How Cells Reproduce

Chapter 8 Part 2

8.6 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis 
Two modes of reproduction: asexual and sexual  Asexual reproduction
‡ Reproductive mode by which offspring arise from one parent and inherit that parent¶s genes only ‡ Offspring of asexual reproduction are clones 

Clone
‡ A genetically identical copy of an organism

Sexual Reproduction 

Offspring of sexual reproduction vary in shared traits  Sexual reproduction
‡ Reproductive mode by which offspring arise from two parents and inherit genes from both

Inheriting Chromosome Pairs 
Offspring of most sexual reproducers inherit pairs of chromosomes, one of each pair from the mother and the other from the father  Except for a pair of nonidentical sex chromosomes, the members of a chromosome pair have the same length, shape, and set of genes ± these are homologous chromosomes

Chromosome Pairs

Introducing Alleles 

Paired genes on homologous chromosomes often vary slightly in DNA sequence as alleles  Alleles
‡ Forms of a gene that encode slightly different versions of the gene¶s product 

Alleles are the basis of traits

Variation in Traits 

Sexual reproduction mixes up alleles from two parents, resulting in new combinations of alleles (and traits) in offspring  Variations in allele combinations are introduced during meiosis

Meiosis Halves the Chromosome Number 
Meiosis occurs in immature reproductive cells (germ cells) of sexually reproducing eukaryotes, forming male and female haploid gametes  Gamete
‡ Mature, haploid reproductive cell 

Haploid (n)
‡ Having one of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species

Meiosis Halves the Chromosome Number 

Meiosis sorts the chromosomes into new nuclei twice (meiosis I and meiosis II)  Duplicated chromosomes of a diploid nucleus (2n) are distributed into four haploid nuclei (n)

Meiosis I and Meiosis II

each chromosome in the cell pairs with its homologous partner

then the partners separate

p. 145

two chromosomes (unduplicated) one chromosome (duplicated)

p. 145

Gamete Formation

Fig. 8-9a, p. 144

Reproductive organs of a human male

testis (where sperm originate)
Fig. 8-9a, p. 144

Fig. 8-9b, p. 144

Reproductive organs of a human female

ovary (where eggs develop)

Fig. 8-9b, p. 144

Animation: Reproductive organs

Restoring Diploid Number 
Diploid number is restored at fertilization, when two haploid (n) gametes fuse to form a zygote  Fertilization
‡ Fusion of a sperm nucleus and an egg nucleus, resulting in a single-celled zygote 

Zygote
‡ Diploid (2n) cell formed by fusion of gametes ‡ First cell of a new individual, with two sets of chromosomes, one from each parent

Animation: Sperm formation

Animation: Egg formation

8.7 Meiosis 
In meiosis, two nuclear divisions halve the parental chromosome number
‡ Meiosis I ‡ Meiosis II 

Meiosis shuffles parental combinations of alleles, introducing variation in offspring
‡ Crossing over in prophase I ‡ Random assortment in metaphase I

Meiosis I 

In the first nuclear division, duplicated homologous chromosomes line up and cross over, then move apart, toward opposite spindle poles  Two new nuclear envelopes form around the two clusters of still-duplicated chromosomes

Crossing Over 
Crossing over is recombination between nonsister chromatids of homologous chromosomes which produces new combinations of parental alleles  Crossing over
‡ Homologous chromosomes exchange corresponding segments during prophase I of meiosis

Crossing Over

Fig. 8-11a, p. 148

crossover

Fig. 8-11b, p. 148

Fig. 8-11c, p. 148

A) Here, we focus on only two genes. One gene has alleles A and a; the other has alleles B and b.

