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portuguese grammar
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the basics ot Poduguese spolling. differences
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First published in UK 2003 by Hodder Education, part of Hachefte Livre UK, 338 Euston Road, London, NWI 3BH.
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how to form Dlurals

punctuation . accents . stress

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Copyrigtrt @ 200i1 Sue Tyson-Ward

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compound prepositions . verbs with prepositions. ada (eachleveryl a 21 nllsrlus vrfis ' position of 135 cardinal numbers: how to say and write them in Portuguese. direct and indirect object pronouns . time of day 17 . intenogatlves and exclamatlons negatives 60 120 verbs interrogatives (questions) the indicative m00d. sobnr. reflexive pronouns. overview of personal pronouns . relative adjectives 42 18 lmpenonrl verls 107 09 47 simple prepositions. dates. seasons . expressions of penonal prunouns . -ar. contractions porand prepmitions weatherverbs . months of the year year special holidays of the of n 98 Dnbilbw. miscellaneous 19 hurts 10 pan . anoitecer{lo get darknightfall) I amanheur (lo get light . kftar. +r 130 criticism with diminutives and augmentatives .08 lelatiue pronouns and adloctluos using relative pronouns to join clauses (parts of sentences) . 13 expressing affection. posltion of n interrupted anoher) tutmbm formalion and usage in Poduguese 16a pronouns. paraand its uses 11 the general infinitive of the three groups in Portuguese .third coniugation (-ir) verbs how prefixes alter the meaning of a word n 73 radlcal-changlng verbs 126 . second coniugation (-ef . arithmetical signs . divisions time . fnffnftlvos teme 114 55 porand its uses. the personal 20 infinitive and its uses prcsonl verb l negatives. usage of the imperfec{ tense lSl 167 days of the week . geometrical terms. ordinal numben and their 15 formation of reflexive v66s the reflexive pronoun. dimensions. suffixes.lnpodml how to decide between the pretertte and the imperlect wlren talking about the past time .dawn) . 12 exclamations preflxes and suflixes cada . other units of measure . third coniugation . some oomples of inegular verbs 80 m lmpoftcttrma formation. metric system . other measurement language E prutorlb|om. doer-when something .t a fazer(saying ftat one event subject pronouns . decimals rctb lollourd !y r pnposlllon a. awe or fint 22 conjugation. fractions . verbs lfl 1{0 . fuer falta. second conjugation. verbs taking pronouns . por. the points 16 tlme of the compass (-i4 wrbs . -ir orthognphlc-changlng of pronunciation 78 todo. second conjugation (-ed wrbs. prepositions of time . anhosand vorbc todo (allleverythingl (everything) verbs that change their spelling for reasons . haver. other expressions . lhird coniugntion. units of measure. 1r4. verbs . reciprocrty 84 verbs + + moasuros and dimcnsion$ . es8. first conjugation (-ar) 66 . verbs + com / pan first coniugation (-ar) verbs. verbs + 6rD. verbs + de. 14 numerals use in Portuguese ambos (both) .

estar + past participle uocabulary voil hbles talfng lt fuilher keylo ererclses 261 26ll 272 275 . poder 36 conlrary to the statement commands (imperatives) 202 46 . present.. dever. actions . 224 imperfect subjunctive . sa = whether hypothetical. summary of continuous tenses lL. como S8. precisar de. fnffuence 232 30 31 terand haver verbs expressing doubt 42 emotion .29 condilional tense formation and usage in Portuguese 166 170 41 sublunctive: emotion.. conditional perfect continuous tenses . 40 reflexive substitute for the passive impersonal use of se tenses of the subiunctive ...'. polite commands 37 . things that can change the passiue ser+ past participle . doubt. deslre.. negative commands . imperfect serand estar ser-'permanent' conditions 39 . doubtful actions. 0 sa. future subjunctive. clauses present tense 249 open possibility . 4 sublunctlve: indelinite and negatlve antecedenb can.. future perfect subjunctive . verbs of opinion . verbs expressing ter. special expressions perfect 33 other compound pluperfect (past perfect) . 'nobody who present continuous imperfect continuous 45 ..? - past conditionals affirmative commands. contrary t0 - past tense . which verbs.nust / ought / shoultl / 197 about the past . tenses. haver de fact - imperfect subjunctive . preterite speech to indirect speech in 255 208 how to convert direct the most common irregular verbs in Portuguese 38 Portuguese. 245 34 lenses 191 using the subjunctive with expressions such as'somebody who can. pronouns and possessives to use 211 European and Brazllian Porluguese: some dllferences In . estar. haver pafiiciples present participle 32 176 subiunctiye: lmpersonal expresslons and verts of .. future perfect .' . facts 35 modaf auxif iaries eould . ter de / que. future continuous. past participle opinion 236 compound lenses: presenl pedect the formation of compound tenses o 183 impersonal expressions . ... se and the future .temporary 218 states or conditions. present perfect subjunctive .? =what if. {3 186 special expressions position of pronouns with the present subjuncliue: conlunctlons and hypothesis 241 talvez and oxald.. pluperfect (past perfect) subjunctive present subjunctive . direcl and Indlrect irregular vetbs . = ds if /though..

Francisco Fernandes. for his patience through yet another winter of writing. A good dictionary will also be useful to refer to in conjunction with this book. Michelle fumstrong and Ginny Catmur at Hodder. or by dipping into units where practice is required. but you should find each one clearly signposted and easy to navigate. whilst maintaining a steady supply of hot drinks and chocolate. with or without the help of a teacher. and all answers are given in the Key at the end of the book.l II CL 5 t+ o - ur Turk and the readers. especially if you are unsure about terms will such as noun. The provision of exercises and lively activities in each unit allows students to test their understanding of the material covered. A regular small amount of grammar and vocabulary learning. and all structures are illustrated with examples that are translated into English. The structure of the units is explained in the next section. and finally. The more advanced student be able to progress at a faster pace. The beginner will find that all main linguistic terms are explained in the glossary at the start of the book. for their excellent editing work. Acknowledgements I would like to thank the following production of this book: Sue Hart and Rebecca Green at Hoddeq for their continued support. for their useful comments and advice. my Mum. guidance and hard work. every day if possible. for his insightful guidance.a. wish to study the essenrials of Portuguese grammar. for trying out many of the exerciseq my husband Ed. for keeping the house clean for me whilst I sat at my desk. either by working through the units in chronological order. Phil people involved in the . etc. adverb. my students. will enable students to establish firm linguistic foundations. o F+ o 5 II C This book is intended as a reference guide for those who. It is probably worthwhile making the Glossary your starting point. verb.

and the Key to all the exercises. try out the exercises that follow the explanations. try to do them without looking at the explanations.t-. There are clear explanations of the structures of the Pornrguese language although. to ease comprehension. and add to it all the time. grammatical terminology has been kept o o o - J -r II to a minimum. At the end of the book you will find comprehensive verb tables. and therefore progress. Anyone intending to use their Portuguese in Pornrguese-speaking Africa or East Timor would be advised to request information on local vocabulary from contacts/organizations inside the relevant country. There is also an overview of different words on page 261. These point out links between Portuguese and English (and other languages). and are full of handy hints to aid your learning of Portuguese. even when you are on holiday! When the structures listed are clear to you. Most people find it easier to write vocabulary in a separate notebook .try to list words by topic areas. where there are major differences in structure or vocabulary in Brazilian Portuguese. See also the Taking it further section. where you will find the structures of the unit illustrated in realistic texts such as newspapers. so that you can return to the exercises at alater date to test yourself. Whilst the book takes European Portuguese as its standard.with the exception of the first . extracts from brochures or comprehension of the text. Each of the 46 units . At that point. and will find some help with vocabulary and a few questions to guide you through resources such as tickets and timetables. At certain points in the book you will find o tr a o t t+ o Grammar in focus o Exercises o Grammar in context The-followilg is 1 suggestion as to how you might sensibly work through each unit: Read through the Grammar in focus section. You may also find it useful to start making a list of new words (vocabulary) you come across in the examples.consists of the following sections: Proceed on to the Grammar in context section.l L_J o { 5 A glossary of gramatical terms follows this section for easy reference whenever the explanation of a term is required. See if you can think of any further examples yourself. of the student. re-arranging words. where the language point of the unit is explained with examples (translated into English). to see what you can remember. puzzles and other lively exercises. These are designed to give you immediate practice of the grammar points. a list of useful language websites and additional advice in Taking it further. 'Grammar' does not have to mean 'dull'! It may well be better not to write your answers into the book. ct . You dialogues. through a variety of activities .completing sentences. Language watch boxes. these are highlighted.

He sings imperative a form of the verb. There are a number of these in Portuguese.. They are incredibly cleuer indicative mood the normal form of the verb used for straightforward statements. have the same endings. and introduced by expressions such as She said. that. showing whether they are singular / plural or masculine / feminine). auxiliary verb a verb used in conjunction with another verb to form a different tense or the passive voice (see below). tense a verb tense made up of more than one verb form. e.g. or tell us more about how an action (verb) is carried out. before tae go ot'rt . They often answer the question How? They are also used to describe adjectives more fully. o {r GT q) Grammar is nothing to fear! Many people have an aversion to the word itself. English does not use determiner the term for words which can precede a noun. those. e. an adverb has the ending -ly on it. direct speech the exact words someone has spoken.g. colloquial a more casual. Grammar is simply the building blocks which. in whatever guise that might be. e. make up the framework of the language. cardinal numbers numbers one. either how that letter is pronounced. e. comparative form of adjectives and adverbs used to make comparisons. if she sutims fast. because. these. and indefinite articles are the words for A. accents these are written marks above letters which affect conjugate what you do to a verb when you change its endings to denote person and tense.g.g.In Portuguese there are different words corresponding to the number and gender of a noun (whether it is masculine or feminine). o 3 a t+ adjectives words which describe or give more information about nouns.g. In Portuguese adjectives match their endings to the nouns they are linked with (e.g. Unit for II languages See spellings but with different meanings. fatter. . e. known as a mood. she writes. used when giving commands. but many other foreign words imported1into do. and.g. three etc. e.. such as articles (definite and indefinite).f'ul ti GT o a o gt - agreement when related words. adverbs these are words which describe. However.. he has gone. as they may remember bad experiences of eady (dull) learning. It is raining. e. idiomatic expression which is not easily directly translated into another language. more on accents in Portuguese. possessives and demonstratives. two.g. once linked 3 3 g) together. with examples in English.. e. usually contained within speech marks.. suteetly. u)e utrite. articles words which go with nouns. Definite articles are the words for the. You can refer back to these notes at any time whilst you are studying. e.. more sloutly. phrases or clauses. raining cats and dogs. idiom. or at what point the word should be stressed (emphasized) when spoken. The main basic terms are explained simply below. you cannot adequately learn a language cfause a group of words containing a verb. I wrote. nouns and adjectives. sorne. enabling you to do something more than simply churn out travel phrases parrot-fashion.this.. Often in English. impersonat verb a verb used in the 'it' form.g. demonstratives the words used for pointing things out . and often does not relate to normal rules of grammar. compound without studying the grammar.. conjunction word which is used to join together other words. a louely cup of tea.. I asked. that expensiue coat. or perceive it as generally 'difficult' or 'irrelevant'. e.g. An. questions and negatives. familiar style of spoken language..g. but. An accent can also be used to differentiate between two words with identical o s) I written accents (apart from on r+ the language). we will haue won.

and also on. e.. in front of the cinema. possessives words showing ownership or possession.g. h orses. I haue brchen the windau. = for). kind propositions these are words which denote the 'position' of someone or something in time or space. change its meaning in some way. obligation. ".you nust not drink the uaten Btem the part of a verb to which you add the endings to show person and tense. not do it.g. She urants to uisit Arnerica. an end and a finite verb (see below). e. where they receive the results of the action th"rough indirect means. suffix a letter or letters which. Our dag aluays chases spiders. orilnal number fust. He said that he utould phrase a group of words which together have some meaning. third etc. . e.everfthing around us is a noun of some kind. they directly receive the action of the verb.) sontence a group of words. mood or voice. e. (Money is the direct obfece) She giues rten money eaery uteek..nltlve the part of the verb referred to in English as /o. and the form found in the dictionary. I uto*ld like to go home. Enjoy Portuguese but not in yourselues! She gets herself dressed each tnorntng. e. the expression of ideas such as no. or plural (more than one). with a beginning. each of which across a range of tenses: indicative (expressing fact). She giues it lots of treats. on top of the cupboard.g.). rcflexive a noun is any thing. Obiects can be 'direct'.g. such as in f clauses.g. in the square. subjunctive (non-factual or contrary to fact). so that you do not need to keep repeating the actual noun - unkind.g. In Portuguese noura A number of verbs are reflexive in English. ability and possibilrry e. i. reflexive verbs carry the word seffwith them. A noun can be singular (iust one). change the meaning or the type of word it is grammatically. t ry cdr. when added to the beginning of a word. person or abstract idea in existence . . or speech where the exact wordr of thc original statement are not necessarily used.g. She giues moncy euery ueek. and as an adiective.e. The action is carried out by.g. and imperative (commands). Mary is uery kind. e. the verb reflects back to the person carrying out the action.g. W brother wants to be a teacher. e. There are various types of pronoun in Portuguese. flot. but one of these will be the main clause.g. e. nouns are also divided into masculine and feminine words. The uindou utas btoker. pa$ pardcldr together with an auxiliary verb forms certain compound tenses (tenses made up from two different verbs). all of which you will learn about.dr reportcd speech.g. lntenogathres question forms. lt's a btoken utindout eubjunctive mood a separate set of verb endings for use in certain situations.g. eubiect the person or thing carrying out the action of a verb. pronouns these are words which take the place of a noun (pro itself each time you want to refer to it. e. i.. it's outs. no onc velbs verbs expressing actions with a bearing on the subject. table. Ifyou go there. which has a meaning.gladly. possible impossible. or plural (more oqed The person or thing on the receiving end of the action of a verb. or 'indirect'. at six o'clock. nst)er.e. adiective etc. (Them is the indirect obiect.g. or with expressions of doubt. e. e. numbeq tense. A sentence may have any number of separate clauses. It is also used in the passive voice. when added to the end of a word. Could you take me? prsflx a number of letters which. Inf. e. to denote person. mood uses its own particular endings verbs are divided into three usage groups. Where? Which? modal verbs verb used in conjunction with another verb in order to express a 'mood'. e. In English.sadness. She looks after my cat. tttan4nelt.g. the subject of the verb. second. bappiness number whether than one). after tnidday.g. sad . lnllection change to the form of a word (noun.. and IrNdtrot whcrc spccch marks are not required. a word is singular (iust one). such as wanting. liking. which can make sense in its own right as a sentence.g. glad . negatve etc. .

these are the time references for when actions (verbs) are taking place. In this unit you will learn the basics of Portuguese spelling and punctuation about accents and stress in Portuguese some differences between European and Brazilian Portuguese spelling and use of accents . mag-ni-fi-cent. Some of them have different names in Portuguese gramriar to what they might be termed in English. present or future). as many languages. o I } -T = U . or sometimes an abstract state.g. two or more letters which are clumped together so that we can divide up the word as we say it. e. A sentence must have a verb in a'finite'form .which tells you what the action is. who is doing it. but no other information . sometimes for emphasis. Don't worry too much about tens€s a qr a ! 1+ o !t o ooo ao C 5 o t+ GT a GT C o qt 5 a o. She had not antted to ga to the pdrty. If's the actual terminology . Our cat chases the dog (active voice) / The dog is chased by our caf (passive voice).g. but Portugues€. turn turned out nice. and the time. e. the trendiest shoes. Will ue haue saued.ny of its verb endings. past and future . . There are different tenses in the present. e.g. cho-co-hte. or tense. e. has different endings for the person doing the action.g.concentrate on learning which verb endings to use in what circumsrances. when'tagged' it into a question. English does not change ma. ayllable this is a part of a word containing one. enough money? vctts verbs convey actions or states of being.g. She goes home ai S o'clock. the fastest car. which gives you the name of the verb itself. I utatrtedTV last night.it is the form you will find in the dictionary and relates to the English to do something. e. . tag on to the end of a sentence. hasn't it? question short question-expressions which. e.g. volce the way you can turn a sentence round and say the same thing in a slightly different way.suporlathro the form of an adjective or adverb denoting the highest or lowest level. Verbs have an 'infinitive'form. and at what point in time (in the past.you will learn what these are in Portuguese.

hence some basic rules here: c before a I o I u= hard sound. thus sometimes making it difficult when listening to discern whether a word begins with a vowel or an h. so learning obvious ones will help . 10 kg (= 10 quilos). those words similar to English have an f .g. like face Common changes in consonants from European (EP) to Brazilian (BP) Portuguese Example (EP) Spelling in BP Example (BP) Spelling in EP Words with a b subtil Lose the b sutil in the middle cc and cA mm. like cat q (c + cedilla . and nh is like ff. but be careful with the spelling: e. again there are some exceptions (e. There are some exceptions (there always are!). This can be a stumbling block for the uninitiated. such as This introductory unit is designed to give you some brief guidance on the written language as preparation for the work you will do in the book. like in goal g + u before e / i ='silent' u. It is not a guide to pronunciation . q is always followed by u. not gwee. As any dictionary will illusuate.g. nn secAdo connosco comurnmente indemnizar pq and Lose the first c segdo Become single conosco cornumente norm Lose the p Lose the c Become pt 6ptimo facto registo cinquenta dezasseis indenizar Stirno ct fato t gu/qu Numbers 15-1 registro Become gu / qii cinqiienta Change a to e dezesseis tr .Portuguese is a 'phonetic language'..the same sound. e.think of words in English ending n -ough). there are in fact a number of words starting with h. as do English and other Latin-based languages.g. mn.only in imported foreign Brazilian spelling Portugal and Brazll).for assistance on how to speak the language you will need to purchase a coursebook with accompanying audio material. For readers with a background in Spanish. linguiga (spicy sausage) flingwiqa].g. qu before e / i = 'silent' u.]. i. not m6kweena]. but even these clifferences are not always applied consistently: irgreements have l)espite many years of wrangling over spelling throughout the l)ortuguese-speaking world (and most particularly between in abbreviations for weights. you say it looks. or where there may be different ways of pronouncing the same letters . guitarra [ghee.g. The only double consonants you will find are rr and ss.g. r o o .. However. Therc are no exercises with this reference unit.g. qu before o I a = kw..lh is similar in sound to Spanish ll. lh. e. fil6sofo = philosopher Spelling words and Portuguese uses the Roman alphabet.. miquina (machine) [mdkeena cinquenta (fiftyl (EPl [cinkwenta] ). e.e. w and y do not naturally occur in Portuguese words . There are still s<>me differences in spelling between the two main variants of the language. . in the Thking either European or Brazilian Portuguese (see the suggestions in it further section on page 2721. where there are often'hidden'letters and sounds.and many are similar to English so you can train yourself to think logically when listeningr e. quadro (picture) [kwadro] ph does not exist in Portuguese. measures and chemicals. mostly in the following areas. Most experts agree that once you have learned the basics of spelling and pronunciation.see section on accents) before a I o I u = soft sound. for example. which change their pronunciation depending on which vowels follow them. e. It is said that something the way cbeforee/i=soft g before e / i = softr like the s sound in treasure g before a I o lu = hard. the letters k. There are three extra 'sounds'or letter combinations you will come across a lot: ch. ch is pronounced sD and not ch as in Spanish. up-to-date orthographic (spelling) still not been fully implemented. nh. o Otel Miramar or o Hotel Miramar? A quick note about the consonants c. g and q. h is always silent in Portuguese. They are known as diLgrafos two letters with one sound. you should be able to have a good stab at saying a word (unlike with English or French.

This will also help you improve your range of vocabulary. to written accents are: Brazilian u6o ladds circumflexl tAnis lbecomes e circumflexl [.rg 18 FT o=' od the larger Collins.which makes the c soft. ii. you still need to sound and indicates stress* be on the ball to remember to look out for the differences many of my own students end up using Brazilian words when they may never set foot in South America! If you can. while differences in grammar are pointed out where relevant in each unitn and some common differences in vocabulary are listed on page 251.. hquele Further information on the differences in written accents follows next. They usually put BP or PT after the word. eventually aim to work with a monolingual dictionary bought either in Portugal or Brazil. remind you of some common Be careful when using dictionaries . ' Stress is the part of the word you emphasize when you say it. here are the common features of punctuation - names of some of the more they are useful in dictation! contraction of two words: preposition a and feminine forms of definite article and the demonstrative pronouns and adjectives ponto final t I ponto de exclamagio retic€ncias virgula ponto e virgula dois pontos *. indicates a Punctuation I Pontuagflo Just for reference. and.many of the bilingual editions available from UK and US publishers take Brazilian Portuguese as the standard and give that as the first word in an example. with EP next.. alongside your usual one.uropean r<r [no accent] tdnis facute e accent] dbd6men [acute o] ideia lno accent] abd6men [becomes o circumflex] Unit 25 iddia ladds acute accentl - see also . non-stressing.. :ircumflex citcunflexo closes vowel portuguAs sound and indicates stress tilde til nasalizes vowel amanhd and usually indicates stress ve accent acento grdue opens vowel.. as mentioned previouslg the 'dieresis' . if there is a discrepancy between the two. ) ponto de interrogagio Differences in Brazitian Portuguese Some common changes Students of Spanish should note that Portuguese does not have an upside-down ? or ! at the start of sentences. . aspas / virgulas altas (comas) o parenteses travessao There are also: g. to show they are pronounced as gw and qw in Brazilian Portuguese.rn Of *. cedilha (cedillal. and somer like spelling Accents You will find the following written accents in Portuguese: ute accent acento opens vowel gramdtica changes at the foot of each page. in gii and qii. Nevertheless.

. about masculine and . and listen to how words are said when you are in a Portuguese-speaking country. Words also carry a written stress mark to distinguish them from a word with the same spelling but a different meaning. The written accent occurs to enable words to be correctly stressed when they have deviated from the usual stress pattern. that is where you should emphasize the word when you say it. is by practice.'n new words as you acquire them. pq (&y) and p6r (to putl. o IT = o tr o 5 r oa o qt = :' CL . Whenever you see a written accent. as well as noting dov. In this unit you will learn feminine words in Portuguese how to form plurals the words for the (the definite article) and a. So. The above is a very basic guide to the concept of stresq for a fuller treatment of all the rules refer to the pronunciation guides in courses and dictionaries. The best way to learn how to write the words correctly though.. an.Stress Portuguese words are classified into three groups where the stress (emphasis) falls: 1 = last syllable 2 = penultimate (next to last) syllable in terms of 3 = antepenultimate syllable The maiority belong to group 2 and do not usually require a written accent. on with the rest of the book to do iust that. son?e (the indefinite article) and their uses in Portuguese . e. and that includes reading in the language and spotting spellings. .g.

after them . You can check this in your dictionary where nouns have an m. the correct plurals can only be learned through memorization. J and -r are generally masculine.. -gio. drama o ch6 o feminine. and therefore do not change in any way. ruses reptiles masculine.e. grandchildren Abstract nouns formed from or followed by an adfective are neuter (they have neither masculine nor feminine gender). lady cow The plural of nouns ending in a consonant other than J or -m is formed by adding -es. and those ending in -a are feminine. places) in Portuguese are grouped into either masculine or feminine words. o importante the important thing / what is important. as there is no standard rule. when there is more than one) of nouns ending in a vowel is formed by simply adding -s. If the word ends in -il. for example. os as hotel of Greek origin.Grammar in focus Gender All nouns (things. nouns should be learned together with the appropriate article. brother bread os estagao stution as estaq6es stations os loaues irmios pies brothers jornal o favor o neuspoper The masculine plural form is used to denote a group of mixed o o o a caridade charity a estagdo station fauour aestalagem inn pai filho neto son grandson father os os os pais filhos netos parents sons / children grandsons / As gender is not always obvious from the ending of a word. a mulher Usually. end in -a but are. in fact. but changes to -eis if the svllable is unstressed. or f. o o o professor (male) 'Words amigo (male) friend filho son Howeveq teacher not all nouns fit comfortably into drama tea (female) friend a daughter a a professora (female) teacher these categories. in which case you will not find reference to the gender. or by adding -a to the existing masculine form. The so-called 'gender' of words denoting people or animals is determined by their obvious sex. o cattaz wornan poster as mulheres . and -gem are generally Nouns ending in irmSo o pio o a gender. vestido o rel6gio o clock casa a janela a house utindow o a homem tnan viagem iourney Many nouns become feminine by changing the final -o to -a. o ardil o r6ptil '!7ords trick. gentleman a avaca senhora wotnan. while those ending with the letters -ade. and there are many other exceptions.unless they fit the normal -o | -a ending pattern.. words ending in -o are masculine. people. o jornal o hotel newspaper homens men viagens iourneys the -l to -is.. . o interessante the interesting thing / uthat is interesting.aornen os cartazes posters 'Words ending in -m form their plural by changing the -m to -ns. Number The plural (i. casa carro a cidade a o ltouse car as os as casas houses carros cars cidades cities city o o touro bull dress senhor man.. amiga filha Words ending in -l change this changes to -is if the final syllable is stressed. ruse reptile os os os os jornais hot6is ardis newspdperc hotels r6pteis tricks. telegrama o cinema o telegram cinema ending in -io either add a final -s or change to -6es or -ies.

Mozambique. O JoSo estuda alem6o. My daughter went to (the) hospital. lndefinite article: A. nouns used in a general sense. the following situations: . With certain public institutions A Africa 6 muito quente. My aunt liues in Oporto. I broke tfiy afln. Ela est6 alavar os cabelos. ensinar. Parti o brago. \fith . and countries (except Portugal. Rain is good for plants. 'With titles and first names. Portugal. A senhora dona Ana Maria Ana Maria works in a bank. She's utashing her hah. . and in certain forms of address. Vou p6r o casaco. With continents. Angola. Let's go to town. 'I?ith names of towns that have an actual meaning. Podemos estudar o eo Chinese is a language spoken by millions. O caft custa 4 euros o quilo. entender. Vamos para a cidade. Coffee costs 4 euros a hilo. as well as all-male groups. Doctor Pereira is uery kind. They agree with the noun in both number and gender. an) sorne (m. and. I I haue breakfast in the canteen. (o porto = the portl O Rio tem um carnaval Rio has a great carniual. (o rio = the riuer) With body parts and clothing. prqared a chicken for dinner. trabalha num banco. We're gotng to uisit Spain this year.or the (definite article) and a. instead of possessive adjectives. Ifith meals.) A minha tia mora no Porto. and may not necessarily follow the verbs aprender. A Beira Baixa 6 uma regiio Beira Baixa is a region in em A minha filha foi ao hospital. provinces. I speak a bit of Russian. John studies German. some (indefinite article). Tomo o pequeno ahnogo na cantina.azbem is plantas. O Pedro neo gosta de peixe. 8 dollars a metre.) um uma (f. Children like playing. Africa is uery hot. O doutor Pereira 6 muito simp6tico. With names of languages. falar and saber.Articles Articles are the words f. espanhol We can study Spanish French. Uses of the definite article Portuguese uses the definite article differently from English in With units of measurement. estudar. A chuva f.) uns umas . Cape Verde and several others). . An. a uma blusa a car a blouse canetas uns carros the pens sorne cars umas blusas some blouses Howeveq the definite article with languages is omitted after de or em. Plural the book the pen os as livro caneta um carro o livros the books franc€s. magnifico. The masculine plurals of both articles are used to describe mixed groups of males and females. the masculine plural os senhores would be used to describe the group! Singular As criangas gostam de brincar. Singular Este ano vamos visitar a Espanha. Even if you happen to have a group of 15 women and two men. Plural Definite article:'the' (m) (f. Portugal. Preparei um frango para o iantar. O chin0s 6 uma lingua falada por milh6es. I'm going to put my coat on. Eu falo um pouco de russo. A seda 6 muito cara: paguei Silk is uery expensiue: I paid 8 d6lares o metro. Pedro doesn't like fish.

E sempre o mesmo com elas...... (a) lapanese (man).! certo outro tal uhat (a). It's ahaays the same (thing) O importante 6 que with them.. A Maria 6 advogada. senhor 3 .. a meu I arriued tired at my do destination . Jo6o I (primeiro) Pedro II (segundo) lohn the First Peter the Second 2 pais 3 iardim 4 tfnel 1 casa 5 m5o 6 tio 8 7 npaz jovem .... the largest city in Portugal. a city Alentejo. when the noun is not modified... except when the noun is followed by an adjective in the superlative.... say so! o Often when the following words are used: This is Peter's car.. quality . garagem 9. Lisbon..... We haue neuer seen such a Exercises A Decide whether the following nouns are masculine or feminine.. que digam! Fste 6 o carro do Pedro. mesa 4.. e este o do Miguel...... perto da in the Alenteio near the fronteira espanhola. I can't hear uhat they'rc saying. accompanies the adjective.Omission of articles lndefinite article The indefinite article is omitted under these circumstances: Neuter article. and the correct indefinite article in G10.. and insert the correct definite article in 1-5.. is also the capital... Os que querem peixe.... Cheguei cansada ao destino . livro 2.. pais 5 . capital de We utent to Lisbon.. but the meanings are also given in the Key to the exercises... or general. o Before nouns 'in apposition' (with the same function in the sentence). Ganhei mil libras. ..Elvas.! certain other such (a) Neuter o is used when no direct referenc€ to a noun is given. o The neuter article originates from Latin. Nunca vimos semelhante coisa! We ordered another bonle red utine........ a maior cidade Portugal. My brother is a general.. Nio of consigo ouvir o que estio a dizer. I arn O meu irm5o 6 general.. cidade Noun ellipsis The definite article can be used before que or de as demonstrative pronoun.. which correspond to the following singulars: . pafs.... B Plurals of nouns: find eight plural nouns on the wordsearch grid.. do Fomos a Lisboa....6 tamb6m 1. Before a numeral used with the name of a ruler. restaurante 7 . cem mil meio half semelhante such Pedimos outra garrafa de que.... informagio a capital. 8.....Eluas...... Spanish border... You may need to check what some of the words mean in a dictionary... and neuter.... feminine. vinho tinto.. thing! Definite article The definite article is omitted: o I7ith nouns in apposition.... The important thing is that compremos j6.... Sou japon6s. Lisboa... and this one is Michael's...... hundred thousand pois Those utho uant fkh.... mie 10.. In English.. ". Mary is a lauyer. caf6 cidade 6 . of the adiective... which in fact employed three genders: masculine.. It is used with masculine singular adjectives to express the abstract. I uon a thousand pounds. the capiul of the country...... we buy now. the word thing otien Before unqualified nouns denoting nationalitg rank or profession.

..... japon€s 6 uma lingua dificil. Nuno 6 (rs) muito grande.. find: three masculine singular products listed how many tomatoes are wanted 3 what would have been written if only one loaf L o o t II In this unlt you will learn 1 of bread was required Lista da Compras um pacote de manteEa umas /arat1/as tr€s pdes meb qui/o de tomates cem manteiga butter faranjas oranges o almogo lunch uma prenda a gift o a .... 1 . primeiro. professor... . hovto md<eadiectives agrce wilh tte wordsfiery elesobe about the position of adjectives sotne common Portuguese adjectives folhas sheefs folhas um frango de papel para o a/moqo para for umjornal um drciondrio uma prenda para a Ana .J A B c I o A E T H T D E F G P o J K L M A M P E U I V N R o o T R I s A D o S N V P X Y z B D E N S s N J L T V X S z s I E N u T o R X z s D F H A J c A s A s T M V F A H P R s z c X E T V L N z G Decide whether an article is required in these examples..... cigarros fazem mal. .. 3 Sou 4 Vamos visitar FranEa. Manuel 6 Queremos (we want) meia garcafa de vinho..... 8 .. 2 Tenho (I haue\ casa bonita.. g) br CL Grammar in context Look at this shopping list and with help from the vocabulary box.......... 5 O Rei D.. insert the most appropriate in each one.... 7 .... and if so....

velho old 6nico only pr6ximo next fltimo last This is an old book. O Pedro m€smo comprou the the the the the the interesting film interesting music happy man happy u)oman Spanish man Spdnish LUomAn a casa. or give additional information about. Os meninos sio altos. Gender Like nouns. cristi [BP = su1eP6i. If an adjective modifies (describes) two or more nouns of different gender. Those ending in -o switch to a final -a to form the feminine. O quadro 6. Number In general. The boys are tall. o carro amarelo There are many exceptions to the above-stated rules.Grammar in focus Agreement Adjectives are words which describe. the nice doctor the nice boys the happy secretary the happy daughters an incredible story the incredible aduentures o m6dico simp6tico os meninos simpdticos a porta vermelha os rapazes bonitos as casas antigas the yellow car the red door the good-looking boys a secretiria feliz as filhas felizes the old houses The picture is expensiue. The following adjectives tend to be used more frequently before the noun.1 . but can be used in either position: - Masculine feminine changes include: femir Feminine ertnS Chinese nude * -€s -u -eu -6o chin6s nu euroPeu +a +a +a +6 pequeno small chinesa bom mau lindo good bad pretty livro. caro. the plurals of adjectives are formed according to the same rules as for nouns. Miguel and his sister are rich. o prato redondo a mesa redonda the round plate the round table They can also be found before the noun. A casa 6 pequena. uma hist6ria incrivel as aventuras incriveis Position Adfectives are usually placed after the noun they are describing. uma senhora pobre uma pobre senhora a poor woma. They agree (have equivalent endings) with the noun in number and gender. except in adjectives of nationality. which you will pick up as you go along. then it is placed in the masculine plural. The flowers are pretty. the masculine and feminine forms are usually identical. nua n Este 6 um velho cristio European Christian + eia europeia A pr6xima aula ser6 no s6bado. The next class will be on Saturday. certain adiectives change their meaning in this case. In a dictionary or vocabulary list the adjective is always given in the masculine singular.n (not rich) a poor uroman (pitiful) Other adiectives which act in this way include: If an adjective ends in -e or a consonant. nouns and pronouns. adjectives are masculine or feminine. V6rias pessoas foram o filme interessante a mrisica interessante o senhor feliz a senhora feliz o senhor espanhol a senhora espanhola :her Other masculine i Pedro bought the house himself. Make a note of them if you think they are words you may wish to use yourself. As flores sio lindas. depending on the noun they are describing. O Miguel e a irmi sio ricos. Seueral people went to tbe p0rry. The house is small. She has a great plan. festa. Ela tem um grande plano.

\ 'a-$ obrigadinho thanks a lot coitadinho poor little thing These endings follow the general rules for plural and feminine forms. first. li da. really pretty 4 A selection of common descriptive adjectives dois senhores castanho certo alto amarelo azul baixo barulhento branco tall.) are also normally placed before the noun. bonito pretty obrigado tbankyou coitado poor. I pequono alto tiste bonito redondo feliz feroz velho .6cil feio dfficult hard easy gordo fat gostoso tasty wide. broad largo magro tbin nervoso neruous pobre poor preto black r6pido fast rico rich triste verde sad green 5 um monstro simpdtico pleasant. pitiful bonitinho cute. -inho. denotes affection or pity. 3 duas meninas '?.The ordinal numbers (primeiro. correct dificil duro f. but remember to make it agree in number and gender with what is in the picture. E a primeira rua esquer Esta 6 a segunda vez que 1 um gato i o livro. etc. Suffixes lnstead of using the word maito (uery) with an adjective. hish yellow blue short. the suffix -issimo can be added to the adjective after the final vowel has been dropped. 2 uma casa grande lindo pretty big lindissimo uery pretty grandissimo uery big. It's the first street on the left. huge Another widely used suffix.nice forte ugly strong vermelho red 6 uma senhora 2m t Exercises A Choose an adjective from the box which best describes each picture. For other examples of suffixes see Unit 12. segando. second. low noisy uhite broutn right. Tbis is tbe second time I'ue read the book.

. O Hoteltem uma piscina aquecida e 86 quados. O Hoteltem uma magnffica vista do mar e das areas circundantes. Portugal Tel: 082 .... Algarve.... o Hotel Lusomar oferece o melhor ambiente de boas-vindas e a nossa cozinha tradicional. Down: Across: 2 masculine of branca 1 um americano. . ? 6 plural of castanho 3 uma blusa red 8 more than one espanhol 5 The sister of an alemio is 10 a feminine brasileiro an .....solve the clues to find the correct forms to complete this puzzle.... in this advert for the Hotel Lusomar? HOTEL LUSOMAR 6530 Carvoeiro. 4 Trees are this colour.657819 | 65720 7 9 blue olhos (eyes) an Englishman and his language VISITE O ALGARVE Apenas 50 - OFERTA ESPECIAL € por pessoa por noite com pequeno almogo Situado numa posigio invej6vel perto do mar na estancia turistica de Carvoeiro.. . uma das mais populares do Algarve. . .... dois .B Colours and nationalities are adjectives .. Grammar in context How many adjectives can you find in a) the singular and b) the plural... oferecendo acesso directo e f6cil d praia. . . Pregos vdlidos at6 5 de Abril de 2004 Reserva atnvds dos telefones acima mencionados.

) Accents on the original adjective are dropped. rtanner dum modo + adjective in a . trowbdnemmhbtfidotl Soriveftc dveftcvritt To enhance style.Grammar in focus Adverbs are words which provide information about verbs. and avoid repetition... adjectives and other adverbs. Many of them are equivalent to the English adiective + Jy. ao teatro. (If the adjective has only one form for both genders. Eduardo paints utell. r6pido extremo feliz quick extreme happy rapidamente quickly h. . Avoiding the use ot -mente o ET a htrb rmltyouwlll bam . way desd6m utith scom desdenhosamente scomfully concentradamente concentratedly --+ duma maneira concentrada . hiltowryyowuceot adrrsfts aqlfr Eu sempre gosto de ir I always like going to the theatre. depois. Formation Most adverbs are formed by adding -mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective.. adverbs ending in -mente can be replaced by any of the following: com + nounuitlt . gt CL O Alberto ripida e facilmente. A carta chegou uma semana The letter atiued a uteek later.. O Eduardo pinta bem.appily extremamente extremely felizmente are used If two or more adverbs in a series of descriptions. -mente should be placed only at the end of the last one. that form is used.. compreende Alberto understands quickly ctnd easily.. duma maneira + adjective in a .ro in a concentrated manner incriuelrnmte incredibly '-+ dam tnodo incriuel in an incredible way Adverbs which do not fall into the -mente group include: devagar slouly mal sempre badly alutays / still bem cedo well early afterutards / later depois .

