b.5–24 20 11.2–12 Consumer substation c. [A] Feeder [A] Page RMU for transformer substations 8DJ10 60/75 95/125 7.Secondary Distribution Selection Matrix Application Switchgear type Technical data Insulation BIL 17.3 1000 630 up to 1000 2/62 up to 630 8AA20 60/75 95/125 17.5 9.2/12 [kV] [kV] Design voltage Insulation [kV] Maximum rated short-time current [kA] 1s [kA] 3s Rated current Busbar max.2–15 Consumer substation c.

000 RMUs of type 8DJ10 are in worldwide operation. metal-enclosed fixed-mounted Ring-main units (RMU) type 8DJ10 are used for outdoor transformer substations and indoor substation rooms with a variability of 25 different schemes as a standard delivery program. type 8DJ10 2/50 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .Secondary Distribution Switchgear Type 8DJ10 Ring-main unit type 8DJ10. optional connection of mass-impregnated or plastic-insulated cables or plug connectors Cables easily tested without having to be dismantled Fig. More than 55.2–24 kV nonextensible. maintenancefree components Versatile cable connection facilities. Specific features s Maintenancefree. SF6-insulated Typical use SF6-insulated. 7. all-climate s SF6 housings have no seals s Remote-controlled motor operating s s s s s s mechanism for all auxiliary voltages from 24 V DC to 230 V AC Easily extensible by virtue of trouble-free replacement of units with identical cable connection geometry Standardized unit variants for operatorcompatible concepts Variable transformer cable connection facilities Excellent economy by virtue of ambient condition resistant. 79: Nonextensible RMU.

+80 21 min.Secondary Distribution Switchgear Type 8DJ10 Technical data (rated values)1) Rated voltage and insulation level Rated frequency Rated current of cable feeders Rated current of transformer feeders2) Rated power-frequency withstand voltage Rated lightning-impulse withstand voltage Rated short-circuit making current of cable feeder switches Rated short-circuit making current of transformer switches Rated short-circuit current.2 50/60 400/630 200 [kV] [Hz] [A] [A] [kV] [kV] [kA] 12 50/60 400/630 200 15 50/60 400/630 200 17. +80 21 min. – 50 max. +80 1) Higher values on request 2) Depending on HV HRC fuse assembly Fig.5 50/60 400/630 200 24 50/60 400/630 200 20 60 63 28 75 52 36 95 52 38 95 52 50 125 40 [kA] 25 25 25 25 25 [kA] [°C] 25 min. 81: Cross section of SF 6-insulated ring-main unit 8DJ10 Fig. – 50 max. – 50 max.+80 21 min. +80 16 min. – 50 max. 1s Ambient temperature 7. 80 1 2 3 4 6 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 HRC fuse boxes Hermetically-scaled welded stainless steel enclosure SF6 insulation/quenching gas Three-position load-break switch Feeder cable with insulated connection alternative with T-plug system Maintenancefree stored energy Fig. – 50 max. 82: “Three-position load-breakswitch” ON–OFF–EARTH Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/51 .

83: Schemes and dimensions 1450 800 1105 1505 1700 800 1360 1760 2070 800 1360 1760 2/52 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .Secondary Distribution Switchgear Type 8DJ10 Examples out of 25 standard schemes With integrated HV HRC fuse assembly Scheme 10 Scheme 71 Scheme 81 Dimensions [mm] Width Depth Height Version with low support frame Version with high support frame Without HV HRC fuses 800 800 1360 1760 1170 800 1360 1760 1630 800 1360 1760 Combinations Scheme 70 Scheme 61 Scheme 64 Dimensions [mm] Width Depth Height Version with low support frame Version with high support frame Fig.

SF6-insulated Typical use SF6-insulated. – 40 min. – 40 max.Secondary Distribution Switchgear Type 8DJ20 Single panel for one transformer feeder.g. Specific features s Minimal dimensions s Ease of operation s Proven components from the s s s s s s s s 8DJ10 range Metal-enclosed All-climate Maintenancefree Capacitive voltage taps for – incoming feeder cable – outgoing transformer feeder Optional double cable connection Optional surge arrester connection Transformer cable connected via straight or elbow plug Motor operating mechanism for auxiliary voltages of 24 V DC–230 V AC Fig.2–24 kV nonextensible. 85 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/53 . fixedmounted single panels type 8DJ20 are used for dead-end lines to feed one transformer.2 12 15 17.+70 Width Depth Height Fig.+70 max.5 24 Transformer spur panel 50/60 200 20 60 25 50/60 200 28 75 25 50/60 200 36 95 25 50/60 200 38 95 25 50/60 200 50 125 25 Dimensions 10 min. 7. – 40 max. 86 [mm] [mm] [mm] 575 760 1400 1) Higher values on request 2) Depending on HV HRC fuse assembly Fig. +70 max. instead of pole-mounted equipment. – 40 min. installed in substation housings or any indoor rooms. – 40 min. 1s [kA] Ambient temperature [°C] min. type 8DJ20. +70 max. +70 10 10 10 10 Rated short-circuit current. e. 84: Nonextensible single panel for transformer feeder type 8DJ20 Technical data (rated values)1) Rated voltage and insulation level Rated frequency Rated current of transformer feeders2) Rated power-frequency withstand voltage Rated lightning-impulse withstand voltage Rated short-circuit making current of transformer switches [kV] [Hz] [A] [kV] [kV] [kA] 7. metal-enclosed.

– 40 max. fixedmounted Ring-main units type 8DJ30 are designed as ultracompact transformer substations with extremly small dimensions.Secondary Distribution Switchgear Type 8DJ30 Ring-main unit type 8DJ30. metal-enclosed. nonextensible SF6-insulated Typical use SF6-insulated. 88 2/54 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . type 8DJ30 Technical data (rated values)1) Rated voltage and insulation level Rated frequency Rated current of cable feeders Rated current of transformer feeders2) Rated power-frequency withstand voltage Rated lightning-impulse withstand voltage Rated short-circuit making current of cable feeder switches Rated short-circuit making current of transformer switches Rated short-circuit current. 7. 87: Nonextensible RMU. – 40 max. 1s Ambient temperature [kV] [Hz] [A] [A] [kV] [kV] [kA] 7.2 50/60 400/630 200 12 50/60 400/630 200 20 60 63 28 75 52 [kA] 25 25 [kA] [°C] 25 min. minimal effort logical interlocking Variable cable connection with cable plugs and conventional sealing ends Optional floor or wall mounting All-climate Maintenancefree Capacitive voltage taps for – incoming feeder cable – optional outgoing transformer feeder Optional motor operating mechanism for auxiliary voltages of 24 V DC–230 V AC Optional plug-in grounding links Fig.2–12 kV ultracompact. +70 21 min. Specific features s Optimized compact design s Ease of cable testing by means of bushings s Test bushing covers arranged and s s s s s s s locked panel by panel. +70 1) Higher values on request 2) Depending on HV HRC fuse assembly Fig.

89: Schemes and dimensions 920 540 945 670 540 945 1140 540 945 1200 1200 1200 1700 1700 1700 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/55 .Secondary Distribution Switchgear Type 8DJ30 Individual panels Scheme 10 Scheme 32 Scheme 71 Dimensions [mm] Width Depth Height Version wall-mounted without support frame Version with low support frame Version with high support frame Fig.

5)* 40 (31. The main advantages of this switchgear is the extremely high cable termination for easy cable connection and cable testing works. 91 2/56 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . +70 [s] [barg] [°C] 1 0. +70 1) Higher values on request * With snap-action/stored-energy operating mechanism up to 400 A/12.Secondary Distribution Switchgear Type 8DJ40 Ring-main unit type 8DJ40.5)* 16 (12. – 40 max. type 8DJ40 Technical data (rated values)1) Rated voltage and insulation level Rated frequency Rated current of cable feeders Rated current of transformer feeders Rated power-frequency withstand voltage Rated lightning-impulse withstand voltage Rated short-circuit making current of cable feeder switches Rated short-circuit making current of transformer switches2) Rated short-time current of cable feeder switches Rated short-circuit time Rated filling pressure at 20 °C Ambient temperature [kV] [Hz] [A] 400/630* 400/630* ≤ 200 50 125 12 50 24 50 [A] [kV] [kV] [kA] ≤ 200 28 75 50 (31.2–24 kV nonextensible.5)* 1 0. factoryfinished.5 kA. 1s 2) Depending on HV HRC fuse assembly Fig. Ring-main units type 8DJ40 are mainly used for transformer compact substations.5)* 25 [kA] 25 [kA] 20 (12. SF6-insulated Typical use SF6-insulated.5 min. fixedmounted. metal-enclosed SF6-insulated switchgear installations and meet the following operational specifications: s High level of personnel safety and reliability s High availability s High-level cable connection s Minimum space requirement s Uncomplicated design s Separate operating mechanism actuation for switch disconnector and make-proof grounding switch. – 40 max. 90: Nonextensible RMU. metal-enclosed. same switching direction in line with VDEW recommendation s Ease of installation s Motor operating mechanism retrofittable s Optional stored-energy release for ring cable feeders s Maintenancefree s All-climate Fig. Specific features 8DJ40 units are type-tested. 7.5 min.

92: Schemes and dimensions 1140 760 1400/1250 909 760 1400/1250 1442 760 1400/1250 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/57 .Secondary Distribution Switchgear Type 8DJ40 Scheme 10 Scheme 32 Scheme 71 Dimensions [mm] Width Depth Height Fig.

metal-enclosed fixed-mounted switchgear units type 8DH10 are indoor installations and are mainly used for power distribution in customer substations or main substations. corrosive gases and vapours. 93: Extensible. metal-enclosed switchgear units comprising circuit-breaker panels. Plug-in cable sealing ends are housed in a shock-proof metalenclosed support frame Fuses and cable connections are only accessible when earthed All bushings for electrical and mechanical connections are welded gas-tight without gaskets Three-position switches are fitted for lead switching. SF6-insulated. operation release 2/58 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . damp river valleys.Secondary Distribution Switchgear Type 8DH10 Consumer substation modular switchgear type 8DH10 extensible. disconnection and grounding. with the following switch positions: closed. factory-assembled. open and grounded. They meet the demands made on medium-voltage switchgear. disconnector panels and metering panels. Make-proof earthing is effected by the three-position switch (shown at page 2/51) Each switchgear unit can be composed as required from single panels and (preferably) panel blocks. exposed dusty or sandy areas and in built-up urban areas. which may comprise up to three combined single panels The 8DH10 switchgear is maintenancefree Integrated current transformer suitable for digital protection relays and protection systems for c. Busbars from panel blocks are located within the SF6 gas compartment. This also applies to the fuse assembly and the cable terminations. such as s High degree of operator safety. They can also be installed at high altitude or where the ambient temperature is very high. dust and small animals All normal types of T-plugs for thermoplastic-insulated cables up to 300 m2 cross-section can be accommodated s s s s s s sure and are thus shockproof. contamination. Connections with individual panels and other blocks are provided by solid-insulated plug-in busbars Single-phase cast-resin enclosed insulated fuse mounting outside the switchgear housing ensures security against phase-to-phase faults All live components are protected against humidity. SF6-insulated Typical use SF6-insulated. modular switchgear type 8DH10 s The units have an grounded outer enclo- s s s s factors Minimum space requirements Freedom from maintenance is met substantially better by these units than by earlier designs. reliability and availability s No local SF 6 work s Simple to install and extend s Operation not affected by environmental s s Fig. The units are particularly well suited for installation in industrial environments.t. Specific features 8DH10 fixed-mounted switchgear units are type-tested.

Secondary Distribution Switchgear Type 8DH10

1 1 2 3 2 4 5 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5
Fuse assembly Three-position switch Transformer/cable feeder connection Hermetically-welded gas tank Plug-in busbar up to 1250 A

1 2 3 4 5

Low-voltage compartment Circuit-breaker operating mechanism Metal bellow welded to the gas tank Pole-end kinematics Spring-assisted mechanism

6 Three-position switch 7 Ring-main cable termination
(400/630 A T-plug system)

8 Hermetically-welded RMU housing 9 Busbar (up to 1250 A) 10 Overpressure release system

Fig. 94: Cross section of transformer feeder panel

Fig. 95: Cross section of circuit-breaker feeder panel

LV cabinet 1 2

3 4

extensible

extensible

1 Plug bushing welded to the gas tank 2 Silicon adapter 3 Silicon-insulated busbar 4 Removable insulation cover to
assemble the system at site

Fig. 96: Combination of single panels with plug-in type, silicon-insulated busbar. No local SF 6 gas work required during assembly or extension

Fig. 97: Cross section of silicon-pluged busbar section.

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

2/59

Secondary Distribution Switchgear Type 8DH10

Technical data (rated values)1) Rated voltage and insulation level Rated frequency Rated power-frequency withstand voltage Rated lightning-impulse withstand voltage Rated short-circuit breaking current of circuit-breakers Rated short-circuit current, 1s Rated short-circuit making current Busbar rated current Feeder rated current – Circuit-breaker panels – Ring-main panels – Transformer panels* Rated current of bus sectionalizer panels – without HV HRC fuses – with HV HRC fuses* [kV] 7.2 12 15 17.5 24

[Hz] [kV] [kV] [kA]

50/60 20 60 25

50/60 28 75 25

50/60 36 95 20

50/60 38 95 20

50/60 50 125 16

[kA] [kA] [A]

25 63 630 1250

25 63 630 1250

20 50 630 1250

20 50 630 1250

16 50 630 1250

[max. A] [max. A] [max. A]

400/630 400/630 200

400/630 400/630 200

400/630 400/630 200

400/630 400/630 200

400/630 400/630 200

[A] [A]

400/630 200

400/630 200

400/630 200

400/630 200

400/630 200

1) Higher values on request * Depending on HV HRC fuse assembly

Fig. 98

2/60

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

Secondary Distribution Switchgear Type 8DH10

Individual panels

Ring-main panel

Transformer panel

Circuit-breaker panel

Billing metering panel

Busbar metering and grounding panel

Dimensions [mm] Width Depth Height
500 780 1400 500 780 2000 350 780 1400 600*/850 780 1400/2000** 500 780 1450

* Width for version with combined instrument transformer ** With low-voltage compartment

Blocks

2

Ring-main feeders

3 Ring-main feeders

2

Transformer feeders

3

Transformer feeders

Dimensions [mm] Width Depth Height
700 780 1400 1050 780 1400 1000 780 1400 1500 780 1400

Fig. 99: Schemes and dimensions

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

2/61

Secondary Distribution Switchgear Type 8AA20

Consumer substation modular switchgear type 8AA20, 7.2–24 kV extensible, air-insulated
Typical use The air-insulated modular indoor switchgear is used as a flexible system with a lot of panel variations. Panels with fused and unfused load-break switches, with trucktype vacuum circuit breakers and metering panels can be combined with air-insulated busbars. The 8AA20 ring-main units are type-tested, factory-assembled metal-enclosed indoor switchgear installations. They meet operational requirements by virtue of the following features: Personnel safety
s Sheet-steel enclosure tested for resist-

Fig. 100: Extensible modulares switchgear type 8AA20

ance to internal arcing
s All switching operations with door

Technical data (rated values)1) Rated voltage and insulation level Rated power-frequency withstand voltage Rated lightning-impulse withstand voltage [kV] [kV] 7.2
20 60 20 50 630 630

closed
s Testing for dead state with door closed s Insertion of barrier with door closed

12
28 75 20 50 630 630

17.5
38 95 16 40 630 630

24
50 125 16 40 630 630

Safety, reliability/maintenance
s Complete mechanical interlocking s Preventive interlocking between barrier

and switch disconnector s Door locking Excellent resistance to ambient conditions
s High level of pollution protection by

Rated short-time current 1s [kA] Rated short-circuit making current Rated busbar current1) Rated feeder current
1) Higher values on request

[kA] [A] [A]

virtue of sealed enclosure in all operating states s Insulators with high pollution-layer resistance Standards
s The switchgear complies with the

Fig. 101

following standards: IEC-Publ. 56, 129, 256-1, 298, 420, 694 VDE 0670 Part 2, 4 and 6 Part 101–107 Part 301, 303 Part 1000 In accordance with the harmonization agreement reached by the EC member states, their national specifications conform to IEC-Publ. No. 298.

Dimensions

Width 12/24 kV [mm]

Height [mm]
2000 2000 2000

Depth 12/24 kV [mm]
665/790 or 931/1131 931/1131 665/790 or 931/1131

Load-breaker panels Circuit-breaker panels Metering panels
Fig. 102: Dimensions

600/750 750/750 600/750

2/62

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

Secondary Distribution Switchgear Type 8AA20

Resistance to internal arcing – IEC-Publ. 298, Annex AA – VDE 0670, Part 6 and Part 601 Type of service location Air-insulated ring-main units can be used in service locations and in closed electrical service locations in accordance with VDE 0101. Specific features
s Switch disconnector fixed-mounted s Switch disconnector with integrated

1 1 2 2 4 1 Load-break switch 2 Grounding switch 1 2 3 4
Vacuum circuit breaker Current transformer Potential transformer Grounding switch

3

central operating mechanism
s Standard program includes numerous s

s s s s s

circuit variants Operations enabled by protective interlocks; the insulating barrier is included in the interlocking Extensible by virtue of panel design Cubicles compartmentalized (option) Minimal cubicle dimensions without extensive use of plastics Lines up with earlier type 8AA10 Withdrawable circuit-breaker section can be moved into the service and disconnected position with the door closed

Fig. 103a: Cross section of cable feeder panel

Fig. 103b: Cross section of withdrawable type vacuum circuit-breaker panel

Individual panels Circuit-breaker panels
Scheme 11/12 Scheme 13/14

Load-breaker panels
Scheme 21/22 Scheme 23/24 Scheme 25/26

Metering and cable panels
Scheme 33/34

Fig. 104: Schemes

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

2/63

Secondary Distribution Switchgear and Transformer Substations

Factory-assembled packaged substations type 8FB1 (example )
Factory-assembled transformer substations are available in different designs and dimensions. As an example of a typical substation program, type 8FB1 is shown here. Other types are available on request. The transformer substations type 8FB1 with up to 1000 kVA transformer ratings and 7.2–24 kV are prefabricated and factory-assembled, ready for connection of network cables on site. Special foundation not necessary.
s Distribution substations for

public power supply
s Nonwalk-in type s Switchgear operated with open substa-

tion doors General features/Applications
s Power supply for LV systems, especially

in load centers for public supply
s Power supply for small and medium

Fig. 105: Steel-clad outdoor substation 8FB1 for rated voltages up to 24 kV and transformers up to 1000 kVA

industrial plants with existing HV side cable terminations s Particularly suitable for installation at sites subject to high atmospheric humidity, hostile environment, and stringent demands regarding blending of the station with the surroundings s Extra reliability ensured by SF6-insulated ring-main units type 8DJ, which require no maintenance and are not affected by the climate Brief description The substation housing consists of a torsion-resistant bottom unit, with a concrete trough for the transformer, embedded in the ground, and a hot-dip galvanized steel structure mounted on it. It is subdivided into three sections: HV section, transformer section and LV section. The lateral section of the concrete trough serves as mounting surface for the HV and LV cubicles and also closes off the cable entry compartments at the sides. These compartments are closed off at the bottom and front by hot-dip galvanized bolted steel covers. Four threaded bushes for lifting the complete substation are located in the floor of the concrete trough. The substations are arc-fault-tested in order to ensure personnel safety during operation and for the pedestrians passing by the installed substation.

HV section (as an example): 8DJ SF6-insulated ring-main unit (for details please refer to RMU‘s page 2/50–2/61) Technical data:
s Rated voltages and insulation levels

LV section: The LV section can take various forms to suit the differing base configurations. The connection to the transformer is made by parallel cables instead of bare conductors. Incoming circuit: Circuit breaker, fused load disconnector, fuses or isolating links. Outgoing circuits: Tandem-type fuses, load-break switches, MCCB, or any other requested systems. Basic measuring and metering equipment to suit the individual requirements.

s s s s

7.2 kV 12 kV 15 kV 17.5 kV 24 kV 60 75 95 95 125 kV (BIL) Rating of cable circuits: 400 / 630 A Rating of transformer circuits: 200 A Degree of protection for HV parts: IP 65 Ambient temperature range: –30°C/+55°C (other on request)

Transformer-section: Oil-cooled transformer with ratings up to max. 1000 kVA. The transformer is connected with the 8DJ10 ring-main unit by three single-core screened 35 mm2 plastic insulated cables. The connection is made by means of right-angle plugs or standard air-insulated sealing ends possible at the transformer side.

2/64

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

2280 2570 2100 1650 2100 5.41 7.19 approx. 107: HV section: Compact substation 8FB with SF 6-insulated RMU (two loop switches. 2530 2100 2100 1650 2100 4. 106: Technical data. 3800 2350 2300 1700 2350 5. dimensions and weights Fig.17 approx.20 approx.40 8.28 7.91 approx. as a example Fig.28 approx.98 10.41 9. 109: LV section: Example of LV distribution board Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/65 . 108: Transformer section: Cable terminations to the transformer. 3600 Fig. weights: Length Width Height above ground Height overall Floor area Volume Weight without transformer [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm2] [mm3] [kg] 630 kVA 630 kVA 630 kVA 1000 kVA 1000 kVA 1000 kVA 3290 1300 1650 2100 4.06 approx.18 12. 3400 3120 2300 1700 2350 7. one transformer feeder switch with HRC fuses) Fig.Secondary Distribution Switchgear and Transformer Substations Substation housing type: HV section: SF6 -insulated ring-main unit (RMU) 8FB10 8FB11 8FB12 8FB15 8FB16 8FB17 H High-voltage section T Transformer section H T L H T L L T H T L H T L T H L H L Low-voltage section Transformer rating Overall dimensions. 2400 3860 1550 1700 2350 5.

110: Equipment program for medium-voltage switchgear 2/66 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . Part 2 DIN VDE 0670.2 and 36 kV. Part 103 s UL 347 Vacuum interrupter VS 7.2 … 24 – 16 … 20 in combination with Siemens fuses: s IEC 420 s DIN VDE 0670. 3941 ANSI C57.2 … 36 31.6 … 36 – For further information please contact: Fax: ++ 49 .. 36 25 25 IEC 56 IEC 694 BS5311 DIN VDE 0670 Modular assembly set with indoor VCB 7.6 … 12 – 8 (1s) Vacuum contactors s IEC 470 s DIN VDE 0660.73 46 54 Indoor and outdoor current and voltage transformers 3M 12 … 36 – – Fig.1 … 63 Outdoor vacuum circuit breaker 3AF 3AG 12. Fig.13 44 peak withstand current – – Indoor post insulators. Part 301 Indoor disconnecting and grounding switch 3D 7. Part 301 Indoor vacuum switch 3CG 7. Part 4 HV HRC fuses 3GD 7. All components and devices conform to international and national standards.Medium-Voltage Devices Product Range Devices for medium-voltage switchgear With the equipment program for switchgear Siemens can deliver nearly every device which is required in the mediumvoltage range between 7. 110 gives an overview about the available devices and their main characteristics.2 … 36 IEC 185.5 12.91 31 .5 … 72 12.1 … 63 13.2 … 24 – 16 … 20 (1s) IEC 129 IEC 265-1 DIN VDE 0670.2 … 36 – 16 .2 … 15 25 … 44 25 … 44 Vacuum switches s IEC 265-1 s DIN VDE 0670.5 … 80 – Current and voltage transformers s s s s Fuse bases 3GH 7.2 … 40. 186 DIN VDE 0414 BS 3938. 63 (1s) HV HRC fuses s IEC 282 s DIN VDE 0670. bushings 3FA 3. Part 303 Indoor vacuum contactor 3TL 3..5 … 72 Switch disconnectors s s s s Indoor switch disconnector 3CJ 7. as there are: Vacuum circuit breakers s s s s Device Type Rated voltage [kV] Shortcircuit current [kA] Short-time current (3s) [kA] Indoor vacuum circuit breaker 3AH 7.2 … 36 13.

carrying and supporting function 2/81 – – – – Measuring and protection 2/82 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/67 .g..000 10. 3x106 0.g. e.000 … 120. short-circuit current limitation 2/80 400 – – – Accommodation of HV HRC fuse links 2/80 – – – – Insulation of live parts from another. transformers. overhead lines.000 10. fuses necessary for short-circuit protection All applications.000 … 30. overhead lines. capacitors.000 10.000 – All applications. 2x106 – 2/76 800 … 4000 10.3 … 250 – – – Short-circuit protection. e.000 25 … 100 All applications. high number of operations.. cables. transformers. cables. generators. overhead lines. especially motors with very high number of operating cycles 2/74 400 … 450 1x106 . capacitors. motors... transformers.000 25 … 100 For circuit breakers.000 … 30. motors. generators. cables. motors. capacitors.000 30 … 50 All applications.Medium-Voltage Devices Product Range Rated current mechanical [A] Operating cycles with rated current with shortcircuit current Applications/remarks Page 800 … 4000 10. e. switches and gas-insulated switchgear 2/77 630 1000 20 – Small number of operations. arc furnaces 2/68 1600 10.000 … 30.g.000 10.25x105 . filter circuits 2/72 1250 … 3150 – – – Original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and retrofit 2/73 800 10. e. distribution transformers 2/78 400 … 2500 – – – Protection of personnel working on equipment 2/79 6. filter circuits.g.

000 operating cycles.2 Rated shortcircuit breaking current [kA] Rated current [A] 13.000 operating cycles in the range between 7. It has a lifetime of 10. Circuit breakers with reduced pole center distances. s s s s s very high initial rates of rise of the recovery voltage Switching motors Switching transformers and reactors Switching overhead lines and cables Switching capacitors Switching arc furnaces 2/68 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .2 kV and 24 kV s 3AH3 – the maintenancefree circuit breaker for high breaking capacities in the range between 7.000 operating cycles s 3AH2 – the circuit breaker for 60. circuit breakers for very high numbers of switching cycles and singlephase versions are part of the program. certified to DIN/ISO 9001.Medium-Voltage Devices Type 3AH Indoor vacuum circuit breakers type 3AH The 3AH vacuum circuit breakers are three-phase medium-voltage circuit breakers for indoor installations.2 kV and 24 kV.000 operating cycles: accelerated temperature/ humidity change cycles between –25 and +60 °C prove that the 3AH functions reliably without maintenance. It has a lifetime of 10.5 40 50 63 –. High availability Continuous tests have proven that the 3AHs are maintenancefree up to 10. synchronization s Automatic reclosing up to 31. 111: The complete 3AH program Properties of 3AH circuit breakers: No relubrication Nonwearing material pairs at the bearing points and nonaging greases make relubrication superfluous on 3AH circuit breakers up to 10. The following breaker types are available: s 3AH1 – the maintenancefree circuit Rated voltage [kV] 36 24 17. No readjustment Narrow tolerances in the production of the 3AH permanently prevent impermissible play: even after frequent switching the 3AH circuit breaker does not need to be readjusted up to 10.000 operating cycles s 3AH5 – the economical circuit breaker in the lower range for 10.000 maintenancefree operating cycle The 3AH circuit breakers are suitable for: s Rapid load transfer.000 operating cycles s 3AH4 – the circuit breaker for up to 120. As standard circuit breakers they are available for the entire medium-voltage range.1250 1250 1250 800 800 800 800 800 1250 -1250 -1250 -2500 -1250 -1250 -2500 2500 -3150 -3150 -4000 3AH1 3AH2 3AH3 3AH4 3AH5 Fig.000 operating cycles.5 15 12 breaker which covers the range between 7.1 800 16 20 25 31.5 kA s Breaking short-circuit currents with 7. even after long periods of standstill.2 kV and 36 kV. Assured quality Exemplary quality control with some hundred switching cycles per circuit breaker.

112: Vacuum circuit breakers type 3AH Fig.Medium-Voltage Devices Type 3AH Advantages of the vacuum switching principle The most important advantages of the principle of arc extinction in a vacuum have made the circuit breakers a technically superior product and the principle on which they work the most economical extinction method available: s Constant dielectric: In a vacuum there are no decomposition products and because the vacuum interrupter is hermetically sealed there are no environmental influences on it. Available up to 17. This and the small number of moving parts inside makes it extremely reliable.5 kV Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/69 . For this reason. contact resistance can be guaranteed to remain low over the whole life of the equipment. s Constant contact resistance: The absence of oxidization in a vacuum keeps the metal contact surface clean. the short-circuit breaking current an average of 50 times s Small chopping current: The chopping current in the Siemens vacuum interrupter is only 4 to 5 A due to the use of a special contact material. s Large total current: Because there is little burning of contacts. Fig. 113: Front view of vacuum circuit breaker 3AH1 with 160-mm pole center distance.000 times. the rated normal current can be interrupted up to 30. s High reliability: The vacuum interrupters need no sealings as conventional circuit breakers.

12 kV 20 kA. 114a: Dimensions of typical vacuum circuit breakers type 3AH (Examples) 2/70 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . 24 kV 16 kA. 2500 A.5 kA. up to 1250 A 275 708 662 275 105 565 190 535 437 60 Dimensions in mm Fig. 20 kA. up to 1250 A.Medium-Voltage Devices Type 3AH 3AH1. 40 kA. up to 1250 A. 3AH2. up to 1250 A 210 604 532 210 105 520 190 437 473 60 Dimensions in mm 3AH1. 25 kA. 12 kV 31. up to 1250 A 25 kA. 2500 A 604 538 210 210 105 550 190 437 583 109 Dimensions in mm 565 3AH1.

2500 A 820 350 350 211 526 564 791 1000 Dimensions in mm 853 612 Fig. 4000 A 750 275 275 211 483 564 733 Dimensions in mm 776 3AH3. 3AH4.Medium-Voltage Devices Type 3AH 3AH1. 40 kA. 2500 A 275 708 670 275 105 595 190 437 648 109 Dimensions in mm 610 3AH3.5 kA. 36 kV 31. 114b: Dimensions of typical vacuum circuit breakers type 3AH (Examples) Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/71 . 2500 A. 24 kV 25 kA. 3AH2. 12 kV 63 kA.

lightweight construction. The Siemens outdoor vacuum circuit breakers are designed and tested to meet the requirements of IEC 56/IS 13118. Advantages at a glance s s s s s Technical data Vacuum circuit-breaker type Rated voltage Rated frequency Rated lightningimpulse withstand voltage Rated power-frequency withstand voltage (dry and wet) Rated short-circuit breaking current Rated short-circuit making current Rated current [kV] [Hz] [kV] [kV] [kA] [kA] [A] Type 3AG 12 50/60 75 Type 3AF 36 50/60 170 70 25 28 25 63 63 1600 1600 Fig.Medium-Voltage Devices Type 3AF/3AG Outdoor vacuum circuit breakers type 3AF and 3AG The Siemens outdoor vacuum circuit breakers are structure-mounted. 115: Outdoor vacuum circuit breaker type 3AF for 36 kV Fig. have been retained. 116: Ratings for outdoor vacuum circuit breakers Front view 1830 190 725 725 Side view 285 285 High reliability Negligible maintenance Suitable for rapid autoreclosing duty Long electrical and mechanical life Completely environmental-friendly 3710 3748 3105 2510 1217 1730 1930 Dimensions in mm Fig. easy-toinstall vacuum circuit breakers for use in systems up to 36 kV. etc. The triple-pole circuit breaker is fitted with reliable and well proven vacuum interrupters. All the fundamental advantages of using vacuum interrupters like low operating energy. The pole construction is a porcelain-clad construction similar to conventional outdoor high-voltage switchgear. It is suitable for direct connection to overhead lines. virtually shockfree performance leading to ease of erection and reduction in foundation requirements. 117: Dimensions of outdoor circuit breaker type 3AF for 36 kV 450 650 2/72 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . Adequate phase spacing and height have been provided to meet standards and safety requirements. The type design incorporates a minimum of moving parts and a simplicity of assembly assuring a long mechanical and electrical life.

118: Withdrawable truck with vacuum circuit breaker (Example) Ratings for withdrawable truck shown in Fig. metal-clad.2 kV to 15 kV 1250 A to 3150 A 25 kA to 44 kA rated voltage rated current rated short-circuit breaking current Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/73 . The centerpiece of the set is a mediumvoltage vacuum circuit breaker. with all the consequent advantages. such as: oped and manufactured to DIN/ISO 9001 s Components type-tested to IEC. air-insulated medium-voltage primary distribution switchgear.Medium-Voltage Devices Modular Assembly Sets Modular assembly sets with indoor vacuum circuit breakers The modular assembly sets are especially suitable for retrofit applications and for the use by original equipment manufacturers (OEM). devels Maximum flexibility in the manufacturing process s Wide product range Fig. The withdrawable assembly sets consist of parts of type-tested. The circuit-breaker compartment can be integrated in the complete bay as individually required. incorporating all benefits of vacuum switchgear technology: s s s s s High reliability Negligible maintenance Long electrical and mechanical life Completely environment-friendly Suitable for all switching duties Use of these parts allows the OEM to utilize Siemens know-how in the construction of air-insulated switchgear. 118 7.

can be interrupted 10. 119: Ratings for vacuum switches type 3CG 630 63 63+800 630 63 63+800 630 63 63+800 630 63 63+800 10. Rated short-circuit making current I ma Rated short-time current I m (3s) Rated normal current I n Rated ring-main breaking current I c 1 Rated transformer breaking current Rated capacitor breaking current Rated cable-charging breaking current I c Rated breaking current for stalled motors I d Inductive switching capacity (cos ϕ ≤ 0. With these.000 10. The operating mechanism needs to be lubricated only every 10 years. for example. The vacuum switch is therefore extremely economical. 800 A 2/74 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .000 10.15) [kV] [kV] [kA] [kA] [A] [A] [A] [A] [A] [A] [A] 7. Vacuum switches are suitable for the following switching duties: s s s s s s Technical data Rated voltage U Rated lightning-impulse withstand voltage Ul. all loads can be switched without any restriction and with a high degree of reliability. A rated current of 800 A.000 Fig. 120: Vacuum switch type 3CG for 24 kV. Switching capacity under ground fault conditions: – Rated ground fault breaking current I e [A] [A] – Rated cable-charging breaking current [A] – Rated cable charging breaking current with superimposed load current Number of switching cycles with I n Fig.2 60 50 20 800 800 10 800 63 2500 2500 12 75 50 20 800 800 10 800 63 1600 1600 15 95 50 20 800 800 10 800 63 1250 1250 24 125 40 16 800 800 10 800 63 – 1250 Overhead lines Cables Transformers Motors Capacitors Switching under ground-fault conditions 3CG switches can be combined with all Siemens fuses (250 A) and comply with the specifications of IEC 420 and DIN VDE 0670 Part 303.Medium-Voltage Devices Type 3CG Indoor vacuum switches type 3CG The 3CG vacuum switches are multipurpose switches conforming to IEC 265-1 and DIN VDE 0670 Part 301.000 10.000 times without maintenance. The electrical and mechanical data are greater than for conventional switches.

2 and 12 kV switch 530 210 210 492 264 435 482 568 592 Dimensions in mm 43 170 24 kV switch 630 537 275 275 379 435 597 684 708 Dimensions in mm Fig.Medium-Voltage Devices Type 3CG 7. 121: Dimensions of vacuum switch type 3CG (Examples) 43 170 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/75 .

25x106 operating cycles In the withdrawable unit. The vacuum contactors are available in different designs: s Type 3TL6 with compact dimensions and an electrical lifetime of 1x106 operating cycles s Type 3TL8 with slender design and an electrical lifetime of 0.2 50/60 400 Switching capacity according to [A] utilization category AC-4 (cos ϕ = 0.25 x 106 220 mm 375 mm 390 mm Fig. the 3TL6 vacuum contactor can be grouped together and electrically connected with fuse carriers for HV HRC fuse links according to DIN/BS and also with overvoltage limiters. 122: Vacuum contactor type 3TL6 for fixed mounting 605 mm Fig.g. 280 mm 1200 mm 780 mm 325 mm 340 mm Fig. the following switching duties: s Switching of three-phase motors in AC-3 and AC-4 operation s Switching of transformers s Switching of capacitors s Switching of ohmic loads (e.6 50/60 450 3TL 61 7. 125: Vacuum contactor type 3TL8 for fixed mounting 2/76 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . 124: Ratings for vacuum contactors type 3TL 4500 3600 3 x 106 2 x 106 1 x 106 3 x 106 2 x 106 1 x 106 1 x 106 1 x 106 1 x 106 4000 3200 1 x 106 0.25 x 106 0.Medium-Voltage Devices Type 3TL Vacuum contactors Type 3TL The three-pole vacuum contactors type 3TL are for medium-voltage systems between 3.They are suitable for the operational switching of AC devices in indoor systems and can perform. 3TL contactors also comply with UL Standard 347. for example. arc furnaces) 3TL vacuum contactors have the following features: s Small dimensions s Long electrical life (up to 10 6 operating cycles) s Maintenancefree s Vertical or horizontal mounting The vacuum contactors comply with the standards for high-voltage AC contactors between 1 kV and 12 kV according to IEC Publication 470-1970 and DIN VDE 0660 Part 103.2 3TL 65 12 3TL 81 7. 123: Vacuum contactor type 3TL6 mounted on withdrawable unit Technical data Vacuum contactor type Rated voltage U e Rated frequency Rated normal current I e [kV] [Hz] [A] 3TL 60 3.35) Rated making current Rated breaking current Mechanical life of the contactor switching cycles Mechanical life of the vacuum interrupter – switching cycles Electrical life of the vacuum interrupter (switching cycles with rated current) Fig.6 kV and 12 kV and incorporate a solenoid-operated mechanism for high switching frequency and unlimited closing duration.

127: Range of ratings for vacuum interrupters Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/77 . During operation vacuum interrupters do not affect the environment and are themselves not affected by the environment. the components are cleaned in a ultrasonic cleaning plant.2 kV – 40.5 kA – 72 kA Interrupters for vacuum contactors Un In 1 kV – 12 kV 450 A Fig. ceramics and high-grade steel.5 kV 800 A – 4000 A 12. Applications s s s s s s s Vacuum circuit breakers Vacuum switches Vacuum contactors Transformer tap switches Circuit breakers for railway applications Autoreclosers Special applications. such as copper.g. Siemens is prepared to supplement our wide standard program by way of tailored. rigorous material checking of every delivery and 100% tests of the interrupters for vacuum sealing guarantee reliable operation and the long life of Siemens vacuum interrupters. no CFCs are used in production (fulfilling the Montreal agreement). Environmental protection In the manufacture of our vacuum interrupters we only use environmentally compatible materials. customized concepts. in nuclear fusion Compact design Vacuum interrupters provide a very high switching capacity within very compact dimensions: e.5 kV Interrupters for vacuum circuit breakers Un In Isc 7.5 kV. The manufacturing processes do not damage the environment.Medium-Voltage Devices Type VS Vacuum interrupters Vacuum interrupters for the medium-voltage range are available from Siemens for all applications on the international market from 1 kV up to 40. Know-how for special applications If necessary. Fig. Consistant quality assurance Complete quality assurance (TQM and DIN/ISO 9001). e.g.5 kA with 68 mm diameter by 124 mm length. For example. 126: Vacuum interrupters from 1 kV to 40. vacuum interrupters for 15 kV/40 kA with housing dimensions of 125 mm diameter by 168 mm length or for 12 kV/12.

129: Ratings for switch disconnectors type 3CJ1 2/78 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . motor operating mechanism.2 20 12 20 15 16 24 16 [kA] 50 50 40 40 [A] 630 630 630 630 Fig. 128: Switch disconnector type 3CJ1 Technical data Rated voltage Rated short-time current Rated short-circuit making current Rated normal current [kV] [kA] 7.Medium-Voltage Devices Type 3CJ1 Switch disconnectors type 3CJ1 Indoor switch disconnectors type 3CJ1 are multipurpose types and meet all the relevant standards both as the basic version and in combination with (make-proof) grounding switches. shunt releases and auxiliary switches s Good dielectric properties even under difficult climatic conditions because of the exclusive use of standard post insulators for insulation against ground s No insulating partitions even with small phase spacings s Simple maintenance and inspection Fig. (make-proof) grounding switches. The 3CJ1 indoor switch-disconnectors have the following features: s A modular system with all important modules such as fuses.

Fig.5 [kA] 50 to 160 50 to 80 50 to 80 Fig.5 36 20 to 31.Medium-Voltage Devices Type 3D Disconnecting and grounding switches type 3D Disconnecting and grounding switches type 3D are suitable for indoor installations from 12 kV up to 36 kV. This is assured even under difficult climatic conditions. Disconnecting and grounding switches type 3D are supplied with a manual or motor drive operating mechanism.5 [kA] 40 to 160 40 to 80 50 to 80 [A] 400 to 2500 630 to 2500 630 to 2500 Fig. Disconnectors are mainly used to protect personnel working on equipment and must therefore be very reliable and safe. 132: Ratings for grounding switches type 3DE Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/79 .5 36 20 to 31. 131: Ratings for disconnectors type 3DC Technical data Rated voltage Rated short-time current Rated peak withstand current [kV] [kA] 12 20 to 63 24 20 to 31. 130: Disconnecting switch type 3DC Technical data Rated voltage Rated short-time current Rated short-circuit making current Rated normal current [kV] [kA] 12 16 to 63 24 16 to 31.

Fig.3 to 100 6. motors. 133: HV HRC fuse type 3GD Technical data Rated voltage Rated short-circuit breaking current Rated normal current [kV] [kA] 7. Siemens HV HRC fuse links have the following features: s Use in indoor and outdoor installations s Nonaging because the fuse element Fig. 135: Fuse bases type 3GH with HV HRC fuse links Technical data Rated voltage Peak withstand current Rated current [kV] [kA] 3. These fuse bases are suitable for: s Indoor installations s High air humidity s Occasional condensation 3GH HV HRC fuse bases are available as single-phase and three-phase versions.Medium-Voltage Devices Type 3GD/3GH HV HRC fuses type 3GD HV HRC (high-voltage high-rupturing-capacity) fuses are used as a short-circuit protection in high-voltage switchgear. 134: Ratings for HV HRC fuse links type 3GD Fuse-bases type 3GH 3GH fuse bases are used to accomodate HV HRC fuse links in switchgear.2 63 to 80 12 40 to 63 24 31.3 to 250 6. such as transformers. 136: Ratings for fuse bases type 3GH 2/80 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . On request.3 to 40 Fig. a switching state indicator with an auxiliary switch can be installed.5 to 40 36 31.6/7. [A] 6.3 to 160 6. voltage transformers and cable feeders. capacitors. from the dynamic and thermal effects of high shortcircuit currents by breaking them as they occur. They protect switchgear and components.5 is made of pure silver s Thermal tripping s Absolutely watertight s Low power loss With our 30 years of experience in the manufacture of HV HRC fuse links and with production and quality assurance that complies with DIN/ISO 9001. Up to this current the integrated thermal striker prevents a thermal overload on the fuse when used in circuit breaker/fuse combinations. Siemens HV HRC fuse links meet the toughest demands for safety and reliability.2 44 12 44 24 44 36 44 [A] 400 400 400 400 Fig. The HV HRC fuse links can only be used to a limited degree as overload protection because they only operate with certainty when their minimum breaking current has already been exceeded.

The use of these materials. Special designs are possible if requested by the customer. provide optimum utility for the customer. 138: Post insulators type 3FA1/2 Technical data Normal voltage Lightning-impulse withstand voltage Rated power-frequency withstand voltage Minimum failing load [kV] [kV] [kV] [kN] 3. Special ribbed forms ensure high electrical strength even when materials are deposited on the surface and occasional condensation is formed.75 to 16 Fig.Medium-Voltage Devices Insulators and Bushings Insulators: Post insulators type 3FA and bushings type 3FH/3FM Insulators (post insulators and bushings) are used to insulate live parts from one another and also fulfill mechanical carrying and supporting functions. such as the 3FA4 divider post insulator with an integrated expulsion-type arrester. 137: Draw-lead bushing type 3FH5/6 Fig. 140: The principle of capacitive voltage indication with the 3FA4 divider post insulator Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 2/81 . Post insulators and bushings are manufactured in various designs for indoor and outdoor use depending on the application. Fig.75 to 25 36 145 to 190 75 to 105 3.75 to 16 12 65 to 90 35 to 50 3. which have proved themselves over many years of exposure to the roughest operating and ambient conditions and the high quality standard to DIN/ISO 9001.75 to 25 24 100 to 145 55 to 75 3. assure the high degree of reliability of the insulators.6 60 to 65 27 to 40 3. Innovative solutions. The materials for insulators are various cast resins and porcelains. 139: Ratings for post insulators type 3FA1/2 L U1 U U2 C1 M L Conductor U Operating voltage U1 Partial voltage across C1 U2 Partial voltage across C2 and indicator V C2 A C1 Coupling capacitance C2 Undercapacitance V Arrester A Indicator M Measuring socket Fig.

Special customized versions (e. thermal limit current [A] Fig. up to 3 cores for current transformers. 141: Block current transformer type 4MA Fig. The program also includes cast-resin insulated-bushing current transformers and outdoor current and voltage transformers. thermal rated [kA] short time current Sec.Medium-Voltage Devices Type 4M Current and voltage transformers type 4M Measuring transformers are electrical devices that transform primary electrical quantities (currents and voltages) to proportional and in-phase quantities which are safe for connected equipment and operating personnel. A maximum of operational safety is assured even under difficult climatic conditions by the use of cycloalyphatic resin systems and proven cast-resin technology. Fig.g. capacitance layer for voltage indication) can be supplied on request. 142: Outdoor voltage transformer type 4MS4 Technical data Current transformers Rated voltage Primary rated current [kV] [A] 12 10 to 2500 80 24 10 to 2500 80 36 10 to 2500 80 5 to 10 5 to 13 8 to 17 Voltage transformers 12 24 36 Max. 143: Ratings for current and voltage transformers 2/82 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . The indoor post insulator current and voltage transformers of the block type have DIN-conformant dimensions and are used in air-insulated switchgear. switchable windings.

Low-Voltage Switchboards SIVACON Contents Introduction Advantages Technical data Cubicle design Busbar system Installation designs Circuit-breaker design Withdrawable-unit design Page 3/2 3/2 3/3 3/4 3/5 3/6 3/6 3/7–3/12 Contents Fixed-mounted design Frame and enclosure Forms of internal separation Installation details Page 3/13–3/14 3/15 3/16 3/17–3/18 .

and the loads. It is notable for its good availability and high degree of personnel and system safety. As the majority of applications are supplied with low voltage. heating. 3). practical and type-tested switchgear and controlgear assembly (Fig. used for example in power engineering.Low-Voltage Switchboards Introduction Low-voltage switchboards form the link between equipment for generation. g. in the chemical. lighting and air conditioning on the other. overhead lines) and transformation of electrical energy on the one hand. such as motors. With the many combinations that the SIVACON modular design allows.e they comply with the following standards: s IEC 439-1 s EN 60439-1 s DIN VDE 0660 Part 500 up to 4 MVA up to 690 V Cable or busbar system up to 6300 A 3-50 Hz Incoming circuit-breaker LT Main switchboard Circuit-breakers as feeders to the subdistribution boards also s DIN VDE 0106 Part 100 up to 5000 A Certification DIN EN ISO 9001 Connecting cables Advantages of a SIVACON switchboard s Type-tested standard modules s Space-saving base areas from ET FT 400 x 400 mm2 up to 630 A up to 630 A s Solid wall design for safe cubicle- to-cubicle separation s High packing density with up to 40 feeders per cubicle up to 630 A Subdistribution board e. a wide range of demands can be met both in fixed-mounted and in withdrawable-unit design. i. 1). Power distribution in a system usually comes via a main switchboard (power control center or main distribution board) and a number of subdistribution boards or motor control centers (Fig. Reliable power supplies are conditional on good availability. All modules used are type-tested (TTA). solenoid valves.) M M M M M M M s Standard operator interface for all withdrawable units s Test and disconnected position with door closed s Visible isolating gaps and points M of contact s Alternative busbar positioning Motor control center 1 in withdrawable-unit design for production/ manufacturing Motor control center 2 in withdrawable-unit design for production/ manufacturing up to 100 A Control at top or rear s Cable/bar connection from above or below LT = Circuit-breaker design ET = Withdrawable-unit design FT = Fixed-mounted design Fig. flexibility for processrelated modifications and high operating safety on the part of the switchboard. air conditioning. General The SIVACON ® low-voltage switchboard is an economical. the low-voltage switchboard is of special significance in both public supply systems and industrial plants. services (Lighting. actuators and devices for heating. transmission (cables. It can be used on all power levels up to 6300 A: s As main switchboard (power control center or main distribution board) s As motor control centre s As subdistribution board. etc. 1: Typical low-voltage network in an industrial plant 3/2 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . oil and capital goods industries and in public and private building systems.

6 Fig. IEC 529 * Mean value at simultaneity factor of all feeders of 0.Low-Voltage Switchboards Technical data at a glance Rated insulation voltage (Ui) Rated operational voltage (Ue) up to 1000 V 690 V Busbar currents (3. 3: SIVACON low-voltage switchboard Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 3/3 . 600 W* IP 20 up to IP 54 1 1 Circuit-breaker-design cubicle with withdrawable circuit-breaker 3WN. 2 up to up to up to 6300 A 220 kA 100 kA up to up to up to up to up to up to up to up to up to 2000 A 110 kA 50 kA 1000 A 110 kA 50 kA 6300 A 800 kA 630 kA approx. 1600 A 2 3 2 Withdrawable-unit-design cubicle with 40 feeders ≤ 15 kW 3 Withdrawable-unit-design cubicle with miniature and normal withdrawable units up to 250 kW Fig.and 4-pole): Horizontal main busbars Rated current Rated impulse withstand current (Ipk) Rated short-time withstand current (Icw) Vertical busbars for circuit-breakers See horizontal busbars for fixed-mounted design Rated current Rated impulse withstand current (Ipk) Rated short-time withstand current (Icw) for withdrawable-unit design Rated current Rated impulse withstand current (Ipk) Rated short-time withstand current (Icw) Device rated Circuit-breakers Cable feeders Motor feeders Power loss per cubicle with combination of various cubicles (Pv) Degree of protection to DIN VDE 40050.

in 600 mm deep cubicles it is at the rear. the busbar compartment is at the top.e. The switching device compartment accommodates switchgear and auxiliary equipment. With circuit-breaker design. The effective device installation space with a height of 1750 mm therefore represents a height of 10 M. it is below the switching device compartment (Fig. 225 mm (Fig. The top and bottom space each has a height of 1 x 1M + 50 mm. the busbar compartment is located centrally. 4: Cubicle design 3/4 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . 4). 400 600 600 400 400 400 400 Busbar compartment Device compartment Dimensions in mm Cable/busbar connection compartment Cross-wiring compartment Fig. The cable/busbar connection compartment is located on the right-hand side of the cubicle.Low-Voltage Switchboards Cubicle design The cubicle is structured in modular grid based on one modular spacing (1 M) corresponding to 175 mm. A cubicle is subdivided into four function compartments: s Busbar compartment s Device compartment s Cable/busbar connection compartment s Cross-wiring compartment In 400 mm deep cubicles. i. however. 5). In double-front systems (1000 mm depth) and in a power control center (1200 mm depth). The cross-wiring compartment is located at the top front and is provided for leading control and loop lines from cubicle to cubicle.

