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Copyright by Robert Alan Goodding 2002

The Treatise on Liberation-in-Life Critical Edition and Annotated Translation of The Jvanmuktiviveka of Vidyraya

by Robert Alan Goodding, M.A.

Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Texas at Austin in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

The University of Texas at Austin May, 2002

To all my teachers.

yas tu bodhitam api tattva na samyag budhyate, ya ca vismarati, tayor ubhayo sdhusagama evopya. sdhavo hi puna punar bodhayanti smrayanti ca. [JMV 3.2.10]

After years of work it is at last time to give proper thanks to all those who have helped me carry out this dissertation. I must first recognize those who were directly involved and without whom I could never have begun to undertake the work of a critical edition and translation of a Sanskrit text. I thank my advisor Dr. Patrick Olivelle for sharing his vast knowledge and understanding, high standards, and tireless workmanship that I have tried to live up to over the years. It is a great honor to be his student at this time during his extraodinarily productive career. I also wish to recognize Dr. K. S. Arjunwadkar of Pune, India who read with me daily for a few months while I was in India and who always gave me exhaustive answers to my questions about the text and my translations. Those of us learning Sanskrit today will sorely miss the passing of his generation who grew up with the values of the old living tradition in India where learning is priceless yet is paid for with the total commitment of one's life. I must thank the others who were also directly or indirectly involved in my formation as a scholar such as my committee members Professors Cynthia Talbot, Joel Brereton, Andrew Fort, Richard Larivieve. I also thank Professors John Turner, Paul Olson, and Gregory Schopen who gave confirmation to my basic insights and inspired me to achieve more. The various directors and staff members of the archives I visited in India during 1997-1998 deserve a special recognition. The Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute and the nandarama Sansth of Pune provided me with congenial places to study and permitted me access to their libraries and manuscript collections. The

Oriental Institute of Baroda, the Government Oriental Manuscripts Library of Madras and the Saraswati Mahal Library in Tanjavur allowed me access to their important Jvanmuktiviveka manuscripts. My special thanks also goes to Mrs. Nirmala Purandare of Pune for letting me stay at her guestroom at the Vanasthali Rural Development Centre. I must also thank the Fulbright Foundation for awarding me the support that made my research in India possible. Of all my friends and supporters who have stood with me and given positive inspiration over the years during my various pursuits, I wish, in no particular order, to recognize some of my fellow "seekers of pearls in the manure." At different points along the way, my friends Kim Wheeler, Russell Smith, Kevin Roberts, Joe and Karuna Nicols, John Skrovan, Monte Page, Ingrid Olson and many others touched my life and helped me understand essential things about our journey. I must thank all of my friends who are current and former fellow students whose intelligence, wit, and seriousness created a good atmosphere in which to carry out our studies. In this regard I mention, again in no particular order, Lance Ashdown, David McMahan, Larry Short, Steven Lindquist, Mark McClish, Jarrod Whitaker, Karline McClain, Kristen Rudisill, Gardner Harris, John Nemec, Laura Bueck, Dave Brick, Lisa Owen, Anna Shtutina, Don Davis, Parimal Patil, and Sarah Green. Special thanks goes to Rosemary Wetherold for her excellent copy-editing. Lastly I would like to thank my family for supporting my pursuits during these many years at difficult times when we all need love and acceptance the most.


The Treatise on Liberation-in-Life Critical Edition and Annotated Translation of The Jvanmuktiviveka of Vidyraya

Publication No. ________

Robert Alan Goodding, Ph.D. University of Texas at Austin, 2002

Supervisor: J. Patrick Olivelle

The Jvanmuktiviveka or "The Treatise on Liberation-in-Life," is the only work in its period to specifically address one of the central issues in Hinduism: is liberation reserved for the world-renouncing religious elite, or is it attainable by everyone through devotion and organized ritual worship in the communal tradition? The work was composed c. 1380 CE by the Brahmin scholar Vidyraya when he was the pontiff of the geri monastery, which still endures today. This dissertation is a new edition of the Sanskrit text based on previously unused manuscript evidence and a new annotated English translation. The introduction is a study of some historical and philosophical problems in the Jvanmuktiviveka. Historians of the


twentieth century long debated Vidyraya's identity and his political activity in the founding of the Vijayanagara kingdom in fourteenth century South India. The position taken here minimizes his political role and explores his possible role in the internal debates of medieval Vednta philosophy between Advaita and Viidvaita, thus presenting a historical context for the Jvanmuktiviveka. In this text, Vidyraya takes the classical Advaita Vedanta position that internal knowledge of the Self (tman) as Brahman and renunciation of social and ritual conventions lead to liberation, and that liberation can be achieved in an individual's own lifetime (jvanmukti). Tension had existed between the individual renunciant and the mainstream householder community in India for centuries. In medieval India this tension became focused into philosophical positions which resulted in lively debate. Vidyraya attempted a novel solution to problems internal to Advaita and resolved this tension. The knowledge of Self as equivalent to Brahman in classical Advaita philosophy is considered insufficient to completely root out operative action which causes future births. Liberation also requires a lifelong commitment to the Yogic practices "eradication of latent tendencies" and "elimination of the mind." Vidyraya preserved the possibility of liberation in this lifetime, while also not disturbing the conventional religious social order who could see the virtues of the paramahasa yogin following Vidyraya's teaching. This paramahasa yogin does not compromise his position but remains an ascetic outside of, while still recognized by, the householder society.


Table of Contents
Abbreviations ......................................................................................................... xv INTRODUCTION Introduction Part One: The Style and Content of the Jvanmuktiviveka and its Historical Context 1. General .................................................................................................... 1 2. Style, Content, and Structure of the Jvanmuktiviveka ........................... 3 3. The Authorship of the Jvanmuktiviveka ................................................ 6 4. Controversy over Vijayanagara and Vidyranya ..................................... 9 5. Revised Views of Vidyraya's Career ..................................................12 6. The Jvanmuktiviveka in Context .......................................................... 19 Introduction Part Two: The Means of Liberation according to the Jvanmuktiviveka 1. The Problem of Operative Action ......................................................... 29 2. The Knowledge of Truth ....................................................................... 39 3. Eradication of Latent Tendencies .......................................................... 46 4. The Elimination of the Mind ................................................................. 55 5. Conclusion ............................................................................................. 66 TRANSLATION Chapter One: The Authoritative Basis for Liberation-in-Life 1.0 Benediction ............................................................................................ 71 1.1 The Renunciation-for-Knowledge ......................................................... 72 ix