There is some help with vocabulary in the box below.24 Often Portuguese uses an adiective in the masculine singular when an adverb would be used in English. 3 (Final) a mfsica parou. poluig6o. words ending in -s6o conespond to -sion in English 2 Estou (tempordrio) sem casa. 9 O professor falou (franco). A S6nia canta lindo. estag6o station a infecgSo infection Exercises A Form adverbs from the adiectives in brackets. Can you guess what these are? cooperagSo. 1 Est6 um dia (exremolquente. extens6o extension profissSo tefevisSo television profession Keep an eye out for more examples and add them to your list. 5 O tigre cone (r6pido). 10 E (exacto) [BP = exato] o que penso. Sonia sings beautifully. and the plural is formed by changing the -96o to -g6es: infec96es Similarly. protecgdo. solug6o. comunicagio. 6 f. You speak quietly. promogdo. 7 Ela trabalha (silencioso). 4 A senhora fala italiano (bom). Language watch a 1 Many Portuguese words ending in -g5o are equivalent to words in Engfish ending in -tion. 8 Eles falaram (secreto). eles lalaram tlny spke eEt6 it is estou lan parou stoppad cantor singnr cpente ela oot"9 trabaha 8cm hot without runs she wor*s qpoke 6 sltp I it is lalott o quo P€nso wtnt I think B Match up the adverbs ending in -mente alternative way of saying the same thing. 1 dificilmente 2 silenciosamente 3 desconfiadamente 4 culturalmente 5 cortesmente 6 particularmente with the correct a com cortesra b dum modo desconfiado c com dificuldade d duma maneira silenciosa e dum modo particular f com cultura . Voc€s falam baixo. decoragSo They are all feminine words. emog6o. (real) um bom cantor.

como cnranio. O Miguel6 o inteligente.. place mais (morel or menos (/ess) before it. o o .. mab. if a noun is included. mais bonita She is the prettiest girl in the (= of the) town.Grammar in focus Adjectives To form the comparative of an adjective. o Francisco Francisco is the tallest. 6 mais alta. Comparative and supedative adjectives must agree with the nouns they modify. lSuperlative Adfeaive I Comparative barato cheap I mais barato cheaper lo mais barato the cheapest feliz happy I mais feliz happier I o mais feliz the happiest A Maria est6 feliz. O Nuno 6 alto. howtobrn$pedmtesom* dtq #sfno W Mt wy H0 o w8Y8 fepie6 bssttry. in aftet a superlative. amigo inteligente.. . and both the article and the noun appear before the superlative adjective. mais o a t II . a Ana est6 mais feliz.e. Lfmen Nuno is tall. poorer) o menos rico the least rich In the superlative. Miguel is the most intelligent. trregular comparison Some adjectives have irregular comparatives. g) t+ II gt qt mais O Miguel6 o aluno mais inteligente. and not em. o tr o CL 3 o tt qt = Comparatives of inferiority also exist. O Miguel6 o meu In this unft you wlll leam howto conpanaaNectvee mab toh. Miguel is tlte most intelligent pupil. The article may be used with a possessive. which it precedes. the definite article should go before it. tpry ftfa De is used to translate Ela 6 amenina da cidade. a a € I mas Maria is happy. 6 o mais alto. To form the superlative. (e!o) crue) about compadng adverbg 0f expreeeing squality / . m€noa ftfu.. ard inequality (tfo . but Ana is happier. use the definite article with the comparative. Lfimen is taller. Miguel is my most intelligent friend. but are used less: menos rico /ess rich (i.

. como frutas. comparison contains a verb. e. Alternative absohte superlative adjectives A bit of a mouthful for an alternative way superlatives ... cheap than the apples. He has less than 30 Reais [Brazilian currency]. facilissimo / facilimo. cburch. (tanto) menos Gomparison of age Students with a knowledge of Spanish will know that the irregular comparatives mayof and menor are used in that language to describe relative age. como / quanto tanto la + noun . tbe more . There are sometimes spelling or accentuation changes. the less Quanto menos felizes esteo os que bappy are the losers. in Gertnany Lovels of conparison Nouns can be compared in a variety of ways.Adieaive bom good mau bad o pior.. Adverbs Comparative adverbs are formed in the same way as . A minha irmi mais velha My older / eldest sister liues mora na Alemanha. The word 'than' can be expressed as'do que'or simply'que'. (tanto) mais mais . Pedro runs more quickly than Miguel.. Miguel runs quickly.. t* You will also come across mais grande and mais pegueno. than more .which is shown below.. Hoie as laranias esteo menos Today the oranges me less baratas do que as magis. .. miximo the biggest pequeno small menor** smaller o menori minimo the smallest [BP = 6timo] Do que (que) is also melhot better pior worse o melhor. the less the more the more ' O meu primo 6 mais novo My cousin k younger than (do)que eu... To form it. . maior o pr6mio. of expressing Equality + adjective . barxo f6cil easy tarde late grande Viui ld mais dc dez anos. Some adiectives also have two forms. Sou tio trabalhador ela.. gue mais (do) que menos (do)que comparative adjectives. quanto I'm ds hard-uorking as her. In Portuguese. I lived there (for) more than ten years.. fu 30 reais. The supedative also follows the same pattern as for adjectives. Paulo runs the quick:est. Ela come tantos legumes She eats as many uegetables cts fruit. N6s compramos mais livros (dolque vendemos. O castelo 6 mais antigo do O Pedro corre mais rapidamente do que o Miguel.g. than The castle is older than the que a igreia... so it is best to learn these words as you come across them. add -issimo to the last consonant of a basic adfective. as as rnuch ds many . O Paulo corre o mais rapidamente.. mais velho (olderl and mais novo (younger) are used. perdem.. Tetn menos a Mais de and menos de are used with quantities or numbers. the ntore the less .. (tanto) menos . como tantos / as + noun .. than less O Miguel corre rapidamente. The tnore cigarettes he smokes.. the less the less .. tanto mais quer. Ratio quanto quanto quanto quanto mais .. Inequdity do que. (tanto) mais menos . as .. p6ssimo the uorst grande big maior** bigger o maior.6ptimo* the best used when the clause following the We buy more books than we sell... The bigger the prize. O Pedro corre mais rapidamente... ds The absolute superlative makes adjectives more intense. Pedro runs tnore quickly. como short large baixissimo I a uety short / shortest facilissimo OR facflimo really easy / easiest tardissimo really late / latest grandissimo OR enorme Dzge tio cts ... Quanto mais cigarros fuma. menos ... me... by using mais or menos. the more he wants.

TIF l A6omaisalto. 3 A FinlAndia 6 menos fria que I tilo fria como a Rfssia.. Ela patina pior do que a Carolina. each statement is @ffi 5 C6omaispequeno. T/F rapidamente do que um carro. She skates utorse than T/F Carolina (does)... as possible as slowly as possible as quickly (immediately) as possible lrrcgular comparisons melhor better bemwell mal badly o melhor the best o pior the utorst pior uorse Eu canto bem. B Look at the pictures and decide whether True or False. possivel o mais devagar possivel o mais imediatamente possivel as . Exercises A Choose the correct alternative in each sentence to compare different things. T/F 2 B6o maiscaro.o mais . A 4 B6o maiscedo. 4 Um homem pode correr mais rapidamente / menos 5 26 euros s5o mais de / menos de 35 euros. 1 O Brasil 6 maior / menor do que a Inglaterra. I sing uell.. . mas a minha irmi canta melhor. but tny sister sings better. €N. 2 Um Ferrari 6 menos caro / mais caro do que um Ford. TIF @ @€b ds@ TIF 6 LC o mais gordo.

... Salvador.... Ela 6 ...G Form the correct absolute supedative. N5o 6 um exame. As malas est5o muito pesadas... 2 Ela €.. Grammar in context IThy might you want to try the ltalian food in this restaurant in Bahia. northern Brazil? A comida italiana 6 mais gostosa na Bahia T' C = Cozinha ltaliana e lntemacional Rua da 56... hovtopointfdngsand peopboutwith prcrDunE In thls unit you will learn dernorsffiive adiectives and . caros.. 1 3 E muito tarde.. muito 4 Foi (it gorda. Foi um inc6ndio muito diffcil. meaning uery uery. f... As malas estSo utasl um inc6ndio muito grave. Os carros 5 Nio 6 um exame 6 Os carros sio muito sio .. 246. Fone: 321-600-1853 o 5 o - br a o o3 oo F+ 5 a o 1+ o qt g) F+ :t CL o CL II qt CL - II .....

used to refer to objects near to the person being addressed. Esfe quadro e aquele azaleio di s6o muito De quem sio estes Estes s5o da Ana. essa flor aquela flor essa cadeira aquele caffo na rua Estes hot6is sio caros. demonstratives always precede the noun. the former in the south.) that aquela (f.). and aquele (aquela etc. Singular este (m. that one these those this esta (f.) these isto (n. The ln this example. or that one. As adjectives. the verb depending on the item(s). Que 6 isto? O que 6 isso que tem no antigos. and esta este &ff flor livro di used with demonstratives. O Rio is .) isso (n. AdditionallS there is a singulaq neuter pronoun. What is this? chap6u? What's that (thing) you'ue got on your hat? The appropriate forms of este and aquele can be used to denote the former (aquele) and the lanet (estel. Those housbs (ouer) there are neta.they never change their endings.) aquele (m. This means that the invariable demonstratives can be used with both 6 (is) and sio (arel. What's that? That (they) are papers.) aquelas (f.) J that. Rio and Mandus arc cities in Brazil. for objects at a distance from both the person being addressed and the person talking.) estas (f.) aqueles (m. The placing adverbs aqui (hercl. Manaus is the city nearer to the end of the phrase (at the semicolon). e. this one esta (f. away from bnth parties) are often addressed). The three neuter demonstratives are invariable . they agree with the noun in number and gender. Whose glasses are these? These are Ana's.t aquela those (f. O Rio e Manaus s6o cidades no Brasil. even when referring to something in the plural.) estas (f.) that.) essas (f.) Plural estes (m. the laner is in the north. esta fica no norte. and so is referred to as esta.Grammar in focus Demonstrative adjectives demonstrative pronouns take the place of nouns.) tm.) esse (m. ai (there.) those aquele that (thing) aqueles (m. and often are translated as this one.) esses (m.) There are two ways of expressing tbatz esse (essa etc. Aquelas casas 16 sio novas. aquela no sul. Demonstrative adjectives are used Singular este (m.) esse (m. but unlike other adjectives.g. O que 6 aquilo? Aquilo s6o pap6is.) ) aquelas (f.).) this (thing) esses (m. this book that chair (near you) that car in the street These hotels are expensiue.) to point out or indicate something or someone.) Plural estes (m. near the person being (there.) this. oculos? This painting and that azaleio tile ouer there are uery old. Demonstrative pronouns These are identical in form to the demonstrative adjectives above. that one that essa (f. which is used to refer to abstract concepts and indefinable objects.

. s6o.further away from the end of the phrase. aquela no norte.. 9 . 7 .. sapatos ali caf6 aqui pessoas ai tamb5m lwo I'llfoike Vela Look e6 onfi just a/so.. 4 3 these ladies here that hat over there 5 Aquilo 6 um diciondrio. Do you like (t)? / I like (t).. Tenho.. as Shop Customer Asst Aquilo s6o saias curtas. the latter is 70 years old and the former is 12. este tem 10 anos e aquele 12. 8 Salvador e Campinas sio cidades no Brasil.. Gustomer Sim... 7 Esse bolo 6 de am6ndoa (abnond)... I 2 3 c tto flores aqui al bolos af senhora aqui casa ali 4 ) 6 .. Jodo and Paulo are brothers. esta fica no sul. esse or aquele to fill in the to which demonstrative to tem hoie /tenho you lnve / I have use in each case. and so is referred to aquela. saiascurtas shodskirfs com certeza of cwrse ver? Can I *e? Exercises A Choose the correct form you want to sele? Quer Gosta? / Gosto.. Make a note of each one you find and work out what they all mean...... today ver? b blanks.. mas tem uma em azul? Shop Asst... Com certeza. estas aquitamb6m s6o bonitas.. Posso ver aquela blusa verde? Shop Asst... 6 Isto aqui s6o 6culos. Levo s6 esta blusa. too senhor ali livros aqui B Translate the following: 2 That (thing) [near the person 1 lflhat is this (thing)? addressed] is a book.. will help you Customer Bom dia... Quer ver? Hoje n6o.... Esta 6 muito bonita.. O que 6 aquilo ali? ... Gosta? Gustomer Gosto.. Prefiro essa que tem ai. Veja.. Grammar in context Read this dialogue in a clothes shop and spot the demonstratives.. The vocabulary box understand what's going on. 10 ... Posso O Jo6o e o Paulo s6o irmios... 8 . Look carefullv for clues as of este. sim. obdgada.

the magazines of her) of of of of him (his) = CL .e.l (their) his pms (i. the pens of him) their father (i. elc. the following forms are often used after the noun to mean his.e. In order to avoid confusion. on Unit 17. not the possessor. Possessive adjectives Plural Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine |ny o meu your (familiar)" o teu a minha a tua os meus os teus os seus os nossos os vossos as minhas as tuas as suas as nossas as vossas as suas his/her/your E - ooa I J oa o 1+ o F a a J ao ao q) br II tt CL o g) I (formal)* our your (familiarlo their / your (formal)* o seu o nosso o vosso o seu a sua a nossa a vossa a sua os seus see *For more details on forms of address ('you' forms). theitz dele dela deles delas as canetas dele ln this unit you will learn . They are both preceded by the definite article.Grammar in focus The possessive pronouns and their corresponding adjectives are identical in form.your I yours. the father of them) her magazines (i.) (their) thetn (f. and both agree in number and gender with the thing possessed.l o pai delas as revistas dela her (her) them (m. Brazilian Portuguese often omits the article with both pronoun and adjective.e. o meu amigo a tua mala os seus jornais as nossas chaves o vosso rel6gio a sua escola my (male) friend your suitcase his / her / your / their newspapers our keys your watch / clock (addressing uocAs) her / his / your / their school - O(s) seu(s) and a(s) sua(s) can be ambiguous. as they have a variety of meanirigs. her. howtotalkabout possession in Portuguese with adjectives and prcnouns (rry I mine. although it often tends to be dropped when using the pronoun.

A minha lrm6. e os . O irm6o do meu marido e a esposa vieram tamb6m. and when the possession is obvious. Os meus -: 6 o meu marido...... These pronouns take the place of nouns. e o Ant6nio. .. Mine is good. pais chamam-se Eduarda e Ricardo.. meu c meus 2 Ali estd a senhora Oliveira com o filho ... a dele era feia. theirs don't. Can you work out: A namorada do Paulo era bonita. Masc. b A minha 6 boa. -Whose chocolate is this? lt's mine.. Vou p6r as luvas. camisola as nossas f6rias I'm going to put my gloues on... as minhas 3 .... As minhas filhas fazem muito barulho. the definite article is used on its own.... 2 who Ricardo is? 3 to whom the rwo little girls belong? 4 who is 85? 5 who lives in Italy? 1 the name of Nuno's mother? Exercises A Complete the table by supplying the correct form of the possessive adjectives on each row...... Os nossos av6s est6o com ela... The definite article tends to be omitted after forms of the verb to be. com as filhas. 6 . O meu cunhado -se Paulo. plurd irmis with parts of the body and clothing which belong to the subject of the verb.. yours. Grammar in context Joana is describing a photo of her wedding. as deles ndo.... What haue you got in your bag? 8 . e vive na / Ns dele..l Olalos/asdelas O nosso apartamento 6 novo. 3 / 4 5 Dequem 6 este E meu...... plural Fem. a o nosso b a nossa c as nossas De quem sio aquelas chaves? S5o [doJo6o] a vossas b c dele dela .. mas o deles 6 velho. M6nica... Our Tens livro contigo? aoteu bosteus coseu 6 Este livro 6 Paula? a sua b seu c seus Esta 6 . the following forms are often used: his Olalos/asdele hers Ola/os/asdela theirs (m... apartment is neut. esta c6.... O que tem no saco? I cut my finger. filhos os vossos lim6es 10 .. singular Fem.. janelas Possessive pronouns The forms for possessive pronouns are identical to those for the adjectives. The pronouns agree with the thing possessed.. Paulo's girlfriend was pretty... Ours are in the wardrobe cupboard. its.. A nossa av6 tem &5 anos.. Os nossos est6o no Esse vestido n5o 6 armdrio. chocolate? teu.. B Choose the correct form from the three possibilities to answer the questions. and are equivalent to the English mine. ser. a dele b seu c dela a 1 De quem 6 este carro? 6 minha ... his was ugly. a Dona Ana Maria. Nuno. but theirs is old... casa.. lters. My daughters make a lot of noise...Possessive adjectives are used less in Portuguese than in English..) Olalos/asdeles theirs (f. especially Instead. To avoid ambiguity in the third person forms. singular o meu irmSo Masc..... ours and theirs.. m6dico o seu coPo os seus discos as fuas mesas Cortei o dedo. his. mas o marido n6o. Tbat dress isn't yours.

uhich. The relative pronoun can be a subject. object. remember that relatives do not ask questions. Following a preposition it refers only to things. . or the obiect of a preposition. uthont. O senhor com quem est6 a The nan uith uhom you are falar € o meu professor. 5 I IT o - Que refers to both people and things. the cahe has hq birthday today. and can be either a subiect or an obiect. Quem can also be used without an antecedent.€s Those who study a lot uill aprenderd muito. uhom. Nio hd quem saiba a resposta. or relate. There's fio ofle uho hnous the Quem estudar muito. and follows a preposition. referring to no specific person (soneone I no onel. ansurer. Tourist Offke is nice. O armdrio em que guardei pap€is esai fechado i The capboard. a dependent clause to the main clause of a sentence. uthom o / a qual (os / as quais) who. Temos nm carro velho que We haue an old car thot ue're A senhora que trabalha vamos vender. In this unit you will leern lrowto join daus (parts of CL . talking k my teacha. Procuramos qusn possa cortar We're looking for someone a ubo can cut rte laun. Tor4rist Office is Portuguese.Grammar in focus Relative pronouns and adiectives are used to join. o 5 t+ oo 1+ rT C o 5 oo o 0. that o que . Quem is used only to refer to people. which Although in essence they have the same forms as interrogative pronouns (see Unit 11). relva. no The lady uho works in the Turismo 6 simpitica. stored the papers is loched. hr tt CL q) - Pronouns o g. which. The relative pronouns most commonly used are: que wbo. Iearn a lot. in which I chave. that quem who. A senhora que vimos no The lady whom we sau in the Turismo 6 pornrguesa. os going to sell. A amiga para quem fiz o bolo Tlte frimd for wbon I nude faz anos hoje. See also Unit 44. A dependent clause refers to something or someone previously mentioned (the'antecedent'). togdter wiUt nldive prcnours and sentencss) djectir.

the The party to which 16 uma amiga que mora perto da minha casa. is horrible. especially compound prepositions (those consisting of more than one word). 7 with whom I saio vai universidade. which left me little time to prepare the are all home-made. The definite article agrees in gender and number with the antecedent. e T O que is a neuter relative used when there is no specific noun as an antecedent. O qual is also used with prepositions. all that I won. Este 6 o meu amigo cujo carro This i. i A Maria is a Mercedes. Onde (uthere) and its forms aonde / para onde (to wherel and de onde / donde (from where) are also used in relative clauses and sometimes as an alternative to some of the words listed above. 4 The cakes that we sell here They arriued early. when referring to people.O qual can be used in place of que. Chegaram cedo. 10 8 Lisbon is a city in which (where) there is a lot to do. It refers to the preceding phrase or idea as a whole. Vamos visitar o castelo Exercises A Match up the English sentences 1-10 with the Portuguese a-i. o que deu pouco tempo preparar a Nunca me diz muito. the walls of h O comboio [BP=trem] em que viaj6mos n5o tinha which are yellow. b A casa cujas paredes sio amarelas 6 horrivel. Adjectives -s / -a / -as (wbose. We uisited the museum. o me The boy whose eyes are green is Dutch. The use of the feminine a qual in the following sentence leaves no doubt that this reference is to the aunt. Casou-se na casa onde que / na qual) Est6o a falar com a tia do Paulo. Visit6mos o museu cuias portas sao de prata. knows. Gastei tudo o que ganhei.sta 6 a casa na grande Let's uisit the castle around which is a huge mystery. (in which) he lives. neaf me. qual passei This is the house in uhich (where) I spent rny childhood. Look at the following ambiguous sentence: Quanto I -s / -a / as (all that) is often used in the place of todo o / todos os / tudo o que etc. 5 Maria is a friend who lives O menino cujos olhos sio verdes 6 holand6s. of whom. I L. J It is unclear whether the friend knows Paulo or the aunt. of whicbl is a relative adjective. to avoid ambiguity. I They are talking with Paulo's Estio a falar com a tia do Paulo. 6 The cousin university. He got married in the house where lte used to liue. of were invited is tomorrow. J They gdue me all the money tbey had. a qual a minha amiga j6 conhece. Os bolos que vendemos aqui sio todos caseiros. que irrita. d A m6dica de quem te falei est6 ali. Deram-me todo o dinheiro que tinham. and as such agrees in gender and number with the thing possessed and is used in the same way as the pronouns. wbich annoys me. c Gosta da casa onde mora. restaurante. Deram-me quanto dinheiro tinham. O primo com quem sempre para a always go out is going to c Lisboa 6 uma cidade onde h6 muito para fazer.s my friend uhose car 9 The doctor I spoke to you about is over there. He likes the house where a a infAncia. F. I Cufo / 16 um Mercedes. 2 The 3 train on which we travelled didn't have a buffet car. we doors of uhich are made siluer. He neuer tells me much. The house."n. who my friend already j6 conhece. A festa paru a qual fomos convidados 6 amanh6. 1 em torno do qual h5 um mist6rio. bastel quanto ganhet. que a minha amiga aunt. me para comida. food. (em morava. (all of whichl. .

. o Arroz de Tamboril (&212 paxl ou as Massinhas no Caldo. repres€nta a casa (€16 2 pex.€9. 5 Aquele senhor de chapdu azul 6 un actor [BP = atorl famoso. o cliente escolhe o peix6 i€ 9r501C13) sio presenga constante. Grammar in eontext Which relative pronouns (onde or que) have been left out of this advert for the Caldeiradas restaurant? Galdchadaa R. e. a Caldeirada. O aluno (pupil) com os melhores resultados ganha um de t6nis [BP = t€nis] cam d roupa Nike sio russas. Na lista a Cataplana ilc Peixe. de cherne ou corvina (€21 2 paxl. 21 295 7622@ 12815h30. confeccionada pelo o E o o 1+ o 5 o In this unit you wlll learn . A casa cujo iardim I 2 3 A cidade catn as casas brancas 6 muito famosa. lrow to say when somefting trappens ftime/dde etcJ .-Drato ..rtr"l"r pr6mio.. pode ser de tamboril. phrase .75 1 pax). a especialidade 6 o Ant6lio \ocha. 1 ND Trafmia propriet6rio e .46lugar*@ MB o A cerca de oito km da praia vai encontrar este re$auranti na vila da Trafaria . ir. 19822h30. A casa cotn o iardim bonito6 a nossa.B Substitute the words in iulics with the correct form of the relative cuio.. --+ 6bonito6anossa.g. . 4 O livro de capa (cover) de couro (leather) 6 muito antigo. Josi t' -l -l n peixe fresco.. horrvto combine pepositbns wtth definite and articles inddnib ... You will also need to insert the verbs 6 (is) or sio (arel. $mpleandcompound prcpodtions in Portuguese (words indlcding place.. efic) son|everb + p|€pqBitio{l . time.

through of. See page 51. onr at between. lodoisoutthere. by. time.0th lune. among before at6 after up to. on) or more complex. The par. on Gompound prepositions around around. pronouns).1955. Biologia I paid for tle Biolog2t lessons aprendesse so that sbe could learn more. Moramos detr6s duma escola. under on. Verbs with prepositions As well as those verbs discussed in Unit 24. i frente (del at the front (ofl detr6s (de) behind al6m (de) beyond. Paguei as lig6es de para que ela Vou ao mercado. The cat is under the table. Fui com a minha amiga. The word de is used when the is followed by other words (nouns. lt's a magazine aboat hotidays. about Constructions using a preposition + que + verb form what is known as a compound conjunction. about dentro (de) inside ao redor (de) atrav6s (de) through. Simple prepositions a antes ap6s 4t. A padaria 6 entre o banco e o cinema. verbs. the 1. Tlte baher's is between the bank and the cinema. pronouns. to. 6 bom beber 6gua. . Depoii de fazer exercicio. Sempre vamos ao clube ao(s) domingo(s). 6. I uent utith tny friend.ty is at night (in the euentng). and adverbs). limpar a casa. and may require some practice. de Junho. she also giues English lessons. The uillage is beyond the hills. My date of birth is the 15th of September. manner and movement that serve to clarify the relationship between other words (nouns. on top of. it's good to drink water. besides em cima (de) on top of antes (de) before em frente (de) in front of em volta (de) Used with: dates with a day of the month. For a fuller explanation of para and por and their differenceso Unit 10. it combines and contracts with them. These often call for a subjunctive verb form. aboue debaixo (de) ander por dentro (del (from) inside defronte (del opposite por volta (de) aroand. parts of the dag times A minha data de nascimento 6 o dia 15 de Setembro [BP = setembro] de 1955. verba. see I'm gotng to the market. about across fora (de) outside atrds (de) behind longe (de) far (from) i volta (de) around.Grammar in focus Prepositions are those words generally indicating place. When it is followed by articles and demonstratives. toutards for. until para por sem com contra de desde with against for. frotn sob sobre without belou. We alutays go to the club on a Sunday (on Sundays). about since. Afesta6inoite. Before going out I haue to Antes de sair. O gato est6 debaixo da mesa. We liue behind a school. OJoio estSl6fora. tO em entre in. from. After doing exercise. time' parts of the da5 days of the week (when talking about usual habits) O dia de Portugal 6 a70 Portugal's National Day is on The shop closes at 7 o'clock. tamb6m d6 aulas de ingl6s. tenho que clean the house. of Used with: dates. As well as uorking in a bank. Al6m de trabalhar no banco. like em (in. which take on specific meanings when followed by a preposition. See Unit 43. A aldeia fica al6m dos montes. mals. A loja fecha is sete horas. de depois (de) after from. such as dentro de (insidel. They can be simple. verbs in the infinitive may also be preceded by prepositions. about perto (de) near por cima (de) ouer. uma revista sobre f6rias. Prepositions of time i at.

O calor continuou. article num / numa + demonstrative neste(s) until7. volta de. exist.45. Fomos i 'We uent to tbe cake shop. meia-noite. around A festa comeea pelas dez horas. The bank opens from 8. O aviSo parte da noite. MarEo [BP = margo]. Chegamos [BP] 16 para We aniued at about midnight.45. article ao is 10 horas The plane departs at 10 O banco abre das 08. Contractions 'fhe following prepositions combine and contract with definite and indefinite articles and demonstratives. The heat continued. Na Primavera est6 menos frio. disso daquele(s) daquela(s) / / daquilo Other expressions antes de before She arriued before me. / / / naquilo On Tuesday she's going to the hospital. terminou em 7945. por volta de. such as de + algum --+ dalggm. The course ends on the 1"0th. pastelaria. The party begins around ten. (specific) days of the week. noofl. They are rwnning through the streets. Morreu no s6culo XV. Ela chegou antes de mim. 'We desde. The store only opens after Other contractions.30 is L3. semana ap6s semana. She doesn't tuorh in the moming. on. uteeh after ueek. No Natal faz calor no Brasil. At a'clock at night. 'We haue to leaue before seuen.l aos / is / / nesta(s) / nessa(s) Used with: dates (with the word day). Mora num condominio. I like that one best. depois de. Sempre tiramos f6rias em Na terga(-feira) ela vai ao hospital.rlthough usually pronounced as one when spoken. l'lstio a correr pelas ruas. It's not as cold in the Spring. She liues in a condominiwm i (housing complex). months. Temos de partir antes das sete. At Christmas it is hot in Brazil. World War doldaldos/ das dum / duma duns deste(s) / desta(s) / dessa(s) / dumas disto desse(s) A Segunda Guerra Mundial II ended in 1945.30 + indef. i espera desde as uaited frorn four until nine 4t night. at6 from. special festivities. ap6s after (. years. We aluays haue holidays in March. em in.. He died in the 75th centurr. + def. but rrlso appear in the written language as two separate words. centuries. seasons nas nuns / numas / nisto nesse(s) / nisso naquele(s) naquela(s) O curso termina no dia 10. nolnalnosl I i. A loja abre s6 depois do meio-dia.osto mais daquele.. It can be rnore literary to utilize the uncontracted form. ... until Fic6mos quatro at6 is nove da noite. potrll para [BP] about. .Nio trabalha de manhi.

.. cinema.. 2 Na sala h6 uma mesa. tarde... bem-vindos a B Fill in the blanks the box.......' tdxi? quinta-feira...... Faro? 4 O programa comeqa (starts) is duas ... esta avenida............. 6 Ela foi (wentl ao m6dico meu carro.. 6 A sali 6 em frente da casa de banho... 7 H6 dois sofds i volta da mesa... welcome room o quarto bedroom sala living a casa de banho [BP = no banheirol canto t direita cozinha kitchen in the comer on the right bathroom ..55) 8 Sio cinco 1 Vou . 10 Termina 16 ...... te"t accoitpanying the diagram overleaf does not match it 3 uma ponte um balde as flores 6 ap6laforquilha k o barril /fr* o lago by choosing from the prepositions listed in /0\ ru nrl @ a N Bem-vindos ao apartamento Sol do Man poltrona guarda-roupa / arm6rio O ffi a F"l lo ol m televisor fo96o 1 A casa de banho 6 i direita do apartamento.Exercises A Decide where the toad (o sapo) is in each picture....... 2 orio para da para na ao por pelas ds no de Grammar in context You have picked up a guide to your holiday apartment' but the properly. 4 A cozinha tem um fogSo no canto. 9 Vai ...... 5 No quarto h6 uma poltrona entre as carRas....... 2 Vou 3 Este 6 o comboio .. a arvore nove horas... 7 N5o quero ir as oito. 3 Hd um televisor em cima da mesa. onze horas... (07. 5 Vamos .. Read each statement and find the three incorrect ones...

I s41 lsl F=a LI tl l-l tcj I'l f. pan the prepositions Por and and their differnt uses .n V E \ o g) CL W 5 tr s) N ln this unit you will learn .

alh through the O comboio [BP = ffgrnl The train pdsses near Paulo's passa pela casa do Paulo. They departed for Brasilia. Destination (place or person) towards / for direction Gostei do filme pela e pela paisagem. around. Nio a cake and a quero prendas Exchange. 4 o'clock- . dez dias. Can you change this dirty plate Eu fui mordida por um cdo. On the occasion of. Fomos ao Canadd por Morreram todos Por estupidez. . as their varied meanings sometimes overlap. meu pelo anivirsirio. because ofl is used in the following situations: p€ras. on account of. Falo por todos quando digo. Soubemos do casamento We found out about the por amigos.Grammar in focus The prepositions por and para can cause some confusion. price for. to introduce the agent - by (see coffee.hen any I speak for eueryone I o Expressions of time through. for the sake of. We went to Canada for ten days. for sport. Use. She sent me to tlte butcher's Por Por (for. mdsica I liked. . o Expressions of place - through. Way or means by. Foi ao mercado por He uent to the market for some peats. during.. along or near uhich.frequency (per). I utas bitten by a dog. along. We danced throughout the o Motive. . by. to. . and the scenery. o para Tltis is a CD fot learntng French. presents for tny Unit 39)' r for another one? Unit of measure (by / perl. sausages.- I didn't uote for u. I'll send the packet by air..- I don't uant birthdaY. To go for. On behalf of. Mando o pacote por avi6o. substitution for. Este 6 um CD Because of. *y Para Paru (for. Mandou-me ao talho [BP aEougue] por for salsichas. uthole night. pelo meu irm6o. towards) is used in the following . for. per. for. Volt6mos para casa pelas 4 horas. pelo Let's go for a u. through which. . How are the oranges sold? Como se vendem as By the kilo. . reason for.. the filrn for its rnusic Partiram pata ^ Brasilia. vinhos. A nova loia vende tudo para The neu shop sells euerything o desporto [BP = esporte]. for. wedding through friends. He took tlte money by necessity. Os carros foram vendidos The cars were sold by brother. through. by. vezes por semana How many times a uteek do Quantas you buy a pdper? compras um jornal? um bolo e um caf6.. They all died through stupidity. send for something. | -a / -os / -as. say. Por contracts with the definite article to form pelo A regiio do Douro conhecida pelos 6 bons umas The Douro tegion is utell knoun for its good wines. house. aprender franc€s. laranjas? Por quilo. . for. Vamos dar uma volta parque. Pode trocar este prato sujo por outro? Paguei dois euros por I paid 2 euros for In the passive voice. Este ano This year party. situations: in order to. nio votei Por partido nenhum. Levou o dinheiro por necessidade. We returned hotne around park.. Dangdmos pela noite inteira.

. 8 Estou a preparar uma festa as criangas. for him etc. This cake is not for you.... especial espago Exercises A Choose por or para to fill in the blanks..... 3 Este livro 6 ler durante as f6rias.. 7 Este pal6cio foi construfdo . Telefono-te para combinar os detalhes. Fui a Londres para visitar uma amrga. toutards.. escala scola --+ schoo/ --+ stagao '-+ station -{ spanha --+ Spain -+ special -+ sPeci€/ --t spa9o -+ space { scala -{ scsre -+ Have a look in ihe Portuguese part of your dictionary and s€e how many oth€r words beginning with ea + consonant become much more famlliar in this way... not for them. 5 Pagou 30 euros para o casaco.. . 3 Esperei para um momento.. you are oft€n much closer to the English word: escola estagao Espanha .. ti. Purpose. 10 O exercicio 6 f6cil para ele.. but nio para eles.for me. Quero tudo para amanhS. para The holidays begin toutards fins de Julho [BP = julho]. 10 Pode limpar o carro s6bado? B Say whether these sentences have the correct preposition in them...... esrar muiro cansada. Comparison Isto 16 Portuguese.... We're going to the south... in order to. I'll pbone you to sort out the details. by... the end of l"ly..Este bolo n6o 6parati. ..... Vamos para o sul. I uent to London (in order) to uisit a friend.... es + consonant in I uant it all by tomorrota. uma.. 4 Vamos para a Espanha. 5 Contei as notas uma .. 2 Esta 6 uma caixa para guardar caramelos... 1 Amanhi vamos Coimbra..... Language watch 2 There are many words starting with Time expressions. 5A Silvia foi-se descansar (fo rest) .. Answer with'correct' or'incorrect'. 7 Temos um saldrio de 100 libras por dia. 2 Comprou uma blusa 15 d6lares.. contarmos as novidades. 4 Estamos aqui . As f6rias comegam 16. for.. 6 Quero esta seda por fazer um vestido... mas muito dificil para mim.. 9 Deixa-me fazer o trabalho .This is uery dfficub for me.. 8 Podem fazer o bolo por amanhi? 9 Entrou por forga.... lf you rcmove the first e.. um engenheiro alemSo. 1 Gostamos de andar pela praia.

There utas not|rng to doShe does not lihe atrything. II U Nio In this unit you will learn @rnrrn negathte in tenho carro nenhum.y appeated. = tringu6.. Thqe is no problem. . Ningp6m nenhum I comeu. loAo does not lihe liuer.... Nio apareceu ningudn.. the negative other than nio can be placed after the noun. I don't eat ffiedt. but can also follorr other'words. Nio gosta de naia.nobody / no one (atrybody I anyonel Nobod. and tto. Portuguele also uses double negatives in the following sequence: nio + verb + another negative. nio como qrrne. tambGm Eu ailo not eithe4 neither .l O Jono n6o gosta de Nem eu! Me neither! . Gommon negatives n5io nornot Ela nio fala italiano. I dan't haue a car at all. none (anYl IT Nio hi nenhum problema. or and Como. nem ffgado. Nenhlma delas falou. falamos alemio. Nio hivia ningg6n em casa. neithet Nio franc6s. o qt 5 x 5 t+ o o CL o GT q) qr 1+ o 3 GT qt qt o t+ f+ a o a o a -l Nio havia rrada para fazer. None of then spoke. Therc uasn't nrryone at bome. o meu marido tamb6m = Fortrguese. Nada me apetece.Nio gostou de ncnhum. - / neahuma no. Nothing appeals to tne. quetion how to use intenogatives (question wods) exclamationE such as Que. He didnt lihe any of them. .Grammar in focus Negatives Nio (zo.Yb Fopond negathdytoa nio. Therc is no bread left. o The plural forms of nenhuns and nenhumas are hardly ever used. notl always precedes the verb. NobodY ate. neithet does rry basband We do not speak Getman French. IT For emphasis.! nem nor'. nada nothing (anythingl She does not sPeah lulian. I6nAo h6 pio. .

.. Adjectives and pronouns Que.. Quanto / a? Quantos / as? Hout much? Hou many? O que aconteceu? Sabes uma coisa? What happened? nunca.. please? Quanto 6..? Porque.? Qu€? / O qu€? (when they stand alone ) as a question) I lwhich.? Quem? A quem? Who? Nem sequer visita a sua mie. por favor? Which ones do you uant? Quais queres? Hout many people are tltere? H6 quantas pessoas? Adverbs Como..ork.. uthich ones? nunca neuer (euer) iamais neuer (=stronger) Voc6s nunca fazem o trabalho. donde? For uthom? With uhom? Of uthom. I don't (want).?] Porqu6? [BP = Por qu6?] Como se diz . simply raise the intonation of your voice at the end of the sentence to make it sound like a question. Ndo me telefona She neuer rings me. para Santos? N6o. O qu6? Do you knout sotnething? What? Who is coming utith tne? Quem vai comigo? Hout much is it.? VDyl (when it stands alone) Hou do you say . Em que? Com quem vai Frotn where? In uhich? festa? ) With uhom are you going to the party? Where dre you going in the Para onde v6o nas f6rias? holidays? ..? (particularly O filho dela nio gosta nem de Her son doesn't like playing jogar futebol. They will neuer forget this day. such as who.. Note. Why..Eles n6o trouxeram nem casaco nem luvas.? Onde. Interrogatives with pt€positions Some of these interrogatives may also be used in coniunction with certain prepositions. wbere. too. I don't (like).? [BP = Por que.? / O que.. They didn't bring a coat or gloues. Jamais se esquecerSo deste dia.. Este 6 o autocarro [BP = 5n.6.s] Is this the bus to Santos? No.... how the responses often contain a verb. Do you want to go for a stroll? No. etc. tuhat. You don't euen uisit ttour rnother... whose? Where to? Where to? cinema?l Interrogatives (question words).. it isn't. (or) N6o 6. Quer dar um passeio? N6o quero... n6o 6. are classified as adjectives. nem de nadar. Gostas de arcoz? I Nio. Did you go to the cinema? (lit. Portuguese tends to use a double negative.. You went to the Yow went Com quem? De quem? Aonde? Para onde? De onde. Here are some of the more cornmon combinations: Para quem? Foi ao cinema.. quais? To whom? What. You neuer do the u.. nem sequer not euen in I conversation) t What. in English? When are ue going out? 'Where is my book? 'Why don't you wdnt to go? nterrogatives (q uestions) To make a question out of a general statement. Qual. pronouns or adverbs. ndo. n6o gosto. nio.. football or swimming. where in English you would not necessarily use one. em ingl€s? Quando vamos sair? Onde est6 o meu livro? Porque nio quer ir? Hou? (in what way / what like) Wben? Where? Do you like rice? No. Negative responses In responding to a question in a negative way.. Foi ao cinema? to the cinema.? Quando.