PEN. In 1200 mm deep systems (power control center) (Fig. 5d) the conductors are arranged as for double-front systems. In a 400 mm deep cubicle (Fig. and 2250 A (ventilated). this main busbar passes through several cubicles and can be linked with another main busbar via a coupling. 5a) the phase conductors of the main busbar are always at the top. 5c). Icw = 100 kA. they are between the two switching device compartments (central). A vertical distribution busbar is connected with the main busbar and supplies outgoing feeders within a cubicle. PE and N conductors are always at the bottom. The maximum rated current at 35 °C is 1965 A (non-ventilated). Ipk = 220 kA or I cw = 100 kA. L2 and L3 form the busbar system of a switchboard. In single-front systems with 600 mm cubicle depth (Fig. Depending on requirements. respectively. respectively. Top space 50 175 Switching device compartment 50 175 2200 10 x 175 10 x 175 175 400 50 175 200 400 50 Bottom space a) b) 50 175 50 175 2200 10 x 175 2200 10 x 175 175 400 200 400 50 400 400 400 175 50 c) d) Dimensions in mm Fig. the maximum short-circuit strength is I pk = 110 kA or Icw = 50 kA. I pk = 220 kA. the phase conductors are always at the top. the phase conductor busbars L1. the main busbars are behind the switching device compartment. the PEN or PE and N conductors are always at the bottom. but in duplicate. The maximum rated current is at 35 °C 3250 A (non-ventilated) or 3500 A (ventilated). 5b). The maximum rated current at 35 °C is 4850 A (non-ventilated) or 6000 A (ventilated).Low-Voltage Switchboards Busbar system Together with the PEN or PE busbars. The phase conductors can be arranged at the top or bottom. One or more distribution buses and/or incoming and outgoing feeders can be connected to a horizontal main busbar. In double-front systems of 1000 mm depth (Fig. 5: Modular grid and location of main busbars Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 3/5 . and if applicable the N busbars.

A kit. The cubicle width is determined by the breaker rated current. The withdrawable circuit-breaker has three positions between which it can be moved with the aid of a crank or spindle mechanism. regardless of the preset delay time of the switching device concerned. 1600 A rated current Circuit-breaker design 3WN The 3WN circuit-breakers in withdrawableunit or fixed-mounted design are used for incoming supply. the stresses and damage suffered by a switchboard in the event of a short-circuit can be substantially minimized. The circuit-breaker design components meet these requirements. in the process of moving from one position to another. The operational current can be shown on an LCD display in the control panel. With supply from above. the circuit-breaker always reaches the OPEN state or that closing is not possible when the breaker is between two positions. 7). ”coupling“ and ”feeder“ functions must be reliably available over long periods of time.Low-Voltage Switchboards Installation designs The following designs are available for the duties specified: s Circuit-breaker design s Withdrawable-unit design s Fixed-mounted design Circuit-breaker design Distribution boards for substantial energy requirements are generally followed by a number of subdistribution boards and loads. The circuit-breaker cubicles have separate function spaces for a switching device compartment. In the disconnected position both main and auxiliary contacts are open. the arrangement is a like a mirror image. ”supply“. auxiliary equipment compartment and cable/busbar connection compartment (Fig. The cable or busbar connection compartment is located below. Breaker rated current [A] IN to 1600 IN to 2500 IN to 3200 IN to 6300 Fig. outgoing feeders and couplings (longitudinal and transverse). Mechanical interlocks ensure that. switch or withdrawable unit can be used for grounding and short-circuiting. Particular demands are therefore made in terms of long-term reliability and safety. there is consequently no need for an ammeter or current transformer. That is to say. In the test position the auxiliary contacts are closed. Maintenance and testing must not involve long standstill times. With the aid of short-time grading control for very brief delay times (50 ms). The circuit-breaker is always moved with the door closed. 3/6 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . The high short-time current-carrying capacity for time-graded short-circuit protection (up to 500 ms) assures reliable operation of sections of the switchboard not affected by a short circuit. The auxiliary equipment compartment is above the switching device compartment. The actual position in which it is can be telecommunicated via a signaling switch. 6 Cubicle width [mm] 400 600 800 1000 Fig. 7: Circuit-breaker cubicle with withdrawable circuit-breaker 3WN. In the connected position the main and auxiliary contacts are closed.

Withdrawable-unit design is used therefore mainly for switching and control of motors (Fig.e. 3 and 4 have a height of 2. be replaced by 4 withdrawable units of size 1/4 or 2 units of size 1/2. such that settings (e. indicator lights. The facility for equipping the withdrawable units from the rear allows plenty of space for auxiliary devices. 8: High packing density with up to 40 feeders per cubicle Fig.g. 3 and 4 modular spacings. 9: Size 1 withdrawable unit. Measuring instruments. The withdrawable units of sizes 2.Low-Voltage Switchboards Withdrawable-unit design A major feature of withdrawable-unit design is removability and ease of replacement of equipment combinations under operating conditions. In basic state. 9). A distinction is made between miniature (sizes 1/4 and 1/2) and normal withdrawable units (sizes 1. etc. which can be easily accommodated in a cubicle. The maximum complement of a cubicle is. for example. The normal withdrawable unit of size 1 has a height of one modular spacing (175 mm) and can. i. pushbuttons. on the overload relay) can be easily performed during operation. 8). respectively. Fig. all equipment and movable parts are within the withdrawable unit contours and thereby protected from damage. 2. are located on a hinged instrument panel. 3 and 4) (Fig. Withdrawable units The equipment of the main circuit of an outgoing feeder and the relevant auxiliary equipment are integrated as a function unit in a withdrawable unit. 10 full-size withdrawable units of size 1 or 40 miniature withdrawable units of size 1/4 . 18. with the use of a miniature withdrawable unit adapter.5 kW with contactor-type star-delta starter Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 3/7 . a switchboard can be adapted to process-related modifications without having to be shut down.

10) In the connected position both main and auxiliary contacts are closed. This assures optimal safety for personnel and the degree of protection is upheld. in which the main contacts are open. It has contacts on both the incoming and outgoing side.Low-Voltage Switchboards Moving isolating contact system For main and auxiliary circuits the withdrawable units are equipped with a moving isolating contact system. In all three positions the doors are closed and the withdrawable unit mechanically connected with the switchboard. 11). in the disconnected position they are open. On miniature withdrawable units the isolating contact system moves upwards into the miniature withdrawable unit adapter. Movement from the connected into the test position and vice-versa always passes through the disconnected position. 11: Operating error protection prevents travel of the isolating contacts when the master switch is “ON” 3/8 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . but the auxiliary contacts are closed for the incoming control voltage. The test position allows testing of the withdrawable unit for proper function in no-load (cold) state. 10: Withdrawable-unit principle Fig. this assures that all contactors drop out. A distinction is made between connected. they can be moved by handcrank such that they come laterally out of the withdrawable unit and engage with the fixed contacts in the cubicle. disconnected and test position (Fig. Operating error protection Test position Integrated maloperation protection in each withdrawable unit reliably prevents moving of the isolating contacts with the main circuit-breaker ”CLOSED“ (handcrank cannot be attached) (Fig. Connected position Disconnected position Fig.

WU Compt. AZNV Test WU Compt.Low-Voltage Switchboards Indicating and signaling AZNV Test .S21 .S 21 1Ö Connected * Disconnected Test *No signal.X19 .Q1 . as auxiliary isolating contact open Fig. WU Compt. The alarm switch in the compartment (S21) is a limit switch of NC design. isolating contact In withdrawable unit . ”test“ and ”AZNV and test“ can be given by additional alarm switches. Such signals as ”feeder not available“ (AZNV). = Compartment *actuated by main isolating contact Main isolating contact Aux.S 20 1S In compartment .S21 AZNV/Test . that in the withdrawable unit (S20) is of NO design. Both are actuated by the main isolating contacts of the withdrawable unit (Fig.X19 .Q1 .S21 COM The current position of a withdrawable unit is clearly indicated on the instrument panel. 12).S20 . 12: Circuitry and position of main and auxiliary contacts Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 3/9 . X19 = Auxiliary isolating contact S20 = Alarm switch in withdrawable unit* S21 = Alarm switch in compartment* WU = Withdrawable unit Compt.X19 .

13: Arcing fault-protected plug-on bar system embedded in the left of the cubicle Rated currents – fused and withdrawable unit sizes of cable feeders Device Rated current Withdrawable unit size Type D306 3KL50 3KL52 3KL53 3KL55 3KL57 3KL61 Rated currents – non-fused and withdrawable unit sizes of cable feeders [A] 35 63 125 160 250 400 630 1/4 / 1/2 1 1 2 2 2 3 Device Rated current Withdrawable unit size Type 3VU13* 3VU16 3VU13 3VU16 3VF1 3VF3 3VF4 3VF5 3VF6 [A] 25 32 (25) 25 (6) 63 (32) 63 (32) 160 250 400 630 1/4 / 1/2 1/2 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 I Fig. The vertical PE.Low-Voltage Switchboards Vertical distribution bus (plug-on bus) The vertical plug-on bus with the phase conductors L1. 13). 400 mm wide cable connection compartment. 14 ( ):Figures in brackets short-circuit-proof up to 100 kA *3VU13 with limiter short-circuit-proof up to 50 kA 3/10 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . equipped with variable cable brackets. PEN and N busbars are on the right-hand side of the cubicle in a separate. L2 and L3 is located on the left-hand side of the cubicle and features safe-to-touch tap openings (Fig. Fig.

5 22 90 132 200 690 V – 11 37 90 132 375 500 V 11 22 37 55 132 315 690 V 11 22 37 55 160 375 400 V – 18.Low-Voltage Switchboards Power ratings – fused and withdrawable unit sizes of cable feeders FVNR FVR Star-delta starters Full-voltage non-reversing (FVNR) motor starters Normal-duty start [kW] 400 V 15 18.5 37 75 160 250 – – Fig.5 37 55 132 – 250 355 500 V – 22 30 55 160 – 355 – 690 V – 22 45 90 160 – 400 500 1/4 1/2 1 2 3 4 3+3 4+4 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 3/11 .5 15 75 90 160 – – Full-voltage reversing (FVR) motor starters Reversing circuit [kW] 400 V 11 18.5 30 45 110 250 – – Star-delta starters [kW] Withdrawable unit size 500 V 15 22 45 90 200 355 690 V 22 22 37 90 160 500 500 V – 7. 15 Full-voltage non-reversing (FVNR) motor starters Heavy-duty start [kW] 400 V – 5.

5 75 160 250 Star-delta starters [kW] Withdrawable unit size 500 V 3 3 37 90 200 315 690 V – – – – – – 500 V – – 5.2 4 37 160 – Full-voltage reversing (FVR) motor starters Reversing circuit [kW] 400 V 11 11 18.5 55 160 250 Star-delta starters [kW] Withdrawable unit size 500 V 3 3 15 90 200 315 690 V – – – – – 500 V – – 5.1 3 15 75 200 315 690 V – – – – – – 400 V – 11 15 55 110 200 500 V – 1.1 15 75 132 250 690 V – – – – – – 1/4 1/2 1 2 3 4 3/12 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .5 45 200 – 690 V – – – – – – 500 V 3 3 22 90 200 315 690 V – – – – – – 400 V – 11 15 55 110 200 500 V – 1.5 75 160 250 Fig.5 45 200 690 V – – – – – – 500 V 1.Low-Voltage Switchboards Power ratings – non-fused with overload relay and withdrawable unit FVNR FVR Star-delta starters I I I Coordination type 1 Full-voltage non-reversing (FVNR) motor starters Normal-duty start [kW] 400 V 11 11 30 75 160 250 Full-voltage non-reversing (FVNR) motor starters Heavy-duty start [kW] 400 V – 2.2 4 37 160 – Full-voltage reversing (FVR) motor starters Reversing circuit [kW] 400 V 4 11 18.1 37 75 132 250 690 V – – – – – – 1/4 1/2 1 2 3 4 Coordination type 2 Full-voltage non-reversing (FVNR) motor starters Normal-duty start [kW] 400 V 11 11 18. 16 Full-voltage non-reversing (FVNR) motor starters Heavy-duty start [kW] 400 V – 2.

either there is no need to replace components under operating conditions or short standstill times do not result in exceptional costs. equipped with variable cable brackets. 18). The vertical PE. A transparent shock-hazard protection allows visual inspection and assures a very high degree of personnel safety. in building installation systems. PEN and N busbars are on the right-hand side of the cubicle in a separate. When the function modules are fitted in the cubicle they are first attached in the openings provided and then bolted to the cubicle. e. In such cases the fixed-mounted design (Fig. It can be subdivided at the top or bottom once per cubicle (for group circuits or couplings). 17) offers excellent economy. 17: Variable fixed-mounted design Fig. up to 400 mm wide cable connection compartment. 18: Fused modular function unit with direct protection. 45 kW Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 3/13 . Fig.g. The connections are easily accessible and therefore equally easy to check.Low-Voltage Switchboards Fixed-mounted design In certain applications. Modular function units The modular function units enable versatile and efficient installation. This securing system enables uncomplicated ”one-man assembly“. the function units can be combined as required within one cubicle. high reliability and flexibility by virtue of: s Any combination of modular function units s Easy replacement of function units after deenergizing the switchboard s Brief modification or standstill times by virtue of lateral vertical cubicle busbars s Add-on components for subdivision and even compartmentalization in accordance with requirements. The subracks can be equipped as required with switching devices or combinations thereof. L2 and L3 is fastened to the left-hand side wall of the cubicle and offers many connection facilities (without the need for drilling or perforation) for cables and bars. above all whenever operationally required changes or adaptations to new load data are necessary (Fig. Vertical distribution bus (cubicle busbar) The vertical cubicle busbar with the phase conductors L1.

19: Cubicle with in-line-type switching devices Fuse-switch disconnector (single break) Device Rated current In-linetype size Type 3NJ6110 3NJ6120 3NJ6140 3NJ6160 Fig. A cubicle can consequently be equipped with up to 35 in-line-type switching devices. 20: Rated currents and installation data of in-line-type switching devices [A] 160 250 400 630 Height [mm] 50 100 200 200 3/14 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . Fig. Vertical distribution bus (plug-on bus) The vertical plug-on bus with the phase conductors L1. The in-line-type switching devices feature plug-in contacts on the incoming side. PEN and N busbars are on the right-hand side of the cubicle in a separate. The main switch is actuated by pulling a vertical handle to the side. The vertical PE. 19). 100 mm or 200 mm. equipped with variable cable brackets. 400 mm wide cable connection compartment. The in-line-type switching devices have a height of 50 mm.Low-Voltage Switchboards In-line-type switching devices In-line-type switching devices allow spacesaving installation of cable feeders in a cubicle and are particularly notable for their compact design (Fig.or double-break in-line-type switching devices allow fuse changing in dead state. L2 and L3 is located at the back in the cubicle and can be additionally fitted with a shock-hazard protection. The modular design allows quick reequipping and easy replacement of in-line-type switching devices under operating conditions. They are alternatively available for cable feeders up to 630 A as: s Fuse module s Fuse-switch disconnectors (single-break) s Fuse-switch disconnectors (double-break) with or without solid-state fuse monitoring s Switch disconnectors The single.

Fig. 23: Cubicle dimensions and average weights Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 3/15 . respectively. Non-ventilated cubicles attain degree of protection IP 54.Low-Voltage Switchboards Frame and enclosure The galvanized SIVACON cubicle frames are of solid wall design and ensure reliable cubicle-to-cubicle separation. is generally attained. degree of protection IP 00 or IP 40. The enclosure is made of powder-coated steel sheets (Fig. In relation to the cable compartment. 21 and 22). 21: Frame for top busbar Fig. depending on requirements and cubicle type. 22: Frame for rear busbar Cubicle dimensions and average weights Height [mm] Circuit-breaker design 2200 Width [mm] 400 500 600 800 400 500 600 800 1000 1000 1000 Depth [mm] 400 Rated current [A] up to 1600 up to 1600 up to 1600 up to 2000 up to 1600 up to 1600 up to 2500 up to 3150 up to 4000 up to 6300 Approx. powder-coated sheet steel and are hinged on the right or left (attached to the frame). Ventilated cubicles are provided with slits in the base space door and in the top plate and attain degree of protection in relation to the operating area of IP 20/21 or IP 40/41. Degree of protection (against foreign bodies/water. weight [kg] 300 310 320 440 315 335 440 540 700 1200 400 450 600 330 380 550 600 1200 400 600 1000 400 600 1000 Withdrawable-unit design 2200 Fixed-mounted design 2200 1000 Fig. and also ensure safe pressure equalization in the event of an arcing fault. A cubicle front features one or more doors. These doors are of 2 mm thick. Spring-loaded door locks prevent the doors from flying open unintentionally. and personnel safety) A distinction is made between ventilated and non-ventilated cubicles.

7 (Fig. 24 Form 2a – – – – – 1 2 4 3 – – – – – – – – – 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 Form 2b 1 2 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 Form 3a 1 2 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 Form 3b 1 2 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 Form 4a 1 2 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 Form 4b 1 2 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 Fig. 25) Depending on requirements. 7.Low-Voltage Switchboards Form of internal separation Form 1 in accordance to DIN VDE 0660 Part 500. 25: Forms of internal separation to DIN VDE 0660 Part 500/EN 60 439-1/IEC 439-1 3/16 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . the function compartments can be subdivided as per the following table: 1 2 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 Functional unit Terminal for external conductors Main busbar Busbar Incoming circuit Outgoing circuit 1 2 3 4 Form 1 2a 2b 3a 3b 4a 4b Circuitbreaker design Withdrawableunit design Fixedmounted design – modular – in-line Fig.

up to a maximum length of 2400 mm.110 Cubicle width 38. individual cubicles of a switchboard are combined to form a transport unit.or s Floor-mounting Cubicle depths 1000 mm and 1200 mm: s Floor-mounting The following minimum clearances between the switchboard and any obstacles must be observed: 75 Fastening for floor mounting Fastening for wall mounting 323 Diameter 14. 28). 28: Floor penetrations Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 3/17 . Cubicle depth 400 mm 75 Diameter 14.110 75 Transport base depth [mm] Fig.1 323 215 400 Cubicle depth [mm] 400 600 1000 1200 38.5 Cubicle depth 1000 mm.Low-Voltage Switchboards Installation details Transport units For transport purposes. the main busbars between two transport units are connected via lugs which are bolted to the busbar system. If the busbar is at the rear.1 523 250 600 75 Cubicle width .77 100 mm 75 mm 100 mm Switchboard Fig.110 75 Clearences Cubicle depth . The transport base is 200 mm longer than the transport unit and is 190 mm high. the individual bars can be bolted together via connection elements. Free space for cables and bar penetrations Fig. or for an incoming supply from below (Fig.5 Cubicle width . The transport base depth is: Floor penetrations The cubicles feature floor penetrations for leading in cables for connection. 26 900 1050 1460 1660 Cubicle width Cubicle depth 600 mm If the busbar is at the top. Mounting Cubicle depths 400 mm and 600 mm: s Wall. 27 Cubicle width There must be a minimum clearance of 400 mm between the top and sides of the cubicle and any obstacles. as the conductors of the right-hand transport unit are offset to the left and protrude beyond the cubicle edge. 1200 mm 75 Diameter 14.5 Cubicle width .1 75 250 1000 or 1200 250 38.

3 41.) Installation gangways behind closed rear walls call for a minimum width of 500 mm. there is a minimum gangway of 500 mm (Fig. Fig. i.e. 30 1500 Min. the gangway widths must suit the dimensions of the lifting truck. If a lifting truck is used to install a circuitbreaker. a door must open through at least 90°. doors that do not close in the direction of the escape route) is reckoned with only on one side 2) Note door widths. In general. i.e. (In circuit-breaker and fixedmounted designs the maximum door width is 1000 mm. a width of 500 mm is acceptable Height Width Depth 2000 680 920 Minimum gangway width [mm] Approx. gangway width Escape route 600 or 700 mm Free min. 29). 20001) 600 7002) 1) 600 7002) 700 700 Dimensions of lifting truck [mm] Minimum gangway height under covers or enclosures 2) For installation gangways behind closed rear walls. If they are fitted differently. 29: Reduced gangways in area of open doors Fax: ++ 49 . narrowing of the gangway as a result of open doors (i. width 500 mm1) 2) 1) Where switchboard fronts face each other.Low-Voltage Switchboards Operating and maintenance gangways All doors of a SIVACON switchboard can be fitted such that they close in the direction of an escape route or emergency exit. the door width must be taken into account.e.4 47 04 00 3/18 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . it must be possible to open the door through at least 90° Dimensions in mm For further information please contact: Fig. care must be taken that when doors are open.

GEAFOL Technical Data GEAFOL Cast-resin Dry-type Transformers Special Transformers and Reactors Page 4/13–4/17 4/18–4/23 4/24 4/25–4/28 4/29–4/32 4/33–4/34 .Transformers Contents Introduction Product Range Electrical Design Transformer Loss Evaluation Mechanical Design Connection Systems Accessories and Protective Devices Page 4/2 4/3 4/4–4/5 4/6–4/7 4/8 4/9– 4/10 4/11– 4/12 Contents Technical Data Distribution Transformers Technical Data Power Transformers On-load Tap Changers Cast-resin Dry-type Transformers.

Only the US (ANSI/NEMA) and Canadian (CSA) standards differ from IEC by any substantial degree. Their voltage range extends to approx. Therefore they also satisfy the requirements of IEC Publication 76. the rated power and the voltage level. These are designed either as liquid-filled or as dry-type transformers. Transformers which are directly connected to the generator of the power station are called generator transformers. which can be both in the range of power transformers and in the range of distribution transformers as far as rated power and rated voltage are concerned. all transformers of higher ratings are classified as power transformers.10–20 ≤ 36 three-phase distribution transformers 50– 2500 kVA DIN 42 504: oil-immersed three-phase transformers 2– 10 MVA DIN 42 508: oil-immersed three-phase transformers 12. Their design results mainly from the range of application. Transformers with a rated power up to 2. Figs. Distribution transformers are within the range from 50 to 2500 kVA and max. HD 428: oil-immersed Rated power [MVA] Oil distribution transformers Power transformers GEAFOLcast-resin transformers Max. Important additional standards s DIN 42 500. Their power range goes up to far above 1000 MVA. HD 538: three-phase dry-type transformers 100– 2500 kVA DIN 45 635 T30: noise level IEC 289: reactance coils and neutral grounding transformers IEC 551: measurement of noise level IEC 726: dry-type transformers RAL: coating/varnish Fig. 36 kV. Arc-suppression coils compensate the capacitive current flowing through a ground fault and thus guarantee uninterrupted energy supply.5–3000 36-1500 0.05–2. however. the construction.5–80 MVA DIN 42 523. Their power range exceeds 1000 MVA. 1500 kV. In the last step. the economic efficiency and stablility of the power transmission are improved.5 ≤ 36 2. DIN VDE 0532 ”Transformers and reactors“ and the ”Technical conditions of supply for threephase transformers“ issued by VDEW and ZVEI. The scope of transformer types starts with generator transformers and ends with distribution transformers.Introduction Transformers are one of the primary components for the transmission and distribution of electrical energy. Parts 1 to 5 together with the standards and specifications (HD and EN) of the European Union (EU). arc-suppression coils and compensating reactors are available. Compensating reactors compensate the capacitive power of the cable networks and reduce overvoltages in case of load rejection. general The transformers comply with the relevant VDE specifications. they distribute the electrical energy to the consumers by feeding from the high-voltage into the low-voltage distribution network. Standards and specifications. The voltage range exceeds 1500 kV. In addition. a design according to these standards is also possible. operating on voltage page [kV] 4/13– 4/17 4/18– 4/23 4/29– 4/32 s s s s s s s s 0. i.5 MVA and a voltage up to 36 kV are referred to as distribution transformers. The connection between the different highvoltage system levels is made via network transformers (network interconnecting transformers).e. The general overview of our manufacturing/delivery program is shown in the table ”Product Range“. 1: Transformer types 4/2 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . As special elements for network stabilization. Enquiries should be directed to the manufacturer where other standards and specifications are concerned. there are various specialpurpose transformers such as converter transformers.

Pt 100) Service Advisory services for transformer specifications Organization. 2 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 4/3 . high-frequency generating plants. oil flow indicators and other monitoring devices Fan control cabinets. with copper or aluminum windings. arc-suppression coils Accessories Buchholz relays. control cabinets for parallel operation and automatic voltage control Sensors (PTC. electrophoresis and graphite producing plants Transformers for HVDC transmission systems Starting transformers Transformers for audio frequencies in power supply systems Three-phase neutral electromagnetic couplers and grounding transformers Transformers for potentially explosive atmospheres Ignition transformers Reactors Liquid-immersed shunt and current-limiting reactors up to the highest rated powers Reactors for HVDC transmission systems Starting reactors. of three. traction and HVDC transmission systems Furnace and converter transformers Traction transformers mounted on rolling stock and appropriate on-load tap-changers Substation transformers for traction systems Transformers for train heating and point heating Transformers for: Electrostatic precipitators. coordination and supervision of transportation Supervision of assembly and commissioning Service/inspection troubleshooting services Training of customer personnel Investigation and assessment of oil problems Fig. highest voltage for equipment up to 36 kV.Product Range Oil-immersed distribution transformers. TUMETIC. with separate windings or auto-connected).or single-phase design Generator and power transformers Above 2.or single-phase design Cast-resin distribution and power transformers GEAFOL 100 kVA to more than 20 MVA. highest voltage for equipment up to 36 kV. hermetically sealed (TUMETIC®) or with conservator (TUNORMA®) of three. oil testing equipment. above 30 kV up to 1500 kV (system and system interconnecting transformers.or single-phase design GEAFOL®-SL substations Special transformers for industry. of three. TUNORMA 50 to 2 500 kVA.5 MVA up to more than 1000 MVA. with on-load tap changers or off-circuit tap changers.

The electrical offset of the windings in respect to each other is either 30. This stabilizes the phase-to phase voltages in the case of an unbalanced load and prevents the displacement of the neutral point.5% surcharge for each 1 K above standard temperature conditions. the secondary winding (LV) in wye. Other vector groups as well as single-phase transformers and autotransformers on request (Fig. –25 °C lowest temperature outdoors. If only one power rating and no cooling method are shown. They are applicable if no loss evaluation figure is stated in the inquiry (see following chapter) and they are subject to the tolerances stated in IEC 76-1. as defined in IEC 76-1. Dy11).Electrical Design Power ratings and type of cooling All power ratings in this guide are the product of rated voltage (times phase-factor for three-phase transformers) and rated current of the line side winding (at center tap. s s s s s Fig. Higher ambient temperatures require a corresponding reduction in temperature rise. whose rating is a third of that of the transformer. natural oil-air cooling (ONAN or OA) is implied for oil-immersed transformers. this must be stated in the inquiry. The primary winding (HV) is normally connected in delta.0% reduction of rated power for each 1 K above standard temperature conditions. forced-air cooling (ONAF or FA) in one or two steps is applicable. These adjustment factors are applicable up to 15 K above standard temperature conditions. whereby the neutral of the star-connected winding is fully rated and brought to the outside. if several taps are provided). 150 or 330 degrees standard (Dy1. They will be connected at site to three-phase transformer banks. or +15% of each component loss. For HV windings higher than 110 kV. –5 °C lowest temperature indoors. 30 °C average on any one day. 3). Whereby the standard ambient temperatures are defined as follows: 40 °C maximum temperature. If two ratings are shown. the neutral has a reduced insulation level. Site altitudes above 1000 m necessitate the use of special designs and an increase/or a reduction of the transformer ratings as follows (approximate values): 4/4 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . Single-phase transformers and autotransformers are used when the transportation possibilities are limited. Altitude of installation The transformers are suitable for operation at altitudes up to 1000 meters above sea level. 20 °C average in any one year. or s 1. Power transformers Generator transformers and large power transformers are usually connected in Yd. Dy5. namely +10% of the total losses. natural air cooling (AN) is standard. and thus affect price or rated power as follows: s 1. For cast resin transformers. If optimized and/or guaranteed losses without tolerances are required. expressed in kVA or MVA. has to be added. or s 2% reduction of rated power for each 500 m altitude (or part there of) in excess of 1000 m. Forced air cooling (AF) is also applicable. provided that the tolerance for the total losses is not exceeded. Connections and vector groups Distribution transformers The transformers listed in this guide are all three-phase transformers with one set of windings connected in star (wye) and the other one in delta. Transformer losses and efficiencies Losses and efficiencies stated in this guide are average values for guidance only. For star/star-connected transformers and autotransformers normally a tertiary winding in delta. 3: Most commonly used vector groups s 2% increase for every 500 m altitude (or part there of) in excess of 1000 m. Temperature rise In accordance with IEC-76 the standard temperature rise for oil-immersed power and distribution transformers is: s 65 K average winding temperature Dy1 I iii III ii i 1 Yd1 I 1 i ii II II III iii Dy5 I ii III i 5 Yd5 iii II III ii I iii i 5 II Dy11 11 i I Yd11 11 i II I (measured by the resistance method) s 60 K top oil temperature ii III iii III ii iii II (measured by thermometer) The standard temperature rise for Siemens cast-resin transformers is s 100 K (insulation class F) at HV and LV winding.

0 72.92 ”Guide for loading mineral-oil-immersed power transformers“. Para.5 123.) [kV] 3 10 20 28 38 50 70 95 140 185 230 Rated lightningimpulse withstand voltage (peak) [kV] ≤ 1. Fig. all other parameters remain identical. s 3.0 275 325 170. full-wave and chopped-wave (specify) s Partial discharge test s Heat-run test at natural or forced cooling (specify) s Noise level test s Short-circuit test.5 24. Overloading of GEAFOL cast-resin transformers on request.0 52. Test certificates are issued for all the above tests on request. s. Higher test voltage withstand requirements must be stated in the inquiry and may result in a higher price. For larger power transformers either an oil/water cooling system has to be used or the oil/air cooler (radiator bank) has to be installed outside the transformer cell.0 List 1 [kV] – 20 40 60 75 95 145 250 325 450 550 650 750 850 950 List 2 [kV] – Conversion to 60 Hz – possibilities All ratings in the selection tables of this guide are based on 50 Hz operation. all other parameters remain identical.2 12. 4: Insulation level Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 4/5 . all other parameters remain identical (this layout is not possible for cast-resin transformers). All technical data remain identical. load losses are reduced by 15%. The following special tests are optional and must be specified in the inquiry: s Lightning-impulse voltage test (LI test). For 60 Hz operation.0 395 All transformers are subjected to the following routine tests in the factory: s Measurement of winding resistance s Measurement of voltage ratio and check of polarity or vector group s Measurement of impedance voltage s Measurement of load loss s Measurement of no-load loss and no-load current s Induced overvoltage withstand test s Seperate-source voltage withstand test s Partial discharge test (only GEAFOL cast-resin transformers). The ventilation system must be large enough to fulfill the recommendations for the maximum temperatures according to IEC. Rated power increases by 20%. m.Electrical Design Insulation level Power-frequency withstand voltages and lightning-impulse withstand voltages are in accordance with IEC 76-3.1 3.0 360 245.6 7.0 36.0 17. Routine and special tests 125 170 145.) Rated shortduration powerfrequency withstand voltage (r. 40 60 75 95 Overloading of Siemens transformers is guided by the relevant IEC-354 ”Loading guide for oil-immersed transformers“ and the (similar) ANSI C57. Table II. Overloading Transformer cell (indoor installation) The transformer cell must have the necessary electrical clearances when an open air connection is used. In these cases a ventilation system has to be installed also to remove the heat caused by the convection of the transformer tank. the following options apply: s 1. as follows: Highest voltage for equipment Um (r. m. but no-load losses increase by 30% and noise level increases by 3 dB. s 4. Rated power and impedance voltage are increased by 10%. Temperature rise is reduced by 10 K. s. price is reduced by 5%. 5. s 2.

the interest rate p. Cost resulting from demands charges CD = Cd (P0 + Pk) Cd amount year amount kW · year = demand charges Fig. Capital cost Cc = Cp Cp · r 100 amount year = purchase price n r= p·q = depreciation factor qn – 1 p q= = interest factor 100 p n = interest rate in % p. In case of distribution and power transformers. and the depreciation period n s B. Cost of load loss CPk = Ce · 8760 h/year · α2 · Pk α = constant operation load rated load amount year taking into account the purchase price Cp.Transformer Loss Evaluation The sharply increased cost of electrical energy has made it almost mandatory for buyers of electrical machinery to carefully evaluate the inherent losses of these items. The following simplified method for a quick evaluation of different quoted transformer losses is given. this is especially important. and the total kW of connected load. making the following assumptions: s The transformers are operated con- A. 5 4/6 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . taking the project-specific evaluation factors of a given customer into account. Demand charges Cd. the manufacturer receives the necessary incentive to provide a loss-optimized transformer rather than the lowcost model. Capital cost Cc C. By stipulating loss evaluation figures in the transformer inquiry. and energy cost Ce s C. Cost of no-load loss CP0 = Ce · 8760 h/year · P0 Ce P0 = energy charges = no-load loss [kW] amount kWh amount year tinuously s The transformers operate at partial load. The total cost of owning and operating a transformer for one year is thus defined as follows: s A. based in the amount set by the utility. based on the no-load loss P0.a. the added cost of loss-optimized transformers can in most cases be recovered via savings in energy use in less than three years. Cost of load loss Cpk. and energy cost Ce s D. = depreciation period in years B. which operate continuously and most frequently in loaded condition. based on the copper loss P k. the equivalent annual load factor a. Low-loss transformers use more and better materials for their construction and thus initially cost more. These individual costs are calculated as follows: Pk = copper loss [kW] D. As an example. but this partial load is constant s Additional cost and inflation factors are not considered s Demand charges are based on 100% load. Detailed loss evaluation methods for transformers have been developed and are described accurately in the literature. Cost of no-load loss CP0.

7 kW Pk = 17 kW Cp = DM 28 000 no-load loss load loss purchase price Cc = 25000 · 13.25 · 8760 · 0.–/year The energy saving of the optimized distribution transformer of DM 7140 per year pays for the increased purchase price in less than one year.6 kW Pk = 20 kW Cp = DM 25 000 no-load loss load loss purchase price P0 = 1.25 · 8760 · 1.39 Ce = 0.7 + 17) = DM 6 545/year Total cost of owning and operating this transformer is thus: DM 44 984.6 + 20) = DM 7910/year CP0 = 0.39 100 = DM 3348/year Cc = 28000 · 13. Fig.64 · 20 = DM 28 032/year CD = 350 · (2.–/year Total cost of owning and operating this transformer is thus: DM 37 844. Low-cost transformer B.25 · 8760 · 2. the following arbitrary examples are shown.25 DM/kWh Cd = 350 α = 0. a. r = 13. 6 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 4/7 . using factors that can be considered typical in Germany.39 100 = DM 3 749/year CP0 = 0.64 · 17 = DM 23 827/year CD = 350 · (1.6 = DM 5694/year CPk = 0.8 DM kW · yr A.25 · 8760 · 0. and neglecting the effects of inflation on the rate assumed: Example: 1600 kVA distribution transformer Depreciation period Interest rate Energy charge Demand charge Equivalent annual load factor n = 20 years Depreciation factor p = 12% p.Transformer Loss Evaluation To demonstrate the usefulness of such calculations.7 = DM 3 723/year CPk = 0. Loss-optimized transformer P0 = 2.

Tanks from 50 to approximately 4000 kVA are preferably of the corrugated steel design. Coatings for outdoor installation and for special applications (e. Bushings can be exchanged from the outside without draining the oil below the top of the active part. Oil-filled tank designed as tank with strong corrugated walls or as radiator tank. Fig. Transformer base with plain or flanged wheels (skid base available). The TUMETIC transformer is always completely filled with oil. TUNORMA® This is the standard distribution transformer design in all ratings. shipping and installation of these transformers are provided as standard. shipping conditions permitting. TUMETIC ® In ratings up to 2500 kVA and 170 kV LI this is the standard sealed-tank distribution transformer without conservator and gas cushion. The interior of this bag is in contact with the ambient air through a dehydrating breather. The sealing bag consists of strong nylon braid with a special double lining of ozon and oil-resistant nitrile rubber. Both the open and closed system are available. These transformers are always shipped completely filled with oil and sealed for their lifetime. The hermetically sealed system prevents oxygen. 7: Cross section of a TUMETIC three-phase distribution transformer Tank design and oil preservation system Sealed-tank distribution transformers. Standard coating for indoor installation. Distribution transformers with conservator. Windings consisting of copper section wire or copper strip. All tanks. The insulation has a high disruptive strength and is temperature-resistant. 8: 630 kVA. With the closed system ”TUPROTECT®“ the oil does not come into contact with the surrounding air. TUNORMA 20 kV ± 2. The oil expansion is compensated with an air bag. The oil level in the tank and the top-mounted bushings is kept constant by a conservator vessel or expansion tank mounted at the highest point of the transformer. This seperate conservator (without air bag) is normally an integrated part of the main conservator with its own magnetic oil level indicator. Power transformers up to 10 MVA are fitted with weld-on radiators and are shipped extensively assembled. three-phase. The ambient air is prevented from direct contact with the insulating oil through oiltraps and dehydrating breathers. and partial dismantling of components for shipment. the outside of this bag is in direct contact with the oil. Tank bottom and cover are fabricated from rolled and welded steel plate. nitrogen. thus guaranteeing a long service life. Suitable spot welds and braces render the required mechanical stability. This design has been in successful service since 1973. A special TUMETIC-Protection device has been developed for this transformer. radiators and conservators (incl. whereby the maximum operating pressure remains at only a fraction of the usual. aggressive atmosphere) are available. conservator with airbag) are designed for vacuum filling of the oil. Generally the TUMETIC transformer is lower than the TUNORMA transformer. For transformers with on-load tap changers a seperate smaller conservator is necessary for the diverter switch compartment. Power transformers Power transformers of all ratings are equipped with conservators. 9: Practically maintenancefree: transformer with the TUPROTECT air-sealing system built into the conservator 4/8 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . For monitoring and protective devices. Cooling/insulation liquid: Mineral oil according to VDE 0370/IEC 296.Mechanical Design General mechanical design for oil-immersed transformers: s Iron core made of grain-oriented s s s s s s electrical sheet steel insulated on both sides. Silicone oil or synthetic liquids are available. This improves the aging properties of the oil to the extent that no maintenance is required on these transformers for their lifetime. core-type. oil expansion is taken up by the flexible corrugated steel tank (variable volume tank design). Conventional radiators are available. Fig.5 %/0. Oil-level changes due to thermal cycling affect the conservator only. (This design is also available for greater distribution transformers on request). or humidity from contact with the insulating oil. Designed to withstand short circuit for at least 2 seconds (IEC). whereby the sidewalls are formed on automatic machines into integral cooling pockets. All the usual fittings and accessories for oil treatment.g.4 kV distribution transformer Fig. Ratings above 10 MVA require detachable radiators with individual butterfly valves. see the listing on page 4/11.

Connection Systems Distribution transformers All Siemens transformers have top-mounted HV and LV bushings according to DIN in their standard version. Removal of transformer by simply bending back the cables. suitable HV can be attached via insulated elbow connectors in LI ratings up to 170 kV. Insulated plug connectors (Fig. These can accommodate either HV. The following combinations of connection systems are possible besides open bushing arrangements: Fig. or throat-connected switchgear cubicles are connected via standardized flanges on steel terminal enclosures. with or without stress cones. 13) Air-insulated bus ducts. Flange connection (Fig. or both bushings. splash. 10: Combination of connection systems Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 4/9 . 11) Available for either HV and LV side. Optional conduit hubs. Suitable for single-core or three-phase cables with solid dielectric insulation. three basic insulated termination systems are available: Fully enclosed terminal box for cables (Fig. Fiberglass-reinforced epoxy partitions are available between HV and LV bushings if flange/flange arrangements are chosen. 11: Fully enclosed cable connection box Fig. plus protection against drip. Cable installation through split cable glands and removable plates facing diagonally downwards. Multiple cables per phase are terminated on auxiliary bus structures attached to the bushings. LV. 12) For substation installations. Horizontally split design in degree of protection IP 44 or IP 54 (Totally enclosed and fully protected against contact with live parts. or spray water). insulated busbars. or for both. Besides the open bushing arrangement for direct connection of bare or insulated wires. 12: Grounded metal-elbow plug connectors HV Cable box Cable box Flange Flange Elbow connector Elbow connector LV Cable box Flange/throat Cable box Flange/throat Cable box Flange/throat Fig 13: Flange connection for switchgear and bus ducts Fig.

15: Direct SF6 -connection of the transformer to the switchgear 4/10 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . For voltages up to 30 kV air-filled cable boxes are used. For higher voltages the boxes are oil-filled. Depending on voltage. current. 14: Transformers with oil-filled HV cable boxes Fig. The substation transformer is connected directly to the SF6 switchgear. overhead line) between transformer and system (Fig. The space-saving design of SF6-insulated switchgear is one of its major advantages.Connection Systems Power transformers The most frequently used type of connection for transformers is the outdoor bushing. system conditions and transport requirements. 15). condenser bushings are normally used for higher voltages. Fig. horizontally or inclined. This eliminates the need for an intermediate link (cable. Limited space or other design considerations often make it necessary to connect cables directly to the transformer. 14). Up to about 110 kV it is usual to use oil-filled bushings according to DIN. They may be attached to the tank cover or to its walls (Fig. the transformers will be supplied with bushings arranged vertically.

and low-level alarm are available. Fig. Sensor mounted in well in tank cover. Discoloring of two liquids indicates either arcing by products or insulation decomposition products in the oil. Readable from the ground. The relay is actuated either by pressure waves or gas accumulation. the simulated hot-spot winding temperature of one or more phases can be indicated on identical thermometers. With the addition of a CT-fed thermal replica circuit. Fig. These instruments can also be used to control forced cooling equipment. Double-float Buchholz relay (Fig. Installed to be readable from the ground. In case of a gas accumulation alarm. 17) Indicates actual top-oil temperature via capillary tube. Deviations are possible. Fig. Installed in the connecting pipe between tank and conservator and responding to internal arcing faults and slow decomposition of insulating materials. No change in color indicates an air bubble. Additionally. 17: Dial-type contact thermometer Magnetic oil-level indicator (Fig. devices supplied with limit (position) switches for high. 18) The float position inside of the conservator is transmitted magnetically through the tank wall to the indicator to preserve the tank sealing standard device without contacts. Up to four seperately adjustable alarm contacts and one maximum pointer are available.Accessories and Protective Devices Accessories not listed completely. or by loss of oil below the relay level. gas samples can be drawn directly at the relay with a small chemical testing kit. 18: Magnetic oil-level indicator Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 4/11 . backup function of oil alarm. 16) For sudden pressure rise and gas detection in oil-immersed transformer tanks with conservator. 16: Double-float Buchholz relay Dial-type contact thermometer (Fig. Seperate contacts are installed for alarm and tripping.

The absence of moisture in the air largely eliminates any reduction in the breakdown strength of the insulation and prevents any buildup of condensation in the conservator. Pressure relief device (Fig. 20: Pressure relief device with alarm contact and automatic resetting Bushing current transformer Up to three ring-type current transformers per phase can be installed in power transformers on the upper and lower voltage side. Their secondary terminals are brought out to shortcircuiting-type terminal blocks in watertight terminal boxes. Fig. 21. etc. Therefore. the dehydrating breather contributes to safe and reliable operation of the transformer. 22) A dehydrating breather removes most of the moisture from the air which is drawn into the conservator as the transformer cools down. Mounted directly at the (permanently sealed) filler pipe of these transformers. Additional accessories Besides the standard accessories and protective devices there are additional items available. 22: Dehydrating breather L DIN 42 562 over 5 MVA 4/12 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . 21: Dehydrating breather A DIN 42 567 up to 5 MVA Fig. especially for large power transformers. Fig. Dehydrating breather (Fig. 20) Relieves abnormally high internal pressure shock waves. Gives alarm upon loss of oil and gas accumulation. 19: Protective device for hermetically sealed transformers (TUMETIC) Fig. Easily visible operation pointer and alarm contact.Accessories and Protective Devices Protective device (Fig. Reseals positively after operation and continues to function without operator action. 19) for hermetically sealed transformers (TUMETIC) For use on hermetically sealed TUMETIC distribution transformers. They will be offered and installed on request. Examples are: s Fiber-optic temperature measurements s Permanent gas-in-oil analysis s Permanent water-content measurement s Sudden pressure rise relay. These multiratio CTs are supplied in all common accuracy and burden ratings for metering and protection.

1 12 24 36 LI [kV] – 75 125 170 AC [kV] 3 28 50 70 1 2 3 4 5 9 2 E Oil level indicator Oil drain plug Thermometer pocket Buchholz relay (optional extra) Dehydrating breather (optional extra) 8 E 6 7 8 9 10 6 A1 Adjustment for off-load tap changer Rating plate (relocatable) Grounding terminals Towing eye. C-C’ and B-A’ as being most suitable. 25: TUNORMA distribution transformer (with conservator) Losses The standard HD 428.3. Transformers of this kind with additionally reduced losses are especially economical with energy (maximum efficiency > 99%). 24: TUMETIC distribution transformer (sealed tank) 4 5 1 10 H1 7 3 8 2N 2U 2V 2W 1U 2U 1W B1 Um [kV] 1. With HV ratings up to 24 kV and rated power up to 250 kVA (and with HV ratings > 24-36 kV and rated power up to 800 kVA).1. in the national standard.S1 (= DIN 42500 Part 1) applies to three-phase oil-immersed distribution transformers 50 Hz.Technical Data Distribution Transformers TUNORMA and TUMETIC Oil-immersed TUMETIC and TUNORMA three-phase distribution transformers s s s s s s 12 11 10 3 8 2N 2U 2V 2W s s s s s Standard: DIN 42500 Rated power: 50– 2500 kVA Rated frequency: 50 Hz HV rating: up to 36 kV Taps on ± 2. Lashing lug LI Lightning-impulse test voltage AC Power-frequency test voltage Fig. pairs of values were proposed which. The combinations B-A’ (normal losses) and A-C’ (reduced losses) are approximately in line with previous standards. Due to the different requirements. for no-load losses the listings D’ and E’ were specified. There were also three listings (A’. Um to 24 kV. Lashing lug Filler pipe Mounting facility for protective device Fig. In addition there is the C-C’ combination. The higher costs of these transformers are counteracted by the energy savings which they make. 30 mm dia. 23: Insulation level (IP00) Notes: Tank with strong corrugated walls shown in illustration is the preferred design. Fig. For load losses (Pk). Standard HD 428. 30 mm dia. please see part ”Transformer loss evaluation“. B’ and C’) for no-load losses (P0) and corresponding sound levels. B and C) were specified. DIN 42500 specifies the combinations A-C’.S1 (= DIN 42500-3) specifies the losses for oil distribution transformers up to Um = 36 kV. In order to find the most efficient transformer. from 50 kVA to 2500 kVA. the conservator is fitted on the long side just above the LV bushings. permit one or several combinations of losses. Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 4/13 .5 % or ± 2 x 2. three different listings (A.5 % HV side: LV rating: 400– 720 V (special designs for up to 12 kV can be built) Connection: HV winding: delta LV winding: star (up to 100 kVA: zigzag) Impedance 4 % (only up to HV voltage at rated rating 24 kV and current: ≤ 630 kVA) or 6 % (with rated power ≥ 630 kVA or with HV rating > 24 kV) Cooling: ONAN Protection class: IP00 Final coating: RAL 7033 (other colours are available) H1 7 9 2 E 2 3 6 7 8 Oil drain plug Thermometer pocket Adjustment for off-load tap changer Rating plate (relocatable) Grounding terminals 8 E 9 10 11 12 1U 2U 1W B1 6 A1 Towing eye. For load losses the listings D and E.

..4767-3TB .5244-3RA ..4744-3TB . between wheel centers [kg] 340 350 400 430 420 440 370 380 430 460 480 510 500 x [mm] 860 [mm] [mm] E [mm] 50 980 660 660 1210 1085 520 660 1210 1085 520 660 1220 1095 520 660 1315 1235 520 660 1300 1220 520 660 1385 1265 520 x 1530 x 520 825 1045 660 835 760 860 985 660 860 660 860 660 24 4 4 4 880 1100 685 1000 x 710 36 6 4 4 4 100 12 500 500 570 570 600 620 520 530 600 610 640 680 660 x 1090 1020 660 980 1030 980 660 930 660 660 1275 1110 520 660 1315 1145 520 660 1320 1150 520 660 1360 1245 520 660 1400 1280 520 660 1425 1305 520 x 1600 x 520 24 4 4 4 1020 1140 685 1030 1030 690 960 1060 695 1050 x 780 36 6 4 4 4 160 12 620 610 700 690 760 780 660 640 730 730 800 820 900 x 1140 1140 710 1130 1010 660 985 1085 660 1150 1150 695 1030 930 695 710 1350 1185 520 660 1390 1220 520 660 1380 1215 520 660 1440 1320 520 660 1540 1420 520 660 1475 1355 520 x 1700 x 520 24 4 4 4 1120 1120 710 1120 x 800 36 6 4 4 4 (200) 12 720 710 840 830 900 920 800 780 890 910 950 980 1000 x 1190 1190 680 1070 1120 660 1130 1130 660 1290 1290 820 1110 1230 755 1080 1180 705 1250 x 800 680 1450 1285 520 660 1470 1300 520 680 1450 1285 520 800 1595 1425 520 680 1630 1460 520 690 1595 1430 520 x 1700 x 520 24 4 4 4 36 6 Dimensions and weights are approximate values.5344-3TA . voltage HV side Type Combi.5044-3RB .5044-3TB ...5067-3TB .4767-3LB ..5267-3RA ..4744-3LB ..5244-3TA .....5244 -3LA . Rated power figures in parentheses are not standardized.Technical Data Distribution Transformers TUNORMA and TUMETIC Rated power TUNORMA TUNORMA TUNORMA TUNORMA TUMETIC TUMETIC TUMETIC TUMETIC TUNORMA Sn [kVA] Um [kV] 12 U2 [%] 4 4 4 4JB… 4HB… ... 26: Selection table: oil-immersed distribution transformers 50 to 2500 kVA 4/14 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . level 1m tolerance + 3 dB Sound power level Total weight Dimensions Length A1 Width B1 Height H1 Dist.5280-3CA .5367-3RA .5380-3CA B-A' A-C' C-C' B-A' A-C' C-C' E-D´ B-A' A-C' C-C' B-A' A-C' C-C' E-D´ B-A' A-C' C-C' B-A' A-C' C-C' E-D´ B-A' A-C' C-C' B-A' A-C' C-C' E-D´ P0 [W] 190 125 125 190 125 125 230 320 210 210 320 210 210 380 460 300 300 460 300 300 520 550 360 360 550 360 360 600 Pk 75* [W] 1350 1100 875 1350 1100 875 1450 2150 1750 1475 2150 1750 1475 2350 3100 2350 2000 3100 2350 2000 3350 3600 2760 2350 3600 2760 2350 3800 LPA [dB] 42 34 34 42 34 33 x 45 35 35 45 35 35 x 47 37 38 47 37 37 x 48 38 38 48 38 38 x LWA [dB] 55 47 47 55 47 47 52 59 49 49 59 49 49 56 62 52 52 62 52 52 59 63 53 53 63 53 53 61 TUMETIC Max.5067-3LB .4767-3RB .5080-3CB .5344-3LA ..5344-3RA ..5367-3TA ....5267-3TA .....5367-3LA .No-load Load nation of losses losses losses acc.5044-3LB .5067-3RB .4744-3RB . * In case of short-circuits at 75 °C x: on request Fig... CENELEC Sound press.. Imperated dance volt..4780-3CB .5267-3LA ..