1.2 The Renunciation-of-the-Knower .......................................................... 74 1.3 The Nature of Liberation-in-Life ........................................................... 82 1.4 The Characteristics of Liberation-in-Life .............................................. 88 1.5 Bodiless-Liberation ............................................................................... 94 1.6 One Steady-in-Wisdom ......................................................................... 95 1.7 The Devotee-of-the-Lord .................................................................... 101 1.8 One Who Has Transcended-the-Qualities ........................................... 102 1.9 The Brhmaa ...................................................................................... 104 1.10 One Beyond-Castes-and-Orders .................................................... 110

Chapter Two: The Eradication of Latent Tendencies 2.1 The Mutual Causality of the Means of Liberation-in-Life .................. 117 2.2 Negative and Positive Statements of the Three Pairs of Means .......... 118 2.3 The Principal and Subsidiary Relation of the Three Means ................ 122 2.4 Pure and Impure Latent Tendencies .................................................... 135 2.5 The Nature of the Mind and The Elimination of the Mind .................. 148 2.6 The Way Latent Tendencies are Eradicated ........................................ 152 2.7 The Practice of Pure Latent Tendencies .............................................. 154 2.8 The Practice of Discernment ............................................................... 158 2.9 The Continuance of Impure Latent Tendencies ................................... 159 2.10 The Remedy for Impure Latent Tendencies through Discernment ....163 2.11 The Latent Tendency of Pure Consciousness .....................................168 Chapter Three: The Elimination of the Mind 3.1 The Necessity of Elimination of the Mind .......................................... 182 x

3.2 The Methods for the Mind's Dissolution ............................................. 184 3.3 The Yogas of Posture and Diet ............................................................ 187 3.4 The Yoga of Breath-Control ................................................................ 189 3.5 Enstasis and the Eight Limbs of Yoga ................................................. 195 3.6 Enstasis of Suppression ....................................................................... 202 3.7 The Four Stages of Control; Control of Speech in Mind .................... 206 3.8 Control of the Mind in the Knowing Self ........................................... 208 3.9 Control in the Great Self and in the Tranquil Self ............................... 211 3.10 The Enstases with and without Conceptualization ............................ 214 3.11 The Practice of Yoga ......................................................................... 225 3.12 The Elimination of the Mind with Form ........................................... 231 Chapter Four: The Purpose in Attaining One's True Nature 4.1 Safeguarding of Knowledge ............................................................... 237 4.2 Austerity ............................................................................................. 245 4.3 Absence of Opposition ....................................................................... 250 4.4 Elimination of Suffering and the Manifestation of Bliss .................... 252 4.5 The Master Yogin and the Knower of Truth ...................................... 254 Chapter Five: The Renunciation-of-the-Knower 5.1 The Path of the Paramahasa Yogins ................................................ 258 5.2 The Principal Rule of the Paramahasa Yogin .................................. 267 5.3 The Paramahasa Yogin's Staff of Knowledge ................................. 276 5.4 The Conduct of the Paramahasa Yogin ........................................... 279


TEXT Introduction to the Critical Edition ................................................................... 289 prathama jvanmuktipramaprakaraam 1.0 magalacranam .................................................................................. 298 1.1 vividisanysa ............................................................................... 299 1.2 vidvatsanysa....................................................................................301 1.3 jvanmuktisvarpa............................................................................. 307 1.4 jvanmuktilakana...............................................................................312 1.5 videhamuktilakaa .......................................................................... 316 1.6 sthitapraja ......................................................................................... 317 1.7 bhagavadbhakta ................................................................................. 322 1.8 gutta .............................................................................................. 323 1.9 brhmaa ............................................................................................. 324 1.10 ativarram ..................................................................................... 329 dvitya vsankayaprakaraa 2.1 jvanmuktisdhann parasparakraatvam .................................... 332 2.2 trisdhanadvandvn anvayavyatireka .......................................... 333 2.3 trisdhann pradhnopasarjanatvm .............................................. 335 2.4 uddhsuddhavsan ........................................................................... 345 2.5 manasa svarpa manona ca ....................................................... 356 2.6 vsankayaprakra ........................................................................... 360 2.7 ubhavsanbhysa ............................................................................ 361 2.8 vivekbhysa ..................................................................................... 365 xii

2.9 malinavsannuvtti ........................................................................... 366 2.10 malinavsann vivekena pratkra .............................................. 369 2.11 cinmtravsan .................................................................................. 374 tritya manonaprakaraa 3.1 manonasya avayakatvam ................................................................ 379 3.2 manovilayaheto yuktaya .................................................................. 380 3.3 sananayog ................................................................................... 383 3.4 prymayoga .................................................................................. 385 3.5 samdhir agayoga ca .................................................................... 390 3.6 nirodhasamdhi .................................................................................. 396 3.7 catasra bhmik. manasi vaniyama ............................................. 400 3.8 jntmani manoniyama .................................................................... 401 3.9 mahtmani nttmani ca niyama ...................................................... 404 3.10 saprajtsaprajtayo svarpa sdhana ca .......................... 406 3.11 yogbhysa ...................................................................................... 414 3.12 sarpo manona .............................................................................. 420 caturtha svarpasiddhiprayojanaprakaraam 4.1 jnarak ............................................................................................ 422 4.2 tapas ..................................................................................................... 431 4.3 visavdbhva ................................................................................. 433 4.4 dukhana sukhvirbhva ca .......................................................... 435 4.5 yogvaras tattvavic ca ......................................................................... 437


pacama vidvatsanysaprakaraam 5.1 yogin parahasn marga ......................................................... 440 5.2 yogina paramahasasya mukya kalpa .......................................... 447 5.3 yogina paramahasasya jnadaa ............................................... 454 5.4 yogina paramahasasya cary .......................................................... 456 Appendix One: Index of Sources ........................................................................ 464 Appendix Two: Index of Subjects ...................................................................... 468 Bibliography ......................................................................................................... 497 Vita ........................................................................................................................ 503


Adyar Jvanmuktiviveka (Liberation in Life) of Vidyranya. Ed. and tr. Pandit S. Subramanya Sastri and T. R. Srinivasa Ayyangar. Adyar Library General Series 6. (1978). Aitareya Brhmaa ed. Satyavrata Samasrami. (1895-1898). Aitareya rayaka, ed. Keith (1909). Amtabindu Upaniad in Yoga Upaniads ed. Mahadeva str (1983). Amtanada Upaniad in Yoga Upaniads ed. Mahadeva str (1983). nandrama Sanskrit Series. Also refers to nSS, 20. Jvanmuktiviveka. Ed. Vasudeva Laxmaa Sharma Paakara (1978). runi Upaniad in Schrader (1912). Bhagavad Gt ed. Joshi, nSS 34, (1981). Bhaviya Mahpura ed. Sharma (1984). Bhgavata Pura ed. Sharma (1987). Brahma Stras ed. str (1996) Brahma Stra Bhya ed. str (1996) Bhadrayaka Upaniad eds. Limaye and Vaidekar (1958). Bhadraya Upaniad Bhya Vrttika ed. Subrahmanya Sastri (1982). Bhaspati Smti ed. Rangaswami Aiyangar, Gaekwad Oriental Series 85, (1941). Brahma Upaniad in Schrader. Chndogya Upaniad eds. Limaye and Vaidekar (1958). Dakasmti in SS. Ex conjectura; out of conjecture. Gaudapdya Krik ed. Abajisharma, nSS 10 (1984). xv