. Luis Figo..! Hou many....... € que o Brasil foi descoberto? 4 ..! Qual / quais. 6 ... 2 Algu6m est6 na casa.... Grammar in context The following three verses from different sonnets written by the Portuguese poet Florbela Espanca illustrate negatives' interrogatives and exclamations. 7 ... what a lot of people! Prize indeed! If only I had a lot of money! 'What What.! Que sorte! Que azar! / How..... 2 Chuva.... Em 1500....! 'What. Can you find examples in each verse? Como! E capaz de fazer isto? Quantas pessoas.............. 6 H6loias em todas as partes da cidade.! Quantos / as. No Brasil.... Estou bem. (sou tio nova!) Dizem baixinho a rir: "Que linda a vida!.... meu Deus! 1 Qual pr6mio! dinheiro! Nesse triste convento aonde eu moro Noites e dias rezo e grito e choro Quem me dera ter muito E ningudm ouve.mos]ocarro? Portuguese questions often use 6 que in an extended interrogative form (like the French est-ce quel to add emphasis..! lf only.. ningu6m v6.. B Change the underlined words to negatives........... 3 Sempre gosto de viajar com amigas...... how... tenho tristeza! Mas porqu6? Vento..... You may need to add to......ioo_. 24 horas. indeed I Hout great.......Em que rua deixdmos In which street did ue leaue the car? [BP=dsil(.! Que... tenho saudades! Mas de quO? 6 neve que destino triste o nosso! fBrom: N*rastenial Exercises A Decide on an appropriate interrogative to start each of these questions. ningu6-..... .. gosto. 10 .... to alter these Porque6queocomboio [BP = trem] Parou? is it that we're going? Why is it tbat the train has stopped? Exclamations Como! Quanto / a....! 9 Ele sabe lgdel sobre isto..... what a. 10 Algu6m chegou hoje...... 1 Sempre vamos de f6rias em Junho [BP = iunho]. E grande e verde. Learn how to do this properly by listening to how people use these e4pressions in the Pornrguese-spealiing world..... Estava doente. Onde 6 que n6s vamos? 'Where sentences from affirmative statements to negative ones. The answer to each one should give you a clue.6 o Rio de Janeiro? 3 ... 9 ..! | V{hat a lot..' lFrcm: Dizerx intimosl I .... A minba Dorl Dont forget that the intonation of your voice is vital to adding colour to exclamations........... 5 Gostas de leite? Sim. 36 anos... 7 Tenho alguma informagio importante.. 4 N6s comemos g$lg.u Responde a minha Dor: uQue linda a cova!.. 3 E os meus vinte e tr€s anos.. escreveu Mac eth? 2 ......! How much. anos tens? 5. est6? Shakespeare..... 8 . horas h6 num dia? n5o foi i festa? faz anosl 6 o seu novo carro? 6 o teu jogador de futebol preferido? No dia 15 de Setembro........! What luck! What bad luck! What! So you're capable of doing this? Goodness me........! Quem.. or re-arrange parts of them. 8 Gostam do filme glla misica.

how to exprcss affection.= inwards movement imigrar to immigrate encarar to face importar to import | s- .= negative ilegitimo illegititnate imperfeito impnfect irresponsdvel inesponsible infeliz unhappy = CL . puennial ./ con.= not having something / lacking analfabetism anormal abnormal o illiteracy o c* lcom.er to undo / en. The most common prefixes in Portuguese are as follows (and if you have studied Latin you will recognize many of them): .= ioining / with o T' C +o {r xx oo ao IT II coexistir to co-exist concordar to agree decrescente e- compaftilhar to share de./ des.and i./ im. e- I w I en.ako = a change of state involved embebedar to get drunk evaporar to euaporcte engordar to get fat e / cx. a- | an. i-lim. prc-=pnogprevlous previsio do tempo ueathet forecast precaugio precaution preceder to precede .lkIn thls unit you will learn lfu. hoarprefixesand ofixealbr the meaning of awod .= ElovGrn€nt through or by percurso route. awe or criticism by using diminutivee and augmentafiros o pcr. iourney perdurar to hst a long time perene eueilasting.Grammar in focus Prcfixes Prefixes are small elements added on to the beginning of a word which change its basic meaning. so that you more quickly build up a broader vocabulary base.lin.= opposite / contrary action decteasing deslar.= firoven€ot owsy emigrar to enigrate expclir to expel q. Knowing how aprefix can alter a word a) helps you guess an unknown word in context and b) encourages you to learn related words.

pequeno a o small pequenino chuva rain o chuvisco rapaz tad.rliTf!"' drizzle Augmentatives Augmentatives (-io. dear -eira or -eiro indicate the tree a fruit or plant has come from. -zada and -zetro. the suffix is added to the full word form. Other words usually add -zinho or'zinha. They can indicate larger or smaller size. mum(my) o 26 / Zezinho little losd (loe / loey) los6 cat o gatinho kitten a little um pouquinho a tiny little bit daughter a filhinha "lotrg. -inho. -zinho. Some ofhers you will pick up as you go a mesa o ninho a noite paper a papelada paperwork / piles of paper spoon a colherada spoonful o punhado handful fi. -ino) are used to describe a person or object as small or cute. -zarrio. -io or -l and is used with a suffix beginning with z. it is added onto words ending in a consonant. cardboard demi-john. a manhS morning os pies loaues of bread a manhdzinha early morning os pSezinhos rolls a palawa uord Both diminutive and augmentative forms can be awkward to use correctly and require practice at first.a group of I anabundance of. -ona. and can denote affection. -1o. a a a a Suffixes Suffixes are small additions to the end of words that give those words additional meaning. and transform one noun into others. o sal6o cdt rain (condiment) pimenta pepper o gatdo chuvoso um pimentio um palavrio big cat raining heauily pepper (vegetable) swear word General formation If a word ends in a consonant. pobre a mie o Jos6 o gato um pouco a filha table a mesinha little table poor pobrezinho poor little thing mother a miezinha dear rnotber. strong or uglS and can be pejorative.st nest a ninhada brood night a noitada long night (out) fruit tobacco bread paper shoe -ria or -aria indicate the place where an article is made or sold. -ona. o papel a colher o punho Diminutives Diminutives (-(z)inho. fruta pio papel o sapato o leite a o o o tabaco a apapelaria stationer's a sapataria shoe shop fuutaia fruit shop tobacconist's apadaia bakery / bread shop atabacaia milk aleitaria datry yowng / little girl. magd o limSo o figo a rosa a a am6ndoa apple almond lemon fig rose macieira apple tree amendoeira almond tree o limoeiro lemon tree a figueira fig tree rose bush a roseira a a . -(z)ito. Diminutive forms are extremely common in Portuguese. Other common suffixes -adaor -ado denote -ful. -isco. In the case of -6o. The commonest suffixes are -mente (for adverbs). -oso) are used to describe a person or object as large. In this case. -ona is used for words describing girls and women. change adjectives and verbs into nouns. -zatrio. boy o rapazinho tiny . Feminine nouns become masculine in the -io augmentative. unless the word ends in -m. carafe spinster gate large room door roo7r. garrafa a solteira carta letter bottle single wornan o cartdo o garrafSo a solteirona o portio porta sala o gato a chuva a card. -zando follows the rules for suffixes beginning with -2. -m becomes -n. Words ending in unstressed -o or -a lose that ending and add on -inho or -inha. -zito.reabertura re-opening reciclar to rearcle reagrr to react and replaces the final letter of most words ending in vowels. Plural forms drop the final -s before the suffix.

-Ancia. 9ll PMIA DEAI'100M .. 7 a travelling . 8 a cat to be reckoned with (also the name of a Portuguese Grammar in context 1 What does the name of the restaurant mean? original word it came from? Rcstaurantc Ifhat is the Especialid&de$: Peixes Frescos Caldeirada de Congro Caldeimda de Ruivo Vnho Verde) 10 9 can you guess where you might buy um If something is bclo. casinha refazer perlazer prevef infeliz perfeito rever felizmente gatinho compor carta casardo descontente descompor cartSo Exercises A 1 gat6o desfazer amoral Solve the clues and find the words on the wordsearch grid. A W X Y z N c W V vender to sell a trabalhar to utork trabalhador / a desenhar to design desenhador / a pescar ta fish pescador / a cobrar to charge cobrador / a navegar to naaigate navegador / / vendedora sales person sailor I tuuigator o A P o F I T A G E D M R P s T L o L A P worker designn fisherman / uonan mone! collector / (bus) conductor G U E R A H B Match up the words on the left with any from the box on the right...4910 VILA Pesadm ... dade.. 4 where you would buy sapatos 5 from where you would pluck a fig 6 Red tape works at this speed.. usually abstract ones....... after dropping the final -r. it has . try to note the words into pattern groups.. .. G A I R A T A P A S violento elegante belo branco feliz beautiful uhite happy elegant beleza lento dor/ uiolent slout felicidade elegAncia violOncia brancura beauty uthitmess happiness elegance A R R z A E B c 0 E F A H A R D K L M A V P U V W D E S I L E z lentidio vendedor uiolence slowness A E M F B N t\ h A A L E o P T D S R E a change a verb into the person performing the action when added to the infinitive of a verb.. Vhen you start to spot petterns of endings.-ez I a.. liwo (a bookl? Anoz de Tamboril Parrilhada de Peixe Taco na Pedra PORTINTTO Rua doo Bife Pimenta 5?7 .. 3 Overworked teachers have too much of this. A small table 2 You would get a lot of wine in this.Tel. -ura.. -6ncia and -dio change adiectives into nouns.. Some may have more than one linked word. A few more to get you started are -al / -ano i -6o t 2 feliz 3 contente 4 cartinha 5 ver 6 moral 7 gato 8 p6r 9 fazer 10 imperfeito aleml-ismo/-vel.. 1 casa There are many other suffixes to look out for..

2 \Fhich two diminutive forms are used to describe how your children will change on Saturdays? f nasseFs DE VERAO . hqrto usetodototalk about all orthewhole. os seus diabinhos viram-se anjinhos! q) Fh s o = CL g o $) s) 3 $u o o In this unit you will learn . ambos (botfi) ard cada (drlwlt .Paque dos olivais Programag6o Infanto-f uvenil Dia 15 Dia22 Leituras com m0sica Circo Russo Todos os s6bados.

although in Brazil this is commonly omitted. euery) does not vary in form. Todas as mesas ocupadas. Both those skirts are pretty. I neuer remember euerything. Ambos os amigos jogam golfe. as an adverb. Ambas aquelas saias s5o bonitas. vi-as todas primeiro que tudo ao todo todo o possivel euerywhere euerybody euery man who. tr6s horas. or without when used with pronouns estavam All the tables were taken. minutes. ambos and cada. They are usually accompanied by the definite article (o / a / os / asl. You may need to add the definite articles where required. You can also translate both by os dois Os dois foram ao Translated as all or the uhole. Tem o brago todo Your arm is all dirty. cada 30 Tome o rem6dio cada Adverbial use Todo agree It should Hd um autocarro [BP = 6nibus] There is a bus euery 30 sujo.. All the papers are in the folder. Todos os pap6is estio na pasta.Grammar in focus Todo Todo / toda I todos / todas (all. Each one of them won a prize. It is used without a definite article and serves for both singular and plural nouns. voltou A{ter euerything. hours. N6s ambos fomos ao teatro. todo can be placed either before or aker the noun. All of us went. The two of them (both) went to the cinema. Ambos Ambos I as (bothl. The utindout is completely broken. can be used with a definite article when describing a noun. I saw them (t. euery. All of this is fanustic.. Both friends play golf. tudo. Take tbe rnedicine euery three Cada um deles ganhou um p16mio. the uhole| agree in number and gender with any corresponding noun. The uhole house is dirty. last year. she returned to lapan. or demonstratives. Tudo Tudo (all. Tudo isto 6 uma maravilha. euerythingl is a neuter pronoun which never changes form. Ambos partiram. Cada Cada (each. / a can also be used in the singular with the noun / adjective. They both left.. todo o dia [BP Other useful expnessions em / por toda a parte todaagente/todos todo o homem que. todo o VerSo / o VerSo todo all summer. Todas estas flores cinema. . Fomos n6s todos. the uthole summer The definite article (the word for thel can be omitted when the word accompanying todo does not normally call for an article.. / as duas (the foram All these flouters were planted plantadas no ano passado. A janela est6 toda partida. ela ao Jap5o. It is used to refer to non-specific things or situations. twol. minutos. We both tuent to the theatre. Eu nunca me lembro de Depois de tudo. Exercises A Complete the following table with the correct forms of todo.like todo.) all / all of them first of all in all / abogether euerything possible - todo dia] the uthole day INB In Brazil this is often the phrase used to mean euery dayl Toda a casa est6 suja.

partes do Algarve. e vivo no Algarve.. e ambas trabalham no hospital..Masc. a perna est6 semanajogo futebol. m€s este fomos n6s loio. de animais.. 5 H6 um barco cada tr6s (3) dias.. 2 Toda a gente queria ir ao teatro... uma 6 bonita .. 8 Tirdos os museus est6o fechados hoie.. 6 nrdo rnuito bonito..75 euros ao todo... singular Mase. e de desporto [BP = esporto]. e passo o verao todo na praia. Dr. Tonho duas irm6s...... 255 213 373 R.. Gosto.ta aticket balco Dpat comprar to buy o chaper 2a How Todos os diqs often can you lemos o nelhor get the best Sushi buffet? Is it pre-prepared food? huffetde | ...... 6 Sdo 6.. As duas s6o enferneiras. and see if you can work out the following: at this letter from someone looking for q kilo tudo feito nq horo.... 10 Tbda pcssoa tem um bilhete.. 1 O chap€u est6 todo suio... Grammar in context 1 Vho can buy all thev need here? A1UGUTN 0t OUANIOS Auto Mercado MALANGE Fdbrko pr6prio de (onfeitsdo TUDO PARA AS DONAS DE CASA - (ofetodo Telefone.... Adoro tudo c6.. Eu sou vendedor de 'Timeshare'e todos os dias visito ftuistedl ambos os .de todo torcida tipo de mdsica. 7 Vou fazer todo o possivel para melhorar.... 2 what kind of muiic he likes 3 how many of his sisters work in the hospital 4 whathedoeseveryday 5 why he likes everything in the Algarve t how often he plays football .. Todos os fins. loja a Primavera 016! Eu sou o .. singular Fem...de- (monthl (Sprincl . plural alunos todos aqueles dias Fem. plural as pessoas todo o inverno . l4l8 {560-506 Pemfrcl vqt fazor I'm gaing to do hat mdhora toimqrcve sb dtufy . casas todas as. s6o ftrats Qrt.... tlrly arel SUSNI a G Look correspondent. 4 Quero comprar tudo. tenho 22 anos. 9 Ambas estas casas sio bonitas. ctnco minutos semanas Jodo is B Can you translate the following? Help with vocabulary given below. irmios Daftiram Escrevam-me! . 3 Passamos o Verio todo na praia..tchadoc crttsed cnro la wanted passamos wegnd hdo toddY na prafa on*Teb€€/ctt tem has qfio lwffi umblh.... Jooquim bflu..

000 100.000.000 dois milh6es 1.000. cento " 101 centoeum/uma 110 cento e dez 90 noventa t2 c I :' L3 treze 74 catotzeo 15 quinze 15 dezasseis 200 duzentos (as) 300 trezentos (as) 400 quatrocentos (as) 500 quinhentos (as) 600 seiscentos (as) 3 o gl L7 18 19 [BP = dezesseis] dezoito dezassete [BP = dezessete] 700 setecentos (as) 800 oitocentos (as) 900 novecentos (as) 1. uma 2 dois. quarenta e duas mesas cento e uma casas . etc. thb unltyou wlll learn cddnd nmb€t€ (oneto one rflion} trowlosayad wib ft€rn in Ponryiese ordinal numberc (finst so@nd.) and their use in Portuguese oln Brazil you will often find the alternative quatorze.000 mil milh6es In Brazil. duas 3 tr€s 4 quatro 5 cinco 5 seis 7 sete 8 oito 9 nove doze 30 tnnta 3L trintaeum/uma 32 trintaedois/duas 40 quarenta 50 crnquenta [BP = cinqiienta] 60 sessenta 70 setenta 80 oiterita 100 cem.um. Numbers one andtutohaveboth masculine and feminine forms.Grammar in focus Cardinal numbers L0 dez LL orxze 0 zero 1. 42 tables 707 houses Numbers in the hundreds also have two forms: duzentas caravanas 200 carauans oitocentas e trinta e duas cervejas 832 beers .000 20 vinte 21. mil dois mil cem mil um milhio 2.000. um bilhio is equivalent to one billion (1 followed by .000.000 1.000 2. vinte dezanove [BP = dezenove] e um / vinte e dois / o In uma 22 duas 23 vinte e tr6s 24 vinte e quatro 25 vinte e cinco nine zeros).

and 252. d6cimo segundo. and not as multiples of a hundred (as in the English tutelue hundred and fifty). andar.000 tt t2 r. hence the year L752 is mil. The word e (and) appears between hundreds. instead of a conrma. quatro mil e sessenta e cinco oito mil e quinhentos Ordinals are not used very frequently in Portuguese beyond tenth. JoSo Primeiro o s6culo quinto Manuel Doze o sdculo vinte e um lohn the First A is not translated before cem. Exercises A Write out. ordinals are used up to tenth. zero e oito 4.018 dois mil. setecentos e cinquenta e dois. if the last two numbers are zeros 4. seiscentos e 46 quarenta e seis e 12th 13th 14th 15th L6th d6cimo d6cimo d6cimo d6cimo d6cimo segundo terceiro 80th 90th quafto quinto sexto [BP = setuag6simo] octag6simo nonag6simo cent6simo um cinquenta e ffes 912 nove cem doze mil6simo .842 246. Hence 1.000.J00 a d6cima quinta janela the fifteenth utindout mil novecentos e noventa e cinco 7. except in addresses. to L00 when the thousand is followed by a numeral from 200 to 900. and from there on cardinal numbers are introduced. cento for 101*. etc. In reference to popes' royalry and centuries.600 26.222 seis mil. . they are not.532.532. In the compound versions (d6cimo primeiro. -as) LTth segundo 3rd terceiro 4th quarto 5th quinto 5th sexto 7th s€timo 8th oitavo 9th nono 10th d6cimo L1th d6cimo primeiro 2nd t9th 20th 2lst 18th ddcimo sdtimo d6cimo oitavo d6cimo nono vigesimo vig6simo primeiro vig€simo segundo 236 378 4121 1t4 5 6 7 8 199 450 7.430 tres mil quatrocentos e trinta In Portuguese. This is clearly seen in addresses: Moro no 12" (d6cimo segundo) I liue on the haelfth floor. both parts of the number agree. Ordinal numbers 1st primeiro(-a.065 8. In both cases. when the thousand is followed directly by a numeral from 1 Ordinals agree in number and gender with the noun to which they refer. numbers are always expressed in thousands and hundreds.553 dez mil. vig6simo primeiro. a full stop is inserted after thousands etc. correct what is wrong.065 L.344 t0 9 3. dois dois dois 25 vinte cinco 521 quatrocentos e trinta 10. the numbers follow the titles.995 3.).000 is 252. these numbers in full. Mil Cem libras d6lares (a) hundred pounds tbe century Manuel the Tutelfth the twenQ-first century fffi (a) thousand dollars Cem is used for a round 100. 50th sexag6simo 70th septuag6simo 100th 1000th [BP = qiiinquag6simo] t22 cento e sessenta e cinco 58 cinquenta e oito 134 cem e trinta e quatro 1. or say. .Above one thousand.532 is written 1..9t2 If 30th trigdsimo 40th quadrag6simo 50th quinquag6simo 22nd B Decide whether these numbers are written correctly or not. cento or mil. tens and single digits: cento e oitenta e dois (182) E appears after thousands in the following circumstances only: Ordinals may be abbreviated by using the appropriate number' plus the last vowel of the number (o or a). -os. particulady for the number of the floor in aplrtment blocks.

ab L Pedro (I) 2 Moramos no (15) andar um d6cimo sexto primeiro ochenta vig6sima segunda How much is the total cost of a subscription to Exame if you live in Europe? Vrite it out in full.60 l(€) | 14s 12 2s.25 72.25 m 15 20% 39 52 91 39 106 l*.25 18.50 26.75 15 np5 17.20 53 27.85 22. subscription to Barbie? what's the cost of the discount Exame 4 5 6 A (221 Luis (XIV) E o (80th) oito casa vig6simo segundo vig6simo segunda How much are the mailing costs in Europe for lnformdtica? 6 Which magazine offers a discount of dezasseis por cento? catorze d6cimo quinze quarto aniversdrio ortenta dezoito octag6simo Grammar in context The euro in Portugal is known as o euro.c Choose the correct ordinals to fill the gaps.20 .* I 145 51. Europa No.15 116 | 81.85 n% 15% 41.90 39.40 oesoesasl rotrt a de envio edlqoes ddesconb de envio (€) pa$r (€) 46.50 12 20% 30% 25.25 rts 68.35 32.90 l" 177.55 17. de Resto do mundo Totd (€) 91 Assinatura Dsspesas t Assinafum c.90 25.50 41.20 45.95 17.60 may be rendered sete (errros) e sessenta (c6ntimos). dezasseis d6cimo the number.35 58. divided into 100 c6ntimos.) 4 5 3 What discount is there ( = por cento) on Turbo? 3 O s6culo (V[I) If you live outside Europe.80 100.ts 27 lon | m% 33.50 tt | 8e.85 I lnbressante Turbo Cosmopolihn Disney Barbie z 12 12 16% 19.90 39. it is likely that variations on how it is conveyed will be widespread. A price such as € 7.80 51.20 25.55 51. writing out prices in full if required.40 20% 27.25 18.50 26.45 25.20 2 12 42% n. Look at this price list for magazine subscriptions and answer the questions./desconb (€) 44.10 64.60 (€) prerl I Exame Executive Digest Exame Informafica Visao Casa Claudia Super 25 u. 2 How many issues (edig6el of Visdo do you get? (Write out 1 d6cimo s6timo ortavo. although until the new currency really beds down.50 35 19.20 51.90 | 107.

ffiionsanddecfmdsin (ro hauel.8 is written as 4. d5o. 4. md1ir (ta measare) and pesar (ro weighl are verba uscd in measurements.001 is 01001.8 and 0. = sio. height Noung . The comma is subsequendy part of the decimal as it is written or spoken in full.8 = euatro virgula oito 01001 = zero virgula z€ro zero um Dfunenslons In thls unit you wlll leam Tc = . Pornrgues walra of talking about aaltura/aelevagio o comprimento a largura CL dimenaions and unlts of measu19 points of the compass a profundidade a grossrua o peso dqth lmgth width rtickness uteight alto high. howbeletwatihmetic. ull long largo wide profundo deep gtrosso thick pesado h*rrl comprido Adiectives .6 = 3 Nove menos seis dio tr€s. d6. scr (lo bel. . and not a full stop. 2x2 = 4 Dois vezes dois sio 10 +2 = 5 Th& mais dois s5o cinco.Grammar in focus Arihmetical signs + e/mais adigio subtracgso 3 9 - meno8 x versl muhiplicagio multiplicado por + dividido por divisio .6 igpal a sornar to add multiplicar to maltiply subtrair to subtract dividir to diuide calcular to calculate o algarismo szz CL II 3 3o qr oo oC od o o gt 5 = II rh % Y4 3/t Ys Frastions um meio % umtergo um quarto tr€s quartos h tA w rr{o um s€xto um s€timo um oitavo um nono um ddcimo um quinto Decimab In Portuguese. +2 = 5 Dez dividido por dois dd cirrco. 4. quilro. Hence. the decimal point is represented by a comma.

metric system quil6metro* hect6metro hm decAmetru dam metro m grama decimefro dm centlmetro cm centigrama cs centilitro cl milimetro mm dobro a metade o a ruler double o valor a medida half velocidade speed maior menor ualae medsuretnent greater / bigger lesser / sttuller km amplitude space / extent o recipiente container a a 6rea a quantidade alea quantity quilograma hectograma kg hg decagrama dag decigrama dg miligrama mg s litro The points of the compass o none quilolitro kl hectolitro hl decalitro dal decilitro dl mililitro ml north o noroe$e north-utest north-east o nordeste *[BP = quil6metro] Area I Volume metro 1m3 = um metto 1m-'z= um cribico quadrado 4fi:l = qvatro metros quadrados 5m' = cinco metros cribicos o oeste o leste (este) east uest o sudoeste south-uest south Other units of measure a south-east o sudeste o aiarda a milha polegada inch p6 foot o quartilho Pint o galSo gallon a a yard mile tonelada ton libra o sul Pound Exercises A lTrite out these numerical expressions in full in Pornrguese. The house is seuen metres tall.56 polygon . rectangle Geometrical terms Plane surfaces a o rectAngulo line linha o romb6ide angle o Angulo o Anlulo recto right angle o circulo o ingulo agudo [BP*= reto] obtuso obtuse angle o diAmetro o dngulo o raio o triAngulo triangle o Poligano o quadiado squa-re o perimetro Perimeter rhornboid circle acute angle diameter radius | 2 3 4 85-35=50 16x4=64 125 +75 =200 6 3/m 10 13 m'z 5Ts f000 + 10 = 100 I I 75A 17.2 2. A casa mede sete metros de elevagio. cubo cilindro a esfera cube a pirAmide pyramid cone qlinder sphere hemisphere hemisf6rio r6gua o cone o prisma pristn Other measurement language uma Units of measure.A sala tem ffes metros de comprimento e dois de largura. The room is three metres long Solids o o o by two metres utide. The sea is tuto fathoms deeP. O mar tem duas braEas de profundidade.

total 8m <-1 I +1m<-- 5m -- ?+-- JE + Quarto 3 6m I I I 4m I 5m 1 t II 3 o i Language watch 3 Most words in Portuguese ending in -dade conespond to the English ending -itY: cidade crty caridade charity electricidade electricity feficidade felicity (= hqpiness) capacidade capacw luminosidade tuminosity(ight) qualidade qualty claridade In . hotrtoexprrcdafiesand tmes In Poftrgr€sa o lofireooteru!€fulfrne sdaconsdthep* srpf€Etbng thb ndtyou uril leam d4tsdfieu€dqmontra They are all feminine nouns in Portuguese. . dartty nacionalidade nationaltty .B Look at the design for a new apartment and complete the table with the relevint measurements in figures' Quarto 1 Quarto 2 Cozinha Apartamento .

Que data 6 hoie? Quantos sio hoie? A quantos estamosl E o dia vinte e tr6s." "" E o quinze de Setembro. three.l are used with dates. He pas bom on 6th lab 1971. On Thursday tnorning we're going to the suitnming pool. ete. hoo. At uthat (day) are we?l It's tbe fiumty+hird.Grammar in (a) segunda-feira (a) terea-feira focus Monday Thesday 'Wednesday : Special holidays . QuTtl de manhi. is Hoie sio onze. What date is it today? What is the date todsy? What's the dote? [it. It utas the 25th Nouetnber. It's th e tuenty-second. The days of the *. Todos os domingos eles i vio Monday. the first Day. i Jl" is Era (o dia) 25 de Novembro. e on Tuesdays The boat deParts on Wednesday s and FridaY s. It uas Nant Yen's Dry ontbe rsth Months of tfie Year - Janeiro lanuary Fevereiro February Margo March APril Abril Maio May Junho lune Seasons of the year a Primavera os meses do ano Iulv Julho Agosto Setembro A festa ser6 no dia 15 Augnst September Abril. Horreveq the lst January is usually still referred to as o Primeiro de Janeiro = New Year's including./liJffiiil. Veekdays are feminine.(o dia) um. Itk the elanenth todcr. Vamos visitar os amigos We're going to uisit friends on Estamosavinteedois na segunda.Jk"tid are masculine.as e$ag6es do ano o Outono o Inverno o Verio s|rtng surnmer autunn utinter o segundo o minuto a hora um quarto de hora (uma) meia hora a manhi a tarde a tarde how Vt how uid-night uteek th hoat trtomtng aftenoon In Brazil. They go to Mass euery Sund'aY missa. capital letters are generally not used for months or seasons. . and it is common g1 the spoken laneuaee to drop the -feira suffix from each one. Era o Primeiro de Agosto. de August. o dia o meio-dia a meia-noite a s€mana Outubro Novembro Dezembro October Nouember December DhrisioilE of tmc seand mimtte mid-day . / noitc eaetw night quinze dias o m€s o a$o fottnight month year centtcry a noite o s6culo o mil6nio millemian . It's the 75th of Sqtmtber. It ans the lStb May. de . Tbmorrow is Sunday.. Ap*l. Nasceu a seis de Julho de 1971. vamos i p$cma. Janeiro. Amanhi 6 domingo.f6rias national holldaysl a Passagem do Ano I feriados (bank or New Year's Eue New Year Carniual Lent Easter Christmas Days of the week (a) quarta-feira (a) quinta-feira os dias da semana / o Reveillon o Ano Novo o Carnaval a Quaresma a P6scoa (a) sexa-feira (o) sdbado (o) domingo Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday o Natal Dates Cardinal numbers (one. There apPears to be little consensus as to whether they are written with a capital letter or not. The prepositions em and a are used with days of the week' na sexta-feira nas tereas on Friday O barco parte is quartas sextas. de Maio. Casaram-se no'dia 11 They got matried on 77th fidu"'.

Expressions of time

Time past the hour is denoted by adding the number of minutes, ontem anteontem
yesterday the day before yesterday

agora

noLy

agora mesmo right now

right nottt / i6 a semana passada last otteek already a semana que vem next uteek todaY hoje manhi this morning / a semana pr6xima esta esta noite tonigbt esta tarde this-afternooa (said during the afternoon) loeo i tarde this afternoon (said during the morning) i noite last night o m6s passado last month "tit.d the nilht a quinta passada last Thutsday "rrt"ottt"befole tast o domingb que next Sunda'y "oit. amanhi tornorrow vem the day after todo.o dia / o dia all day Jefois de amanhi tomorrou) todo early in the ao anoitecer at nightfall ai t i^ -"Jt"g"d" morning todos os dias. / euery day de I da manhd in the [BP = todo dia] moming cada dia - todo (o) tempo all the titne de I da tarde in the afternoonl ontem i tarde YesterdaY afternoon. euening i / da noite at nighl daqui a (uma in a (ueek's) titne amanhi de tomorrou semana) morning manhi ao amanhecer at daYbreak in the middle of the week ao meio da semana ao I no principio do m6s at tbe beginn-ing of the month at the end of the year ao I no iim do atto (two Yeats) ago h6 (dois anos)
'
.

up to thirty, on to the hour, using the word e (andl. If it is middag midnight, or any time connected to one o'clock, you start the sentence with 6 (it is). For hours beyond that (two onwards), use sio (they arel, because you are dealing with hours
in the plural.
S5o quatro e dez. E uma e um quarto.

It's ten past four. It's a quarter past one.
hour,

Time up to the hour can be expressed in three ways:

1 by subtracting the minutes from the nearest next full
using menos ) by using the number of minutes to the hour + para 3 with faltar (to be lackingl + the number of minutes hour + para
S5o dez menos vinte. S5o cinco para as tr6s. Faltam dez para meia-noite.

to

the

E um quarto para a uma.

It\ fiue to three. [t's ten minutes before midnight. It's a quarter to one.
does the boat depart / aniue? At tuhat time does the bank

It's tutenty to ten.

A que horas...? At what time...? A que horas parte I chega o At what time

open / close? A que horas comega / termina At tuhat time does the film o filme? start / finish?

barco? A que horas abre I techa o banco?

The time at which something happens is expressed as in the previous section, but you change the start of the phrase to say at.... rather than .kt...:

Time of day
Tem as horas? E a uma (hora). E meio-dia.

)
'What time is it? 'What time was it? Do ntou haue the time?

uma hora

Que horas sio? Que horas eram?

ao meio-dia /

i meia-noite

at one o'clock at mid-day / at mid-night at four (o'clock) at 3.30

And for hours beyond one:

It's o,ne o'clock. It's midday.

Era meia-noite.
56o duas {horas) datarde.

It

was midnight. It's trao in the afternoon.

is quatro (horas) is tr6s e meia is oito menos vinte is dez para as seis

at 7.40 at ten to slr (faltar is not
used here)

The twenty-four hour clock, commonly used in timetables, is
numbers in the order they appear.

often more straightforward, as you simply deal with the

0

O barco chega is quinze vinte e nove.

comboio [BP = trem] Parte is vinte e duas e quarenta.
e

The train leaues at 22:44. Tbe boat arriues at 15:29.

Time from,.. until... For this you use the prepositions de and a.
da uma / do meio-dia I da meia-noite
das quatro (horas) uma / ao meio-dia/

2 o primeiro m6s do ano 3 uma estagio quente 4 o m€s antes de Outubro 5 Hoje 6 quarta, ontem era... 6 depois de s6bado 7 o s6timo m6s
The missing season is...............
?

1

depois de quarta-feira

i

i

meia-noite

is sete is nove e meia
You can also use

frotn one o'clock / from midday / from midnight frotn four (o'cloch) 'til one / to mid-day / to midnight to / 'til seuen to /'til9.30
as the

B Look at the calendar page below and see if you can work out the answers to the questions. The ringed date is the date today
(hoie).

Abrilde 2fllX
Seg. Ter.
Oua. Oui. Sex. Sdb. Dom.

the word at6 (untill in expressions such

following:
das oito at6

12 89
15P
16 23

34 (9
17 24

567
11

is nove

from eight until nine

18

A panir de is also used, especially if there is a set starting time foi things such as meals in hotels, or events:
Servimos o pequeno-almoEo We serue bteahfast ftom seum (onwards). [BP = caf6 da manhi] partir das sete horas.

22
30

25F

12 13F 14 19 20 21 26 27 28

a

2 Hi dois dias era o dia ............
3

1 A quantos estamos?

.

Exercises
A
on the grid. ff you get them all correct' the letters dov.'n the middle spell out a season.
Solve the clues to find the names of days, months and seasons

Depois de amanhi ser6 que dia da semana? 4 Lterga que vem ser6 o dia ............ . 5 Hd feriados (F) nos dias ............ e ............ 6 No dia quinze 6 ............ (Easterl. 7 O dia um era uma ............ -feira. 8 O dia 27 serd um ............ .

.

C

Look at the times given for various things happening (travel, opening hours, meals), and answer the questions in Portuguese, writing the times out in full.
1 A que horas parte o comboio/trem?

2 A que horas est6 fechada a lofa?

Grammar in context
Read the opening times of the Museum in Oporto and see if you can work out:

2
3

1 what the normal

opening hours on a Wednesday are what time it closes on a Sunday during January if you can visit it on a Monday in August.
illussu

/

Musoum

34., 44. e 64. 10h00119h00 54.10h00120h00 S6b., Dom. e Frriados 10h00120h00 (Abril a Setembro) S6b., Dom. e briados 10h00h9h00

3 Que horas sio?

(0utubro a Margo)

4 Que horas eram

quando te vi (uthm I saw yoal?

5 A que horas chega o barco?

6 A que horas servem o pequeno-altttogo I caf€ da manhi?

the familiar form of you. family.? . They can be direct. @r'rn4lsr/lt o rrhenb to poelton ponouns in . the voc€ form is heard more in Portugal now. It responds to the direct questions What. voc6 . about r€freldvo porrcuns (. and is generally heard only in church services. (me. is used with close friends.) eles they (f. about ardircst obiect .is used with almost everyone.. &utg*i*'tpmush Port4uese(. pronouns should be used with the third person forms (which can mean he.l N. but in general. they or yoa). singular or plural. and can be represented by a pronoun in the first. lpldp. .Grammar in focus Subject prlonouns The subject of a verb is the person (or thing) carrying out the action. and can be used with prepositions. In many areas of Brazil. and amongst' older speakers living in remote regions. to avoid any ambiguity. second or third person. it.. she. about dir€ct oblest plonoung Note that Portuguese subject pronouns do not necessarily need to be used with the verb.. and tu has a limited spread. However. how to oomblne ponouns uvhero necessary the sontgrFe Direct obiect pnonouns The direct object directly receives the action of the verb. indirect or reflexive. Through the influence of Brazilian soap operas (telenovelas). as in many cases the verb ending denotes the subject. ln thls unltyou wlll learn . .usually considered a more polite and formal second person singular form in Portugal . Voc6s is the accepted plural you form (apart from the alternative use of the very polite os senhores / as senhoras). public speeches. unless thire is no doubt as to who or what the subject is.a1.l elas yoc6s you tt E o I o 5o oo 5 c qt o = Forms of address (how you call someone you) can be complex. tilm prcnoLwfs I lw. tu. children. stc.efic.yan. as follows: Singular Lst Plural 2nd 3rd feu you he / it she / it you tu ele ela voc6 we nos you v6s they (m..? Or Whom.) . and pets. (lgslwillrful(to Obiect pronouns Object pronouns receive the action of the verb. The v6s form is considered outdated.

f&los.il h the are added to the remaining final vowel: written accents To whom? To her Singular me te lhe = indirect object. Plural nos vos lhes to ffie. rude rte cahes? Mattha Quem fez os bolos? A Marta Who tnade then. Paint it. P6e-no ali.i" b" .g. U"r.) you then. you them.). Some non-reflexive verbs can also be made reflexive.). hauel and vcnr To avoid ambiguity with the indirect obiect pronoun in the third person.". I gave the book to her. Vendo-lhe o carro. Oialunos dio os livros ao The pupils giue the books to the teacher. him. I gave what? The book = direct obiect. They pintam-na.. you her. Ref. etc' I'm going to btY the hanse. Vou comprar a casa. seiling it. it.).but an n is added b"f"* ih" ptot ooo io preserve the nasal sound' hial. to him. (What I uhom Eles batem-me. it. us te o (m.) as (f. I sell the cdt to you (uery polite) (etc. Be careful. toyou ..the fo{owing .yribag o. Vou I'm gotngto W it.. (What / whonr do I see?) Elas They paint the window. '"placed "l-ix Did you see thett? Voc€ viu eles? changes actually make it easier to pronounce the pronoun forms.i't Deram-nos um bolo. -ar --+ -d -er -+ -e -ir '+ -i (no accent) Accents are also required on comlnunds of tlry verb po1 fo Dtrtl... c."fti endings are mlintained'.. e.uer there. you nos vo8 os (m. Go back to your basic questions of What? and To . compr6-la. Os alunos -dao-nos ao profCssor. Put it I Did "tou hear us? (What I Ouviste-nosl *ho* did you heat?) They beat me. Vcnfuo-lo. as they flow much better with these verb + All of these adaptations. you see them / yotr. I sell the car to him (etc. and -z' These final letters are omitted.E p&lo. you to us to you to them. {o and A" (q$"1 *""J"l.) Vejo-os. the following construcfions can be used: Vendo o carro a ele (etc.). We me Vendemos o carro. as) Ctrangcg to certain changej occur in the following situations: Indircct object pnonouns The indirect obiect has an indirect relation to the action of the verb. you They gaue us a uke.:. (See Unit 23 for more details. o Following verb forms ending in -1. and on fn bnake I dol. her. them to the teacher. as in English we often omit the word to uthom? the car. and the rwo iorms tcns lyot lyou conel become tem-lo and vcm-lo. P6e o saco ali. I sell the ear.) . rPe[hg to[wlng ve]ts With iirea oUlu"t pronouns in the third trrrson (o. 'Wc arc selling tbe car. it-is co-mmon practice for-the bv de t'dal eles / elas' t a. Followine verb forms ending in -m. -s.I sell her in oucre-o etc. Vendo a carro i senhora (etc. You qan test out whether an indirect obiect pronoun is required by asking yourself if you can add the word to (or forl before the pronoun.Plurd me me yor4 Elas pintam a janela. The pupils giue professor. do they beat?) In colloquial usage in Btazil. attached to the infinitive. and an -l is inserted before the case of the omission of final-r.exive pronouns A reflexive pronoun accompames an approPriate reflexive verb and refers back to the subiect of that verb. It denotes the person or thing to or for uthom the action is performed..cs (btingl. it.to her / him / you. and tcz The verb form qucr (uantl takes on an extra c' ia. Reflexive verbs are indicated in the dictionary by -se. a' os.) a (f.