.5544-3RA A-C' .5667-3RA A-C' ...5544-3TA C-C' ..5444-3RA A-C' . CENELEC Sound press.5580-3CA E-E´ ..5467-3RA A-C' .. 27: Selection table: oil-immersed distribution transformers 50 to 2500 kVA Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 4/15 .. Imperated dance volt...Technical Data Distribution Transformers TUNORMA and TUMETIC Rated power TUNORMA TUNORMA TUNORMA TUNORMA TUMETIC TUMETIC TUMETIC TUMETIC TUNORMA Sn [kVA] Um [kV] 12 U2 [%] 4 4 4 4JB… 4HB… .5567-3LA B-A' .5444-3LA B-A' ..5644-3LA B-A' .No-load Load nation of losses losses losses acc..5644-3RA A-C' .5767-3RA A-C' ..5580-3CA E-E´ .5480-3CA E-E´ .5744-3TA C-C' ...5780-3CA E-E´ P0 [W] 650 425 425 650 425 425 650 780 510 510 780 510 510 760 930 610 610 930 610 610 930 1100 720 720 1100 720 720 1050 Pk 75* [W] 4200 3250 2750 4200 3250 2750 4250 5000 3850 3250 5000 3850 3250 5400 6000 4600 3850 6000 4600 3850 6200 7100 5450 4550 7100 5450 4550 7800 LPA [dB] 50 40 40 49 39 40 x 50 40 40 50 40 40 x 52 42 42 52 42 42 x 53 42 43 53 42 43 x LWA [dB] 65 55 55 65 55 55 62 66 56 56 66 56 56 64 68 58 58 68 58 58 65 69 59 59 69 59 59 66 TUMETIC Max....5744-3LA B-A' .5444-3TA C-C' ..5744-3RA A-C' .5767-3LA B-A' .5467-3TA C-C' . between wheel centers [kg] [mm] [mm] [mm] E [mm] 250 830 820 1300 1300 940 920 1260 1260 1050 1070 1220 1220 920 900 1340 1340 1010 1010 1140 1190 1120 1140 1220 1340 1100 x 1350 x 810 810 1450 1285 520 670 820 1480 1415 520 690 700 1530 1310 520 800 760 1620 1450 520 760 680 1675 1510 520 715 710 1640 1475 520 800 x 1680 x 520 24 4 4 4 36 6 4 4 4 (315) 12 980 960 1440 1330 1120 1100 1400 1250 1240 1260 1380 1260 1050 1030 1450 1350 1170 1150 1410 1270 1250 1280 1395 1290 1220 x 1420 x 820 820 1655 1385 670 820 820 1690 1415 670 820 820 1665 1390 670 840 840 1655 1510 670 820 820 1755 1610 670 820 820 1675 1540 670 960 x 1700 x 670 24 4 4 4 36 6 4 4 4 400 12 1180 1160 1470 1390 1320 1310 1400 1360 1470 1470 1410 1390 1240 1220 1570 1570 1370 1350 1475 1400 1490 1520 1440 1400 1480 x 1470 x 930 930 1700 1425 670 820 820 1700 1430 670 820 820 1695 1420 670 940 940 1655 1510 670 820 820 1760 1615 670 820 820 1765 1540 670 990 x 1830 x 670 24 4 4 4 36 6 4 4 4 (500) 12 1410 1380 1500 1430 1650 1620 1560 1550 1700 1710 1500 1470 1460 1440 1470 1530 1650 1620 1495 1420 1860 1910 1535 1500 1680 x 1510 840 840 1710 1440 670 890 890 1745 1470 670 820 820 1745 1470 670 835 850 1755 1610 670 835 820 1815 1665 670 820 820 1860 1645 670 x 1900 x 670 24 4 4 4 36 6 x 1030 Dimensions and weights are approximate values..5667-3TA C-C' ... level 1m tolerance + 3 dB Sound power level Total weight Dimensions Length A1 Width B1 Height H1 Dist...5667-3LA B-A' .5567-3TA C-C' . * In case of short-circuits at 75 °C x: on request Fig..5467-3LA B-A' . voltage HV side Type Combi.5544-3LA B-A' ....5767-3TA C-C' .5567-3RA A-C' .5644-3TA C-C' . Rated power figures in parentheses are not standardized..

5844-3LA B-A' ....6044-3PA A-C' .5844-3TA C-C' .5944-3UA C-C' .E-E´ 3CA B-A' .45980...6067-3SA C-C' .5844-3UA C-C' .. * In case of short-circuits at 75 °C x: on request Fig. CENELEC Sound press.5944-3SA A-C' ... between wheel centers [kg] [mm] [mm] [mm] E [mm] 630 1660 1660 1680 1480 1850 1810 1495 1420 2000 1990 1535 1380 1750 1760 1720 1560 1950 1920 1665 1600 2160 2130 1670 1560 1690 1650 1665 1640 1940 1920 1685 1680 2100 2130 1600 1490 1730 1720 1780 1580 1970 1960 1645 1640 2240 2210 1740 1670 1950 x 1740 880 880 1755 1585 670 835 820 1785 1510 670 820 820 1860 1520 670 890 890 1920 1685 670 870 870 1740 1400 670 830 830 1840 1500 670 860 860 1810 1595 670 870 870 1910 1695 670 820 820 1940 1725 670 880 880 1760 1610 670 830 830 1810 1595 670 880 880 1840 1625 670 x 1940 x 670 24 4 4 4 6 6 6 36 6 6 6 6 x 1080 (800) 12 1990 1960 1780 1540 1000 1000 1905 1660 670 2210 2290 1720 1830 2520 2490 1760 1710 900 960 1935 1630 670 920 920 1975 1730 670 24 6 6 6 2000 1950 1720 1710 1000 1000 1885 1670 670 2390 2340 1760 1710 2590 2550 1770 1700 2400 x 1800 960 960 1945 1730 670 930 930 1985 1780 670 x 2030 x 670 36 6 6 6 6 x 1100 1000 12 2450 2640 1790 1630 1000 1000 2095 2070 820 2660 2610 1830 1830 1040 1040 2025 1770 820 2800 2750 1830 1830 1040 1040 2105 1840 820 2530 2720 1830 1670 1090 1010 2095 2120 820 2750 2690 1790 1740 1050 1050 2055 1840 820 2830 2810 1725 1770 2850 x 2120 990 990 2065 1850 820 x 2220 x 820 24 6 6 6 36 6 x 1160 Dimensions and weights are approximate values.5967-3UA C-C' .No-load Load nation of losses losses losses acc..5867-3UA C-C' ...6044-3SA C-C' ..5844-3PA B-A' .5867-3PA B-A' .... voltage HV side Type Combi.5867-3TA C-C' .. 28: Selection table: oil-immersed distribution transformers 50 to 2500 kVA 4/16 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution ..5880-3CA E-E´ ..6044-3UA B-A' ..5844-3SA A-C' ...5944-3PA B-A' . level 1m tolerance + 3 dB Sound power level Total weight Dimensions Length A1 Width B1 Height H1 Dist.Technical Data Distribution Transformers TUNORMA and TUMETIC Rated power TUNORMA TUNORMA TUNORMA TUNORMA TUMETIC TUMETIC TUMETIC TUMETIC TUNORMA Sn [kVA] Um [kV] 12 U2 [%] 4 4 4 6 6 6 4JB… 4HB… .. Imperated dance volt.5844-3RA A-C' .5967-3PA B-A' .5867-3LA B-A' . Rated power figures in parentheses are not standardized..5967-3SA A-C' .5867-3RA A-C' ..6067-3UA E-E´ P0 [W] 1300 860 860 1200 800 800 1300 860 860 1200 800 800 1300 1450 950 950 1450 950 950 1520 1700 1100 1100 1700 1100 1100 1700 Pk 75* [W] 8400 6500 5400 8700 6750 5600 8400 6500 5400 8700 6750 5600 8800 10700 8500 7400 10700 8500 7400 11000 13000 10500 9500 13000 10500 9500 13000 LPA [dB] 53 43 43 53 43 43 53 43 43 53 43 43 x 55 45 44 55 45 44 x 55 45 45 55 45 45 x LWA [dB] 70 60 60 70 60 60 70 60 60 70 60 60 67 72 62 62 72 62 62 68 73 63 63 73 63 63 68 TUMETIC Max...6067-3PA A-C' .5867-3SA A-C' .

.6467 -3SA C-C' . 29: Selection table: oil-immersed distribution transformers 50 to 2500 kVA Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 4/17 ...63780.6267 -3UA C-C' .6444 -3UA B-A' . voltage HV side Type Combi.6244 -3PA B-A' .6344 -3SA A-C' .6180 -3CA E-E´ .6267 -3SA A-C' .6367 -3PA B-A' .6167 -3SA A-C' . Rated power figures in parentheses are not standardized.....6367 -3SA A-C' .6367 -3UA C-C' . Imperated dance volt.... CENELEC Sound press..6244 -3UA C-C' ..6144 -3SA A-C' .6167 -3PA B-A' .. between wheel centers [kg] [mm] [mm] [mm] E [mm] (1250) 2900 3080 1930 1850 1260 1100 2110 2070 820 3100 3040 1810 1780 990 990 2145 1880 820 3340 3040 1755 1720 1015 1000 2235 1970 820 2950 3200 2020 1780 1260 1100 2110 2220 820 3190 3120 1840 1810 1060 1060 2115 1900 820 3390 3330 1810 1780 1015 3360 x 2150 x 1250 990 2245 2030 820 x 2350 x 820 24 6 6 6 36 6 6 6 6 1600 12 3450 3590 1970 1870 1220 1140 2315 2095 820 3640 3590 2030 1760 1080 1090 2315 2010 820 3930 3880 2020 1900 1110 1100 2395 2070 820 3470 3690 2070 1830 1280 1120 2335 2320 820 3670 3850 2030 2000 1230 1070 2265 2120 820 4010 3950 2000 1850 1030 1030 2305 2010 820 3930 x 2170 x 1340 x 2480 x 820 24 6 6 6 36 6 6 6 6 (2000) 12 4390 4450 2100 1890 1330 1330 2555 2540 1070 4270 4430 2080 1840 1330 1330 2455 2250 1070 4730 4710 2020 1730 1330 1330 2495 2170 1070 4480 4500 2020 1860 1330 1330 2655 2660 1070 4290 4490 2190 2030 1330 1330 2425 2280 1070 4910 4840 2110 1980 1330 1330 2475 2180 1070 5100 x 2260 x 1380 x 2560 x 1070 24 6 6 6 36 6 6 6 6 2500 12 5200 5090 2115 2030 1345 1330 2685 2550 1070 5150 5110 2195 1950 1345 1330 2535 2450 1070 5790 5660 2190 2190 1330 1330 2565 2240 1070 5420 5220 2115 2030 1335 1330 2785 2675 1070 5260 5220 2195 2030 1335 1335 2585 2580 1070 5640 5470 2160 2080 1330 1330 2605 2305 1070 5900 x 2320 x 1390 x 2790 x 1070 24 6 6 6 36 6 Dimensions and weights are approximate values.Technical Data Distribution Transformers TUNORMA and TUMETIC Rated power TUNORMA TUNORMA TUNORMA TUNORMA TUMETIC TUMETIC TUMETIC TUMETIC TUNORMA Sn [kVA] Um [kV] 12 U2 [%] 6 6 6 4JB… 4HB… ..6344 -3PA B-A' ...6467 -3PA A-C' ..6144 -3PA B-A' ....No-load Load nation of losses losses losses acc.6144-3UA C-C' . * In case of short-circuits at 75 °C x: on request Fig..6467 -3UA E-E´ P0 [W] 2100 1300 1300 2100 1300 1300 2150 2600 1700 1700 2600 1700 1700 2600 2900 2050 2050 2900 2050 2050 3200 3500 2500 2500 3500 2500 2500 3800 Pk 75* [W] 16000 13200 11400 16000 13200 11400 16400 20000 17000 14000 20000 17000 14000 19200 25300 21200 17500 25300 21200 17500 22000 29000 26500 22000 29000 26500 22000 29400 LPA [dB] 56 46 46 56 46 46 x 57 47 47 57 47 47 x 58 49 49 58 49 49 x 61 51 51 61 51 51 x LWA [dB] 74 64 64 74 64 64 70 76 66 66 76 66 66 71 78 68 68 78 68 68 75 81 71 71 81 71 71 76 TUMETIC Max.6444 -3SA C-C' ....6267 -3PA B-A' .6167 -3UA C-C' ...6280 -3CA E-E´ .6344 -3UA C-C' .. level 1m tolerance + 3 dB Sound power level Total weight Dimensions Length A1 Width B1 Height H1 Dist.E-E´ 3CA B-A' .6444 -3PA A-C' .6244 -3SA A-C' .

Fig. page 4/22 Fig. Explanation of cooling methods: s ONAN: Oil-natural. in general it is more economical to select higher ONAN ratings rather than to add fans. However. is the preferred design.15 to 10 3. 41. Rated power [MVA] 3. 31. as shown in the illustrations. 38. Depending on transportation possibilities the bushings.5 10/16 to 63/100 HV range [kV] 25 to 123 25 to 123 up to 36 up to 36 72.5 to 145 Type of tap changer Figure/ page off-load on-load off-load on-load on-load Fig.Power Transformers – General Oil-immersed three-phase power transformers with offand on-load tap changers Cooling methods Transformers up to 10 MVA are designed for ONAN cooling. air-natural cooling s ONAF: Oil-natural. the rating can be increased by 25%. By adding fans to these transformers. However.15 to 10 10/16 to 20/31. radiators and expansion tank have be removed. page 4/19 Fig. If necessary. 35. 30: Types of power transformers 4/18 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . page 4/21 Fig. Transformers larger than 10 MVA are designed with ONAN/ONAF cooling. air-forced cooling (in one or two steps) The arrangement with the attached radiators. the oil has to be drained and shipped separately. other arrangements of the cooling equipment are also possible. 33. page 4/20 Fig. page 4/23 Note: Off-load tap changers are designed to be operated de-energized only.5 10/16 to 20/31.

1–36 7.3 11.4 11.7 9.2–36 50–72.6 5.2–36 50–72.5–36 50–72.8–36 50–72.0 9.Power Transformers – Selection Tables Technical Data.5 90–123 Fig. HV rating: up to 123 kV s Taps on HV side: ± 2 x 2.5 % H s Rated frequency: 50 Hz s Impedance 6-10 % voltage: s Connection: HV winding: stardelta connection alternatively available up to 24 kV LV winding: star or delta Fig.5 11. 32 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 4/19 .0 9.5 8.5 90–123 10000 15. Dimensions and Weights Oil-immersed three-phase power transformers with off-load tap changer 3 150–10000 kVA.0 12.5 90–123 6300 12. 31 E E W L Rated power [kVA] ONAN 3150 4000 HV rating [kV] 6.5 90–123 8000 12.5 LV rating [kV] 3–24 3–24 3–24 4–24 4–24 5–36 5–24 5–24 5–36 5–24 5–24 5–36 6–24 6–24 5–36 No-load loss [kW] 4.0 Load loss Total at 75 °C weight [kW] 28 33 35 38 41 46 45 48 53 54 56 62 63 65 72 Oil weight [kg] 1600 1900 3100 2300 3300 6300 2500 3700 6600 3300 4200 7300 3900 4700 8600 Dimensions L/W/H [mm] 2800/1850/2870 3200/2170/2940 3100/2300/3630 2550/2510/3020 3150/2490/3730 4560/2200/4540 2550/2840/3200 3200/2690/3080 4780/2600/4540 2580/2770/3530 3250/2850/4000 4880/2630/4590 2670/2900/3720 4060/2750/4170 4970/2900/4810 E [mm] 1070 1070 1070 1070 1070 1505 1505 1505 1505 1505 1505 1505 1505 1505 1505 [kg] 7 200 8 400 10 800 9 800 12 200 17 500 11 700 13 600 18 900 14 000 15 900 21 500 16 600 18 200 25 000 5000 9.0 12.2–36 50–72.5 14.5 6.8 7.8 6.

1 11.9 11.5 LV rating [kV] 3–24 3–24 4–24 4–24 5–24 5–36 5–24 5–24 5–36 5–24 5–24 5–36 6–24 6–24 5–36 No-load loss kW 4. 34 4/20 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .1 14.8 11.5 13. HV rating: up to 123 kV ± 16 % in ± 8 steps HV side: of 2 % s Rated frequency: 50 Hz s Impedance 6–10 % voltage: s Connection: HV winding: star LV winding: star or delta s Taps on H E E W L Fig.5–36 50–72.4 9.7 Load loss at 75 °C [kW] 29 35 37 40 43 49 47 50 56 57 59 65 66 68 76 Total weight [kg] 9100 10300 13 700 12300 15 200 21800 14000 17000 23 000 17 000 19700 25 500 20 000 22 500 29 500 Oil weight [kg] 2300 2600 4100 3100 4500 8000 3600 5000 8500 4500 6000 9000 5200 6500 10 250 Dimensions L/W/H [mm] 3400/2300/2900 3500/2700/3000 4150/2350/3600 3600/2400/3200 4200/2700/3700 5300/2700/4650 3700/2700/3300 4300/2900/3850 5600/2900/4650 3850/2500/3500 4600/2800/4050 5650/2950/4650 4400/2600/3650 5200/2850/4100 5750/2950/4700 E [mm] 1070 1070 1070 1070 1070 1505 1505 1505 1505 1505 1505 1505 1505 1505 1505 5000 11.1 9.8 8.8 8.8 5.5 90–123 6300 14.5 90–123 8000 18.5 9.1 6.9–36 50–72.2–36 50–72.5 13.5 90–123 10000 22.Power Transformers – Selection Tables Technical Data. 33 Rated power [kVA] ONAN 3150 4000 HV rating [kV] 10.9–36 9.4–36 50–72. Dimensions and Weights Oil-immersed three-phase power transformers with on-load tap changer 3 150–10 000 kVA.8 7.3–36 50–72.5 90–123 Fig.

Dimensions and Weights Oil-immersed three-phase power transformers with off-load tap changer 10/16 to 20/31.5 3700 2350 3900 3800 2350 4000 3900 2400 4100 4200 2450 4600 3600 1550 2650 3700 1600 2800 3800 1600 2800 3900 1650 3000 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 4/21 .4 [MVA] 16 20 25 31.Power Transformers – Selection Tables Technical Data. 37 Dimensions L x W x [mm] H Total weight [kg] 22 25 30 35 Oil weight [kg] 4200 4500 5000 5700 Shipping dimensions Ls x Ws [mm] x Hs Shipping weight incl.5 MVA HV rating: up to 36 kV Hs s Rated frequency: 50 Hz.3 6. tapping range s Connection of H ± 2 x 2.5 % star HV winding: s Connection of star or delta LV winding: s Cooling method: ONAN/ONAF s LV range: 6 kV to 36 kV Fig.5 [kW] 80 95 110 130 [%] 10 10 10 10 Rated power at ONAN ONAF [MVA] 10 12. 35 E E W Ws L Ls Rated power at ONAF ONAN [MVA] 10 12. oil [kg] 22000 23000 27000 31500 [MVA] 16 20 25 31.5 16 20 Fig.3 6.4 6.5 16 20 Fig. 36 No-load loss [kW] 12 14 16 19 Load loss at ONAN ONAF [kW] 31 37 45 52 Impedance voltage of ONAN ONAF [%] 6.

5 16 20 Fig. oil [kg] 24000 27000 31000 37000 [MVA] 16 20 25 31. tapping range s Connection of H Hs ± 16 % in ± 9 steps star HV winding: s Connection of star or delta LV winding: s Cooling method: ONAN/ONAF s LV range: 6 kV to 36 kV Fig. 39 No-load loss [kW] 12 14 16 19 Load loss at ONAN ONAF [kW] 31 37 45 52 Impedance voltage of ONAN ONAF [%] 6.5 [kW] 80 95 111 130 [%] 10 10 10 10 Rated power at ONAN ONAF [MVA] 10 12.5 4800 2450 3900 27 000 4900 2500 4000 30 000 5050 2500 4100 34 000 5300 2550 4600 41 000 4400 1550 2600 4500 1600 2650 4650 1650 2650 5000 1700 3000 4/22 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .Power Transformers – Selection Tables Technical Data. Dimensions and Weights Oil-immersed three-phase power transformer with on-load tap changer 10/16 to 20/31. HV rating: up to 36 kV s Rated frequency: 50 Hz.3 6. 40 Dimensions L x W x [mm] H Total weight [kg] Oil weight [kg] 6200 6700 7000 9000 Shipping dimensions Ls x Ws [mm] x Hs Shipping weight incl.5 MVA.5 16 20 Fig.4 [MVA] 16 20 25 31.3 6.4 6. 38 Ls L Ws W Rated power at ONAN ONAF [MVA] 10 12.

5 16 20 25 31.5 16 20 25 31.4 15.4 9.5 40 50 63 80 100 No-load loss [kW] 13 15 17 20 24 28 35 41 49 Load loss at ONAN [kW] 42 45 51 56 63 71 86 91 113 ONAF [kW] 108 115 125 140 160 180 214 232 285 Impedance voltage of ONAN ONAF [%] 9. tapping range s Connection of Rated power at ONAN ONAF [MVA] [MVA] 10 16 20 25 31.0 16. HV rating: from 72. oil [kg] 35000 39000 43000 49000 56000 65000 75000 90000 109000 [MVA] 16 20 25 31.5 40 50 63 Fig.8 10.6 9.7 ± 16 % in ± 9 steps star 12.5 9.2 15.5 9. 41 HV winding: s Connection star or delta of LV winding: s Cooling method: ONAN/ONAF Rated power at Dimensions ONAN ONAF L x W x [MVA] 10 12.0 10.5 16.5 40 50 63 Fig.1 15.6 9.Power Transformers – Selection Tables Technical Data.5 40 50 63 80 100 [mm] 6600 2650 4700 6700 2700 4800 6750 2750 5300 6800 2800 5400 6900 2900 5400 7050 2950 5500 7100 3000 5700 7400 3100 5800 7800 3250 6100 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 4/23 .0 15.6 9.0 15.0 15. 42 H Total weight [kg] 39000 43000 48000 54000 61000 70000 82000 97000 118000 Oil weight [kg] 12000 12500 13500 14000 14500 17000 18000 20500 25500 Shipping dimensions Ls x Ws x Hs [mm] 5200 1900 5300 1950 5400 2000 5500 2000 5700 2100 5850 2150 6100 2200 6250 2300 6800 2450 3000 3100 3000 3100 3150 3350 3450 3700 4000 Shipping weight incl.5 to 145 kV s Rated frequency: 50 Hz. Dimensions and Weights Oil-immersed three-phase power transformers with on-load tap changer 10/16 to 63/100 MVA.5 [%] 15.

Up to 107 operating positions can be achieved by the use of a multiple course tap selector. ensure the reliable operation of motor drives.500 A and up to 420 kV. Maschinenfabrik Reinhausen offers a worldwide technical service to maintain their high quality standard. Further safety measures. For operation under extremely onerous conditions an oil filter unit is available for filtering or filtering and drying of the switching oil. About 90. Voltage monitoring is effected by microprocessor-controlled operation control systems or voltage regulators which include a great variety of data input and output facilities. In addition to the well-known on-load tapchanger for installation in oil-immersed transformers. The great variety of tap changer models is based on a modular system which is capable of meeting the individual customers’ specifications for the respective operating conditions of the transformer. Furthermore. or SF 6-type transformers up to 40 MVA and 123 kV. MR is a supplier of technically advanced on-load tap changers for oil-immersed power transformers covering an application range from 100 A to 4. 44: Gas-insulated on-load tap changer Type V Type H Type M Type G Fig. a safety circuit to prevent false phase sequence and running through positions. In combination with a parallel control unit. delta or single-pole connection. It is controlled according to the step-by-step principle. Inspections at regular intervals with only small maintenance requirements guarantee the reliable operation expected with MR products. MR offers also a standardized gas-insulated tap changer for indoor installation which will be mounted on drytype transformers up to approx. several transformers connected in parallel can be automatically controlled and monitored.000 MR high-speed resistor-type tap changers are succesfully in service worldwide. Electrical and mechanical safety devices prevent overrunning of the end positions. 43: MR motor drive unit MA 7 Fig. The main characteristics of MR products are: s Compact design s Optimum adaption and economic solutions offered by the great number of variants s High reliability s Long life s Reduced maintenance s Service friendliness The tap changers are mechanically driven – via the drive shafts and the bevel gear – by a motor drive attached to the transformer tank. 45: Selection of on-load tap changers from the MR product range 4/24 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . Depending on the required application range selector. switches or diverter switches with tap selectors can be used. both available for neutral.On-load Tap Changers The on-load tap changers installed in Siemens power transformers are manufactured by Maschinenfabrik Reinhausen (MR). such as the automatic restart function. 30 MVA and 36 kV. Type VT Fig.

rear Special version: Bottom. CENELEC HD 464. RAL 5009. flame-resistant and selfextinguishing Ambient class E2 Climatic category C2 (If the transformer is installed outdoors. tropicalized. On request: Two-component varnish or hot-dip galvanizing (for particularly aggressive environments) Insulation: Mixture of epoxy resin and quartz powder Makes the transformer maintenance-free. for optimal station design. GEAFOL transformers are completely maintenancefree for their lifetime. Often they are combined with their primary and secondary switchgear and distribution boards into compact substations that are installed directly at their point of use. Fire class F1 Fig. HV tapping links on lowvoltage side for adjustment to system conditions. low-loss electrolaminations insulated on both sides HV terminals Variable arrangements. such as oil-collecting pits. They have similar noise levels as comparable oil-filled transformers. As thyristor-converter transformers for variable speed drives they can be installed together with the converters at the drive location. transmission losses. in tunnels. cranes and offshore platforms. fireextinguishing equipment. GEAFOL transformers are fully LI-rated. degree of protection IP 23 must be assured) Clamping frame and truck Rollers can be swung around for lengthways or sideways travel * on-load tap changers on request. Turns firmly glued together by means of insulating sheet wrapper material Paint finish on steel parts Multiple coating. they are also frequently cost-competitive. and installation costs. GEAFOL transformers are installed wherever oil-filled units cannot be used: inside buildings. LV terminals Normal arrangement: Top. fire walls. cable costs. etc. They only make use of flame-retardent inorganic insulating materials which free these transformers from all restrictions that apply to oil-filled electrical equipment. in ground-water catchment areas. A lot of licenses have been granted to major manufactures throughout the world since. See enlarged detail in Fig. 46: GEAFOL cast-resin dry-type transformer Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 4/25 . 47 Cross-flow fans Permitting a 50% increase in the rated power LV winding Temperature monitoring By PTC thermistor detectors in the LV winding Made of aluminum strip. resulting in low noise emissions HV winding Consisting of vacuumpotted single foil-type aluminum coils. This reduces civil works. GEAFOL transformers are designed for indoor installation close to their point of use at the center of the major consumers. reconnectable in deenergized state Resilient spacers To insulate core and windings from mechanical vibrations. By virtue of their design. in food processing plants. GEAFOL transformers have been in successful service since 1965.Cast-resin Dry-type Transformers. Advantages and applications GEAFOL distribution and power transformers in ratings from 100 to more than 20 000 kVA and LI values up to 170 kV are full substitutes for oil-immersed transformers with comparable electrical and mechanical data. 726. Taking the above indirect cost reductions into account. moisture-proof. GEAFOL Standards and regulations GEAFOL ® cast-resin dry-type transformers comply with IEC recommendation No. available on request at extra charge Three-leg core Made of grain-oriented. on ships. etc. HD 538 and DIN 42 523.

corrosionproof. the interturn voltage can add up to twice the interlayer voltage. The assembled and connected individual coils are placed in a heated mold. 47). The resulting high-voltage windings are fire-resistant. LV winding The standard low-voltage winding with its considerably reduced dielectric stresses is wound from single aluminum sheets with interleaved cast-resin impregnated fiberglass fabric. 47: High-voltage encapsulated winding design of GEAFOL cast-resin transformer and voltage stress of a conventional round-wire winding (above) and the foil winding (below) 4/26 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . which are internally bonded to the aluminum winding connections. Through the single-sheet winding design. Why aluminum? The thermal expansion coefficients of aluminum and cast resin are so similar that thermal stresses resulting from load changes are kept to a minimum (see Fig. The only connections to the outside are copper bushings. and are potted in a vaccum furnace with a mixture of pure silica (quartz sand) and specially blended epoxy resins.Cast-resin Dry-type Transformers. The insulation is subjected to less electrical stress than in other types of windings. In a conventional round-wire winding. moistureproof. The foil windings combine a simple winding technique with a high degree of electrical safety. 8 8 Round-wire winding U 7 6 5 4 6 4 3 3 7 1 2 3 4 8 7 6 5 2 2 1 Strip winding U 2 4 6 8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 3 5 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Fig. Result: a high AC voltage and impulse-voltage withstand capacity. and show excellent aging properties under all indoor operating conditions. The assembled coils are then oven-cured to form uniformly bonded solid cylinders that are impervious to moisture. interleaved with highgrade polypropylene insulating foil. Connections are submerged-arc-welded to the aluminum sheets and are extended either as aluminum or copper busbars to the secondary terminals. GEAFOL HV winding The high-voltage windings are wound from aluminum foil. (For outdoor use. while in a foil winding it never exeeds the simple voltage per turn because a layer consists of only one winding turn. excellent dynamic stability under short-circuit conditions is achieved. specially designed sheetmetal enclosures are available). The external star or delta connections are made of insulated copper connectors to guarantee an optimal installation design.

climate and fire behavior have to be demonstrated by means of tests. 48: Flammability test of cast-resin transformer Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 4/27 . According to this standard. Otherwise forced-air cooling must be specified or provided by others. and a wiring diagram is permanently attached to the inside cover of this terminal box. For operating voltages of the LV winding of 3. The properties laid down in the standards for ratings within the approximate category relating to environment (humidity). C2) in DIN VDE 0532 Part 6 (corresponding to HD 464). The environmental safety of the combustion residues has been proven in many tests. is used. such as aluminum oxide trihydrate.) Short-time overloads are uncritical as long as the maximum winding temperatures are not exceeded for extended periods of time. too. Temperature monitoring Each GEAFOL transformer is fitted with three temperature sensors installed in the LV winding. they are to be carried out on complete transformers. The PTC thermistors used for sensing are selected for the applicable maximum hot-spot winding temperature. Sufficient ventilation must be provided by the installation location or the enclosure. Installation and enclosures Indoor installation in electrical operating rooms or in various sheet-metal enclosures is the preferred method of installation. This design has been approved by fire officials in many countries for installation in populated buildings and other structures. The results for our GEAFOL transformers are something to be proud of: s Environmental category E2 s Climatic category C2 s Fire category F1 Insulation class and temperature rise The high-voltage winding and the lowvoltage winding utilize class F insulating materials with a mean temperature rise of 100 K (standard design). against direct sunlight. This good behavior is solely due to the GEAFOL cast-resin mix which has been used successfully for decades. Additional sets of sensors with lower temperature points can be installed for them and for fan control purposes. Internal arcing from electrical faults and externally applied flames do not cause the transformers to burst or burn. The specifications for fire category F2 are determined by agreement between the manufacturer and the customer. GEAFOL Fire safety GEAFOL transformers use only flameretardent and self-extinguishing materials in their construction. These tests are described for the environmental category (code number E0. The tests of fire behavior (fire category code numbers F0 and F1) are limited to tests on a duplication of a complete transformer. and a solid-state tripping device with relay output. special temperature measuring equipment can be provided.Cast-resin Dry-type Transformers. Fig. which could negatively influence the mechanical stability of the cast-resin molding material. a low-voltage winding and a high-voltage winding. Auxiliary wiring is run in protective conduit and terminated in a central LV terminal box (optional). Each wire and terminal is identified. The transformers need only be protected against access to the terminals or the winding surfaces. No additional substances. the transformer is self-extinguishing. It consists of a core leg.6 kV and higher. (Dimensions increase by approximately 200 mm in length and width. Additional dial-type thermometers and Pt100 are available. Overload capability GEAFOL transformers can be overloaded permanently up to 50% (with a corresponding increase in impedance voltage) if additional radial cooling fans are installed. After the source of ignition is removed. E1 and E2) and for the climatic category (code number C1. Siemens have carried out a lot of tests. Categorization of cast-resin transformers Dry-type transformers have to be categorized under the sections listed below: s Environmental category s Climatic category s Fire category These categories have to be shown on the rating plate of each dry-type transformer. and against water.

51: GEAFOL transformer in protective housing to IP 20/40 4/28 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . Secondary connections can be made by multiple insulated cables. 49: GEAFOL transformer with plug-type cable connections Fig. 90% of all materials.Cast-resin Dry-type Transformers. Recycling of GEAFOL transformers Of all the GEAFOL transformers manufactured since 1965. the procedure can be economical even considering the currently small amounts. drilled to specification. i. can be fully recovered economically. In spite of this. insulated plug-type elbow connectors can be supplied for the high-voltage side with LI ratings up to 170 kV. A variety of indoor and outdoor enclosures in different protection classes are available for the transformers alone. The recycling method used by Siemens does not pollute the environment. approx. GEAFOL Instead of the standard open terminals. but can also be connected from above.e. 50: Radial cooling fans on GEAFOL transformer for AF cooling Fig.and low-voltage switchgear cubicles. These experiences show that all the metallic components. or for indoor compact substations in conjunction with high. Primary cables are usually fed to the transformer from trenches below. even the oldest units are not about to reach the end of their service life expectancy. Fig. In view of the value of the secondary raw materials. from either below or above. or by busbars. a lot of experiences have been made over the years with the recycling of coils that have become unusable due to faulty manufacture or damage. Secondary terminals are either aluminum or copper busbar stubs.

Technical Data.5264-3CA .5064-3GA .5244-3DA .5264-3DA . 54: GEAFOL cast-resin transformers 50 to 2500 kVA Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 4/29 .5244-3GA . 53: GEAFOL cast-resin transformer E B1 Rated power Rated Impevoltage dance voltage Type No-load Load losses losses Sn [kVA] Um [kV] 12 U2 [%] 4 4 6 6 4GB… .5044-3HA . Fig. level 1m tolerance + 3 dB Pk 120** LPA [W] [dB] 1900 1900 2300 2300 1750 1750 2050 2050 2600 2600 2700 2700 2500 2500 2900 2900 45 37 45 37 45 37 45 37 47 39 47 39 47 39 47 39 Sound power level Total weight Dimensions Length Width Height Distance between wheel centers LWA [dB] 59 51 59 51 59 51 59 51 62 54 62 54 62 54 62 54 GGES [kg] 630 760 590 660 750 830 660 770 770 920 750 850 910 940 820 900 A1 [mm] 1210 1230 1190 1230 1310 1300 1250 1300 1220 1290 1270 1300 1330 1310 1310 1350 B1 [mm] 705 710 705 710 755 755 750 755 710 720 720 725 725 720 725 765 H1 [mm] 835 890 860 855 935 940 915 930 1040 1050 990 985 1090 1095 1075 1060 E [mm] without wheels without wheels without wheels without wheels without wheels without wheels without wheels without wheels 520 520 520 520 520 520 520 520 100 24 4 4 6 6 160 12 4 4 6 6 24 4 4 6 6 Dimensions and weights are approximate values and valid for 400 V on the secondary side. vector-group can be Dyn 5 or Dyn 11.1 12 24 36 LJ [kV] – 75 95** 145** AC [kV] 3 28 50 70 * power rating > 2.5264-3GA .5064-3CA .5044-3CA .5064-3HA .5244-3CA .5064-3DA .5264-3HA P0 [W] 440 320 360 300 600 400 420 330 610 440 500 400 800 580 600 480 Pk 75* [W] 1600 1600 2000 2000 1500 1500 1800 1800 2300 2300 2300 2300 2200 2200 2500 2500 Sound Load losses press.5 % HV side: Connection: HV winding: delta LV winding: star Impedance 4– 8% voltage at rated current: Insulation class: HV/LV = F/F Temperature HV/LV = 100/100 K rise: Color of metal RAL 5009 (other parts: colors are available) Um [kV] 1. * In case of short-circuits at 75 °C ** In case of short-circuits at 120 °C Rated power figures in parentheses are not standardized.5 % or ± 2 x 2.5044-3GA . special designs for up to 12 kV are possible Tappings on ± 2. Dimensions and Weights s s s s s s s s s s s Standard: DIN 42523 Rated power: 100–20000 kVA* Rated frequency: 50 Hz HV rating: up to 36 kV LV rating: up to 780 V.5244-3HA .5044-3DA . 52: Insulation level 2U 2V 2W 2N H1 E A1 Fig.5 MVA uopn request ** other levels upon request Fig.GEAFOL Cast-resin Selection Tables.

5464-3DA .5464-3HA .5764-3DA .GEAFOL Cast-resin Selection Tables.5744-3CA .5764-3GA .5644-3DA . 55: GEAFOL cast-resin transformers 50 to 2500 kVA 4/30 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .5544-3DA .5444-3CA .5744-3DA .5464-3GA .5544-3GA . Dimensions and Weights Rated power Rated Impevoltage dance voltage Type No-load Load losses losses Sn [kVA] Um [kV] 12 U2 [%] 4 4 6 6 4GB… .5475-3CA .5664-3HA . Fig.5744-3HA .5664-3GA .5564-3DA .5644-3GA .5764-3CA .5644-3HA .5644-3CA .5444-3HA .5544-3CA . level 1m tolerance + 3 dB Pk 120** LPA [W] [dB] Load losses 3500 3400 3300 3300 3300 3300 3600 3600 4370 3800 3800 3900 3900 3900 3900 4100 4100 5170 50 42 50 42 50 41 50 41 50 52 43 51 43 51 43 51 43 51 Sound power level Total weight Dimensions Length Width Height Distance between wheel centers LWA [dB] 65 57 65 57 65 57 65 57 65 67 59 67 59 67 59 67 59 67 68 60 68 60 68 60 68 60 68 69 61 69 61 69 61 69 61 69 GGES [kg] 1040 1170 990 1120 1190 1230 990 1180 1700 1160 1320 1150 1290 1250 1400 1190 1300 1900 1310 1430 1250 1350 1410 1570 1350 1460 2100 1520 1740 1470 1620 1620 1830 1580 1720 2600 A1 [mm] 1330 1330 1350 1390 1390 1400 1360 1430 1900 1370 1380 1380 1410 1410 1440 1410 1460 1950 1380 1380 1410 1430 1440 1460 1480 1480 2000 1410 1450 1460 1490 1500 1540 1540 1560 2050 B1 [mm] 730 730 740 745 735 735 735 745 900 820 820 830 830 820 825 825 830 920 820 820 825 830 825 830 835 835 920 830 835 845 845 835 840 850 850 940 H1 [mm] 1110 1135 1065 1090 1120 1150 1140 1160 1350 1125 1195 1140 1165 1195 1205 1185 1195 1400 1265 1290 1195 1195 1280 1280 1275 1280 1440 1320 1345 1275 1290 1330 1350 1305 1320 1500 E [mm] 520 520 520 520 520 520 520 520 520 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 250 24 4 4 6 6 36 6 4 4 6 6 (315) 12 24 4 4 6 6 36 6 4 4 6 6 400 12 4900 52 4900 44 4900 52 4900 44 4500 52 4500 44 4700 52 4700 44 5860 52 5600 53 5600 45 6400 53 6400 45 5500 53 5500 44 5700 53 5700 45 6900 53 24 4 4 6 6 36 6 4 4 6 6 (500) 12 24 4 4 6 6 36 6 Dimensions and weights are approximate values and valid for 400 V on the secondary side.5764-3HA .5564-3CA .5564-3HA .5444-3GA . * In case of short-circuits at 75 °C ** In case of short-circuits at 120 °C Rated power figures in parentheses are not standardized. vector-group can be Dyn 5 or Dyn 11.5464-3CA .5575-3CA .5664-3DA .5664-3CA .5675-3CA . Technical Data.5444-3DA .5544-3HA .5744-3GA .5564-3GA .5775-3CA P0 [W] 820 600 700 570 1050 800 880 650 1300 980 720 850 680 1250 930 1000 780 1450 1150 880 1000 820 1450 1100 1200 940 1700 1350 1000 1200 980 1700 1270 1400 1100 1900 Pk 75* [W] 3000 3000 2900 2900 2900 2900 3100 3100 3800 3300 3300 3400 3400 3400 3400 3600 3600 4500 4300 4300 4300 4300 3900 3900 4100 4100 5100 4900 4900 5600 5600 4800 4800 5000 5000 6000 Sound press.

Dimensions and Weights Rated power Rated Impevoltage dance voltage Type No-load Load losses losses Sn [kVA] Um [kV] 12 U2 [%] 4 4 6 6 4GB… . * In case of short-circuits at 75 °C ** In case of short-circuits at 120 °C Rated power figures in parentheses are not standardized.GEAFOL Cast-resin Selection Tables.5944-3CA .6144-3DA .5975-3CA . Technical Data.6064-3GA .5864-3GA .5844-3CA .5944-3HA .5844-3GA . vector-group can be Dyn 5 or Dyn 11.5964-3CA .6164-3HA .6064-3CA .6044-3GA . Fig.6044-3CA .5844-3DA .5944-3DA .5964-3GA .6144-3HA .5964-3DA . level 1m tolerance + 3 dB Pk 120** LPA [W] [dB] 7300 7300 7400 7400 6900 6900 7300 7300 8000 9000 9000 8700 8700 8600 8600 9100 9100 9400 54 45 54 45 53 45 53 45 53 55 47 55 47 55 47 55 47 55 55 47 56 47 55 47 55 47 55 57 49 57 49 57 Sound power level Total weight Dimensions Length Width Height Distance between wheel centers LWA [dB] 70 62 70 62 70 62 70 62 70 72 64 72 64 72 64 71 64 72 73 65 73 65 73 65 73 65 73 75 67 75 67 75 GGES [kg] 1830 2070 1770 1990 1860 2100 1810 2050 2900 2080 2430 2060 2330 2150 2550 2110 2390 3300 2480 2850 2420 2750 2570 3060 2510 2910 3900 2900 3370 3020 3490 4500 A1 [mm] 1510 1470 1550 1590 1550 1600 1580 1620 2070 1570 1590 1560 1600 1610 1650 1610 1630 2140 1590 1620 1620 1660 1660 1680 1680 1730 2200 1780 1790 1820 1850 2300 B1 [mm] 840 835 860 865 845 850 855 860 940 850 855 865 870 845 855 860 865 950 990 990 990 990 990 990 990 990 1050 990 990 990 990 1060 H1 [mm] 1345 1505 1295 1310 1380 1400 1345 1370 1650 1560 1640 1490 1530 1580 1620 1590 1595 1850 1775 1795 1560 1560 1730 1815 1620 1645 1900 1605 1705 1635 1675 2000 E [mm] 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 820 820 820 820 820 820 820 820 820 820 820 820 820 520 630 24 4 4 6 6 36 6 4 4 6 6 (800) 12 24 4 4 6 6 36 6 4 4 6 6 1000 12 8900 10200 8900 10200 8500 8500 9700 9700 24 4 4 6 6 8700 10000 8700 10000 9200 10500 9600 11000 9500 10900 9600 11000 10500 12000 10000 11500 10500 12000 11000 12600 36 6 6 6 6 6 6 (1250) 12 24 36 Dimensions and weights are approximate values and valid for 400 V on the secondary side.5864-3CA .6175-3CA P0 [W] 1500 1150 1370 1150 1950 1500 1650 1250 2200 1850 1450 1700 1350 2100 1600 1900 1450 2600 2200 1650 2000 1500 2400 1850 2300 1750 3000 2400 1850 2700 2100 3500 Pk 75* [W] 6400 6400 6400 6400 6000 6000 6400 6400 7000 7800 7800 7600 7600 7500 7500 7900 7900 8200 Sound Load losses press.6064-3DA .6044-3DA .5964-3HA .5875-3CA . 56: GEAFOL cast-resin transformers 50 to 2500 kVA Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 4/31 .5864-3HA .6075-3CA .6044-3HA .5944-3GA ..6064-3HA .6164-3DA .5864-3DA .5844-3HA .

57: GEAFOL cast-resin transformers 50 to 2500 kVA 4/32 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .6375-3CA .6244-3DA . Fig.6464-3HA . Technical Data. level 1m tolerance + 3 dB Sound power level Total weight Dimensions Length Width Height Distance between wheel centers Sn [kVA] Um [kV] 12 24 36 U2 [%] 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4GB… .GEAFOL Cast-resin Selection Tables. vector-group can be Dyn 5 or Dyn 11.6344-3HA . * In case of short-circuits at 75 °C ** In case of short-circuits at 120 °C Rated power >2500 kVA to 20 MVA on request.6464-3DA .6264-3DA .6344-3DA .6264-3HA .6364-3HA .6364-3DA .6244-3HA .6444-3DA .6444-3HA . Dimensions and Weights Rated power Rated Impevoltage dance voltage Type No-load Load losses losses Sound Load losses press.6275-3CA . Rated power figures in parentheses are not standardized.6475-3CA P0 [W] 2800 2100 3100 2400 4300 3600 2650 4000 3000 5100 4300 3000 5000 3600 6400 Pk 75* Pk 120** LPA [W] [W] [dB] 11000 12500 11400 13000 11800 13500 12300 14000 12700 14600 14000 16000 14500 16500 14500 16500 14900 17000 15400 17700 17600 20000 18400 21000 17600 20000 18000 20500 18700 21500 58 50 58 49 58 59 51 59 51 59 62 51 61 51 61 LWA [dB] 76 68 76 68 76 78 70 78 70 78 81 71 81 71 81 GGES [kg] 3550 4170 3640 4080 5600 4380 5140 4410 4920 6300 5130 6230 5280 6220 7900 A1 [mm] 1840 1880 1880 1900 2500 1950 1990 2020 2040 2500 2110 2170 2170 2220 2700 B1 [mm] 995 1005 995 1005 1100 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 H1 [mm] 2025 2065 2035 2035 2400 2150 2205 2160 2180 2400 2150 2205 2160 2180 2400 E [mm] 1070 1070 1070 1070 1070 1070 1070 1070 1070 1070 1070 1070 1070 1070 1070 1600 (2000) 12 24 36 2500 12 24 36 Dimensions and weights are approximate values and valid for 400 V on the secondary side.

58: Rectifier-transformer for electrostatic precipitator Fig. The separate LV terminal 60x. shunt for precipitator current measurement. For technical data please inquire. secondary voltages of 525 and 1050 V at 50/60 Hz. Fig. HV flashover detection with amplifier for kV measurement. In addition to the transformer windings. These units are constructed based on the TUMETIC hermetically sealed transformer principle. This controller is mounted inside a separate weatherproof control cabinet. The transformers are supplied for primary voltages of up to 10 kV. the following components are contained in this variable-volume sealed oil tank: s s s s LV current-attenuating reactor HV rectifier bridge HV measuring resistor HF reactor The DC voltage is fed through the tank top by means of a single bushing. so-called rectiformers. mounted on the transformer side. which apply in various other countries as well. for this purpose. contains the LV terminal. the LV windings of the transformer are supplied via a thyristor AC power controller. The enclosures are designed to withstand internal explosions of combustible gas without igniting the surrounding explosive atmosphere. 2 surge-voltage protectors. Siemens has developed special transformers with built-in silicon rectifier diodes. The flameproof units are dry-type threephase distribution transformers inside corrugated steel enclosures with integral highand low-voltage terminal boxes. Flameproof transformers for coal mines In deep-shaft coal mines the release of methane must be taken into account in the design of electrical systems.Special Transformers and Reactors Rectifier transformer for electrostatic precipitators DC voltages up to 148 kV are used to remove solid pollutants from smokestack emissions in industrial and power generating plants. 59: Flameproof distribution transformer 630 kVA for coal mines Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 4/33 . Siemens has developed flameproof distribution transformers that comply with the relevant German mine safety codes. To adjust the DC output voltage. and power ratings up to 1000 kVA.

Normally. Current transformers for measuring and recording purposes. or continuously. 61: Arc-suppression coil with electrically controlled reactance adjustment 4/34 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . they can also be built in cast-resin design. Siemens supplies oil-filled converter transformers of all ratings and configurations known today.50 85 48 Power transformers: Fax: ++ 49 -9 11-4 34 2147 Fig.Special Transformers and Reactors Transformers for thyristor converters These are special oil-immersed or castresin power transformers that are designed for the special demands of thyristor converter or diode rectifier operation. and dry-type cast-resin converter transformers up to more than 20 MVA and 200 kV LI. Neutral grounding transformers are available for continuous operation or short-time operation. For further information please contact: Distribution transformers: Fax: ++ 49-70 21. Through this method. These transformers are almost exclusively inquired together with the respective drive or rectifier system and are always custom-engineered for the given application. Adjustment in steps is realized with off-load tapping switches. a neutral must be provided by using a neutral grounding transformer. 12-pulse systems) s Overload factor up to 2. however. the neutral grounding transformers are built in oil-immersed design. Neutral grounding transformers can be built by Siemens in all common power ratings. Continuous adjustment results in tuning ratios of better than 1:10 and is done via electric motor or electrohydraulically operated moving-core mechanisms. temporary ground faults require no action at all. The zero impedance is normally low. Arc-suppression coils for distribution networks (Neutral reactors or Petersen coils) Arc-suppression coils or Petersen coils are used in distribution networks up to 150 kV to neutralize the prospective capacitive ground-fault current by inserting a corresponding reactance into the starpointto-ground connection of the network. it is necessary to know considerable details on the converter to be supplied and on the line feeding it. as well as ground-fault locating devices are optionally available.5 s Types for 12-pulse systems. The effects of such conversion equipment on transformers and additional construction requirements are as follows: s Increased load by harmonic currents s Continuous short-circuit-like stresses by current communication and communication faults s Balancing of phase currents in multiple winding systems (e. To define and quote for such transformers. The standard vector groups are zigzag or wye/delta. if required.g. Since the prospective capacitive groundfault current depends on the varying system condition. Neutral grounding transformers When a neutral grounding reactor or ground-fault neutralizer is required in a three-phase system and no suitable neutral is available. the neutralizing reactor must be adjustable – either in steps. damages due to arcing ground faults can be limited or avoided entirely. and line-to-neutral voltages of 5 to 150 kV. Some other vector groups are also possible.5. resulting in an adjustment ratio of about 1:2. System operation can often be maintained under ground-fault conditions until corrective switching actions have been taken. 60: Dry-type converter transformer GEAFOL for rolling mill Fig. Siemens builds Petersen coils with fixed and variable reactance in sizes from 50 kVA to 30 MVA.

and Low-Voltage Cables up to 45 kV 5/7–5/12 Accessories for Lowand Medium-Voltage Cables High-Voltage Cables up to 290/500 kV 5/13–5/20 5/21–5/22 Accessories for High-Voltage Cables up to 290/500 kV 5/23–5/24 .Power Cables Contents Power Cables – General Page 5/2–5/6 Medium.