AitB Ait AmbU AmnU nSS rU BhG BhMP BhP BS BSBh BU BBhV BS BU ChU DSm ex. conj. GK


P. V. Kane History of Dharmastra (1977-1997). Upaniad eds. Limaye and Vaidekar (1958). Jbladarana Upaniad in Upaniatsagraha ed. str (1980). Jbla Upaniad in Schrader (1912). Journal of Indian Philosophy Kaivalya Upaniad in Upaniatsagraha, ed. str (1980). Kautaki Upaniad eds. Limaye and Vaidekar (1958). Kaha Upaniad eds. Limaye and Vaidekar (1958). Kulrava Tantra ed. Vidyaratna (1965). Khaaakhaakhdya ed. Dravida str (1904-1914). Kurika Upaniad in Upaniatsagraha ed. str (1980). Laghu-Viu Smti in SS. Laghu-Yogavsiha ed. Paakara (1985). Mahbhrata ed. V. S. Sukthankar et al. (1933-1959). Manava Dharmastra ed. Jolly (1993). Mahnryaa Upaniad ed. Jean Varenne (1960). Maitryani Upaniad eds. Limaye and Vaidekar (1958). Muaka Upaniad eds. Limaye and Vadekar (1958). Muktika Upaniad in Upaniatsagraha ed. str (1980). Nsihaprvatpan Upaniad in Upaniatsagraha ed. str (1980). Naikarmyasiddhi ed. Jacob (1980). Nrada Pacaratra Sahit ed. Banerjea (1980). Nradaparivrjaka Upaniad in Schrader (1912). xvi

om. PU PD PK PhU Ppd Pnini Ps Prm PM RV Rm vU SS SauU

Omits, omitted Parara Upapurna ed. Tripathi (1990). Pacada ed. Swm Swhnanda (1967). Packaranam in Subrahmanya Sastri (1981). Paramahasa Upaniad in Schrader (1912). Pacapdika ed. Subrahmanya Sastri (1992). The Aadyy ed and tr. Srisa Chandra Vasu (1962). Paramrthasra text and tr. Danielson (1980). Pramaml in Nyya Markaranda, Chaukambha Sanskrit Series, 38, (n.d.). Prara-Mdhavya ed. Chandrakanta Tarkalankara (1973-1974). gveda Sahit eds. Van Nooten and Holland (1994). Rmyaa ed. G. H. Bhatt et al. (1960-1975). vetvatara Upaniad eds. Limaye and Vadekar (1958). Sta Sahit of the Skanda Pura nSS, 25. 3 vols. (1898). Saubhagyalakm Upaniad in Upaniatsagraha, ed. str (1980).

Schrader Schrader, Otto. The Minor Upaniads vol. 1, Sanysa Upaniads (1912). SK SU sh cor. SS T TB TS TU Sakhya Krika ed. Colebrooke (1978). Sanysa Upaiad in Schrader. Second hand corrects. Smtnm Samuccaya nSS, 48. (1905). Taittirya rayaka ed. Rajendralala Mitra (1982). Taittirya Brhmaa ed. Rajendralala Mitra (1981). Taittirya Sahit ed. Gangadhara Bapurava Kale, nSS, 42. (1959-1978). Taittirya Upaniad eds. Limaye and Vaidekar (1958). xvii


Upadeashasr ed. Mayeda (1973). Vayu Pura nSS 49, (1983). Vivekacudmai ed. Pravrajika Brahmaprana (1992). Vasiha Dharmastra ed. Fuhrer (1983). Viu Pura ed. M. M. Pathak (1997-?). Varha Upaniad in Upaniatsagraha, ed. str (1980). Vkyavtti ed. Ragantha str, nSS 80, (1998). Wiener Zeitschrift fr die Kunde Sdasiens. Yatidharmasagraha ed Joshi, nSS 60, (1980). Yatidharmapraka ed. Olivelle (1976-1977) Yogaikha Upaniad in Yoga Upaniads ed. Mahadeva str (1983). Ptajalya Yogastras nSS 47, (1984). Yogastra Bhya nSS 47, (1984). Yjavalkya Upaniad in Schrader (1912). Yoga-Vsiha ed. Paakara (1911).


Introduction Part One The Style and Content of the Jvanmuktiviveka and its Historical Context
1.1 General The Jvanmuktiviveka [JMV] is a medieval philosophical work on the Advaita Vednta concept of "liberation-in-life" (jvanmukti)1 and the institution of renunciation (sanysa).2 It is a prakaraa, or treatise, on a specific topic wherein the Brahmin scholar Vidyraya discusses the evidence for and means of achieving liberation-inlife, but it is difficult to classify because of its uniqueness in the history of Sanskrit literature. Vidyraya, also known as Mdhava, composed the JMV c. 1380 C.E.3 toward the end of his life after he had entered the sanysrama and had become the pontiff of the geri maha in southwestern Karnataka. This maha, or monastic institution, still endures today. The text is a novel work in Advaita Vednta, though Vidyraya places himself in line with mainstream Advaitins akara, Surevara, and Padmapda, whom he calls teachers [2.9.914 and 2.3.64].4 Like his predecessors, Vidyraya defines the renouncer's goal as the attainment of the nondual "knowledge" (jna, vidy). The mainstream Advaitins understood that this experiential knowledge of the equivalence of the Self and Brahman is sufficient for the attainment of liberation. Although Vidyraya is careful to incorporate the basic positions of his teachers, he departs from the mainstream Advaita of akara by prescribing in addition to knowledge a further program of yogic discipline based on such texts as the Bhagavad Gt (BhG), the Ptajalya Yogastras (YS), the Gauapdya Kriks 1