'in Brazil obfect pronouns are. if the direct object pronoun is in the third person (o I a I os / as). can be added as you advance in your learning. On seeing. Queiiamos que os vendessem. nos vos se ourselues yourselues themselues. Nio I don't want to go because I quero ir porque me sinto mal. and spot examples in reading: The final -s of the first person plural verb form is droPPed o The (weak) object pronoun usually follows the infinitive.. and is not combined with the indirect pronoun (see later sections). the obiect pronouns lditg. when the infinitive follows a preposition.see yoa in the library. did. I didn't recogntze you. the pronoun goes after the infinitive. precedes the verb. although it is often still found after it. feel ill. Poeition of oblect Pronouns In Portugal.. They got ap lote. I'm called Edu. affirmative sentences. with the following: . He ended up telling (it to) me. Position with the infinitive This is a slightly more complex matter.. herself. r interrogatives prepositions With the preposition por.. works for you. oroa'lly attached t-o the end of the verb by -a hyphen. Deitamos -+ Deitamo-nos cedo. unless there is a negative.you. itself. it is more common for the object pronoun to move in front of the infinitive.. o wordthat is not always present .. Comegou por diz€Jo a One of my students noted that it may serve as a memory 3i9-t9 keep in mind that the initials of this list spell out 'catnip'! If it He began by saying it to eueryone. I get up at I o'clock. the pronoun goes in order not to offend you I them. (On) seeing her. . "r" However. then it follows the infinitive.Singutar Plural me te se myself yourself himself. try it! but Acabou por mo dizer. Sempre te veio na biblioteca. Not utanting to read it. or the preposition em.see Unit 3L). Elas levantaram-se tarde. or reflexive). They forgot tbe time.. coniunctions (ioining words) adverbs that clauses (que + verb: the in English) negatlve sentences Ao ver-te. N5o o querendo ler. We go to bed early.. . the object pronoun follows and is joined by a hyphen. before the reflexive. The pronouns o / a I os / as do not contract and combine with the prepositions de and em on these occasions. Querem comprS-los. I alutays. joined to it by a hyphen. the pronoun hyphen. ispecially when a subject pronoun is used. todos. not giue her enough.more often found preceding the verb in straightforward. particularly in the written language. has been made negative.. If the infinitive before it. Vendo-a. nio te reconheci. Esqueceram-se da hora. There follows a brief overview. [BP] Eu me chamo Edu. However. We uould like you to sell Nio lhe dei suficiente. With the preposition a (ao) and the infinitive. more elaborate constructions.t' indirect. Gostariam de nos visitar I Gostariam de visitar-nos. with many more permutations. . They tuant to buy thern They utould like to uisit us. yourselues Position with the gerund With the gerund (the -ing form of the verb . or with estar and ir. para n6o te ofender Para quando o quer? For when do you uant it? . Senta-te aqui. without a In both variants. Sit here. yourself Levanto-me is 8.

"rht. Iriormal-rules of position apply. herself. Brazilians tend to use this structure widely in everyday speech. Will you giue me {50? Yes. para si. Mandou-ta? Deram-lhas. or by the use of other tenses' Falamos / Vamos falar com ele amanhS. He hasn't seen them recently' Position of pronouns with the future and conditional tenses When a verb in either of the above tenses requires an object pronoun after it. They gaue them to me. elas si vocOs then th emselues. dou. Did he send it to you? They gaue them to them. To avoid this kind of ambiguiry use the prepositional forms a ele.usually ter' estar' ser and others . N5o vo-lo digo. Normal rules of contraction Tr6Jo-iam se estivessem aPPIY: Avoidance of contracted forms These awkward constructions are often spontaneously omitted from Portuguese. They gaue them to you (polite). I'tn not against you. yourselu es yourself voc€ you. He likes to do things iust for hitnself.l utill (giue it to you).Position with the Past ParticiPle The pronouns do not combine with the past participle in any *"u. Gosta de fazer coisas s6 you." are linked with the auxiliary verb (the verb used wtth the'past participle . Deram-nas a eles. D6-me 50libras? Sim. Plural nos vos eles mlm me +o'-tmo me +a -{ma me + os --+ mos me + as --t mas te +o --+to te +a -tta te + os --t tos te + as -{ tas lhe +o --+lho lhe +a --+lha lhe lhe nos +o -rno-lo nos +a --+no-la nos + os --+ no-los nos + as --r no-las vos +o --rvo-lo vos +a '-+vo-la vos + os -+ vo-los vos + as --+ vo-las lhes+o --+lho ti ele ela si me us you you them him ber himself. yourself Ela esqueceu-se de mim.I didn't (like it). Singular Gontracted obiect Pronouns '!7hen a sentence includes two obiect pronouns they join . aos senhores. They uould bring it were here. Nio estou contra ti. Confusion may arise from the type of restricted construction found in this last example.. lhes+a + os --+ lhos + as --+ lhas --+lha lhes + os --+ lhos lhes + as -+ lhas . Deu-mos --t Deu-os a mim -+ Deu-me N6s falar-lhe-emos amanh6. I had bought it' Tinha-a comprado. the pronoun is inserted in the following fashion: main verb part (infinitive) + pronoun + verb ending Eles deram-mos. They made tbe cake for her. they take another form. ce. Gostou do filme? Nio...* iirto ultimamente. We u. Obiect pronouns with prepositions Ifhen object pronouns follow a preposition.ih. i"it"*. Deram-nas aos senhores. etc. yourselues She forgot me. a ela. Did you like the filrn? No. Fizeram o bolo para ela. The usual rules of position still apply' Indirea + direct sing.see Units 31-3). They gaue them to them (masculine). itself. I uill not / cannot tell you. if they These forms are usually avoided in colloquial language. as too are the more simple object forms.'ill speak to him tornottou. with the indirect pronoun first. by omission of the obiect pionoun. or form a contraction. Nao or t.i bv the direct. n5o gostei. Trariam se estivessem c6.

Cfarc..(O.. prbprios.| Ent6o. aqul... 7 Onde o encontraram? 8 Fique aqui enquanto lhe telefono. 1 Vendo os carros. mbrr| 9lva F. direct or indirect.. eu tu ele ela me te o a mim comrgo te se se se ti ele lhe lhe voc6o n6s v6s eles ola nos vos lhe nos ela si / voc€ n6s v6s eles elas vocGs contigo com ele com ela consigo / com voc6 connosco [BP = conosco] convosco tlgnrol Sr Sr Slhra Boa tard€.. Prccisa de alugar um cano.. 9 Vsitamos (ld esta semana... po€so ser 0til? Queda apr€sentar. Sr Sr Sflva Sllva Oual6 o seu norne completo? .. consigo comrgo her(selfl. Insert a hyphen where necessary and alter any spelling or word order if you need to. ? elas voc6s* o * Also for o senhor / a senhora o* Also for os senhores / as senhoras vos vos se lhes os se lhes as se las lhes (vos) (vos) com eles com elas com voc€s (convosco) John EsO para(6).. que estA a passar uns dias (4)..... 2 16 ndo me interessa. em que (3. Miguel.... .... o r?lorl colega John...... with you 4 Vou devolver (to returnl os sapatos 5 Viu (rrt) no parque...........(1). Quem vem comigo? Ele est6 a f...alar com elas.... Quem vai us6. both meaning self / selues... 3 Todas rne admiram... 6 Estou content€ por te ter encontrado... uith them utitb thern with you uith them(selues)......... Assume B say 'yes' it 'standard' European positionings throughout. your(selues) Decide whether the pronouns are in the correct position and or'no'.. 8 V€ o professor todos os dias.. 8r Sfhra Muito bem.. me te me 4 Porque € que nos chamou? 5 Nio importa-se. She works for herself' Co-pta*ot L bolo para n6s We bougltt the cake for Exercises A Replace the underlined words with appropriate object pronouns.... your(selfl connosco convosco com eles com elas com voc6s consigo utith us [BP = conosco] 2 Compr6mos a casa.. senhor Silva. Make sure you understand why each one is where is by checking back through the unit..... Atendo... lAfaw mtnuB tur. Ela trabalha para si mesma. G Insert the correct pronouns in the spaces in the text about hiring a car Choose from the box on the next page. . 6 Emprestas o carro i Eduarda? 7 Enviaram uma carta (n usl. Como este? Boa tard€. 3 Ele deu um livro ao Pedro. amanh6. Haue you brought Your little Overview of Personal Pronouns Subiect Obiect 10 Parece-nos muito interessaRte..(Q. 10 Diz a verdade (the truthl (to theni.? John O Miguel tem..... see Unit 9' Who's coming utith tne? He's talking with them..To add clarity to a sentence.... ourselues' Obiect pronouns with the preposition com The objict pronouns combine with the preposition com (utithl in the following waYs: Plurd Singular with tne with you contigo with him com ele with her com ela com voc€ with you with hhn(selfl... 56 um mlnutinho. the appropriate forms of mesmo / i t oo t as or'pt6prio I t / os / as may be added..... Tem os documentoe A.. 9 Sempre veio-o aos domingos... Trouxeste o irmiozinho contigo? brother uith You? For a comprehensive view of prepositions. 1 A porta abriu-se.....(3).

Can you work out what it means? ' .T crtt ao o o 5 gl I Lrrr .. Silva Bom.At6logo. promoting respect tor anima]ls. ''.. John Edward Church. O carro estar6 pronto mais tarde. '' ". ertr Gttcb dowllh|heutsdter... Obrigado.tilt gtddor . Ajuda-nos a defend6-los! (Liga Portuguesa dos Direitos do Animal) II o3 ....1081 EI ol ol ttl tol tEl John Sr Chamo... $nrhttcurlrr€rbrh Dr0rbrnltyonrxll nafugus.... '....... Levo- al John (f0).. tel lhe lo o consigo lho lhe mim connosco nos me l*l lrl Grammar in context EIJ the The following slogan has been Portuguese Animal Protection LEague. ds cinco horas... . " Porque tu gostas de animais. ' used on leaflets from .......(9)...

fdta can mean to be necessary.) It's a good idea.when something hurts To talk about a part of the body hurting in Portuguese.' D6ime o braEo. trovoar (to thunderl. you use doer in the singular (if only one part hurts) or the plural (if more than one bit is sore). They did.. you can eat tnore. comer Sobraram-me 20 euros.add to the list as you come across more. Sobrar means to be rnore than enough and to haue Ieft ouer. It utas hurting rne so much that I had to sit down. can be used in exactly the same way you can say'something interests me'. + infinitive. Others may be used. Est6 a trovoar. Hence. Interessou-lhes a venda - so Nio barco. Weather verbs There are different ways Portuguese. So-" ire known as 'defective' verbs. Sobra. chuviscar (to drizzle). Falta ar aqui.. can be used in a similar way to . etc. me interessam as mentiras. becomes apetece-me. as well as various expressions using fazer and haver' tegj of talking about the weather in Faftar. I had 20 euros left ouer. Faz sol e nio hd vento. . means to be short of."q EI al l5l ='l ol al ol Grammar in focus lmoersonal verbs are those which are found mostly in the third p"rron singular or plural. the verb to appear ot seem.orru. Ndo nos apetece ver este filme. to A hammer is needed herc. don't you think? lFl tl l-l indirect object ptoioon where you -would not find one in English. the verb apetecer is used with the indirect objeit pronoun. N6o lhes fazia f. . nevar (/o snowl. me Doem-lhe os ouvidos. not miss English food. There were 75 dollars missing.. A selection of the most useful follows . sentai Hk ears (inner earsl hurt... They are short of patience. to interest. Falta-lhes a paci€ncia.alta a comida inglesa. sobrar Faltar translates to be missing.used in a highly iit"t"ty *"-y. lt would be better to get into no anoitecer the inn . ln England it rains more in the winter.. and most phrase and text-books cover the topic. as theymight not have a full range of tenses. / miss. I fancy doing someth ing. hurts to me'. Anoitecer (to get dark (to get light . and with an indirect prononn. There's more than enough food. Some of the common verbs are: chover (to rainl.dawn) Seria melhor entrar est6 a albergue . parece? nio (It seemed stupid to me. do The sale of the boat interested thetn.in the sense of It seetns to me. E uma boa ideia. Doer Verbs taking Pronouns To translate to appeal to / to fancy doing. I'm not interested in the lies. It's sunny and there is no utind. fazer fafta.it's getting dark rapid-amente -qui-cklY... We don't fancy seeing tlk film' Does a-bike ride appeal to Apetece-lhi um passeio de bicicleta? You! Parecer.. The day dautned uith a O dia amanheceu com um brilliant sun' sol brilhante. so what you are actually saying is'The . podes mais. and with a pronoun. Fazer need Na lnglaterra chove mais no Inverno. but they are not particularly common' Interessar.. gelar (to freeze).with an Parecia-me estripido.comida.. The indirect obiect pronoun is also used. unless they are being.. Doia-me tanto que tive que My arm hurts.in full. There's a lack of air here. I thought it te was stupid.nightfalll I amanhecer Um martelo faz falta aqui. Faltavam 15 d6lares. It's thundering. Iacking.y a colloquial-idea of to think .

3 Que te parece? 4 We are not interested in the money. f Aqui iaz o meu saPo favorito. Miscellaneous acontecer to happen custar tratar(-se) de jazer to cost to be about to lie (be laid down) .used for graves in particular What has haPPened? How much do the ordnges cost? Grammar in context This Algarve proverb predicts how long it will keep raining. mulher em busca do marido. 5 Faz-me f. it only appears in the third person. 6 Is there a hospital here? 7 O livro trata duma tragddia.. jaz Alvaro Dionfsio Here lies. 1 No Inverno anoitece mais cedo. at the time of Mass. if it happens to rain on a Sunday. stationary). 2 I don't fancy going to the party. choue a semann inteira.. a boy who still has 5 euros left over after buying some chocolate the gravestone of a beloved creature 2 3 a snowy penguin scene 4 a pice-tag of f. d D6i-lhe a perna. How long? Se chouer O que aconteceu? Quanto custam as laranjas? no Domingo. e Custa dez libras. tgt t3l I<l 3l trl ol l*l l-^ II9J |l | (i.10 5 someone who has just been 6 a bike with shot in the leg b Falta uma roda. See also Unit 35. a Neva muito na Antdrtica. The film utas about a wofttan O filme tratava-se duma in search of her husband. only one wheel . c Sobramlhe 5 euros. Is there a bank round here? H6 um banco por aqui? There were tnany cars stoPPed Havia muitos carros parados. d hora da Missa. Aqui Pereira.1121 Haver Unless haver is being used in the emphatic expressions illustrated in Unit 30. 8 How much does the hat cost? B Translate the following.e.altaa minhanamorada. Exercises A How would you describe 1 these situations in Portuguese? Choose the correct phrase a-f.

Go out tlnorgb the back door! No smoking bere. in expressions such as: Fumar faz mal. verbs fall into one of three verb groups.g.Grammar in focus Portuguese is the form that fdar = to spedk. As an impersonal command form. Smoking is bad (for you). Sair pela porta traseira! Nio 6 ficil Nio fumar aqui. e. gctar foi trabalho. II The general infinitive Infinitives appear in the following situations: 5 {r II II = II .g.g. depending on whether they end in: The infinitive of a verb in corresponds to the English to do. falar partir to spedk to leaue / breah 2 -ef -ir comer . places. After phoning. utent tbere (in order) to see the cathedrcl. I 3 -ar (the most common) e. and have peculiarities in their formation (see Units 21.o eat There are also a number of irregular verbs which do not belong to these groups. I baue aluays dreamed of I uisiting Greece. visitar Gr6cia. de (to likel. . quero visitar querfamos ir Deve falar com ela. known as 'coniugations'. . . as they might in English. . 22. often on signs in public aprender iapon6s. After other verb forms. lmlrrsonally. I utant to uisit ue uanted I uould like to go He must (has to) speak utith hen You cannot (arenotableto) do t Nio podes fazer isso.37 and verb tables).'or. In Pornrguese. r o a In thls unlt you will learn ilfinithrcs dftg tu€et/€tb After prepositions and verbs taking a preposition. that. she wmt to uork. grcupo in -tu) Port4gce (-t.It is the form of the verb you will find in a dictionary before you manipulate its endings to indicate who is carrying out the action and when (see the following units). e. Depois de telefonaq ela ao Sempre sonhei em a Fui 16 para ver a catedral. about the personal infinitive and its uses It b tnt eas! to lemt Japanese.

o senhor times. and is theref6re a valuable linguistic tool. It now? is incredible that theY are here. (you) . Despite hauing aniued quickly. the man anstaered. Antes de tu viaiares. After dining in the restaurant. we ruanaged to o7en the door. I'm going to get the bedroom I mfsica. ifl. nio quero ouvir don't want to hear this esta No caso de elas chegarem cedo. recibo Please send a receipt within a m€s.no ending voc6 etc. Hauing tried / after trYing.performing the action. broke down. After prepositions. may be followed by the personal infinitive: antes de (before). He did not want to continue Nio quis continuar sem eles Ao termos tentado. month. carriage.o As a noun. (you plural) + em ready now. Apesar de ter chegado depressa. As-its name suggests. ficarei ) janela. Antes de ires embora. hotel ouner ouas relieued. However. especially in business contexts (written or spoken). In case they ariue eaily. The following are its uses: speak dizet to say pafiin to leaue separate actions. escreve Before you go away.no ending falar to n6s (we) + mos v6s (yoz) + des eles (theyl + em elas (they) + em voc€s etc. those t""iititn ttte subiunctive form of the verb (see Units 4041. the personal infinitive can provide a much simpler'alternative to complex constructions. doutn your new address. If I feel ill. the car avariou-se. ftr the heabh' After prepositional phrases These phrases. No caso de me sentir mal. E favor os senhores passageiros 'Will passengers please refrain nio fumarem dentro do from smoking inside the vagio. (I). aparecerem. bem. With impersonal expressions Wouldn't it be better if You left N6o seria melhor tu partires j6? E incr(vel eles estarem c6. it is formed by adding the endings listed below onto the if"-r eu infinitive. where there are different subjects verb. The meaning of the last example is identical to that of the subjunctive construction: E incrivel que eles estejam o/ estivessem c6' Commands The personal infinitive is also used with 6 favor as a formal imperative. nio p6de ajudar. for each Ao partirem os turistas. O comer frutas 6 bom para (The) eating (ofl fruit is good a safde. Apesar de voc€s cantarem In spite of your singing well. I'U stay by the uindow. conseguimos abrir a Porta. this tvpe" oi infinitive is personalized . such as. apesar de (in spite ofl. and in public announcements. with the definite article o. depois de (after).it can be used in its inflected (*ith endings) to refer to whoever is. . Distinguishing between verb subiects The personal infinitive is often used in a sentence describing two falar faiarmos dizet dizermos partir partirmos i"i"t"t falardes dizeres dizerdes partires partirdes falar falarem dizer dizerem partir partirem Usage In rrrany cases. E favor enviarem um dentro de um . fic6mos [BP = ficamos] doentes. the dono do hotel ficou aliviado. it can also be used when the subjects are the same: Depois de jantarmos no restaurante.^o" al.no ending tu (yoz) + es ele (he\ . Depois de termos telefonado After we had phoned fiue cinco vezes. o carro Before you trauelled.no ending ela (she) . write o teu novo enderego. o When the tourists left. ue became ill. The personal infinitive Portusuese is the only Romance (Latin-based) language whictt ft"r "p. atendeu. vou j6preparar o quafto. no caso de (in case. witbout tbem aPPearing. he cowld not help. tnusic. or infiecte4 infinitive. amongst others.

. what is their 'art'? ALTO MINHO O jardim de Portugal! NO ALTO MINHO. Nio 1 (tu)comer. h -em Grammar in context Both these adverts claim to offer 'the Art of.........118 Exercises A Match the public signs to the correct expressions' 4 (eu) abrir............ AARTE DE BEM RECEBER! Res........ g -em 8 (as senhonsl fa2er.... e x 6 (v6s) correr.. b 'es 3 iela)'visitar. f -mos 7 (o Carlos) partir..ta............ d x 5 (voc€s) estudar. c -des seria melhor....... Wouldn't it be betten......... ............. X indicates no additronal ending.......uranfe a n5o nadar b niovirariesquerda : de interesse Turistico A ARTE DE BMM SERVNR Serviq... RECEBER E UIUNRRTE..? (often seen in Tourism)...o de Casamentos e Crrupos c nio fumar d nio estacionar c nio tirar fotografias g nio deitar lixo h pagar ao motorista f nio entrar Tiristicos B Match up the correct ending on-p thg personal infinitives according tb the guidance given.. In each case........... a X 2 (n6s) trabalhar.....

negd.endings to the stem of the verb. Nore that the vocb and voc6s verb forms are the same as the third person singular and plural. I speak. It is still worth being aware of it. Falo portugues.) falar to o o o 5 t J+ speak stem = fal. I speak Portuguese. The v6s form (you plurall is quite outdated now. cada dia (euery dayl. and can do speak.'. - see Unit 34). and is found in a variety of tenses.. Therefore. The present tense in Portuguese describes actions or states that are habitual. You speak Greek. To convey 'it. use the ele / ela verb form. Ir is also used to describe something that is a fact. or endings. pronoun. is vezes (sometim. tenses are more likely here convey the (near) future. You speak French well. add the foJlgwing. and by older people in rural areas.. and is rarely used. normalmente (normally) etc. of spgr+ {although in practice other. is used in other verbal circumstances. tu falas franc6s Voc6 fala grego. The subjunctive mood.apart from in church services and other public addresses. I am speaking. . we shall discover later. howiobnnUtsptesent tense cf t€$iarvstbcr lhb unlt you wlll ledn A noun. may be used as the subject of the verb. lPlural falo I I speak I n6s falamos I we speak tu falas I you speak I v6s falais I you-speak ele / ela fala I he / she speaks I eles / elas falam I thev ioeak voc€ fala I you speak I voc6s falam I y"i ti"ak eu Singular o 5 o o In . (The stem is the part of the infinitive minus the -ar | -er / -ir. tt - eu falo can mean speak. I I shall First conjugation (-arf verbs To form the present tense of first conjugation verbs. or a combination of both. . subject pronouni are only really needed to avoid ambiguitS or for empiasis.Grammar in focus The indicative mood This indicates a certain range of verb formations. Maria.es). Remember. for use in most straightforward situations.Battd crt€dolB Maria. bem. nunca (neuerl. often with expressions such as sempre (ahuaysl.It can be used to describe something happening at the time continuous. even though you will probably use it very little yourself.

escolher to choose Further examples Sample verbs of the second conjugation aprender to learn fender to split. Marcia and I are speaking Singular eu como Plural Os meninos falam na prz. Os gatos n6o comem bem. utalk thtough the Third coniugation (-r4 verbs partir to leaue (also to break / part Singular eu parto tu partes ele I ela parte voc6 parte oito casa WilI you play utith me? The fibn only begins at eight. A menina fala devagar. Further examples Eu sempre ando pelo Brincas O filme s6 comega is comigo? parque. Jd partes ? I leaue / am leauing on Sunday. I eat The boys talk in the square. Negative form To form the negative of a verb. Eduardo and Elas partem de aviio. Voc6 come batatas? Comemos muitos bolos em Portugal. I alutays pa*. Como peixe. das dez horas da N5o atendo o telefone depois I don't ansluer the phone after ten at night. refer back to Unit 11. The friends are dining at home As amigas iantam em I leaue you leaue he nos parumos v6s partis eles you leaue they leaue hoie- todaY. Do you speak Spanish? Fala espanhol? Do you speak? Falam voc6s? (For more on negatives and interrogatives. Pedro does not sPeak utell. crack bater to beat ofender to offend comer to eat responder to reply / ansuer debater to debate vender to sell viver to liue noite. place nio directly before it. O Jo6o ndo come I eat fish. Eduardo e eu hore. A Mircia e eu falamos iuntas. together. I do not speak German. Compreende? Devemos trabalhar mais. Elas escrevem todos os dias. Do you understand? We ought to work more. Jodo does not eat meat.your voice at the endof a sentence. nio partimos Are you leauing already? Ana is leauing for London.The girl speaks sloutly. Intenogative form To form a simple question. Nio estudamos aos s6bados. They leaue by plane. We do not study on Saturdays. You drink a lot o1*ire. inEP) stem - parrwe leaue Plural horas. The cat{are not eating tuell. Inversion of subiect and verb also takes place (the verb is placed before the subiect). O Pedro nio fala bem. just raise the intonation of.) Sample verbs of the first coniugation parar to stop acabar to finish regressar to return to close fechar reservar to reserue ganhar to uin saltar to iumP gostar (del to like trabalhar to utork iogar to play carne. They irite euery day. eat stem = com- A Ana parte para Londres. tu comes you edt ele / ela come be / sbe eats voc€ come you eat nos comemos v6s comeis eles / elas comem voc€s comem we eat you eat they eat you eat Nio falo alemSo. / she leaues / elas partem you leaue voc6s partem you leaue Second coniugation (-ed verbs comet to Parto no domingo. but not so frequently. The word do / does is not translated. . Do you eat potatoes? We eat a loi of cakes in portusal.qa. Bebes muito vinho. I are not leauing today.

ao mesmo tempo que sede de industriais. ingl€s? 9 A que horas 6 que voc6 . pavimentos ou 2 3 4 5 9 I cantaria.? Elas o carro do pai. See Units 2l xld22........... You're aluays asking your Dad for money..... O seu granito. numa casa antlga.s (comprar) frutas no mercado....Sample verbs of the abrir admitir aplaudir assistir (a) decidir thid coniugaton to open to adm....can you spot them? Their meanings are: couer.. Tambem o Vinho Verde da regiio 6 famoso e enriquece a arquitectura de muitas cidades do mundo (quem sabe se tambdm da serve-se i mesa dos principais restaurantes. Penafiel 6 igualmente uma rica regiio rural e de florescente e rmporcantes emPresas F.. V6s nio (subir) a montanha.. Fuilher cxamples I'll diuide the cake into foun Divido o bolo em quatro.. sob a forma de guias para passeios. enrich.it to applaud to dttend to decide invadir omitir subir transmitir unir to inuade to omit to go up to transmit to unite 10 5 Nio muito no interior do Brasil....... 8 V6s todos .. 4 Eu . 1 Em Port'lgal os museus 2 Ao iantar n6s .........).. N6.. knoou. O meu primo (escutar) mfsica cl6ssica. Can you hear something? Voc€ ouven alguma coisa? Dormimos* no m€smo quarto... . futebol todos os dias.ercises A Form the verb in brackets correctly..... Nio conseguem* estudar. sua. 6gua e vinho. 10 Ela nio (comer) carne. por favor? 7 Tu . Rica de hist6ria.... os caf6s ao terrago...... according to the perstrn carrying out the action. putting the correct ending in each case... We sleep in the same roorn. 3 O empregado . abrir fecnar partir seryir moiar Fgar chover bobor compt€ondor lavs is segundas.. diversificado com6rcio... VocO (responder) is cartas? Ele (abrir) a ianela. Tu nio (beber) muita 6gua. B Complete these sentences by choosing the most appropriate verb from the box. Sempre pedes* dinheiro ao pai. 8 Voc€s (partir) is tr6s horasl Eu (estudar) geografia e biologia. cobre as ruas e 5 7 Eles (limpar) a casa. seiue... and answer the questions about it. 6 Voc6s a mala.. 'Afl these verbe have an irregularity in th€ Grammar in context Read-the following text about the northern Portuguese town of Penafiel... They do not manage to study... first person form. 1 In what kind of a region is Penafiel set? 2 Of what type of srone is much of the city made? 3 Sfhat famous wine is served in the best iestaurants? 4 There are four examples of -er verbs in the text ..

Grammar in focus
A number of verbs in Portuguese change their spelling slightly in the present indicative tense. The change occuri in the siem; or radical, of the verb in all persons except the n6s and v6s forms. Since the present subjunctive (see Unit 40) is based on the first person singular of the present indicative, its correct spelling is a vital starting point for the formation of the subjunctive.

Here are some of the more common types of radical-changing
verbs.

First conjugation, -ar
boiar, to float b6io, b6ias, b6ia, boiamos, boiais, b6iam A written accent is added.
recear, to

o Ir
J

recelo, fecelas, fecela, receamos, receals, recelam An i is added.

fey / be afraid of

gr

odiar, to hate

5o GT ql rl 5
T
T

g) CL II

odeio, odeias, odeia, odiamos, odiais, odeiam An e is added.

Other verbs similar to odiar include: incendiar (to set negociar (to negotiate) and premiar (to reuardl.

fire tol,

Second coniugation, -er
erguer, to rise crgo, ergues, ergue, erguemos, ergueis, erguem Irregular only in the first person singular.

GT

Thid coniugation,

-ir

:

o
CT
-

The maiority of changes occur in these verbs. The changes take place in the first person singular onlg and therefore cairy over to the present subjunctive.

.
kr this wrltyou wlll learn . ilrenroctcormqr radcal-

e changes

to

i
manage consigo I manage divirto I enioy minto I lie repito I repeat sigo I follow
:

conseguir to achieue /

divertir

o

chaEFUverbs-|hcs|hd changntr€hEp*rg h fte
stom {radcdD

mentir repetir seguir

to enioy to lie to repeat to follout

sentir servir vestir

to feel

to serue to dress

sinto sirvo

I feel I serue

Grammar in context Casa da Anta
Hotel Rural
LANIIELAS MINHO NORTE DE PORTUGAL

visto

I

dress

cobrir to couer descobrir to discouer dormir to sleep
pulem

o changes to u

cubro descubro durmo

I couer I discouer I sleep

polir, to polish becomes: pulo, pules, pule, polimos, polis,
u changes to o

Descubra o verdadeiro charme do Minho.
As suas lindas montanhas e rios, a sua cozinha regional, os mercados locais, os festivais populares, o seu folclore e o calor da sua gente, fazem do Minho uma deliciosa escolha para as suas f6rias.

subir, fo go up changes thus: subo, sobes, sobe, subimos,
subis, sobem

CONTACTE COMANMUREZA
Acampe e divirta-se no nosso parque em Vilar do Mouros

Exercises
A
Complete the table by writing in the correct forms of the
verbs.
recear

2 Where are you invited

I What are you invited to discover? to enjoy yourself?

leu
sinto

tu recens 2 o Paulo n6s
receamos

v6s
receais sentis

eles

receiam

divertir

divirto 3 ......
sentes

divertimos 4 ......

divenem
sentem

5 ......
dormir

5......
dormimos 10 ......
odiamos

dormes

dormis
subis odiais

8 ......
sobem

subir subo 11 ...... odeias

9.........
odeia

odeiam

B

Translate the following:

1 Are you (tu) afraid of the exam? 2'We hate the winter. 3 I cant (manage to) eat more. 4 He's lying. 5 Can you (v6s) repeat the phrase? 6 They (elas) cover the child.

7 I discover the secret. 8 Are you (tu) coming up?
o exame
a

frase

exaln phras

a

crlanga

male

more

child

o scgrado secret

i

Grammar in focus
Orthographic-changing verbs are those which require a slight modification in their spelling (orthography) in order to maintain correct pronunciation. The spelling cliange takes place on the last consonant of the stem of the verb before certain vowels, as listed below The most common changes are as follows:

r

Verbs ending in -car Before an e the c changes to qu, to maintain a hard c sound.
frcarr,

to stay: fico

I

stay, fiquei

I

stayed

Other verbs of this type are:

brincar colocar explicar indicar

acercar-se

to approaclj to play
to place

oo Ir
q)
) = GI GI IT = GT

publicar Sacar tocar

multiplicar

modificar

to explain to indicate to modify to mubiply to publish to remoue to touch / play (instramentl

o
-

J =

Ir

Verbs ending in -qar

Bcfore e, the g changes to c, as the cedilla is no longer required to maintain a soft c sound.
cag

r, to buntz cago I hunt,
to haue lunch to threaten

cacei

I

hunted

Other verbs of this fype are:

oo ct a
T

T' Ir
J II
.
In this unit you will learn

g,

calqar

almogar rmeagar

comegar to begin
Vcrbs ending in -gar

to put on / take a certain size in shoes / gloues

Before e, the g becomes gu to maintain the hard g sound.

chcgar, to arriue; chego themostoommon

1

arriue, cheguei

I arriued

Other verbs of this type are:

orthographic-changing verbs those that modiff their spelling for reasons of prcnuncidion

-

cntregar

rpagar jogar julgar

to extinguish to hand ouer to play
to iudge

conhece he knows Other verbs of this type include: Exercises A Choose the correct verb form from a choice match the underlined word in each phrase. exercicio? b Cheguei is nove. 3 Descem aqui? d Apaguei. aquecemos acecemos .l They gatee! the house. 9 Ana pard the bill. to know: conhego You will also come across examples of far rarer verbs whose orthography changes. rqueles senhores? 6 Brincaste com a bola? h Descemos. protejem proteguem siguo sigo 6 I follow them. t Quando comeearam o i Almogam ao 12. to coloco calEas I to obey to seem / appear reconhecer torecognize Verbs ending in -ger and -gir Before a or o. I A que horas almogam f Eles protegem. fugpr. 7 | didnt touch the vase.prolongar obrigar pagar to compel / oblige to pay to prolong Verbs ending in -cer Before a or o. seguir to folloutz sigo I follow. conhecer. foge he flees 'f rVe heat the water. I know.30. pagou pago l0 They obe)'the teacher. 3 He plays football. to fleez fuio I flee. but if you are not likely to want to make real active use of them yourself. don't lose sleep over them. segue he follouts trabalho? 9 Apagou o fogo? Other verbs of this type are: l0 Quem protege a casa? conseguir to achieue / obtain / succeed distinguir todistinguish erguer perseguir to pursue / persecute to erect . I plaeed z Y<ru (tu) wear size 36 shoes. joga a coloquei jogua aqecemos I n5o toquei nio D[d you (tu) begin the tocei protegem sijo nio toque comecaste Other verbs of this type are. aquecer descer esquecer merecer obedecer parecer acontecer to happen agradecer to thank to heat to descend to forget to deserue of three. the c becomes g to maintain the soft c (s) sound. sim. bc colocei calcas calEa jog. 7 Que instrumento tocas? i Toco o piano. gu simply becomes g to maintain the hard g sound. Consegues fazer o a O JoSo dirige. The best thing to do when you meet them ir to make a special note. I A que horas chegou voc6? e Consigo. the g becomes i to maintain the soft g sound. g Brinquei. 2 Quem dirige o carro? c ComeE6mos is tr6s. Verbs ending in -guer and -guir Before a or o. obedegem obedequem work? comeEas comegaste paguo obedecem proteger afligir to afflict / distress corrigir to correct dirigir (BP) to driue / direct eleger to elect / choose exigir to demand / require fingir to pretend to protect abranger to include / comprise I I Match the correct response to each question.

Leve 2l * lil lpl liliLll*l What do you think this offer means? lliller llli 6 {r o I illr x IT lilll/ o o .I o .!ii ll lrs4 | lllil$fr| ii trl ttl I I Hl * Pague 1. . In this unat you will learn howtoform reflexiveverbs cr iiilil/ (wash nysr/:fiin Portuguese about the position of the reflexive pronoun in the sentence lltiii .

(I call myself) Sbe neuer sits witb me. such as in: He got (himselfl washed after Lavou-se depois do trabalho. (washed *'With the reflexive pronoun. [BP] Eu me chamo Cafu. In Brazil the reflexive pronoun commonly appears before the verb. the following additions may outra (to) one another. Com que te lavaste? unf ros outros / umas is outras (to) one another (plural) mutuamente mutuall. the verb is used with a reflexive pronoun (look back at Unit 17). The pupils sit doutn without talking. you washed lavei-me lavaste-te lavou-se Lavei-me bem. Position of the reflexive pronoun In Portugal. sento-me sentamo-nos * sentas-te senta-se to cut dciter to tbrow down frvrr to utash levsntar to lift up. are always used In the reflexive. reflexive or rociprocal.ction between plural subjects of a verb. In both countries the pronoun precedes the verb in negative statements. to sit (oneself) doun present tense: . like atrever-se (to dare). I'm called Cafr.rut thc action on each other. you will find that many verbs can be made reflexive in thc rame way if you want the action to be carried out both by rnd to the subject of the verb. by adding the pronoun -se (selfl Afthough some verbs. What did you uash yourself with? . um to outro / uma i In rlrder to avoid this problem. consider oneself In fnct. depending on whether they are used with the reflexive pronoun or not. sentar-se. the subjects carry . may emerge. etc.30. lavar-se Sentas-te aqui? Are you sitting here? Os alunos sentam-se sem falar. Levanto-me is sete e meia. others serve a dual purpose. suffer c{rrtar chamar-se to be called cortar-se to cut oneself deitar-se to lie doun. Unit 25): I uashed myself.t Fclicitaram-se um ao outro. with the subject acting upon itself. each other Exercises A Decide what is happening in each picture and correctly form lhc verbs in the present tense for the people involved. work. chrmar to call after it. the s is dropped from the verb form of the first person plural when the pronoun follows the verb. The dictionary will indicate that a verb is reflexive. They adore each other urful. Eu I get (myselfl up at 7. the normal position for the pronoun is at the end of the verb. raise nntir to sense. They congratulated each other. and in other circumstances detailed in Unit 17. lavdmo-nos* lavastes-vos lavaram-se Srmetimes. We see each other euem day. rise sentir-se to feel. joined to it by a hyphen. with questions. xh hlicitaram-se = they congratulatedthemselues or other. lavar-se.Grammar in focus A reflexive verb is used where the subject and object of the action are the same person or thing. preterite tense (see yourself. to utaslt oneself Roclprocity Thc rcflexive pronoun may also be used when there is an Intcr. Adoram-se mutuamente. To express this.I sit (myselfl down. etc. ambiguity about the true meaning. tltq congratulated be I had a good uash myself well). Ela nunca se senta comigo. Vcmo-nos todos os dias. you sit (yourselfl down. go to bed sentais-vos sentam-se to haue a uaslt levantar-se to get up.

.....La................ senta no sof6. 5 N6s nunca encontramos .. lavaram ........ ? ............ 4 O JoSo veste .... deciding also where the pronoun should be placed (assume standard European positions)....... hora cerfa............ cedo. 8 Como chama lembra 9 Ningu6m 7 Eu ainda n5o ............. lentamente. esqueci do livro... 3 Eu ... vesti o teu amigo? da festa.......Tu....... 1 Tu nio levantas .. 'wm#ru Ela n6o O Miguel N6s Voc€s m M B Eu Supply the correct reflexive pronoun in each sentence....... Elas 2 F. i 6 Elas 10 J6 ......

the ending -ivel corresponds to -ible.. if you are already a student of those languages too).'*l lal tol txl Language watch 4 Words ending in -6vel in Portuguese usually correspond to -able in English (and French and Spanish. .{ 60 :' 88. Similarly.t. In this unit you will learn about verbs follored by prepositions in Porfuguese . t6l t<l tol tcrl l"l tl tl tl lrrr I LI9J Portuguese razo6vel admir6vel respons6vel respeit6vel consider6vel comestivel Spanish French razonable raisonnable admirable admirable respetable respectable comestible comestible English reasonable admirable respectable edible responsable responsable responsible considerable consid6rable considerable legivel suscetfvel (comer = to eat in Portuguese and Spanish) legible susceptible susceptible susceptible/ sensitive lisible legible g5 I Ea rfr oo LJI s)F I 9.