B) Close contact between the homologous chromosomes promotes crossing over between nonsister chromatids, so paternal and maternal chromatids exchange segments.

crossover

C) Crossing over mixes up paternal and maternal alleles on homologous chromosomes.
Stepped Art Fig. 8-11c, p. 148

Animation: Crossing over

Meiosis II 

The second nuclear division separates sister chromatids  Four haploid nuclei typically form, each with one complete set of unduplicated chromosomes

Meiosis

Fig. 8-10a, p. 146

1 Prophase I

2 Metaphase I

3 Anaphase I

4 Telophase I

spindle plasma membrane microtubules

one pair of homologous chromosomes

centrosome nuclear envelope breaking up

Fig. 8-10a, p. 146

Fig. 8-10b, p. 147

5 Prophase II

6 Metaphase II

7 Anaphase II

8 Telophase II

There is no DNA replication between the two nuclear divisions.

Fig. 8-10b, p. 147

plasma membrane spindle microtubules one pair of homologous chromosomes

centrosome nuclear envelope breaking up
There is no DNA replication between the two nuclear divisions.

Stepped Art Fig. 8-10b, p. 147

Animation: Meiosis step-by-step

Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis

Prophase II Prophase I Anaphase I

Anaphase II

Metaphase I Telophase I Metaphase Metaphase II Telophase II

Prophase

Anaphase Telophase

Fig. 8-16, p. 152

Animation: Random alignment

Animation: Comparing mitosis and meiosis

Animation: Crossover review

Animation: Meiosis I and II

Animation: Meiosis

Animation: Duplicating chromosome

Animation: Independent assortment

8.8 From Gametes to Offspring 

Meiosis and cytoplasmic division precede the development of haploid gametes in animals and spores in plants  The union of two haploid gametes at fertilization results in a diploid zygote

Gamete Formation in Plants 
In plants, two kinds of multicelled bodies form
‡ Familiar plants are diploid sporophytes that make haploid spores 

Sporophyte
‡ Diploid, spore-producing body of a plant 

Gametophyte
‡ A haploid, multicelled body in which gametes form during the life cycle of plants

Gamete Formation in Animals 
Germ cells in the reproductive organs of animals give rise to sperm or eggs  Sperm
‡ Mature male gamete 

Egg
‡ Mature female gamete, or ovum

Comparing Life Cycles of Plants and Animals

Fertilization 

The fusion of two haploid gamete nuclei during fertilization restores the parental chromosome number in the zygote, the first cell of the new individual

Animation: Generalized life cycles

8.9 When Control is Lost 
The cell cycle has built-in checkpoints that allow problems to be corrected before the cycle advances  Checkpoint gene products are gene expression controls that advance, delay, or block the cell cycle in response to internal and external conditions

Checkpoints and Tumors 
Checkpoint genes whose products inhibit meiosis are called tumor suppressors  Disruption of checkpoint gene products, such as by mutations or viruses, causes tumors that may end up as cancer  Failure of cell cycle checkpoints results in the uncontrolled cell divisions that characterize cancer

Checkpoint Genes 
BRCA genes are tumor suppressor genes whose products normally repair broken DNA

Cancer 
Moles and other tumors are neoplasms; a benign neoplasm is noncancerous  A malignant neoplasm (cancer) occurs when abnormally dividing cells disrupt body tissues, physically and metabolically  Malignant neoplasms can break free and invade other tissues (metastasize)

Metastasis 
Cancer cells may metastasize ± break loose and colonize distant tissues

4 3

1 benign tumor

2 malignant tumor

Fig. 8-14, p. 150

Animation: Cancer and metastasis

Three Characteristics of Cancer Cells

1. Grow and divide abnormally 2. Often have an abnormal plasma membrane, cytoskeleton, or metabolism 3. Often have weakened capacity for adhesion because recognition proteins are altered or lost

Skin Cancer: A Checkpoint Failure

8.10 Impacts/Issues Revisited 

The HeLa cell line was established more than 50 years ago without Henrietta Lacks knowledge or consent  Today, consent forms are required to take tissue samples, and it is illegal to sell one¶s own organs or tissues

Digging Into Data: HeLa Cells Are a Genetic Mess

Animation: Characteristics of cancer

Video: ABC News: Genetically modified cancer fighters

Video: ABC News: Deadly inheritance: a legacy of cancer

Video: ABC News: Blood test for lung cancer

Video: ABC News: Tanning Industry and Melanoma

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