(GK), and the Laghu-Yogavsiha (LYV). He integrates the structures of thought from the akaran Advaita and the Ptajalya Yoga systems into one system bearing on the life and goal of the renouncer. The JMV is thus a constructive synthesis of models from Indian thought and in this way stands as a novel contribution to the history of the idea of liberation-in-life. Nevertheless, Vidyraya does not claim to say anything that is not already in the revealed Vedic truth of ruti or in the tradition of Smti. The work became well known in India, but I believe it was composed for a limited, internal audience participating in the debates in medieval Vednta theology. Earlier in his career, Vidyraya under the name Mdhava had composed a legal digest and commentary on the Pararasmti known as the Parara-Mdhavya [PM] and, within that work, included a separate treatise on renunciation. There he deals with the first three of the four types of renouncers: the kucaka, the bahdaka, and the hasa.5 Here in the JMV, Vidyraya focuses on the highest type of renouncer, the paramahasa. For the purpose of introducing my translation and text edition of the JMV, I shall first give a short analysis of the structure of the text's argument and discuss the author's identity and literary activities. Next, in the historical part, I offer some background for the text to place it in context and, based on this, give reasons why I believe Vidyraya made his departure from mainstream Advaita Vednta. As a philosophical text, the JMV offers very little in the way of obvious sociohistorical data, and one must look outside the text for these data. The internal historical evidence one can discern is more amenable to the construction of doctrinal history. Then in a lengthier discussion, I describe Vidyraya's self-conscious philosophical intent by 2

assessing the problem of "operative action" (prrabdhakarma) that he addresses and how he tries to solve it. There I will describe the practical, yogic aspects bearing on the means of liberation according to Vidyraya's doctrine, but I leave the overall assessment of the philosophical coherence and the fuller explanation of the text for future studies. 1.2 Style, Content, and Structure of the Jvanmuktiviveka The JMV is written in an interpretive style common to medieval Sanskrit commentarial treatises wherein objections are raised and answered, and well-known ancient religious works are cited, followed by the author's interpretation of these citations. It is a vda type of discourse in dialogue form in which the author seeks to discover the truth of the issue he sets out to discuss. In contrast, the vita type of discourse seeks to attack another's positions without offering a constructive view in its place that the author believes to be true. Examples of texts formulated in the vitaa type of argument are the Khaanakhaakhdya of r Hara, which attacks Nyya philosophy, and the atadai of Vednta Deika,6 which attacks Advaita Vednta. Vidyraya in the JMV rarely mentions doctrines of opposing philosophical systems.7 Vidyraya follows the traditional Indian standards of logic and exegesis and continually tries to establish the authoritative scriptural basis for the validity of his position. I have translated the term prama as "authoritative basis" here in order to indicate that this is not the prama of making inferences, which is the major concern in Nyya philosophy. As an Advaitin, Vidyraya primarily finds the evidence or proof for the validity for his position in abda prama, which is the revealed Vedic 3

truth found in ruti and the accepted tradition of Smti.8 Demonstrating the validity of his position may require no more than citing a well-known ruti or Smti passage. However, in some instances, Vidyraya is forced to employ other hermeneutic strategies. For example, Vidyraya defines two subtypes of paramahasa, the vividisanysin, or "renouncer prompted by the desire for knowledge," and the vidvatsanysin, the "renouncer who is a knower." When distinguishing between the dharma-s, or duties, enjoined on the paramahasa, he presents the same means of liberation they must carry out, but he distinguishes between which means of liberation is principal or subsidiary (pradhna/upasarjana) based on the respective differences (vyavasth) between each type of renouncer [2.3.2ff, Chapter 2, n.10]. This type of hermeneutic strategy clarifies a question of dharma in the absence of a clear injunction or a testimonial statement derived from revealed scripture or tradition, or a doctrinal statement gathered from another philosopher such as akara or Surevara. Vidyraya brings forth the objections in the dialogue (prvapaka-s) without identifying the objector, so it is never clear whether the objector belongs to a particular school of thought. Frequently, it appears that Vidyraya brings the objections in order to identify possible weaknesses in his position, and then bolster his claims even further with more citations from ruti and Smti and arguments based on logic and exegesis. The text consists of five chapters. The Chapter One gives the authoritative scriptural basis (prama) for liberation-in-life, a summary of the basic definitions and ideas on how to achieve it, and examples from scripture of those who have been jvanmukta-s, or persons liberated-in-life. The Chapters Two and Three are the heart 4

of the book where Vidyraya discusses the means for achieving liberation (sdhana). These chapters discuss the means for liberation-in-life. These means are the principal duties that the renouncer who is a knower must undertake once he has attained the knowledge of truth (tattvajna). Vidyraya explains that the knowledge of truth, once attained, becomes stabilizedand ultimate liberation achievedonly through the practice of the eradication of latent tendencies (vsankaya) and the elimination of the mind (manona), which are the subjects of Chapters Two and Three, respectively. In Chapter Four, Vidyraya discusses the purposes (prayojana-s) served by achieving liberation, i.e., what good it does the renouncer and those around him. Chapter Five is a commentary on the Paramahasa Upaniad. This chapter amounts to an excursus on the renouncer who is a knower (vidvatsanysin), the person qualified to achieve liberation-in-life. The following table outlines structure of the JMV and sequence of its argument and content using the numbering system I have given in the text: I. The Authoritative Basis for Liberation-in-Life (a) Benediction ......................................................................................... 1.0.113 (b) The Renunciation-for-Knowledge ...................................................... 1.1.114 (c) The Renunciation-of-the-Knower ....................................................... 1.2.146 (d) The Nature of Liberation-in-Life ........................................................ 1.3.134 (e) The Characteristics of Liberation-in-Life ............................................ 1.4.126 (f) Bodiless-Liberation ............................................................................... 1.5.17 (g) One Steady-in-Wisdom ...................................................................... 1.6.130 (h) The Devotee-of-the-Lord .................................................................... 1.7.111 (i) One Who Has Transcended-the-Qualities ............................................. 1.8.18 (j) The Brhmaa ....................................................................................... 1.9.14 (k) One Beyond-Castes-and-Orders ...................................................... 1.10.125 II. The Eradication of Latent Tendencies (a) The Mutual Causality of the Means of Liberation-in-Life ..................... 2.1.19 (b) Negative and Positive Statements of the Three Pairs of Means .......... 2.2.116 5