In an a. – U is the rms value between phase conductors. industrial installations and buildings. g. e. limit temperatures. The Siemens instructions AR 320-220 and AR 320-1-220 contain detailed information on the application of cables.c. must be reliable and have a long service life. armor. metal sheath). High-voltage cables are often designed according to the specific stresses of each special case of application. They are preferably used where overhead lines are not suitable. storage and transport. The different stresses determined by the function form the basis for the definition of the cable requirements (Fig.g. – U0 is the rms value between conductor and ground or grounded metallic covering (concentric conductor. 4. 2: Stresses determined by the function 5/2 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . systems – 3.8 kV in d. and in industry. Voltages s Rated voltage Laying in the ground Directly in the ground Installation in air Outdoors In ducts Indoors In concrete In channels – Power cables are classified according to the rated voltages U0 /U and Um . one for laying in the ground (distribution cables) and one for installation in air (installation cables) (Fig. The maximum continuous operating-voltage at normal operation for low voltage cables with rated voltage of 0. e.c. the cable construction as well as the materials and manufacturing processes are permanently improved with a lot of development work. especially the insulation (electrical strength) of buried cables. i. in distribution systems and substations of power supply utilities. the rated voltage Um must be at least equal to the highest voltage of the system Ub max for which it is intended. bending radii. in cities (pedestrian zones). screen. U0 = U/ 3 – For application in three-phase and single-phase systems the main standard rated voltages (rounded values) in compliance with IEC 183 are given in Fig.Power Cables – General Application Cables intended for the transmission and distribution of electrical energy are mainly used in power plants. c.6/1kV ( Um = 1. systems for PVC-insulated cables having a concentric conductor or armor and conductor cross-sectional areas from 240 mm 2 and above. 1): In view of the possible external stresses for power cables. cable fixing. In water Fig. permissible pulling forces. In order to fulfil this requirement for Siemens cables. system. – Um is the maximum rms value between phase conductors. 3). e. in densely builtup areas. 1: Fields of application Stresses determined by the function: Stresses and requirements These cables. cables are be divided into two standard cable types.2 kV) is – 1. For power supply cables there are two main fields of application with different stresses (Fig. 2). Current Thermal stress Electrical stress Thermal/ mechanical stress Thermal stress Electrical stress Normal operation Voltage Short-circuit Operation under fault conditions Ground fault Transient waves Fig.6 kV in a. etc.

: Part 1: A19100-L531-F159-X-7600 Part 2: A19100-L531-F506-X-7600. the cross-sectional area of conductor shall be determined such that the requirement current-carrying capacity I z ≥ loading Ib is fulfilled for all operating conditions which can occur.Power Cables – General Current ratings For safe project planning of cable installations.2 7.6 6 12 18 64 76 87 127 160 290 Fig. the current-carrying capacity is to be examined for each special case of application. More comprehensive calculation methods with detailed project planning data can be taken from Part 1 of the book “Power Cables and their Application”.3 14 28 42 142 168 196 284 346 606 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 5/3 . In order to avoid thermal overloading of the cable a suitable protective device also has to be selected. the relevant installation rules shall be observed. acids Moisture (water) Temperature Installation in air Tensile strength (laying) Pressure force (cleats) Vibrations Chemical Chemicals (short-term influence) Ozone Moisture (rain.c. With regard to these criteria. humidity) UV radiation Temperature (cold. the cross-sectional area of the conductor must be additionally determined in respect of the permitted voltage drop ∆U. Standards To ensure the operational properties and the high quality of all types of Siemens cables. brief instructions for project planning are given in Part 2 of the book “Power Cables and their Application”. short-term and long-term tests are carried out. rodents. They are based on national and international standards such as VDE and IEC.6 3. Laying in the ground Mechanical Tensile strength (laying) Impact strength (civil works) Abrasion Termites.2 12 24 36 123 145 170 245 300 525 [kV] 1.7 4. oil. A perfect quality system according to ISO 9001 ensures a maximum of reliability of Siemens cables. Order-Nr.1 7 14 21 71 84 98 142 173 303 [kV] 0. A distinction is made between the current-carrying capacity s for normal operation s and for short-circuit (operation under fault conditions) Especially in low-voltage systems. heat) Fire propagation Corrosive combustion gases Smoke density Circuit integrity of cable installation Climatic Fire behavior Fire propagation Fig. The procedure is shown by examples. They are sufficient for most cases when using the values listed in this book. etc. Chemicals (permanent influence). It depends on a lot of special laying and installation conditions so that it is not possible to give standard values. 3: Stresses determined by the installation method Uo Um in three-phase systems Um in single-phase a. 4 [kV] 1. Besides that.4 8. systems Both phase conductors insulated One phase conductor grounded [kV] 0. For high-voltage cables.

is still used especially for extrahigh-voltage low-pressure oil-filled cables. intensive ingress of fuels. oils or solvents. normally a screen of round copper wires with a cross-sectional area of 35 mm2 or 50 mm2 is used together with an aluminum laminated PE sheath. Especially for high-voltage low-pressure oil-filled cables. however. Medium-voltage XLPE-insulated cables normally have a sheath of polyethylene which is more resistant with respect to the mechanical properties. but it is also available for cables with XLPE insulation. So the insulation screen is generally solidly bonded to the insulation. The screens which are always grounded ensure protection from contact and carry the leakage and ground-fault currents.Power Cables – General Constructional elements of cables Conductors The conductors comply with IEC 228. To protect the insulation of PROTODUR or PROTOTHEN X cables against permanent. These cables have a high-grade insulating compound of high-molecular pure polyethylene with a cross-linked structure which is distinguished by excellent properties. but it is mainly used for cables designed for voltages from 1 kV up to and including 6 kV. The blue core may be used as a phase conductor if the cable has a concentric conductor or if a neutral conductor is not required. 500 Nominal crosssectional of the screen* mm 2 16 25 35 * A nominal cross-sectional area of the screen of 16 mm2 is permissible for multi-core cables laid in the ground and single-core cables with a phase conductor cross-sectional area of up to 185 mm2 and 240 mm2 respectively. these cables have a significantly higher permittivity. Designs with easy-strip semiconductive layers are also available for medium-voltage cables. Identification of cores for low-voltage cables Cables with more than 5 cores (control cables) have black cores with white imprinted numbers. For cables with concentric conductors in distribution systems. Outer coverings For low-voltage PROTODUR cables with PVC insulation and PROTOTHEN X cables with XLPE insulation. The smallest permissible nominal cross-sectional areas for circular and sector-shaped conductors are specified in the relevant standard.. Screens shall consist of copper. a classic insulation material. The type and construction of conductor – whether circular solid (RE) or circular stranded (RM). a metal sheath of aluminum is available as well. high-voltage cables having a screen of round copper wires are provided with an aluminum laminated PE sheath consisting of an aluminum tape coated with PE copolymer on the outer 5/4 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . As already mentioned. In case of single-core cables multicore cables may have individual screened cores or a common screen. there are two dominating insulation materials which have proved to be reliable. For all types of insulation used for highvoltage cables. Siemens PROTODUR cables have an insulation based on that material. These conductors facilitate the installation of the branch joints because the concentric conductor can easily be lifted up and bundled at one side. sector-shaped solid (SE) or sector-shaped stranded (SM) – can be taken from the relevant tables in the book “Power Cables and their Application”. To remove this insulation screen during installation of accessories. Cables up to 500 kV are designed with this insulation material because of the very low and almost constant dielectric loss factor at all operating temperatures. 5 Concentric conductors. 5). the very high ground-fault current-carrying capacity. PVC sheaths can also be provided. special segmental conductors. under fault conditions. Oil-impregnated paper. also known as Milliken conductors. Insulation In the field of cables with extruded insulation. Nominal crosssectional area of phase conductor mm 2 25 to 120 150 to 300 400. Compared to XLPE. One of these two materials is XLPE which is used for Siemens PROTOTHEN X cables. Part 2. a lead sheath can be provided under the PVC sheath. provided that these values are compatible with ground-fault or double ground-fault currents. a PVC sheath is normally applied.H) are used. According to DIN VDE 0276-620 the nominal crosssectional area of the screens (geometrical cross-sectional area) may not fall below the values in the following table (Fig. screens. The permittivity is also relatively low and unaffected by fluctuations in temperature so that total dielectric losses of Siemens PROTOTHEN X cables are extremely low. For these high-voltage PROTOTHEN X cables. For high-voltage cables a lead sheath is normally used for low-pressure oil-filled cables. For crosssectional areas of 1000 mm 2 and above. The blue core is provided for use as a neutral conductor. Fig. the wires of the concentric conductors are laid in waveform (CEANDER conductor) on the inner covering. especially for underground mining or indoor installation (flame retardance according to IEC 332-2). It also ensures that there is sufficient space for connecting branches to the underlying phase conductors without having to cut the CEANDER conductor. The conductor screen and insulation screen of these cables are extruded together with the insulation (triple extrusion) in special manufacturing processes. Concentric conductors are made of copper. The green-yellow core is to be used solely as a PE (protective earth) or PEN (protective earth and neutral) conductor. In multi-core cables a steel wire armor may also be used as a common screen. a special peeling tool is required.. armor and metal sheaths Low-voltage cables are provided with concentric conductors as protection from contact if there is a possibility of the cables being exposed to mechanical damage.6/1 kV. circular stranded hollow conductors (RM. Screens are compulsory for all cable types above 0. Two advantages of this type of insulation are the vast experience that stands behind it and the high degree of reliability so impressively demonstrated by the faultfree service of these cables decade after decade. The data on the cross-sectional area in the type designation code always refer to the material of the phase conductors. The second dominating material for extruded insulations is PVC. are used in order to reduce current losses occurring due to skin and proximity effects. The advantage of such a cable design with a corrugated aluminum sheath is the very high mechanical protection and.

All other high-voltage cable types are usually also combined with a PE sheath because of its high mechanical stability. together with Siemens accessories for high-voltage cables shown in Fig.and medium-voltage cables in an industrial area Fig. This is due to the very special requirements each customer has for a high-voltage cable circuit and the specific solutions Siemens can offer to fulfil these requirements. 6: Installation of low. s Electrical stability of insulation: This is for freedom from partial discharge through effective prevention of ionization in voids. for connecting mobile equipment as well as for internal wiring of equipment can be obtained from Dept. EV SK1 V. s Thermal stability of insulation: This is for a uniform loss factor at all load fluctuations and overvoltages occurring in operation.91 31-73 24 55 SIENOPYR cables have the following excellent characteristics: s Reduced fire propagation performance: Even in the case of large grouping and vertical installation of cables. 9: 110 kV single-core PROTOTHEN X cables with outdoor sealing ends Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 5/5 . All these main requirements are fulfilled by XLPE-insulated PROTOTHEN X cables and low-pressure oil-filled cables. Products Low. For further information please contact: Fax: ++49 . 7: Laying of a 20 kV single-core PROTOTHEN X Cable Fig.Power Cables – General side and bonded to a black PE sheath. Fig.and medium-voltage cables Information on low-voltage and mediumvoltage cables with voltages or constructions not listed in this Engineering Guide. This covers all tasks from route planning up to the final voltage test to be carried out. Flexible cables which are used for installations in high-rise and industrial high-rise buildings. 8: Low-pressure oil-filled cables to switchgear by GIS-type sealing ends Fig. 37 to 44 by examples to demonstrate their typical constructional elements. for example paper-insulated cables. the spread of fire by cables is prevented (tests according to IEC 332-3). Application The cables and accessories shown on the following pages are designed for all kinds of high-voltage transmission of electrical energy. can be obtained from Dept. EV SK2.and Extra-High-Voltage Cables up to 290/500 kV and Accessories Information on high-voltage cables and accessories is available from Siemens Dept. s Corrosivity: No subsequential fire damage because the materials of these cables are halogen-free and the gas emission is noncorrosive (tests according to IEC 754-2). For further information please contact: Fax: ++ 49-9131-73 47 44 High-voltage cables are laid and installed by Siemens on a contractual basis. EV SK 3. Only if there are requirements for flame retardance according to IEC 332-2 should a PVC sheath be applied instead of or in addition to the commonly used PE sheath. For further information please contact: Fax: ++ 49-9131-73 10 92 High. s Low smoke density: Fire-fighting and rescue operations are decisively facilitated (tests according to IEC 1034). The main requirements for these applications are as follows: s Low loss factor tan delta: This is for low dielectric losses to minimize heating.

core PVC insulation No screen PVC sheath NYY Page 7 Concentric conductor XLPE insulation Steel armor NYCWY Page 7 2XFY EVAsheath PVC sheath Page 8 No screen N2XH Page 11 3.6/1 kV Multi.Power Cables – General Product Overview – Selection Guide Overview of main cable types and a guide for the selection of cable according to voltage. Lowand mediumvoltage Power cables 0. 10: Overview of main cable types 5/6 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .6/1 kV Multi.6/6 kV Three.core Screen N2XSY PEsheath Page 10 N2XS2Y Page 11 Control cables 0. insulation and metallic coverings.core XLPE insulation Screen 2XS(FL)2Y Page 21 Lead sheath 160/275 kV Corrugated aluminumsheath 2XK2Y Page 21 2XKLDE2Y Page 22 290/500 kV Oil-impregnated paper insulation NÖKLDE2Y Page 22 Fig.core PVC insulation No screen PVC sheath NYY Page 12 Screen NYCY Lead + PVC Laminated PEsheath Page 12 No screen YKYRY Page 8 Highvoltage cable 64/110 kV Single.core PVC insulation XLPE insulation Steel armor NYFGY Page 9 6/10 kV Screen N2XSEY Page 9 12/20 kV Steel armor 2XSEYFY Page 10 6/10 kV 12/20 kV 18/30 kV Single.

pp.6/1 kV 2. industrial plants and substations.2 kV) acc. Also for power stations.and Low-Voltage Cables up to 45 kV Multi-Core PROTODUR Power Cables NYY U0/U = 0. s PVC insulation and s PVC sheath.6/1 kV ( Um = 1. in ducts and outdoors. Usually laid indoors. 226. HD 603. May also be laid in the ground where damage (e. from pickaxes) is unlikely. g. Leaflets: Order No. 232. 160 °C (for short-circuit durations up to 5 s) Publications: 1. 227 Fig. Current-Carrying capacity acc. pp.Medium. Cable book: Power Cables and their Application. 12 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 5/7 . 70 °C Permissible short-circuit temp. s PVC insulation. to DIN VDE 0276-603. to DIN VDE 0276-603. E50001-U511-A28-X-7600 PROTODUR cables. 160 °C (for short-circuit durations up to 5 s) Publications: 1. 70 °C Permissible short-circuit temp. based on IEC 287 Permissible operating temp. 233 Fig. to DIN VDE 0276-603. E50001-U511-A58-X-7600 Four-core PROTODUR cables.2 kV) acc.6/1 kV Application Mainly for power stations. industrial plants and substations. 0. s concentric copper conductor laid in waveform and s PVC sheath. Part 2. HD 603. Leaflets: Order No. Cable book: Power Cables and their Application. 0. Current-Carrying Capacity acc.6/1 kV (U m = 1.6/1 kV Application Mainly for distribution systems. to DIN VDE 0276-603. type NYY for 0. IEC 502 Design Power cables with s copper conductor.6/1 kV 2. IEC 502 Design Power cables with s copper conductor. based on IEC 287 Permissible operating temp. 11 Multi-Core PROTODUR Power Cables with concentric waveform conductor NYCWY U 0/U = 0. Part 2. type NYCY/NYCWY for 0. HD 603.

14 5/8 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .6/1 kV ( Um = 1. s round wire armoring and s PVC sheath.and Low-Voltage Cables up to 45 kV Multi-Core PROTOTHEN X Power Cables with flat steel wire armor 2XFY U 0/U = 0. with s flat steel-wire armor and s PVC sheath. 13 Multi-Core PROTODUR Control Cables with round steel wire armor YKYRY U 0/U = 0. s PVC insulation. are to be expected. s XLPE insulation. 0. solvents.Medium.6/1 kV ( Um = 1. 0. refineries and other installations where the effects of oil. 90 °C Permissible short-circuit temp. Current-Carrying Capacity on request Permissible operating temp. The lead sheath protects the installation from such effects. etc. 70 °C Permissible short-circuit temp.2 kV) acc. to IEC 502 Design Power cable with s copper conductor.6/1 kV Application For filling stations.6/1 kV Application For very severe operating. to IEC 502 Design Control cable with s copper conductor. 250 °C (for short circuit durations up to 5 s) Fig. laying and installation conditions.2 kV) acc. Current-Carrying Capacity on request Permissible operating temp. The armor withstands tensile stresses such as those occurring on step gradients and in mining subsidence areas. with s lead sheath. Suitable as river and submarine cables. 160 °C (for short-circuit durations up to 5 s) Fig.

70 °C Permissible short-circuit temp. based on IEC 287 Permissible operating temp. s PVC insulation. HD 620. to DIN VDE 0271. 90 °C Permissible short-circuit temp. E50001-U511-A50-X-7600 3-core PROTODUR cables. 160 °C (for short-circuit durations up to 5 s) Publications: 1. IEC 502 Design Power cable with s copper conductor. 248.and Low-Voltage Cables up to 45 kV 3-Core PROTODUR Cables with flat steel wire armor NYFGY U 0/U = 3. type NYFGY for 3. IEC 502 Design Power cables with s copper conductor.Medium. s extruded firmly bonded semiconductive layers under and over the XLPE insulation. 15 3-Core PROTOTHEN X Cables with copper wire screen on each core N2XSEY 6/10 kV Application Mainly in power stations.6/6 kV ( Um = 7. to DIN VDE 0276-620. 249 Fig. in ducts and indoors. E50001-U511-A1-X-7600 3-core PROTOTHEN X cables. Part 2. industrial plants and substation stations. HD 620. 3. to DIN VDE 0276-620. Leaflets: Order No. Current-Carrying Capacity on request Permissible operating temp.6/6 kV Application Mainly in power stations. suitable as river and submarine cables. in ducts and indoors. with s individually screened cores and s PVC sheath. industrial plants and substations and in distribution systems where high thermal stresses occur. For laying outdoors.2 kV) acc. 16 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 5/9 . pp. Current-Carrying Capacity U 0/U = 6/10 kV (U m = 12 kV) acc. acc. Leaflets: Order No. Cable book: Power Cables and their Application. s flat steel-wire armor and s PVC sheath.6/6 kV 2. type N2XSEY for 6/10 kV Fig. For laying outdoors. resistant to tensile stress. 250 °C (for short-circuit durations up to 5 s) Publications: 1.

Current-Carrying Capacity on request Permissible operating temp. 250 °C (for short-circuit durations up to 5 s) Publications: 1. Leaflets: Order No. E50001-U511-A2-X-7600 1-Core PROTOTHEN X Cables 6/10 kV Order No. E50001-U511-A48-X-7600 1-Core PROTOTHEN X Cables 12/20 kV Order No. 18 5/10 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . 258–265 Fig. HD 620. with s individually screened cores. to IEC 502 Design 12/20 kV Application Mainly in industrial plants. 90 °C Permissible short-circuit temp. 250 °C (for short-circuit durations up to 5 s) Publications: 1. 17 Single-Core PROTOTHEN X Cables with copper wire screen N2XSY U 0/U = 6/10 kV (U m = 12 kV) U 0/U = 12/20 kV (U m = 24 kV) U 0/U = 18/30 kV (U m = 36 kV) acc. Cable book: Power Cables and their Application. s extruded firmly bonded semiconductive layers under and over the XLPE insulation. Current-Carrying Capacity acc. where high thermal and mechanical stresses occur. Part 2. type 2XSEYFY for 12/20 kV Power cable with s copper conductor. to DIN VDE 0276-620. Note: This type is available on request for the full range af cable types incorporating aluminum conductors. based on IEC 287 Permissible operating temp. screens of copper tapes. industrial plants and substations. IEC 502 Design Power cable with s copper conductor. HD 620. 90 °C Permissible short-circuit temp. PVC separation sheath with s flat steel wire armor and s PVC sheath.and Low-Voltage Cables up to 45 kV 3-Core PROTOTHEN X Cables with copper wire screen and flat steel wire armoring 2XSEYFY U 0/ U = 12/20 kV (Um = 24 kV) acc. power stations and public distribution systems. pp. in ducts and indoors. to DIN VDE 0276-620. outer sheath of PE or any combination of these. s extruded firmly bonded semiconductive layers under and over the XLPE insulation. For laying outdoors. Fig. Leaflets: Order No. s copper wire screen and s PVC sheath. Application Mainly in power stations.Medium. I115/111I8-101-02 1-Core PROTOTHEN X Cables 18/30 kV 2. armor of galvanized round steel wires or steel tapes. E50001-U511-A43-X-7600 3-core PROTOTHEN X cables with wire screen and galvanized flat steel-wire armor.

90 °C Permissible short-circuit temp.6/1 kV 2. Part 804. Leaflets: Order No. HD 620. The application of these cables should be regarded as a measure for preventive fire protection in: s Hospitals s Hotels s Underground and local rapid transit rail systems s Schools SIENOPYR cables are intended for installation indoors and outdoors. Current-Carrying Capacity on request Permissible operating temp. for laying in the ground. to DIN VDE 0266 Part 2 (HD 604.and Low-Voltage Cables up to 45 kV Single-Core PROTOTHEN X Cables with copper wire screen N2XS2Y U 0/U = 6/10 kV (U m = 12 kV) U 0/U = 12/20 kV (U m = 24 kV) U 0/U = 18/30 kV (U m = 36 kV) acc. A19100-I11-A42-V1-7600 1-Core PROTOTHEN X Cables 18/30 kV 2. 250 °C (for short-circuit durations up to 5 s) Publications: 1. 19 SIENOPYR Power Cables Halogen-Free Cables with Improved Characteristics in Case of Fire N2XH U0/U = 0. E50001-U511-A56 SIENOPYR Cables N2XH for 0. Part 2.5G) Design Power cables with s copper conductor. Test method B Current-Carrying Capacity To DIN VDE 0276-620. with s copper wire screen and s PE sheath. 271–277 Fig. based on IEC 287 Permissible operating temp. Application Mainly for industrial and distribution systems. Application SIENOPYR cables with improved characteristics in the case of fire are mainly used in buildings and installations with increased safety risks and high concentration of people or valuable contents. 258–265 Fig. When these cables are laid indoors or in ducts. s inner covering and s EVA sheath. s XLPE insulation. it must be noted that polyethylene-sheathed cables are not flame-retardant according to DIN VDE 0472. E50001-U511-A65-X-7600 1-Core PROTOTHEN X Cables 6/10 kV Order No. A19100-I11-A41-X-7600 1-Core PROTOTHEN X Cables 12/20 kV Order No. pp. to DIN VDE 0276-620. Leaflets: Order No. 250 °C (for short-circuit durations up to 5 s) Publications: 1. pp. 20 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 5/11 .Medium.2 kV) acc. 90 °C Permissible short-circuit temp. Part 2. HD 620. Cable book: Power Cables and their Application. s extruded firmly bonded semiconductive layers under and over the XLPE insulation. IEC 502 Design Power cables with s copper conductor. Cable book: Power Cables and their Application.6/1 kV (U m = 1.

2 kV) acc. Cable book: Power Cables and their Application. Leaflets: Order No. inductive effects are to be taken into account. 247 Fig. 21b 5/12 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . pp. based on IEC 287 Permissible operating temp. as ringing out is not necessary. 246. HD 627. to DIN VDE 0276-627. s PVC insulation (numbered cores). When long runs are laid in the ground. 160 °C (for short-circuit durations up to 5 s) Publications: Fig. to DIN VDE 0276-627. HD 627. The printed numbers on the cores simplify identification and speed up installation. Application Transmission of control pulses. etc. type NYY for 0. HD 627. Part 2. IEC 502 Design Control cable with s copper conductor.and Low-Voltage Cables up to 45 kV Multi-Core PROTODUR Control Cables NYY U0/U = 0. etc.6/1 kV Control cable with s copper conductor. IEC 502 Design 0. s PVC insulation (numbered cores) and s PVC sheath. 21a NYCY U0/U = 0.6/1 kV (U m = 1. to DIN VDE 0276-627. E50001-U511-A63-X-7600 PROTODUR control cables.6/1 kV (U m = 1. Current-Carrying Capacity acc. in ducts in the ground and outdoors. 1.2 kV) acc. measured values.6/1 kV 2. 70 °C Permissible short-circuit temp.Medium.. s concentric copper conductor and s PVC sheath. in power stations. installation indoors. industrial plants.

. 23 Fig. 28 Fig. connect lengths of cable in long transmission routes as straight joints for connection and branch joints for connecting service cable and must fulfill the following functions: s Connection of the conductors s Insulation of the conductors and.. GNKI PV GHKI/GHKF 7.g.. s Protection of core insulation (e. suitable accessories can be supplied for each cable and each application. 27 Fig. s Controlled reduction of the electric field strength on medium-voltage cable. form the termination points of cable and serve as a connection to electric apparatus or machines or switchgear. on the application of suitable accessories and the careful installation of accessories. 27 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. . 22: Overview of Acessories for Low. 26 Fig. . will be removed in an approved manner with a suitable stripping tool.. 23 Fig. 25 Fig. Due to our extensive manufacturing program.6/1 kV NYY NYCWY 2XFY Branch joint Voltage-proof end joint Straight joint Termination PA. 35 Fig. the following objectives must be met: s Connection of the conductors. s Medium voltage > 1.2 kV..and Medium-Voltage Cables The service reliability of a cable installation depends. GNKV PV SKSA. 29 Fig.. General Voltage classes: s Low voltage up to 1. Cable joints . against UV radiation).6/1 kV NYY NYGY YKYRY Straight joint Fig.Accessories for Low. .. 34 Fig.and Medium-Voltage Cable Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 5/13 . 28 Fig. Multi-core 0. 30 Fig... re-establishment of the elements of the cable s Protection against all ambient conditions of the ground s Establishment of branch points for service cables in low-voltage networks Terminations . SKSM-C.6/6 kV NYFGY 6/10 kV N2XSEY 12/20 kV 2XSEYFY Straight joint Termination Straight joint Termination Power cable Single-core 6/10 kV 12/20 kV 18/30 kV N2XSY N2XS2Y Straight joint Termination Boots Control cables Multi-core 0. 27 Page 5/14 Page 5/14 Page 5/14 Page 5/15 Page 5/16 Page 5/15 Page 5/16 Page 5/16 Page 5/17 Page 5/16 Page 5/18 Page 5/17 Page 5/17 Page 5/18 Page 5/19 Page 5/19 Page 5/20 Page 5/20 Page 5/15 Page 5/16 3-core 3. s Insulation from grounding parts. 36 Fig. 25 Fig. Outer conductive layer . Other kinds of compression crimping are possible. among other things.2 kV up to 36 kV Conductor Connection: Hexagonal compression crimping is recommended. SKSE. 29 Fig..2 WP 10/20/30 GHKI/GHKF 12/24 IAES WP 10/20/30 WPS 10/20/30 GHSV 12/24/36 GHKI/GHKF 12/24/36 IAES 10/20/30 FAE 10/20 FHKG/FHKW SKSM-ST PV Fig. especially in medium-voltage cables.. PAK GNKA2 SKEM SKSM.. 24 Fig. Depending on the system rated voltage and the cable construction. 31 Fig. s Sealing of the cable against ambient influences.

s PA joint: using single clamps.6/1 kV Design s PROTOLIN cast-resin-filled plastic mold. Design GNKA 2 consists of sealant mats placed around the compact locking collar. ducts and in air. Installation With gas torch or hot air blower. Cores connected by compact locking collar without removing the insulation.6/1 kV Design Heatshrinkable cross-linked polyolefin end caps inside coated with a hot melt adhesive. Application s To sealing cables ends. Application In ground. Fig.and Medium-Voltage Cables Branch Joint for multi-core cable PA/PAK + GNKA 2 0. Installation Without special tools. Application In ground. s PAK joint: Cores connected by compact locking collar without removing the insulation. 23 Voltage-Proof End Joint for multi-core cable SKEM 0. Fig. Installation With gas torch or hot air blower.Accessories for Low. A fiberreinforced sleeve with coating of sealant is used as outer protection. where the cable is connected to voltage. 24 5/14 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . ducts and in air. ducts and in air. s In ground.

6/1 kV Design Heatshrinkable cross-linked polyolefin tubes coated with a special hot melt adhesive on the inside. Fig. Application s In ground. 25 Termination for multi-core cable SKSA. s SKSM for multi-core power cables. ducts and in air. SKSE. 26 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 5/15 . In case of metal shielded cables. s SKSE and GNKI: additional with heat- shrinkable tubes for protection and sealing the cable cores. Application Outdoor and indoor. Fig. s SKSM-ST for control cables. the connection material are included in the kit.and Medium-Voltage Cables Straight Joint for multi-core cable SKSM/SKSM-C/SKSM-ST/GNKV 0. GNKI 0.Accessories for Low. s SKSM-C for power cables with concentric neutral. Installation With gas torch or hot air blower. The number of inner tubes depends on the number of cable cores. Installation With gas torch or hot air blower.6/1 kV Design s SKSA: breakout consist of heat shrink- able cross-linked polyolefin hot melt coated and serves to protect the cable spreader area against moisture.

The size of joint depends on the number of cable cores. Fig. coated with sealing adhesive. Application All areas.and Medium-Voltage Cables Straight Joint for 3-core and multi-core cable PV 0. cross-linked polyolefin tubes and breakout.2/12/24 3. 28 5/16 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . track-resistant.6/6 up to 18/30 kV Design Heatshrinkable. Installation With gas torch or hot air blower.6/1 up to 3. 27 Termination for 3-core polymeric cable GHKI/GHKF 7. Application GHKI-Indoor and GHKF-Outdoor terminations can be used in all applications.Accessories for Low. Fig.6/6 kV Design PROTOLIN cast-resin-filled plastic.

Fig. Installation Without special tools. 29 Straight Joint for 1-core polymeric cable WPS 10/20/30 10/12 up to 18/30 kV Design Shielded joint wrapping which is mechanically protected by a thick-walled heatshrinkable tube. 30 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 5/17 . ducts and in air.and Medium-Voltage Cables Straight Joint for 1.Accessories for Low. Fig. Application In ground. Application In ground.and 3-core polymeric cable WP 10/20/30 10/12 – 18/30 kV Design Shielded joint wrapping which is mechanically protected by a plastic tube filled with PROTOLIN cast resin. ducts and in air.

Application In ground. ducts and in air. Fig. 32 5/18 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . silicon rubber insulator with an integrated control deflector for controlling the electrical field.and Medium-Voltage Cables Straight Joint for 1.and 3-core polymeric cable GHSV 12/24/36 10/12 – 18/30 kV Design Heatshrinkable insulation tubes combined with stress control components and sealing tapes or coatings protected by a thickwalled heatshrinkable tube. Fig.Accessories for Low. 31 Termination IAES 10 Design Track-resistant. Application IAES indoor terminations can be used in switchgear and transformer stations. Installation Without special tools.

GHKF-Outdoor used in switchgear and transformer stations. Fig. coated with sealing adhesive.and Medium-Voltage Cables Terminations GHKI/GHKF 12/24/36 Design Heatshrinkable. cross-linked polyolefin tubes and breakout. track-resistant.Accessories for Low. 34 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 5/19 . Application IAES indoor terminations can be used in switchgear and transformer boxes. Fig. Installation Gas torch or hot air blower. Application GHKI-Indoor. Installation Without special tools. silicon rubber insulator with an integrated control deflector for controlling the electrical field. 33 Termination IAES 10/20/30 Design Track-resistant.

FHKW Design Heatshrinkable. 35 Seperable connectors FHKG. silicon rubber insulator with an integrated control deflector for controlling the electrical field. Application FAE outdoor terminations can be used in switchgear and transformer stations.and Medium-Voltage Cables Termination FAE 10/20 Design Track-resistant. All the accessories are listed in the RXS catalog Order No. Installation Without special tools.23 31. 36 5/20 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .35 7118 Fig.Accessories for Low. track-resistant. insulation molded parts sealed with track-resistant adhesive.: A 45050-W2165-D7-X-7600 For further information please contact: Fax: ++49 . Application The boots can protect the connection bushings into transformer and motor connection boxes. Fig.

38 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 5/21 . 37 Single-core XLPE-insulated cable with lead sheath 2XK2Y 160/275 kV (Um = 300 kV) based on IEC 840 160/275 kV Design Cable with Conductor Conductor screen XLPE insulation Insulation screen Semiconductive nonwoven swelling tape s Lead sheath s Compound s PE sheath s s s s s Current-Carrying Capacity on request Permissible operating temp.and Extra-High-Voltages Fig. E50001-U511-A5-X-7600 Cables and Accessories for High.High-Voltage Cables up to 290/500 kV Single-core XLPE-insulated cable with laminated sheath 2XS(FL)2Y 64/110 kV (U m = 123 kV) according to IEC 840 64/110 kV Design Cable with s Conductor s Conductor screen s XLPE insulation s Insulation screen s Semiconductive nonwoven swelling tape s Screen of copper wires s Copper contact helix s PE-coated Al tape and PE sheath (laminated sheath) Current-Carrying Capacity on request Permissible operating temp. 90 °C Permissible short-circuit temp. Leaflets: Order No. E50001-U511-A5-X-7600 Cables and Accessories for High. 250 °C (for short-circuit durations up to 5 s) Publications: 1. Leaflets: Order No. 250 °C (for short-circuit durations up to 5 s) Publications: 1. 90 °C Permissible short-circuit temp.and Extra-High-Voltages Fig.

High-Voltage Cables up to 290/500 kV Single-core XLPE-insulated cable 290/500kV with Milliken conductor and corrugated aluminum sheath 2XKLDE2Y 290/500 kV (U m = 525 kV) based on IEC 840 Design Cable with s Milliken conductor s Conductor screen s XLPE insulation s Insulation screen s Semiconductive bedding layer s Fabric tape with interwoven copper wires s Corrugated aluminum sheath s Plastic tape in compound and PE sheath Current-Carrying Capacity on request Permissible operating temp. Leaflets: Order No.and Extra-High-Voltages Fig. 85 °C Permissible short-circuit temp. 90 °C Permissible short-circuit temp. 250 °C (for short circuit durations up to 5 s) Publications: 1. E50001-U511-A5-X-7600 Cables and Accessories for High. 160 °C (for short circuit durations up to 5 s) Publications: 1.and Extra-High-Voltages Fig. 40 5/22 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . 39 Single-core low pressure oil filled cable with corrugated aluminum sheath NÖKLDE2Y 290/500 kV (Um = 525 kV) according to IEC 141 290/500 kV Design Cable with s Hollow conductor s Carbon black paper s Paper insulation s Carbon black paper and metallized black paper s Fabric tape with interwoven copper wires s Corrugated aluminum sheath s Plastic tape in compound and PE sheath Current-Carrying Capacity on request Permissible operating temp. Leaflets: Order No. E50001-U511-A5-X-7600 Cables and Accessories for High.

41 Fig.Accessories for High-Voltage Cables up to 290/500 kV Typical design of outdoor-type sealing end Typical design of transformer-type sealing end Connector stalk Corona shield Connecting tube Corona shield Porcelain insulator Arcing horn Filling compound Filling compound Slip-on stress cone Insulator Slip-on stress cone Outlet screw or valve connection Aluminumbaseplate Insulating ring Copper entrance bell Support base Copper entrance bell Outlet screw or valve connection Mechanical protection Mechanical protection Fig. 42 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 5/23 .

43 Insulation Deflector Typical design of GIS-type sealing end Connection interface according to IEC 859 All the accessories are listed in the RXS catalog Order No.35 71 18 Cast-resin insulator Filling compound Slip-on stress cone Copper entrance bell Outlet screw or valve connection Mechanical protection Fig.Accessories for High-Voltage Cables up to 290/500 kV Single-core sectionalized joint Coaxial cable for cross-bonding Conductor shield Housing Deflector Fig.: A 45050-W2165-D7-X-7600 For further information please contact: Fax: ++49 .23 31. 44 5/24 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .

which means that previously costly maintenance can be reduced considerably. 2a: Protection and control in HV GIS switchgear Fig. Meters are separate products of our Energy Metering Division. Fig. 3: For the user. and are therefore also suitable for direct installation in switchgear cells. control and protection functions for substations*. coordinated interfaces and universally identical EMC by means of PC tools with uniform operator interface by means of type-tested system technology.Protection and Substation Control General overview Three trends have emerged in the sphere of substation secondary equipment: intelligent electronic devices (IEDs). One design for all applications In this respect.000 devices in operation (1996) – 10 years of practical LSA678 experience. All devices are highly compact and immune to interference. Siemens offers a uniform. by means of SCADA-like operation control and high-performance. Numerical relays and cumputerized substation control are now state-of-the-art. 50. our activities cover: Consulting Planning Design Commissioning and Service This uniform technology ”all from one source“ saves the user time and money in the planning. uniformly operable PC tools by means of integrationof many functions into one unit and compact equipment design by means of uniform design. both in the construction and connection of the devices and in their operation and communication. measurement and automation functions of a substation. complete self-monitoring and the use of poven technology – 20 years of practical experience with digital protection. all devices and systems are largely self-monitoring. This results in uniformity of design. “Complete technology from one partner“ The Substation Secondary Equipment Division of the Siemens Power Transmission and Distribution Group supplies devices and systems for: s s s s Substation Fig. in substation control and protection or in telecontrol. universal technology for the entire functional scope of secondary equipment. The multitude of conventional. Furthermore. in measurement and recording systems. 2b: Protection and control in bay dedicated kiosks of an EHV-switchyard Rationalisation of operation Power System Protection Substation Control Remote Control (RTUs) Measurement and Recording This covers all of the measurement. 1: The digital substation control system SINAUT LSA implements all of the control. “complete technology from one source” has many advantages 6/2 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . whether in power system and generator protection. individual devices prevalent in the past as well as comprehensive parallel wiring are being replaced by a small number of multifunctional devices with serial connections. 400 substations in operation (1996) Savings in terms of space and costs Simple planning and operational reliability Efficient parameterization and operation High levels of reliability and availability s s s s *An exception is revenue-metering. assembly and operation of his substations. coordinated interfaces and the same operating concept being established throughout. Furthermore. Protection relays are connected serially Fig. open communication and operation with a PC.

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/3 . Uniform design and electromagnetic-interferencefree construction in metal housings with conventional connection terminals in accordance with public utility requirements guarantee simple system design and usage just as with conventional relays. centralized version SINAUT LSA Local and remote control. IEC 870-5-103 compliant allow free communication with higher level control systems. The integration of additional protection and other functions. type and design test facilities are available together with an extensive and comprehensive network model using the most modern simulation and evaluation techniques. For complex applications. including those from other manufacturers. Open serial interfaces. numerical relays for all applications in the field of network and machine protection. plaintext. Numerical measurement techniques ensure precise operation and necessitate less maintenance thanks to their continuous self-monitoring capability. 4: Siemens Protection and Substation Control comprises these systems and product ranges System Protection Siemens offers a complete spectrum of multifunctional. menu-guided operator display or by using the comfortable PC program DIGSI for Windows*. all in one unit economizes on space. Setting and programming of the devices can be through the integral. event and fault recording. design and wiring costs. Siemens supplies individual devices as well as complete protection systems in factory finished cubicles. for example.Protection and Substation Control Protection and substation control Local and remote control SINAUT LSA/SINAUT RTU Protection 7**5 Measurement and recording SINAUT LSA Local and remote control. decentralized version Feeder protection overcurrent/overload relays 7SJ5 Fault recorders (Oscillostores) P5** 6MB551 6MB51/52 Line protection distance relays SIMEAS Measuring transducers Remote terminal units Central units 7SA5 7KG60 6MB51* Line protection Unit protection (PW and OF) SINAUT LSA Compact unit Bay units 7SD5 6MB52* Transformer protection 6MB552 Minicompact unit 6MB553 Switchgear interlocking 8TK 7UT5 SINAUT RTU 6MD2010 Generator/motor protection 7UM5 Busbar protection 7SS5 and 7VH8 Fig. in the field of extrahigh-voltage transmission. such as real-time operational measurements. * Windows is a registered product of Microsoft Thus the on-line measurements and fault data registered in the protective relays can be used for local and remote control or can be transmitted via telephone modem connections to the workplace of the service engineer.

they provide comprehensive data preprocessing. Using the facility of nodal functions. Digital protection devices can be connected by serial links through fiber-optic conductors. Advantages for the user The concept of ”Complete technology from one partner“ offers the user many advantages: s High-level security for his systems and operational rationalization possibilities – through powerful system solutions with the most modern technology s Space and cost savings – through integration of many functions into one unit and compact equipment packaging s Simple planning and secure operation – through unified design. 6/4 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . Alternatively. we have the SIMEAS series of compact and powerful measurement transducers with analog and digital outputs. it is also possible to build regional control points so that several substations can be controlled from one location. Stored data can be transmitted manually or automatically to PC evaluation systems where it can be analysed by intelligent programs. even when the substation control system is not available. the unique PC program LSA-TOOLS is available. with a level of comfort which was previously only available in a network control center. Devices are extremely compact and can be built directly into medium.and high-voltage switchgear. They operate with distributed intelligence. set and program the system. It prevents false switching and provides an additional local bay control function which allows failsafe switching. Switchgear interlocking The digital interlocking system 8TK is used for important substations in particular with multiple busbar arrangements. LSA systems are subjected to full factory tests and are delivered in fully functional condition. measurement and automation functions (e.Protection and Substation Control Substation control The digital substation control systems 6MB51/52 (decentralized version) and 6MB551 (centralized version) provide all control. Optional telecontrol functions can be added to allow coupling of the system to one or more network control centers. automation functions and bulk storage of operational and fault information. thus ensuring error-free and consistent data transfer. data logging printers and measurement transducers. distortion factor.). For local bulk data storage and transmission. peak loads. Therefore the safety of operating personnel and equipment is considerabely enhanced. In addition. Measurement and recording This segment of our business division offers equipment for the superversion of power supply quality (harmonic content. WAN) is equally possible. Connection to local. Parameters and values are input at the central unit and downloaded to the field devices. To complete the spectrum. This leads to rapid fault analysis and valuable indicators for the improvement of network reliability. Data transmission circuits for analog telephone or digital ISDN networks are incorporated as standard. with SCADA comparable functions. Remote control Siemens remote control equipment 6MB55* and 6MD2010 fulfills all the classic functions of remote measurement and control. the functions ”operating and monitoring“ can be provided by the connection of a PC. or as back-up system together with the digital 6MB substation control. especially for new installations. To input data. thus raising the telecontrol unit to the level of a central station control system. power factor. digital technology saves enormously on space and wiring. the central processor DAKON can be installed at substation level. In the classic case. that is.g. direct connection is also possible. because of the powerful microprocessors with 32-bit technology. This method allows an economically favorable solution when modernizing or renewing the secondary systems in older installations. matched interfaces and EMI security throughout s Rationalized programming and handling – through menu-guided PC Tools and unified keypads and displays s High-level operational security and availability – through continuous self-monitoring and proven technology: – 20 years digital relay experience (approximately 50.000 units in operation) – 10 years of SINAUT LSA substation control (400 systems in operation) s Rapid problem solving – through comprehensive advice and fast response from local sales and workshop facilities worldwide. connections to the switchgear are made through coupling relays and transducers. etc. transformer tap changing) required by a switching station. Furthermore. Communication between feeder-located devices and central unit is made via interferencefree fiber optic connections. fault recorders (Oscillostore).or wide-area networks (LAN. The operator interface is menu-guided. In contrast to conventional controls. The 8TK system can be used as a standalone interlocked control. Expert systems are also applied here.

class III – 10 V/m. amplitude-modulated. That means that the cross section of the screen should be at least 4 mm 2 for a single cable and 2. immunity (type tests) s Standards: Fig. 5 kHz. class III – 10 V. however. 1. IEC 255-22-3 (report) class III – 10 V/m. both polarities. class III – 2 kV. When used in conjunction with switchgear for 100 kV or above. class 1 – 10 Hz to 60 Hz: ± 0. repetition rate 300 ms. pulse-modulated. recommended in this guide. 0. γ = 15 µs. It must.2/50 µs. on 30 days per year 95% relative humidity.5 mm amplitude. special emphasis was placed on EMI. class III 5 kV (peak). All products carry the CE mark. ENV 50140. Detailed information is contained in the device manuals. nonmodulated. class III – 10 V/m. 27 MHz to 500 MHz Radio-frequency electromagnetic field. 5/50 ns. 1kHz. class IV – 30 A/m continuous. are fitted with suitable spike quenching elements (e. amplitude-modulated ENV 50141. Ri = 50 Ohm. 80%.Protection and Substation Control Application hints All named devices and systems for protection. metering and control are designed to be used in the harsh environment of electrical substations. 80%. Ri = 330 Ohm Radio-frequency electromagnetic field. 3 positive and 3 negative shots at intervals of 5 s s IEC 255-22 (product standard) EN 50082-2 (generic standard) High frequency IEC 255-22-1 class III – 2. burst length 15 ms. class 2 – 5 Hz to 8 Hz: ± 7. or in the same cubicle. both polarities.5 mm2 for multiple cables in one cable duct. When the devices were developed. 150 kHz to 80 MHz. Condensation not permissible! We recommend that units be installed such that they are not subjected to direct sunlight.5 g acceleration sweep rate 10 octaves/min 20 cycles in 3 orthogonal axes Vibration and shock during transport s Standards: s s IEC 255-21and IEC 68-2 s Vibration s service –5 °C to +55 °C permissible temperature during storage –25 °C to +55 °C permissible temperature during transport –25 °C to +70 °C Storage and transport with standard works packaging! s Permissible humidity Mean value per year ≤ 75% relative humidity.5 kV (peak). power plants and the various industrial application areas. all external connection cables should be fitted with a screen grounded at both ends and capable of carrying currents. 150 pF. duration 1 min Conducted disturbances induced by radio-frequency fields HF. EMC tests. 5: Installation of the numerical protection in the door of the low-voltage section of medium-voltage cells s Mechanical stress Vibration and shock during operation s Standards: s IEC 255-21 and IEC 68-2 s Vibration – sinusoidal IEC 255-21-1. duration 2 s Electrostatic discharge IEC 255-22-2 class III and EN 61000-4-2 class III – 4 kV contact discharge. IEC 68-2-6 – 60 Hz to 150 Hz: 0. free-wheeling diodes). 80 MHz to 1000 MHz. comply with the EMC Directive 99/336/EEC of the Council of the European Community and further relevant IEC 255 standards on electromagnetic compatibility. duty cycle 50% Fast transients IEC 255-22-4 and EN 61000-4-4. 1 kHz. repetition frequency 200 Hz. 1 MHz. 900 MHz. AM Radio-frequency electromagnetic field. class 1 IEC 68 -2-27 Insulation tests s Standards: s s IEC 255-5 – High-voltage test (routine test) 2 kV (rms).5 J. ENV 50140/ENV 50204.035 mm amplitude. AM Power-frequency magnetic field EN 61000-4-8. even when the device is mounted directly in a low-voltage compartment of a medium-voltage cubicle.g. 300 A/m for 3 s. 400 shots/s. Reliable operation of the devices is not affected by the usual interference from the switchgear. The devices are in accordance with IEC255 standards. nor to large temperature fluctuations which may give rise to condensation. 50 Hz Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/5 . be ensured that the coils of auxiliary relays located on the same panel. 50 Hz – Impulse voltage test (type test) all circuits. 8 kV air discharge. All equipment proposed in this guide is built-up either in closed housings (type 7XP20) or cubicles with protection degree IP51 according to IEC 529: s Protected against access to dangerous parts with a wire s Sealed against dust s Protected against dripping water Climatic conditions: s Permissible temperature during Electromagnetic compatibility EC Conformity declaration (CE mark): All Siemens protection and control products. – sinusoidal IEC 255-21-1. IEC 68-2-6 – 8 Hz to 150 Hz: 2 g acceleration sweep rate 1 octave/min 20 cycles in 3 orthogonal axes s Shock IEC 255 -21-2.

EN 50081-2 (generic standard) s Interference field strength CISPR 11. 25 VA.t. by its secondary terminal voltage at 20 times nominal current. we get INsec2 Vs. accuracy-limiting factor KALF can be determined by calculation.t. The c. burden. to reduce the burden of the connecting leads. component in the short-circuit current. C400 and C800 for 5 A nominal secondary current. saturation to a large extent.3 Ri = 4 Ohm Fig.t. This terminal voltage can be approximately calculated from the IEC data as follows: RBC + Ri KALF > RBN + Ri K*ALF Vs. C. Typical values are 5. max = 20 x 5 A x RBN • with: KALF 20 KALF : Rated c. i. component not considered). particularly with metal-enclosed switchgear. Protection cores: The size of the protection core depends mainly on the maximum short-circuit current and the total burden (internal c.t.t. 10. definition C. ANSI/IEEE C57.) in single. current KOF = Overdimensioning factor Fig. with output ratings between 10 and 300 VA. dimensioning formulas Example: IEC 185 : 600/5. The required c. In general. (d.t.13 or other comparable standards. Higher values are normally not necessary when only electronic meters and recorders are connected. 15 VA. 5P10. Output power (rated burden in VA). however. dimensions. burden (resistance of the c. IN RBN = PBN and INsec = 5 A .t. in relation to the connected burden. 1 A rating however should be preferred.t. For the normal case.5 M or 1. for which the ratio error shall not exceed 10%. accuracy. The requirements for protective current transformers for transient performance are specified in IEC 44-6.t.c. leads to very high c.3 I2N = Nominal secondary current Example: IEC 185 : 600/1. and an accuracy limiting factor of 5 or 10. plus burden of connecting leads. 7: BS c.c.) and 186 (p. 6. an overdimensioning factor has to be considered to cover the influence of the d. Primary BIL values are selected to match those of the associated switchgear. max = 5 = 100.2 M is normally required.5% or 1. in rated accuracy limiting factors of 10 or 20 dependent on the rated burden of the c.t. The recommended values are based on extensive type tests. class 0.13: Vs. 5P20. max = PBN • KALF 5 Iscc. The recommended calculation procedure for saturationfree design. A typical specification for protection cores for distribution feeders is 5P10.t. The required output power (rated burden) must be higher than the actually connected burden.5 or 1% to suit the particular application.t. This results. the c. accuracy limiting factor RBN : Rated burden resistance RBC : Connected burden Ri : Internal c. The numerical relays. accuracy limiting factor K*ALF : Effective c. is defined by the kneepoint voltage UKN and the internal secondary resistance Ri.t.t. the necessary value for K*ALF can be taken from the table in Fig. definition 6/6 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .t. are particularly stable in this case due to their integral saturation detection function. design according to BS 3938 In this case the c.t. 8: ANSI c. Current transformers Current transformers (c. design according to ANSI/IEEE C 57. Further. secondary winding) with: K*ALF > KOF Iscc. Ri = 4 Ohm (15 + 4) • 1 • 10 = 146 V BS : UKN = 1.t. plus relay burden). The Siemens relays are therefore designed to tolerate c. proposed in this guide.Protection and Substation Control EMC tests. class B – 150 kHz to 30 MHz Instrument transformers Instrument transformers must comply with the applicable IEC recommendations IEC 185 (c. The accuracy limiting factor KALF should normally be designed so that at least the maximum short-circuit current can be transmitted without saturation.t. as shown in Fig. and accuracies of 0. classification code of IEC is used in the following: Measuring cores They are normally specified with 0.2. 10 VA. 15 VA.13 Class C of this standard defines the c. aux voltage CISPR 22. emission (type tests) s Standard: Cores for revenue metering In this case. EN 55022.). In many practical cases.t. Standard classes are C100. The design values according to IEC 185 can be approximately transferred into the BS standard definition by the following formula: UKN = (RNC + Ri) • I2N • KALF 1. particularly in HV and EHV stations.t. = Maximum short-circuit current IN = Rated primary c.c.t. Single. 0. with short-circuit time constants lower than 100 ms. 6: C.or double-pole design for all primary voltages have single or dual secondary windings of 100.max.t. 15 VA.t. dual or triple secondary windings of 1 or 5 A are standard. 9. EN 55011. The overdimensioning factor KOF depends on the type of relay and the primary d.max. Potential transformers Potential transformers (p.s cannot be designed to avoid saturation under all circumstances because of cost and space reasons.) are usually of the single-ratio type with wound or bartype primaries of adequate thermal rating.t. A typical specification could be: 0.t.5 M 10.t. 110 or 120 V/ 3. 15 VA or 5P20.0% accuracy (class 0. class A – 30 MHz to 1000 MHz s Conducted interference voltage. class C100 Fig.e. as a rule. C200. an accuracy of 1% (class 5 P) is specified.0 M). time constant. and saturation characteristics (accuracy limiting factor) of the cores and secondary windings must meet the particular application. 25 • 20 = ANSI C57.