Nrrrgtr['m vai se encarregar tlc cornprar os bilhetes. to do something to to like to preuent from to remember to lrrrrrinou por agradecer todos excess Vrrr comegar por dizer.. the preposition does not necessarily correspond with the one used in Portuguese. and. f'rrcs mal em pensar Itcrrrilvil em fugir. for others.l Porta. ..s ()uvintes. He's going to be busy cutting Urrbs + por (f rfrrc$ar erfrrrrrar-se the lawn. A number of the examples below are commonly used verbs. Ele vai ocupar-se a cortar a relva. Nobody's going to be in cbarge a preposition.Grammar in focus Some verbs require a preposition after them when used before an infinitive. so you will soon get used to them. food' You do wrong to think like that. undertahe forget to to get tired of. Decidiram-se a voltar. I'm going to begin by saying.r cirsa e preparar a comida. and constantly looking over them and adding to them as you go along.ng the howse and preparing the to busy oneself uith to start to resign oneself to I'ue neuer got used to the heat bere. of bwying (undertake to buv\ the tickets. when they do. The equivalent English verbs do not always require |.tlrirr Ar to end up to begin by to make an effort to to fight to to begin by to long to to end by Tbey ended up staying the whole night. lrrrpl'1li1xP o T6 de abrir . it may be worth forming your own group lists as set out below. Votrl prccisa de descansar. Verbs + de acusar de arrepender-se de deixar de dissuadir de encarregar-se de esquecer-se de fartar-se de gostar de impedir de lembrar-se de to to to to to to accuse of repent stop dissuade from por por por futrr por prurcipiar por rurpirrr por ferrrrirrar por lr. limpar The work consists of cleani.rr rl.rlralho consiste em . She finisbed by thanking all the listeners.rr to agree to cm to decide tci to force to to cause to to set out to to oblige to r.'t isar de to stop to need to Yow need to rest. He thought about running awall Nunca me acostumei ao calor aqui.ll:lr dc Itr. They preuented T6 from opening the door. which you will learn only when you come across them. They decided to turn back.. Verbs + a a a decidir-se^ a forgar a levar a meter-se a obrigar a ocupar-se a p6r-se a resignar-se a aprender atrever-se comeear acostumar-se a to get used to to learn hoou to to dare to to begin to Vcrbs + em r ffrl( (rrcfar em r frn\fstlr em lrrcr lrcm em lrrcr rnal em tn'ff \trr cm fx'n\. lbirram por ficar a noite rrrtcira. assim. hesitar em to consist of to do tuell to to do turong to to insist on to think of to besitate to ( ) tr..rr cm. (.

you must remember to combine them with the preposition. according to the rules of contraction. Grammar in context After a disastrous footballing defeat at the hands of Finland.. e.g. We're neuer going to agree on this. They aluays dreamed of liuing in the country. dl ol €l ol o. Tem de lutar pela p6tria.. S6rgio Conceigio. a concordar+? rcrviu = past tense (serued) Cen you guess what his feelings were? b sonhar+? c acabar+? d servir+? e fazer mal+? f forgar+? g preparar-se+? h contar+? . Sonho com pastEis de nata! Preparavam-se para o jantar. and decide which preposition follows each one. She resigned herself to the complain rsclamar to illustnte llustrar / exemplificar forcign country um pafs estrangefuo to move drive conduzir [BP = dirigirl work.ing) and Portuguese verbs. Some You can't count on utinning the money. Haue vou remembered the Lembraste-te do pio? breadl Nunca vamos concordar nisto. Os soldados prepararam-se para lutar. 5 The men were prevented from moving any nearer. dumas etc. Sempre sonhavam com morar no campo.Verbs+comlpara contar com to count on sonhar com to dream of preparar-se servir para para to prepare to to serue to 9 to do wrong to 10 to fight to 11 to dream of 12 to serve to I f. I dream of (Portuguese) custard cakes! They uere getting ready for dinner..or i I k I acostumar-se+? deixar+? aprender+? o E lutar+? o N5o pode contar com ganhar o dinheiro. to to a foreign country. do. B Translate the following: 1 Ana was learning how to drive. of these verbs are also used with their preposition when followed by a noun. The soldiers prepdred to fight. 3 This situation serves to illustrate the difficulties of living in 4 The fight caused me to stay at home for two weeks. You haue to fight for your to tnvelthe neater wortd aproximar-se viajar pelo mundo horneland. das. 6 My brother always longed to travel the world. the Poftuguese national team bounced back with a better game rgainst Brazil This is how one team member. dcecribed the improvement: Bnsll serviu para limpar imagem com a Finlindia Exercises A Match the English 1 to get used to 2 to force to 3 to agree to 4 to end up (. Isto serve para nos dizer alguma coisa. 2 You do right to complain. when the articles (definite and indefinite) are present.) Ela resignou-se ao trabalho. (Refer back to Unit 2. In these cases.ing) 5 to count on 6 to prepare to 7 tolearn how to 8 to stop (.. sl si l This serues to tell us sotnething. it's far too expensive.

did speak. We haue bought that beautiful o r+ o 5 o o t+ -I I fu filhas limparam o The daughters cleaned the back garden. quintal. I did. lfrr nlo leram a mensagem. lrfndecte o nosso Nlo comi o peixe. It is formed by adding these endings to the stem (the first part of the infinitive. minus the -ar | -er I -irl. . Comprdmos aquela casa bonita. It is also used to translate haue done (but see also Unit 32). not eat the fish. house. horrv totalk abolrt past astions fte prctedbtense carro? Haue you sold our car? froot i6 bebeu suficiente. yet! Her husband paid for euerything. They did. not read the message. O rno passado escrevemos Last year ure wrote . Ainda nio preparaste o iantar? Haue you not prepared dinner O marido dela pagou tudo.Grammar in focus This tense serves the purpose of expressing past action that is completed. You haue drunk enough nou. -arvetbs eu -er verbs -lr verbs +el + aste +i + este +l + iste tu elelela/voc€ n6s v6s +ou + 6mos [BP = amos] + astes + aram +€u + emos + estes + eram +iu + imos + istes + iram eles/elas/voc€s First conjugation (-arf verbs E falei hlaste fclou talar spoke.ndny muitas cartas. Yesterday I spoke utith my dunt. haue spoken falimos falastes felaram o J+ o - Ontem falei com a minha tia. trcond coniugation (-erl verbs gni omcu ln this unit you will learn with cfltrcSte comemos comestes comeram . letters.

Irregular verbs have irregular forms in the past tense too. polite) read (past) . O lpswich transforma p6nalti. but not much! Voc€s sentiram alguma coisa? Did you feel / hear something anything? I 2 Chego ao estidio e meia. I only left after lunch. autocarro [BP t4 Vou ao meu lugar outra 15 = o O 6rbitro vez. It is therefore important to look for clues to tell you which tense the verb is in . falaste fal6mos comeste comemos paftiste Apanho IBP = pego] o partimos infinitive(alelil. yesterday. I they found They came uith their pdrents. lfazerl I made a cake for the party. Some of them have been done for you to help you sort it out. 10 fui expulsa um estdo I t6 Os jogador do Manchester. Mentimos. Each verb here maintains the original letter it had in the The ute (n6s) forms for -er and -ir verbs are the same as in the present tense (as is also the -ar form in Brazil.g. ) 6 O Ipswich ganha 3-0. broke. last uteeh. 'Where Onde foste? [ir] Ela ndo viu nada. 6nibusl. o tl is duas. chegar to anive marcar um golo / gol to score a goal beb€r b drtnk cometer to commit com€r to eat sair b go out I lave transformar o p6naltr r. then re-order the sentences to tell the story of a day at a football match. e.look for words defining time. make the patterns work to help you minimize your learning effort. partimos partistes partiram 56 parti depois do almogo. hambfrguer. ! 2 3 5 5 7 Translate these verbs into Portuguese and complete the puzzle with them. We utere uery lucky. [vir] haue you been? / Where did you go? She did not see anything. O lpswich lnarca um golo [BP = gol]. / 3 4 Bebo uma Coca Cola. 6 bebi Ao meio tempo cottto um O Ipswich Saio de casa ?ndrcd am 14 marcou terceiro golo/gol. 7 Compro um programa.tarytdty ganhar to win encontrar to find apanhar to catch ir (vou) to go expulsar to send off oomprar to buy Some examples of irregular verbs Fiz um bolo para a festa. mas nio muito! We lied.ge/. [ver] Tivemos muita sorte. is duas 9 10 O Manchester comete uma falta na 6rea de penalti.Third coniugation (-trl verbs parti partiste partiu patn left. [ter] Vieram com os pais. did Exercises A Convert the verbs in italics in the present tense to the preterite. e. She heard a strange noise. 16 estiveram Dont see these as a frightening array of new forms to memorize. with no written accent). leaue. today etc. 1 sai You should be able to see patterns forming which can help you to learn these endings. haue left. See Unit 37 and the verb tables on pages 263-71. t3 Encontro o meu lugar. 12 Cott pro um bilhete. { t you (tu) paid you (plural) opened I've spoken they've bought we spoke he touched you (sing. etc. aficionados 8 marcou loucos com alegria. Porque n5o abriste a prenda? Why bauen't you opened the present! Ela ouviu um barulho estranho.g.

gostou da visita? B Gostei imenso. e foi at6 Pinh6o. uma residencial. e volt6mos ld todos os dias. cheg6mos na terga-feira. A Foram num passeio de comboio [BP = trem]? B Bem. o meu marido apanhou um comboio hist6rico no s6bado. Adorei a regi6o e a comida. comemos os pratos ttpicos da regiio. e na quarta visitAmos uma quinta de Mnho Verde. O meu marido adorou a truta. A Onde ficaram hospedados? B Ficdmos num pequeno hotel.Grammar in context Read this conversation about someone's recent holidaS and in the details on the grid about what they did. fill II A Onde visitou? Pois. B 3 T' o :t o o t'+ Tfhen did thev arrive? Ifhat did they do on the Vednesday? \[here did they stay? What food did she like? o 3 o o 1+ In tftle unlt you wlll leam . Prov6mos o vinho e depois passeiAmos de barco no rio. A E a comida? B Pois. no centro de Mla Real. A Entdo. mas eu preferi os doces. lrwbfurnadusethe $od hnpeftc{bnsebH< corilkupns acdocu. Eu fiquei na cidade e explorei a p6. h$ltBandstabshttepd .

ue o Actions going on simultaneously in the past. to spend euery day on the Quando eram pequenos. often -arverbs eu + ava -erverbs -dr verbs +la + ias +ia + ias In polite statements and conditional. Incomplete.I utould always play after doing my utork. agora apanha she catches the bus. Usage . her husband uas reading the paper. sau. Que horas eram quando What tbne was it when I te vi? Eram dez e meia. which are explained below. - often translated in . Durante as f6rias passSvamos During the holidays we used todos os dias na praia. sempre brincava depois frz. 'Whilst Londres. Unit 37 for the imperfect of the irregular verbs ser and ter. Gostava de ir ao It is formed by adding the following endings to the stem of the verb: cinema. especially when compared with what happens now in the present.. moravam no campo. . When I got home (used to get home) from school. It is used as description. in place of the tu elelela/voc| n5s v6s + avas + ava + avamos +ia + ramos + lels + iam +ia + lamos + lels + iam See eles/elas/voc6s + Sveis + avam favor? Queriamos dois caf6s. You will see that the -er and -ir verbs have identical endings. When they were little they liued (used to liue) in the countn. nunca costum6vamos sair. It has a variety of other uses. as well as for repeated or habitual actions. Enquanto ela faziao jantar. please? We uould like please. especially for the background to a story or event that is being narrated.er os deveres da de casa.t However. two coffees. uent to liue in Brazil. vento quando chegaram. It was raining heauily and the u)ind was itrong uthen they arriued. Quando voltava da escola. you? lt was 10. often happening at the time a finished action took place and interrupted them. Podia dizer-me as horas. Chovia muito e o estava forte Ela costumava ir a p6 ao She used to utalk to uork. now trabalho. The verb costumar (to be accustomed ro) is used in the imperfect as a means to express habitual action in the past.30. The imperfect tense is also used to denote age and time in the past. unfinished actions or states in the past. o marido lia o jornal. something continuous. requests. se fazfavon por Could you tell me the time. [BP=pega]oautocarro Quando morivamos [BP = 6nibus]. O Jos6 s6 tinha oito anos losd was only eight uhen he quando foi viver ao Brasil. I would like to go to the cinema [conditional = gostarial. she uas making dinner. beach. o Repeated or habitual actions in the past English by used to.Grammar in focus This tense is used to express an action which was happening in the past. As a colloquial substitute in EP for the conditional tense (see Unit 29). the two types of situation above are more often conveyed through the use of a continuous tense (see Unit 34).. em When we liued in London neuer used to go out.

O principezinho olhava e olhava e pensava profundamente.Exercises A Edu is looking through his photo album from when he was a young boy. (ir) ao concerto... (ter) quando aprendeu Quantos anos 6 que (voc6) a conduzir [BP = dirigir]? (ser) dez horas quando o gerente chegou. (gostar) defazer amanh6? (Eu) ....... para um candeeiro e um acendedor de candeeiros.. i justa.. (Eles) .... 4 5 didnt used to go (frequentar) to school much....... mas tenho muito trabalho..... translated into Portuguese by Joana Morais Varelal 6 7 8 muito com amigos domingos no campo jardim bolos com a mde futebol todos os dias em cas€l B Supply the correct form of each verb in these examples......... (lavar) o carro. . and find out what they mean in English. put the action of the verb in the infinitive into the imperfect.... por favor.... a escola d igreja aos no [From: Antoine de Saint-Exupery.... Enquanto fu . Era o mais pequeno de todos.. used to go out (sair) with friends..... For each of his thoughts. (querer)dois 4 J 6 7 8 9 10 Grammar in context Look at this adapted extract from O Principezinho (The Little Prince). n6s . -me (dizer) as horas. used to read (ler) in the garden. ITork out a list of infinitives for those you find. mas por muitas 2 3 used to live (viver) in the countryside.. (poder) dizer-me onde fica o banco. (costumar) tocar piano...... 1 O quinto planeta era exftmamente curioso... algures no espago. 56 16 havia espago. (estudar).. voltas que desse I cabega... num planeta que n6o tinha nem casas nem populagSo. um candeeiro e um acendedor de candeeiros. and complete each sentence by choosing an appropriate phrase from the box.. A S6nia (Voc€s) . n6o conseguia perceber para que 6 que podiam servir... se faz 1 (VocG) favor? 2 (N6s) 3 caf6s... used to make (fazer) cakes with my mother. por favor? O que (tu) . used to help (aiudar) at home... (comer) peixe todos os dias. and see if you can spot the verbs in the imperfect. used to go (ir) to church on Sundays.The Littb Prince... used to play (iogar) football every day..

Minas Gerais. pctedbandthe imperftct uthen talking O ano passado pass6mos uma Last year ure spent a uteek in semana em Minas Gerais. ela ouvia mdsica. A specific start or finish to the action may be expressed. I'ue been in the garden. be useful to remember that: decision as to which of these two In summary it may The imperfect conveys an action or state which has a certain amount of continuity to it. or is used for an action which may be repeated a number of times. If you read widely in abouttn past how to say that one event intemrpted another . often with references to particular times or periods. and Estive no jardim.Grammar in focus It is sometimes a difficult tenses to use when talking about the past. The preterite is linked much more closely with time limits. again with no limitation of time.+ oo o t+ a -I I I !t 3 -l lmperfect Enquanto eu lia um livro. requiring you to consider much more carefully the situation / action you wish to describe. e tu? In this unit you will learn homtodeckle betuteen the you! . Fazia muito sol quando partimos para as f6rias. it must be said that sometimes the distinction berween the two tenses is more blurred. Preterite PAST A minha prima cortou a perna. left for our bolidays. utas uery sunny when we Antigamente. Although the rules above may help in many situations. Whilst I was reading a book. My cousin cut her leg. and is used with completed actions in the past. . without the time constriction of a beginning or an end. It also translates the English perfect tense. It she was listening to music. as in Falaste com ela? Haue you spoken to her? E o t oo :t . In the past Rui used to sing in the bars of Lisbon. o Rui cantava nos bares de Lisboa.

(lt started to rain at that point. use the imperfect of estar (/o be). (It was already raining at that point. Levantou-se time. the corresponding 1 Eu. 2 Comegou a chover esta b She was reading her book at three o'clock. When we left it was ruining. you these tenses are o Nio conhecia o teu irmio. He uas liuing in London (during 19971. irrespective of when it might be read. At that particular time it proved difficult to read. and you? e It started raining this tr€s horas.) Ir t4 Estar a fazer To convey an action going on in the past. therefore the day is seen as a whole point in time) it rained.what she used to do. Fiquei muito triste quando.azendo is nove Onde estiveram ontem? horas? Estava vendo a televisio. = I became sad as a result of came about at a single event. They utere sleeping uhen ute It uas not edsy to read. or continuous tense. (Acquaintance commonly used. This was an on-going action during that particular span of time. e. She l" It was not an easy document to read. 3 O Miguel tomava duche c They were living in S5o Paulo when I got to know todos os dias. . I saw it.estava a ver um bom a Miguel had a shower every Viveu em Londres em 1997.g. is oito (todos is oito. plus a. Estava muito triste quando = I was already seerng rt. = I didn't knout your brother. estava a chover. 6 Eles viviam em S5o Paulo. particulady good newspapers and magazines. Phone rang. choveu. 5 Ela estava a ler o livro is d We were working.. and is widely used in Portuguese. Exercises A Match up the Portuguese sentences with English versions. When we left imposed. yesterday Onde estavam quando telefonei? Where uerc you (at the point in timel uhen I phoned? (no time limits) Wbere ulere you yesterday? (time limit of yesterday Que estava f. In Brazil the formation is imperfect of estar. plus the gerund of the verb . 56 o conheci na festa. = He liued in London in 1997. plus the infinitive of the verb (the action in progress).) Vivia em Londres (em 1997!'. Quando saimos. Estava a tomar banho quando I was hauing a bath when the o telefone tocou. = (Time had not yet brought his acquaintance.) I only got to knout him at the party.the part of a verb ending in -ando / -endo / -indo (the -ing part). morning. them. sad when vi o filme. arriued. Nio foi fdcil de ler. depois saiu. The action of being in London is seen as a completed action for the time span of that year. This was her habit . This is known as a progressive. I He used to liue in London (without a time reference). seen over a limited space of l* L:ti got up dt eight. tid IE t$ t! o I was uery sad when I saw the film. A few further examples follow. Estavam a dormir quando cheg6mos.. especially when related to a specific event interrupting it. filme.will start to build up a better picture of how the language. Levantava-se os dias). 4 Ela leu o livro. manhi. What utere you doing at nine o'clock? I was uatching TV. It is likely he moved elsewhere after this point.) Quando safmos. day. Nio era fdcil de ler. See also Units 31 and 34.

Quando voc6 era pequena. Silva estava pintando a casa em duas horas. C eu ele Complete the table with the appropriate verb forms. Sio Paulo Paulo for two vears. then quando os went out. hoie a semana passada anugamente falo vende falei falava compravas vocOs partiram comemos tu n6s elas abriram f. ela chegou. i She read the book. either one can be valid depending on the viewpoint and time reference. B Decide whether the correct tense (undedined) has been used in each sentence. estava a sair muito? Falaram com ele no sibado. ele vestiu-se de preto. 1 2 What two historical events does it say you can learn about? 'lfhat can vou learn about the money you earn? 10 Na escola sempre ouviamos mtisica todos os dias. Correct the ones you think are incorrect. 3 4 5 6 7 8 Eu atendia o telefone quando tocou. tu? e f They only lived in Sio 8 Eles viviam em 9 10 conheci. 9 O sr. Quando encontrei o meu amigo. g 'What were you doing? Grammar in context Look at this advert for an interactive Brazilian history reference product. s6 dois anos. Remember that in some situations. Viviamos 16 hd dois anos. O que 6 qae fez ontem? Ia ao centro.azia eu ela . Oqueestavas afazer? i They used to live in S5o Eles viveram em Sio Paulo Paulo. 2 Quando 1 O Ant6nio neo estava em casa quando fomos 16.7 Estdvamos trabalhando. h I was watching a good film. os outros estavam a trabalhar.

horas. The future is formed by adding the following endings to the infinitive of all verbs: all verbs eu tu ele/elalvoc€ +ei +as +a + emos + eis tr + tr {r n5s v6s eles/elas/voc6s +5o The three irregulars are: dizer (to say). Ela far6 o possivel. thefumdionandtredthe frJtretenoe h Pofif$reEe . fazer (to do / makel. Encontrareis o Senhor em todas partes. you not eat more? I'lI say euerything I kno. We'll leaue at six. 'Where - . You will find the Lord eueryuthere.+ o 5 o o In thlo unlt you wlll leam Onde 6 que 116 i casa deles para procurar6s? saber Where tttill you search? a verdade. Traremos o cdo tamb6m. nio comerio present situation.Grammar in focus The future tense expresses action that has not yet happened. mais? Direi tudo o que sei. I shall spend utorking. In English we use tuill or shall to convey the future. We shall bring the dog as uell. The future tenie is used less in Portuguese than in English. which becomes far + endings. Passarei as f6rias a trabalhar. the holidays o . There are three verbs with irregular spelling changes. especially in the spoken language. as it is often substituted by the present tense.w. Voc6s He utill go to their house to find out the truth. Partiremos is seis. which are added on to the infinitive of the verb. The endings for the future tense in Portuguese are quiie straightforward: there is just one set of endings for all verbs.sio dez it's ten o'clock. which becomes dir + endings. 'Will The future tense can also express conjecture with reference to a can the children be? Onde estario as criangas? They'll probably be at school EstarSo na escola . She utill do uhat she can. and trazer (to bring). becoming trar + endings.

de samba - Esp6hculo [EP = espec6culol .}IA! Vinhos do Porto Graham's.. 5 I shall stay with them a week. especially when they are speaking.. visita detalhada irs caves do Vlnho do Porto e ter6 Exercises A Here is an itinerary for a week's holiday in Brazil. Dont forget the position of obiect pronouns with the future t7). Ter. 9 He's going to Bahia. No linal da visito provani os excelentes Portos enquanto aprecia a magnffica vista sobre a parte antiga da cidade do Porto Aguardamos a sua visita. 2 Where is Sara? Could she be ill? 3 3 Tomorrow we're going to wash the car..'What are they? Compro um jornal no domingo Vejo o meu amigo mais tarde. .rriffi':W. Look at this example from a horoscope: Sentir-se-6 dinimica e mais You will feel (yowselfl competitiva. Will it? (Do you think so? / B Translate into Portuguese 'We Are you sure?) Often. A sua chegada.Dla llvrc para compras Sex. 4 Provar6. Do you think it'll be hot? 10 l7e1l finish the iourney in Lisbon. Poderd ver um video que mostra as origens e a sublime arte da pmdugio e do lotamento dos -A MARAVII. I l't6s le td tl ta I le l" I l* Lol Onde voc€s vio amanhi? Vhere are you going Grammar in context The following extract from a leaflet advertising visits round a Port T7ine Lodge in Oporto names a number of things the visitor will experience.tr I'll see my friend on sunday. 7 Aue you (voc€) going to visit John next week? 8 This afternoon they're going to work in the garden. 4 The plane arrives (will arrive) at 8. Say what you will do in the 'we' form on each dap using the future tense. by using the present tense to convey the future. Vou falar com ele amanh6. Convldamo-lo a visitar as Caves de Vinho do Porto Graham's em Vila Nova de Gaia. shall buy a new house. just as it is in English..Vai ser muito dificil. BRASIL oportunidade de admirar centenas de cascos onde o Vinho do Porto envelhece lentamente. plus an infinitive. ser-lhe-6 oferecida uma dynatnic and more coffipetitiue.t go to the theatre.. Are you going to help? Vamos passear pelo parque hoie. the future is rendered simply by using the verb ir (ro go)......15. 6 He will triu. later. We're gotng to haue a stroll througb the park today. llom. Voc0 vai ajudar? Speakers of Portuguese simplify matters even more.Excurs6o ao Rio de Janeiro . I'm going to talk to him tontorrora. tense (Unit . 3 Poder6 ver. 1 Ser-lhe-6 oferecida. 2 Ter6 oportunidade. Ser6? It\ going to be uery dfficub. -Uisita ft local de 0nibus [EP = aubcarml Seg.

Iria com voc6s. which becomes dir + endings. To speak about actions which are not likely to come about' owing to a condition being imposed on the situation. added on to the infinitive of any verb. carro avariou-se. to uisit Japan. theiorrdon Poftr$He and use dtfte condtondtEneeh . Let us look at the formation and then the uses for this tense. but mainly those which are dependent on a previously stated. I utould go with you but unfortunately my car has broken down. becoming trar + endings. condition. mas infelizmente o meu We would like IT but ue don't haue time. As for the future. ln thls unlt 1ou wlll learn Dariam tudo para morar utould like to eat our. / . They uould giue euerything anything to liue there. Gostariamos de visitar o Japio. mas n5o temos tempo. See the Unit 17. and the three irregulars met in the previous unit also have spelling changes here. or understood.Grammar in focus The conditional tense is used to express a variety of situations. Dont forget the position of the object pronouns with conditional. Uses . o To express wants and wishes. I 16. which becomes far + endings. lazer (to do / makel. Gostaria de comer fora.t+ o 5 qr Ff = IT eles/elas/voc6s + iam The three irregulars arcz dizer (to say). and trazer (to bringl. there is iust one set of verb endings. all verbs eu +ia + ias tu elelela/voc€ n6s v6s +ia + lamos + lels o oo 5 o CL o . In English we often express the conditional with would and sbould.

itself.. Wouldn't it be better to take an aspiri.n? 2 N6o pofiamos ficar tanto tempo. and decide what she says she would do if she won. Mudaria de emprego . lht |!e.. Ao meu filho mais velho daria o dinheiro para comprar uma motocicleta.gostaria de ter a minha pr6pfia (ownl loja.. the conditional may be. deveriamos deviamos deveriam 6 Vi um filme tio bom que o ... uas to become (uould e milion6rio tamb6m. to express an action which would come about after the main past action already described.. mainly in the written language.. td I5 Nio seria melhor descansar um pouco? Deverfamos comprar mais leite..l Exercises A Complete the sentences by choosing a verb from those given to form conditionals. demos A minha filha eu mandaria para a Universidade na Franga. and often is.To express polite requests (alternative imperfect seen in Unit26l.. E claro.. 1 Eles iam i festa... Compraria um novo carro Mercedes.. veria venderia viria B Change the verbs in bold from the imperfect tense used colloquiilly in place of the conditional... please? nio .. uma I would like to eat at home.. Mudariamos de casa . Ir I I I In all the above examples. otttravez.. substituted by the imperfect tense... 9 Era mais f6cil tentar de manhd.. ele ..... Visitaria a minha irmi nos Estados Unidos. Iriamos i Costa Verde para umas f6rias na praia.. Grammar in context Read these thoughts from a potential winner of the iackpot inTotoloto in Portugal... Se eu ganhasse um grande o O O- @Efq pr6mio... 7 Quanto davam para ver Roberto Cados? 8 Acho que devias reclamar sobre o preeo... de ir ao cinema. Poderia abrir a janela para mim.. and especially in the media... mas tenho muito gostaria gostei gostariam 2 Com mil libras. 10 Sem carro eu n6o ia... 4 poderias poderia pile Quem aiudar? . mas j6 n6o t€m tempo. um carro. (lf I won a huge prize. especially in the spoken language (though not in BP)....mais perto dos meus pais.... 6 Eu ndo me importava de estudar mais. por favor? Daria o livro ao teu irmio? to the use of the Would (could) you open the Would you giue the book to your brother? windou for me...... doaria ldonatel alguma coisa i nossa igreia.. into the conditional Voc6s 5 l16e tg lc to It lo o To make a suggestion. become) boss of a cbain of shops.. fazer isso. He started ds d cotltputer Comegou como t6cnico de computadores hi cinco anos technician fiue years e dentro de quatro anos seria ago... and within four years chefe de uma cadeia de lojas. compranamos comPrana compro 3 trabalho.... and also a millionaire..... Gostava de comer em N5o era melhor tomar aspirina? casa. 1 . darfamos darias tudo para te aiudar. The conditional tense is also used. 5 Ela adorava passar as f6rias no Brasil. 3 O que gostavas de comer? 4 Aiudava se podia.. Wouldn't it be bexer to rest a little? We should (ought to) buy more tnilk.

o \ rrh Ter is used in the following situations: A Maria tem um carro verde. . We were six when we moued house. I used to haue a pretty doll. See Unit 35. howtoform In this unit you will learn and use the verbs ter and haver in vafious tenses and phrases o Other common usages include: ter: medo (to be afraid). sede (to be thirstyl. while haver has a more limited function. calor (to be hotl. see Unit 37 and the verb tables on pages263-71. o To describe a problem or illness. The two verbs are given in full in the present tense in this unit. My head hurts. Maria has a green car Eu tinha uma boneca bonita. Quantos anos tem o Joio? Tem oito. Tenho dores de cabega.l haue eles / elas / voc6s t€m o To express possession. and can alter their meanings accordingly. Tar &. s) $. qt CL \ . pressa (to be in a hurryl. Ter is the more regularly used verb. t* que Ter is also used in these interchangeable expressions. Tfnhamos seis anos quando mudimos de easa. to denote necessity or obligation. 5 U \ \ Hou old is lodo? He's eight.Grammar in focus Both of these verbs express to haue in Portuguese. fome (to be hungryl. With ages. but they are used in different circumstances. . O que 6 que tens? Pareces agitada. for their formation in other tenses. so*e (to be luckyl. TEr eu tu ele / ela / voc€ n6s v6s tenho I haue tens you haue tem he / she / it / has / you haue temos ue haue tendes you haue they / you (pl. frio (to be coldl. What's tttrong? You seem neruous. sono (to be tired / sleepyl.

primarily in the third person singular: piscina. ute'll haue to go to the baker's. there are. and usually reserved for highly literary styles of writing. The word de is ioined with a hyphen to the verb forms hei. Haver eu tu ele / ela / voc€ n6s v6s eles hei h6s ha havemos haveis Haver de + infinitive Although this construction is not widely used. They had gone to the beach. Houve um acidente na praga. apart from in Brazil. where the pluperfect (had donel is often expressed by havia + past participle. chegado aBraga antes tenses. with the corresponding verb in the sentence in the same tense. It is used in the present tense to denote has / haue. Qualquer dia eu hei-de nadar One day I utill sutim utell. Street. a Ana tem Expreerions of tme Haver is used to denote the passage of time (haver + unit of time). so uthat que haviam defazer? on earth could they do? Havemos de ganhar na lotaria We'ue got to utin the lottery esra / elas / voc€s h5o Haver is used in the following situations. There uas a lot to uisit. entio o They had no fttoney. uma na que On Saturday there utas a football match on tlte Hever in compound tenses The use of haver as an auxiliary verb is quite outdated. They arriued an bour ago. and in the imperfect to denote had. Havia muito para visitar. Havia muitos anos que eu nio via o Jos6.+ H6 um banco na rua There is a banh on 25 de Abril 25 de Abril. Eles chegaram hi uma hora. havia houve tinha havido . We haue no bread. 'What barulho! O que 6 a noise!'What's going Que on? televisio. pool. There utas an accident in tlte squore. Paulo had to return borne.o N5o havia muito sol durante There utasn't muclt sun during Haver through the tenses Here is a brief overview of the basic form of haver in different f6rias. o To mean there is. I had not seen losd for rnany yeffis. instead of tinh4 more so in the written language. See also Unit 35. it denotes strong intention to do something. fago tanto esforgo na N6o tinham dinheiro. this uteek.Nio temos p6o1 vamos ter ir i padaria. there is / are therc was / uere there was / were / has / haue been there had been lt's windy in the north. Hd vento no norte. semana. for a Tinha visitado o pai havia duas semanas. the holidays. h6? as do Rei. long time. uisited his father two ueeks preuiously.* No s6bado houve partida de futebol teleuision. hi and hio in European Portuguese. Tinham chegado depois da festa. Terin compound tenses Ter is used as the auxiliary (lead) verb in the compound tenses (see Units 32 and 33). h6 +Brazilians have tended more and more to use ter in place of haver in this case: Tem um banco. but not in Brazil. It also means ago. Eles haviam ido i praia. We haue been utaiting trabalhado muito. Tinha muito sol etc. there utas etc. They had arriued after tbe party. Estamos a esperaf h6 muito temPo. h6s. O Paulo teve que voltar para de casa. Esta semana. o To describe temporary weather conditions. See also O Conde de Milfontes haverd The Count of Milfontes will haue aniued in Braga before the King.l put in so much effort at the bem. This uteek Ana has been uorking a lot. Unit 37. o To denote an event or occurrence. He had.

enteftaining the youngsters (singular in Portuguese) play(s) each example. In some cases both are possible. hd. Hordrio: De Segunda a Sexta:09h00 as 20h00 as 18h00 N6o existe nada igual no Algarve! A Quinta oferece horas de divertimento. Can you work out what it means? And can you say it? A great party-piece! Q qu" 6 que hd a4? E o eco que hd ai. d e 1 a True or false? The farm is found in Tavira. Localizada em Tavira. Ele (tem I h|-del vinte anos.tem havido haver6 haveria there has been there utill be there uould be a quinta promete n6o 6 tudo! the farm prornses that's not all! kangaroos. esquilos. hi um bal onde podem relaxar enquanto a AAdeia Ex6tica tem exposig6es criangada brinca nos t0neis de madeira. / Havemos de) visitar a minha amiga no (Tem / H4) muitas lojas no centro. How much of it can you understand. O que (t6m / hio) as senhoras? EstSo muito tristes. e no castelo insufldvel. Tu (tens / his-de) falar portugu6s bem um dia. rabbits fun. Para os adultos. B Have a look at this text describing the Happy Ostrich Farm and its facilities. Hd ai eco? Hd ai eco. e outros animais incriveis neste parque diveilido. co€lhos Exercises A Decide which dtuertido a criangada of the two verb forms is correct in squinels. a quinta promete uma visita de momentos animados. of ter and haver can you find? 2 How many examples - the Happy Ostich Farm Grammar in context The following tongue-twister (trava-linguas) was sent into a Portuguese magazine by youngster Rute Laz. (Teve brinca ttineis de madeira castelo insuf. on Saturdays.m. VocO (tem / h6-de) sono? (Tinha I Havia) muita chuva em Junho. muitas esp6cies de coelhos. divers6es nada igual wooden tunnels bouncy castle the Exotic Vllage displays. e divers6es para toda a familia. c Children can play on a bouncy castle. activities nothing like it (Temos que hospital. b You cannot find squirrels at the farm.filel a Aldeia Ex6tica exposic6es. cangurust escFdbs. mas nao ri tudo! Tambdm h6 cangurus. with the help of the vocabulary box? Answer the questions below it. / Houve) um concerto no pal6cio. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 Eu (tenho / hei-de) uma casa bonita. A 0uinta da Avestuz Alegre The 'Exotic Village'has activities for all the family. / S6bado: 10h00 . Tem como atracgao pdncipal as avestruzes. The attraction opens at 9 a. Ela estS cA (tem / h6) muito tempo.

participles and fpir uses Ela olhou as flores sorrindo... Ao ver o comboio [BP trem] On seeing the train stop. sometimes used on their own. They ate a delicious dinnet Comeram um jantar hearing good music from delicioso. o T' II f IT r To substitute time expressions such as quando (whenl + main verb. Seeing the train stop.. lt is also known as the gerund. When I aniued home I sutitched on the lights. It is formed by adding these endings to the stem of any verb: -ar verbs + ando -er verbs + endo -ir verbs + indo These endings are the same for whichever person is doing the action. . one of them may become a gerund. he got out of his can parar. falando speaking comendo edting partindo leauing / breaking T' st The gerund is used: . mrisica do grupo... They ate a delicious dinner Comeram um jantar and heard good music front delicioso e ouviram boa the grouP. To substitute a (second or third) main verb in a sentence which conveys a follow-on action from a previous verb.. ele saiu do carro.. Vendo o comboio parar. sorriso. but often in coniunction with other verbs. acendi as luzes. smiling. o a r In this unit you will learn atroutthe ptesentand past Quando cheguei a casa. Instead of having a list of completed actions. There is a present and a past participle. Aniuing home. To indicate how something is happening the question Como? Ela olhou as flores com - as a response to . Prcsent participle This form of the verb corresponds to English 'ing. or ao (on) + infinitive. She looked at the flowers. ouvindo boa the grouP. um She looked at tbe flouters pith a smile. mdsica do grupo.. Chegando a casa.Grammar in focus Participles are parts of verbs.

Regular The past participle for regular verbs is formed by adding these endings to the stem of any verb: in aceitar tenses) (used hregular (with estar etc. which you should learn along with the verb itself.azer to do / make dito said aberto opened escrito written feito done / made ganho won gasto spent pago paid t* I Crt ganhar to win gastar to spend pagar to pay p6r to put vet to see Past participle The past participle is the part of the verb that is used in 'compound tenses'.those made up of more than one verb (haue [English] / ter [Portuguese] + the action verb). ""fr:. lr + gerund The verb ir (to go) is used with the gerund to express a situation where someone is 'getting on with' or 'carrying on with' an action. aniued. is used in the compound tenses. chegaram. andar (ro utalk.'I'tt be back at eu volto i meio-dia. to accept -ar vetbs + ado -er + verbs ido +:r verbs acender + ido The endings are the same for any person. She utas (became) surprised. Ela ficou supreendida. t'll be vou. You will soon start to recognize them if you are reading Portuguese papers and magazines. and with fic:r (to stay. vit to come posto put visto seen vindo come (same as the gerund) Double partaciples There are also a number of verbs in Portuguese that have two past participles.eating. andar. .* aniual. O Paulo nio tem comido muito esta semana.l ser. Paulo hasn't eaten a lot this uteek. arrumando a casa. when the participles are used as adjectives. omitir prender quarto. Ela estava dormindo quando She utas sleeping uthen they A janela foi partida pela antes chegada. We bola. N6s teremos partido da tua Ski-ing. .af. frequen\ act in a certain way . The lion utas asleep. The following verbs act in this way. Laura carried on mercado.colloquially). Past participles are also used as adjectives.you can also refer to the verb tables on pages 263-71. The regular one. formed as explained above. will haue ffi before your was broken by m' lo to te to t! to to I I I I O leSo estava adormecido. with the verbs to be (set and estar).X"Z:r. and does not change its ending. Vai preparando o almoEo. but the irregular forms are the ones used with the verbs ser and estar. (Look back at Unit 3.:. whereas in Portugal the construction estar + a + infinitive is used (see Unit 34). They form part of the passive voice (see Unit 39). Here are the main ones . such as I had talked / tinha falado.:r?.#f. their endings change according to the normal rules of agreement. have irregular past participles. Inegular verbs . However. Vio comendo. both regular and irregular.3. remain. to light to hand ouer to dry to expel to clean to kill to otnit to fasten / arrest aceitado acendido entregado enxugado expulsado aceito (BP) or aceite aceso enffegue enxuto expulso limpado matado limpo morto omisso preso omitido prendido . frcar. Brazilians use the gerund form in continuous tenses.Como 6 que partiu a perna? Hou did he break his leg? Esquiando.U.in'egular past participles As you might expect. que eu j6 dizer to say abrt to open escrever to write f. becomel.) Eu tinha arrumado o meu entregar cnxugar expulsar limpar matar I had tidied nty rootn. ir and vir. and will change their endings as adiectives. some verbs. ir (ro go) and vir (to comel. a Laura foi tidying the house. 'Whilst Manuela went to the Enquanto a Manuela foi ao market. que You get on utith preporing .