(c) The Principal and Subsidiary Relation of the Three Means ................ 2.3.186 (d) Pure and Impure Latent Tendencies .................................................... 2.4.187 (e) The Nature of the Mind and The Elimination of the Mind .................. 2.5.126 (f) The Way Latent Tendencies are Eradicated ......................................... 2.6.110 (g) The Practice of Pure Latent Tendencies .............................................. 2.7.123 (h) The Practice of Discernment ................................................................. 2.8.17 (i) The Continuance of Impure Latent Tendencies .................................... 2.9.128 (j) The Remedy for Impure Latent Tendencies through Discernment ..... 2.10.149 (k) The Latent Tendency of Pure Consciousness ................................... 2.11.138 III. The Elimination of the Mind (a) The Necessity of Elimination of the Mind .......................................... 3.1.118 (b) The Methods for the Mind's Dissolution ............................................ 3.1.125 (c) The Yogas of Posture and Diet ........................................................... 3.3.112 (d) The Yoga of Breath-Control ............................................................... 3.4.132 (e) Enstasis and the Eight Limbs of Yoga ................................................ 3.5.153 (f) Enstasis of Suppression ...................................................................... 3.6.133 (g) The Four Stages of Control; Control of Speech in Mind ...................... 3.7.16 (h) Control of the Mind in the Knowing Self ........................................... 3.8.116 (i) Control in the Great Self and in the Tranquil Self ................................ 3.9.115 (j) The Enstases with and without Conceptualization ............................. 3.10.160 (k) The Practice of Yoga ........................................................................ 3.11.148 (l) The Elimination of the Mind with Form ............................................ 3.12.113 IV. The Purpose of Attaining One's True Nature (a) Safeguarding of Knowledge ............................................................... 4.1.158 (b) Austerity ............................................................................................. 4.2.134 (c) Absence of Opposition ....................................................................... 4.3.118 (d) Elimination of Suffering and the Manifestation of Bliss ..................... 4.4.114 (e) The Master Yogin and the Knower of Truth ...................................... 4.5.112 V. The Renunciation-of-the-Knower (a) The Path of the Paramahasa Yogins ................................................ 5.1.146 (b) The Principal Rule of the Paramahasa Yogin .................................. 5.2.141 (c) The Paramahasa Yogin's Staff of Knowledge ................................. 5.3.121 (d) The Conduct of the Paramahasa Yogin ........................................... 5.4.149 1.3 Authorship of the Jvanmuktiviveka Despite all that has been written about the sage Vidyraya, we have little reliable data on his identity. I want to consider first the clues available in his own writings. In the beginning of the JMV itself, the author outlines the plan of his book, naming the 6

four types of renouncers, and says "Now, the practices of these (renouncers) have been described by us in the commentary on the Prarasmti. Here the paramahasa is described." [1.0.11] These words by themselves are the single best evidence we have that Vidyraya the author of the JMV is the same as Mdhava the author of the PM. We find in the introductory verses 67 of the PM that the author was the son of Myaa and rmat, brother of Syaa and Bhogantha. He was the disciple of the akarcryas Vidytrtha and Bhrattrtha. These verses also mentions

rkahantha, who may have been his family's preceptor. He studied the black Yajurveda and the Baudhyana dharmastra and belonged to the Bhradvja-gotra.9 His date of birth is unknown; however, according to an inscription preserved at the geri maha, we may be certain he died in 1386.10 In addition to the PM already mentioned, Vidyraya contributed widely to the separate branches of Sanskrit literature during his career under his name Mdhava while in his prvrama, or before he had renounced as an old person. A work related to his digest of civil and religious law in the PM is the Klaniraya. This work falls within the general category of astrology and astronomy and treats the nature of time and how it is divided in the Hindu calendar. But the Klaniraya also relates to dharmastra in that it discusses the auspicious times to perform rituals, and the author specifically mentions that he composed it after his commentary on Parara.11 Vidyraya as Mdhava also composed the well-known work on the fundamentals of Prvamms, the Jaiminyanyyamlvistara. Vidyraya is

mostly known for his philosophical works in Advaita Vednta. However, from these works earlier in his career on dharmastra, ritual performance, and the 7

Prvamms, we gather that his understanding of ritual action and Advaitic knowledge does not place them in some conflict as one might assume they are. There seems to be no indication that Vidyraya as Mdhava was himself married with children. Nevertheless, from these aforementioned works on ritual such as the Klaniraya, we see that he was sensitive to the standards of social and religious life of the wider householder population who formed the ritual-performing collective. We can deduce, furthermore, that he recognized that the Advaitic knowledge prescribed for the renouncer, which was the focus of his literary efforts leading up to the JMV, was not for everyone. I argue that Vidyraya in the JMV attempts to lessen the tension between the householder community and the renouncer by clarifying the renouncer's duties, or dharma-s, and the purposes, or prayojana-s, of liberation-in-life, making them more indentifiable to the householder community. I will address this point further in the section on the context of the JMV below. Mdhava-Vidyraya was involved also in the philosophical debates between the different darana-s, or philosophical schools. His Sarvadaranasagraha is an

arrangement of the various positions in Indian philosophy that Mdhava knew starting from the materialist Crvkas and Buddhists that he thought had the least validity, up to the Ptajalya Yoga system and akara's Advaita that is the highest expression of the truth. The introduction of this text mentions the author "Syaa-Mdhava," which led A. C. Burnell to believe that Mdhava and his brother were the same person. Without any other internal or independent evidence we may only presume the work is his because the view expressed in this text is consistent with those of Vidyraya the Advaitin. We also can speculate that Mdhava and Syaa collaborated and that 8

Mdhava had some involvement in Syaa's Vedabhya.12

Vidyraya also

composed works from the Advaita standpoint such as the Bhadrayakavrtikasra, a commentary on akara's Aparoknubhti, commentaries on the Aitareya, Chndogya, Kaivalya, Nsihottaratpini, and Taittirya Upaniads, as well as a metrical work on the philosophy of the Upaniads, the Anubhtipraka. There are the other texts attached to Vidyraya's name but that may not be his works. This confusion also has led to controversy over identifying Vidyraya with Mdhava13 and added to the confusion over Mdhava-Vidyraya's political role in the founding of the Vijayanagara kingdom, which I will deal with more below. Most notable are some of the standard works of Advaita, the Pacada and the

Vivaraaprameyasagraha. T. M. P. Mahadevan accepted the identity of Mdhava and Vidyraya, and Mdhava's political activities in the founding of Vijayanagara, but believed that the Pacada and the Vivaraaprameyasagraha were works of Vidyraya's preceptor, Bhrattrtha,14 suggesting Vidyraya may have been a surname of both men. In the JMV itself Vidyraya cites the Pacada as an authority and, therefore, does not treat the text as his own. Another text I will deal with more below that has been ascribed to Vidyraya, but which also may not be his, is the akaradigvijaya. 1.4 Controversy over Vijayanagara and Vidyraya Some historians in the twentieth century would have us understand the character of Vidyraya as a unique blend of religious renouncer and secular politician active in guiding the founders of the Vijayanagara kingdom in the early and middle parts of the fourteenth century. His cultural, intellectual, and political contributions mark the 9