5 = 1.t.I N](line-end 1) [K*ALF . max. UN . = 30 kA Line differential (fiber-optic) protection 7SD511/12 =4. the stability criterium is fulfilled. IN = 30. 1 A2 1.5 Ohm 1 A2 = 10 Iscc. Mechanical relays. (internal fault) IN [K*ALF .s are normally no more applicable as the ratio adaption for busbar and transformer protection is numerically performed in the relay. Exceptions are the busbar protection 7SS5 (1. (outflowing current for ext. Therefore. UN .3 Ohm 6 RBC = Rl + RRelay = = 0. IN](line-end 2) <4 Line differential (pilot wire) protection 7SD502/503 Numerical busbar protection (low impedance type) 7SS5 =4. 15 VA. however.Protection and Substation Control Relay type o/c protection 7SJ511. max. circuit. In any case. Analog static relays in gereral also have burdens below about 1 VA.0179 Ohm m (copper wires) m A = conductor cross section in mm2 Fig. Iscc. 11 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/7 . 551. IN](Low voltage) 600/1 5 P 10.t.8 Ohm Rl = l 2 ρ l Ohm A KALF > 1. have a much higher burden. to the relay has to be considered: = Relay burden The c. to the relay in m. Iscc. (line-end fault) IN RRelay = Fig. Ri = 4 Ohm l = 50 m 7SS5 A = 6 mm2 I scc.6 = single conductor length from the c.3 + 1. Intermediate c. 512. 9: Distance protection 7SA511. 10 Result: The rated KALF-factor (10) is higher than the calculated value (7. max. fault) IN 2 According to Fig.0179 50 = 0.max. Iscc.t.5 VA) and the pilot wire relays 7SD502 (4 VA) and 7SD503 (3 VA + 9 VA per 100 Ohm pilot wire resistance).max. Fig. 7SJ60 Transformer differential protection 7UT512/513 Minimum K*ALF Example: Stability-verification of the numerical busbar protection 7SS5 Given case: = IHigh set point IN . max. up to the order of 10 VA. at least 20 =4. 2 0.t.5 VA = 1.t. This has to be considered when older relays are connected to the same c. Specific resistance: 2 ρ = 0.8 + 4 15 + 4 25 = 7. the relevant relay manuals should always be consulted for the actual burden values. IN](High voltage) and 1 < <2 2 [K*ALF .000 = 50 600 I = 1 scc.1 VA and can therefore be neglected for a practical estimation. (close-in fault) IN K*ALF > 1 2 50 = 25 a = 2 for TN ≤ 50 ms a = 4 for TN ≤ 100 ms RBN = 15 VA = 15 Ohm. max. (internal fault) IN [K*ALF and 1 < 4 . (internal fault) IN K* and 4 < ALF (line-end 1) < 5 5 K*ALF (line-end 2) 4 Iscc. 9: Required effective accuracy limiting factor K *ALF Rl Burden of the connection leads The resistance of the current loop from the c. burdens of the numerical relays of Siemens are below 0.6). 7SA513 = a Iscc. max.

12: Numerical relay range of Siemens s Many integrated add-on functions. for example. Today. State of the art Mechanical and solid-state (static) relays have been almost completely phased out of our production because numerical relays are now preferred by the users due to their decisive advantages: s Compact design and lower cost due to integration of many functions into one relay s High availability even with less maintenance due to integral self-monitoring s No drift (aging) of measuring characteristics due to fully numerical processing s High measuring accuracy due to digital filtering and optimized measuring algorithms Fig. for load-monitoring and event/fault recording s Easy and secure read-out of information via serial interfaces with a PC. the first minicomputer (process computer) based protection system was commissioned: A total of 10 systems for 110/20 kV substations were supplied and are still operating satisfactorily today. s Since 1985 we have been the first to manufacture a range of fully numerical relays with standardized communication interfaces. more than 50. all over the world.Power System Protection Introduction Siemens is one of the world’s leading suppliers of protective equipment for power systems. Thousands of our relays ensure first-class performance in transmission and distribution networks of all voltage levels. a second-generation innovative series has been launched.000 numerical protection relays from Siemens are providing successful service. s In 1976. in countries of tropical heat or arctic frost. together with users’ requirements. Meanwhile. Siemens offers a complete program of protective relays for all applications including numerical busbar protection. as standalone devices in traditional systems or as components of coordinated protection and substation control. (power authority reommendations). To date (1996). incorporating the many years of operational experience with thousands of relays. Siemens has also significantly influenced the development of protection technology. locally or remotely s Possibility to communicate with higherlevel control systems 6/8 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . For many years.

”One feeder. A. The additional metering c. one or more additional units have to be provided. additional metering c. e. Load monitor MVA. of a line protection scheme can be incorporated in one unit: s Distance protection with associated All relays can stand fully alone. the protective-current transformer accuracy is sufficient for operational metering.. they could not be connected to the protection c.s and meters are now only necessary where high accuracy is required. Only a few external devices may be required for completion of the total scheme.t.) s Set values s Line load data (kV. Hz. assembly. panel wiring. for example.Power System Protection 21 67N FL 79 25 SM ER FR BM 85 Serial link to station – or personal computer to remote line end kA. Metering included For many applications. only those functions which are interdependent and directly associated with each other are integrated in the same unit. kV. MW.93 Fig. add-on and monitoring functions s Universal teleprotection interface s Autoreclose and synchronism check Protection-related information. testing and commissioning. For back-up protection.t. This has significantly lowered the costs of engineering. Data sharing now allows for the integration of several protection and protection related tasks into one single numerical relay. Fault report Fault record Relay monitor Breaker monitor Supervisory control 21 67N FL 79 25 85 SM ER FR BM Distance protection Directional ground-fault protection Distance-to-fault locator Autoreclosure Synchro-check Carrier interface (teleprotection) Self-monitoring Event recording Fault recording Breaker monitor 01. Due to the low thermal withstand ability of the meters. MVAr. for revenue metering. Free allocation of LED operation indicators and output contacts provides more application design flexibility. increased information availability Modern protection management All the functions. Engineering has moved from schematic diagrams towards a parameter definition procedure.10.g. one relay“ concept Analog protection schemes have been engineered and assembled from individual relays. kVAr) To fulfill vital protection redundancy requirements. The documentation is provided by the relay itself. can be called up on-line or off-line such as: s Distance to fault s Fault currents and voltages s Relay operation data (fault detector pickup. Thus the traditional protection concept of separate main and alternate protection as well as the external connection to the switchyard remain unchanged. 13: Numerical relays.t. operating times etc. MW. Scheme failure probability has also been lowered. Consequently. Interwiring between these relays and scheme testing has been carried out manually in the workshop. was more for protection of meters under system fault conditions. Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/9 .

fiber-optic cables are preferably used. alternation and readout of settings s Testing the functions of the protection Personal computer Recording Assigning Protection Laptop Recording and confirmation Fig. settings may be altered or test routines initiated from a remote control center. Dialog is divided into three main phases: s Input. The relay confirms the settings and thus provides an unquestionable record. all relay settings are prepared in the office with the aid of a PC and stored on a floppy or the hard disk. Substation level Modem (option) Coordinated protection & control ERTU Data concentrator RTU Bay level Relay Control Fig. This allows operator dialog with the protection relay. 15: Communication options 6/10 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . 14: PC-aided setting procedure device and s Readout of relay operation data for the System level to remote control three last system faults and the autoreclose counter. Off-line dialog with numerical relays A simple built-in operator panel which requires no special software knowledge or codeword tables is used for parameter input and readout. especially in outdoor switchyards. the relay memory can be uploaded to a PC and comprehensive fault analysis can then take place in the engineer’s office. This technique has the advantage that it is totally unaffected by electromagnetic interference. For greater distances. First. Vice versa. At site. Answers appear largely in plaintext on the display of the operator panel. stored in the protection units. Modern system protection management A more versatile notebook computer may be used for upgraded protection management. In the opposite direction. the settings can then be transferred from a portable PC into the relay. after a system fault. The relays may be set in 2 steps.Power System Protection On-line remote data exchange A powerful serial data link provides for interrogation of digitized measured values and other information. for printout and further processing at the substation or system control level.

f) for ”ring open“ or ”ring closed“ operation. i. then the number adds up to 10. Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/11 . system 4 flags bay OH-Line Fig. 17).g. This required considerable expenditure in setting the relays and filing retrieval setpoints. 20 setpoints 1 bay Setpoints Relay operations 300 faults p. The normal settings can be restored automatically after a time delay. 17: Alternate parameter groups d) for autoreclose programs.t. b) for maintaining short operation times with lower fault currents.e. and 100 km) 10 000 setpoints 1 system ca.g. a) for use as a voltage-dependent control of o/c relay pick-up values to overcome alternator fault current decrement to below normal load current when the AVR is not in automatic operation.Power System Protection Relay data management Analog-distribution-type relays have some 20–30 setpoints. 16: System-wide setting and relay operation library 1000 1000 1000 1000 1100 1200 1500 2800 3900 Parameter 1100 Line data Parameter D 1100 Line 1200 data O/C Phase settings Parameter C 1100 Line 1200 data O/C Phase settings settings Parameter 1500 O/C Earth A Line data O/C Phase settings 1200 1500 O/C settings 2800 EarthFault Recording O/C Phase settings settings 1500 O/C 2800 EarthFault Recording Fall 3900 Breaker O/C Ground settings 2800 Fault Recording Fall 3900 Breaker Fault 3900 recording Fall Breaker Breaker fail B Fig. c) for “switch-onto-fault” protection to provide shorter time settings when energizing a circuit after maintenance. resulting in a significantly upgraded availability of the protection system. a. Thus the service personnel is now able to correct the failure upon occurrence. One set is normally operative. There are a number of applications for which multiple setting groups can upgrade the scheme performance. Corrective rather than preventive maintenance Numerical relays monitor their own hardware and software. Transfer to the other sets can be controlled via binary inputs or serial data link. Exhaustive self-monitoring and failure diagnostic routines are not restricted to the protective relay inself. automatic change of settings if one supply transformer is taken out of service. convenient and comprehensive matching to changing conditions. a. e. but are methodically carried through from current transformer circuits to tripping relay coils. circuits are immediately reported and the protective relay blocked. Matching may be initiated either by the relay’s own intelligence or from the outside world via contacts or serial telegrams. e) for cold load pick-up problems where high starting currents may cause relay operation. ca. 500 relays 200 setpoints 1 sub 1200 flags p. Equipment failures and faults in the c. 6. e. Adaptive relaying Numerical relays now offer secure. A personal computer-aided man-machine dialog and archiving program assists the relay engineer in data filing and retrieval. instantaneous operation for first trip and delayed operation after unsuccessful reclosure. Modern numerical relays contain a number of parameter sets that can be pretested during commissioning of the scheme (Fig. a.000 settings. If we consider a power system with about 500 relays. The program files all settings systematically in substation-feeder-relay order.000 km OHL (fault rate: 5 p.

Serial interface Input/output ports Binary inputs Current inputs (100 x /N. A flexible application according to the specific requirements of the plant configuration is possible thanks to the extensive marshalling and configuration options. The setting values are accessed via 4-digit addresses. 6/12 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . inputs Input filter V24 O. By marshalling internal logic alarms (which are produced by certain device functions on the software side) to light-emitting diodes or to alarm relays. The numerical protection concept offers a variety of advantages. depending on the different protection principles. the sampling and the analog-to-digital conversion take place. In this way the settings cannot be lost as a result of supply failure. Each parameter can be accessed and altered via the integrated operator panel or an externally connected operator terminal. Setting of protection relays Numerical protection devices are able to handle a number of additional protection related functions.and underfunction With this concept the danger of an undetected error in the device causing protection failure in the case of a network fault is clearly reduced when compared to conventional protection technology.g. F. Cyclical and preventive maintenance services have therefore become largely obsolete. With certain devices (e. A trip command is transferred to the command relay by the processor. problematic conditions s Good long-term stability: Due to the digital mode of operation. utilizing a dual channel control. utilizing the sampled current and voltage analog measured values. configurations and marshalling data are selected by parameter setting. The sampling rate is. an allocation between these can be made (Fig. 18). 18: Block diagram of numerical protection Mode of operation Numerical protection relays operate on the basis of numerical measuring principles.Power System Protection PC interface LSA interface Meas. 19) encompasses the following areas: – Analog inputs – Microprocessor system – Command relays. The analog measured values of current and voltage are decoupled galvanically from the plant secondary circuits via input transducers (Fig. 20). The fault detections determined by this process must be established in several sequential calculations before protection reactions can follow. Protection functions. generator protection) a continuous adjustment of the sampling rate takes place depending on the actual system frequency. especially with regard to higher security. drift phenomena at components due to ageing do not lead to changes in accuracy of measurement or time delays s Security against over. 5 A analog 10 V analog digital Input/output contacts Fig. for which additional devices were required in the past. A compact numerical protection device can replace a number of complicated conventional single devices. All set values are stored in E2PROMS. such as: s High measurement accuracy: The high ultilization of adaptive algorithms produce accurate results even during. The integrated self-monitoring system (Fig. 1 s) Amplifier Alarm relay Command relay Voltage inputs (140 V continuous) A/D converter 0001 0101 0011 Processor system Memory: RAM EEPROM EPROM Input/ output units LED displays 100 V/1 A. Functions can be activated or deactivated by configuration. reliability and user friendliness. between 12 and 20 samples per period. After analog filtering. The same also applies to the input contacts. The protection principle is based on a cyclic calculation algorithm.

The following types of memory are available: s 1 operational event memory Microprocessor system Hardware and software monitoring of the microprocessor system incl. iL1 + iL2 + iL3 = iE uL1 + uL2 + uL3 = uE A D Check of analog-to-digital conversion by comparison with converted reference quantities The display appears on an alphanumeric LCD display with 2 lines with 16 characters per line. The time tag attached to the fault-record events is a relative time from fault detection with a resolution of 1 ms. s 1 earth-fault event memory (optional for isolated or resonant grounded networks) Event record of the sensitive earth fault detector (e. Fault analysis The evaluation of faults is simplified by numerical protection technology. . s 3 fault-event histories Alarms that occurred during the last 3 faults on the network (e.e.g. In the event of a fault in the network.. blocking of the automatic reclose function). A reclose cycle with one or more reclosures is treated as one fault history. alternation of a set value.g. LED No. a new fault entry overrides the oldest fault record. fault location. The integrated operator interface or a PC supported by the programming tool DIGSI is used to retrieve fault reports as well as for the input of settings and marshalling. by watchdog and cyclic memory checks Relay Monitoring of the tripping relays operated via dual channels Tripping check or test reclosure by local or remote operation (not automatic) Fig. i.. all events as well as the analog traces of the measured voltages and currents are recorded. memory. monitoring alarms. battery back-up clock the operational events as well as the fault detection are assigned the internal clock time and date stamp.g. type of fault detection. autoreclose commands). In the case of devices with integrated. LED control as an example Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/13 . 19: Self-monitoring system Logical signal Start L1 Start L2 Start L3 Start E Trip Autoreclosure . The memory for operational events and fault record events is protected against failure of auxiliary supply with battery back-up supply. e. Fig.g. Up to 8 fault recordings are stored. Via binary inputs or via the operator panel a particular set of setting values can be activated (switching of settings groups). . 20: Marshalling matrix. The fault recording memory is organized as a ring buffer. Each new fault in the network overrides the oldest fault history. A code word prevents unintentional changes of setting values. Some relays allow for the storage of 4 different sets of protection settings.Power System Protection Plausibility check of input quantities e. real component of residual current). faulted phase.g. . trip commands. LED 7 LED 6 LED 5 LED 4 LED 3 LED 2 LED 1 Alarms that are not directly assigned to a fault in the network (e. s A memory for the fault recordings for voltage and current.

The LEDs can be selected on an individual basis to provide the indication stored or unstored. This data exchange also meets the standard recommendations for the interface between protection equipment and station control equipment (IEC 870-5-103). Application DIGSI V3 is a WINDOWS PC program. particularly if the protection device is in operation in the substation. depending on what information they represent.Power System Protection A further source of information is the indication via LEDs and alarm relays. 22: Parameterization using DIGSI V3 s s harddisk space Additional hard-disk space per installed protection device 2 to 3 Mbytes One free serial interface to the protection device (COM 1 to COM 4) One floppy disk drive 3.0 or higher WINDOWS version 3. with which numeric protection relays can be conveniently operated under menu guidance using the serial interface of a PC (see Fig.44 Mbytes (required for installation) MS DOS 5. the LED indications are restored following an auxiliary power supply failure. Hardware and software platform s PC 386 SX or above. high density with 1. 21). The PC can thus be directly connected with the protection device via a V24 (RS232) interface cable. DIGSI V3 uses protocol-secured data exchange between PC and protection device. The alarm relays in these devices provide N0-type contacts. with at least Fig. The new DIGSI V3 version operates under WINDOWS and can therefore make use of all advantages of this internationally accepted user interface. Operation of numerical protection devices The DIGSI operation software enables convenient and transparent operation of the numerical protection devices using a PC. In the case of devices with internal battery back-up.5".1 or higher 6/14 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . some of them changeover contacts. 21: Operation of the protection relays using PC and DIGSI V3 software program 4 Mbytes RAM s DIGSI V3 requires about 10 Mbytes s s s Fig. as was the case with traditional relays. The isolated connection version using optoelectrical converter and fiber-optic cable is recommended.

using system. Likewise. Parameterization and routing of a protection device can be done in file mode. In addition to analog values. visualization of binary tracks (e. bay and protection unit addresses. This permits simple access to these data by other programs. trip command. such as test programs without endangering the security of data within the DIGSI program system. etc. All advanced storage media for management and archiving of this data (e. a feeder and a protection device is implemented in DIGSI V3. measured load values of a protection device can be read out on-line and recorded. The selection of a system. by automatic comparison of data stored on a file and in the device. The polling procedure is defined as a standard. DIGSI V3 supports the complete parameterization and marshalling functionality of the numeric Siemens protection relays.g. prevents incorrect allocation of protection units within a system. DIGSI V3 is. 23: Display and evaluation of a fault record using DIGSI V3 Evaluation of the fault recording Readout of the fault record from the protection device by DIGSI V3 is done by fault-proof scanning procedures in accordance with the standard recommendation for transmission of fault records. 23). The data export function supports export of parameterization and marshalling data in standard ASCII format. data interfaces DIGSI V3 is a closed system as far as protection parameter security is concerned. etc. reclose command. also an open system. DIGSI V3 permits the readout of operational and fault events from a protection device which are stored with a 1 millisecond realtime resolution. Printer. which contributes to optimization of protection in network operation. which will be supported in future both in protection devices and DIGSI file management.g. This enables effective and rapid fault analysis. This enables the export of fault records from Siemens protection units to customer-specific programs via the COMTRADE format. Device files of a protection unit created in the office can be transferred subsequently with protocolsecurity into the protection unit. The user is therefore not faced with any restrictions when purchasing printers or plotters as long as WINDOWS drivers are available. spectrum analysis and R/X derivation. Archiving and printout are conveniently supported. binary tracks can also be transferred and presented. Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/15 . optodisks. This means that it is only possible to change data with DIGSI V3. With the import and export of fault records in IEEE standard format COMTRADE (ANSI) a high performance data interface is produced which supports import and export of fault records into the DIGSI V3 partner program DIGRA. such as voltage and current. memory cards. ISDN) are part of the framework as supported by the WINDOWS operating system. 22). Data security. Data consistency is ensured. plotter.g.) are also part of the extensive graphical functionality as are setting of measurement cursors. overlaying and zooming of curves. networks DIGSI V3 uses the full WINDOWS interface functionality. Changes in the data and thus in safety-related protection data are thus reliably detected. Fig. Even transmission of information via fax from DIGSI V3 can be implemented. which provides the customer with full graphical operating and evaluation functionality like that of the digital fault recorders (Oscillostores) from Siemens (see Fig. which subsequently calculates a checksum for the changed data and stores it with the data. The security of the stored data of the operating PC is ensured by checksums. A fault record can also be read out repeatedly.Power System Protection Operation features The DIGSI V3 user interface is structured in accordance with the SAA/CUA standard used for WINDOWS programs (see Fig. Consistent use of this principle. DIGSI V3 is supplied together with the DIGRA (Digsi Graphic) program. Integration of extensive test functions facilitate the PC-guided commissioning and testing of a protection device. for example. Real-time presentation of analog disturbance records.) are provided. All common printers and plotters for which WINDOWS drivers are available can be used with DIGSI V3. exchangeable hard disks. Linking into the PC network and remote access to DIGSI V3 via communication networks (e. however.

the 8MC cubicle system is recommended. crimp contact max. Fig. the terminations are wired up on terminal strips on the top and bottom side of the device (max. but only the addressed one answers to the operator command which comes from the central PC. The attached relays are always listening. The width of the housing conforms to the 19" system with the divisions 1/6. 26 left). It can swivel as much as 180° in a swing frame. It is described in Siemens Catalog NV21. allowing. The relays are connected to the star coupler via optical fiber links. Each termination may be made via a screw terminal or crimp contact. In the housing version for surface mounting. binary inputs or relay outputs (max. The first digit indicates the protection against accidental contact and ingress of solid foreign bodies. then a device file is opened in DIGSI (V3. Diagnostics and control of test routines are also possible without the need for visiting the substation.2 or higher) and protection dialog is chosen via modem. 6/16 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . D-32760 Detmold).5 mm2) or s 2 termination points for measured currents (screw termination max.45 mm). RS485 RS485 Bus 7**5 7**5 7SJ60 7SJ60 7SJ60 The standard cubicle has the following dimensions: 2200 mm x 900 mm x 600 mm (HxWxD). 24: Remote relay communication Office Analog ISDN DIGSI V3 PC. 2 devices with a width of 1/2 x 19" to be mounted. The termination modules used each contain: s 4 termination points for measured voltages. 1. Installing of the modules in a cubicle without the housing is not permissible.Power System Protection Remote relay interrogation The numerical relay range 7**5 of Siemens can also be operated from a remotely located PC via modem-telephone connection. dust and dripping water (IP 51). optionally with call-back function Signal converter opt. 7XP20 housings are protected against access to dangerous parts with a wire. the second digit indicates the protection against water. After password input. 26 right). The rack provides for a mounting width of 19". 24). According to IEC 529 the degree of protection is indicated by the identifying IP. Housing and terminal system The protection devices and the corresponding supplementary devices are available mainly in 7XP20 housings (Fig. 2. The termination module is located at the rear of devices for panel flush mounting or cubicle mounting (Fig. the following tool is recommended: extraction tool No. 4 mm. If the relay which is located in a station is to be operated from a remote office. followed by a number for the degree of protection. The dimension drawings are to be found on 6/24 and following pages. 1/2 or 1/1 of a 19" rack. These cubicles are provided with a 44 U high mounting rack (standard height unit U = 44. To withdraw crimp contact terminations.5 mm 2) or s 2 FSMA plugs for fiber-optic termination. 135900 (from Messrs. For mounting of devices into cubicles. Paderbornstrasse 157. Every protection device which belongs to a DIGSI V3 substation structure has a unique address. The devices in the 7XP20 housing are secured to rails by screws. terminated wire cross section 7 mm 2). Up to 254 relays can be addressed via one modem connection if the star coupler 7XV53 is used as a communication node (Fig. Weidmüller. Module racks are not required. For this purpose two-tier terminal blocks are used to attain the required number of terminals (Fig. remotely located Modem Substation Star coupler DIGSI V3 PC. 26). 1/3. for example. DIGSI establishes a connection to the protection device after receiving a call-back from the system.centrally located in the substation (option) 7XV53 Modem. In this way secure and timesaving remote setting and readout of data are possible.

right: Connection method for panel surface mounting Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/17 . 25: Numerical protection relays in 7XP20 standard housings Fig.Power System Protection 1/6 1/3 1/2 1/1 of 19" width Fig. 26 left: Connection method for panel flash mounting including fiber-optic interfaces.

negative phase sequence overcurrent Phase sequence voltage Incomplete sequence. ground Overfluxing Synchronism check Synchronizing s s – s s – – – – s s – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – s – – – – – – s – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – s – – – – – – s – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 7SV512 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 7SJ551 7SJ60 7VE51 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Type – – – s – – s s – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – s – – – – – – – – – – s – – – – – – – – – s – – – – – – – – – s – – – s s – – s s s s s s s s s s s s s s – – – – s – 27 Undervoltage s s s – – – s – s – – s 27/59/ U/f protection 81 32 32F 32R 37 40 46 47 48 49 49R 49S 50 50N 51G Directional power Forward power Reverse power Undercurrent or underpower Field failure Load unbalance.2: IEEE Standard Electrical Power System Device Function Numbers Fig. 27a 6/18 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 7RW600 7UM511 7UM512 7UM515 7UM516 Voltage. failure to accelerate Thermal overload Rotor thermal protection Stator thermal protection Instantaneous overcurrent Instantaneous ground fault overcurrent Ground overcurrent relay – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – s s – s s s – s – s – – s – – – – – s – – – – – s – – – – – s s s – s – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – s s – – – – s – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – s s s s – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – s s s – s – – – – – – – s – s – s s – – – – – – s – – – s – s – – – s s s s s s s s – s s – – – s – s s – – – s – – – s s – * ANSI/IEEE C 37. locked rotor.* 14 21 21N 24 25 Zero speed and underspeed dev. – – – Distance protection. Frequency Fiber-optic current comparison Motor protection Breaker failure Autoreclose + Synchrocheck Synchronizing Overcurrent Differential Distance . phase Distance protection.Power System Protection Relay Selection Guide Pilot wire differential Generator protection 7VH80 7UT512 7UT513 7SS50/51 7VH83 7SA511 7SA513 7SD24 7SD502 7SD503 7SD511 7SD512 7VK512 7SJ60 7SJ511 7SJ512 7SJ55 7SJ531 Protection functions ANSI Description No.

generator – Differential protection. line Restricted earth-fault protection – – – – – – s s – s s – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – s s – – s – – – – – – s – – – s s s s s – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Voltage and power directional rel. start inhibit s s – s s – – – – – s – – – – – – – – – – – – – – s – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – s s s – – – – – – – – – s s – s – – – – – – s – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – s s – – – – – – – – – – – – Differential protection. directional overcurrent – – – – – – s s – – s – – – – – – – – – – – – s s – s – – s – – s s – s – – – s – s s – s – – – – – – s s s – – – – – – – – s – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – s – s – s – s – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – s s s – s s – s s s – – s s s – s – s s s s s – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – s – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – s s s s s s s – – s s s s – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – s s – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – s – – – – – – – s – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – s s – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – s – – – – – – – – s – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – s – – – – – – s – 68/78 Out-of-step protection 79 81 85 86 87G 87T 87B 87M 87L 87N 92 BF Autoreclose Frequency relay Carrier interface Lockout relay. Frequency Fiber-optic current comparison Motor protection Breaker failure Autoreclose + Synchrocheck Synchronizing Overcurrent Differential Distance . bus-bar Differential protection.* 51GN Stator ground-fault overcurrent 51 51N 59 59N 64R 67 67N 67G Overcurrent with time delay Ground-fault overcurrent with time delay Overvoltage Residual voltage ground-fault protection Rotor ground fault Directional overcurrent Directional ground-fault overcurrent Stator ground-fault. – Breaker failure – s – – s s – s * ANSI/IEEE C 37. motor Differential protection. Differential protection. transf.Power System Protection Pilot wire differential Generator protection 7SA511 7SA513 7SD24 7SD502 7SD503 7SD511 7SD512 Protection functions ANSI Description No. 27b Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/19 7RW600 – – – 7UM511 7UM512 7UM515 7UM516 7VK512 7SJ60 7SJ511 7SJ512 7SJ55 7SJ531 7SV512 7SJ551 7SJ60 7VE51 Type 7VH80 7UT512 7UT513 7SS50/51 7VH83 Voltage.2: IEEE Standard Electrical Power System Device Function Numbers Fig.

The series is briefly portrayed on the following pages. s s s s s characteristics can be set individually for phase and ground faults Selectable setting groups Integral autoreclose function (option) Thermal overload. IE calculated) s All instantaneous. characteristics can be set individually for phase and ground faults Suitable for busbar protection with reverse interlocking With integral breaker failure protection With load monitoring. amongst others s Universal carrier interface (permissive indication (3 ph and E) I. event and fault recording Thermal overload protection 21 21N 25 85 67N 51N 68 78 49 79 47 Fig. i. 28: 7SJ60 Fig.m. with many additional functions.Power System Protection Protection relays Siemens manufactures a complete series of numerical relays for all kinds of protection application.m.d.t and d. and d.t. event and fault memory * only with 7SJ512 50 51 50N 51N 49 46 48 79 50 51 50N 51N BF 67 * 67N 79 * * 7SJ511 Fig. event and fault memory and blocking procedures programmable) s Power swing blocking or tripping s Selectable setting groups s Sensitive directional ground-fault deter- 7SJ512 Digital overcurrent-time protection with additional functions the same features as 7SJ511. resonant or high-resistance grounded networks s Directional module when used as directional overcurrent relay (optional) s Selectable setting groups s Inrush stabilization s s s s s s mination for isolated and compensated networks Ground-fault protection for earthed networks Single and three-pole autoreclose Synchrocheck Free marshalling of optocoupler inputs and relay outputs Line load monitoring. 7SJ60 Universal overcurrent and overload protection s Phase-segregated measurement and indication (Input 3 ph. unbalanced load and locked rotor protection Suitable for busbar protection with reverse interlocking With load monitoring. 30: 7SA511 6/20 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . 29: 7SJ511/512 Universal overcurrent protection s Phase-segregated measurement and s s s s 7SA511 Subtransmission line protection with distance-to-fault locator Universal distance relay for all networks. plus: s Autoreclose s Sensitive directional ground-fault protection for isolated.t.t.d.

33: 7SD512 7SD512 Current-comparison protection for overhead lines and cables with functions as 7SD511.Power System Protection 7SA513 Transmission line protection with distance-to-fault locator s Fast distance protection. with a package of extra functions which cover all the demands of extrahigh-voltage applications Universal carrier interface (permissive and blocking procedures programmable) Power swing blocking or tripping Parallel line compensation Load compensation that ensures high accuracy even for high-resistance faults and double-end infeed High-resistance ground-fault protection Back-up ground-fault protection Overvoltage protection Single. 15 km distance – or with the additional digital signal transmission device 7VR5012 up to 150 km fiber-optic length – or through a 64 kbit/s channel of available multipurpose PCM devices.and three-pole autoreclose Synchrocheck option Breaker failure protection Free marshalling of a comprehensive range of optocoupler inputs and relay outputs Selectable setting groups Line load monitoring.2 kbits/sec) – with integrated optical transmitter/ receiver for direct fiber-optic link up to approx. with operating s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s times less than one cycle (20 ms at 50 Hz). event and fault recording 87L 49 51 BF 50 87L 49 51 BF 60 79 Fig.e. 32: 7SD511 Fig. channelswapping is permissible Line load monitoring. via fiber-optic or microwave link Integral overload and breaker failure protection Emergency operation as overcurrent back-up protection on failure of data link Automatic measurement and correction of signal transmission time. event and fault recording High-performance measurement using digital signal processors Flash EPROM memories 21 21N 25 59 67N 85 BF 68 79 78 Fig.and three-pole fast and delayed autoreclosure. but additionally with autoreclose function for single. 31: 7SA513 7SD511 Current-comparison protection for overhead lines and cables s With phase-segregated measurement s For serial data transmission s s s s (19. Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/21 . i.

37: Protection operation with the PC operator program DIGSI 87 BB Fig. saturation Completely self-monitoring.t. 36: 7SS5 BF See separate reference list for machine protection. isolator positions and run time With integrated circuit-breaker failure protection With commissioning-friendly aids (indication of all feeder.d. E50001-U321-A39-X-7600 6/22 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . with flexible combination to complete protection systems from the smallest to the largest motor generator units s With improved measurement methods based on Fourier filters and the evaluation of symmetrical components (fully numeric.t.Power System Protection 7UT512 Differential protection for machines and power transformers with additional functions. plus: s Sensitive restricted ground-fault protection s Sensitive d. 35: 7UT513 s s s s s s s urement and additional check zone. including c.t. event and fault recording Fig. up to 8 busbar sections and 32 bays 7UM511/12/15/16 Multifunctional devices for machine protection s With 10 protection functions on average. such as: s Numerical matching to transformer ratio and connection group (no matching transformers necessary) s Thermal overload protection s Back-up overcurrent protection s Measured-value indication for commissioning (no separate instruments necessary) s Load monitor. event and fault recording 7UT513 Differential protection for three-winding transformers with the same functions as 7UT512. operating and stabilizing currents) With event and fault recording Designed for single and multiple busbars.t.m. frequency compensated) s With load monitoring. or i. each processed on separate microprocessor hardware With fast operating time (< 15 ms) Extreme stability against c. ground-fault – o/c-protection 7SS5 Numerical busbar protection s With absolutely secure 2-out-of-2 meas- * 87T 87 T 49 50/51 49 50G 50/51 87 * REF * 87REF or 50G Fig. 34: 7UT512 Fig. Order No. circuits.

38: 7SJ531 50N 51N BF 79 49 59 27 37 46 Fig.t. 39: 7SJ551 49R 50 50G 51N 59 86 48 49 51 51G Non directional time overcurrent Directional time overcurrent IEC/ANSI and user definable TOC curves Overload protection Sensitive directional ground fault Negative sequence overcurrent Under/Overvoltage Breaker failure Autoreclosure Fault locator 67N 46 49LR 37 27 Motor protection s s s s Thermal overload Locked rotor Start inhibit Undercurrent Control functions Measured-value acquisition Signal and command indications P. two for ground-faults – customized curves instead of standard curves can be programmed to offer optimal flexibility for both phase and ground elements s Real-Time Clock: last 3 events are stored with real-time stamps of alarm and trip data 7SD502 s Pilot-wire differential protection for 87L 49 50 51 7SJ551 Universal motor protection and overcurrent relay s Thermal overload protection lines and cables (2 pilot wires) s Up to about 25 km telephone-type pilot Fig.m. curves for phase faults. Q. cos ϕ and meter-reading calculation Measured-value recording Event logging Switching statistics Feeder control diagram with load indication s Switchgear interlocking s s s s s s s – up to 2 heating time constants for the stator thermal replica – separate cooling time constants for stator and rotor thermal replica – ambient temperature biasing of thermal replica s Connection of up to 8 RTD sensors s Multi-curve overcurrent and ground-fault protection: – four selectable i. 7VE512 with voltage and frequency balancing Combined bay protection and control unit 7SJ531 Line protection s s s s s s s s s s 50 51 64 Fig. 40: 7SD502/503 length s With integrated overcurrent back-up 7SD503 s Pilot-wire differential protection for lines – separate thermal replica for stator and rotor based on true RMS current measurement and overload protection s Also applicable to 3-terminal lines (2 devices at each end) and cables (3 pilot wires) s Up to about 15 km pilot length s With integrated overcurrent back-up and overload protection s Also applicable to 3-terminal lines (2 devices at each end) Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/23 .d. and d.Power System Protection 7VE51 Paralleling device for synchronization of generators and networks s Absolutely secure against faulty switching due to duplicate measurement with different procedures s With numerical measurand filtering that ensures exact synchronization even in networks suffering transients s With synchrocheck option s Available in two versions: 7VE511 without.t.

7SJ531.3 ø5 or M4 244 266 245+1 255±0. 7SJ511/12.2 Panel cutout 131. 7VE512. 42 231. 7SD512. 7VE51 Front view 145 30 Side view 172 29.5 or M4 ø6 255.5 221 All dimensions in mm.5 146 Case 7XP2040-2 for relays 7SA511.8 225 Fig.3 13.8 ø6 150 Fig.Power System Protection Cutout and drilling dimensions Case 7XP20 for relays 7SJ600.6 206.5 245 ø5 or M4 255.5 Case 7XP2030-2 for relays 7SD511. 7UT513.3 13. 7RW600 Back view 70 Side view 7.5±0.5 180 5.3 ø6 75 Fig.5 7.5 7.4 10 Optical fibre interface 244 266 1. 43 231.4 ø5 266 245 10 1. 41 37 172 29. 7SD502/503 Front view 220 Side view Optical fiber interface 30 172 Panel cutout 29.3 Panel cutout 71+2 56. 7UM5**.5 105 5. 7UT512. 6/24 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .

6.8 ø6 71 Fig.3 13.4 30 29. Fig. 44 7XR9672 Core-balance current transformer (zero sequence c. 149 81 Diam.t.4 143 170 All dimensions in mm.5 x 6. 46 54 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/25 .) 94 12 80 Diam. 45 L 96 104 K 120 102 2 7XR9600 Core-balance current transformer (zero sequence c.2 Panel cutout 56.5 200 Fig.) M6 14 K 120 55 k l 14.t.5 ø5 24 266 or M4 245 255.Power System Protection Case 7XP2020-2 Front view 75 Side view 172 Back view 70 7.3 30 5.

5 266 10 266 1. 6/26 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .5 Panel cutout 7.5 405 5.3 13.5 Back view 100 86.Power System Protection Case for relay 7SJ551 Front view 105 Side view 30 172 29.9 115 Fig.4 Optical fiber interface ø 5 or M4 245 255. 48 All dimensions in mm.8 ø6 446 Fig.4 244 266 255.2 431. 47 Case 7XP2060-2 for relay 7SA513 Front view 450 445 Side view 30 172 29.

and medium-sized motors Large HV motors 6/33 6/34 Generators 14 15 16 17 Smallest generator < 500 kW Small generator. around 1 MW Large generator > 1 MW Generator-transformer unit 6/34 6/35 6/35 6/36 Busbars 18 19 20 Busbar protection by o/c relays with reverse interlocking High-impedance differential busbar protection Low-impedance differential busbar protection 6/37 6/38 6/38 Fig. 49 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/27 .Power System Protection Typical protection schemes Application group Circuit number Circuit equipment protected Page Cables and overhead lines 1 2 3 4 5 Radial feeder circuit Ring main circuit Distribution feeder with reclosers Parallel feeder circuit Cable or short overhead line with infeed from both ends Overhead lines or longer cables with infeed from both ends Small transformer infeed Large or important transformer infeed Dual infeed with single transformer Parallel incoming transformer feeder Parallel incoming transformer feeder with bus tie 6/28 6/28 6/29 6/29 6/30 6 6/30 Transformers 7 8 9 10 11 6/31 6/31 6/32 6/32 6/33 Motors 12 13 Small.

t I2>. 2) Negative sequence o/c protection 46 as sensitive back-up protection against unsymmetrical faults. t IE>. t IE>. where coordination with fuses or reclosers is necessary. 56 A 7SJ60 7SJ60 Load D I>. small current variation between near and far end faults – Inverse time: Longer lines. General hints: – The relay at the far end (D) gets the shortest operating time. t 51 51N 46 7SJ60 Load Fig. t 51 51N 46 ARC 79 1) Infeed Transformer protection. see Fig.e. or lines. t 51 51N 46 ϑ> 49 52 7SJ60 I>. t 51 51N 46 2) C I>. t 51 51N 46 ϑ> 49 Fig. 51 6/28 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . 50 Load Infeed Transformer protection. t IE>. where the fault current is much less at the end of the line than at the local end. where the line impedance is large compared to the source impedance (high difference for close-in and remote faults). t I2>.2 s grading-time delay – Thermal overload protection for the cables (option) – Negative sequence o/c protection 46 as sensitive protection against unsymmetrical faults (option) 7SJ60 52 I>. t I2>. t IE>. – Inverse-time curves can be selected according to the following criteria: – Definite time: source impedance large compared to the line impedance. lines.3 seconds. – Very or extremely inverse time: Lines. Ring main circuit General hints: – Operating time of overcurrent relays to be coordinated with downstream fuses of load transformers. (Preferably very inverse time characteristic with about 0. t I2>.Power System Protection 1. t IE>. Relays further upstream have to be time-graded against the next downstream relay in steps of about 0. t I2>. i. see Fig. Steeper characteristics provide also higher stability on service restoration (cold load pick-up and transformer in rush currents) B Further feeders I>. Radial feeder circuit Notes: 1) Autoreclosure 79 only with O.H. 56 52 52 2.

52 4. line or cable 2 Protection same as line or cable 1 O. Fast autoreclosure is iniciated in this case. t 50N/ 51N 46 79 Autoreclose 52 7SJ60 Further feeders Recloser Sectionalizers Fuses Fig. It shall ensure fast clearing of close-in faults and prevent blowing of fuses in this area (“fuse saving”). Further time delayed tripping and reclosure steps (normally 2 or 3) have to be graded against the recloser. The instantaneous zone 50/50N is normally set to reach out to the first main feeder sectionalizing point. sectionalizers and fuses.Power System Protection Infeed 3. 52 I>>. – The o/c relay should automatically switch over to less sensitive characteristics after longer breaker interruption times to enable overriding of subsequent cold load pick-up and transformer inrush currents. Parallel feeder circuit Infeed 52 52 I>. Distribution feeder with reclosers General hints: – The feeder relay operating characteristics.H. t 46 52 General hints: – This circuit is preferably used for the interruptionfree supply of important consumers without significant back-feed. line or cable 1 67 52 67N 51 51N 7SJ512 52 52 52 52 Load Load Fig. This allows the saving of one time-grading interval for the o/crelays at the infeed.H. t IE>. delay times and autoreclosure cycles must be carefully coordinated with downstream reclosers. I>. t IE>. t 50/ 51 IE>>. 53 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/29 . 7SJ60 O. – The directional o/c protection 67/67N trips instantaneously for faults on the protected line. t 51 51N ϑ> 49 I2>. – The o/c relay functions 51/51N have each to be time-graded against the upstream located relays. I2>.

2) Directional ground-fault protection 67N with inverse-time delay against highresistance faults 3) Single. The teleprotection supplement is only necessary if fast fault clearance on 100% line length is required. second zone tripping (about 0. if applicable Line or cable 7SJ60 51N/ 51N 52 49 2) 1) 7SD5** 52 52 Load Fig. microwave or optical fiber (to be provided seperately). 52 Infeed 52 52 21/ 21N 85 Line or cable 1) 85 21/ 21N 52 52 52 52 52 52 79 67N 52 3) 2) 67N 79 2) 3) 52 7SA511 Same protection for parallel line. 52 Infeed 52 52 7SJ60 51N/ 51N 79 87L 3) 87L 79 52 1) 2) 49 52 7SD5** Same protection for parallel line. microwave) – Type 7SD502 with 2-wire pilot cables up to about 20 km – Type 7SD503 with 3-wire pilot cables up to about 10 km.Power System Protection 5. if applicable 7SA511 Load Fig.or multishot autoreclosure 79 only with overhead lines.e. Overhead lines or longer cables with infeed from both sides Notes: 1) Teleprotection logic 85 for transfer trip or blocking schemes. 54 52 Backfeed 52 52 6. Cables or short overhead lines with infeed from both sides Notes: 1) Autoreclosure only with overhead lines 2) Overload protection only with cables 3) Differential protection options: – Type 7SD511/12 with direct fiber-optic connection up to about 20 km or via a 64 kbit/s channel of a general purpose PCM connection (optical fiber. power-line carrier. Signal transmission via pilot wire. 55 Backfeed 6/30 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . i.3 s delay) cannot be accepted for far end faults.

s with equal transformation ratio. however. 57 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/31 . t 51 IE> 50N ϑ> I2>.8 kV 52 52 Load Load Fig. 56 Fuse Load 8. The restricted ground-fault relay 87N can optionally be provided to achieve fast clearance of ground-faults in the transformer secondary winding. cores would additionally be necessary in this case.Power System Protection 7. However. t 49 46 General hints: – Ground-faults on the secondary side are detected by current relay 51G which.t. 115 kV I>> 50 I>. t Notes: 1) Three winding transformer relay type 7UT513 may be replaced by twowinding type 7UT512 plus high-impedance-type restricted ground-fault relay 7VH80.t. – Primary breaker and relay may be replaced by fuses. t I E> 51N ϑ> I2>. in particular for the protection of the neutral resistance. class X c. 51 49 46 7SJ60 2) 51G 7SJ60 63 1) 87N I>. 3) Relays 7UT512/513 provide numerical ratio and vector group adaption. Small transformer infeed HV infeed 52 I>> 50 I>. if provided. t 51N 87T 7UT513 51 52 7SJ60 Load bus. e. (See small transformer protection) 2) 51G may additionally be provided. 7SJ60 63 RN Optional resistor or reactor I>> 87N 51G 52 7VH80 7SJ60 IE> Distribution bus 52 o/crelay Load Fig. Relay 7VH80 is high-impedance type and requires class X c. Matching transformers as used with traditional relays are therefore no more applicable. has to be time graded against downstream feeder protection relays.g. 13. Large or important transformer infeed HV infeed 52 High voltage. e.g. t IE>.

Parallel incoming transformer feeders Note: 1) The directional functions 67 and 67N do not apply for cases where the transformers are equipped with transformer differential relays 87T. t same as infeed 1 I> 67 IE> 67N 7SJ512 I>. Dual-infeed with single transformer Notes: 1) Line c. 2) Relay 7UT513 provides numerical ratio and vector group adaption. Matching transformers. t IE>. are therefore no longer applicable. as used with traditional relays. Protection line 1 same as line 2 52 Protection line 2 21/21N or 87L + 51 + optionally 67/67N 52 7SJ60 I>> 50 I>. t 51 46 63 I2> IE>. t 51 51N 7SJ60 1) 52 52 Load bus 52 Load 52 Load 52 Load Fig.s are to be connected to separate stabilizing inputs of the differential relay 87T in order to guarantee stability in case of line through-fault currents. 58 51G IE> 51N 7SJ60 52 52 Load bus 10. t 51 7SJ60 IE>.t.Power System Protection 9. t 51N 49 ϑ> 87N 87T 7UT513 7SJ60 I>> 51 52 52 Load Fig. t 46 HV infeed 2 52 Protection 63 51G IE>. t ϑ> 51N 49 I2>. HV infeed 1 52 I>> 50 I>. 59 6/32 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .

Small. M Fig. t 46 Infeed 2 Note: 1) Overcurrent relays 51. 2) Sensitive directional ground-fault protection 67N only applicable with infeed from isolated or Peterson-coil grounded network.t. t 51N 51 7SJ60 52 52 52 Load 52 52 Load Fig. t I>. t IE>. 61a b) With high-resistance grounded infeed (IE ≤ IN Motor) 52 I>> 50 IE> 51G ϑ> 49 2) 67G Locked rotor 49 CR I2> 46 I< 37 Notes: 1) Window-type zero sequence c.and medium-sized motors < about 1 MW 52 I>> 50 IE> 51N ϑ> 49 Locked rotor 49 CR I2> 46 a) With effective or low-resistance grounded infeed (IE ≥ I N Motor) 7SJ60 General hint: – Applicable to low-voltage motors and high-voltage motors with low-resistance grounded infeed (IE ≥ IN Motor).Power System Protection 11. Protection same as infeed 1 7SJ60 51G I>. This provides a simple and fast busbar protection and saves one time-grading step. 61b Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/33 . 7SJ531 or 7SJ551 7XR96 1) 60/1A M Fig. t ϑ> 51N 49 I2>. 60 12. Parallel incoming transformer feeders with bus tie Infeed 1 I>> 50 I>. t 51 7SJ60 IE>. 51N each connected as a partial differential scheme. t 51 51N 7SJ60 IE>.

63b: With resistance grounded neutral 6/34 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . According to IEC 79-7. The motor breaker is tripped if the motor does not reach speed in the preset time. when carrying the starting current I A. 2) Sensitive directional ground-fault protection 67N only applicable with infeed from isolated or Peterson-coil grounded network. 3) This function is only needed for motors where the run-up time is longer than the safe stall time t E. 63a: With solidly grounded neutral MV Generator 2 G1 I>. 4) Pt100. A separate speed switch is used to supervise actual starting of the motor. IE>. Large HV motors > about 1 MW Notes: 1) Window-type zero sequence c. the tE -time is the time needed to heat up a.Power System Protection 13. from the temperature reached in rated service and at maximum ambient temperature to the limiting temperature.5 to 1) • Irated Fig. Ni120 5) 49T only available with relay type 75J551 7SJ531 or 7SJ551 52 I>> 50 IE> 7XR96 1) 60/1A 51G ϑ> 49 2) 67G Locked rotor 49 CR I< I2> 46 37 U< 27 Optional Start-up 49T supervisior 3) 3) Speed switch 87M 7UT512 M RTD's 4) optional Fig. t 51 51N I2> 46 ϑ> 49 7SJ60 Fig. Ni100. 62 14. IE>. windings. t 51 51N I2> 46 ϑ> 49 7SJ60 RN = VN √3 • (0. Smallest generators < 500 kW LV G I>.c.t. The speed switch is part of the motor delivery itself.

Function 27 of 7UM511 is used to switch over to a second.t.c.s) 3) 7SJ60 used as voltage-controlled o/c protection. Large generator > 1 MW MV 52 3) 2) 87 I IG 87G 1) 81 27 51 O/C v. t 51 RE Field< P 32 I2> 46 1) 59 L. t 51G P 32 I2> 46 L. 64 16. 65 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/35 .t. more sensitive setting group. 2) Differential relaying options: – 7UT512: Low-impedance differential protection 87 – 7UT513: Low-impedance differential 87 with integral restricted groundfault protection 87G – 7VH83: High-impedance differential protection 87 (requires class X c. 40 IE>. 1) Field G 64R I>.F.O. Small generator. 7SJ60 U< f> U> ϑ> 49 G Field 64R I>. t 51G 7UM511 Fig. t 51 IE>.F 40 7UM511 Fig.s in V-connection also sufficient. typically 1 MW Note: 52 1) Two c.O. Notes: 1) Functions 81 und 59 only required where prime mover can assume excess speed and voltage regulator may permit rise of output voltage above upper limit.Power System Protection 15.

52 Unit trans. OC 87T Trans. OC Unit aux. Generator-transformer unit Notes: 1) 100% stator ground-fault protection based on 20 Hz voltage injection 2) Sensitive field ground-fault protection based on 1 Hz voltage injection 3) Only used functions shown. OV 1 87 TU 2 optionally 3 1 87G and optionally 87U 51N 51 3 Fig. seq. diff.Power System Protection 17. Oil low Transf. Relay type Functions 3) Number of relays required 59 81N 49 64R 1 7UM511 46 Neg. 27). back-up 40 59 GN 24 46 7UM516 7UM515 7UT512 7UT513 7SJ60 32 51 GN 87T 1) 21 64 R2 2) 78 1 51 1) GN 59 GN Gen. fault press 71 Oil low 51 TN 87U Transf.L. 71 Over volt 59 G 2) 64 R2 Field grd. neut. diff. 64R Field grd. 21 Sys. 81N 78 Loss of sync. 66 6/36 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . 87 TU 63 Transf. back-up 51 Unit diff. neut. further integrated functions available in each relay type (see ”Relay Selection Guide“. Gen. 49S E Loss of field 32 87G Reverse power Over freq. 24 Volt/Hz A 51 TN Trans. neut. 40 Stator O. Fig. fault press 63 Unit aux.

t0 50 50N 52 t0 = 50 ms I>. t 51 51N 52 I> 50 50N I>. Busbar protection by O/C relays with reverse interlocking General hint: Infeed Applicable to distribution busbars without substantial (< 0. t 51 51N 7SJ60 52 I> 50 50N I>.25 x IN) backfeed from the outgoing feeders reverse interlocking I>. t 51 51N 7SJ60 7SJ60 7SJ60 Fig. t 51 51N 52 I> 50 50N I>.Power System Protection 18. 67 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/37 .