Regular (used

in tenses) romper

Irregular (with ser, estar etc.)

to tear to saue salvar to dry secar to let loose soltar suspender to suspend
Ele tinha limpado o carro.

rompido
salvado
secado

roto
salvo
seco

ffi
7

Ficou

t*
IE t0 ta to tlt to lo
I I I

soltado

solto
suspenso
car.

suspendido

He had cleaned the

O carro est6limpo. Tinham expulsado o coronel.

Nio

tenho pago as contas.

The car is clean (cleaned). They had expelled the Colonel. I'ue not been paying (paidl the

Todas as portas estavam abertas. O nosso c fteo n6o foi aceite.

bills. All the doors utere open.

Our card was not accepted.

s
@
rindo vindo
vendo

h

Estd

Foi

l* r.I

Andava

Exercises
A Choose the correct participle from the box to describe what has happened in each picture. Be sure to check which auxiliary
verb is being used in each case, as that may affect the participle you require.

@
g

ffi

aberto limpado / limpo furado bebido pintado romPido / roto construido pago prendido / preso escrito
B Complete the following table with infinitives, and present and past participles, and their meanings in English.

Foi

Tinham

beber

bebendo

drinking
utashing laughing

bebido

drunk
uashed
con e

lavar
pagar

paid
stngtng cantado
open seetns recebendo

Tinhamos
receber

abrir

Est6............

Grammar in context
I
2
At the Solar Tropical restaurant in Brazil, each night a type of show presents the best exponents of Capoeira (a Brazilian dance form). What details are given about the folklore?
At the Apolo 71 pastelaria, which three past participles mean:
p

ro ce s s e d, included, indi cate d?

A melhor cozinha baiana e os frutos do mar no mais tradicional Solar da Baia de
Tbdos os Santos. lbdas as

APOLO 71 PASTELARIA
Av. da Cruz, Sllves
Factura/Recibo: 035798726

noites o mais aut6ntico show folcl6rico apresentando os melhores mestres da Capoeira de Angola e Regional.

Produto Qnt.
Pastel Bolo Caf6

Sub

T.

IVA 12 12 12 12

SOI"AR

TROPICAL
Restaurante
Av. do Contomo, 08 - Cidade Baixa Reeervaa: (071) 321-5551

ch6 TOTAL: Euros 5,20€

1,20€ 1,75€ 1,00€ 1,25€

Documento processado por Computador. IVA incluido a taxa indicada.

MESA:3
Obrigado. Volte sempre!

!t d8 o Jrt

r5 !t CL o
:t o
o -+
.
In this unit you will learn thefornation of cpmpound tenses: the prcsent perfect and its uses

o o= o EE t+
:'

-

Grammar in focus
The 'perfect' tenses in Portuguese are those made up of more than one verb, and so are known as compound tenses. They are formed by placing the verb ter, to haue (known as an 'auxiliary' verb and conjugated according to person and time), before the past participle of any verb conveying the action.
The present perfect is formed with the present tense of the verb ter and a past participle of the main verb. [t conveys an action which has started in the past and has been taking place with some modicum of regularitg with a connection up to the present time. At this point the action may, or may not, have stopped.

Exercises
A
Use the words indicated and put the verbs into the form to make complete sentences in the present perfect.

2 Eu I ter / muito trabalho. 3 Fazer / muito sol este ano. 4 Eu / n5o falar / italiano ultimamente. 5 Ele / n5o vir / ao coldgio muito desde Janeiro. 5 N6s I perder / muito dinheiro no casino.
10

I

Tu

I

ver I as partidas de futebol?

falar -

I

haue spoken, been speaking,etc.

9 Ela I nio
Elas

7 Eles I ir I is aulas desde que comeearam 8 A minha mulher I trabalhar / demais.

o curso.

tenho falado

tens

tem

falado falado

temos falado tendes falado t6m falado
PAST

descansar / desde o ano passado. / estar / doentes.

B
1

Match the questions to an appropriate response.

O que tens feito esta
semana?

a Bem

2 Porque
aulas?

nio t6m vindo is
estes

vendido muito. b Tenho-me
melhor. c Porque nio tenho dormido bem esta semana. d T6m estudado e nio t6m saido. e 56 tenho trabalhado.

-

ultimamente temos

sentido muito

esta We haue not spoken much this ueek. semana. Ela tem trabalhado tanto que She has (been working) j6 n5o se sente bem. utorked so tnuch that nout she doesn't feel utell. Haue you seen Miguel Tens visto o Miguel ultimamente? recently? Tenho comprado muitos livros I'ue bought a lot of books desde o comego do curso. since the beginning of the T;:{;:; of bananas has gone o preso das bananas tem up (been going up) in the aumentado nestes filtimos last feu years. anos.
Nio
temos falado muito

3

Como se tem sentido
dias?

4 Como est6 o tempo ai? 5 Como v6o as vendas?
6

O

que

6

que eles t6m

andado afazer? 7 Tens comido bem?

f N5o,

nio tenho

tido

I

Porque est6 cansada?

apetite. g Porque t6m estado doentes. h Este m€s s6 tem chovido.

Grammar in context
In a magazine interview, Portuguese entertainer Quim Barreiros talks about finally getting time to take a holiday. IThat has he been doing in recent years?

Position of pronouns with perfect tenses
In perfect tenses, pronouns become connected to the auxiliary
verb (ter), and not the main verb, which is now a past participle and not'strong'enough to hold a pronoun. The normal rules of

position still apply.
Ultimamente tenho-me levantado cedo. O meu irmio nio se tem levantado tio cedo. Recently I haue been getting up I got up euly.

Finalmente jd consigo ter fhrias, Nos rtftimos anos tenho ido pan o Bnsil.

My brother has not been getting ilp / got up so early.

If only I / ue could..the compound equivalent is used instead. o In the first and second requires an accent. didn't manage to do it. . but I mas nio consegui faz€-lo. and add the following set of endings: -ra | -ras | -ra | -ranos / -reis | -ram. It is used mainly in the wriffen language. as it is identical to the preterite . person plural. fuUr€ perbct ad oordlfuidbns6 The third person plural form is very rare. Eu tinha-me esforqado muito. . many years..alar The pluperfect is formed by using the imperfect tense of the verb tinha falado tinhas PAST I falado tinheis tinha falado tinham PAST had spoken. sometimes referred to as the 'synthetic' (or 'simple') pluperfect. Tomara eu / tomdramos n5s + infinitive Quem me / nos dera + infinitive Pudera! If only I / ute could. the written language is more likely to use haver as the auxiliary verb instead of ter. This tense conveys the equivalent of the English had done .for actions which are completed in the past before another past action takes place. mostly in the first person. you had spoken. f. the preceding syllable CL In this unlt you wlll leam lrow to ftnn and use ofpr corpound tenses: the Although you will rarely use this tense. and formed as follows: c :' o Take the third person plural of the preterite of any verb. etc.. at the dirpart. tinhamos falado f. In Brazil. Eles nio se haviam comunicado They had not been in touch for em murtos anos. remove the ending -ram. No wonder! plrpsiEcil. I had tried really hard. it does oCcur in some interesting idiomatic phrases.Grammar in focus Pluperfect (past perfect) ter with the past participle of the main verb..alado falado NOW l_> oo oot 5 Ir J o3o o !t oo - f+ Pluperfect The plane had already quando eles chegaram ao departed uhen they arriued aeroporto. O aviio j6 tinha partido There is also a non-compound tense.

and is used in conditional. describing future actions taking place before future actions. (supposedly will (must) haue fled I allegedly I O barco partiu (partir) O Jo6o chegou The boat left Jodo aniued apParently) O barco (jd) tinha partido quando o JoSo chegou. mas o what happened. Daqui a seis horas terei escrito tudo. I utould not haue giuen ill. mas parecia doente. Se nio tiv6ssemos chegado Partir I uould haue left. Happened first Happened next It is also employed frequently in the media to express coniecture over past facts and situations. eueryone at home. O ladrio teri fugido com o dinheiro num saco. O'show'comegou (comeEar) Entr6mos no leatro . Then translate all three boxes. Like the future perfect. the conditional perfect is also used in the media to express uncertainty about actions which have taken place. mas era the house. It conveys the English would haue done. so much money. In the colloquial language (EP). Ndo The future perfect can also be used to express doubt over past situations or facts. In uill not haue sold the house before trauelling. The boat had (already) Conditional perfect This tense is formed with the conditional of the verb ter. old. I'll haue written euerything. haue) / allegedly threatened the rnaid uith a pistol. or 'If' sentences (see also Unit 4. plus the past participle of the main verb. etc. Carlos will baue arriued before his father. and conveys the idea of. Comer or after other comido teremos comido terds comido tereis comido terd comido tereo comido terei I uill haue edtefl. It expresses actions in the past which have not taken place because of a condition being imposed on them. We six hours' ti.tne tio If we had not arriued so late. you utill haue eaten. . Eu n5o teria dado tanto dinheiro.Future perfect This tense is formed with the future tense of the verb ter plus the past participle of the main verb.5). acontecido? trinsito? happened? Can (utill) there haue been a lot of trffic? Exercises A Look at the actions that have taken place and complete the final box to link the two actions together. tarde. whether this is expressed or not. o que ter6 Lia is late. A Lia estS atrasada. It expresses utill haue done. what can (utill) haue Ter6 havido muito se sabe muito acerca dos Not much is knoun about acontecimentos. but the homem teria ameagado a man must haue (would empregada com uma pistola. tinhamos encontrado we would haue found todo o mundo em casa. The tbief utitb the money in a bag. the conditional part of ter can be replaced with the imperfect form. D. etc. The first is done as an example.. A tua filha saiu (sair) Tu chegaste a casa left when Jodo aniued. teria partido teriamos partido terias partido terieis partido teria partido teriam partido A Sra. O Carlos ter6 chegado antes do pai. Maria Silva teria Mrs Silua uould haue bought comprado a casa.. but it was uery muito velha. you uould haue left. but he seerned NOW l_>> Nio FUTURE FUTURE X x teremos vendido a casa antes de viajar. tnust haue.

1 Eu jd ter comer quando eles chegaram.Ele pagou a conta (pagar) Ela chamou o empregado N6s fomos ao centro (ir) Tu telefonaste Ela fez o jantar (fazer) O programa comegou B Decide which compound tense fits in each sentence. In Latin-based Porhrguese Spanlsh ltallan French pain mois mdre Engllsh bread p6o m6s m6e novo noite tr6s cereja pan mes madre nuevo noche tr€s ceftfza pane mea€t madre nuovo notte tr€ ciliegia nuit trois cerise nouveau month mother new night three cherry o oo 5 a t+ o ac o g a = II = In this unit you will learn . at unknown words in Portuguese.+ . Language watch 5 Use your knowledge of other languages to make a sensible guess languages. 8 Provavelmente o roubo ter acontecer durante a noite. 7 Quando cheg6mos. 3 O que ter fazet tu nessa situagio? 4 Se n6o tivessem comprado o carro. p€rfect or near-perfuct cognates (similar words) exist across the range. ela ainda neo ter preparar nada. and form the verb accordingly. past and irhrrc continuous tensee and their uses . 2 Daqui a tr6s semanas eles ter terminar a escola. Note the following examples as a starting point. ter poder ir de f6rias. and look out for mor€ as you proc€ed. 5 Onde esti o Manuel? Onde ter ir? 6 Em cinco horas n6s ter pintar o quarto. atrcut continuous tenses in Portuguese: fie prcsent.

fazendo? Provavelmente estarao Estaremos a assistir O que estareo O Nuno estard abrindo a nova loja. uill be doing etc. We are not doing anything. the formation is estar + gerund. plus a. Ela estava dando bilhetes todos. or progressive. Estou a p6r a mesa. tenses express actions that are considered to be in progress. voc€ you n6s we v6s you pl.alar estais a falar estio a falar est6o a falar estio falando estio falando eles I elas they voc€s yoa pl. you are speaking. What can (uill) they be doing? They'll probably be playing. but in practice it is often substituted by other. The continuous formation in Portugal consists of the appropriate tense of the verb estar (ro be).Grammar in focus The continuous. estarei a paftir estards a partir estard a partir estard a partir estaremos a paftir estareis a partir estareo a partir estarao a partir estario partindo estario partindo Com quem estds a falar? O que estao comprando? With uhom are you talking? What are you buying? Estarei a partk amanhi. or unfinished. I ela he / she Summary of continuous tenses Present voc6 you n6s ute v6s you pl. Synthetic pluperfect estivera a falar Futufe I falando I had I uill been be speaking estarei a falar / falando speaking . eles Imperfect Preterite estouatalarlfalando I am speaking estava afalarlfalando I uas speaking estivea falarl falando tr uas / haue been speaking I elas they voc6s yoz pl. She uas giuing tickets to eueryone. eles a falar esti a falar estd I ela be / sbe esti falando estamos falando estais falando / elas they vocds yoa pl. continuing. here is a summary of the formations of other tenses for falar. brincando. She is crying. You utere not telling the truth. (Look back at Unit 31.) The tenses correspond to English is doing. I'll be leauing tontorrou. euf tayou ele etc. you utill be leauing. O que estavas lendo? N6o est6vamos a correr. i pega. lmperfect continuous Comer I uas speaking. you uere speaking. Nuno will be opening the neut shop. the progressive form can be made with any of the tenses. What were you reading? We were not running. Brazil estava a comer estavas a comer estava a comer estava a comer est6vamos a comer estdveis a comer estavam a comer estavam a comer estava comendo estavas comendo estava comendo estava comendo est6vamos comendo estdveis comendo estavam comendo estavam comendo Theoretically. etc. plus the infinitive of the main verb. for actions in progress Eu estava a comer quando eles chegaram. We utill be watcbing the play. such as the present. was doing. I am laying / setting the table. Ela estd a chorar. However. simple tenses. Voc6 n5o estaya adizer a verdade. Portugal Brazil estarei partindo estards partindo estar6 partindo estar6 partindo estaremos partindo estareis partindo eu/ ta you ele estou a falar est6s a falar eu/ ta you ele I ela he / she voc€ you n6s ue v6s you pl. I uas eating uthen Present continuous Falar / am speaking. etc. Pornrgd Brazil estou falando estis falando est6 falando Futurc continuous Partir 1 will be leauing. Ndo estamos fazendo nada. a they arriued. estamos a f. In Brazil.

very few of these forms are used. Vai comendo. cozinhar erros. We carried on dancing until N6s nadar meia-noite. 'We kept on drinking all night long. particularly in spoken language. remain. Elas v5o passeando pelo parque. Other auxiliary verbs used to express a progressive action are continu. to continuel. to go onl. I'm working a lot. They go strolling through the park.azer He continues to make mistakes. Fic6mos bebendo a noite midnight. D.h (to gol. in practice. Seguimos dangando atd i Ele continua a f. Exercises A Describe what is happening in each picture.u*u Tu pagar Keep in mind that. using the Present continuous (European or Brazilian forms). andar (ro go aboutl4nd ficar (ro stay. Ana Pinheiro ler Eu jogar futebol .Conditional Present perfect estaria afalar I falando I uould be speaking tenho estado a falar I falando I I haue been Pluperfect Future perfect tinha estado a speaking had been speaking haue been falar I falando terei estado a falar / falando a I will speaking Conditional perfect teria estado I uould baue been speaking falar I falando 'fu&ffi. Eu ando a trabalhar muito. seguir (to follou.rr (to continue). inteira. OJoSoeaPaula salr A Sra. Carry on eating.

q\ =Fh C TT I II 3 o x CL q. devo ir parando para cumprimentar os amigos? Jas.. .B Look at the imaginary diary of Carmen's pet cat Pitufa.crn/drt . q) 2 is 3 is 4 iumaemeia 5 is seis da tarde 6 is oito e meia da manhS? 1 is onze e 45 seis menos vinte oito e dez da noite Grammar in context Read this letter. rrh q\ \o o 6s II il. I g. O que 6 que a Pitufa estava afazer.lst. dtpr. Bio..M. anfitriSo host da F5 -. a T In thie unit you will learn hourto expreeobfigafior! necs*ty crd po*$bflity in Pon4gueee !rx. sent to a letters page of the Brazilian magazine greeting people on arriving at about (na dfvida)? 0uem cumpdmentar pdmeiro numa ftsta? Ouando vou a uma festa. lico Cldudia.. Then complete the sentences to show what Pitufa was doing at certain points during the day.'What is she in doubt na dfvida: ao me difigir ao anfitdio.o@tt. The writer wants to know about the etiquette of a party.

depending on how strong the conviction is. It is used very much in everyday Portuguese. Deveriam ter comprado os bilhetes antes. Conveys a strong necessity to carry out an action. You shouldn't (ought not to) 'Where We'ue got to win this week. It translates in different tenses as cztt and. Remember its basic meaning isto be able to. She needed help. I uill find tny Prince Charming. could. N5o deverias fumar tanto. Deve ter saido. Ter de I que fuder Conveys possibility and opportunity to do things. Onde est6 a M6nica? Haver de (see Unit 30) Conveys a strong intention or conviction in respect of future action or situations. It also expresses probabilitS in ideas of supposition. used carro We need to sell the car because mais we haue no money left. smoke so much. Hei-de [BP = hei de] encontrar o meu'Prfncipe Encantado'. One day he really will be rich. Precisamos de vender o porque nio temos Dever Can convey moral obligation . the verb poder is used. que pode. sometimes involving obligation from outside forces. Nio podias ver? Posso comegar? Claro podemos fumar aqui dentro. In could = be able. Couldn't you see? . even though the English might not necessarily have one. The verbs are known here as modal 'auxiliaries' because they are all used in combination with a main verb in the infinitive. Vou precisar de cinco selos. precisar de and haver de are all used. dinheiro. An athlete must eat utell. ele h6-de [BP = hd de] ser rico. To be a doctor you haue to study hard. in the negative says what you are not allowed to do. Poderia ter feito mais para aiudar. I'm going to need fiue stamps. Your daughter must (has to) take the cough syrup euery fiue hours. such asz really haue to. and is also used to ask and give permission. should or should not do . podem escrever mais They cannot write any rnore tod. Precisas de alguma coisa? Do you need anything? Ela precisava de ajuda. We cannot smoke here inside. got to and really utill. Different tenses can be for a variery of situations. Havemos de ganhar esta semana. Tinham que devolver o I haue to buy bread today. Tenho de comprar pio hoie. Para ser m6dico tem que estudar muito. They had to giue the money back. Um atleta deve comer bem. A sua filha tem de tomar o xarope de cinco em cinco horas. She could haue done rltore to help. They should haue (ought to haue) bought the tickets earlier.what you must. must not. Qualquer dia.and is often used in giving advice to people. dinheiro.Grammar in focus Portuguese there are different ways to convey the idea of 'having to' do something. and that it is-followed by verbs. May (can) I begin? Of course you can. To translate situations involving the word Prccisar de Conveys general need. The verbs dever. or necessity. ter de I que.ay. in the infinitive. It can translate into English in a variety of ways. is Monica? She must haue gone out. Nio Nio hoie.

..... PENS6ES. os orientog6es do pessool do estobelecimento.6. a deveria fechar b deveria seguir c deveria dirigir-se d deve sempre cumprir e deveria abandonar f nunca deveria utilizar .. seu .... Ao ouvir o sinol de olorme | 3 4 5 6 .. Eete 15 pode rcr cobrado re for conrornldo ou the I7e didnt get a holiday this year. . odoptondo o plono de fugo. HOTf. . no ano I o 9uE DEVE SI'BER lts All those lovely cakes have been sold.....rias que vem. ds soidos pelos cominhos de emerg6ncio...... lzeltoml trflo torredo... etc. temos de trabalhar....... 'Why 3 are they all wearing hats and scarves? 4 Ellie's complaining about her exam results... AGENCIAS DE VIAGENS.. 2 Vhat is the requirement for the menu of the day (a lista do dia)? B Look at this list of safety instructions for what to do if you hear the fire-alarm go off in your hotel... iunio d porede com colmo.. b Nio.. Choose the correct verb to complete each instruction.... 2 I had to wear a plaster cast for six weeks.. TURISTfi.... c J6 deve / deveria ter partido... tinham que comprar um novo carro. e Deve estar frio 16 fora- ) Jack didn't get to station on time... 9 10 Are you coming to party? lottery? the any I What must be set out on the menu (ementa)? It can only be charged (cobrado) when? They never have money these days. d Pois. i Podia ter estudado mais. o elevodor. RESTAURANTES......... que{o fretco.Exercises A Match up the English statements with an response in Portuguese... 6 7 8 f Devias / deverias ter comprado antes..... I trltrtrdo ercrlta em llagua portuguera. SNACK-BARES. CAFfS.. g Podiam tirar f.. a Podia ter-se levantado mais I I wonder be? where Paul can cedo.... PARQUES DE CAMPISMO. ... o porto.)..IS....... hudltzado. i H6s-de ganhar qualquer dia... ordem e ropidez... Grammar in context appropriate The following consumer advice on what you need to know as a tourist in Portugal includes guidance for eating out... o quorto.. dladese ertarobrlgdodern CONSUMIDOR Not lertauralter devoln colrtar da ernonte o prego e a comporlglo do'couvertt (maltelgr... e 2 .. Why don't I ever win the h Deve / deveria ter sido muito dificil para voc6. BARES....

The command form for v6s is also based on the present indicative. In this unft you will learn horv to tell people to do or not to do things thetl. This means you need to learn those fiddly irregular verbs! Vai por aqui. commands should have an exclamation mark at the end of the sentence. The final s is simply removed from the second person plural (v6s) form of the verb. Strictly spLating. but in English too this does not always appear these days. Go along here. Note that the tu command of ser is The vds form The archaic v6s form is still used in church sewices. or the voc6 and voc€s forms (and their polite equivalents). or not to do things. You can 'command' a single person. vod The tu form The command form for tu (used with friends. v6s.Grammar in focus Commands. or many people. are really just the way you tell people to do. The verb of the action you wish to happen or not happen will change its endings according to whether you are commanding someone in the tu form. Faz o trabalho. the old v6s form. s€. to speak fala (third person singular) Fala! Speak! comer to eat come (third person ) Comel Eat! partir to leaue parte (third person) Parte! Leaue! Fala mais baixo! Come tudo! Abre a porta para o Speak more quietly! Eat it all up! Open the door for the falar senhor! gentleman! The same system applies to irregular verbs: take the third person singular of the present tense. although the word suggests something rather dominating. andvocOsbrrns . Affirmative commands A II 3 tt o gt t -t o o v o o 3 3 qt 5 CL a . They can be as everyday as saying 'go and wash your hands'. political speeches. familS young children and people of similar social rank) is exactly the same verb form as the third person singular of the present indicative. Do tbe uork. and by older people in remote areas.

o alto.check in Unit 37 and the verb tables on pages263-71. Drink and eat. Vinde. used exclusively in most of Brazil) the verb goes into what is known as the 'present subjunctive'. Fagam favor de me ajudar. Venha comigo. Faz favor de abrir a Faga favor de n5o falar Please open the door. Dormi.cantar to sing cantais (second person Cantai! Sing! plural) receber to receiue recebeis (second person) Recebei! Receiue! resistir to resist resistis (second person) Resisti! Resist! ir to go ides (second person) Ide! Go! Cantai ao Senhor. Neuer cross tuithout help. all ye faithful') Ponham as malas ali. so that irregular verbs do have an irregular form . por tudo! favor. (plural) The voc6s form. Escolham o que querem. Nunca atravessem sem ajuda.. older people. Empurre o carro. so there is a cross-over of the usual 3rd person -a / -e endings. telling someone not to do something) use the appropriate subjunctive form. You need to watch out for verbs which may only have an irregular spelling in the first person singular. pdrty. The full subjunctive formations are given in Unit 40. the stem for the endings is actually taken from the first person singular (I). Esteja! Be! Polite commands Requests can be softened by using the construction fazer favor + de + infinitive. lavar to wash lavam (third person plural) beber to drink bebem (third person) abrir to open abrem (third person) seguir to follou sigo (first person) saber to know Esperem aqui. The voc6 form. for today is a Wait here. wisbl + infinitive. or'polite'commands To command in the voc6 (or third person polite) form (used with strangers. Its formation is as described above. Don't throu. please. However. Don't sit nedr nte. Put the cases tltere. shepherds (first line of 'O come. comprar to buy escrever to utrite insistir to insist dizer to sdy estar to be Venda Abra a loja is oito. Cotne with me. singular) Please help me. porque 6 festa. The same type of polite request can be made by using querer (/o want. Negative commands All commands in the negative (i. but basicallg -ar verbs take an -er ending. SelI euerything! Open the shop at eight. Don't close the shop until one o'clock. lhe d6 o livro. Subam as escadas. (tul Please don't speak so loud. Choose what you want. Bebei e comei. (polite. compra (third person) escreve (third person) Buy! Escreval Write! insiste (third person) --+ Insista! Insist! digo (first person) -r Diga! Say! --+ . (my) children.. td. pastores. Don't forget to moye the position of any reflexive pronouns if you are using a reflexive verb. filhos. Don't giue her the book. as that spelling change carries forward throughout the subjunctive. N6o feche aloja atl i uma. correr to run Nio corrais! (v6s) abrir to open N5o abra! (voc6) trazer to bring N5o tragam! (voc6s) ter to baue Nio tenha! (o senhor) N5o te sentes perto de mim. and those of higher social rank. . and -er and -ir verbs assume an -ar ending. Go up the steps. Don't go up now. which is another set of endings (see Units 40-4). esperar to uait N5o esperes! (tu) Don't utait! Do not run! Don't open! Don't bring! Don't haue! Nio Nio deiteis lixo na rua.Comprel --+ N6o subas agora. Sleep. or plural command As above. Lavem! I7ash! Bebam! Drink! Abram! Open! Sigam! Follow! Saibam! Know! hoje Sing unto the Lord. Corne. in the third person plural. or ter a bondade de (ro haue the kindness to) + infinitive. porta.t litter in the street. the voc€s form goes into the subjunctive. Push the car.e.

bem! 8 Nio mentir (tu) . Respeite os limiles de velocidode. Would yoa tnind opening rte Would......... Quer abrir a janela para mim? Queres aiudar o teu irmio? Tenham a bondade de preencher esta ficha...... seguido do nfmero pretendido.... d Marque 1010..... form the correct command according to the AB Lembrese que o ondor depresso nem sempre significo chegor mois cedo.. especially with people you know........... b Levante o auscultador. especially on notices.! 9 Votar (v6s) . os sapatos! 3 Nio falar (voc€s) t6o alto! 4 Cantar (v6s) ... ufilize sempre o protecg6o odequodo..... com alegria! 5 Comprar (voc6) . Nio mergulhar! No diuing (do not diue)! In everyday Portuguese....in this form? You also saw in Unit 19 how infinitives can be used to convey public instructions. will you? Grammar in context Here are recent driving safety instructions issued by the Exercises A In each sentence guidance given. c Pouse o auscultador........... Fazes isto para mim? P6es a mesa... para os vossos direitos! 10 Nio escrever (voc€) ..... 7 Dormir (voc6s) . um gelado para mim! 5 N6o abrir (tu) a janela! 1 Comer (tu) ..... sim? Will you do this for me? (Do this for me..... 2 Limpar (voc€) ..... D O consogo 6 perigoso poro chegor 2 em "2"ohoipor" horos d" your 1 What should you respect? 2 Is it advisable to drink and drive in Portugal? 3 Vhat is the infinitive of the verb used in box C? 4 How often are you recommended to have a rest from driving? ........ you help your brotber? Would you be so kind as to fill uindou for 3 me? \l a Fale. no livro! B Match up the four pictures illustrating how to change telephone service provider with the instructions below..... uill you?) Set the table................. it is also very common to 'tell' someone to do something by 'asking' them by using the present tense.... Se conduzir n6o bebo.......... deixe o comemorog6o pqro o chegodo... todos os vegetais! c Por omor ds criongos... Portuguese government....

tenses. In thls unlt you wlll loam Be particularly careful people out. aos I always giue old clothes to the poor. lnthe o pt€snt. topeftctbnee . with ver and vir - they always catch Sempre dou roupa velha pobres. N6o podemos entender. He'll be famous.) d6 digo dizes estou estes diz dizemos dizeis est6 (n6s)damos (v6s) dais estamos estais estSo faz fazemos fazeis II (eles etc. with examples. This unit will illustrate a dozen of the most commonly used irregular verbs. preterite and imperfect tenses. We cannot understand. irregular verbs are those that do not follow the normal pattern for endings in some. Present dar to giue dizer to say estar to be fazer to do / rnake fago f. For more comprehensive coverage.azes (eu)dou (tu)dds (ele etc.Grammar in focus As the term suggests. or all. pntedbattd Onde est6s? Ele h6-de ser famoso.) d5o dizem fazem haver to haue hei h6s he havemos haveis tr to go vou vais poder to be able posso podes pode podemos podeis p6r to put ponho p5es GT 6 I - vai vamos ides p6e pomos pondes pSem tr - h5o set v5o ter to haue podem to be vet to vejo ves ve see vir to come venho vens g. sou es e tenho tens tem temos tendes somos sois s5o vemos vedes vem vimos vindes t€m v6em v6m o cr . tefer to the verb tables on pages263-7L. Where are you? themct@mnpnin€grdr wrbEin Poftrgtrce. across the present.

. Numbers 14 are in the present. n6s .......) deu (n6s) demos havia haviamos havieis ia lamos podia podiamos podieis podiam ver to see vra vias dissemos estivemos estivestes fizemos fizestes le$ iam ter to haue (v6s) destes dissestes (eles etc. Where did you go yesterday? Miguel set the table.. (p6r) dizie fazia fazfamos (n6s)ddvamos diz(amos (v6s) d6veis dizieis (eles etc... no carro.... You did euerything for the 8-10 in the imperfect... They didn't say dnythtng..Prcterite dar to giue (eu) dei haver to haue dizet to say disse disseste disse rr to go ia ias poder lo be able podia podias p6r to put punha punhas estat to be estive estiveste esteve Iazer to do / make havia havias fiz fizeste fez (tu) deste (ele etc.... We didn't haue enough to go in.. na cozinha. (ser) 4 Sim. (estar) 2 Tu . Onde foste ontem? O Miguel p6s a mesa..... Otherwise... dar to giue (eu) dava (tu) davas (ele etc.) davam diziam estdvamos estdveis fazieis estavam faziam . (vir) 5 Quando voc6s a festa? (fazer) 5 Eu nio sair...... utas sleeping... Antigamente sempre vinhas i minha casa para almogar. foi fomos fostes viu vimos vistes tivemos tivestes In the past you alutays used to cotne to my house for lunch... there are definitely patterns you can spot to help you with your learning.. Exercises A Complete these sentences by correctly forming the irregular verbs. engenheiro.. muita sorte... V6s fizestes tudo para o Senhor. and Nio disseram nada. Lord.) dava din* to say dizia dizias estar to be estava estavas estava fatrr to do / make 1 Eu .. muitas pessoas na rua........ foram tiveram viram Note that the preterite of ser and ir is the same....... It was d uery busy life She uas uaichingfV tuhilst he tui foste vl viste N5o tinhamos suficiente para entrar....... (ter) 8 VocO nunca dinheiro aos pobres. (haver) N6s a mesa.) deram disseram haver to haue houve houveste haviam ser punha prinhamos pdnheis punham estiveram fizeram p6r to put pus puseste to be vtt to cotne vinha vinhas vinha vfnhamos vinheis ir to go fui foste poder fo be able pude pudeste pdde pudemos pudestes eIa eras tinha tinhas era €ramos 6reis tinha tinhamos tinheis houve houvemos houvestes foi fomos fostes p6s pusemos Pusestes via vlamos vrers eram tinham viam vinham houveram ser foram ter to haue tive tiveste reve puderam vet to see puseram to be vtt to come Era uma vida muito corrida. Ela via a televisSo enquanto ele dormia.. ao cinema no sdbado? (ir) 3 O marido dela . 5-7 in the preterite. (dar) 10 fazit fazias 9 ... (poder) 7 Tu .... Watch out for ver and vir again..

B Place the verbs in the box in the correct column. Agora Ontem Antigamente est6vamos tfnheis dizemos podes haviam houveram sei dou vieste foste poe punha hris pudeste fazias vou disse fiz pode taz fazes estou viste estivemos t6m tinha tive fostes Grammar in context In the north of Portugal you can visit the Museu dos Carros Antigos (Museum of Vintage Cars). 2. e quintos. according to their tenses. Fechodo furiodos. I7hich irregular verbs are used in the flver for the museum? o o \ gt CL TIUSEU DOs CARROS ANTIGOS Venho ver os cqrros do s6culo possodo.00 € 5 o o \ s . In this unit you will learn lrowtofionn and usethe vefie serand estarand the ditrercnce betuveenthem . O museu foi criodo em 1985 .pode ser visitodo ds tergos. quortos.

Estar pelos o Marital fu status casado? Are you married? Where drc you from? We are from Campinas. Estamos felizes por termos We are hoppy because we'ue ganhado a lotaria. in expressions such as Onde fica o banco? (Where is tbe I o In impersonal f. O ch6 j6 est6 frio. N6s somos colegas. o Ser -'permanent' conditions Permanent weather features/climate . Geographical location O Brasil6 na Am6rica do Sul. menrnos. voc€ n6s v6s eles etc. Today it's uery cold.) o Professions o word for a] This is a cat. O castelo 6 no centro da The castle is in the town cidade.). Whose is the book? that can change o . things 'Where o Origin De onde sio? Somos de Campinas. be is. The full conjugations for the verbs are given in the verb tables on pages263-Tlithe present tense is listed here again as a reminder. change etc. vari6vel. to describe permanent and inherent characteristics Elas sio bonitas. A janela foi partida Isto 6 um gato.Grammar in focus In Portuguese. Esta caixa € de prata. you (pl. you are I o With adjectives. frio. Era possivel. Hoie 6 sibado. ela. Sou baixinha! They are pretty. is I am English. . Today is Saturday. ou menos. becomel is also often used. Como est6s? Estou mais How are you? I'm seso. / status / nature She is an engineer. Ela 6 engenheira. Na Inglaterra o tempo Nationality Sou inglesa. lazer and haver. The verb ficat (to stay. incrivel. € ln England tbe weather changeable.30. amongst other verbs. etc. o Possession o 'Weather Dequem 6 o livro? E meu. Ifith o Time (see Unit 16) It's 8. adjectives . eu sou es estou est6s est6 estars tu ele. Position or location Onde estSo os pratos? Ela est6 em Paris.temporary states. Passive sentences (see Unit 39) The. won tlte lottem. centre. somos sois s5o estSo you (pl. are the plates? She is in Paris. Hoje est6 muito It's mine. Brazil is in South Arnerica. . moods. [NB no (Temporary weather conditions use estar.l are they. you are. be located. 'What something is made of This box is made of siluer.temporary states or conditions.) are I'm a shorty (shortish)! It's incredible. results of Sio oito e meia. each used in specific circumstances.utindout was broken by the lads. The tea's cold nout. We are colleagues. be bank?|. 6 arn yoa ore slhe / it is. there are two verbs to be (I am. expressions It was possible.

. 3 Eu estou franc6s.... o In continuous tenses (see Unit 34) She is doing the shopping.. 10 Correct verb I A mesa est6 limpa.... Est6vamos nadando.. marital lsERl lEsrARl Exercises A Ser or estar? Decide whether the correct verb is used status inherent in place of ter materials in each characteristics time example.. banco fechado. Est6 a fazer compras. They utere afraid.... Estavam com medo = Tinham medo. Porque 6 que tudo 6 incerto 9 I Eles s5o do norte. 7 Aquela casa . B 1 N5o pode ser sempre assim Se n6o fosse o rock and roll O que seria de mim? [From: Rui Veloso. She is a pretty girl. inteligente.. 7 O bolo esti em cima da mesa.... In that situation.. moods nice (at the moment).... 2 (It cannot) be.. Ela est6 bonita. ser or estar.. and focus more on the bits you struggled to recall.. see if you can match each category to the correct verb. Esta caixa est6 de madeira.. If the verb is incorrect.. Eu um pouco cansado..... Grammar in context This verse from a song by Portuguese singer Rui Veloso contains four examples of the verb ser..... 2 O 3 N6s 4 Eles ) .. A colher . .... suja..... 6 Ela est6 professora. Sometimes it's tricky to remember which verb to use.. italianos. obrigada....... Match up the ones you find with the English below.. you may be justified in using eitheq depending on the viewpoint..... Ndo hd estrelas no c6ul Complete the sentences with the correct form of either ser or estar. with com (see Unit 30) Estou com sono = Tenho I am tired... . N6s somos cansados hoie. sono. C Memory test! Ifithout looking back at the grammar professions location or temporary weather Ela 6 bonita. explanations. Then check back to see how much you've remembered. She is well-turned out / looking position nationality possession changeable states. O meu caf6 . em Sio Paulo... muito pequena. 8 Onde as malas? 9 Ela ..... 10 6 Os seus sapatos muito sujos..o As a substitute for ter. We were swimming. give the correct form.. The answers to this activitv are not in the Kev... continuous tenses geographical location llX 2 Nio esti bom tempo. 4 A minha mie n6o 6 em casa.. 5 Como est6s? Estou bem.. especially when you may be able to argtJe a case both ways. 3is 4 (what)would be 1 (If) it were (not) for.. frio..

sentencesfiom activeto prcive o w?ys of avoiding the passive Ana escolheu este filme. Durante a noite a janela foi a a o partida. the sentence is said to belong to the passiue uoice. The boy broke the window. the passive voice is formed with ser. However. The passive is particularly useful when the 'agent' is not known: During the nigbt the utindou utas broken. ACTIVE !t qt II + {r J o The utindow uas by the boy. or'the village was invaded'. an object. Este filme . PASSIVE The actual sense hasnt changed at all. O menino partiu a ianela. This film uas chosen by Ana. A sentence with the word order subject-verb-object is said to be in the actiue uoice. adverbs.In English you would expect to see phrases such as 'the books are sold by that man'. in any tense. The past participle agrees with the subject of the verb in number (singular or plural) and gender (masculine or feminine). All the PuPils respect the in Portuguese. there has iust been a shift in emphasis.Grammar in focus An ordinary sentence is made up of a subject. which do not involve the use of the passive. known as 'the agent' is introduced by por (by) and its combinations (see Unit 9). The person or thing carrying out the action. foi escolhido por Ana. o professor. . or other types of words are necessary to give any further appropriate information. and the past pafticiple of the verb. and convert tedcher. The teacher is respected by all the pupils. Ser + past participle Active Todos os alunos respeitam In this unit you will learn how to usethe passive voice Passive O professor 6 respeitado por todos os alunos. If the subject then receives the action of the verb. broken A janela foi partida pelo menino. In Portuguese.ln the active voice. and whatever adiectives. or is acted upon by the object. a verb. Ana chose this film. Later in this unit you will see other ways of conveying what has happened. the subject performs the action of the verb. the word order can be changed without altering the meaning of the sentence. It is not always necessary to show the agent.