beginning of what many believe went on to become the last great Hindu empire in South India. In another, bolder interpretation of Vidyraya's career, Paul Hacker suggested that Vidyraya, "in a sort of deliberate Hindu cultural politics" (Hacker, cited in Halbfass,1995:29), carried out his literary and institutional activities against the effects of the incursions of the Central Asian Turkish Muslims into South India in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, creating a new orthodoxy of Brahmanism. It is true that the Vijayanagara state was founded after the incursions of the Delhi Sultanate destabilized the existing political networks of the South Indian peninsula, leading to the collapse or decline of the previous kingdoms. However, whatever role Vidyraya played in the founding of this kingdom is not certain, even though it has been presumed by many scholars. Standard historical works dealing with the question of the founding of Vijayanagara have repeated the same story, which would lead readers to believe this story's general acceptance among experts. One can take, for instance, K. A. Nilakanta Sastri's A History of South India ([1947] 1976:23739) and N. Venkataramanayya's contribution to The Delhi Sultanate (1960:272273).15 The fact that this version of the history of the founding of Vijayanagara, which represents the Andhra or Telugu version, was chosen to appear in such a major work as Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan's History and Culture of the Indian People volume 6 on the Delhi Sultanate, excluding the differing views of the Kannaa historians, indicates its wide acceptance by many historians some forty years ago. Subsequently, this story found its way into many standard works on Indian history. One of the problems with the Andhra version is that it draws heavily on the later Sanskrit textual accounts such as the Vidyraya10

klajna, Vidyraya-vttnta, and the Vidyraya-aka that were composed some 200 years after the events in question. According to the Andhra version, the founding Sagama brothers Harihara I and Bukka I were retainers of the Kkatya royal house and were captured by the Turkish Muslims during their attack on Warangal, the Kkatya capital in Andhra. The brothers were taken to Delhi and converted to Islam. They were then sent back to the south as administrators of the Sultanate and met Vidyraya, who saw fit to convert them back to the Hindu Dharma. They then are supposed to have broken away from the Sultanate and to have begun forming their own kingdom c. 1336. This date of 1336 was then erroneously agreed upon by the scholars who published the Vijayanagara Sexcentenary Commemoration Volume.16 According to this version, drawing as it does on later Sanskrit sources which purport to relate Vidyraya's activities, he is thus given a key role in the founding of Vijayanagara. The Sagamas supposedly were successful in founding their glorious Hindu kingdom only after they received Vidyraya's blessing. Against the Andhra or Telugu version, the adherents of a Karnatic origin of the Sagamas argue that Harihara and Bukka were already in the service of the Hoysaas. The city called Hosapaaa or Virpkapaaa had already been built on the site of the future Vijayanagara by Ballla III, and was known also by its name still used currently, Hampi. The early date of 1336 for the foundation of the new kingdom is discarded also because, in the view first proposed by Father Henry Heras, it is based only on spurious copper-plate inscriptions made in the sixteenth century. This theory states these copper-plate inscriptions were forged by the geri maha at a time when the Vijayanagara kings shifted their interest from the aivite maha to the Vaiava 11

faith, and the leaders of the maha wanted to reassert their prestige by connecting themselves directly with the foundation of the empire. Heras and others favored the date 1346 for the founding of the kingdom, pointing to an inscription recording what is called either the mahotsava, or "great festival," orvijayotsava, or "victory festival," of the brothers held at the geri maha.17 This inscription does not mention any role of Vidyraya and thus his political activities, if any, do not even figure in the founding of the kingdom. The actual founding of the capital is thought to be decades later, owing to a dynastic continuity between the Sagamas and the Hoysaas through marriage alliances. The picture is more one of a smooth transition of power from the Hoysaas to the Sagamas. The controversy over the origins of the Sagama brothers and the founding of the city and empire continued for the better part of the twentieth century, without resolution among the two factions. 1.5 Revised Views of Vidyraya's Career Sufficient research has appeared in recent decades to give a very different account from what historians had written previously about the theologian Vidyraya's role in early Vijayanagara and the geri maha. The epigraphical work of Vasundhara Filliozat (1973, 1999) and the article drawing from Filliozat's work by Hermann Kulke (1985), as well as the study by Phillip Wagoner (2000) treating the Sanskrit text sources such as the Vidyraya-klajna and the others mentioned, allow us to further delineate the scope of Vidyraya's activities, and perhaps more accurately infer some of his intentions. From the work of Filliozat, Kulke, and Wagoner we may derive the following conclusions: 12

(1) Vidyraya had no involvement in the politics of founding Vijayanagara; at least there is no contemporary epigraphical or textual evidence naming him in connection with these events. Phillip Wagoner (2000:304305) interprets the later Sanskrit textual accounts, where Vidyraya is mentioned and which is datable to the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as a "political foundation myth, an ideological attempt to represent the authority of the Vijayanagara state as deriving directly from that of the Sultanate." It is meant to cast Vijayanagara as a legitimate successor state to Delhi among the other sultanates in the Deccan. The role played by Vidyraya in the founding of Vijayanagara as political and religious advisor to Harihara I and Bukka I was probably imagined at least 200 years afterward, and Vidyraya's name was used presumably to give these events legitimacy and prestige. (2) The earlier notions of Vidyraya's political stature derive in part from the misidentification of his former pre-renunciation name Mdhava with the Mdhava who was a minister to the Sagama brother Mallapa I. We cannot adduce any

political activities like those of the Mdhavamantrin as indicative of MdhavaVidyraya's activities in his early career. (3) Mdhavcrya is not mentioned in any inscriptions before 1374, but only the prior jagadgurus of geri Vidytrtha and Bhratitrtha are mentioned. Therefore, the earlier role of Mdhava in geri and his ascension to jagadguru as Vidyraya cannot be confirmed before 1374. We can only presume that he was present in 1346 at the Sagama's mahotsava at geri, although he is not mentioned. The key event in the founding of Vijayanagara that the historians favoring the Kannaa version have pointed to is the mahotsava that the Sagama rulers are said to 13

have held at the Advaita Vednta maha at geri in 1346. geri is one of the monastic institutions that the Advaitin tradition believes was founded by the great akara. We may consider this mahotsava, or "great festival," an historical event because it was recorded with an inscription found at geri. Here in 1346 the new Vijayanagara sovereigns began a patronage relationship with the akarcrya and jagadguru Vidytrtha. They received his legitimizing blessing for their kingdom and geri received the surrounding lands as a land grant, or agrahra. geri is in Karnataka, near the border with Kerala, and it appears that the Sagamas' relationship with it lends more credence to the Kannaa version of the founding of Vijayanagara kingdom, according to which the Sagamas were retainers to the Hoysaa royal house in Karnataka and not the Kkatyas in Andhra. For the Kannaa version, the date 1346 then marks the inheritance of the Hoysaa domains by the new Sagama dynasty. (4) From the time of this mahotsava in 1346 until Vidyraya's ascension to the role of jagadguru in c. 1374, the lands and money granted to geri by the Vijayanagara rulers greatly increased. Therefore, when Vidyraya actually became the jagadguru, geri was a very different place from what it had been just 30 years earlier, and we may surmise that the influence attached to the role of jagadguru had increased as well. It is not clear exactly what characterized this increased influence or what degree of secular powers were vested in it. One can at least say it allowed for a further promulgation of Advaitin views as they were being taught at geri at this time under the jagadgurus Vidytrtha, Bhratitrtha, and Vidyraya, as well as provided the 14