69 6/38 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . All c. 600/1 A in the feeders and 2000/1 at the bus tie – The protection system and the isolator replica is continuously self-monitored by the 7SS5 – Feeder protection can be connected to the same c.t. Infeed Transformer protecton 50 50N 52 52 Bus tie protection 52 Feeder protection Load 52 Isolator replica 7SS5 87 BB 86 Feeder protection Back-feed BF Fig.Power System Protection 19. 86 52 52 52 Alarm Feeder protection Feeder protection Load Feeder protection G Fig. core.t.s must have the same transformation ratio Transformer protection 51 51N 7VH83 87 BB 87 S.t.g. 68 G 20. Low-impedance busbar protection General hints: – Preferably used for multiple busbar schemes where an isolator replica is necessary – The numerical busbar protection 7SS5 provides additional breaker failure protection – C. e.V. transformation ratios can be different. High impedance busbar protection General hints: – Normally used with single busbar and 1 1/2 breaker schemes – Requires separate class X current transformer cores.

7SJ55 and 7SA511) allow settings as low a 5 mA. . it should remain stable under all permissible load.0 2. The pick-up value of the zero-sequence relay would in this case be in the order of the error currents of the c.t. overload and through-fault conditions. This practice is recommmended in particular for mechanical relays with reset ratios of 0. is therefore used in this case as earth current sensor. . . At the same time.0 10.16 . The ground-fault current of motors and generators.2 .0 3. 0. The detection of 6 A primary would then require a relay pick-up setting of 0.s. Ground-fault relays Residual-current relays enable a much more sensitive setting.2 1.t. In solidly and low-resistance grounded systems a setting of 10 to 20% rated load current is generally applied. Sensivity Protection should be as sensitive as possible to detect faults at the lowest possible current level. primary currents higher than 200 A.5 .0 4. The rush current typically contains only about 50% fundamental frequency component. for example. .t. Transformer feeders The energizing of transformers causes inrush currents that may last for seconds.s can in this case not be used.1 A secondary.2 .85. Settings of 20 mA and less may then be required depending on the minimum ground-fault current. Phase-fault relays The pick-up values of phase o/c relays are normally set 30% above the maximum load current. . 70). . Residual-current relays in the star point connection of c. . The window type current transformer 7XR96 is designed for a ratio of 60/1 A. Peak value of inrush current ^ IRush ^ IN 12. 720 Fig.t. typical data High-resistance grounding requires much more sensitive setting in the order of some amperes primary. should be limited to values below 10 A in order to avoid iron burning.0 2 10 100 400 Rated transformer power [MVA] Time constant of inrush current Nominal power [MVA] Time constant [s] 0.0 9.0 8. however. Numerical relays that filter out harmonics and the DC component of the rush current can therefore be set more sensitive. as load currents do not have to be considered (except 4-wire circuits with single-phase load).8 to 0. Feeders with high transformer and/or motor load require special consideration. 70: Transformer inrush currents. depending on their size (Fig.0 1. 1.2 >10 1.Power System Protection Protection coordination Relay operating characteristics and their setting must be carefully coordinated in order to achieve selectivity. Sensitive directional ground-fault relays (integrated in the relays 7SJ512. Numerical relays have high reset ratios near 0. . Selection of the pick-up current and assigned time delay have to be coordinated so that the rush current decreases below the relay o/c reset value before the set operating time has elapsed.0 6.0 0. in particular with rated c.95 and allow therefore about 10% lower setting. An even more sensitive setting is applied in isolated or Peterson-coil grounded networks where very low earth currents occur with single-phase-to-ground faults. 70 will be nearly reduced to one half in this case. provided that sufficient shortcircuit current is available. The inrush-current peak values of Fig. 10 0. A special zero-sequence c.0 7. The aim is basically to switch-off only the faulted component and to leave the rest of the power system in service in order to minimize supply interruptions and to guarantee stability. 1.0 .0 11. .0 5. Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/39 . .

The overload protection characteristic should follow the thermal motor characteristic as closely as possible. 72: Coordination of inverse-time relays be is high for mechanical relays (about 0. The adaption is to be made by setting of the pick-up value and the thermal time constant. 71. even when the fault current is interrupted.1 . then selectivity is automatically fulfilled at lower currents. The setting at transformers. the locked-rotor protection timer has to be set according to the characteristic motor value. The overshoot times takes into account the fact that the measuring relay continues to operate due to its inertia. Further. 73 by the example of definite time o/c relays. must be chosen about 20 to 30% higher than the maximum through-fault current. In the first 100 ms. Restricted ground-fault relays and high-resistance motor/generator differential relays are. Motor feeders The energizing of motors causes a starting current of initially 5 to 6 times rated current (locked rotor current). using the data supplied by the motor manufacturer.001 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Current in multplies of full-load amps Motor starting current Locked rotor current Overload protection characteristic Fig. for example. the same rules apply in principle as for the definite time relays.1 s) and neglectable for numerical relays (20 ms). a fast decaying assymetrical inrush current appears additionally. or when the upstream relay has a steeper characteristic (e.g. If the same characteristic is used for all relays. set to about 10% rated current. Inverse time relays (51) For the time grading of inverse-time relays. The higher value has to be chosen when the transformer is fitted with a tap changer. very over normal inverse).Power System Protection Differential relays (87) Transformer differential relays are normally set to pick-up values between 20 and 30% rated current. Instantaneous o/c protection (50) This is typically applied on the final supply load or on any protective device with sufficient circuit impedance between itself and the next downstream protective device. 71: Typical motor current-time characteristics High set instantaneous o/c step Motor thermal limit curve Permissible locked rotor time Time 51 51 51 Main 0. With conventional relays it was current practice to set the instantaneous o/c step for short circuit protection 20 to 30% above the locked-rotor current with a short time delay of 50 to 100 ms to override the asymetrical inrush periode.01 . as a rule. Time grading of o/c relays (51) The selectivity of overcurrent protection is based on time grading of the relay operating characteristics. This is shown in Fig. The relay closer to the infeed (upstream relay) is time-delayed against the relay further away from the infeed (downstream relay).2–0. 6/40 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . 72). This may Time in seconds 10000 1000 100 10 1 . The time grading is first calculated for the maximum fault level and then checked for lower current levels (Fig. A typical time-current curve for an induction motor is shown in Fig. Numerical relays are able to filter out the asymmetrical current component very fast so that the setting of an additional time delay is no longer applicable.4 seconds Feeder Current Maximum feeder fault level Fig.

08 s tM = 0.15 s Oil circuit breaker t52F = 0.10 + 0.Power System Protection Operating time 52 M 51 M 52 F 51 F 52 F 51 F 0.2–0.15 + 0.02 + 0.02 s Vacuum breaker: Safety margin: t52F = 0.15 tTG = 0.10 s Safety margin for measuring errors.: tM = 0.40 s Example 2 Numerical relays: tOS = 0. 73: Time grading of overcurrent-time relays Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/41 .10 s tTG = 0.10 = 0.4 Time grading Fault Fault inception detection Interruption of fault current t52F Circuit-breaker Interruption time Overshoot* tOS Margin tM t51M * also called overtravel or coasting time I> t51F Set time delay I> t51M– t51F = t52F + tOS + tM Time grading tTG Example 1 Mechanical relays: tOS = 0.15 = 0.08 + 0.20 s Fig. etc.

8 kV is 523 A.47 for I /I P at the o/c relay in location C. 75: Normal inverse time characteristic of relay 7SJ60 6/42 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . Load [A] 300 170 50 – Iscc.48 s. The short-circuit current related to 13.2 5 4 3 2 1 0. Iprim A B C D 400/5 200/5 100/5 – consider the fault in location F1.05 2 4 6 8 10 1.4 0.11 we obtain again derive from Fig.3 + 0.9). max. This current setting shall be lowest for the relay farthest downstream. This results in 7.7 s Time multipler: TP = 0. The setting values for the relay at station C are therefore: s Current tap: IP /I N = 0. 74 The setting values for the relay at station B are herewith s Current tap: IP /I N = 1. 75 an operating time of 0.1 0. The time multiplier settings can now be calculated as follows: Station C: s For coordination with the fuses.17 s For the close-in fault at location F4 we obtain an operating time of 0.Power System Protection Calculation example The feeder configuration of Fig. 220 A s With the operating time 0.11 Given these settings.11 + 0.0 s Time multiplier: T P = 0. 75. Station A: s We add the time grading interval of t [s] 100 50 40 30 20 10 3.8 kV F4 B F3 C F2 13.23 19.05 Station B: The relay in B has a back-up function for the relay in C.8 kV/ 0. 75 an operating time of tA = 0. = Maximum short-circuit current ** Ip/IN = Relay current multiplier setting *** Iprim = Primary setting current corresponding to Ip/IN Fig. Tp [s] t= (I/Ip)0.3 0. 74 and the assigned load and short-circuit currents are given.4 kV 1. F1 Load 51 7SJ60 51 7SJ60 51 7SJ60 Load Station Max. we Example: Time grading of inverse-time relays for a radial feeder Load A 13. The operating time of the relay in B can then be calculated: s t B = 0. The relays further upstream shall each have equal or higher current setting.4 0.0 MVA 5.25 12. For the relay in C.max.3 s.7 – Iprim*** [A] 400 220 70 – I /Ip = 11.11 s (I/I P = 19.2 0.05 Tp [s] 0.0 1. 74). The IP /IN settings shown in Fig. The relay operating times dependent on current can be taken from the diagram or derived from the formula given in Fig.11 from Fig.6 0. We assume that no special requirements for short operating times exist and can therefore choose an average time grading interval of 0.V. Normal inverse 0.41 s s Value of IP /I N = 1395 A = 6.395 A becomes effective for a fault in location F2.50 0.1 0.0% Fuse: D 160 A L. 74 have been chosen to get pick-up values safely above maximum load current. 75.3 s.17 s This setting was selected for the o/c relay to get a safe grading time over the fuse on the transformer low-voltage side. The maximum through-fault current of 1.93 – Iscc. The corresponding I/IP value is 12.41 s and I P /IN = 6.* [A] 4500 2690 1395 523 CT ratio Ip/IN ** 1. *) Iscc.6 s.3 s and find the desired operating time tA = 0. 74).02 – 1 20 I/Ip [A] Fig. we can also check the operating time of the relay in B for a close-in fault in F3: The short-circuit current increases in this case to 2690 A (see Fig.34. s With this value and TP = 0.8 0. Following the same procedure as for the relay in station B we obtain the following values for the relay in station A: s Current tap: IP /I N = 1.1 s Time multiplier TP = 0. we obtain an operating time of 0.14 .23.2 0.34 (see Fig. s With this value and the set value of TP = 0.3 = 0.1 0. we can now derive TP = 0.05 we derive from Fig. Numerical o/c relays 7SJ60 with normal inverse-time characteristic are applied. max.3 = 0.

00 xIn I>> I>. Fig.00 xIn I>> I>. xIn Ip = 1. Note: To simplify calculations. t 7SJ600 Tp = 0. Today computer programs are also available for this purpose. t 7SJ600 Tp = 0. xIn Ip = 1.11 s I>>= ∞ IA>.7 xIn Tp = 0.2 s I>>= 0.t IC>.t IB>. Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/43 .00 xIn I>> I>.0 MVA 5.001 10 I [A] 2 5 100 2 5 1000 2 5 10 4 13.000 kA Iscc = 1395 A Iscc = 2690 A Imax = 4500 A IN A 400/5 A Setting range Setting t [min] t [s] 100 1 5 52 2 10 5 2 1 5 2 .05 – 3.1 – 25.1 – 25.1 – 25.Power System Protection I – 0.4 kVmax = 16. it is normal practice to draw the set operating curves in a common diagram with double log scales. as calculated by the Siemens program CUSS (computer-aided protective grading). 76: O/c time grading diagram The normal way To prove the selectivity over the whole range of possible short-circuit currents. t 7SJ600 Tp = 0.80 kV 0.40 kV 5 10 5 2 fuse fuse TR 52 52 200/5 A Ip = 0.10 – 4. xIn Ip = 0. These diagrams can be manually calculated and drawn point by point or constructed by using templates.10 – 4.0 xIn Tp = 0.2 s I>>= 0.t 100/5 A Bus-C Ip = 0.05 – 3.17 s I>>= ∞ Bus-B Ip = 0.05 – 3. only inverse-time characteristics have been used for this example.1 xIn Tp = 0. 76 shows the relay coordination diagram for the example selected.1 s shorter operating times could have been reached for high-current faults by additionally applying the instantaneous zones I>> of the 7SJ60 relays.4 KV 1.2 s I>>= 0.8/0.01 5 2 .0% VDE 160 HRC fuse 160 A 1000 2 5 10 4 2 Fig.05 s I>>= ∞ 13.10 – 4.1 5 2 . About 0.

In this case. Very inverse characteristics may be used with expulsion-type fuses (fuse cutouts) while extremly inverse versions adapt better to current limiting fuses. Simple consumer-utility interrupts use a power fuse on the primary side of the supply transformers (Fig. Usually a time interval between 0. 77a).Power System Protection Coordination of o/c relays with fuses and low-voltage trip devices The procedure is similar to the above described grading of o/c relays. t1 50 51 Secondary breaker I2>. 77 shows typical examples. Electronic trip devices of LV breakers have long-delay. short-delay and instantaneous zones. Very and extremely inverse characteristics are often more suitable than normal inverse curves in this case. t2 a 0. 77: Coordination of an o/c relay with an MV fuse and a low-voltage breaker trip device 6/44 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . Numerical o/c relays with one inverse time and two definite-time zones can be closely adapted (Fig. the final decision should be made by plotting the curves in the log-log coordination diagram. Time Inverse relay MV 51 other consumers Fuse n a Fuse a) Maximum fault available at HV bus Current 0. 77b).1 and 0.2 seconds LV bus Time MV bus o/c relay I1>. the operating characteristic of the o/c relay at the infeed has to be coordinated with the fuse curve. In any case.2 seconds I>> n LV bus b) Maximum fault level at MV bus Current Fig.2 seconds is sufficient for a safe time coordination. Fig.

The shortest following line has always to be considered (Fig. the reach setting may also be extended to 90%. the line parameters are normally only calculated. The second and third zones have to keep a safety margin of about 15 to 20% to the corresponding zones of the following lines. error (1% for class 5P and 3% for class 10P) and a security margin of about 5%.t. not measured.85 • (ZLA-B+Z1B) Z3A = 0. Where measured line or cable impedances are available.05 ohms for 1 A relays. For the grading of the time intervals of the second and third zones. This allows distance protection of distribution cables down to the range of some 500 meters. 78). The setting of the R values should cover the line resistance and possible arc or fault resistances. A setting of 80–85% is therefore common practice: being 80% used for mechanical relays while 85% can be used for the more accurate numerical relays. This is a further source of errors. 80 s Typical settings of the ratio R/X are: – Short lines and cables (≤ 10 km): R/X = 2 to 10 – Medium line lengths < 25 km: R/X = 2 – Longer lines 25 to 50 km: R/X = 1 Shortest feeder protectable by distance relays The shortest feeder that can be protected by underreach distance zones without the need for signaling links depends on the shortest settable relay reactance.Power System Protection Grading of zone times Operating time t3 t2 t1 Z1A ZLA-B Z2A Z1B ZLB-C Load Z3A Z2B Z1C ZLC-D Load The first zone normally operates undelayed. As a general rule. corresponding to 0. Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/45 . 78: Grading of distance zones RArc = IArc x 2kV/m Iscc Min IArc = Iscc Min = arc length in m minimum short-circuit current X X3A X2A D C B Fig. the same rules as for o/c relays apply (see Fig. the second zone should at least reach 20% over the next station to ensure back-up for busbar faults.Min [Ohm] X’Line [Ohm/km] Coordination of distance relays The reach setting of distance times must take into account the limited relay accuracy including transient overreach (5% according to IEC 255-6). the c.85 • (ZLA-B+Z2B) Fig. For the quadrilateral characteristics (relays 7SA511 and 7SA513) only the reactance values ( X values) have to be considered for the reach setting. X1A A R1A R2A R3A R XPrimary Minimum = = XRelay Min x VTratio CTratio [km] [Ohm] Fig. Fig. Further. 73). and the third zone should cover the largest following line as back-up for the line protection. 79: Operating characteristic of Siemens distance relays 7SA511 and 7SA513 Imin = XPrim. 81 The shortest setting of the numerical Siemens relays is 0. The arc resistance can be roughly estimated as follows: ~ A Z1A = 0.01 ohms for 5 A relays.85 • ZLA-B B C D Load Z2A = 0.

instead of extensive parallel wiring. 82 and 83). meters. to enhance reliability and to reduce overall life cycle cost. switchboards and RTUs are replaced by a few multifunctional.g. Overcurrent relays Ground-fault relays Reclosing relays Auxiliary relays Fig. 20 to 40 cores per bay F F Control Mimic display Pushbuttons Position indicators Interposing relays Local/remote switch Monitoring Indication lamps Measuring instruments Transducers Terminal blocks Miniature circuit breakers Protection e. The traditional conglomeration of often totally different devices such as relays. only a few serial links are used (Fig.Local and Remote Control Introduction State-of-the-art Modern protection and substation control uses microprocessor technology and serial communication to upgrade substation operation. Control of the substation takes place with menu-guided procedures at a central VDU work place. 82 6/46 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . Traditional protection and substation control To network control center Remote terminal unit Alarm annunciation and local control Marshalling rack Approx. And. intelligent devices of uniform design.

83 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/47 .Local and Remote Control Coordinated protection and substation control system LSA 678 System control center VDU Compact central control unit including RTU functions * Keyboard Printer (option) 2 fiber-optic cores per feeder ** Control I/O unit Protection relay Protection Control relay I/O unit shown with open door Low-voltage compartment of the medium-voltage switchgear * The compact central control unit can be located in a separate cubicle or directly in the low-voltage compartment of the switchgear ** Protection relays are serially connected to the control I/O units Fig.

for example. bay and station protection. power. where conventional secondary equipment has to be integrated. The cummunication structure of the control system is designed as a hierarchical star configuration. 7SJ531) are available which integrate all necessary functions of one feeder. breaker-failure protection and metering. For complex substations with multiple busbars. instantaneous values for oscillographic fault recording and time-tagged operating events for fault reporting. 6/48 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . For distribution-type substations combined protection and control feeder units (e. Automatic functions Apart from the provided switchgear interlocking. Furthermore. It now features the following main characteristics: s Coordinated system structure s Optical communication network (star configuration) s High processing power (32-bit MP technology) s Standardized serial interfaces and communication protocols s Uniform design of all components s Complete range of protection and control functions s Comprehensive user-software support packages. half-duplex. including: local feeder control. these functions are often provided as an independent back-up system: s Interlocking and local control 8TK System control center LSA Time signal Operator’s desk PROCESS VDU Station level 1… Supervisory control system 6 MB ”Master unit“ …n Bay level 8TK master unit Interlocking system 8TK ”Bay unit“ Supervisory control system 6 MB ”I/O unit“ Protection 7S ”Bay protection“ Switchyard Serial Fig. a series of automatic functions ensure an effective and secure system operation. voltages. The operation is therefore extremely user-friendly and does not require special training of the operating staff. Optical-fiber connections are preferred to ensure EMI compatibility. Data sharing between protection and control via the so-called informative interface according to IEC 870-5-103 is restricted to noncritical measuring or event recording functions. It operates in the polling procedure with a fixed assignment of the master function to the central unit. protected with a hamming distance d = 4. however. or an easy to handle keyboard with a minimum number of function and cursor keys. telecontrol. switchgear interlocking is integrated as software program in the supervisory control system. System structure and scope of functions The LSA system performs supervisory local control. event and fault recording. and complies with the IEC Standard 870-5. Current/actual measurands can be called up on request. The data transmission mode is asynchronous. All event and alarm annunciations are selectable in form of lists. It is general practice to provide protection of HV and EHV substations as separate. the system also provides self-monitoring of individual components. overcurrent and overload protection. deliver RMS values of currents. such as changing of busbars.Local and Remote Control Technical proceedings The first coordinated protection and substation control system LSA 678 was commissioned in 1986 and continuously further developed in the following years. two important automation functions have been integrated into the system software and are available as options: synchronizing and transformer tap-changer control. Automatic switching sequences. 84).g. At lower voltage levels. switching sequence programs. transformer tap-changer control. The VDU shows overview diagrams and complete details of the switchgear on a color display. but function otherwise completely independently. 84): s Supervisory control 6MB51/52 s Protection 7S**5 Normally. can be user-programmed and started locally or remotely. Each subsystem can operate fully in standalone mode even in the event of loss of communication. The distributed structure also makes the LSA system attractive for refurbishment programs or extensions. synchronizing. Currently (1996) over 400 systems are in successful operation at all voltage levels up to 400 kV. Local bay control is implemented in the bay-dedicated I/O control units. switchgear interlocking. etc. The protection units. It consists of the independent subsystems (Fig. however. The control procedure is menu-guided and uses either a mouse. Supervisory control The substation is monitored and controlled from the operator‘s desk (Fig. higher integrated solutions are accepted for cost reasons. 84: Distributed structure of coordinated protection and control LSA Parallel Communication and data exchange between components is performed via serial data links. Besides the high data transmission security. self-contained relays that can communicate with the control system.

For larger stations with a multiple busbar layout. Compact design A real reduction in space and cost has been achieved by the creation of compact I/O and central units. All units are type tested according to the latest IEC standards. High processing power The processing power of the central control unit has been enormously increased by the introduction of the 32-bit MP technology.Local and Remote Control Both functions run on the relevant bay level units. Bay level parameters are automatically downloaded. a more compact design and provides. 87). the interlocking can be part of the control software. The interlocking system consists of distributed. Static memories A decisive step in direction of user friendliness has been made with the implementation of large nonvolatile Flash EPROM memories. i. even when supervisory control is not available. 87: View of a low-voltage compartment Fig. The performance of these functions corresponds to modern digital stand-alone units. Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/49 . In this way. controlled by the central master unit. The information exchange is performed via serial links in the switchyard. such as the calculation of maximum. directly at the switch panel. The front panel of each unit contains control elements with switch position indicators for local (site) control. 86: Switchgear-integrated control and protection Fig. s Adaptive parameter setting becomes possible from local or remote control levels. This system has also been frequently applied as a standalone function in substations up to 800 kV.) is then possible by means of a special PC program (LSA PROCESS). however. etc. A change of EPROM hardware is no longer necessary when parameters have to be changed or added for the implementation of new functions or the extension of substations. The stored information can be read out locally or remotely by a telephone modem connection. the complete control and protection equipment can be directly integrated into the MV or HV switchgear (Fig. an independent. This permits. fault events or fault oscillograms. digital interlocking system (8TK) with integrated local control elements is applied in many cases. It ensures fail-safe switching and personnel safety down to the lowest control level. with assigned real time is contained as standard function. are: s External auxiliary relay circuits for the selection of measurands are no longer applicable. 85: Digital substation control. Further data evaluation (harmonic analysis. minimum or effective values. 86. in particular on the EVH level. operator desk. The advantages of the integrated solution. on the other hand.e. Analog value processing The further processing of raw measured data. on the one hand. The processing hardware is enclosed in metallic cases with EMI-proof terminals and optical serial interfaces. Fig. A Flash EPROM mass storage can optionally be provided to record measured values. The system parameters can be loaded via a serial port at the front panel of the central unit. feeder-dedicated MP units and one central unit which is normally assigned to the bus-coupler bay. sufficient processing reserve for the future introduction of additional functions. Control of a 400 kV substation (double control unit) Switchgear interlocking and local control In simple distribution stations.

however. Metallic standard cases. Connection to the central control system unit is. also possible. 89: Enhanced remote terminal unit 6MB55. By adding software that runs on the communication processor of the ERTU.Local and Remote Control System control center Management terminal Modem VF Remote control VF Modem Telephone network Substation level ERTU Fig. the different protocol converters can be implemented. Further protocol converters can be provided on demand. 88: Numerical protection. For this purpose. ensure an uncomplicated application comparable to mechanical relays. In many cases an adaption to existing proprietary protocols is necessary. At higher voltage levels. 89). In this way. based upon LSA components. it is possible to enhance the RTU function and to include substation monitoring and control with the same performance level as the decentralized LSA system. for example. Conventional RTUs are connected to the switchgear via interposing relays and measuring transducers with a marshalling rack as a common interface. The serial link between protection and control uses standard protocols in accordance with IEC 870-5-103. a larger number of protocol converters have been developed and an extensive protocol library now exists. IEC 255-tested. In this manner. standard design Numerical protection A complete range of fully digital (numerical) relays is available (see chapter Power System Protection 6/8 and following pages). This applies to the hardware as well as to the software structure and the operating procedures. Additionally a RS232 port is provided on the front panel for the connection of a PC as an MMI. The telecontrol system 6MB55. an enhancement towards the LSA performance level is feasible. The LCD display and setting keypad are integrated. all the necessary protection functions for a line feeder or transformer. The numerical relays are multifunctional and contain. Marshalling rack Printer Operator terminal Bay level Interposing relays. with EMI-secure terminals. main or back-up relays are applied. The new relay generation has extended memory capacity for fault recording (5 seconds. supplier compatibility and interchangeability of protection devices is achieved. when the system control center has been supplied by another manufacturer. They all have a uniform design compatible with the control units (Fig. additional. transducers Existing switchgear Extended switchgear Fig. The total parallel wiring can be left in its original state. Upgrading of existing substations can thus be achieved with a minimum of cost and effort. replaces outdated remote terminal units (Fig. 88). Communication with control centres The LSA system uses protocols that comply with IEC Standard 870-5. The rear terminal block contains an opticalfiber interface for the data communication with the LSA control system. The centralized version of the LSA control system (SINAUT-LSA) can be directly connected to this interface. The relays are normally linked directly to the relevant I/O control unit at the bay level. 6/50 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . 1 ms resolution) and nonvolatile memory for important fault informations. application options Enhanced remote terminal units For substations with existing remote terminal units.

90). PC input Parameterizing Engineering system Documentation Single-line diagram Circuit diagram Device configuration Parameters Function. The system parameters. It ensures that a consistent database for the project is maintained from design to commissioning (Fig. generated by LSATOOLS. LSATOOLS enables the complete configuration. It uses modern graphical presentation management methods. including pull-down menus and multiwindowing.Local and Remote Control Engineering system LSATOOLS In parallel with the upgrading of the central unit hardware. a novel parameterizing and documentation system LSATOOLS has been developed. processing diagram Fig. 91). 90: Engineering system LSATOOLS LSATOOLS parameterization station Documentation CAD system SIGRAPH-ET Network control center Master unit Loading of parameters Downloading of parameters during startup PC inputs Input/output units Fig. parameterization and documentation of the system to be carried out on AT-compatible PC workstations. 91: PC-aided parameterization of LSA 678 with LSATOOLS and downloading of parameters Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/51 . Supplier independent system modifications and extensions are therefore possible. Care has been taken to ensure that changes and expansions are possible without requiring a complete retest of the system. can be serially loaded into the Flash EPROM memory of the central control unit and will then be automatically downloaded to the bay level devices (Fig.

Minicompact device 6MB525 It contains signal inputs and command outputs for substation control. have to be provided by additional measuring transducers.g. The smallest device 6MB525 is designed as a low-cost version and contains only control functions.s.m. These can also provide local indication of measuring values. integral displays for measuring values and LEDs for status indication are provided. It is provided with an RS485-wired serial interface and is normally used for simple distribution-type substations together with overcurrent/overload relays 7SJ60 and digital measuring transducers 7KG60. cos ϕ ) and/or operational parameters (for example r. such as – Limit monitoring of measured values. P. the integrated bay control panel of the 8TK interlocking system can be used. e. Higher-level control system Telecontrol channel Station control center Central evaluation station (PC) Telephone channel Normal time Master control unit 6MB51 Station level 1 n Switchgear interlock master unit 8TK2 1 n Station protection 7SS5 Bay level Switchgear interlock bay unit 8TK1 Bay control unit 6MB52 Protection relays 7S/7U Substation Serial interface Parallel interface Fig. including initiation of responses to limit violations – Calculation of derived operational measured values (e.g. and contain additional measuring functions. Analog measuring inputs. The input/output devices have the following tasks on the bay control level: s Signal acquisition s Acquisition of measured and count values s Monitoring the execution of master control unit commands. 6/52 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . slave pointer) from the logged instantaneous values for current and voltage – Deciding how much information to transmit to the control master unit in each polling cycle – Generation of group signals and deriving of signals internally. where applicable. Bay control units A complete range of devices is available to meet the particular demands concerning process signal/capacity and functionality (see Fig. or. 16-character alphanumeric display. One measuring value or other preprocessed information can be displayed on the 2-row. values. Q.g. For local bay control an additional small mimic board with control elements (device 6MB531) can be added. where needed. (see application example. Compact devices 6MB522/523 They provide a higher number of signal inputs and outputs.Local and Remote Control Substation control system 6MB51/52 In the 6MB51/52 substation control system the functions are distributed between station and bay control levels. 118). and an RS232 serial interface on the front side for connection of an operating PC. All units are built-up in modern 7XP20 housings and can be directly installed in the low-voltage compartments of the switchgear or in separate cubicles. from self-monitoring s Switchgear-related automation tasks – Switching sequences in response to switching commands or to process events – Transformer control – Synchronization s Transmission of data from numerical protection relays to the control master unit s Local display of status and measured values. e. 98). the measuring functions of the numerical protection relays can be used. The local bay control is intended to be performed by the existing. switchgear integrated mechanical control. Fig. 92: LSA 678 protection and substation control system with the 6MB substation control system All further bay control devices contain an optic serial interface for connection to the central control unit. for – Control of switchgear – Transformer step changing – Setting of Peterson coils Data processing. type 7KG60. Further. Alternatively.

Fig. overload. 1 x I 3 x U. Only one unit is needed per feeder. performed by the additionally integrated keypad. Measured value display and local bay control is performed in the same way as with the bay control unit 6MB524 with a large display and a keypad. 1 x I 3 x U. In distributiontype substations. It provides all control and measuring functions needed for switchgear bays up to the EHV level.Local and Remote Control Compact devices with bay control 6MB524 This bay control device can be delivered in four versions dependent on the peripheral requirements. motor or transformer feeders. Q calculation Double commands and alarms also usable as ”single“ Minicompact* Compact* * * * Compact with local (bay) control and large display Combined control and protection device with local (bay) control 6MB525 6MB523 6MB522-0 6MB522-1 6MB522-2 6MB5240-0 -1 -2 -3 7SJ531 2 1 3 6 6 4 6 8 20 1 – – 1 2 2 1 1 2 5 – 6 3 3 6 6 8 12 16 40 – – 5 5 10 10 – – – – – Double commands and alarms also usable as ”single“ * Local (bay) control has to be provided separately (device 6MB531). 98: Standardized input/output devices with serial interfaces Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/53 . 3 x I 9 x U. 3 x I 4 x U. 96: Compact I/O unit with local (bay) control 6MB5240-0 Fig. in this case. measuring values and alarms are indicated on a large alphanumeric display. Space. Bay control is. 6 x I 3 x U. 2 x I 2 x U. control and measuring functions for simple line/cable. Combined protection and control device 7SJ531 This fully integrated device provides all protection. 94: Compact I/O device 6MB523 Fig. Protection is limited to overcurrent. 95: Compact I/O device 6MB522 Fig. 3 x I Components Connection to measure transducer – – 2 – 2 1 2 2 5 Double commands and alarms also as ”single“ configurable for simple switchgear cubicles with one switching device with P. autoreclosure. 3 x I 3 x U. 93: Minicompact I/O device 6MB525 Fig. Fig. Switching status. 97: Combined protection and control device 7SJ531 Design Type Commands Double Single Signal inputs Double Single Analog inputs Direct connection to transformer – 1xI 2 x U. Measuring instruments can therefore be widely dispensed with. mechanical local control of the switchchgear is normally sufficient. assembly and wiring costs can therefore be considerably reduced. ground-fault and breaker-failure protection.

automatic transfer of control of the process to the redundant control master unit. System monitoring then consists of mutual error recognition and. variations in measured values and fault records on mass storage units s Time synchronization using radio clock (GPS. In these cases. 6/54 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . controls the interaction between the control centers in the substation and the higher control levels. This is for the purpose of controlling and monitoring activities at the substation and network control levels as well as providing data for use by engineers. It can be operated at a distance from the station. if necessary. 100: SINAUT LSA PC station control center with function keyboard System monitoring primarily involves evaluating the self-monitoring results of the devices and serial interfaces which are coordinated by the control master unit. built into a switchgear cubicle top unit) or as s A laptop (also portable). Extended version 6MB514 for 64 serial interfaces to bay control units (double width) additionally available Fig. the control master unit coordinates communication s to the higher network control levels s to the substation control center s to an analysis center located either in the station or connected remotely via a telephone line using a modem s to the input/output devices and/or the numerical protection units (bay control units) s to lower-level stations. with its 32-bit 80486 processor. These correspond to the eight function keys. The station control center can take the form of s A standard PC with selectable monitor size s An industry-standard PC (e. The 6MB51 control master unit manages the input/output devices. two control master units are connected to each other via a serial interface. 99: Compact control master unit 6MB513 for a maximum of 32 serial interfaces to bay control units. The SINAUT LSA station control center The standard equipment of the station control centre includes s The function keyboard with eight function keys and four cursor control keys or (alternatively) a full PC keyboard optionally with a mouse s The PC with color monitor and LSACONTROL software package for displaying – A station overview – Detailed plant displays – Event and alarm lists – Alarm information s A printer for the output of reports. In particular. DCF77 or Rugby) or using a signal from a higher-level control station s Automation tasks affecting more than one bay: – Parallel control of transformers – Synchronizing (measured value selection) – Switching sequences – Busbar voltage simulation – Switchgear interlocking s Parameter management to meet the relevant requirements specification s Self-monitoring and system monitoring. The operator can access the required information or initiate the desired operation quickly and safely with just a few key strokes.Local and Remote Control The 6MB51 control master unit This unit lies at the heart of the 6MB substation control system and. important EHV substations. Various operating options are clearly displayed in the eight menu fields on the color monitor. It is a compact unit inside the standard housing used in Siemens substation secondary equipment. satisfies the most demanding requirements.g. Fig. Specifically. processes information for the entire station and archives data in accordance with the parameterized requirements of the user. Other tasks of the control master unit are s Event logging with a time resolution of 1 or 10 ms s Archiving of events. Two station control centers can be installed if required by the user. some users require redundancy of the control master unit.

m. Tasks of the input/output unit The input/output unit performs the following bay-related tasks: s Fast distributed acquisition of process data such as indications. the new microprocessor-controlled technology benefits from the distribution of tasks to the central control master unit and the distributed input/output units and of the serial data exchange in telegrams between these units. display and registration of analog values s Acquisition.t. as well as distance-to-fault location. operation with the mouse can be supplied. In this way. Serial data exchange The serial data exchange between the bay components and the control master unit has important economic advantages. This is especially true when one considers the preparation and forwarding of the information via serial data link to the control center communication module which is a component of the control master unit. i. Alternatively. Control master unit The process data acquired in the input/output unit are scanned cyclically by the control master unit. The contents of the diagrams and lists can be parameterized. To simplify operation. system-compatible microprocessor module on which both the telecontrol tasks and telegram adaptation to telegram structures of existing remote transmission systems are implemented.s and v. s A mass storage. they can be altered subsequently. Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/55 . display and registration of alarms and fault indications in real time s Metered-value acquisition and processing s Fault recording s Transformer open-loop and closed-loop control s Synchronizing/paralleling Unlike the previous conventional technology with completely centralized processing of these tasks and complicated parallel wiring and marshalling of process data. s A printer for on-line logging (event list). The control master unit performs further information processing of all data called from the feeders for station tasks ”local control and telecontrol“ with the associated event logging and fault recording and therefore replaces the complicated conventional marshalling distributor racks. VDU with function keyboard The display is output via the VDU.Local and Remote Control Local control functions Tasks of local control The Siemens 6MB station control system performs at first all tasks for conventional local control: s Local control of and checkback indications from the switching devices s Acquisition. event and alarm indication. The required r. Note fields in the lower portion of the screen are assigned to eight function keys.s. a function keyboard is normally used instead of an alphanumeric keyboard with only eight function keys and five keys for cursor positioning. Serial protection interface All protection indications and fault recording data acquired for fault analysis in protection relays are called by the control master unit via the serial interface. 101: Fiber-optic connections on the control master unit Station control center The peripheral devices for operating and visualization (station control center) are also connected to the control master unit.e. This makes the station control independent of the telecontrol technology and the associated telegram structure used in the network control center at a higher level of the hierarchy. sampled with a resolution of 1 ms. These contain a text indicating what is executed or selected with the key. analog values and switching device positions and their preprocessing and buffering s Command output and monitoring s Assignment of the time for each event (time tag) s Isolation from the switchyard via heavyduty relay contacts s Run-time monitoring s Limit value supervision s Paralleling. Handling is simplified as ”user guidance“ is used. Marshalling is implemented under microprocessor control in the control master unit. values for current and voltage are digitized and calculated as well as active and reactive power.t. Fig. various detailed diagrams and lists can be selected. control. The following devices are part of the station control center: s A color VDU with a function keyboard or mouse for display. These include instantaneous values for fault current and voltage of all phases and earth. The advantage is that separate measuring cores and analog value transducers for operational measurement are eliminated. Analog values can be input to the bay control unit both via analog value transducers and by direct connection to c.s. This module is a single.

This display shows the switching state of all switching devices of the feeders. Example event list (Fig. The lower section of the event list shows examples of raised (RAI) and cleared (CLE) alarm indications. The texts chosen are suggestions and can be parameterized differently. 104 shows a section of this event list as it appears on the VDU.g.g. all events can also be continuously logged in chronological order on the associated printer. such as ”voltage transformer miniature-circuit-breaker tripped“. At the same time.e. The actual command is output using another key. too. in an office. Communication then takes place via a telephone-modem connection. ON or OFF. new functions are assigned to the fields along the bottom edge of the screen. e. Function field control In the menu of the function fields. The locally or remotely readable memory permits evaluation of the data using a PC. voltage. because of a drive fault. 6/56 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . Mass storage It is also possible to store historic fault data. This static memory is completely maintenancefree when compared to floppy or hard disc systems. permitting clear and fast fault analysis. This system with representation in the alarm list therefore supersedes danger alarm equipment with two-frequency blinking lamps traditionally used with conventional equipment. Fig. operational data. 8Mbyte of recorded data can be stored. If the operator wants to switch a device. This diagram is used to give the operator a quick overview of the entire switchyard status and shows. for example. By pressing key “Control“. e. When the function key for the required position of a switchig device is pressed. such as load-monitoring values (current. The appearance of this event list is identical to that on the VDU. In this danger alarm concept a distinction is made between cleared and raised and between acknowledged and unacknowledged indications. for example. the switching device in question is operated. i. In this way. fault recording data and events on mass-storage medium. Example alarm list (Fig. e. the ”command output“ key. the appropriate device is selected by the usual mouse operation. Once the switching command has been executed and a checkback signal has been received. It is not possible to perform control actions from the switchyard overview. cleared indications are green (similar to the fast/slow blinking lamp principle). This personal computer can be set up separately from the control equipment. As stated above. Current and other analog values can also be displayed. Fig. This fault has been remedied as can be seen from the corresponding cleared indication. indicates that a fault indication has been received that is stored in a separate ”warning list“. This can be seen by the index ”+“ of the command (OP). 104) The date can be seen in the left-hand area and the events are shown in order of priority. say ”110 kV detailed diagram“. 103) appears. The cursor is now positioned on the switching device to be switched. In addition to fault recording data. The letter Q is placed in front of an indication that has not yet been acknowledged. the blinking symbol changes to the new actual state on the VDU. OFF. is also displayed.Local and Remote Control Switchyard overview diagram A switchyard single-line diagram can be configured to show an overview of the substation. otherwise ”OP–“ would appear. A command that is accepted by the control system is also displayed. the relevant fault indications or notes are displayed on the screen. The fault location. The letter S in the top line. Information about raised or cleared operational and alarm indications are also displayed along the top edge of the screen. the 110 kV detailed diagram (Fig.) and events can be stored. If the switchgear device itself does not execute the command. If the appropriate function key is pressed. switching operations can be performed very simply and absolutely without error. 17 km in this case. Switching commands and fault indications are displayed with a precision of up to 1 ms and events with high priority and protection indications after a fault-detection are shown with millisecond resolution. The event list can be displayed on the VDU whenever called or printed out on a printer or stored on a mass-storage medium. 102: Compact I/O unit with local (bay) control. the switching device blinks in the switch position to which it is to move (control acknowledgement switch principle). the yellow signal of the cursor control jumps to the first switching device in the top left-hand corner of the screen. ”FB+“ results after successful command execution. extended version 6MB5240-3 Event list All events are logged in chronological order. which feeders are connected or disconnected. Indications that are raised and cleared and acknowledged are displayed in white in the list. 105) When the alarm list is selected. power. At this point it is still possible to check whether the selected switching command is really to be executed. for example. called the indication bar. ”FB–“ (checkback negative) indicates this. he has to select a detailed diagram. etc. In the case where a mouse is available. The real time is shown in the left-hand column and the relative time with millisecond precision in the right-hand column. it is possible. Raised indications are shown in red. it is displayed on the VDU. The event list shows that a protection fault-detection (general start GS) has occurred with all the associated details. If the command is found to be safe after a check has been made for violations of interlock conditions. It can accept data from the control master units and stores it on Flash EPROMs. to select between control switching devices and tap changing. If commands violate the interlock conditions or if the switch position is not adopted by a switching device.g.

example: detailed diagram of a 110 kV switchgear on the VDU Fig. a three-phase fault to ground occurred. 12 ms after the general start. 105: 6MB substation control. Approx. 120 ms the protection reset. which can be seen by the rise in phase currents and the ground current. 104: 6MB substation control. example: fault recording Example fault recording (Fig. example: event list on the VDU Fig. 106). 103: 6MB substation control. The high-voltage feeder protection presently includes a time range of at least 5 seconds for the fault recording. The important point is that this fault recording is possible in all feeders that are equipped with the microprocessor-controlled protection having a serial interface according to IEC 870-5-103.Local and Remote Control Fig. the millisecond-precision values for the phase currents and voltages and the ground current and ground voltage are buffered in the feeder protection. Voltage recovery after disconnection was recorded up to 600 ms after the general start. 106). 106: 6MB substation control system. Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/57 . the fault was cleared. 106) After a fault. After approx. These values are called from the numerical feeder protection by the control master unit and can be output as curves with the program OSCGRA (Fig.e. i. This format permits quick and clear analysis of a fault. 5 ms before the general start. example: alarm list on the VDU Fig. The time marking 0 indicates the time of fault detection. The correct operation of the protection and the circuit breaker can be seen in the fault recording (Fig. the relay general start (GS). the circuit breaker was tripped (OFF) and after further 80 ms.

108: Switchgear interlocking bay unit with local (bay) control and indication 6/58 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . 107: Function overview of the 8TK switchgear interlocking system Fig. It is usually assigned to the bus tie of the multiple busbar system. The switchgear interlocking central unit communicates with the feeder units via separate shielded four-wire serial data lines separate from other control components. Further bay units Interlocking bay unit Interlocking master unit Interlocking bay unit Further bay units Shielded cables Shielded cables SCC bay unit SCC bay unit SCC bay unit OF Substation control (SSC) Parallel wiring OF OF Serial connection Optical fibers Fig. the switchyard connection and the interlock conditions. 109 shows the equipment of a switchyard with a switchgear interlocking central unit and the associated switchgear interlocking bay units. Serial connection of the switchgear interlocking units The switchgear interlocking feeder units are connected to the switchgear interlocking central unit in a star configuration via the serial connections. the switchgear interlocking bay unit performs a combination of local control and bay-internal interlocking. 108 shows the bay control unit with integrated local control mimic pad and control keys. For each switching bay. The advantages of this star configuration are: s Considerably reduced wiring for switchyard interlocking s Higher availability s Monitoring of the serial data exchange s Simple expansion s Self-monitoring of the switchgear interlocking units. Switchgear interlocking central unit A switchgear interlocking central unit is available for cross-bay switchyard interlocking.Local and Remote Control Switchgear interlocking system Switchgear Switchgear interlocking bay unit The Siemens 8TK switchgear interlocking is used in multiple busbar switchyards with power-operated switching devices. Fig. Fig.

21.“).Local and Remote Control Use and application The switchgear interlocking system can be used both as an autonomous system and as a component of the overall coordinated protection and substation control system. 30 Q 1. 31 Q0 Q7 Q51 Q52 Q75 Q0 Q6 Q0 Q9 Q7 Central unit for a maximum of 14 switching devices for a bus tie/bus coupler Large bay unit for a maximum of 14 switching devices Station Power supply Small bay unit for a maximum of 6 switching devices Small bay unit for a maximum of 6 switching devices Serial datatransmission line * Nuclear Electrical Magnetic Pulse Fig. in the immediate vicinity of the switchyard. It can therefore replace the traditional hardwired switchgear interlocking devices used so far with decisive added advantages. the rest of the switchyard can also be operated subject to the switchyard interlocking conditions and the last switching device positions of the defective bay. 2. In both applications. 3 Q 1. Section 4. These tests for dielectric strength and especially for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) have shown that the new microprocessor-controlled technology can even be used in the immediate vicinity of extrahigh-voltage switchgears. Moreover. This is even possible if the power supply module has failed in a bay. even in the event of faults in one bay. 20. Extensive tests have been run with the switchgear interlocking equipment both in the laboratory and in high-voltage and extra-high-voltage switchyards including the NEMP* test. 2. i. the switchgear interlocking has been consistently matched to the requirements of the switchgear. Q 15. 25. 2. This means that safe operation of the switchyard is ensured in the event of failure of a higher-level control system taking both the bay-internal interlocking and the overall switchgear interlocking into account. The switchgear interlocking was the first supplied subsystem of coordinated substation control and protection. the switchgear interlocking system is always the back-up control system in the lowest control level. 3 Q 11. 109: 8TK switchgear interlocking system in a high-voltage switchyard with triple busbar system Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/59 . This ensures that the device where the fault was detected does not perform malfunctions or maloperations.4 (safe local operation) and DIN 31 005 (”The interlock acts by blocking or releasing in the event of element initiation on condition that it is only possible to change between blocking and releasing if all other elements are in their defined initial positions. 3 Q 1. The interlocks do not have a gap anywhere and deserve the designation ”switchgear interlocking“. 35 Q 10. In accordance with DIN VDE 101. The defective bay can in an emergency still be operated authorized personnel using a keyswitch.e.

Each bay has at least one input/output unit for control (bay control unit) and one protection unit. Bay 1 2 n Bus coupler SIL(B) FPR IOU SIL(B) FPR IOU Relay kiosks SIL(B) FPR IOU SIL(M) FPR IOU Control building To the network control center CSM with CCC and MS Modem To the operations and maintenance office Parallel Serial VDU Key: CSM CCC MS VDU Control system master unit Control center coupling Mass storage Visual display unit FPR SIL(B) SIL(M) IOU Feeder protection relays Switchgear interlocking bay unit Switchgear interlocking master unit Control input/output unit Fig. safe interlocked switching is even possible when the main control system has failed. the protection is normally doubled (main. Application in high-voltage substations with relay kiosks Fig. It also provides integrated local (bay) control functions with control switches and a small mimic pad that displays isolator and circuit breaker positions. In this way. In extra-high-voltage. Each two bays (line or transformer) are assigned to one kiosk. 110 shows the arrangement of the local components. 110: Application example of outdoor HV or EHV substations with relay kiosks 6/60 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . For important substations an independent switchgear interlocking system is additionally recommended.Local and Remote Control Application examples The flexible use of the components of the Coordinated Protection and Substation Control System LSA 678 is demonstrated in the following for some typical application examples.and back-up protection). The protection relays are serially connected to the bay control unit by optical-fiber links.

the DC supply. mainly extra-high-voltage. In these substations.Local and Remote Control Network control center Printer Control/ annunciation Printer Control/ annunciation In extremely important substations. 111: System concept with double central control Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/61 . the feeder protection. there exists a doubling philosophy. In such cases. 111). The operation management can be switched over between the two master units (Fig. the station control system with its serial connections. Control system master unit 1 with mass storage 1 Local control level Bay control level Control center coupling Switchover and monitoring* Control center coupling Control system master unit 2 with mass storage 2 •••••••••••• •••••••••••• •••••••••• ProtecControl tion relay input/ output unit Switchgear interlocking •••••••••••• Switchgear interlocking Control input/ output unit Protection relay Feeder 1 Switchgear Feeder n *only principle shown Parallel Serial Fig. the operating coils and the telecontrol interface are doubled. and the master unit with the control center coupling can also be doubled. Both master units are brought up-to-date in signal direction.