. nome? How do you write your name? Reflexive substitute for the passive particularly when the subject of the verb is unknown. Aluga-se terreno.its meaning is the same as Land to rent or even 10 A mdsica acordou 5 Vio abrir uma nova discoteca. as the subiect is plural (apartamentos). Uma nova discoteca. others accept it as a sign of evolution!). Although the phrase Aluga-se terreno translates literally as Land rents itself. or irrelevant to comprehension of the phrase. O concurso. Apartunents for sale. 6 Assaltaram o Banco do Brasil. undetermined. Often the same meaning can be conveyed by simply using the third person plural: Um prego foi combinado.e. All the chairs had been sold by Siluia. It is seen on many public signs and notices. is unknown or indefinite. O jantar. Combinaram um prego. The verb is in the active voice in the third person.. 4 O Joio levou o carro. Se can be used A farm6cia esti fechada. These reflexive sentences can often be rendered in English by using they. English is spoken here. Nio se ouviram as noticias.. it is now commonplace in signs and notices for the construction to be used incorrectlS with the verb in the singulaq when it should be in the plural. 8 Eu fiz o trabalho. describe a state resulting from an action. under the water). They agreed a price.. one or yoz).Active As filhas Passive vio lavar os cies. O trabalho. .. Exercises A Change the active sentences into passive constructions. Os lagos. 2 Todos os turistas adoram os lagos. Again.. O Banco do Brasil.. they.. as senhoras.. Como Nunca Como se diz isto em Hout do you say this in Pottuguese? portuguOs? se sabe o que vai se escreve Remember that some verbs have two past participles: one to be used with the auxiliary verb ter. A price was agreed. This is a similar concept to the French use of on (one). the reflexive pronoun se is used to convey the passive. 1 A Maria pagou o jantar. The lady had been anacked. The beginning of each one has been done for you. Os cies. either singular or plural... Unfortunately. Estar + past participle Estar may be used with a past participle to with any tense. The pharmacy is closed. the verb should be vendem-se. 7 Perderam os cies na floresta. Se is placed next to the verb according to the normal rules of positioning. O carro.. o seu estar (see Unit 31).. The agent can be omitted if vendidas por Silvia. iust as an adjective would.. and can be used lmpensonal use of se with the third person singular to express an indefinite subject (it. Siluia had sold all the chairs. Os barcos estavam afundados. 9 O Lufs Figo vai inaugurar o concurso. we or people.. A partida. There is divided debate now about what is right and wrong (traditionalists frown on the incorrect usage. the other for use with ser and One neuer knouts what's going acontecer.. Strictly speaking. The boats were sunk (i. Aqui fala-se ingl€s. Tlte country utas inuaded. depending on the context. Have a look around you the next time you are in a Portuguese-speaking country and see what evidence you can find yourself. The dogs are going to be utashed by the daughters. to happen. Land to rent. Silvia tinha vendido todas as cadeiras. it O pais foi invadido A senhora tinha sido ^tacada.. The neuts uas not heard. Os cdes v5o ser lavados pelas filhas. As senhoras. 3 O Benfica ganhou a partida.. Often. The daughters are going to utash the dogs. A very common notice is: Vende-se apartamentos... the past participle agrees in number and gender. Todas as cadeiras tinham sido We haae knd to rent.

How could you re-write these two clauses in the active voice. using the verbs conquistar and tomaf.? fimpar tazer abrir fechar salvar pintar cortar assinar .B Say what has happened in each picture... 1 ln what year was the castle conquered. and by whom? 2 It remained un{er Islamic administration until the middle of the thirteenth century. / Foi tomada por D. (Dom) . Choose verbs Grammar in context Look at this sign in Silves castle in the Algarve. from the box. using estar + past participle. by describing the result of the action... when it was taken back by whom? To which chivalric order did he belong? Silves foi conquistada por.

ir. in the following units. whenever situations described appear to be doubtful or uncertain. after certain coniunctions. and the following endings are added: 1 Present -atverbs eu In this unit you will learn hortr to form the subiunclive in different tenses -er verbs -ir verbs +e +es +a +as +e +as tu ele/ela/voc6 n6s v6s +e + emos + eis +a + amos + ais +a + amos + ais . those occasions in which it should be used are described. 1+ ao g 5 cr a hr C o T a oo f+ {r r+ o 5 o II In this unit the formation of the subjunctive in different tenses is given. Tenses of the subiunctive 2 Imperfect 3 Future 4 Present perfect 5 Pluperfect (past perfect) 5 Future perfect Prcsent subiunctive Vith the exception of the irregular verbs dar. for such circumstances as the of commands. eles/elas/voc6s +em +am +am . and in general. Having spent precious hours mastering various sets of verb endings. all other verbs. haver. the expression of desire. can be an especially helpful practice. then. The stem is that of the first p€rson singular of the present indicative. it is frustrating to be presented with a completely new range. giving It is not surprising that manS if not all. estar.Grammar in focus Up to now we have concerned ourselves with verb formations in the 'indicative mood'. with careful practice. saber and querer. learners. setr. form the present subjunctive in the same way. But. including any which may change their spelling (see Units 2l and 22). and influence. you can learn to detect when a subiunctive is called for. Paying attention to the presence of the subiunctive while reading newspapers or magazines. to see how and when it is used. hope. The subjunctive mood is another set of structures used in various tenses. throw up their hands in horror at the sheer mention of the word 'subjunctive'.

Can you spot the patterns? In fact. instead of relying on that of the infinitive. muito dinheiro podias comprar o carro. Mandaram-lhe que assinasse o documento. . Following are some examples in the present tense. They ordered him to sign the document. Do you Esperamos que tenhas boa festa. singular: pego peqa peeals pe9am This illustrates the importance of using the stem of the first person singular. there are a number of uses for the imperfect subjunctivt. The next chapter will deal more fully with the uses of the subjunctive. the endings of the present tense have crossed over from: eu -ar vetbs + asse + asses -er verbs + + + + + + esse esses esse -ir verbs + + + + + + tsse -AR falar Lst person = falo [-r* -IR [ partir Lst person tu elelela/voc€ n6s v6s + asse + 6ssemos + isseis + assem isses isse essemos Esseis lssemos lssets fale coma 1st person = como - parto eles/elas/voc6s falat 3rd pers. pret. which will be dealt with more fully later. = falaram falasse falasses falasse essem issem parta paftas comer fales comas fale falemos faleis falem coma comamos comais comam parta parramos partais 3rd pers. If you u)on a lot of money you'd be able to buy the car. = partiram partisse partisses partisse partissemos partisseis panam In the above examples of regular verbs. However. Future subiunctive The future subjunctive is also based on the stem of the third person plural of the preterite indicative. Again. following this rule is particularly important where irregular verbs are concerned. Perhaps I'll buy a house. pret.mv lmperfect subjunctive s is t e r d o es tu elelela/voc€ n6s v6s +at + armos + ardes + arem +er + ermos + erdes + erem +ir eles/elas/voc€s + irmos + irdes + irem The imperfect subjunctive is formed by adding the following endings onto the stem of the third person plural of the preterite (indicative).!tr:!t!. Talvez eu compre uma casa.but the first person singular of the indicative is pego. onto which are added the following endings: uma Ve hope that you haue a good party. Consequently. the present to fal6ssemos fal6sseis falassem comessem partissem subjunctive becomes: pedir First person pe9a pe9amos pe9as As for the present subjunctive. A Margarida pediu que a Se ganhasses Margarida asked us to help her. the normal stem taken from the infinitive is ped. Prefere que a minha irmi faEa Vould you rather my sister did o trabalho? the utork? (lit. = comeram comesse comesses comesse com€ssemos com€sseis 3rd pers. n6s ajuddssemos. the stem used happens be the same as the normal stem for the present indicative. -ar verbs eu -er verbs -ir verbs +ar + ares +er + eres +ir + ires '. if we look at a verb such as pedir (lo ask forl. simply to illustrate the form. pret.

ela tivesse negado become hungry) now. Quando chegarmos. que estou em casa. comprado I doubt that you haue bought Assim que tivermos chegado.azer am chazinho? 56 vais i praia quando terminares os estudos. a nice cup of tea? You're only going to the beach when you finish yow sfi'tdies. person comer third person plural of ter: tiveram --+ imperfect subj. In this context. se (ifl. ute'll buy a paper. . uthat are you going to do? As soon as we haue arriued. embora They found out the truth.she had denied tpdo. pret = Partiram slsrn = part N5o pensas que 6 estranho que eles n6o tenham vindo ao trabalho? Talvez tenhamos comido demais. diga-lhe If tny cousin cofltes. compraremos um jornal. plus the past participle of the main verb. = dvsl Present perfect subjunctive For all verbs this is formed with the present subjunctive of the verb ter. I thought it inuedible that they had spent so much money. tell hirn that I'm at home. pret comeram Stem = COm comer comeres = 3rd pers. plus the past participle of the main verb.you wouldn't be hungry (have nio terias ficado com fome Souberam a verdade. future subj. assim que (as soon asl. among others. Achei incrivel que elas tivessem gasto tanto 'When we arriue. euerything. it follows such conjunctions as quando (uthenl. logo que (as soon as). When you haue finished the course. conforme (depending on whether). Se almoEo. n5o lf you haue not eaten it all. don't you think? falar falarmos falardes falarem comer comermos comerdes Pluperfect (past perfect) subjunctive For all verbs this is formed with the imperfect subjunctive of the verb ter. Quando tiveres terminado curso. shall we make dinheiro. --+ singular is simply the infinitive. n6o acham? Don't you think it strange that they haue not corne to utork? Perhaps we haue eaten too muclt. the house. pret = falaram stem = fal falar falares 3rd pers. = tivesse comerem Dont be fooled into thinking that the first and third fazet subj. abrir third person plural of ter: tiveram tivermos aberto tiver aberto tiveres aberto tiver aberto Se n5o --+ vier o meu primo. although in regular verbs it does have the same form. you're not going out. Future perfect subjunctive For all verbs this is formed with the future subjunctive of ter. In English we are more likely to use a simple present tense in these circumstances.falar 3rd pers. o que vais o fazer? Duvido que tenha a casa. tiver comido tudo. tiverdes aberto tiverem aberto comprar + first person singular present subj. Compare with an irregular verb: - third person preterite = fizerarn --t stem = fiz fizer + future comido comido tivesse comido tivesse tivesses Se tivesses tivEssemos comido tiv6sseis comido tivessem comido comido o The future subjunctive is used when referring to indefinite or hypothetical future situations. pequeno lfyouhadeatenbreakfast. of ter: tenho = tenha tenha comprado tenhamos comprado tenhas comprado tenhais comprado tenha comprado tenham comprado vai sair. and enquanto (uthilel. plus the past pafticiple of the main verb. agora. euen though. vamos f.

Exercises
A
Complete the table with the appropriate forms of the verbs indicated.
Present subiunctive

Grammar in context

lmperfect subiunctive

Para que as teias de aranha ndo voltem a aparecer, espalhe no local onde elas se encontram laca de
cabelo. Experimente!

In this useful suggestion, from a magazine, for getting rid of spiders, voltem, espalhe and experimente are all examples of
example identify the tense of the subjunctive, the person, the infinitive of the main verb, and what the infinitive means. The first is done as an example.

B In each

verbs in the present subiunctive. Sfhat are the infinitives?

I

2 f.agam 3 eu trabalhasse 4 abrirdes 5 ele tivesse bebido 6 tivermos feito
10

tenhas comido comer I to eat

-

present perfect

/

2nd person singular /

7 8 9

decidas

comprarmos
tivesse doido
viessem

Grammar in focus
The subjunctive is used after verbs that fall into this category. The verb in the subordinate clause - that part of. the sentence that generally follows the word qae (thatl - is in the subjunctive, i.e. the subjunctive is not in the verb introducing the emotion, commonly used to express influence (desire
include: aconselhar (que) to aduise consentir (que) to consent to desejar (que) to utant, desire dizer (que) to say, tell esperar (que) to hope, utislt

but in the one resulting in that emotion, wish etc. Verbs / wishes / orders)

nio admitir (que) to not allout

g

oo o 3c o o .g 1+ c 6o5 5o u 1.+ 5
CL
II II IT

implorar (que) to implore, beg mandar (que) to order negar (que) to deny pedir (que) to ask for permitir (que) to allout, permit persuadir (que) to persuade precisar (que) to need preferir (que) to prefer proibir (que) to forbid querer (que) to utish, want
Espero que tenham boas f6rias.

,

,op"f

Do you Queres que te ajude? Preferiamos que n5o o tocasse.
Implorou ao ladrSo que levasse o gato.
Porque negas que tenhas

I"t

you haue a good

*f#,ii:::n.that

*ant

*t

to help you?
you

nio

She begged the thief

not to

coo og
tl

{r r

II

take her cat. Vhy do you deny that you'ue
lied?

m€ntido?

CL

Note: If the subject of the verb expressing desire etc., is the same as that of the second verb - that is, if the desire expressed relates

5 ct o '.f o
T

.

In thls unlt you wlll

b uge fie slrimctir€ b ilpf6ffidon,dor^6( dsite
lpw
or fuifimnoe and rruhich Y€6s
u8e

bam

to oneself - the infinitive construction is used. I hope you uisit Rome. Espero que visite Roma. I hope to uisit Rome. Espero.visitar Roma.

b

Verbs expressing emotion
All types of emotions expressed towards another party, such
as

anger, happiness, sadness or fear, place the verb following que in the subjunctive as above. Typical verbs of emotion include:

to aduise to feel (sorry) to need to be glad to forbid to hope / wish to be surprised to say to deny to fear
A
B

(que) to be glad estranhar (que) to be surprised to feel; to feel sorry sentir (que) to fear temer (que) ter pena de (que) to be sorry ffor) ter medo (que) to be frightened
alegrar-se

c o c D

N
E

S
E N

E

L
H E

H R

A R
L
E

G

L M N V W X
F R
E

o
I

Y T

o z
K
U

S

B

B

c

G

G

H R R

L M R V W A

o
R

Sinto muito que a tua filha
esteja bem. Ela temia que houvesse / estivesse algu6m na casa. Estranhamos que ela tenha

I'm uery sorry tbat your
daughter isn't utell. She utas afraid that there rnight
be sotneone in the house. We are surprised that she has

nio

o
A

D

R

A S

c o
A
P R

E

R

P

M K G M N
E

o

S

tanto dinheiro.

so tnuch ffioney.

S

P

E

R

A E

s c

T R A H N A R T S E

Verbs exprcssing doubt ter drividas (que) to haue doub*
duvidar

(que)

that

I

to doubt

Grammar in context
As a country concerned not to contract Foot and Mouth disease (a febre aftosa), Portugal regularly issues warning leaflets to

Temos dfvidas que custe Duvidava que ele

viesse.

tanto.

We doubt that it costs so much. She doubted that he utould

cotte.

visitors arriving from countries where an outbreak may have occurred. Which verb calls for the subjunctive after it, and what
does

it

mean?

Exercises
A Choose the correct verb form for each sentence. 1 Espero que se sente / sinta melhor. 2 Disse-lhe que fosse / foi embora. 3 Nio queremos que fagam I fazem um jantar. 4 Alegrou-se que ela ganhou / tivesse ganho. 5 Temiam que n6s tivdssemos ido / tinhamos ido. 6 Duvido que mores / moras aqui. 7 Esperamos ver / que vejamos o filme hoie. 8 Proibe que o filho saia / sai i noite. 9 Mandaram-lhes que voltassem / voltaram ao trabalho.

Solicitamos que informe o Veterindrio Inspector / Oficial da Alflndega, nos seguintes casos:

r Se transportar na sua bagagem qualquer produto de origem animal, para consumir durante a viagem, para
oferecer como presente ou para fins comerciais. ou

Se nas duas semanas anteriores visitou alguma exploragdo com bovinos, ovinos, caprinos ou sulnos, no seu pafs de origem ou no decorrer da sua viagem.

r

10 Sinto muito que nio estejam / estSo bem. B Ten verbs used with the subiunctive are hidden in the

wordsearch. Can you find them all? Here is the list in English:

!ilrn!"":f:i. (She'll probably IT primeiro. it is certain .Grammar in focus The subjunctive is used after expressions which are termed 'impersonal'.l6gicoquenioqueiram rr':'.!) Ifhen the following II = .t. although in practice you will find them mostly in the present (with references to actions generally in the future). these expressions usually begin with lr. Era necess6rio que tu ficasses rora do f.. tfie use of tfie su$wrctho in ireecona epeestions scfi lazer a viagem.+ 5 o o gt 5 I' o o ql o 5 5 o -T 6l6gico (que) 6 natural (que) 6 bom (que) 6 importhnte (que) 6 6 6 6 6 necess6rio (que) - preciso (que) suficiente (que) conveniente (que) conv6m (que) basta (que) E provdvel que ela melhor (que) it is probable it is possible it is incredible it is strange it is logical it is natural it is good it is important it is necessary it is necessary it is bener / best it is sufficient / enough it is conumient it is conuenient / appropriate it is enough lt's probable that she utill arriue first.:"lf. in English. The expressions may be in any tense. I mpersonal expressions prov6vel estranho 6 € 6 6 (que) (que) possivel (que) incrivel (que) a o x 3 g ct ct tt t' hr r.')theydon'tuant pais' It utas necessary to make the joumey. the following verb goes into the subjunctive again. They all take the word que (thatl aher them. as contrary to fact or suggesting doubt. the verbs are in the indicative mood. and it is the verb following que that goes into the subjunctive. chegue II II - II In this unft you wlll learn . However. Remember to change the tense of the verb in the subjunctive accordingly. 6 verdade 6 evidente (que) (que) 6 certo (que) it is tlue it is euident it is ftue.F CL how to use the su$unctive in negntive expreseions of thinkiqg and beliwlng expressions indicate true or clear-cut situations. and imperfect (for actions in the past). for you to ':H.. Here is a selection of the more common expressions. e 5pcstudqueatd6 nedfoetr. when they are used in the negative.l a o o c 5 o o o o {r o o .

. tnarket.6 6bvio 6 manifesto (que) (que) it it is obuious is clear lt's true that she studies a lot.. if the dependent verb has no definite subiect.. of course. in the affirmative. 1 6 possivel a we dont think that 2 era estranho b it's enough that 3 6 bom c it was strange 4 6preciso d Ibelievethat 5 era conveniente e it's necessary 6 basta que f wherever they may be g it was convenient 7 ndo 6 certo 8 creio que h it's possible 9 estejam onde estiverem i it's not certain verdade muito trabalhas 6 tu que Acho que este 6 um bom Nio filme. also be used with the infinitive. estuda estude seja quem uthoeuer it may be esteja onde estiver whereuer I / he / she / you or venha o que come uthat may custe o que custar at uthateuer cost for vier it may be que ela lt's not tuue. It can also be used to describe past circumstances and events. 6 verdade muito. Special exprcssions These special expressions employ both the present and future subiunctives . hotel. E possivel comprar sapatos ao mercado. We thought that the hotel uas Julgdvamos que o hotel era multo caro. INDICATTVE E verdade que ela Nio muito. It's not natural to uork so much. N6o julgdvamos que o hotel We did not think that the bom filme.the present in the first verb. I think acho que este seja um INDICATTVE I don't think thk . haue been Exercises A Re-arrange the words Verbs of opinion The verbs of thinking and believing take the indicative mood in each example to make complete sentences. but in the negative assume the subiunctive after them. fosse o que estivesse onde fosse uhateuer it might be / haue been he / she estivesse whereuer / you it might be / N5o 6 natural trabalhar tanto. There are different ways you can offer your thoughts and opinions in Portuguese: when achar (que) 2 1 6 venham que prov6vel eles tarde mais crer (que) iulgar (que) parecer pensar (que) (que) to think / reckon that to belieue that to think / judge that to think that to seetn (to onel that 3 a achamos boa que foi comida 4 venha you que o vier Brasil ao 5 falasse o que incrivel Nelson era assim 6 tivessem era feito que evidente eles nio isto 7 melhor € ndo nada dizer 8 penso doente estejas nio tu que B Match up the Portuguese and English expressions.. SUBJUNCTTVE this is a good film. SUBJUNCTIVE lmpersonal expressions can... with both verbs in the imperfect subjunctive. It's possible to buy shoes at the This construction can be applied to many other verbs. and the future in the second one: seia seia seja seja 10 nio julgamos que i it's good como for for quanto for quando for o que uhateuer it may be howeuer it may be houteuer much it may be uheneuer it may be . uery expenstue. fosse muito caro.

minha fd Esteia aonde eu estiuer Creio em uocA Eu estou eln seguranQa. Toda ud filosofia (All uain philosophyl: sonhos seguranga 16 dreams faith securtty / vfety What does the subjunctive expression mean? oa 5oc 5 cr CL hr hr qt 5 C tr IT = = T' o o t F+ 5oo 5 o a It o o II o t rt In this unit you will learn . sorneooniurctionswhidr take the su$urc'tirle . oxpr€seing hypoheeis with talvez and oxaH + subiuncffve sofipotror8pedd eryeaslonst. a subjunctive expression in the third line of this verse of one of his slower songs. .dngtho a$unct\le .Grammar in context Look how the Brazilian singer Roberto Carlos uses Por isso insisto em cultiuar Os meus sonhos.

...... Por melhores que . Perbaps they uill come later. quer que whereuer whoeuer houeuer uheneuer howeuer much howeuer much / many howeuer little Whereuer you trauel.. 2 Por mais que 3 Por muito que .ed that euen abhough ahhough before witbout in order in (the) case (that) contanto que mesmo que posto que se bem que if abhough abhougb sob condigio que on condition that to form correctl5 especially to fim He has to study more in order notas.... so help yourself take them on board by trying to spot them in your reading... I Por muito que exercicio. Tafuez and oxale The subjunctive is used after the adverb talvez (perhaps... eaily. nunca teris o corpo da Giselle. lf only. you'll neuer haue a figure like Giselle's.... Oxal6 nio chova amanh6.. 4 Os alunos perdem-se no centro. 10 1 Talvez eles venham mais tarde. Oxal6 can also be used on its own.a wonderful expression coming from Arabic (God [Allah] willing... (tentar)....) onde quer que (a / de.. varnos iantar f.... rnoney.. nio acreditamos no que 4 diz.. follows below... starting with talvez followed by the Hd mais vinho na cozinha. Queres mais bolo? O rio desce durante a noite. These can be tricky expressions tbat que (que) conquanto embora para que primeiro que sem que before that a n6o ser que ainda que at6 que unless abhougb until prouid.. (comer). A selection of the most common (por / para. 3 Dormimos aqui pior do que em casa.. 2 Estamos ansiosos sem motivo.. (ser) as casas.. Ele tem de estudar mais a de que consiga boas start with. sol lt looks like it will be uery Oxal6! sunny for the uedding.. euerything had already been sold..) quem quer que como quer que quando. ... let's go and dine out.. Abhough you had arriued tudo j6 tinha sido vendido. and listen out for them when you are in a Portuguese-speaking country. Let's hope it doesn't rain 9 7 8 tomorrow. hopefullyl.... Exercises A Re-work these sentences.... there are ahuays tourists! Howeuer much you try to eat less. to get good marks.. 5 E preciso contactar a escola. (dizer).. Embora tivesses chegado cedo....... B para o casamento. 6 Fago a viagem de barco.. in the present subiunctive. nio conseguem fazer o Special expressions The following expressions also call for the subjunctive: . in response to situations... maybe) and the interjection oxali.. Let's hope so / Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. . nunca me quero mudar daqui.. sempre hd turistas! Por mais que tentes comer menos.. or begin phrases) and expressions of hypothesis (assumption) that are followed by a verb in the subjunctive. widely used in EP . Parece que vai ter muito V6s melhor sem os 6culos de sol! Ele diz mentiras... tu nunca ficas gordo.Grammar in focus There are a variety of conjunctions (words which join parts of sentences together. in order a fim de que ainda quando I se euen if antes (no) caso por ma$ que por muito(s) que por pouco que Por onde quer que se viaie. Mesmo que n6o tenhamos Euen though Nae hauen't any dinheiro. in any tense.ora. present subjunctive.

5 Por muito caro que Audi......... nunca t€m o suficiente.... s6 quer comprar um 6 Por mais que ... (ter).. vamos de camioneta.. inddnite ornegdhle antsced€n6 (sorr?€ono nt o can..........A.tfulr'tive with ....F...l .. . (poupar). 5 a o CL C t GT ct o hr o qt + g o F+ o 5 5 CL o t+ o o o t+ 5 gr o t o 5 0t = IT = IT II II :t ll CL In thls unit you will leam rl$rgthe s..... nffiywltoan...... Grammar in context IThy do PAF Port S7ines invite you to contact them? Caso n6o encontre o l/intage ou Colheita do ano que desgia CONTACTE-NOS que a P. 7 Por muito longe que 8 Por pouco dinheiro que .... (ser). tentani satisfazer o seu pedido... sempre d6 esmolas. (ser)....

We utant a car that's not too oo+ tio nio pequeno. She utanted to buy sotnethiflg Ela queria comprar qualquer that uould do as a Stft for coisa que servisse de prenda para o primo. small (i. the subjunctive is used when the antecedent (the person or thing immediately preceding que) is not definite or specific.. of the type that is not too small). Procuro algu6m que possa Exercise Ana is looking for people to do various iobs for her. This may be in terms of the article. uffi 6 (. Queremos um carro que seja I'tn looking for someone utho can uork on Saturdays (i. a is not). "Procuro algu6m que.. procura do filme do Spielberg que trata i i We're looking for a film that is about the uar STJBJLTNCTTVE Andamos da guerra.e. her cousin.. Nio h6 ningu6m aqui que lhe possa dar esta informagSo. A negative antecedent. The easiest way to consider this is to look at some examples. ffio'J J8 oocasa 7 P=- ffi oo" cafios - fit me? yesterday? INDICATTVE poder pintar a poder trabalhar de manh6 trabalhar bem no jardim neo custar muito dar-se bem com criangas tazer boa comida saber reparar saber conduzir .introduced by que." 1--- (. Tcm sapatos que me sirvam? Tem os sapatos que experimentei ontem? INDICATWE Do you haue any shoes that SLIBJTINCTIVE Do you haue the shoes I uied We're looking for Spielberg's filrn.e.doesn't cost aii) trabalhar ao s6bados.. or when the antecedent refers to 'someone' or 'anyone'.*n ooo- 3 paintthe ^D "- Look at the differences between the following sentences: Andamos procura dum filme que trate da guerra.those that refer back to the main part of the sentence .). for example (the is definite. There is nobody herc utho can giue you that information. such as nobody. about the utar.Grammar in focus In relative clauses .. also calls for the subjunctive. Choose appropriate verbs from the box and form them correctly.. the sort of person who might.

Language watch 6 In the previous Language watch.. casualidade = chance / fortuity. Here are some more to look up in the dictionary.. we pointed out how you can make your knowledge of other languages work to your benefit to help you guess words in Portuguese. though. We call these 'false friends' (falsos amigos). o g. or an alternative. for exampfe: assistir = to attend / be present at. Sometimes. desgosto compromisso favourite!) It bravo constipado (a great + r I I I just shows that sometimes you can't win! Consider it part of the challenge of your language-learning experience. . trspteent howbelFceoftcts$out ttepasth eentenoc b€ginring So.. secondary meaning. concurso = contest / competition. g o o o In this unft you wlll leam howto elprcee poesbflltyin . you could keep a note of anomalies as you go along. this can fall down. howtotaf<Sontthefufun ushgSe. as not all words apear to be related! Look at these examples: tea train English Monday French t6 train lundi Spanish t6 tren lunes Portuguese ch6 comboio [BP = trem] segunda-feira A word in one language may have a completely different meaning. . in the other.. .

If you hadn't spent euerything. If you uon (if you utere to uin) a lot of money. The subiunctive is also used after se when referring to future actions. or compound tenses of the two. or an imperative (command). N5o sabiamos se iamos sair Ela nio sabe se vai de manhs' Slte doesn't knout if (whether) she's going to the party. doubtful actions. because the word se (/fl imposes some condition upon the action. and the main verb .UX1:*O haue bought the Se tivessem comprado o If they bad bought the ticket. Open possibility . actions subject to doubt. miliondrios. geralmente If fago as compras ao mercado. Actions contrary to the statement conditionals clause. then switch it off! Se apanh6ssemos o trem]. Se the verb in the clause remains in the indicative mood.past indicative. i festa. uhat would you do? [an imaginary situationl If ute caught the train (utere to catch the train). lf Se moto. you'll loue these sueets. i. \ /e should catch the train thenl I get up early. the se clause uses the imperfect subjunctive. or certain to happen. sempre If we had tirne. or yes. [a situation which has two possible outcomes. studied tnore. i6 eram (seriam) they would nou be millionaires. . se can be used with the past tenses. or contrary to fact. The clauses may state an action which is very likely. voltarmos para casa. haue had a good iob. I could podia ter tido um bom trabalho. It is used in this sense most often with the verb saber.I utould buy the motorbike. me levanto cedo. contrary to fact . conditional.:r:"'ng out in the tudo. in which case Hypothetical.past tense Vhen simply stating facts about events which took place in the past. Remember that in colloquial European Portuguese. . ue uould ariue earlier. vais If adorar estes caramelos.imperfect subiunctive 'When expressing 'conditions'. and actions which may or may not have a solution. livro. Se nio este vendo a televisio. Se tinhamos tempo. compraria (comprava) a If I uere rny brother [but I'm notl. we always used brinc6vamos antes de to play before going home.Grammar in focus Clauses containing the word if are known as conditional sentences. I generally go shopping at the market. future.it is followed by the indicative tenses. Se gostas de chocolate. possibly on a regular basis. The verb in the main clause can go in the imperfect indicative or conditional tense. you're not utatching TV. imaginary situations. The subjunctive is used in sentences which contain a clause stating an action which is doubtful to happen. entSo desligue! Facts about the past 'S7hen . o que fariaml comboio [BP = peg6ssemos o chegdvamos mais eu fosse o meu irmio. a statement declares something contrary to what actually happened in the past. Se nio tivesses gasto podias ter comprado o Se tivesse estudado mais. the conditional can also be replaced by the imperfect tense. bilhete. for whatever reason we cannot actually catch the train. ganhassem muito dinheiro. you like chocolate. If I had. /o knou. cedo. while the main clause may be present. use the pluperfect subiunctive in the 'if' in the imperfect Se = whether Vhen se means uhether.pr€sent tense Se The verb in the 'if'clause goes into the present indicative. We didn't know if (uthether) ffir":.e.

. hence here dou.. n6o Ao supermercado..... N6o . achas que gostarias E se.. lazer compras....l Como s6".. they'll azulejos...... ...... haver muitas pessoas... Se A Complete each sentence by forming the verb correctlS and adding the rest of the sentence from the list of phrses that follows... continuamos amanhS. est6 bem? lf I see (were to see) your cousin.... This construction is widely used in spoken Poftuguese. tao grande! E como se uma cidade aqui dentro...... se n6o tivesse feito It's as if / as though he hadn't done anything. Se fores ao centro.. ... (gostar) do Miguel... so you have to be careful to think about the real meaning and tense of what you want to say in Portuguese. nada para o jantar. compra lf you go to toun (the toutn um jornal. ao novo supermercado? Se n6o tantas peasoas............... eu tamb6m . (convidar) o Roberto.. lFl l" I I I ver o teu primo... nada que fazer. .. as minhas compras.... eu n5o vou sair.... or imperative. when you want to express What if..nuseurn.? nio (chegar) tarde i escola..... mas ie . (ter) muito dinheiro..? 3 Se voc€ (ir) de aviio............. doulhe as noticias. = as if / though.. Se ..... lsabel Paula lsabel Paula lsabel Paula It utas as if I couldn't breathe... Era como se n6o conseguisse respirar.... A Isabel e a Paula esteo a fazer compras (Isabel and Paula are shopping..... The verbs in the main part of the sentence can go in the present or future indicative. 6 Se a Teresa nio 2 Se n6s Se I tu I. Se colloquially in place of the future.. buy a paper.? You can start a question with E se.. to to lc lo to t*. uisit the tile .. (trazerl o mapa. .... I'll giue him the news. 4 Se eles ) Se tu ..l a tI4_ lo tiverem tempo.... N6o pensei que ..? = What ....? The verb in the se clause goes into the subjunctive in d e t i t the relevant tense..t...... In English we use the present tense in these situations....... ......... os professores ficavam zangados. Use the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive in this type of constfuction. Se Est6 bem.... como nada. f... n5o tinhamos o problema com alojamento.............Se and the future Se is used with the future subjunctive when referring to Exercises an action in the future. OK? [Remember that the present tense in Portuguese is often used o lf they haue the time..... mais cedo.... E se .... visitario museu dos b c o que faria tudo isto nio teria acontecido... Choose the correct verb from the box to E se o JoSo vier mais E se eles nio tivessem conseguido entrar? tarde? (And) uhat if Jodo cotiles later? (And) uthat if they hadn't been able to get in? B fill the gaps in this dialogue...... . centre). g h porque sempre andas com ele chegavam mais depressa.... vem comigo is lojas....

IATLHoES PARA AAILH6E5 *)) Se encontrar 3 simbolos igruais.000 € por m6s durante 10 anos! II 5 CL rt CL II r. Se . Portuguese: which ve6s..... S€ ..... soubesse voltar houvesse preciso fosse fago deve f6ssemos tiveres teria trazido ia houver fosse tenho Grammar in context . ganha 1.....lsabel Tens raz6o..... Se encontrar 2 simbolos igruais e I Sol...... trago o meu cartdo de cr6dito. tenseq pronouns and po6sessiv6to use . ganha o pr6mio indicado na caixa.. mais dinheiro....+ o s) J+ 5 o CL t' o o o Ir J In this unit you will leam horvto corwert dircctto indircctspeech in ... que havia livros tamb6m.00 € How do vou win the thousand euros a month for ten vears? d do ...

present indicative Punctuation Direct speech is usually indicated by speech marks (quotation marks) around the words spoken. as it is a report of what was said. to take into account tenses. possessives all aquele. Luis said that the party had been good and that they had giuen him a huge cake. contou o Luis. Indirect speech does not share these features. and is preceded by expressions such as: She said that. followed by que. but in indirect speech they are followed by the word that (quel. with question marks where appropriate. future subjunctive imperative honouns / infinitive Mostly first and second Person este. etc. or imperfect subj. in whatever tense that may be. Beatrice said that she taas going to her aunt's house.. sugerir. Demonstratives The words for 'this' in direct speech may become 'that' in indirect. the verb following the que changes tense. indirect can be reported in all three (I said that. etc. in this place. um grande bolo". Adverbs of time Pronouns and posseesivee Direct speech is carried out in the first and second person. become there and in that place in indirect speech. Adverbs of place Vords expressing proximity. said Beatrice. with the punctuation of speech marks to indicate that this is a replica of the original statement.. as too may other verbs within the statement. Possessives will change. mostly in ways they would do in English (see the examples below). saber etc. ontem hoie no dia anterior nesse dia / naquele dia amanhi agora no pr6ximo m6s no dia seguinte naquele momento no m€s seguinte Let's consider some examples to see how disse a Beatrice. . - see the table below for some The following comparison may help to illustrate some of the changes between the two forms of speech... Direct speech Punctuation Speech marks lndirect speech or lines. pronouns. etc. on the other hand. such as here.. etc. They suggested that. deram-me 'l'm going to my aunt's house'.Grammar in focus Direct speech is where the exact words of the speaker are recorded. he replied that. aquilo ali la naquele lugar. prepositions and adverbs of place and time. Indirect speech. in indirect. It is important when moving from direct to Adverbs of time Time references also change examples. as all of these may Verbs of speech question marks. they gaue me a buge cake'.g. 'The party was good. "Vou a casa da minha tia". exclamation marks Verbs such as: contar. None indirect speech need to change. to ask.. I'tn tahing tny hat --+ You said that you were taking your bat. wishing. is often referred to as 'reported speech'. e. although 'that' is not always expressed in English. se or para Tense / mood imperfect indicative preterite future present subjunctive pluperfect conditional imperfect imperfect imperfect imperfect subjunctive subj. responder. isso Adverbs ofplace aqui cit neste lugar.. etc. the subiunctive tense sequence rules still apply. e que lhe tinham dado um grande bolo.l. you suggested that. subj. esse etc. to suggest. da tia (dela). Luis contou que a festa tinha sido boa. A Beatrice disse que ia a casa it works in practice. Luis recounted (said). \[ith verbs of suggesting.. Verbs of epeech Both types of speech make use of verbs such as to say. to replg etc. nA festa foi boa. subj.. Demonstratives isto. Changes may occur to Tenses and moods Normal rules for tense construction apply in direct speech. Same range of verbs.. . dizer.

. A Paula disse que na semana anterior. "P6e pediu-me a minha m5e.' e ser (on the renewal of wedding vows) Exercise Read this interview (adapted from TV Mais magazine) with Ediberto Lima. Quais sio os seus programas favoritos? Gosto tnais dos meus pr6prios progrdtnas. tem de ser lorge Gabriel. (on taking over at troubled football club Benfica) 'A minha carreiru foi 6 visivel para toda sempre completamente transqrcnte. 6. por exernplo. porque tenho de saber as noticias. sem diluida. TV producer. !7rite seven sentences. her cousins had spent two days there at her home. os primos (dela) tinham passado dois dias quer ir i praia?" perguntou. Que programa nunca perde? O Telejornal. Perguntou quem queria ir prala. Unquote' Here are some newspaper quotes from a variety of people. VO futebol na televisio? Setnpre. O Ediberto disse. E a gente. Some arcicles may be in the form of an interview with a famous person. 'Last uteek tny cousins spent tuto days here at honte. "Quem 'Who wants to go to the i beach?' she asked. and it will eventually pay off! Grammar in context 'Gluote. See 'Os contratos matimoniais deveriam ser redigidos como a licenga para cdo renovados todos os anos. o melhor apresentador de televisio? Para mim. Why not try working out how to re-write them as indirect speech? You also hear reported speech on TV programmes. O que nio suporta ver na televisio? Os congressos dos partidos politicos.. The only problem is that news presenters do speak very quickly. ui um jogo muito bom. 16 'Put more sugar in the coffee'. A Corda de Alfred Hitchcock.. so you may be able to familiarize yourself with the way the sentences are written. Ontem. Mesmo o sangue. if you can discover who (a-f) said what. O Big Shout SIC vai continuar? para o bern de todos e felicidade geral da nagdo. disse a Paula. para si. This is not the easiest part of Portuguese grammar to master quicklg so dont worry if it takes a while to sort out the sequences. My mother asked me to put rnore sugar in the coffee. my mother asked me. se houuer este prograrna. (on how he gained so much wealth in so little time) . so don't be disheartened ifyou catch very little at first. desligo a teleuisfro. Tudo o que fiz futebot. Reported speech often occurs in magazine articles..' said Paula. with answers in direct speech. Be persistent. Na minha opinido. na sua opiniio. digo ao pouo que sim! Se 6 Qual6. o melhor filme de sempre? Paula said that in the preuious uteek. oNa semana passada os meus primos passaram dois dias c6 em casa"... especially the news . cd em Portugal. em casa dela.mais aEicar no caf6!". She asked who wanted to go to the beach.a good excuse to watch television when you are in a Pornrguese-speaking country. A minha mie pediu-me que pusesse mais agfcar no caf6 / pediu-me para p6r . then see if you can report what he said. Amanhd. suor e Hgrtmas no Qud 6.

mutntny . rug pineapple (on being present at his son's birth) a Manuel Vilarinho.) coach sueater dog carro el6ctrico casa de banho banheiro tratn bathroom cup ch6vena comboio desporto disparate ementa / lista empregado esquadra xicara tfem esPorte besteira train sport nonsense card6pio gargom delegacia menu uaiter police station fato fiambre terno presunto geladeira sorvete chope suit boiled ham frid. President of 'The Reds' football club b Silvio Berlusconi c Liam Gallagher (Oasis) d Rod Stewart e Brazilian singer Marisa Monte f Footballer Ronaldo alcatifa anands abacaxi pegar esquentar E apanhar aquecer to cakh to heat. warm bus ! autocarro bicalcaf| bicha bolacha bol6ia camioneta camisola c5o 6nibus cafezinho small coffee queue fila biscoito carona 6nibus de luxo malha cachorro bonde biscuit hft@acar..etc.ge ice-cream frigorifico gclado imperial mami mamie draught lager Mum..l* t (on. football!) m gr ! (on the concept of 'world music') European and Brazilian Portuguese: some differences in vocabulary European CL 5 Brazilian tapete English car?et.