environment for the commentaries on the Veda carried out by Sayaa and his workers. Vidyraya himself had presumably already completed his PM and his Sarvadaranasagraha before he had become jagadguru in c. 1374, and perhaps at some time shortly before this he took the name Vidyraya upon formally renouncing. It was after this that he composed the JMV, some time between 1380 and his death in 1386.18 To return to Paul Hacker's thesis mentioned above, given what I have outlined above from the work of Filliozat and Kulke, I pose the following questions: (1) In what sense may we say the activities of Vidyraya constitute a "deliberate Hindu cultural politics?" (2) What was his intention? (3) At whom or what was it directed? Was it prompted by the Islamic presence in South India in the fourteenth century, or by other factors? In presenting his thesis, Hacker ascribes to Vidyraya the

responsibility for creating the myth in the akaradigvijaya [DV] of akara and akara's founding of geri and the other Advaitin mahas. Jonathan Bader

(2000:5556 and n. 75) has shown in a full-length study of all the akaran hagiographical works, that Mdhava-Vidyraya was not the author of the DV because it was composed at the earliest sometime between 1650 and 1798 and was therefore wrongly attributed to Mdhava-Vidyraya. If this is the case, an attempt to infer Vidyraya's "cultural politics" is made more ambiguous and must be revised. It is also evident, as was noted by Kulke, that the oldest inscriptions at geri date to the twelfth century and identify a Jaina presence. Kulke believes this "does not yet permit a Jaina origin of geri" (1985:13), but for the purpose of this study, the inscriptions at geri show that the establishment had been taken as the residence of 15

the Advaitin jagadgurus at least by the Sagama mahotsava in 1346, and afterward in 1356 Bukka I designated lands near geri as an agrahra. epigraphical evidence makes no reference to akara himself. Bader (2000:56) notes that Mdhava the author of the DV (not MdhavaVidyraya) venerates the jagadguru Vidytrtha: "Because Vidytrtha is considered the greatest guru in the geri lineage, it is not surprising for him to be evoked by the author of the DV, who, we may assume, was affiliated with that tradition." Without the supporting evidence of a contemporary hagiographical work composed by Mdhava-Vidyraya in the fourteenth century, it is only on the basis of the epigraphical evidence and the literary production of Mdhava-Vidyraya and Syaa that we may still suppose geri jagadgurus initiated a Hindu cultural politics sometime in the second half of the fourteenth century. I think the intention behind such a program was more limited than Paul Hacker had speculated. The literary activities of Mdhava-Vidyraya and Syaa were surely meant to promote a sort of orthodox Brahmanism based on Advaita, though I doubt it was prompted by some political and cultural pressure due to the Islamic presence. The most we can say is that the presence of Muslim intellectuals on the subcontinent contributed to the overall intellectual climate and that Vidyraya and Syaa produced their novel works within this climate. Patronage given to them by the Vijayanagara sovereigns for their literary productions also cannot be simply presumed to promote "Hinduism" versus a Muslim presence. We must be careful in assessing the "Hindu" nature of the Vijayanagara state.19 However, the


To give some provisional answer to the third question I posed above, I think it is more likely that Vidyraya promoted his Advaita Brahmanism in response to the rvaiava sectarian presence in neighboring Andhra and Tamil Nadu, rather than in response to some Islamic presence. The sharply increasing patronage the Sagamas made available to geri allowed for a never-before-realized institutional growth and the formation of a maha based in Advaita teachings. Had there been a maha at geri previous to 1346, it was most likely not a public institution with far-reaching influence in its teachings and did not garner much patronage. I speculate, then, that when the jagadgurus of geri Vidytrtha, Bhratitrtha, and Vidyraya started securing greater patronage in the second half of the fourteenth century, and bestowing some sacred legitimacy on their Sagama patrons, they could begin to compete for the patronage of other areas that had previously been under the control of other sovereigns. It is unlikely they would have approached Islamic sovereigns for such patronage. I propose that the Advaitin jagadgurus looked to other territories to promote their Advaitin theology in the political vacuum created by the collapse of institutions in the early part of the fourteenth century after the Turkish incursions into South India. When the newly legitimated Sagama dynastic kings filled this political vacuum and began expanding to other territories, the Advaita jagadgurus also looked to other territories whose sovereigns and local leaders were responsible for the management of temples and who had long patronized the rvaiava sectarians.20 Even if

territoriessay in the vicinities of rragam in Tamil Nadu or Tirupati in Andhrawere not yet under the control of the Vijayanagara sovereigns in the middle 17

of the fourteenth century, the geri jagadgurus could at least look to these areas traditionally populated by the rvaiava sectarians as a place to promote their Advaitin teachings. It is in this limited sense, then, that I would use the idea of a "deliberate cultural politics." There were also other competing groups in fourteenthcentury South India, most notably the aiva Klamukhas and Vraaivas. Surely the geri Advaitins would have been acquainted with them and competed with them for support. But the textual evidence to my knowledge does not mention them as serious opponents of the Advaitin theological views. Therefore I believe the geri

Advaitins would have limited the scope of their theological programs for the most part to the vaiava Viidvaitins, who could argue with them on the same theological grounds. It is in this milieu, then, that I would like to place the appearance of Vidyraya's JMV. At about the time that Vidyraya became the jagadguru of geri c. 1374, the Vijayanagara sovereigns expanded their control to territories traditionally held by rvaiavas in Tamil Nadu and Andhra in 1371 C.E. In his study of the Koil Olugu, the chronicle of the rvaiava temple complex at rragam, George W. Spencer21 (1978:2326) discusses the motives for the Vijayanagara generals of the Sagama sovereigns who took authority over and restored order to this temple. Drawing on the work of Arjun Appadurai on king/temple relations, Spencer believes that aside from piety or material gain, they patronized this temple in order to have it confer on them its legitimation and sought the ceremonial honors. Based on the coincidences of these dates and the expansion enjoyed by the Advaitins of geri since 1356 under the initial patronage of the Vijayanagara sovereigns, I suggest that Vidyraya, as the new 18

akarcrya of geri, saw these new territories subsumed under Vijayanagara authority as a new opportunities for the promotion of Advaita. If we can place

anything about the JMV in time and space and consider Vidyraya's motives beyond teaching his own Advaitin followers, I think his deliberate cultural politics was to promote Advaita among sectarian rvaiava laypeople in these newly controlled territories and defend the idea of liberation-in-life against the rvaiava theologians. 1.6 The Jvanmuktiviveka in Context The leading theologian of the rvaiava Visidvaitin school in the fourteenth century, and worthy opponent of Vidyraya, was Vednta Deika. Deika's

atadai directly attacks the Advaitin positions. One can point to a couple of obvious cases of refutations that Vidyraya then countered with his broad program in the JMV. The 31st refutation of the atadai, the Jvanmuktibhagavda, rejects the Advaitin notion of jvanmukti in particular. And the 65th refutation, the