H. The feeder protection and the compact input/output units are.g. however. 113) to save costs. Control room Switchgear room Switchgear bay 1 bay 2 … Bus coupler VDU To the office Modem SIL(B) SIL(B) Control FPR IOU To the network control center FPR IOU and protection cubicles SIL(M) FPR IOU CSM Parallel Serial Key: CSM Control system master with control SIL(B) Switchgear interlocking bay unit center coupling and mass storage SIL(M) Switchgear interlocking master unit VDU Monitor IOU Control input/output unit FPR Feeder protection relays Fig. There is now a trend to apply combined control and protection units. Thus. such as input/output unit. They are connected to the control system master unit in the same way as described in the outdoor version via fiber-optic cables. metering (current display) and has an integrated bay control with mimic and LCD pad.Local and Remote Control Application in indoor high-voltage substations The following example (Fig. preferably installed in the low-voltage compartment of the feeders (Fig.g. 7SD5 line differential protection) Control system master unit with optical-fiber link 4 5 Fig. feeder protection and switchgear interlocking system are also grouped per bay and installed close to the switchgear. 112: Application example of indoor substations with switchgear interlocking system Protection and substation control LSA 678 with input/output units and numerical protection installed in low-voltage compartments of the switchgear VDU with keyboard Printer Network control center Operation place 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 Feeder protection unit (e. only one device is needed per cable. motor or O. Application in medium voltage substations The same basic arrangement is also applicable to medium-voltage (distribution-type) substations (Fig. provides protection.g. line feeder. 113: Protection and substation control system LSA 678 for a distribution-type substation 6/62 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . 113 and 114). All decentralized control system components. for example. The relay 7SJ531. 7UT51 transformer protection) Feeder I/O contol unit (e. 6MB524) Combined control and protection feeder unit 7SJ531 Miniature I/O unit 6MB525 Feeder protection (e. 112) shows an indoor high-voltage switchgear.

it is approx. The current input at the input/output unit is dimensioned for 100xIN. The current is connected in series between the devices. ON/OFF 2) close or 2) open close or 2) trip Protection core I Short-circuiting facility U 1) For o/c feeder protection or motor protection also as combined control and protection unit 7SJ531 available 2) Only one circuit shown Serial data connection Fig. The accuracy of the operational measurements depends on the protection characteristics. 115: Principle wiring diagram of the medium-voltage feeder components Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/63 . 114: Application example of medium-voltage switchgear Plug-in module Switching status Control I/0 unit 1) 6MB52 Numerical 1) Protection c. If more exact values are required.t. The plug-in modules have a short-circuiting facility to avoid opening of c. Normally. Thus.b. 2% of IN. The voltages between the input/output unit and the protection can be paralleled at the input/output unit because the plug-in modules have a double connection facility. The serial interface of the protection is connected to the input/output unit.Local and Remote Control Control room Switchgear room Bus coupler VDU To the office Switchgear Modem IOU FPR IOU FPR CSM IOU FPR Parallel Serial To the network control center Fig. circuits. The protection data is transferred to the control master unit via the connection between the input/output unit and the master unit. 115 shows an example for the most simple wiring of the feeder units. 1 s (protection dimensioning). a separate measuring core must be provided. Key: CSM Control system master with mass storage and control center coupling VDU Monitor FPR Feeder protection relay IOU Input/output unit For o/c feeder or motor protection also as one combined unit (7SJ531) available Fig. only one serial connection to the master unit is required per feeder.

the mini-compact I/O units 6MB5250 and the measuring transducers 7KG60 each have RS 485 communication interfaces and are connected to a bus of a twisted pair of wires. The type has to be selected according to the following requirements: s Number of command outputs They can also be used for load monitoring and indication (accuracy about 2% of rated value). The device selection is discussed at the following example. lower 115 kV 13. For exact time synchronization of 1 millisecond accuracy. The o/c relays 7SJ60. temperatures) to be monitored. binary coded meter values. Currents (rated 1 A or 5 A ) or voltages (normally rated 100 to 110 V) can be directly connected to the bay control units.8 kV 5 feeders 5 feeders Single signal input Double signal input Double command Single command Fig. color monitor. tap changer positions. page 6/53). printers. isolators and other equipment to be centrally or remotely controlled. 10 outgoing feeders and a bus tie. etc. Example: Substation control configuration Fig. Substation control center It normally consists of a PC with a special control keyboard or normal keyboard with a mouse. breaker and isolator positions. Incoming transformer bays OF OF OF To the central control unit 6MB5240-2 HV 7SJ511 7UT512 M M 50/ 51 87T RTD's 63 I V M M Data acqusition 1 x DSI 1 x DSI 1 x DSI 1 x DSI 8 x DSI Isolator HV side Circuit breaker HV side Isolator MV side Circuit breaker MV side Transformer tap-changer positions Alarm Buchholz 1 1 x SSI Alarm Buchholz 2 1 x SSI 3 x V. Numerical protection relays also acquire and process currents and voltages.g. 117 for the incoming transformer feeders and in Fig. currents and other analog values (e. higher. bay. 118 for the outgoing line feeders. No transducers are required. s Number of digital signal inputs as the sum of alarms. The required inputs and outputs at bay level are listed in Fig. The stated double commands are normally provided for double-pole (”+“ and ”–“) control of trip or closing coils. etc. to be acquired. processed or monitored. Recommendations for the selection of the protection relays are given in the section System Protection (6/8 and following pages). 116 shows the arrangement of a typical distribution-type substation with two incoming transformers. This is often practised in distribution-type substations. 116: Typical distribution-type substation Fig. The basic equipment can be chosen according to the following criteria: Central control master unit has to be chosen according to the number of bay control units to be serially connected: s 6MB513 for a maximum of 32 serial interfaces s 6MB514 for a maximum of 64 serial interfaces At the most 9 more serial interfaces are available for connection of data channels to load despach centers. Each double-pole command can be separated into two single-pole commands where stated (Fig.t. local substation control PCs. 98. 117: Typical I/O signal requirements for a transformer bay 6/64 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . The low-cost solution 7SJ60 + 6MB5250 should be selected where switchgear integrated mechanical local control is acceptable. 3 x J. Bay control units Normally. 8 xϑ Measuring values MV that means the sum of circuit breakers. the bus tie and the v. a separate bay control unit is assigned to every substation bay. The selection of the combined control/protection units 7SJ531 is recommended when local control at bay level is to be provided by the bay control unit.Local and Remote Control System configuration The system arrangement depends on the type of substation. Each bay control unit is connected to the central control unit via fiber-optic cables (graded index fibers).8 kV 115 kV 13. a GPS or DCF77 receiver with antenna may be used. the number of feeders and the required control and protection functions. the number of analog inputs of the bay control units can be reduced. Position monitoring requires double signal inputs while single inputs are sufficient for normal alarms. Typical distribution-type substation Control 2 x DCO 2 x DCO 2 x DCO 2 x DCO 2 x SCO 1 x SCO SSI DSI DCO SCO Isolator HV side Circuit breaker HV side Isolator MV side Circuit breaker MV side Tap changer. In this way. LSA CONTROL software and a printer for the output of reports. A converter RS485 to fiber-optic is therefore additionally provided to adapt the serial wire link to the fiber-optic inputs of the central unit. s Number of analog inputs depends on the number of voltages.

Local and Remote Control To load dispatch center Central control unit To transformer feeders 6MB513 GPS VDU Printer (option) Mass storage OF OF RS485/O F OF RS485 7KG60 6MB 7SJ60 5250 6MB 7SJ60 5250 6MB 7SJ60 5250 7SJ531 7SJ531 51 M 51 M 51 M 51 M 51 Voltage tronsformer-bay Per feeder 1 x DSI 1 x DSI 1 x DSI 5 x SSI Isolator Grounding switch Circuit breaker 5 alarms Bus tie Per feeder 1 x DSI 1 x DSI Isolator Grounding switch Circuit breaker 5 alarms 1 x DSI 9 x SSI Circuit breaker 9 alarms 1 x DSI 5 x SSI 1 x 7KG60 Control Load currents are taken from the protection relays Measuring values (3 x V. 118: Typical I/O signal requirements for feeders of a distribution-type substation Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/65 . 3 x I) from protection 2 x DCO Circuit breaker 2 x DCO Circuit breaker 2 x DCO Circuit breaker Fig.

The result is the 6MB551 enhanced remote terminal unit (ERTU). The following options are possible: s Radio clock s Serial interfaces to system control System control center Station control center (option) Central evaluation station (PC) Remote control channel Radio time (option) Enhanced terminal unit 6MB551 1 … … n Switchgear interlock master unit 8TK2 Marshalling rack Transducers and relays interposing (option) Telephone channel Station protection 7SS5 Station control level Bay control level (option) Switchgear interlock bay unit 8TK1 Protection relay 7S/7U Input/output device 6MB52* Substation Serial interface Extension to substation Parallel interface Fig. 119: Protection and substation control with the enhanced terminal unit 6MB551 centers (up to 3) with separate communication protocols each. this figure can be increased even further. Fig. i. These distributed input/output devices can then be connected via serial interface to the telecontrol equipment.e. This version is limited to a baseframe plus one extension frame with altogether 33 I/O modules. In one unit. however. The bus can be extended to further frames by parallel interfaces. more than 4 000 data points can be addressed and. The 6MB551 station control unit therefore has the basic structure of a remote terminal unit but offers all the functions of the 6MB51/52 substation control system such as: s Operating and monitoring from station control level s Serial connection of numerical protection equipment s Archiving of process results and events s Implementation of automation tasks. The functions of the inupt/output devices have been taken away from the bays and relocated to the central unit at station control level. The 6MB551 station control unit simplifies the incorporation of extensions to the substation by using the decentralized 6MB52* input/output devices for the additional substation bays. totally 6 x 21 – 5 = 121). Special plug-in modules for control and acquisition of process signals are used instead of the bay dedicated input/output devices: s Digital input (32 DI) s Analog input (32 AI grouped. installed in an 8MC standard cubicle with baseframe and expansion frame 6/66 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . The 6MB551 station control unit can therefore be expanded from having simple telecontrol data processing functions to assuming the complex functionality of a substation control system. 16 AI isolated) s Command output (32 CO) and s Command enabling These modules communicate with the central 6MB modules in the same frame via the internal standard LSA bus. as applicable s Up to 64 serial fiber-optic interfaces to distributed bay control units s Expanded measured-value processing s Logic and automatic programs s Mass storage s Up to 5 expansion frames Configuration including signal I/O modules can be parameterized as desired. the rack design and the connection technology. The modules and the bus system have been kept. The 6MB551 RTU system is also available as standard cubicle version SINAUT LSA COMPACT 6MB5540. The same applies to the process signal capacity. have been cost-optimized (fixed rack only and plug connectors). 120: 6MB551 enhanced remote terminal unit. Additional parameterization takes care of their actual integration in the operational hierarchy. by means of serial interfacing of subsystems. Up to 121 signal I/O modules can be used (21 per frame minus one in the baseframe for each expansion frame.Local and Remote Control Enhanced remote terminal units 6MB551 The 6MB55 telecontrol system is based on the same hardware and software modules as the 6MB51/52 substation control system.

data processing and remote control of substations. process signal volumes Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/67 . 122: 6MB5530-0 minicompact RTU for small process signal capacity Fig. The compact versions 6MB552/553 of SINAUT LSA are intended to be used in smaller substations. configurable 2 – * Further 3 minicompact RTUs can be serially connected in cascade for extension (maximum distance 100 m) With switching-current check 2) Potential free 1) Fig.Local and Remote Control Remote terminal units (RTUs) The following range of intelligent RTUs are designed for high-performance data acquisition. 125: Remote terminal units. 124: 6MD2010 telecontrol system for large process signal capacity 6MB5530-0A 6MB5530-0B 6MB5530-0C 6MB5531-0A 6MB5531-0C 8 8 8 8 8 8 24 32 8 32 – 1 additional gateway – Compact RTU 6MB552-0A 6MB552-0B 6MB552-0C 6MB552-0D 6MD2010 331)/8 331)/8 331)/8 8 72 40 104 136 32 162) – – 1 7 Telecontrol system SINAUT RTU up to 2000 data points. while the version 6MD2010 of SINAUT RTU has the full functionality for control of large substations with up to 2000 data points. 123: 6MB5530-1 remote terminal unit (RTC) with cable-shield communication Design Type Single Alarm commands inputs Analog Serial ports inputs to control centres – 8 – – – – 1 Serial ports to bay units Minicompact RTU* Remote terminal unit with cable shield communication (RTC) Fig. 121: 6MB552 compact RTU for medium process signal capacity Fig. Fig.

For the user. It does not need a separate signaling link. Fig. 128 shows as an example the structure of a remote control network for monitoring and control of a local supply network. 126: RTU interfaces Cable-shield communication The minicompact RTU can be delivered in a special version for communication via cable shield (Type 6MB5530-1). gas. sewage. The coded voice frequency (9. The special modem for cable-shield communication is integrated in the RTU. Automation Functions The SINAUT RTU telecontrol system is based on SIMATIC S7-400. For the communication with protection relays.5 to ± 20 mA DC) (Fig. 126). A typical task is the central monitoring or control and automation of geographically widespread processes. which provides numerous communication options and a universal automation system. Fig. transducers Existing switchgear * Only for compact RTU 6MB552 Fig. such as networks for electricity. it opens up the possibility to introduce project-specific functions for local automation tasks. water.4 and 9. district heating. They can be configured with minimum engineering effort. combined with the features offered by the user-programmable SIMATIC S7-400 automation system. 127: VF coupler with ferrite core 35 mm 6/68 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . the IEC standard 870-5-103 is implemented. System control center Modem Telecontrol channel Substation level RTU Modem Optical fiber Marshalling rack * * Protection relays and I/O units Extended switchgear * Bay level Interposing relays. The communication protocols for the serial connection to system control centers can be IEC standard 870-5-101 or the Siemens proprietary protocols 8FW. pollution control. traffic and industry.Local and Remote Control RTU-interfaces The descripted RTUs are connected to the switchgear via interposing relays and measuring transducers (± 2. Serial connection of numerical protection relays and control I/O units is possible with the compact RTU type 6MB552.9 kHz) is coupled to the cable shield with a special ferrite core (35 mm window diameter) as shown in Fig. oil. 127.

Local and Remote Control Higher telecontrol level Power cable (typically 5 km) … Modem (optional) Branch 1 VF couplers Signal loop VF couplers VF couplers VF couplers Modem Channel 1 Channel 2 Modem Channel 1 Channel 2 Mini RTU 6MB5530-1 (RTC) Mini RTU 6MB5530-1 (RTC) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Multiplexer (optional) Modem Channel 1 Channel 2 Distribution station … Branch 2 … 1st station of branch 1 Distribution station 16th station of branch 1 Power cable (typically 5 km) … VF couplers Signal loop VF couplers VF couplers Modem Channel 1 Channel 2 Communication control unit 6MB5530-1 (CCU) Modem Channel 1 Channel 2 VF couplers Mini RTU 6MB5530-1 (RTC) Mini RTU 6MB5530-1 (RTC) Substation 1st station of branch 8 Substation 16th station of branch 8 Fig. 128: Remote control network based on remote terminal units with cable-shield communication Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/69 .

5 446 All dimensions in mm.8 ø6 277.3 13.5 172 37 39 7. Fig.2 Rear view 225 220 13.4 ø 5 or M4 266 244 245 255.2 7.3 Panel cutout 206.5 All dimensions in mm. 129: Compact central control unit 6MB513 221 6MB5140 Rear view Panel cutout Side view 29. 130: Compact central control unit 6MB514 6/70 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . Fig.5 180 5.2 431.8 ø6 277.5 172 37 39 7.5 405 5.Local and Remote Control Panel cutout and drilling dimensions 6MB5130 Side view 29.4 ø5 266 245 255.2 450 445 7.3 13.3 13.

5 146 5. 131: Compact input/output device 6MB522 225 221 6MB523 Front view 145 30 Side view 29.8±0.4 ø 5 or M4 BA 245+1 255.133: Compact I/O unit with local (bay) control 6MB524-0.3 13.Local and Remote Control 6MBB522 Side view FSMAoptical-fiber connector 30 29.5 Rear view 220 7. 1.3 Panel cutout 131. Fig.5 172 30 9 Rear view 225 220 8 7 6 5 7.3 Panel cutout 206.5 105 ø6 ø5 244 245 255. 160 231.3 266 244 FE D C 4 3 2 1 ø6 221+2 All dimensions in mm.4 4 ø 5 or M4 244 266 245 255. 132: Compact input/output device 6MB523 6MB524-0. Terminal blocks Terminal blocks Optical-fiber sockets Fig.8 ø6 231. 1.4 Fig.5 277 All dimensions in mm.5 180 5.5±0.8 All dimensions in mm.3 180±0.2 Panel cutout 206. 2 Side view 29.5 5.5 7. 2 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/71 .

8±0.3 Panel cutout 71+2 56. Fig.2 Panel cutout 431±0.8±0.3 ø5 ø6 Terminal block All dimensions in mm. extended version 6MB5240-3 6MB525 Side view 29. Terminal block Optical-fiber sockets 446+2 Fig.5 172 30 9 Rear view 450 445 8 7 6 5 ML K J H G F E 4 3 2 1 D C BA 7.3 ø5 or M4 266 244 245+1 255.5±0.5 172 37 Rear view 75 70 7.5 5.4 266 244 245+1 255. 135: Minicompact I/O device 6MB525 6/72 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .3 405±0.Local and Remote Control 6MB5240-3 Side view 29.3 Terminal block ø6 All dimensions in mm.3 13. 134: Compact I/O unit with local (bay) control.

3 13.Local and Remote Control 6MB552 Side view 29.2 5.5 7.2 400 25 45 15 225 Cable bushing A Section A-A All dimensions in mm. 137: Minicompact RTU 6MB5530 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/73 .8 ±0.3 180 ±0. 136: Compact RTU 6MB552 in 7XP20 housing 6MB5530-0 and -1 Front view 300 1.5 172 8 Bus cover 266 244 BNC socket for antenna 39 Rear view 220 Panel cutout 206. Fig.5 ±0.4 ø 5 or M4 1) 2) 245+1 255.5 Side view 200 20 35 Rear view 20 18 Wall mount A 20 20 10 8 8.3 Optical-fiber socket FSMA for connection of bay units 225 ø6 221+2 All dimensions in mm. Fig.

Another member of the family is the QUALIMETRE® /OSCILLOSTORE P512. installed in 65 countries around the world. however. In production. record. completes the lineup. being played by the programmable numerical transducers 7KG60. data transmission and PC-based evaluation have long been standard concepts in power utility recording technology. That shouldn’t come as a surprise considering the wide range of user-friendly analog measurement transducers available today. simplified menu-guided PC operation and a reduction in the number of different product types. the more the user benefits.500 Siemens systems. The P531 keeps self-extinguishing. real-time acquisition with a resolution of 1 ms is a capability that makes these systems highly popular. And the OSCILLOSTORE P513. An increasingly significant role is. The advantages for users are clear: enhanced cost efficiency of stocks. SIMEAS T The modular transducer system: An ideal state-of-the-art solution Digitization does not herald the demise of analog transducing. for recording the quality of mains supplies. They allow measurement of all measurands with just one instrument. reliable evaluation – all the hallmarks of the OSCILLOSTORE P system. Quite the opposite. a fact that already speaks for itself. Customized applications in power plants. Remote calibration. in fact: power generation and distribution continues to rely on the ideally refined modular solution of the 7KG61 series. precise documentation. And. Siemens provides both stand-alone equipment and intelligent integrated solutions for the SIMATIC range of programmable controllers. And this is where OSCOP stands out from the field. Clear fault detection. transient. condition and transmit electrical signals – tasks they perform with a proficiency that’s particularly effective when faults occur. developed in cooperation with the EDF (Electricité de France). The OSCILLOSTORE systems are also widely used in computer centers to monitor the quality of the power supply and record the history of faults. OSCOP: The trendsetter in application software One thing is clear: the better the software. The serial interface further allows the integration of 7KG60 transducers directly into microprocessor-based control and automation systems. More than 3. The OSCOP software is based on the MS Windows user interface. OSCILLOSTORE P: Systematic troubleshooting The ability to minimize plant faults and downtime while optimizing machine and resource utilization: that’s the secret of success of the OSCILLOSTORE P531. 6/74 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .Measurement and Recording Introduction Measurement and recording technology for electrical networks: a field with a long tradition at Siemens. products equipped with analytical software based on expert systems. Measurement and recording equipment for power systems: a field where our innovation potential and know-how define the range of products available on the market – from analog transducers (AFM) systems to intelligent recording systems such as the OSCILLOSTORE® P351. with the trend towards increased levels of automation. meter. semitransient and permanent faults under tight control in all major power supply operations. Also active in monitoring and analyzing the quality of the mains supply An optimum solution for every task: this is the founding principle on which the OSCILLOSTORE P product range was based. faults which would normally lead to process errors and stoppages are detected while still in their early stages. The real-time specialists: OSCILLOSTORE E sequence-of-events recorders OSCILLOSTORE E systems are ideal for a wide range of tasks in the real-time acquisition of digital signals. switchgear and industrial production processes are just some of the strengths of OSCILLOSTORE E systems. a portable unit with integrated analytical software. The OSCOP system software forms the actual core of the recording data networks and combines automatic operation with the high functionality required by field specialists.

the fault itself. resolution 1 mHz. scanning rate 1 kHz. Fault recorders must be capable of processing a wide variety of signals. Because measurand transducers are an integral part of the modules. reactive power. What is well recorded can be better evaluated – one of the more pleasing aspects of accurately recording electrical signals.Measurement and Recording Fault recording OSCILLOSTORE P531 and OSCOP P – The digital fault recorder with diagnosis and evaluation software OSCILLOSTORE systems like the P531 have been standing watch in renowned utility companies for years.g. storage capacity 50 sec to 14 days. s FDAU (Frequency Data Acquisition Unit) – replaces the frequency recorder with 4 channels for recording the power supply frequency. storage capacity 50 sec to 14 days. needs data reduction (which the system memory also employs to reduce its load). Fig. 138: OSCILLOSTORE systems are used in power plants … Fig. thus facilitating the expert’s work. thanks to the built-in start selectors! This includes the fault history (the troublefree period preceding the fault). active power. transient. semitransient. s BDAU (Binary Data Acquistion Unit) – replaces the sequence-of-events recorder with 32 channels for recording digital status changes. High-functionality start selectors are available for each channel. The OSCILLOSTORE P531 embodies this principle: It records only the anomalies. Before the recorded data is stored in the acquisition module.2 Hz to 5 kHz adjustable.g. Channel-related inhibit functions effectively prevent memory overflow. And what’s more: even prolonged disturbances don‘t cause any problems. Automatically. and optionally. 140: Fault record Fig. scanning rate 1 to 5 kHz adjustable per channel. and permanent faults. of course. one can now optimize operating resources – and simultaneously minimize down-time and avoid defects of equipment. and the fault’s sequel (the period after the fault occurred). scanning rate 0. the power supply frequency or rms voltage. looking out for self-rectifying. storage capacity 900 status changes s DDAU (DC Data Acquisition Unit) – replaces the process recorder with 4 channels for recording process variables (e. 141) can be connected to the central unit – even when they are remotely installed at distances up to two kilometers from the process s The modules are ideally equipped for signal matching and digital preprocessing – even if the application requires a 1 MWord of storage capacity Still more important is that: The OSCILLOSTORE P531 only records what you really need! Whoever needs to evaluate data. The fault diagnosis in electrical power supply is efficiently automated. in case of intermittent faults on one (or more) phase(s). storage capacity 50 to 250 sec. they monitor the quality of the power supply and document the fault history. 0 to 20 mA or 0 to 10 Volt). User-programmable gradient criteria allow to select the optimum moment for recording – which again is a contribution to data reduction. power factor. and are software-controlled. The recording time is always adjusted to the signal characteristics. e. 139: … and to monitor transmission lines. In computer centers and in industrial plants. storage capacity 50 sec to 14 days. external transdurcers are not required. the FDAU and PDAU modules calculate any necessary quantities – for example. The system recognizes the fault characteristics itself. s PDAU (Power Data Acquisition Module) – replaces the power and frequency recorder with one channel for recording the active power. Thanks to this source of information. which means that the recording time is automatically adapted to each recording. and power factor. Five data acquisition units capture and process all kind of measuring signals: s ADAU (Analog Data Acquisition Unit) – replaces the traditional fault recorder with 4 channels for the real-time recording of currents and voltages. reactive power. The OSCILLOSTORE P531 has the right solution for this: s Up to 31 data acquisition units (Fig. Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 6/75 .

Measurement and Recording

The DAU (Data Acquisition Units) allows decentralized as well as centralized intelligent data acquisition and processing. The recorders can be linked to a central unit and can communicate with PC/AT compatible evaluation systems via modem – or via a ”dedicated line“ if no modem is available. Depending on the application, frontend data concentrators with mass memory (DAKONs) can also be integrated using standard software. And the same standard software allows a data network of fault recorder systems to be set up. High-quality acquisition deserves highquality evaluation. And that’s what one gets with the OSCOP P system program. This system is designed for all kinds of performance demands – thus tailored to fit with any user requirements. It is available in all major languages. And, of course, it is supported by an around-the-clock hotline service and our software maintenance service. In addition, the Siemens experts offer their competence for the analysis of the data recorded and provide assistance in finding the optimum solution based on the network topology.

Distributed fault recording system
Evaluation station with system software OSCOP P

Remote Transmission Telephone network, X.25, ISDN; LAN; WAN ”Local Printer“ Data concentrator DAKON with software for automatic data collection, archiving and diagnosis Further OSCILLOSTORE units Further OSCILLOSTORE units

Central unit OSCILLOSTORE P531
RS485-Bus

Control + communication unit

1

2

3

Analog or binary data acquisition modules

30

31

Fig. 141: Distributed fault recording system

Fig. 142: OSCILLOSTORE P531, rear view

Fig. 143: OSCILLOSTORE P531, front view

6/76

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

Measurement and Recording

OSCOP P The user software with automatic diagnosis There are no communication problems between OSCOP P and the OSCILLOSTORE P531 central units. Up to 100 of them (each with up to 31 acquisition modules) can communicate with the software via the public telephone network. All parameters can be set up remotely. OSCOP P has a built-in database which receives the measured values and their related parameters. It can be used as a central archive. The filter functions allow easy retrieval of the archived data even after years. The MS Windows operating system is particularly suited because of its ease-of-use and the efficient time-sharing characteristics (that means, the recorded data can be evaluated in foreground, while the data is being transferred and an automatic diagnosis performed in the background). We make the plant management’s life easier with time-controlled automatic operation and automatic screen display. This includes the option of a fault printout with analysis so that one can store and analyze results without pressing a button. And the diagnostic system provides for perfect automatic analysis. If the OSCILLOSTORE P531 is used to monitor high-voltage supplies and cables. The diagnostic system is a powerful ”fault locator“. No longer will line and cable faults go undiscovered, they are pinpointed with a high degree of accuracy. DAKON with OSCOP P for decentralized automatic diagnosis All these automatic functions (diagnosis, r.m.s. values, fault locator ...) can also be performed on the local DAKON, e.g. in the switchyard. This solution allows you to still reduce data for the remote transfer so that only the relevant information and, if required, the “r.m.s. values window“ are transferred. Data archiving in the DAKON database can efficiently relieve the central evaluation station.

Fig. 144: OSCOP P operating surface

OSCOP P is also open for other systems In particular when monitoring the operating resources, it is important that the information stored in these resources is also available. Via an additional function of OSCOP P or directly on the DAKON, it is thus possible to read the records and operating messages of numerical protective relays. For data in the IEEE (Comtrade) standard format, import and export functions are provided. This functionality allows to compare the ”subjective“ data of the operating resource with the ”objective“ data of the OSCILLOSTORE P531.

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

6/77

Measurement and Recording

Power quality assessment
QUALIMETRE*/ OSCILLOSTORE P512 All functions of a complete equipment family in one unit Previously a multitude of instruments was required for recording variables – now QUALIMETRE does it all alone. It replaces voltmeters and ammeters, active- and reactive-power recorders, harmonics analyzers, RMS value recorders and much more. Of particular advantage for the user is the parallel recording of all significant network data. QUALIMETRE monitors all the electrical characteristics of a network. This is a real benefit, because faults of a widely differing nature may occur: s Voltage variations – Changes in amplitude (difference between maximum and minimum voltage) – Surge voltage (sudden amplitude change) – Voltage fluctuation (number of changes in amplitude within a specific time) s Long-time interruptions (such as complete power failure for more than 1 min) s Short-time interruptions (such as complete power failure between 10 ms and 1 s or 1 s and 1 min) s Voltage drop (changes in amplitude over a long period) s Asymmetry (differing voltage amplitudes and/or phase angles) s Harmonic components of the fundamental wave QUALIMETRE can be used both for examining and monitoring supply networks. Immune to transient overvoltages QUALIMETRE can be easily installed near switchgear and industrial supply circuits. To cope with this environment, measuring instruments must have special properties in oder to operate reliably despite transient overvoltages. QUALIMETRE has therefore been designed in accordance with IEC 255 protection standards with interference immunity in mind. Spurious peaks of 2.5 kV, 1 MHz do not impair the measurement result – an insulation voltage of 2 kV is included, naturally.

Fig. 145: QUALIMETRE*/OSCILLOSTORE P512

Designed for installation QUALIMETRE includes the necessary signal conditioner for current and voltage and is therefore particularly suitable for permanent installation. For stationary operation a 19" rack-mounted model of compact design is offered. QUALIMETRE saves paper It is fairly obvious that large amounts of data come up in continuous network recording. In conventional instruments this quickly leads to a flood of paper. Not so with QUALIMETRE: The data measured is stored electronically. Remote parameter input, data transmission and evaluation are thus also possible – the proven OSCOP evaluation programs take care of this. Transmission of data via the public telephone network is also optimized thanks to an integrated modem. The modern design concept permits easy expansion with portable data carriers and transient detection and flicker meter functions. All in all, there are many advantages with QUALIMETRE, making it the ideal solution for monitoring and analysis in electrical supply networks.

* QUALIMETRE is a joint development of Siemens and EDF (Electricité de France). EDF, a world leader in quality assurance of supply networks, was responsible for the functionality of QUALIMETRE, and Siemens provided the know-how for OSCILLOSTORE, the proven fault monitor.

6/78

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

Measurement and Recording

OSCILLOSTORE P513 For measurement, recording, and evaluation: OSCILLOSTORE P513 is a new portable instrument for continuous analysis and documentation of the quality of power systems at any location. Ideal for power company customer service technicians The generation and distribution of electrical power in the desired quality and quantity are taken for granted today. Nevertheless, customers sometimes report that their supply is not as it should be, and disturbances fed back into the system can lead to a loss of quality in the utility’s product-electrical energy. In such cases, the customer service technician is called upon to measure and analyze the quality of the electrical power delivered to the customer – whether the problem appears at a privat residence, a small business, a medium-sized operation, or a large corporation. The OSCILLOSTORE P513 is just the instrument you need to obtain fast, accurate, reliable and meaningful information on the spot. That means one can analyze and record measurement data in the field applying consistent evaluation criteria to data obtained simultaneously, without having to connect several different instruments. Additionally, results can be read out on the spot, making it even easier to get system problems under control. It is further possible to check the performance of uninterruptable power supplies, and also to record the signal shape at converters and inverters. The OSCILLOSTORE P513 determines all relevant system parameters: voltage, current, frequency, and harmonic contents, as well as active and reactive power. Even on the low voltage level, the OSCILLOSTORE P513 ensures high-precision measurements, so that it can even be used at the ”wall socket“ level. Of course, all of the P513’s functions, including the 12 measurement functions, are housed in a single unit, which even includes a built-in floppy drive and printer and, as a special feature, an integrated evaluation program.

FIg. 146: OSCILLOSTORE P5 13

The P513 is an intelligent, portable measuring instrument that monitors all of the characteristic electrical parameters on a power system:
s 8 measurement channels for continuous

recording of: – Voltage – Current (both with r.m.s. value calculation over one period) – Transient voltages with 2.6 kV peaks at a 2 MHz sampling rate s Continuous calculation of: – Frequency – Phase angle in tan phi/cos phi – 1- to 3-phase active and reactive power (all connection types possible) – Harmonics up to the 50th order. Averaging times and recording times in the range from one period to 9999 hours can be selected for all measurement types See what’s going on right now – without losing the big picture All measurement results can be displayed directly on the built-in screen, either numerically or graphically as an XT diagram or a bar graph. Vertical and horizontal zoom functions are provided so that one can examine relevant signal patterns in detail using the cursor. When one selects the histogram display, one can see at a glance the complete record of voltage and current levels and their statistical distribution during the monitoring period.

A backlit LCD display is also provided to make it easy to read all the information on the screen clearly – without depending on the local lighting conditions. The information can be printed out on any screen as a hard copy at any time. Transient voltage measurement section One of the many features of the OSCILLOSTORE P513 is the separate measurement section with integrated transient voltage recording unit. It is isolated from the rest of the electronics using fiber optics. Thus, a complete electrical isolation is obtained. It means that one can measure more confidently than ever before, without worrying about feedback. Complementing this design is the P513’s ability to record transient peaks up to 2.6 kV at a scanning rate of 2 MHz. Memory for more than half a million readings The built-in memory of 1.4 Mbyte makes it possible to store up to 500,000 readings. And the OSCILLOSTORE P513 is just as impressive when it comes to convenience:
s Because of the P513’s large memory

capacity, it is ideally suited to long-term monitoring. Depending on the parameter settings used, up to over 1 year of data can be recorded!

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

6/79

Measurement and Recording

SIMEAS T – Universal transducers for electrical quantities in power systems Areas of application With the SIMEAS T universal transducer (Order designation 7KG60) all measurands in any desired power grid can be measured with just one instrument. The instrument is equipped with 3 electrically isolated analog outputs, a digital output, and a serial interface. Each analog output can be assigned an individual measurand (current, voltage, active power, reactive power, etc.) and any desired measurement range. The measurement is a real/r.m.s. measurement, which can also measure distored waveforms and waveforms with a large harmonic content. The output signals (e.g. 0 to 10 mA, 4 to 20 mA, 0 to 10 V, etc.) can also be userprogrammed for each output. The digital output can be used as a trigger output for recording the results, or as a limit signal. Any desired input current or input voltage up to maximum of 10 A or 600 V, can be connected at frequencies between 45 and 65 Hz (16 2/3 Hz). Depending on the measurement task, the unused input terminals remain free. The transducer can be ordered either preconfigured in accordance with plaintext specifications, or programmable with the capability for a custom setup. Setup data and a specific connection diagram are delivered with factory set instruments. Programmable instruments can print out this data as required. A PC connecting cable and a disk containing Windows software, with which one can easily set up the transducer oneself, can be ordered optionally. During operation you can reprogram the transducer, or display the measured values on-line on a graphics instrument (contained in the software), either on a PC or on-site using a laptop. The instrument requires an auxiliary power supply. Variants are supplied for the AC/DC ranges from 24 to 60 V, and from 100 to 230 V. Inputs, outputs, and the auxiliary power supply are electrically isolated from one another.

Block diagram

Serial interface

UH

RS 232 RS 485

Digital output

IL1 Analog output 1 IL2 IL3 Analog output 2 UL1 UL2 UL3 N Analog output 3

AC

Fig. 147: Measuring transducer 7KG60, block diagram

Front view

75

90
Fig. 148: Measuring transducer 7KG60

Side view Connection terminals

Serial interfaces The RS232/RS405 interface of the 7KG60 can be used to communicate with a PC for setting and readout of data or to integrate the transducers as measuring-data acquisition units into substation control systems. In the latter case, an IEC 870-5-103-compatible protocol is used. Design The housed version of the transducer is a hardwired, certified functional unit. It has snaptype catches for attachment to 35 mm top hat rails (DIN EN 50022). Terminal screws allow inputs and outputs to be securely connected. The measurands and ranges of measurement can be configured as desired.

90 105 All dimensions in mm
Fig. 149: Measuring transducer 7KG60, dimensions

6/80

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

Measurement and Recording

SIMEAS PAR The software SIMEAS PAR consists of the three following subprograms: s 1. Configuration s 2. Calibration s 3. Data Export SIMEAS PAR was designed for the MS DOS platform of common PCs or laptops. The program is operated via the graphical user interface MS WINDOWS V3.1 by mouse and keyboard. Communication with the transducer occurs via the standard serial interface of a PC or laptop and an optional connection cable. Description 1. Configuration (Fig. 150) The “Configuration“ function allows setting of the variables, measuring ranges, output signals, etc. for the transducer. It provides the user with straightforward setting of the parameters in just a few steps.

Entering the data in the respective windows is simple and clear. This procedure is supported by additional dialog guidance. If required, the following data can be printed on the local PC printer: s Parameters entered s The connection diagram of the specific measuring task s A self-adhesive configuration label with the settings of the transducer 2. Calibration (Fig. 151) Since the transducer does not include any potentiometers or other hardware setting facilities. Balancing the transducer is made via the software with the ”Calibration“ function. Generally, the transducers are delivered with factory-made calibration and setting. Recalibration is necessary only after repair work or for rebalancing. The screens and graphical characteristic curves of the ”Calibration“ subprogram are also easy to operate.

A description of the test configuration and instructions on the program operation are provided by the help system. 3. Data Export (Fig. 152) With graphics instruments, up to 9 measuring signals can be displayed on-line on a PC or laptop screen in analog and digital form. For better resolution, the user can select the number of measuring instruments on the screen and assign measuring signals and ranges to the displays. The assignment does not depend on the analog outputs of the device. If required, the measuring data can be stored or read to the local PC printer.

Fig. 150: Window for configuration of the output values

Fig. 151: Calibration

Fig. 152: Display of 3 selected measurement values and measuring ranges

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution

6/81

It also supplements the fault recording of numerical relays with the following extended recording capabilities: s Independent recording of events with high sampling rate (up to 5 kHz) and long recording times (up to 14 days). where required. 4 to 20 mA (7KG61 analog series) or serial at a RS485 port (7KG60 digital series). For further information please contact: Fax: ++ 49-9 11-4 33. or at infeeds and feeders.s.t.The digital SIMEAS transducers (7KG60) series are intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) that can be used for data acquisition and preprocessing of data. This range of devices include meters. 4 x I. reactive power and frequency at infeeds. indicators.t. Power system quality The QUALIMETRE/OSCILLOSTORE P512 is normally installed at infeeds. Measuring transducers SIMEAS transducers are normally installed at busbars for voltage and frequency measurement. It is general practice to record 8 channels: 4 x V.85 89 4 analog values (4 x V) s Per EHV bay: 8 analog values (4 x V. for example.t.s. 6/82 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . The transducers are in general used with devices that cannot be directly connected to the LV network or c. s Integrated start selectors for recording of frequency excursions and power swings.t. recorders and remote terminal units.Measurement and Recording Hints for application Fault recording The OSCILLOSTORE P531 is used in all kinds of power systems to record fault histories for fast and precise fault analysis. Standard protocol IEC 870-5-103 is used for communication. for the measurement of active/reactive power and cos phi. The recording channels are normally chosen as follows: s Per busbar section: The transducer outputs can either be analog. 4 x I) and 16 binary signals s Per HV bay: 4 analog values (4 x I) and 16 binary signals The following derivated values are additionally calculated and recorded: s Frequency at busbar sections s Optionally active. They can be directly connected to control and automation systems through their RS485 interface. They can be connected to the low-voltage network directly or to the secondary winding of v.s and c. Standard rated input values are for example 110/ 3 V and 1 or 5 A.s and v.

DMS Control Room Technology Power Network Telecommunication Page 7/2–7/5 7/6–7/10 7/11–7/24 . EMS.Power Systems Control Contents SCADA.

The quality management certified by DQS according ISO 9001 ensures quality products and a smooth and reliable project implementation within contractual schedule and budget. Siemens furthers this strategy by participating in a variety of IEEE. SINAUT Spectrum General SINAUT Spectrum is the open. Due to its modular and distributed system architecture SINAUT Spectrum offers unlimited horizontal and vertical growth opportunities. modular and distributed control system for electrical networks as well as for gas.g. As technological pacemaker Siemens invests considerable funds annually in the further development of the SINAUT product family. 1). e. from a small entry-level SCADA system up to a large EMS or combined SCADA/EMS/DMS.) from one supplier on a turnkey basis.g. The database is distributed among the workstations and servers for fast and independent data access with low LAN-loading. It reflects the experience of more than 540 electricity grid control systems installed worldwide since the early sixties. EPRI. etc. this user-oriented product line has release compatibility to guarantee that the benefits of tomorrow’s R&D investments can still be adopted by systems delivered today. archives. all necessary components (communication equipment. Siemens Power Systems Control has a large support staff of dedicated experts with power industry experience. Shortest reaction times are achieved by assigning timecritical applications and applications requiring a lot of computation power to dedicated servers (Fig. ICCP or ELCOM-90 Mimic diagram interface LAN Administrator.SCADA/EMS/DMS Introduction The requirements on network control systems are growing as secure and economic energy management is becoming ever more important. With its broad range of products Siemens is able to supply the control systems. CIGRE and CIRED committees and by enlisting support from active user groups. Planned for the long term. control room equipment. Siemens is in a position to deliver optimum. Energy Management Systems (EMS) as well as Distribution Management Systems (DMS) involve coordinating a wide range of engineering tasks. state-of-the-art solutions in close cooperation with the customers. SINAUT (Siemens Network Automation) is Siemens’ modern product family for Power Systems Control. s s s s Municipal utilities and Large industries with own networks Regional distribution utilities National and regional generation and transmission utilities Modular and distributed architecture Each SINAUT Spectrum system consists of individual functional subsystems which are distributed among an optimum number of workstations and servers. uninterruptible power systems. The modules of the network control system SINAUT Spectrum are shown in Fig. IEC. water and remote heating networks. e. Planning and implementation of SCADA systems (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition). 1: SINAUT Spectrum – system architecture of a large SCADA/EMS/DMS 7/2 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . Its extensive and modular functionality provides scalable solutions tailored to the needs and budgets of: Mimic diagram Communication with other control centers. 3 on page 7/4 and 7/5. schedules Operator console Operator console Spare Expert system Gateway Data acqusition SCADA Network analysis Power and scheduling applications Training simulator Distribution management functions Bridge to/from RTUs Basic components Hot standby Office LAN GIS PC Database Fig.

SINAUT Spectrum may be delivered either on SUN or on IBM workstations. monitoring. 2: Control room of Northern States Power Company. Therefore Siemens is committed to: s Designing systems that can incorporate new standards and technologies over time to keep the system current s Avoiding dependence on proprietary tools and methods s Using accepted and de facto standards s Meeting the growing need for information management throughout a public utility company The long-term commitments also include: s s s s s A full product spectrum Complete turnkey projects Complete spectrum of services An active user group Strong R&D For further information please contact: Fax: ++49-9 11-4 33 . offers a commercial relational database manager to handle configuration and object-set definition with an OSF/Motif operator interface. With SINAUT Data Gateway control center data can be maintained with one database instead of maintaining modeling information in several different formats for each application. SINAUT ACES provides sophisticated software that can manage commodity trading. without losing any of the software investment built up over the years. Further SINAUT products SINAUT ACES Accounting. accounting. The field-proven SINAUT ICCPNET which executes under UNIX. thus providing hardware platform independence. WSCC and ELCOM 90 for communication with other control centers. SINAUT ICCPNET. SINAUT ACES operates within an open-systems environment that can be fully integrated with SCADA/ EMS/DMS and corporate information systems. Based on the X-Window System and OSF/Motif. Available services Siemens offers services for all important areas: s Studies. engineering s Project implementation s Installation. MN Open architecture SINAUT Spectrum is solidly based on industry standards.8122 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 7/3 . Contracts and Energy Scheduling The volume of wholesale transactions will increase dramatically due to regulatory and economic pressures. and contract compliance. Minneapolis. this user interface provides multiple-window displays. The user interface employs a graphical environment that the operator can tailor to his specific tasks and preferences. Siemens Power Systems Control – a key to success Network Control Centers have to operate economically and efficiently over long periods. supervision of installation s Commissioning s Training s Hardware/software maintenance s System upgrading s System migration Fig. planning. strictly adhering to the IEEE POSIX standards. Other standards used in SINAUT Spectrum: s Structured Query Language (SQL) for relational database access s TCP/IP for LAN/WAN communication s IEC 870-5 as well as many other protocols for RTU communication s IEC 870-6 TASE 2 (ICCP). SINAUT ICCPNT Communications Products Siemens offers a full range of communication products which support ICCP. billing. SINAUT Spectrum runs under a UNIX operating system. SINAUT ACES allows to take full advantage of the growing complexity of contract provisions.SCADA/EMS/DMS SINAUT Data Gateway SINAUT Data Gateway exactly meets the requirements of an integration tool needed for data maintenance. SINAUT ICCPNT executes on a PC platform and combines a low-cost solution and UCA (Utility Communications Architecture) open-systems technology in order to interconnect utilities. Therefore the system can be upgraded to take advantage of the rapidly moving technology in the workstation and server market. full pan and zoom capabilities and excellent display call-up times. For the update of an existing control center system. the necessary data can simply be exported in a format recognized by the new control center system.

cuts.SCADA/EMS/DMS Network Control System Hardware Basic system SCADA functions Distribution management functions UNIX server Database Data acquisition and processing Supervisory control. service restoration Feeder estimation Gateway Computer network management Dynamic network colouring Outage management system Ethernet-LAN Tools for test and diagnostics Energy demand control Load modeling Online load flow calculation Communication system Softbus Load management Online short-circuit calculation Transformer load management RTU UNIX operating system Energy accounting V/Var control Cold load pickup High-level language compiler Operation optimization for gas and water networks Archives and schedules Fig. grounds Data acquisition subsystem User interface Switching procedure management Fault location and isolation. 3: Modules of the network control system SINAUT Spectrum 7/4 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . control jobs. manual update Report generation system Data import from a GIS Spatial control and queries UNIX workstation Information management system Tracing Jumpers.

SCADA/EMS/DMS SINAUT Spectrum Network analysis Power and scheduling applications Training simulator Expert system Communication Model update Network reduction Automatic generation control Interchange scheduling Instructor functions Intelligent alarm processing To other control centers (ICCP) State estimator Network parameter adaption Economic dispatch Reserve monitoring Complete functionality of the control system User interface of the control system Disturbance analysis Geographical information system (GIS) Dispatcher power flow Fault calculations Interchange transaction evaluation (A+B) Unit commitment Load forecast Network restoration/ load transfer Multisite control center operation Security analysis Network sensitivity Hydro scheduling Process simulation Other utility IT systems Optimal power flow Security checked switching Hydrothermal coordination Production costing Network model Planning Voltage scheduler Study case management Water worth value calculation Wheeling loss calculation Generation model Maintenance Security dispatch Protection model Billing Outage scheduler Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 7/5 .

Each projection module is an individual rear projection system with a 50"-inch screen and a resolution of 640 x 480 or 1024 x 768 pixels. X.Control Room Technology SINAUT Visualization Introduction With its SINAUT Visualization large-screen rear projection system. screens of practically any size can be built. resolution and size. Australia VGA. directly linked to the computer electronics of the integrated mX-Terminal*. Thanks to the modular design of SINAUT Visualization with projection modules which can stacked horizontally and vertically without paths. 6: Projection module with dimensions in mm 7/6 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . the Siemens AG offers the solution for the large-screen display of text or graphics. The SINAUT Visualization large-screen rear projection system can be used whereever a large-area presentation of computer data is required. green and blue color pixel of the LCD is controlled by a transistor that is. This eliminates color shift and drift effects because no analog technology is used (Fig. 5). 4: Control room of Victorian Power Exchange. Description Design of SINAUT Visualization-mX The LCD projection technology used in SINAUT Visualization-mX is based on the TFT LCD (thin-film transistor liquid crystal display) light-valve technology. can be visualized so that all operators can read it (Fig. in turn. from an overview of topological information about the area supplied to detailed information and special messages for the operators in case of fault.11 controller LCD light valve Mirror. Modularity SINAUT Visualization-mX is a modular system in order to cover different requirements for projection area. This socalled active matrix LCD has a better contrast and display switching rate than the lower-cost passive LCDs. 5: Principle of rear projection using an LCD Illumination unit Darkbox Screen module Screen 750 1000 * mX-Terminal designates the multiscreen-cable x-Terminal from Siemens AG Fig. For example. 6). It has no seam and the edges of the module correspond with the picture borders (Fig. lamp Projection lens Screen Observer Fig. Video. 340 1213 Fig. in power distribution. 4). Each individual red. All dynamic data. SINAUT Visualization can be used in an energy management system as a substitute for or adddition to conventional mosaic panels.

Connectivity as mX-Terminal The mX-Terminal integrated in OVERVIEWmX and the X-server installed on it conform 100% to the internationally standardized protocol definition X window system (X-Windows. they provide a resolution of 1280 x 960 or 2048 x 1536 pixels. X. 9). 8: Linear or polygonal setup of several SINAUT Visualization-mX projection modules (top view) SINAUT Visualization-mX projection modules mX-Terminal Ethernet.11 tool kits such as OSF/Motif and the X-applications based on them.).11. 7 shows an example of a 3 x 2 configuration of modules. 1213 Screen 0 Screen 1 Screen 2 1500 Screen 3 Illumination unit Darkbox Screen module Screen 4 Screen 5 3000 Fig. The projection modules can be set up in horizontal direction linear as well as polygonal with an angle of 8 degrees to each other in order to obtain a slightly curved display wall. If they are arranged in a 2 x 2 designs. TCP/IP X-Windows Fig. the higher is the resulting resolution. Fig.5 m (Fig. All X-clients can make unrestricted use of the entire projection area of 2 m x 1. The more modules are configured horizontally or vertically. offering a resolution of either 1920 x 960 or 3072 x 1536 pixels.Control Room Technology Therefore seamless pictures of any size can be built by horizontal and vertical stacking of several modules. 9: Integration of SINAUT Visualization-mX into a computer network based on Ethernet. 7: 3 x 2 horizontal and vertical stacking of projection modules Operator Operator Fig. The system operates like an X-Terminal with all X. Up to 4 projection modules can be connected to one mX-Terminal. Other angles are possible on request (Fig. 8). TCP/IP and X-Windows Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 7/7 .

Controlling of the mimic board Control room technology by Siemens has been developed generally over the last few years. and from optimized mapboards to ergonomically perfect operator workstations. Installation. LAN-controlled mimic board Fig. Controlling of the mimic board is no longer done by a costly 1:1 wiring system but via an Ethernet bus (SINEC H1) to the PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) system and an internal mimic board bus (SINEC L2). They must also be costeffective and capable of being shaped to suit customer requirements. The ergonomics and design of Siemens control rooms exceed the scope of all DIN and international standards. there is the possibility to have nearly any number of modules as one large display. A broad selection of standard modules and components form the basis of our control rooms. X-Windows If more than 4 projection modules are required. With the distributed X-Server (1 central device mX-Terminal with keyboard and mouse and several rendering machines) it is possible to control nearly any number of modules as one single display. By combining the latest ergonomic findings with an appropriate design Siemens provides an environment that allows the operators to work well. This means that both the user and the application software “see” one single display. operation and service do not differ from that of a standard X-Terminal (Fig. Control boards and mimic displays of mosaic tile design must have a straightforward layout. 10: SINAUT Visualization-mX as 6 x 4 setup Distributed X-Server 6 mX-Terminals as rendering machines mX-Terminal as central device Workstations/ Windows NT-PCs Ethernet TCP/IP. simply and at minimum cost. They range from mosaic tile systems and control desks to large-screen rear projection systems. 10). 12). The mimic board consists of the following elements: s PLC s Power supply including fuses s Bus terminal s Main module for the control of 32 twincolored LEDs s Extension module for the control of 32 twincolored LEDs s Low consumption diodes s Protocol as per DIN 19245 7/8 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . even in critical situations. Siemens manufacture of control room technology is certified to ISO 9001. This new idea – Mimic Board Controlling (MBA-L2) – has been successfully realized in several projects (Fig. It must be possible to modify or extend them quickly.Control Room Technology Mosaic-tile systems 24 modules with 3480 x 1920 pixels Introduction Visualization of the electric systems to be controlled and optimization of the working environment are of utmost importance for the control room operators’ ability to concentrate.

This LAN is supplied by a communication processor CP 5430 which supports the protocol DIN 19245 by hardware implementation. In addition to the LAN connections. L1.Control Room Technology Description The PLC from the S5 automation system consists of: s Power supply module s Central processing unit (CPU) s Communication processor module to a host processor s Communication processor module The use and the selection of the different types of S5 PLCs depend on the requirements of the controlled LEDs and on the parameters which are to be transmitted from the host processor to the PLC. The protocol is according to DIN 19245 (profibus). L2 and so on). 13: Hardware structure of MBA-L2 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 7/9 . the following are connected to the bus terminal: power supply. SINEC H1. (CP 5430) to internal LAN connection of the mimic board s Eventual memory extensions in case of bigger systems SINEC H1/Ethernet PLC 1 2 3 4 Power supply module CPU module CP to SINEC H1 CP to mimic board Ian SINEC L2 1 2 3 4 Fig. shielding for the cables between bus terminals and modules. 12: Mimic board wiring with MBA-L2 8 1234 MW Fig. The communication processor to a host processor is determined by the structure of the protocol and the physical interface (e.g. and digital input for synchronization of blinking. 11: Control room of Schluchseewerke AG. Germany Mimic board 1 SINEC L2 32 1 LED 32 Main module SINEC L2 LED 32 Main module 32 PLC 1 RS 485 Online test Parametrizing Commissioning 16 SINEC 1/ Ethernet Analog output submodule 1 Display submodule SINAUT spectrum Fig. The bus system. The bus terminal The bus terminal is designed to connect to the internal LAN one main module and 16 extension modules. protocol structure The LAN controlling the main module is an RS 485 interface.