European marcar o nfmero Brazilian discar English Regular verbs Presmt indicative to dial (phone) shop uindou cleaning lady pedestrian breakfast socks montra mulher-a-dias peeo vitrine faxineira pedestre kesent subiunctive Imperfect indicative pequeno almogo perigas cafl da manhi meias presente moga qr -o -as -a -€r -o -€s -e -ir -o -es -e -ar -e -es -e -er -a -as -a -ir -a -as prenda raParrga -amos -emos srft girl sueet -ais -eis -arn -em Preterite -imos -is -€m -eis -ais -€m -am Pluperfect -emos -amos -a -amos -ais -ar -€r -av -ia -avas -ias -ava .onditional -rss€ls -issem Future subiunctive -ar -at -er -er -ares -eres -at -er -ardes -erdes Imperative -lr -ir -ires -ir -irdes -at -ei -6s -a -eis -5o -er -ei -4s -a -eis 4o -ir -ei -6s -a -emos -eis -annos -ermos -irmos -emos -emos -ar -ia -ias -ia -lers -er -ia -ias -ia -le$ -rf -ia -ias -ia -iamos o o cr I s) J+ -iamos -iamos -arem -€rem -rem -1o -iam -iam Gerund -le$ -iam Past participle 1t -a{€ (-e) (-a) l (-a) Gam) -ar -€r -r -ido -er -er -r -indo -ado -ido -ando +ndo (<mos) (-amos) (-amos) -ai -ei -i (-em) (-am) .ia -avamos E -ir -ia -ias -ave$ -rels -avam -ramos -ra -tamos o cr -am -iam -le$ -iam rebuqado sumo bala suco a9ougue talho tenda ver verniz fruit iuice batcher's Imprfect subiunctive -rr barraca enxergar esmalte tent to see (notice) nail uarnish -ar -ei -aram -eram -er {r -i -i -aste -este -iste -ou -eu -iu -amos {mos -rmos -astes rstes -istes -iram -ar -ara -aras -ar:a -ireis -6reis -aram -erarn Future indicative -ira -asse -esse -isse -aramos {ramos -ramos -assemos -essemos -rssemos -ireis -er €ta -eras -era -ra -iras -at -er -asse -€sse -asses -ess€s -ir -isse -isses -iram -asse6 -essers -assem €ssem C.

tel (faca) (faeamos) regtlar fez fizemos fizestes fizera fiz6ramos fiz6reis filssemos fit6&seis fizesscm houvesse houvcsses houvesse houv€sseis 6zer fizermos fizerdes tue faremos fareis feito fariamos farieis hzers fazem haver (ta hauel fazgi faqahaia hajas fivnram houve houveste fizeram houvera houveras fizerem fario fariam (fagm) hei houver houveres Ms h6 havemos haveis hri^ . regular regular (haia) (haiamos) havei reguhr houve houvemos houvestes houvera houv6ramos houv6reis houver houvermos houverdes houverem havido havendo haia-* haiais hio hri"m va v:ts houveram houveram fora foras houvcscem (haiam) vat regular lr (to Col vou vais tui foste frca fu.hr regular regu. etc.6ssemos der dermos derdes dado ll tl tl t$l lsl l8l m (d6mos) LJ dai deram di*se disseste deram dissera disseras derem disser disseres (d&m) direi diria dirias diga diges diga digamos digais diris dir6 diremos direis Itet (dica) (digamos) dizei (diCam) diz dizemos dizeis dizem estar reguhr disse dissemos dissestes dissera diss6ramos diss€reis disser dissermos disserdes diria diriamos dirieis dito disdsseis dissessem csnvesse estivcsses cotivesse cstivdssemos cstiv6sseis ectivessem nzcsse nzcsses fizcsse digam estera estejas disseram estive estiveste disseram estivera estiveras estivera estiv6ramos estivdreis estiveram disserem estiver estiveres dirio diriam e$ou est6s (m be) a116 esti estarmos estais estSo esteia esteiamos esteiais €stejam faga faqas regular esteve rtiver gstivermos . hgo fazes fa fi:rcste fizera fizeras farei farris fana farias fprna nakel faz fazemos hp fagamos faeais i.c fricmos fo.lar cr6 (creia) crido (creiamos) crede (creiam) crendo creiam dc des dar (to giuel dou d6s dei deste da damos dais dio diztr (to sayl digo dizes de d6mos deis d6em regular deu demos destes dera deras dera ddramos d6reis desse desses der deres da regular regular (de) desse d6ssemos ddsseis dessem dissesse dissesses dissesse diss.Present Present indicative cner subiunctive creia creias crela creiamos crelals lmperf€ct indicative Preterite Pluperfect Imperfect sublunctive Future sublunctive Future Conditionai hnperatix Past partictpL indicative creio cres (m belieuel cre cremos credes cfreem regiar regular reguhr regular regu.c for fores vai vamos ides vi vamos vades regular (h.eguhr regular (esteia) (esteiamos estado estivemos estivestes xtiverdes estiveram rtiverem fiznr fizeres estai (esteiam) farrr (to do.l foi fomos foetes fora f6ramos f6reis for formos fordes reguhr (v6) (vamos) ido f6ici! toacrfr ide vio vio foram foram forem (vio) .

may.l LJ ledes l€em leiam meea megas mefo medir (to measure medes mede medimos medis medem mede mefa meqamos megais regular regular regtlar (mega) medindo (megamos) medi (meSam) me€am ouvir (to hecrl ougo ouves ouve ouF ougas ouvimos ouvis ouvem ouga ougamos ouqais ougam peea peeas peea regular regalar reguhr ouve (ouea) (ougamos) ouvi (ougam) pedir (to ask for) pefo pedes pede regu.tr] lel lsl Presmt indicative Present subiunctive leia leias leia leiamos leiais Imperfect indicative heterite Pluperfect Imperfect subiunctive Funre subiunaive ler leio readl l€s rc (n regular regular reguhr lemos l.hr pede pedimos pedis pedem reguhr regular (peea) peeamos peears (pogamos) pedi (peEam) p€gam perca percas perca percamos percais percam possa possas p€rder perco perdes (to lose) perde perdemos perdeis perdem regular regular regular perde (perca) (percamoe) perdei (percam) pude pudeste p6de pudemos pudestes pudera puderas pudera pud6ramos pud6reis pudcase pudcescs poder (can. posso podes puder pode (possa) (poesamos) to be ablel pode podemos podeis podem possa possamos possais possam regular puderes pudcsse puder puddcsemos pudermos pud6cseis puderdes podei (possam) puderam punha punhas pus puseste puderam pusera puseras pdccscm Pute88C puderem puser PUSeres p6r (to put) ponho p6es ponha ponhas F|tesees Pl|tc88e p6e pomos pondes p6em ponha ponhamos ponhais ponham punha pfnhamos ptinheis punham pos pusemos puse$es puseram pusera pus6ramos pus6reis puser Fra{ssemos pusennos puserdes pus€rem Fr6rccis FraC|sCm puseram .

4ruU!' rouxess€ trlotDcssem( trouxer traria trariamos trarieis nazido trouxeram trorxeram troux6sseis trour(essem trouxerdes nareis trouxel€m tra16o frazei (tragam) trariam (n be uorthl vale valemos valeis valem valha valhamos valhais valham regular reguW regdar *t" regular regular 'egular regular (valha) (valhamos) ralido valei (valham) .'€r Ito bringl trago trazes EAZ tIag tragas rouxesse tfouxesses trouxer trouxerres trarei tIaga Bagamos regular rouxeste couxe trouxemos trorD(estes traia trarias traris trar6 traremos trazemos trazeis uazem valer valho vales tragais tragam valha valhas trouxera troux6ramos troux6reis **t.regilar regular (tenha) tido (tenhamos) tende (tenham) tiver uvemlos tiverdes nverem tivemos tivestes tiv€ssemos tiv&seis tivessem tiveram trorrrrc tiveram troUxera trorrxeras v'. knau hout sabes sabe sabemos sabeis rcguhr tol soube soubeste soube soubemos soubestes sabem s€r sou 6s souberam soubera souberas soubera soub€ramos soub6reis souberam soubesse soubesses soubesse soub6ssem soub6sseis soubessem fosse fosses fosse f6ssemos f6sseis fossem atvesse souber souberes sabe souber soubermos souberdes souberem rcgllar regtlat (saiba) (saibamos) sabei nbido (saibam) eta eras tui foste fora foras for fores s€ Ito be) c somos sois selamos sejais era 6ramos 6reis foi fomos fostes fora f6ramos f6reis for formos fordes regular regu..lar (seja) ido (sejamos) sede sio ter (to haue) tenho tens sejam tenha tenhas tenha tenhamos tenhais eram foram tive tiveste teve foram tivera tiveras forem trver tiveres (seiam) tem temos tendes t€m tenham tinha tinhas tinha tinhamos tinheis tinham nvesses tivesse tivera tivdramos tiv€reis .Present hesent subiunctive querra queiras Inperfecr indicative Preterite qurs qrxs€$e Pluperfecr indicative querer (to utantl quero queres Imperfoct subiunctive quls€sse quisesses quisesse quis€ssemos quis€sseis quis€ssem Future Futue subiunctive rndicative qrrrser quiseres Imperative Past participlr quer quer€mos quereis querem queira queiramos querais regu.lar i quis quisemos quisestes quisera quiseras quisera qui#ramos quisdreis quiseram queiram quiseram quiser quisermos quiserdes quiserem reguhr regular quer(e) (queira) (queiramos querei luerido (queiram) nr (to hugh) no ris na rias ri rimos rides ria riamos riais regrlar regular reguhr ri reguhr regular regular regular riem saber set riam saiba saibas saiba saibamos saibais saibam seta sejas seja (ria) (riamos) ride (riam) ido (to knou.t (traga) 1U46.

enhamos viram vinha vinhas vimm nera vieras vissem vresse viesses vtesse virem vier vieres vir (to cotttel venho vens vem vim vieste vimos vindes v6m vinha vinhamos vinheis veio viemos viestes viera vi6ramos vi6reis vier viermos vierd€s vlerem regular reguhr vcnhais venham vinham vieram vieram vi6ns:mos vilbscis vressem vem (venha) vindo (venhamos vinde {v€Dham) I .onditiona Imperative Past vejo v€s v4^ vejas veja veiamos vejais lsl vendo vl viste vira viras vir vires v€ v€mos vedes reguhr viu vimos vistes vira viramos vireis nr virmos virdes rcgub regular v€ (veja) (vejamos) vede (vejam) visto v&m veiam venha venhas venha v. Funre indicative C.hes€nt indicative ver (to seel Pres€nt Inpafect indicative m Pret€dte Plup€rfcct subiunctive l4perfect qrbiu4ctive vrsse visses vi$se vfssemos vfuseib Funue crrldrr-aio.

Key this into search motor Altavista.com King's College. was broadcast from 2003. Visit their website at: http //www. and will encourage your attempts.pt/ Publishers Lidel-Edi96es T6cnicas Lda: hap://www. a in both English and information Oxford-Duden pictorial dictionary./ humanitieJpobrst/kclhp. and worth video-taping.pt/DlPO/ tl t q) IT x 5 II There follows a selection of information on further reading. Centro Coordenador dos Centros de Lingua Portuguesa. GT Places CamSes Institute.bn. of Portuguese and Brazilian studies. hap://www. will be able to reach Portuguese TV. bilingual (English/Portuguese. Martin Harris and Nigel Vincent (Routledge. and language. Various CD-ROMs for learning Portuguese are now available from good bookstores. there is an international channel called RTPi. The Page monolingual dictionary (new edn. both directions) Collins P ortuguese dictionaries. London . Grant & Cutler . various sizes.net Portuguese National Library: http://www.kcl. and other useful sources for learning Portuguese.946l' & Unwin. Discouering Portuguese. and you should link to many more sites.priberam. A new series.pt Portuguese bookshop: http://www.EA Dicionirio Uniuersal da linguaportaguesd is a CD-ROM version of a Portuguese dictionary (Texto Editora).they will be grateful you have made an effort. htm Lingua Portuguesa .pt Publishers Porto Editora: http://www.mediabooks. 1990 The Romance languages.Paul Teyssieq 56 da Costa. called De tudo um pouco. It comprises six programmes of background scenes of Portugal. R. in the language of your choice: repeated. Telz 2L3-109-100 (see below for website) {r g ] J+ Reading Hist6ria da Lingua portugt'tesa. Try to speak with Portuguese people when you are in Portugal . websites. Telz 217-956-113 The Loom of lnnguag4 Frederick Bodmer (Allen 1.com . llthbugh some parts need updating. r{c. detailed visual Mi ch aelis diciondrio prdctico. Campo Grande 56. Talk Portuguese.uk/depsta. Satellite TV. 1997) Coordination of Portuguese Language Centres world-wide.lidel.Dept.portoeditora.ac. Rodrigues Sampaio lt3. such as that offered by the University of Glasgow (UK).iune29. good Websites There are many sites and materials Portuguese.materials.stockists of Portuguese books in the UK: http://www. if you have access to it. Enrol on language courses at your local college / language school.portugal-info. Here are iust a few ideas: Ir o - J Diciondrio Editora vocabulary 0992) da lingua portuguesa. There are online courses. interesting links.1700-078 Lisboa. which is often . uk For all sorts of information: http://www.tL50-279 Lisboa. grant<.co. various links: http://www. 1994) - Portuguese- Learning There is a BBC series.demon.

pt x o Unit 2 E News site: http://www. here are some: http://www.ptl http://www.pt/ Online magazine for women: http ://www.ptl http://dn. here is a selection: http://www.pt http://www.euronoticias. However.Many ne\Mspapers are available online.pt http ://www.pt http://jn. dictionary (dicion6rio) 2 Vzkilo 3 um p6o Unit 3 The publisher has used its best endeavours to ensure that the URLs for external websites referred to in this book are correct and active at the time of soing to press. 7 arte.expresso.publico. A B lpequeno 2bonita 3tristes 4felizes Sferoz 6aha 1A americanos 2D branco 3A vermelha 4D verdes 5A alemi 6D castanhos 7A azuis 8D espanh6is 9A ingl€s 10D brasileira .sapo.mulherportuguesa. newspaper (iornal).ptl http://www.pt http://www.I o o o o I t+ C 1o 2uma 3X 4a 5X 6X 7 o 8os Grammar in context 1 chicken (frango). com/ Cinema : http://www.radiocomercial.pt Radio and TV stations can also be found online.net A I o(bookl2o(gentlemanl 3 a(tablel 4 o (countryl 5 a (motherl 6 o (restaurantl 7 a (informationl I a (garagel 9 o (coffee / cafd) l0 a (cityl J A B c I o E A H 0 J K L M P T D E F G P M A V N R N V P o x N o R T A D F A H E I U T s i o s s s Y z N P R z T V x s z c \t B D E L N s E s I E x z s c A s u T o R T V D F H A J L N A s T M V x z o o x o .sap.iol.rdp. the publisher has no responsibility for the webiiteiand-can make no guarairtee that a site will iemain live or that the content is or will remain appropriate.oindependente.rtp.diariodigital.

5.... magnifica. aquilo (that onel x 2.. the latter is in the south.. 6 Nio h6.. Que linda! (exclam. 7 Nio tenho nenhuma.... tradicional. esta (this onel.Grammar in context a) especial.. aqui 4 aquele chap6u ali 5 That is a dictionary 6 These are glasses('thii thing Lere ..< B 1 cujas casas sio brancas 2 cujos resultados s5o os lo lr Unit 4 melhores 3 cuja roupa 6 Nike 4 cuja capa 6 de couro 5 cujo chap€a 6 azul t9 to to A l extremamente 2temporariamente 3 finalmente 4 bem 5 rapidamente 6 realmente 7 silenciosamente 8 secretamente 9 francamente 10 exactamente [BP = exatamente] Grammar in context onde que que onde la taa lol t1 Unit 9 B lc 2d 3b 4f 5a 6e Unit 5 A 1 maior 2 mais caro 3 tio fria 4 menos 5 menos de rapidamente A 4 atrds I detrils dum balde 5 em frente das flores e a forquilha 7 dentro do barril 8 longe do lago 1 debaixo da 6rvore 2 no rio 3 em cima duma ponte 6 entre a pi tl tl tl tl L_J B lao 2is 3para 4da 10 pelas 5 de 6na 7no Spara 9por B IT 2T 3F 4F 5T 6F C 1 tardissimo 2 gordissima 5 dificilimo 6 carissimos Grammar in 3 pesadfssimas 4 gravissimo context Incorrect statements are: 3. Porqu€? / de qu6? (interog. nio. A lpara 2por 3 para 4 para 5 por 6 por 7 por 8 para 9 para 10 para Unit 6 A lestas 2esse 3aquela 4esses 5esta 5aqueles 8 essas 9 aquele 10 estes B lcorrect 2correct 3incorrect 4correct Teste 5incorrect 6 incorrect 7 correct 8 incorrect 9 correct 10 correct 1 O que € isto? 2 Isso 6 um livro. situado. 10 Ningu6m. circundantes' populares. 3 Nunca. 2 Ningu€m.they're glasses'). esta blusa (rDr blousel 1 Nunca. 4 Nio. the former in the north. Nio. f6cil. nada 5 nenhuma parte. directo. mencionados Unit 8 1277 A lc 2h 3e 4a 5 j 6f 7b 8g 9d 10i l. Ningu6m (neg.)2.. 5 Unit 10 Grammar in context Because itt tastier in Bahia. B Grammar in context 1.) Unit 7 A laminha 2osmeus 3oteu 4osteus 5asua 7 o nosso 8 os nossos 9 a vossa 10 as vossas 6assuas B lb2c3b4c 5a6b Grammar in context 1 Ana Maria 2 Joana's father 3 Nuno's brother and sister-in-law 4 5 Joana's brother-in-law (Nuno's brother) Joana's grandmother . 8 Salvador and Campinas are cities in Brazil... 3 estas senhoras. v6lidos. estas (these). B Unit 11 A 1 quem 2 onde 3 quando 4 quantos 5 como 6 quantas 7 porque 8 quando 9 como 10 quem Grammar in context aquela blusa (that blousel. 8 Nio gostam nem do filme. 7 That cake is made of almond.. nem da mfsica 9 N6o sabe nada... invejdvel... turistica. essa (that onel. pequeno (almogo). aquecida b) boas-vindas..) 3.

4 Eram quatro e dez. B 1a10 28 C 3sexta-feira 416 513.Unit 12 A G A Unit 14 R A T A P A E V A R R 2 tr A B U V M F c w s /j A E s A D A A I e F A H P I R catorze (quatorze) 2 trinta e seis 3 setenta e oito 4 cento e vinte e um 5 cento e noventa e nove 6 quatrocentos e cinquenta 7 mil e sessenta e cinco 8 mil. A A I ! D I R F lel N o Y P T s L 134: cento e trinta e quatro 25: vinte e cinco 5212 um 122: cento e vinte e dois 1. aniinho (linle ansell Grammarin 1 cento e vinte e cinco mais setenta e cinco s6o duzentos 2 oitenta e cinco menos trinta e cinco dio cinquenta 3 dezasseis multiplicado por quatro sio sessenta e quatro 4 mil dividido por dez d6 cem 5 dois quintos 6 tr6s d6cimos 7 cinco oitavos dezassete virgula dois 9 dois virgula cinco seis 10 treze Unit 13 metros quadrados A toda a loja todos os alunos todas as pessoas todo este mds a primavera toda fomos n6s todos toda torcida ambas casas ambos partiram ambas aquelas cada uma cada 40 minutos 22 B m Quarto 1: 8m 6m48m128 m Quarto 2z 6m5 m 30m': Cozinhaz 7 m 4 m 28 m' 22 m Apt. quinhentos e trinta e dois mil. noventa e um euros 2 vinte e seis 3 vinte por cento 4 dezoito euros e vinte 5 vinte e cinco euros e trinta e cinco 6 Super Interessante o s T L n W L A H G U E A H P 4 B l carta I can6o 5 prever / rever 6 amoral 7 gatinho I gatio 8 compor / descompor 9 refazer I pefiazer ldesfazer 10 perfeito casinha lcasario Zinfelizlfelizmente 3 descontente Unit 15 A 8 context 1 Little port (o porto) 2 diabinho (linle deuill. trezentos e quarenta K L M L tr E z t. 8 All the museums are closed today.m. 3 Ve spend the whole summer on the beach.feriado) . 10 Everyone (every person) has a ticket.018: mil e dezoito 4. 3 no (unless it's a national holiday . 7I'm going to do everything possible to improve. it's 1 is oito 2 entre as tr€s e as seis / das tr€s (at6) is seis 3 Sio seis e quarenta / sete menos vinte / vinte para as sete.-7p. C 1 every weekend 2 all kinds 3 both (two) 4 he visits all the parts of the Algarve 5 it's all very pretty Unit 16 A lquinta-feira 2Janeiro 3Ver6o 4Setembro 5terga 5 domingo 7 Julho The missing season is Inverno (winerl. 9 Both these houses are pretty. 2 7p.m. t housewives 2 a every day b no. oitocentos e ls ld tfil tB'I F.l quarenta e dois 11 duzentos e quarenta e seis mil 12 um milh6o. 6 That's 6 Euros 75 in all. 5 There is a boat every three days.m. 2 Everyone wanted to go to the theatre. novecentos e doze quatro 9 tr€s mil e seiscentos 10 vinte e seis mil.2222 quatro mil. 4I want to buy everfthing (it all).total: 19 m 15 m 285 m'z68 m cada cinco semanas B 1 The hat is all dirty.25 6aP6scoa 7 segunda 8 s6bado Grammar in context made on the spot. 5 is nove e cinquenta e cinco 6 apartir das sete e meia Grammar in context t 10a. duzentos e vinte e dois 9l2z quinhentos e vinte e novecentos e doze B W x R z N E E D c M V E I l"l t__l o P F A T A G P C lb2a3c4b5a6c Grammar in context 1.

help us to B le2a 3h4b 5j6g7i8c9d7Of Grammar in free) context Pay for one. sabe. 5 Os homens foram prevenidos de se aproximar. 5 I miss A 1 sento-me 2 lavas-te 3 se deita 4 levantamo-nos 5 se chama 6 corto-me 7 v6em-se 8 vestes-te 9 ela n6o se sente bem 10 esquecem-se Grammar in context all week B 1 te levantas 2 senta-se 3 esqueci-me 4 veste-se 5 nos encontramos 6 deitam-se 7 me vesti 8 se chama 9 se lembra 10 se lavaram Unit 19 A tc2d3a4f 5b6e7h8g B lb 2f 3aldle 4aldle Sslh 6c 7al d/e 8g/h Grammar in well Unit 24 A 1i[a] 2f lal 3a[em] 4c[por] 5h[com] 6slpanl 7k[a] 8 jldel 9e [em] 101[por] 11 b [com] L2d[para] context 1 receiving / welcoming well 2 serving Unit 20 A T lestudo 2compramos 3bebes 4responde 5abre 6subis limpam I partem 9 escuta 10 come B 1 A Ana aprendia a conduzir / dirigir. Grammar in context It served to wipe out the memory of the game against Finland. 6 Cobrem a crianEa. enriquece.Unit 17 A nos 6 emprestas-lhe 7 enviaram-nos 10 diz-lhes lvendo-os 2compr6mo-la 3deu-lhe 4devolv6-los SviuI v€-o 9 visitamos-te B 1 Receias o exame? 2 Odiamos o Inverno. take two (Buy one. 4 A luta levou-me a ficar em casa durante duas semanas. get one Unit 18 A lc 2f. 7 Descubro o segredo. 2 Nio me apetece ir i 3 What do you Unit 23 festa. 6 muito / demasiado caro. 3 Esta situagSo serve para ilustrar as dificuldades de viver num pais estrangeiro. serve-se Unit 25 A Unit 21 A 7 durmo 8 dormem 9 sobes 10 subimos 11 lreceio 2receia 3divertes 4diverris 5sentir 5sentimos odiar 12 odeia The correct order in the preterite should be (original number in brackets): (11) sai (6) apanhei [BP = pegueil (1) cheguei (12)comprei (7) comprei (2) bebi (13) encontrei (8) marcou (3) comi (14) fui (9) cometeu (15) expulsou (4) transformou (10) marcou (5) ganhou (15) estiveram . 4 Mente. 2 Faz (etc.3a 4e 5d 6b B 1 In winter it gets dark earlier. commercial 2 granite 3 Vinho Verde 4 cobre. 8 Sobes? Grammar in context 1 the true charm of the their park in Vilar de Mouros Minho 2 in B lyes 10 yes 2yes 3no 4yes 5no 6no Tyes Syes 9no C 1o 2lhe 3lhe 4connosco 5lo 9 me 10lho defend them! Smim Tconsigo Snos Untt22 A la 2c 3b 4a5c 6b 7a 8b 9a l0c Grammar in context Because you like animals.) bem em reclamar. 3 N5o consigo comer mais. 6 HA um hospital aquil 7 The book is about a tragedy. rural. 8 Quanto custa o chap6u? think? 4 Nio nos interessa o dinheiro. B lfecham 2bebemos 3serve 4moro Schove 6abrem 7 iogas 8 compreendeis 9 parte lOlavam Grammar in context t historical. 5 Repetis a frase. 6 O meu irmio sempre suspirava por viajar pelo mundo. my girlfriend.

have her own shop. 3 You will be able to watch a video. there is. haveg to haue olhava. 3 Nio frequentava a escola muito.. move house . to ttnnage fo podiam.B 1 encontraram 2pagaste 3abriram 4falei 5compraram 6 faldmos 7 tocou 8 leu Grammar in context Arrived Tuesday / Wed visited a Vinho Verde (wine) estate / husband went to Pinhio on historical train I stayed in small hotel in centre of Vila Real / she liked the sweet things Grammar in context 1 You will be offered a detailed visit to the wine lodges. ser. indicada ." 6 Exploraremos a costa. olhag to look pensava. /o haue Grammar in context She would: buy a new Mercedes. 8 Partiremos. Estard quente? 10 Terminaremos a viagem em Lisboa. change her job . donate something to the church.15. 2logavafutebol todos os dias.. 4 O aviio chega (chegard) is 8. 6 Nunca iri ao teatro. 7 Fazia bolos com a mie. 7 Vai visitar o Joio na semana que vem? I Esta tarde vio trabalhar no jardim. 2 Onde est6 a Sara? Estard Grammar in context 1 the most authentic folklore show 2 processado. 5 Aiudava em casa 6 Saia corn amigos.. 5 Ficarei uma semana com eles. 5 Jantaremos. B The missing verb forms are: lavando lavado rir rido laughed vir coming vindo pagando paying pago cantar cantando sung receiuing recebido receiued abrindo opening aberto ver visto seen doente? 3 Amanhi vamos lavar o carro.. 8 Ia i igreja aos domingos. 9 Vai para Bahia. B liriam 6 importaria 7 B lpodia 2queriamos 3diziam 4gostavas 5ia 6tinha 7 etam 8 estudavas/ lav6vamos 9 costumavam 10 comia Grammar in context era. ter. pensar. 7 Veremos um espeticulo. 4 Lia no jardim.to be nearer her parents. 2 You will have the opportunity to look at hundreds of barrels of port. conseguir. 2 Visitaremos o local. 4 You will taste the excellent Port wines. Unit A lh2e 3a 4jSb 6i7d 8c 99 10f B 1 correct 2 correct 3 incorrect fui 4 incorrect: C 27 : Unit 30 A ltenho 2h6s-de 3tem 4hd 5tem 6botb TtGm Sboth 9 temos que l0 both B latrue bfalse ctrue dtrue efalse 2 ten 2 haver: 2 Grammar in vestia-se or estava vestido 5 correct 6 incorrect: saia 7 correct 8 incorrect: atendi 9 incorrect: pintou 10 correct context (lit. 3lremos/faremos uma excursio ao Rio. visit her sister in the USA. send her daughter to university in France. go to the Costa Verde for a beach holiday. to be able tinha. Grammar in context 1 Cabral discovering Brazil and Pedro declaring independence 2 How much it haJchanged its name Unit 28 I Unit 31 A lconstruido 2limpado 3bebido 4escrito 5roto 6 furado 7 pago 8 preso A l Chegaremos.)\Fhat is it that there is here? It's the echo that there is here vendi vendia partem partiam compras compraste comemos comiamos abrem abriam fago frz teve tinha Is there an echo here? There is an echo here.. Unit 29 A Unit 26 lgostaria 2compraria 3dariamos 4poderia Sdeveriam 2poderiamos 3gostarias 4ajudaria Sadoraria daiam 8 deverias 9 seria 10 iria 6 veria A l Vivia no campo. give her eldest son money to buy a motorbike. 4 Iremos de compras. incluido. B 1 Compraremos uma nova casa. poder. to be havia. to think consegui4.

ver. 4 N6s tinhamos ido ao centro quando tu telefonaste. 4 O carro foi levado pelo Joio. fiz.podes. Your daughter had (already) gone out when you arriued home. We uent to toutn. We had gone to toun uhen you phoned. 5 Estava a passear na rua. Yoa aniued home. punha 2 terio terminado 3 terias feito 4 teriam podido 5 ter6 ido 6 teremos / tfnhamos / teriamos pintado 1 tinha comido B Grammar in ser context vir (venha). tinheis. We entered the theatre. Your daughter uent out. 6 Estava a Estou A l./ 9X (estamos) IOX(6. estivemos. houveram.9 O I pela Maria. ser (foi). B 1 Estava a dormir. dizemos Ontem = foster disse. 6 O Banco do Brasil foi assaltado. sei. haviam. 2 Est5o acomer/comendo. 7 Estd a ler / lendo. ^ 5 Estamos a nadar / nadando. 2 O 'show' tinha comegado quando entr6mos no teatro. 8 O trabalho foi fcito por mim. viste. She called the utaiter. 5 Uma novi discoieca vai ser aberta. He paid the bill. 4 Estava a beber 6gua. She had tnade the dinner uthen the progrdtnme started. You. 2 Os lagos sdo . dou. faz. vou. should she keep stopping to greet other friends? A 10d Unit 39 1 O jantar foi pago por A 1c 2h 3e 4i 5a 697f 8i9b Unit 35 adorados por todos os turistas.Unit 32 B le2a3c4f. The shou had begun uthen ute entered the theatre.5b6d Grammar in context 1 cover charge. 7 Os cies foram perdidos na floresta. The progrotnrfle started. Ttiveste B Agora hds. estou. 3 Estd pagar / pagando.'I' B lest6 2est6 3estamos 4sio 5est6 6esteo 76 8estio 9 6 10 estou Grammar in que seria context 1 Se nio fosse 2 nio pode ser 3 € 4 o comef. 3 A partida foi ganha pelo Benfica. fazias. fostes. Grammar in context On approaching the host. 2 Estava a iantar. 5 Estio a sair lsaindo./ 2/ 3Jf (sou) 4)((est|) S/ 6X(e) 7/ 8. vieste Antigamente = estdvamos. The show began. tive. phoned. 3 Estava a ver a TV. She tnade the dinner. 5 Ela tinha feito o jantar quando o programa comegou. 8 Estio a iogar/ iogando. 3 Ele tinha pago a conta quando ela chamou o empregado. fazes. A-lcoma 2limpe 3falern 4cantai 7 durmam 8 mintas 9 votai 10 escrevam speed 5compre 6abras Unit 1 A tua filha tinha safdo quando tu chegaste a casa. tinha. p6e. 7 tinha preparado I terd I teria acontecido Unit 34 Unit 38 A l acorrer/correndo. 2 must be written in Portuguese A 1 tens visto 2 tenho tido 3 tem feito 4 n5o tenho falado 5 n6o tem vindo 6 temos perdido 7 t6m ido 8 tem trabalhado 9 nio tem descansado 10 t6m estado if eaten or unusable B le 29 3b 4h 5a 6d 7f Grammar in 8c Unit 36 context He's been going to Brazil. poder (pode). He had paid the bill when she called the utaiter. 4 Estds a cozinhar / cozinhando. pudeste. A *l B lb 2d 3a 4c Grammar in two hours context I limits 2 No 3 utilizar 4 every Unit 37 A lestou 2vais 3C 4vimos Sfizeran 6pude 8 dava t haviam 10 prinhamos =. tem. pode.

tiv6ssemos. I z. parta. corresses. f.. 9 queiras. pinte. context If you can't find the wine of the vear Unit 44 A 1 nio custe muito 2 saiba reparar carros 3 possa pintar a casa 4 saiba conduzir 5 se dG bem com crianEas 6 possa trabalhar de manhi 7 fagaboa comida 8 trabalhe bem no jardim .. faga. experimentar context wherever I might be Unit 41 Unit 4il A 1 sinta 2 fosse 3 fagam 4 tivesse ganho 5 tivdssemos ido 6 mores 7 ver I saia 9 voltassem 10 estelam A Talvez + percam. 4 se B lcomas 2tentem 3diga 4sejam 5seja 6poupem Tseja 8 tenha Grammar in you want. dormisses. parta. sing. tivesse..aga... B A B B I c o c D N E S E N E L H A G t) .. 10 desEa. fagas. pintemos. fechado. estudassem. 7 E melhor ntro dizer nada. pintem. fagam a A FT N T S Imperfect subiunctive: estudasse.. 2 estejamos.. make 7 present / 2nd pers.. by Abd-al-Aziz 2D. 7 vejas.. dormisse. 3 Achamos que a comida foi boa. corr€ssemos.. / beber / to d.. 5 Era incrivel que o N6lson falasse assim. tomou Silves. plural / comprar I to buy 9 past perfect / 3rd pers.. bebas. 6 faga. venha o que vier.. G H L M R V W A R -o R E A .concurso vai ser inaugurado por / pelo Luis Figo. Estd aberta. tivessem. sing.. 10 As senhoras foram acordadas pela mfsica.. / doer I to hurt 10 imperfect / 3rd pers. D. 4 Vou ao Brasil. corressem. fagamos. E . beba. dormissemos. 5 Esti feito.. beba. 2 E verdade que tu trabalhas muito. 8 Nio penso que tu estejas doente. t haja. tivesses. partas. corresse. sing. 7 Est6. 3 durmamos. 3 Est6 assinado. plural / taxrr I to do.B e c L E L M N o l/ D. B Unil42 A I E provlvel que eles venham mais tarde. 6 Era evidente que eles n6o tivesiem feito isto.R c E partam. partamos.R A S N c o A A P R R E R Unit 40 Ml A Present subiunctive: pintes. plural / f^tff | to do.. 8 Est5o pintadas.. estudasse. tivesse. B lh 2c 3 j 4e 59 6b 7i 8d 9f Grammar in [Oa Grammer in context voltaq espalhar. 2 Estio limpas.. 5 seja. sing.. / trabdhar I to work 4 future / 2nd pers. bebam. dormissem 2 present / 3rd pers.... estuddssemos. bebamos. plural / abrir / to open 5 past perfect / 3rd pers.rink 6 future perfect / lst pers.. Paio Peres Correia. K U E 's V W X Y F R r/ R G Grammar in context t 713. dormisse. plural I dr I to come Grammar in context Solicitamos qae ='We request that. make 3 imperfect / lst pers. Order of Santiago 3 Abd-al-Aziz conquistou Silves. E T ln s G\ M o s A E S P.. 8 diga. / decidir I to decide 8 future / 1st pers. 4 Estd cortada. 6 EstSo salvos .

e que no dia seguinte.e 6 tivesse convidado. Grammar in context If you find two symbols Unit 46 Disse que: 1 gosta / gostava mais dos seus pr6prios programas. d 5 tivesses trazido.. 3 para ele.. c i 2chegivamos. g tiveres fosse ia deve tenho preciso f6ssemos houver faEo fosse houvesse soubesse teriatrazido voltar alike and a sun.a 4fossem. 9 morasses. se houvesse este programa.. o melhor filme 6 I era. A Grammar in context I Rod Stewart 2 Manuel Vilarinho 3 Silvio Berlusconi 4 Ronaldo 5 Marisa Monte 6 Liam Gallagher . dnia I diria que sim. 7 se fosse para o bem de todos.. e que o dia anterior tinha visto um jogo..16 em Portugal. 5 n6o suporta / suportava os congressos. o melhor apresentador tem / tinha de ser Jorge Gabriel. b 7 tive6 f 8 chover. porque tem / tinha de saber as noticias. desligava / desligaria a TV.. 4 Sempre vE I via futebol.. 6 na opiniio dele. 2 nunca perde / perdia o Telejornal. j 10 tiv6ssemos reservado.h 3tivesse.Unit 4{i A B lgostas.

M6rtola. with plenty of examples to show how they work in context. covering over 500 subjects be where you want to be with teach yourself rsBN 978-0-340-84785-5 : I t. Why not try o Portuguese o Portuguese Conversation o or visit www.uk? Cover o @ Charles O'Rear/Corbis o Vaultinq inside the Mesquita.portuguese grammar sue tyson-ward o Are you looking for an accessible guide to Portuguese grammar? o Do you want a book you can use either as a reference or as a course? o Would you like exercises to reinforce your learning? Portuguese Grammar explains the most important structures in a clear and jargon-free way.e ililil[]ilJiltllilillililililfil| . Sue'Tyson-Ward has written a number of books on Portuguese language and culture and has acted as a consultant to BBC TV.acntl U::*"IJ uK 810.teachyourself.co. Alentejo region. Use the book as a comprehensive reference to dip in and out of or work through it to build your knowledge. Portugal the original self-improvement series.

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