Each main module is a slave partner on the SINEC L2 LAN and is able to control up to 32 twincolored LEDs. All the systems can be modified or extended quite simply. EPROM. no wiring s Easy extension and modification because of using plug-in technology 7/10 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . No metal supporting grid or any other extra parts are needed for mounting the individual tiles.9 11-4 33 -81 83 faulty LED can be detected at any time s All errors can be located and transmitted to host computer system s Steady-state mode. 14: Software structure of Mimic Board Controlling (MBA-L2) Fig. Each extension module will be addressed directly over Profibus by a subaddress. A defective LED can also be found by a ”lamp test“ message (operation of all LEDs). User software SINEC H1-Bus 8RS 8RU 8RT CPU Process and distribution of LED data Standard interface twincolored) of LEDs to be used do not match with the number of plug-in LEDs s Failure or error of RAM. Each main module can be used to control up to 16 extension modules. LAN connection and synchronizing input. Thus detection and replacement of defective LEDs are not timeconsuming.5 up to 8 1/s in 5 steps s Smooth brightness control s No need for marshalling racks or distri- bution units s Reduced number All further functions of the extension module are the same as described above for the main module. Errors can be read out and failures can be exactly located. on/off s Flushing mode. The intensity of the LEDs can be controlled via messages from the PLC. For further information please contact: Fax: ++49 . 0. the extension module is addressed by a main module. The 8RU-8RS-8RT mosaic tile systems have been tested to DIN 40046 seismic requirements and are thus fully able to withstand heavy mechanical loads. mosaic tiles can simply be exchanged or added. A red LED on the module’s rear side indicates following errors: s LED failure s Number and color (monocolored. Features of MBA-L2 s Automatic background LED test.5 to 8 Hz in 5 steps. E2PROM A green LED indicates healthy operation. Extension module The extension module can control up to 32 twincolored LEDs. LED failures can be located as well. Mechanical Design The 8RU-8RS-8RT mosaic tile systems are of self-supporting and self-locking design. This message can be interrupted by messages of higher priority.Control Room Technology Main module The main module is connected by a 16-pole cable including power supply. The LEDs can be operated in steady-state mode (on/off) or in flashing mode with a frequency of 0. of cable connections to and inside the mimic board s Simple erection on site. The tiles are in fact designed to support one another and thus give the finished control board or mimic display a strong structure. Each extension module is cyclicly updated by the main module. 15: 8RU-8RS-8RT mosaic tile systems Parameteriziation software The menu-driven software allows designing of main and extension modules locally at the module or on line during operation. Once the board has been erected. As described above. These are: s Synchronous blinking s Lamp test Data areas for LED information Data preparation SINEC L2-Bus Fig. Thus the brightness of the indicator lights can be adapted to the light conditions in the control room.

existing transmission media. All systems and network elements described meet the relevant international recommendations and are designed. infrastructure. Coupling unit Power line carrier communication Coupling capacitor Capacitive voltage transformer Teleprotection signaling system for analog transmission links Telecontrol – and data transmission system Power line carrier system ISDN telephone system Teleprotection signaling system for digital transmission links Multiplex system Fiber optic transmission system Optical fiber cable SWT D Fig.. as well as changing communications requirements and the rapid change in technology have considerably increased the demands placed on systems and components of communications networks. operation and training – one source for the customer. All systems and network elements are adapted to one another in such a way that the power industry’s future communications requirements can be satisfied optimally both technically and economically. 2400 Bd 64 kbit/s SWT F6 FWT ESB Hicom O. data and teleprotection channels to be transmitted. efficient and reliable transmission of information and data. Dig. reliability. developed and manufactured in accordance with the requirenments of the quality systems of DIN EN ISO 9001. Providing expertise and commitment as the complexity of the problem requires. Siemens offers a wide range of systems and network elements specifically designed to solve communications problems in this area. installation. Prior to a decision as to which system could be used for the best technical and economical solution. automation and computer-controlled optimization of network operations. The same careful planning and organizing of communications networks are as necessary in the power industry as for the generation and distribution of energy itself. length of transmission link. it is first necessary to clarify such requirements as quantity of speech.F. planning. production. As shown in the block diagram below. Siemens is offering advice. The systems and network elements shown in this survey of products have been specially developed for power industry applications and therefore fulfill the requirements with regard to quality and workmanship as well as reliability and security.F. up to 500 km Line trap PLC CC or CVT AKE Distance protection 50 . reliable and economical energy supply is also a matter of fast. delivery. current comparison and distance protection Data 50 Bd .. Put your trust in the extensive know-how of our specialists and in the solidity of the internationally proven Siemens communications systems. n x 64 kbit/s MUX Speech LFH AKE PLC CC CVT SWT F6 FWT ESB Hicom SWT 2 D MUX LFH O. 16: General overview Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 7/11 ... etc. Flexible network configuration with communications systems and network elements The gradual transition from analog to digital information networks in the power industry and other privately operated networks requires a great variety of systems and network elements for widely differing uses. International operation. we are offering systems and network elements for analog transmission as well as systems for digital transmission.Power Network Telecommunication Introduction Safe. Depending on those clarifications the most cost-efficient and best technical solution can be chosen.

The PLC terminals are connected to the power line via coupling capacitors or via capacitive voltage transformers and the coupling unit. The versions for phase-to-ground coupling can be retrofitted for phase-to-phase coupling or can be used for intersystem coupling. which are rated for the operating and short-circuit currents of the power installation and which involve no significant loss for the power distribution system. In order to prevent the PLC currents from flowing to the power switchgear or in other undesired directions (e.or 2-pole coarse voltage arrester Drain and tuning coil Isolating capacitor Isolating transformer Resistor for phase-to-phase coupling (balancing resistor) 11 Gas-type surge arrester (optional extra) 12 PLC cable terminals 13 HF hybrid transformer 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 5 4 3 Fig. spur lines).17: AKE 100 coupling unit with built-in HF hybrid transformer A: Phase-to-ground coupling Line trap CC or CVT AKE 100 PLC System B: Phase-to-phase coupling Line trap CC or CVT AKE 100 PLC System coupling to overhead power lines s Phase-to-phase coupling to overhead power lines s Phase-to-ground coupling to power cables s Phase-to-phase coupling to power cables s Intersystem coupling with two phase-to-ground coupling units The coupling units for phase-to-phase coupling are adaptable for use as phaseto-ground coupling units. g. whose lower cut-off frequency is determined by the rating of coupling capacitor and the chosen matching ratio. together with a high-voltage coupling capacitor. the high-frequency currents from and to the PLC terminals must be fed into or tapped from the lines at chosen points without the operating personnel or PLC terminals being exposed to a high-voltage hazard. traps (coils) are used.Power Network Telecommunication Power Line Carrier (PLC) Communication AKE 100 coupling unit For carrier frequency communication via power lines or via communication circuits subject to interference from power lines. 18: Coupling modes Line trap CC or CVT AKE 100 Coupling mode A: Phase-to-ground coupling B: Phase-to-phase coupling C: Intersystem coupling Costs Minimum Twice than A Twice than A Attenuation Greater than B&C Minimum Greater than B Reliability Minimum Greater than A Maximum Fig. The AKE 100 coupling unit is supplied in four versions and is used for: s Phase-to-ground 13 12 11 9 10 1 8 7 6 2 1 Conduit with weather-resistant PLC cable screw connection 2 Terminal for coupling capacitor 3 Grounding switch with switch-rod eye Main ground connection External shock hazard protection 1. forms a high-pass filter for the required carrier frequencies. C: Intersystem coupling Line trap CC or CVT AKE 100 HF hybrid PLC System Fig. The AKE 100 coupling unit described here. 19: Comparison of the coupling modes 7/12 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .

20: ESB 2000i power line carrier system Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 7/13 . ≤ 19. Hicom So 64 kbit/s Line trap Coupling capacitor Coupling unit LAN PAX/ PABX 2/4-wire E&M V.24/V.28 up to 2400 Bd or via MODEM Modem.28 up to 2400 Bd FWT 2000i Service PC Fig.Power Network Telecommunication ESB 2000i power line carrier system PAX/ PABX MUX 64 kbit/s SDH PDH DEE Communication system e.2 kbits/s ESB 2000i Power system control Data V.28 BMX 64 kbit/s Remote Service subscriber telephone Protection relay Distance protection SWT 2000 F6 Data Data V. g.

fax. 22: ESB 2000i PLC System with 40 W amplifier 7/14 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . reduction of expenditure for maintenance and service and technical requirements with respect to security.Power Network Telecommunication ESB 2000i power line carrier system Modern PLC systems must not only take into account the specific characteristics of the high-voltage line but must guarantee first and foremost that they will be economically and technically usable in future digital networks. telecontrol and teleprotection signals in the frequency range from 24 kHz to 500 kHz via: s Overhead power lines and s Cables in high. The ESB 2000i digital PLC system meets these requirements through s Use of state-of-the-art digital signal pro- Modulation Interfacemodules Demodulation Digital signal processing Central control Power amplifier cessor technology (DSP) s User-oriented service features. data. This method permits: s Large ranges due to maximum utilization of the transmitter energy for signal transmission s The smallest possible bandwidth and therefore optimum utilization of the spectrum space of the frequency range permitted for the transmission s Improved privacy due to carrier suppression Receive selection Fig.and medium-voltage systems. Application The ESB 2000i PLC system permits carrier transmission of speech. The ESB 2000i PLC system also satisfies economic requirements such as low investment costs. 21: ESB 2000i functional units Fig. availability and reliability. g. The information is transmitted using the single-sideband (SSB) method with suppressed carrier. e. – automatic line equalization – automatic frequency control (AFC) – remote supervision/maintenance – programming of parameters by PC s Integration of data transmission systems (channel circuits KS 2000 and KS 2000i) s Digital interfaces for transmission up to 64 kbit/s Use of the ESB 2000i PLC system also enables the full advantages of digital transmission to be exploited when employing the high-voltage line as a transmission medium.

21/V.1 or V. By using external multiplex systems providing ITU-T standardized interfaces X. it is possible to adapt the ESB 2000i PLC system more flexibly to the number of transmission channels and the various interfaces for the digital transmission of speech and data.28 SSBmodulator/ demodulator PLC-lineunit HFbandwidth 2.1.2 kbit/s 32 kbit/s 40 kbit/s 64 kbit/s Bandwidth 2.5) kHz Fig. ESB 2000i Digital transmission from 1.5 kHz Bandwidth 4 (3. Bandwidth 5 kHz Bandwidth 8 (7.21/V.Power Network Telecommunication Digital interface of the ESB 2000i PLC System The ESB 2000i PLC system with ITU-T standardized digital interface for transmission rates up to 64 kbit/s significantly increases the possible applications.11 or G 703.2 to 64 kbit/s Digital interface X. 24: Transmission rates of the digital interface of the PLC system according to the available bandwidth Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 7/15 . 23: Basic diagram of the ESB 2000i PLC System for digital transmission 19.5 to 8 kHz Service channel Central processor Service telephone Service PC network management Fig.11 or G 703.75) kHz Note: A service channel for remote maintenance and for service telephone is provided in addition to the above nominal bit rates.

Network protection systems featuring absolute selectivity therefore need secure and high-speed transmission systems for the exchange of information between the individual substations.. s Protection – Protection commands can be transmitted for the protection of two three-phase systems or one threephase system with individual-phase protection – High-voltage circuit-breakers can be actuated either in conjunction with selective protection relays or directly s Special switching functions – When the system is used for special switching functions. 26: Block diagram of the SWT 2000 F6 7/16 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . superlative demands are placed on power network protection systems in terms of reliability and availability. Transmission paths Depending on the type of supply network. The SWT 2000 system for transmission of protection commands provides optimum security and reliability while simultaneously offering the highest possible transmission time.. Application The SWT 2000 F6 system is for fast and reliable transmission of one or more protection commands and / or special switching functions in power networks.and medium-voltage overhead lines s High.Power Network Telecommunication SWT 2000 F6 protection signaling system for analog transmission links The task of power system protection equipment in the event of faults in highvoltage installations is to selectively disconnect the defective part of the system within the shortest possible time. 25: SWT 2000 F6 teleprotection signal transmission system (stand-alone version) PU OMA Optical line connection Annunciations IF 4M PS Fig. it is possible to transmit four signals. Each signal is assigned a priority. 60 V dc 110/220 V dc/ac Distance protection IF 4 CLE Electrical line connection Fig.and medium-voltage cables s Aerial and buried cables s Radio relay links Service PC Alarms 24 . the following transmission paths can be utilized: s High. In view of constantly increasing power plant capacities and the ever closer meshing of highvoltage networks.

as well as in hydrographic and meteorological services. aerial cables on crossarms of power line towers. The new FWT 2000i System for telecontrol and data transmission can be flexibly used to perform the various transmission tasks involved in system management not only in public utility companies.Power Network Telecommunication FWT 2000i telecontrol and data transmission system for analog/digital transmission links In all areas related to the telemonitoring of systems. Fast and easy fault localization A variety of supervisory facilities and automatic fault signaling systems ensure optimum operation and fault-free transmission of data. All transmission rates from 50 to 2400 Bd can be set in all frequencies within the 30-Hz raster. automation technology and the control of decentralized equipment. i. from now on. the channel unit can be integrated in: s The ESB 2000i PLC system s The SWT 2000 F6 protection signaling system s Telecontrol systems. The FWT 2000i meets the special requirements with regard to reliable operation and electromagnetic compatibility. Flexibility By using additional modules the system can be extended for alternative path switching or transmission of the control frequencies of a multistation control system. its use is not limited to the FWT 2000i system. 27: FWT 2000i telecontrol and data transmission system Transmitter and receiver as separate modules Separate modules that function only as a receiver or only as a transmitter are available for this operating method. The following characteristics of the FWT 2000i system make it suitable for meeting users’ special requirements: s Safe operating method around s s s s high-voltage systems High degree of reliability and safety Short process cycle times Easy handling Economical use The FWT 2000i system offers a variety of modules for the widest possible range of transmission tasks. PLC/carrier frequency channels via power lines. grounding conductor aerial cables. Thanks to the unlimited equipping options of the frame. but also in the areas of environmental protection and civil defense. The overall concept of the FWT 2000i system meets the stringent demands placed on power supply and distribution networks. is possible since. carrier links. PCM links and Telecom-owned current paths. Transmission media Suitable transmission media are underground cables. Modularity The modularity of the KS 2000i channel unit is typified by its integration in various other systems. only one module is needed for all rates and frequencies. s The system can be placed in service quickly and easily thanks to automatic level adjustment and automatic compensation of distortion. Transmission in the superimposed frequency band The FWT 2000i System permits transmission in the frequency range from 300 to 7200 Hz. railway companies and refineries.e. virtually all system variants necessary for operation can be implemented on a customer-specific basis. s Economical stocking of spare parts Universal for all frequencies and transmission rates up to 2400 Bd The KS 2000i channel unit accommodates a transmitter and receiver assembly. Fig. including in the frequency raster to ITU-T. Additional benefits In addition to the system features. For instance. it must be possible to transmit signals and measured values economically and reliably. Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 7/17 . s The use of the state-of-the-art digital processors and components ensures that the system will have a long service life and a high rate of availability. the FWT 2000i system provides all users with the cost-effective and technical benefits expected and required when this system is used.

Frequency shift as well as transmission speed are independently adjustable. Beside others the KS 2000i channel unit provides the following features: s High reliability s High flexibility s Easy detection of faults s Excellent transmission characteristics Fig. Both transmitter and receiver are accomodated on only one plug-in card either to be used as stand-alone unit (seperate frame) or to be integrated in ESB 2000i PLC terminal or in remote terminal unit (RTU).Power Network Telecommunication KS 2000i channel unit The new KS 2000i channel unit is suitable for transmission of asynchronous data on analog media and such forms a complete and versatile VFT modem. With a maximum transmission speed of up to 2400 Bd the VFT channel approaches applications traditionally realized with highspeed modems only. 28: KS 2000i channel unit 7/18 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .

29: The LFH 2000 fiber optic transmission system – Telecommunication requirements in power utilities Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 7/19 .Power Network Telecommunication Fiber optic communication The LFH 2000 system Telecommunication requirements in power utilities Electrical link (CU) Fiber-optic link OLE 2 SWT MUX O D F LWL 34 Mbit/s MDF Protection PABX LSA 34 Mbit/s Energy management system 4 x 2 Mbit/s Communications network management center 34 Mbit/s 2 Mbit/s 4 x 2 Mbit/s Office LAN Communications room OLE 34 OLE 34 DSMX OLE 8 SWT O O D D F F MUX/CC MUX/CC 2 Mbit/s 2 Mbit/s MDF PABX PABX 34 Mbit/s 4 x 2 Mbit/s 4 x 2 Mbit/s 4 x 2 Mbit/s Fig.

availability of internationally standardized interfaces and compatibility with regard to its incorporation into existing private networks. such as power companies. Further network elements may be connected to LFH 2000 via internationally standardized interfaces if the number of required channels and the types of interfaces. ment DPU IF4 OM Digital processor unit Interface module for distance protection relays Optomodule for connection of digital current comparison protection system Power supply Module for service telephone with DTMF signaling Module for nondialing service telephone Service channel unit protection switching Alarm and event recorder Distance protection or digital current comparison OFC (Fiberoptic cables) DPU IF 4 or OM IF 4 or OM PS TRCV 2 or TRCV 8 or TRCV 34 LWL TRCV 2 or TRCV 8 or TRCV 34 AUX or AUX 1+1 or AUX BUS PS ST-A ST-B AUX Service telephone ST-A or ST-B AUX 1+1 Service channel unit with AUXBUS Bus channel unit TRCV LWL Optical transceiver Optical fiber LWL Telecontrol system PABX Fig. It was tailored to the needs of power companies and other private network users. optical line terminating units with higher transmission speeds or with other service channel modules so that the system can be conveniently adapted to the individual transmission requirements. flexible multiplex system into a network hierarchy with differing transmission rates as currently planned and implemented by private network operates can be easily achieved using the compatible network elements available today.e. have to be extended. Depending on the number and type of the transmission interfaces required. LFH 2000 meets the requirements of the power companies and private network operators due to its flexibility. call for universal network elements for transmission in digital communications networks. The basic version can be optionally equipped with service telephone units. In its basic version LFH 2000 consists of a 19-inch subrack equipped with an optical line terminating unit TRCV2 and a service channel module. Even in its simplest configuration. LFH 2000 has been designed and developed on the basis of extensive experience gained with fiber optic transmission systems in public networks and transmission elements specially developed for such systems. Hicom) s QD 2-interface for network manage- LFH 2000 is provided with internationally standardized interfaces so that transmission systems of other manufacturers which are also equipped with internationally standardized interfaces can communicate with LFH 2000. LFH 2000 can be expanded by connecting flexible multiplex systems. The call for a user-friendly network management can be fulfilled by adding the required hardware and software. i.g. telephone systems (e. The incorporation of LFH 2000 with the expansion element e.Power Network Telecommunication LFH 2000 fiber optic transmission system Flexible network configuration and future communications requirements of private network users. This also makes it possible to combine LFH 2000 with digital transmission system of other manufacturers. LFH 2000 offers various types of interfaces for the transmission of speech and data channels such as: s Line interfaces up to 34 Mbit/s s So-interface for networking digital The incorporation of the SWT 2000 D digital protection data system provides additional functions required for most applications in power companies. 30: LFH 2000 fiber optic transmission system 7/20 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . the capacity of the system.g.

Power Network Telecommunication SWT 2000 D protection signaling system for digital communication links In comparison with analog protection signaling the use of digital transmission links provide noise-free communication.703 O. g. etc. atmospheric conditions and other sources of interference on power lines do not impair secure and reliable transmission of protection signals. provides optimum security and reliability while simultaneously offering the quickest possible transmission speed. Applications s All types of distance protection Fig.F. The SWT 2000 D system for the transmission of protection signals on digital transmission links. 32: Block diagramm SWT 2000 D Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 7/21 .. The system is avaliable in versions for the transmission of protection data on separate fibers and on 64 kbit/s PCM channels. mainly fiber optics. OLTS.) s Direct transfer tripping s Special switching functions s Digital current comparison protection (differential protection) with optical serial interface ≤ 19. Switching operations. with 7SD511). Uses SWT 2000 D system is used for fast and secure transmission of one or several independent binary signals for protection and special switching functions in power networks and/or the transmission of serial protection data. O. 60 V dc Alarms 110/220 V dc/ac Fig. 31: SWT 2000 D for flush panel mounting with integrated TRCV2 optical line equipment PCM 2 Mbit/s 40/60 V dc (permissive tripping. Features s Up to 8 parallel (binary) commands. OLTE 8) which ensures maximum independence of the protection data from voice and data transmission despite the common use of fibers in fiber optic cables. 820 nm n x 64 kbit/s DPU Distance protection IF 4 1300 nm 1500 nm OM X. As an optimized solution between these two possibilities.11 G.. the system offers transmission of the protection data in the service channel of an optical line termination system (e. s s s s bi-directional Up to 2 serial protection data. blocking. bi-directional Simultaneous transmission of serial protection data and up to 4 binary protection commands High-performance microcontroller Permanent self-supervision Automatic loop testing Event recorder with real-time clock (readable via hand-held terminal or PC). g.21/ V.2 kBd (e.F.F. Alternative route IF 4 PS Service PC 24 . s s TRCV Digital longitudinal differential protection (7SD51) O.

33) The LFH 2000 System – overview (see Fig. or central unit for add/drop operation or central unit for ADPCM DSC4V35 or DSC4V36 4x CU or CUDI or CUAD DSC8V24 8x V.28 < 64 kbit/s DSC104CO 10 x 64 kbit /s G.21/ V. for branch operation. twelve channel units. it contains a central unit CU.21or V. a CUDI central unit as well as the withdrawable channels. 33: FMX interfaces 7/22 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .24/V. or central unit for add/drop operation or central unit for ADPCM CU or CUDI or CUAD Fig.703 codirectional or n x 64 kbit /s G. a supervision unit and two power supply units. standard.703 co-directional SLB62 6x 2-wire LB subscriber SLX62 6x Exchange.35 ≤ 64 kbit/s or V.Power Network Telecommunication Flexible Multiplexer (FMX) Depending on the number and type of the transmission interfaces required. Thanks to the software-controlled configuration and parametrization of the multiplexers they can be integrated quickly and easily into the network. 2-wire SUB62 6x Subscriber. The FMX multiplexer is based on a flexible design which is considerably different from normal PCM systems. CUDI). For terminal operation.28 bis (switchable) DSC6-nx64G 6x DSC2-nx64 2x DSC8x21 8x X.11 ≤ 64 kbit/s V. 34 on page 7/23) ISDN Basic access unit I4SO 4x S0 interface I4UK4 NTP I4UK4 LTP 4x UK0 interface. 2-wire SEM106 or SEM108 10 x 2-wire NF and 2 E&M or 4-wire NF and 2 E&M Central unit.36 ≤ 64 kbit/s Central unit. the LFH 2000 optical fiber transmission system can be extended by connecting the flexible multiplex system (FMX). CUAD or CUDI unit and. 2B1Q or 4B3T.24/ V. The 19'' inset has sockets for two central units (CU. CUAD. NT-mode or LT-mode n x 64 kbit /s G. User Interfaces (see Fig. standard.703 contradirectional or centralized clock X.

V.11 Speech four-wire + E&M Speech four-wire + E&M V.Power Network Telecommunication The LFH 2000 System – Overview SDH 155 Mbit/s 2.5 Gbit/s EMOS QD2 Network management system EMS Energy management system SDH 155/622 Mbit/s Remote subscriber External and/or internal exchange PABX Substation control and protection system Data interfaces e.28 V. 34: The LFH 2000 System – Overview Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 7/23 . two-wire Protection PABX Data RTU 2 Mbit/s 2 Mbit/s 34 Mbit/s 4 x 2 Mbit/s 4 x 2 Mbit/s PLC n x 64 kbit/s TRCV SMUQ Service channel MUX Cross connect Fig.11 V. LAN Data and voice of PLC links Distance protection or digital current comparison protection 4 x 2 Mbit/s Protection RTU 34 Mbit/s 34 Mbit/s 34 Mbit/s 34 Mbit/s 2 Mbit/s 2 Mbit/s 4x2 Mbit/s 4x2 Mbit/s Data V.28 Service telephone Speech.21.24.g. X.

Power Network Telecommunication Conclusion The described digital and analog network elements are. We have focused on those products which have been specifically developed for the transmission of information in power utilities and which are indispensable for the operation of such companies. only a small selection from the multitude of network elements which Siemens has on hand for the implementation of transmission networks. It has also been our intention to show the uses for our products and how they can be integrated in transmission networks with varying network elements and network configurations. For further information please contact: Fax: ++49 . advice and selection of network elements an absolute necessity. The great variety of products in the field of digital transmission systems and the different requirements of our customers with regard to the implementation of digital transmission networks make customerspecific planning. Detailed descriptions of all products can be sent to you upon request.89-7 22-2 44 53 or ++49 . of course.89-7 22-4 19 82 7/24 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .

Energy Metering Contents General Areas of application Page 8/2 8/2–8/4 .

Stringent quality control ensures functionality in all our products. The meters must also comply to the general regulations for measuring instruments laid down in OIML D11. 3 Fig. ment of active and reactive energy consumption in 3. electromagnetic tolerance.and 4-wire systems s High measuring accuracy and stability in extented use (class 2) s 1 and 2 tariff applications s Direct connection or connection via current transformer Fig.Energy Metering General Energy meters are used for measuring the consumption of electricity.2 s s IEC 521: Ferraris meters with measuring accuracy in class 1 and 2 s OIML R6: Static gas meters s IEC 1107: Specification of optical interfaces s EN 50081 and EN 50082: Specification of interference robustness and interference radiation Siemens energy meters comply with all these requirements. 2 Fig. 1 Fig. robustness. heat and water for purposes of billing. 3: Static 3-phase meter 7EC49 Fig. class 0. Specifications The following international specifications lay down the requirements for the different meters in terms of measuring accuracy. 4: Ferraris 3-phase meter 7CA54 8/2 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . 2: Ferraris single-phase meter s 3-phase measure- Certifications High product and service quality is ensured by the implementation of internationally accepted procedures. modern energy meters should be able to handle differing regional tariff structures as well as complex tariffs in industrial applications. gas. etc: s IEC 1036: Electronic current meters with measuring accuracy in class 1 and 2 s IEC 687: Electronic precision meters. Areas of application: Domestic s Single-phase measurement of current consumption in low-voltage networks with high and low tariffs s High measuring accuracy and stability in extended use (class 2) Fig. In this regard. An independant institute has confirmed this by issuing the ISO 9001 certificate.5 s and 0. burden. 1: Adaptive meter (1-phase) Fig. 4 Fig.

Energy Metering Areas of application: Domestic Commerce and industry s Wear-free flow measurement through the use of ultrasonic technology by the static heat meter s Energy measurement in optimal range (class C) Fig. tokens or coins Fig. 7: 7E. sumtotal energy register Integrated realtime clock for tariff switching Integrated ripple control receiver (RCR) Storage of up to 15 previous energy/ demand values Maximum demand in all tariff periods Storage of detailed load profile Fig. The keypad prepayment electricity metering system that uses no cards. 2-phase and 3-phase meters Keypad-based credit transfer Programmable power limiting Intelligent overload protection Fully integrated. 5: Sonic heat meter 2WR4 s Measurement of s Prepayment s s s s s s electricity metering in class 2 Single-phase. flexible credit vending systems Current capability up to 80 A s s s s s s s active energy in two directions with accuracy class 1 and 2 4 tariffs each for demand and energy consumption One tariffless.6 – One meter for all special tariffs Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 8/3 . 6: Cashpower 2000.

6 is able to replace a complete set of meters – at lower connection and operational costs Fig.Energy Metering Areas of application: Large-scale industry s Measurement of active and reactive s s s s s Bulk-energy transfer stations s All of the above consumption in both directions Individual metering of all 4 quadrants 4 different tariffs for each measurement parameter Direct connection or connection via current transformers Reduced wiring requirements Apparent power calculation functions of the 7E. but to all foreign manufacturers´ meters well.6 in the accuracy class 0. eliminating manual meter reading. allowing faster billing and supporting simplified meter maintenance in industrial applications automatically. 10: Siemens Energy Meter Management: With SEMMS you can handle the future s SEMMS interrogates all models of s SEMMS interrogates all kinds of meters For further information please contact: Fax: ++49 . eliminating transfer errors and increasing operational security. 9: High-precision energy meter Siemens Energy Meter Management System SEMMS for power supply and distribution companies and for industry SEMMS Industry Industrystandard function meter Utility billing meter Utility M MeterSet MeterSet: The software for: s configuration s clarification s interrogation Interchange point Load management Special tariff-rate customer MeterSet ist object-oriented.9 11.4 33 -80 37 meters installed by power supply and distribution companies.2 s s As build-in and plugin meter Fig. This means that it can be connected not only to Siemens meters. Siemens metering technology also contains a wide range of instruments for communication. helping to assign and optimize costs 8/4 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . SEMMS + MeterSet allows consistent management of meter information. All meter information is transferred directly from MeterSet into SEMMS. 11 Check meter Energy cost allocation Tariff-rate customer Fig. registration and remote interrogation (such as Ripple Control Receiver) Fig.5 s and 0. 8: The 7E.

System Planning Contents Overall Solutions for Electrical Power Supply Page 10/2–10/6 .

load-flow and short-circuit Planning and calculating AC and DC transmission Determining economic alternatives Specifying the configuration of the system Design of electrical installations Design of protection system. analyzing and simulation of system behavior under normal and fault conditions Siemens System Planning Whether a new system has to be planned or an existing system extended or updated. communication and some others more. is competent and has the know-how needed to find the right answer. creative system layout. extent and duration of faults Priorities in system extension Replacement of old installations. the Planning Division. lines or cables. Of crucial importance for the quality of power transmission and distribution is the integration of different components in an optimized overall solution in terms of: s System design. closed-loop and open-loop control circuits for power converters Simulation of system dynamics Layout of power electronic equipment (FACTS) Method of neutral grounding Reliability analysis Earthing arrangement and measurement Investigation of interference Propagation of ripple-control signals Results Economical solution of distribution and transmission systems Simple and reliable operation Component layout Generator Transformer Circuit breaker Overhead line Cable Compensation equipment Equipment for neutral grounding Protection equipment HVDC FACTS Control equipment Grounding Minimization of losses Reduction of the effects. supervision. selecting equipment. layout of overvoltage protection system. based on the load center requirements and the geographical situation s Component layout. 1). and comprise system studies for long-distance transmission systems and urban power networks. from high voltage to low voltage. according to technical and economical assumptions and standards s Operation performance. insulation coordination Analysis of harmonics. selectivity and excitation tests Testing and customer acceptance inspection of protection equipment Simulation of complete system and secondary equipment Switching operations. control. whether normal or abnormal system behavior has to be analyzed or a postfault clarification done. as well as for particular distribution systems in industrial plants and large-scale installation for building centers in close cooperation with their customers and other Siemens Groups (Fig. transformers. Tasks System design Load development Cable restructuring Upgrading installations Selecting voltage levels System takeover Defining new transfomer substations System interconnection Connecting power stations Solutions System analysis. layout of filter circuits. 1: Tasks. certified to DIN ISO 9001.System Planning Overall Solutions for Electrical Power Supply Integral power system solutions are far more than just a combination of switchgear. reconstruction. Solutions and Results Compliance with specified performance values Safety for persons Economical altenatives 10/2 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . The investigations cover all voltage levels. system documentation System calculations. together with equipment for protection. extension or new constructions Extensively standardized system components Operation performance Voltage quality System perturbations Neutral grounding Fault clearing Overload Overvoltage Asymmetry Transient phenomena Reactive power balance Power-station reserve Fig.

trade. HV/MV main substations feeding the medium-voltage distribution system should be located as close as possible to the load centers of the medium-voltage distribution areas. and the widespread supply areas. but not forgetting the private sector (households). 3). Public supply system or internal installation system Consumer power application industry. commerce. balances the daily and seasonal differences between load requirements and different available generation sources. 2: The Pyramid of Power Supply Load development System analysis System architecture Network representation Energy Supply ”reliable and economical“ Network calculation Fig. The choice of system voltage levels and steps is of decisive importance for the economical design and operation. and utmost simplification of system configuration have to be considered for an economical system layout. 2). Different degrees of reserve can be provided depending on the requirements. to a high degree. it has to be assured that the time of interruption is minimized. e.System Planning The Power Supply System The power supply system is like a pyramid based on the requirements of consumers and the applications and topped by the power generation (Fig. Thus. In order to achieve these aims. use of maintenancefree components. International and national standards are the basic fundamentals for system design. private sector Fig. trade and commerce as well as public services (transportation and communication systems). standardization of equipment. The power system is basically tailored to the needs of consumers. These characteristics are the reason for the comparatively high specific costs of the distribution system. 3: Aspects of system planning influence or faults of components can never be avoided completely. short-circuit stress and other relevant parameters. the high number of similar network elements. Reliability requires adequate dimensioning of components with regard to currentcarrying capacity. Basic conditions for system design Industry. The subtransmission system feeding the main substations is configured according on their location and the location of the bulk power substations of the transmission system. the electrical and geographical configuration of the superposed medium-voltage distribution network as well. up to 550 kV.g. Although interruptions in supply due to environmental Investment planning Protection coordination Protection analysis Power generation Transmission function Transmission system up to 550 kV with HV/HV bulk substations Subtransmission system up to 145 kV with HV/MV main substations Distribution function Medium-voltage distribution system up to 36 kV MV/LV transformer public substations and consumer connection substations Low-voltage distribution system up to 1 kV. Main characteristics are the wide range of power requirements for the individual consumers from a few kW to several MW. Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 10/3 . This is a question of reserve in the system. The load situation at the LV level determines the most suitable location of public MV/LV substations and consumer connection stations and. depend highly upon a reliable and adequate energy supply of high quality at utmost economical conditions. The largely interconnected transmission system. several aspects must be considered (Fig. public services.

Medium-voltage systems are primarily governed in their configuration by the locations of the system and consumer stations to be supplied. for the basic design. The technically and economically optimal configuration of distribution systems calls for wide-ranging practical experience from a large number of different projects and must determine switchgear configuration as well. the load estimation is based on the individual buildings and workshops. installed capacity and simultaneity factor for commercial and industrial supply. intermediate low-voltage level or medium-voltage. This and the regional and seasonal difference of generation input and consumer demand as well as the many different size of lines. Two modes of time simulation. As well as the actual planning. finding the best technical and economical solution. to determine the switchgear configuration and various equipment. natural borders – such as rivers. Load Development The load analysis and estimation in the distribution system are always a matter of distributed loads in an certain area. 5). checks the interaction of the current-time characteristics with regard to selectivity and generates setting tables for the protection equipment. With the help of an integrated database and easy-to-use graphics system. such as airports or university and hospital centers as well as in industrial areas. cables and transformers. NETOMAC (Network Torsion Machine Control) is a program for simulation and optimization of electrical systems which consist of network. such as single loads with great fluctuations or welding systems. such as annual growth rates for existing public areas. it includes numerous investigations. each distribution system must be planned individually. This also entails detailed studies of the reactive power. Industrial power supply differ from public networks inasmuch as they have a high proportion of motor loads and often inplant generation. and testing of the dynamic and transient behavior in the network resulting from faults. For industrial and building power supply systems. load density for new developing settlements. based on the given quality requirements. But. displayed and evaluated with the SINCAL program system. Thus. The most suitable arrangements for public supplies are open-ring systems or line systems to a remote substation. voltage stability. In large commercial complexes. Industrial systems in particular contain facilities for transfer to standby.System Planning System Planning. Tools Beside the great experience and knowhow Siemens Power System Planning applies powerful tools to assist the engineers and their highly responsible work. Different methods are used for load estimation. CUSS (Computer-aided Protective Grading) indicates grading paths and grading diagrams. 4). Any size of systems with line and cable routing are simulated. Technical calculations and economic investigations complete the planning work and are essential for the choice of the final solution (Fig. adapted to structure and load requirements of the subposed voltage level. railway lines or major roads and parks or woodlands allows the whole supply district to be subdivided into a number of subareas. schematic and topological equivalent systems can be digitized or converted to other systems. System planning has therefore to start with a thorough task definition and system analysis of the present status. Meshed operation is usually only intended for special load situations. In urban and rural areas. Connection of neighboring transmis- sion systems via AC/DC coupling. Distribution Network configuration for power distribution is a matter of visualization and will not be executed successfully without the geographical information of load and source location for public supply and industrial or large building supply as well. Alternative system concepts (system architecture) in several expansion stages ensure the dynamic development of the system. The program serves for s Simulation of electromechanical and magnetic phenomena s Special load-flow calculations s Frequency-range analysis s Analysis of eigenvalues s Simulation of torsional systems s Parameter identification s Reduction of passive systems s Optimization DISTAL (Distance Protection Grading) calculates the setting values of the impedance for the three steps and for the overreach zones (automatic reclosing and signal comparison) of distance protection equipment in any kind of meshed network. a complex activity System planning and configuration is comparable with architectural work. the implementation of HVDC transmission or superposing a new voltage level needs comprehensive planning and investigation work (Fig. Transmission The design of transmission systems is to a great extent individually tailored to the location of generating plants and bulk substations feeding the subtransmission system. make load-flow distribution complicated and require detailed calculations of system behavior and the operating conditions of power generation during planning work. some standard configuration has proved optimal in terms of s Simple configuration s Easy operation and s Economical installation Low-voltage systems are usually operated as open radial networks. This leads for reasons of economy to the spot system with radial-operated transformers. 10/4 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . Depending on the capacity. units will be connected to normal lowvoltage level. insulation coordination. the higher load densities result in shorter distances between substations. for instance. machines and closed-loop and openloop control equipment. instantaneous value mode and stability mode can be used separately or in combination. Planning of high-voltage interconnected networks and transmission networks is a complex matter since they are operating over several different voltage levels and mostly meshed systems are used. SINCAL (Siemens Networ Calculation) for analysis and planning purposes. Component design and the infeed from the superposed voltage level has to be considered as well.

System Planning DISCHU simulation and testing of numerical protection relays. SECOND Subposed voltage level Load structure is used to calculate the electrical characteristics and costs of a given AC transmission project. 5: Planning tasks for interconnected transmission system Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 10/5 . two. It indicates the best choice from among the available power units and the best way of dividing up the system load among the individual units used. Technical standards. Reliability requirements Task definitions. TERRA is for calculating the potential fields of grounding installations. HADICA is used for calculating harmonic voltages and currents in electrical systems.and three-phase systems (e. KABEIN Fig. ACFilt (Filter-circuit design) is for dealing efficiently with harmonic compensation. FELD Protective coordination Method of neutral grounding permits calculation of electrical and magnetic fields which occur during operation and fault conditions in the environment of one-. overhead lines and railway lines) in a twodimensional way. LEIKA Proposal for system layout permits calculation of the electrical characteristics of overhead lines and cables.g. 4: Steps for network planning Superposed voltage level Infeed Expansion project Load development System architecture Alternative system concepts for stages Component design Technical/economical calculations and evaluations Tasks Load development and power plant schedules Voltage steps and transformer substation sizes Installation type and configuration Voltage-control and reactive-power compensation Load-flow control and stability criteria Dynamic and transient behavior System management (normal and faulted) is used for calculating the inductive interference to which telecommunication lines and pipelines are subjected by the operating currents or fault currents of high-voltage overhead lines or cables at any levels of exposure. Existing system Planned Fig. SUNICO calculates how to make optimum use of power stations. System analysis of present status Weak point determination Immediate action PRIMUS works out the most suitable voltage for a DC transmission project together with the most important electrical data and the costs.

EMTDC. Measurements. Four of them are specially designed for testing large power converters such as HVDC and FACTS units. In addition to the classic type of simulator with physical elements. In the simulator. clarification of disturbances and verification of functions. so that computer and analog simulation complement each other. realtime injection of transient signals from digital simulations is also possible.System Planning Power Generation G ∆u. ∆f. Instruction and Training Sometimes only field measurements can provide an accurate picture of the actual situation and will be conducted for acquisition of data. 6: Advanced AC/DC Real-Time Simulator facilities Advanced AC/DC real-time simulation The development and testing of measuring. Siemens System Planning utilize a realtime simulator based on a modular principle so that different layouts and structures of the projects can be dealt with flexibly. Station 5 has special interfaces for testing system protection schemes. instruction and training matched to the particular needs of the customers. For further information please contact: Fax: ++ 49 . EMTP Playback Computer Simulation Fig. e.g. provided by Siemens System Planning. ∆φ … Digital Sequence Conrollers AC/DC Systems … Positive and Zero Sequence Components 6 Test Stations 1…4 … HVDC and FACTS 5 6 Measuring. there are 6 test stations which enable parallel work to be carried out. acquainting them with installations or also procedures for use of software and methods of planning are important aspects. with NETOMAC or RTDS.91 31-73 44 45 10/6 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . protection and control equipment of large power supply installations need to take place under real system conditions. Custom power station 6 is used for Advanced Power Electronic Applications such as SIPCON (Siemens Power Conditioner). Protection and Control Protection Custom Power Simulator Interfaces =1 =1 Signal Acquisition System Signal Generation and Recording Real-Time Computer Simulation RTDS NETOMAC. Also.

High-Voltage Power Transmission Systems Contents High-voltage Power Transmission Systems Page 11/2–11/4 .

installation & commissioning Overall project management On-site implementation On-site supervision Fig.g. Siemens can provide turnkey solutions for the individual demands in the field of power transmission and distribution. transmission systems or industrial complexes (Fig. consultancy Planning. MV and LV distribution system going down to the individual customers. 2).High-Voltage Power Transmission Systems Introduction The supply of power means more than just the combination of individual components. e. The benefit of the turnkey projects are: s All project coordination is in one hand Fig. and all marginal conditions clarified (Fig. the task definition for the scheduled project is drawn up. there are large-scale projects under way. Power Transmission Systems Quality assurance Personnel training Maintenance BOO/BOT projects Project development Feasibility studies Financial engineering Partner & shareholder Planning. Particularly in countries where demand for power is growing at an above-average rate. In close cooperation with the customer. The scope of supply includes all components from the generator terminals. via AC or DC transmission and the high-voltage grid to the HV. 1 and s The interfaces between customer and General contractor Planning and design of turnkey Power Transmission Systems (PTS) Supply. Such a partner must also ensure that the systems will be properly installed. Consortium member Consortium leadership Consortium member in the construction of PTS Services. taking all marginal conditions into account. Setting up such large-scale projects calls for an expert partner. project engineering Consultancy Coordination Studies. capable of diligently analysing demand and of planning the project integrally. This means a competent partner who produces top-quality components both for power transmission and for system management tasks. e. 1). analyses Site management.g. Experienced project management – the way to the successful project With all key technologies in house. manufacture PTS and components Development and production of key components supplier are minimized s The turnkey responsibility of Siemens reduces the project risk for the customer. 2: Scope of supply and services 11/2 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution 11/3 . as well as practical instruction on site in order to familiarize the customers with the individual items of equipment. Tailored financial solutions As a globally structured company.High-Voltage Power Transmission Systems Cost comparison between 3-phase HV AC transmission and HV DC transmission Costs Depending on boundary conditions Distance Breake-even-point HVAC HVDC Fig. In the sessions and courses Siemens distinguishes between operation and maintenance staff training. Siemens can optimize the transmission system technically and economically in order to find the transmission system which is tailored to our customer‘s demands. there are different possibilities covering supplier’s credit as well as complete project financing like Build Operate and Transfer (BOT) or numerous alternative models. along with the transmission distance. 3: AC or DC transmission costs over distance System optimization and engineering One major task for the system engineering experts is the comparison and the assessment of various concepts. giving the theoretical background. The station operators are mainly trained in handling of the control and protection systems and their functions. Depending on the requirements. Training Customer training is a very important task in project management and our service department specializes in customer training. The basic parameters are transmission capacity and voltage. Having the turnkey responsibility. Siemens is prepared to participate in the financing of a power transmission project. whereas the maintenance teams are specially introduced to the main components. The training activities comprise classroom sessions.

inspection and other maintenance activities.73 46 72 Fig.High-Voltage Power Transmission Systems Service Our service activities cover all necessary checks. With the use of special diagnostic systems. the causes for outages or malfunctions of individual equipment can be found easily.9131. also remote controlled. 4 11/4 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution . For further information please contact: Fax: ++ 49 .

to IEC Crosssectional conductor area [mm2] American wire gauge Temperature Length °C Non-metric system SI system °F Equivalent Metric CSA AWG or MCM 320° 305° 290° 160° 150° 140° 1 mil 1 in 1 ft 1 yd 1 mile SI system 1 mm 1 cm 1m 1 km 0.00 120.914 m 1.452 cm2 = 654.305 m 0.00 150.00 2.370 in = 1.350 506.621 mile = 1.080 2.310 1.00 50.000 202.640 152.394 in 3.609 km = 1609 m Non-metric system 39.836 m2 4046.00 25.00 70.620 3.50 1.094 yd [mm2] 275° 0.630 8.093 m2 = 929 cm2 0.653 0.300 16.000 354.00 35.00 240.040 1.710 405.76 ft2 = 1550 in2 = 1.00 500.832 1.37 mil 0.200 126.4 mm 30.16 mm2 0.630 42.00155 in2 0.094 yd 0.550 13.480 67.Conversion Factors and Tables Cross-sectional conductor areas to Metric and US Standards Metric crosssectional areas acc.710 253.770 21.650 2.310 4.50 4.710 19 AWG 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 185° 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 MCM 300 400 500 600 700 800 1000 50° 32° 20° 110° 260° 245° 230° 212° 200° 130° 120° 110° 100° 90° 80° Area 170° 155° 140° 125° 70° 60° 50° 40° 95° 30° 80° 65° 20° 10° 0° –10° 5° –10° –25° –40° –20° –30° –40° Non-metric system 1 in2 1 1 ft2 yd2 SI system 10.9 m2 2.00 185.00 300.0254 mm 2.196 yd2 0.00 400.59 km2 Non-metric system 0.48 cm = 0.410 53.281 ft = 39.260 6.150 26.75 0.670 33.00 16.00 6.370 10.350 304.430 85.00 625.00 95.366 mile2 1 acre 1 mile2 SI system 1 mm2 1cm2 1 m2 1 km2 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .155 in2 10.170 5.54 cm = 25.00 6.030 107.

102 kgf m) SI system 1 kWh 1J Mass. work.034 fl.473 3.264 gallon 0.699 m3/h SI system Pressure Non-metric system 1 in HG 1 psi 1 lbf/ft2 0. 1 quart 1 pint 1 gallon 1 barrel 16.738 ft lbf = 9.035 ft3 = 1.055 kJ = 1055.012 kgf m 1.138 kgf m Non-metric system 8.237 mile/h 0.785 l/s 101.138 kgf m 1.034 bar 0.225 lbf = 0.851 lbf in = 0.097 km/h 0.093 kgf/cm2 154.574 0.504 psi = 2088.765 m3 cm3 = 0.070 kgf/cm2 1.448 N 9.2 kg Non-metric system 0.443 bar = 157.205 lb = 35. moment of force 1 ft lbf Non-metric system 1 lbf in 1 lbf ft SI system SI system 1 Btu 0.941 1.6 x 105 J 3.227 m3/h = 227 l/h m3/h 0.738 lbf ft (= 0. 61.504 lbf/in2 = 0.Conversion Factors and Tables Volume Non-metric system 1 in3 1 ft3 1 yd3 1 fl.589 ft3/min = 0.473 l = 3.061 in3 = 0.987 dm3 = 1. heat Non-metric system 1 hp h SI system 0.100 tonf SI system Velocity Non-metric system 1 ft/s 1 mile/h SI system 1 m/s 1 km/h SI system SI system 1N 1 kN Energy.0098 ft3/s 1 lbf/in2 1 1 tonf/ft2 tonf/in2 158.788 x 10-4 bar = 4.946 dm3 = 0.932 tonf/ft2 = 6. oz.264 gallon/s 0.04214 kg SI system m2 SI system 1 kg m2 Non-metric system 23.964 kN Non-metric system 0.06 J (= 0.02 kgf/cm2) SI system 1 gallon/min 0.457 x 10-3 tonf/in2 (= 1.281 ft/s = 2.113 Nm = 0.069 bar = 0.629 barrel SI system 1 bar = 105 pa = 102 kpa SI system 1 cm3 1 dm3 =1l 1 m3 Force Non-metric system 1 lbf 1 kgf 1 tonf 4.27 oz 1.655 kgf m = 3. oz.478 x 10-4 Btu (= 2.684 x 106 J = 2.233 ft lbf 0.53 in Hg = 14.73 lb ft2 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .6 g 0.114 pint = 0. weight Non-metric system 1 oz 1 lb 1 sh ton SI system 1g 1 kg 1t 28.725 x 10-7 hp h = 0.907 t = 907.024 in3 = 0.35 g 0.305 m/s = 1.341 hp h = 2.653 x 10-6 hp h = 7.911 ft/s = 0.946 l dm3 dm3 SI system 1 l/s 1 l/h 1 m3/h Non-metric system 0.102 sh ton = 2205 lb SI system 1 Nm Moment of inertia J.589 m3 = 159 l Non-metric system 0.069 bar 4.454 kg = 453.746 kWh = 2. Numerical value equation: J = GD = Wr 2 2 1 kgf m 4 Non-metric system 1 lbf ft2 0.072 bar = 1.035 oz 2.057 quart = 2.387 cm3 28.102 kgf 0.882 x 10-4 kgf/cm2 0.405 gallon/min = 0.252 kcal) Non-metric system 1.356 Nm = 0.609 km/h Non-metric system 3.54 lbf/ft2 = 14.317 dm3 = 0.488 kgf/cm2 Non-metric system 29.807 N 9.621 mile/h Torque.785 l 29.388 x 10-4 kcal) 3.028 m3 0.785 SI system Volume rate of flow Non-metric system 1 gallon/s 1 1 ft3/s ft3/min 3.737 x 105 kgf m 0.0044 gallon/min 4.447 m/s = 1.

608 kg/kWh Non-metric system 1.86 kcal/h = 3.972 kgf m/s (= 1. The technical data.36 PS) 0. 1 cm2 = 100 mm2 1 m3 = 1000 000 cm3. 1 m2 = 10 000 cm2.040 kgf m/s (= 1. The illustrations are for reference only.37 = T Non-metric system SI system °C K °F °F 9 5 9 5 ϑC + 32 = ϑF ϑ T – 459.014 PS) 1.67 = ϑF Symbol Unit ϑF* ϑC* °F °C K (Kelvin) Conditions of Sale and Delivery Subject to the “General Conditions of Supply and Delivery for Products and Services of the Electrical and Electronics Industry”.412 Btu (= 0.Conversion Factors and Tables Power Non-metric system 1 hp SI system Examples for decimal multiples and submultiples of metric units 0.644 lb/hp h SI system Temperature Non-metric system °F °F °C K 5 6 5 9 SI system (ϑF – 32) = ϑC ϑF + 255. Note: Quantity Fahrenheit temperature Celsius (Centigrade) temperature Thermodynamic temperature T * The letter t may be used instead of ϑ Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission & Distribution .163 W 0.138 kgf in/s) 1.102 kgf m/s) 1 km = 1000 m.738 ft lbf/s = 0.356 W (= 0.293 W Non-metric system 1.746 kW = 745.341 hp = 101.70 W = 76. 1 cm3 = 1000 mm3 1 t = 1000 kg. 1 kg = 1000 g 1 kW = 1000 W 1 ft lbf/s 1 kcal/h 1 Btu/h SI system 1 kW 1W Specific steam consumption Non-metric system 1 lb/hp h SI system 1 kg/kWh 0. 1 m = 100 cm = 1000 mm 1 km2 = 1000 000 m2. dimensions and weights are subject to change unless otherwise stated on the individual pages of this catalog.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer: Get 4 months of Scribd and The New York Times for just $1.87 per week!

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times