Alepakamatabhagavda, deals specifically with the Advaitin renunciation and rejects it as antinomian libertinism (text and trans. Olivelle 1987:97158). It is probable that Vednta Deika presumed the rules for ascetical renouncers as set out by the Yatidharmasamucaya, a legal digest composed in the second half of the eleventh century by Ydava Praka. This text emerged out of the sectarian

rvaiava theological context. The views in this text differed greatly from the ascetic tradition of the Advaita. It retained main rules for the Brahmanical

householders, and indeed integrated the ascetical life of the renouncer into the ritual life of the householder. Olivelle states in the introduction to his edition of the Yatidharmasamucaya (1995: 1718) that, for the rvaiava tradition, the renouncer 19

is really something more of "a very exalted type of Brahmanical householder rather than a figure who contradicts the value system represented by domestic life." This tradition was much more concerned with preserving ritual boundaries of purity and impurity, especially concerning the body. Vidyraya, however, specifically states in the Chapter Two of the JMV there is no possibility of cleansing the body, and the desire to do so is another latent tendency, or vsan, that should be dissolved: "Through its nine openings filth constantly oozes out; through its innumerable pores it is covered with sweatwho indeed is able even with the greatest effort to wash the body?" [2.4.80] Such concerns show us the basically conservative and communal view of the rvaiavas, who admitted the ancient and classical values of the ascetic traditions, but fully subsumed them within the householder mainstream. In medieval times, although renunciation was presented in the Brahmanical law books as a value common to all Brahmins, or twice-born classes, the reality was that the ascetic tradition became organized into monastic establishments divided along sectarian lines. Interestingly, although we can be sure Vidyraya was the head of just such a monastic establishment, the geri maha, he mentions the term maha only once, late in Chapter Five of the JMV. This mention is in the context, moreover, of an extended discussion of the definition of the highest type of renouncer, the paramahasa yogin. The term maha is mentioned by way of commentary on the Paramahamsa Upaniad 4, where it states that "the mendicant remains homeless." Vidyraya comments: "If he (i.e., the paramahasa yogin) were to come to some monastery (maha) in order to have a permanent residence, then, given that he feels a sense of ownership with regard to it, its decline and growth would distract his mind" 20

[5.4.11]. Why then, would Vidyraya compose a book at the time when he was head of the geri maha defining an individual who, Vidyraya seems to believe, did not belong in his own monastic establishment? The reason is again, I believe, that Vidyraya was responding to refutations given by the Viidvaitins, in particular that jvanmukti is not a valid possibility. For Vednta Deika, Advaitin renunciation is not a valid order in society, or rama institution, nor is it valid to say it is beyond the rama-s, as some Advaitins, including Vidyraya, tried to argue. First of all let us deal with the latter objection. One of the first arguments made in JMV concerns the nature of vividisanysa, or "renunciation out of the desire for knowledge." Vidyraya cites the appropriate prama-s, or authoritative scriptural passages, from the Upaniads such as BU 4.4.22: "etam eva pravrjino lokam icchanta pravrajanti" (Desiring this alone as their world, the renouncers undertake the life of wandering) [1.1.6]. He then defines vividisanysa as twofold: "the one consisting only in the abandonment of rites and the like, which produces rebirth; the other constitutes an order in society (rama) that is connected with carrying a staff and the like, which are preceded by uttering the praia ritual formula" [1.1.11]. This is a very important distinction which is assumed in the rest of the text. Roger Marcaurelle (2000:188194) in his study of akara's views on renunciation terms these two types "informal" and "formal" renunciation. Vidyraya also later refers to a distinction between "Vedic" and "common" (laukika) in this regard. One type of renunciation out of the desire for knowledge (vividisanysa) can be an informal, inward, mental abandonment of rites and wandering mendicancy 21

for the attainment of knowledge. The other type is a formal rama, or public order in society, that is entered fulltime and involves emblems of this institution like carrying a staff and a public declaration of the intention to renounce. It is here then that Vidyraya extends the entitlement to this kind of renunciation, the informal type, to women and to members of the other rama-s by saying: "When, for whatever reason, Vedic students, householders, and forest-dwellers are prevented from entering the renunciant order, there is nothing to prevent the mental abandonment of rites and the like for the purpose of knowledge, even while they remain performing the duties (dharma-s) of their own order, because we see many such knowers of truth in the rutis, Smtis, Itihsas, and Puras" [1.1.14]. Then, in conclusion of this section he comments "Since the order of the paramahasa, which is the cause of knowing and consists in carrying the staff and the like, has been treated at length in many ways by earlier teachers. Therefore, we will not deal with it" [1.1.15]. For Vidyraya, the knowledge of Brahman may then be realized in either way. This realization, however, necessarily leads to the vidvatsanysa, or renunciationof-the-knower. While both vividisanysa and vidvatsanysa are under the rubric of "paramahasa," Vidyraya that says they each have different duties or dharma-s. The one is meant to perform means to realize knowledge of Brahman; the other must perform that which allow the knower to safeguard that realization, i.e., by means of yogic practices. This is not an rama per se. Nonetheless it seems there is always some ambiguity here, because in Chapter Five Vidyraya says renunciationof-the-knower has characteristics of both types of renunciation out of the desire for knowledge. Given that the renunciation-of-the-knower is basically a modification of 22


it carries with it all the details pertaining to the

prototype, according to the hermeneutic maxim: "praktivad vikti kartavy" (The modification should conform to the archetype) [5.1.39].22 That is to say, the ritual details of the archetype ritual must all carry over to the modification: "This is just as in the case of the Agnioma Soma sacrifice, where the ritual details pertaining to it are applicable to the modified rites such as the Atirtra" [5.1.39]. However, the means of knowledge then become subsidiary for the renouncer who is a knower, and the yogic practices become primary. [2.3] For the more conservative householder community of the rvaiava Viidvaitins, ambiguity in regard to religious life could not be tolerated. Did a

renunciant have a place in society or not? Vidyraya took the view that once an individual renunciant realizes the liberating knowledge of Brahman, he should continue living a renunciant lifestyle as a yogin. Vidyraya believed that the knowledge of Self (tman) as Brahman in classical Advaita philosophy is not enough to completely root out suffering and prrabdhakarma, or operative action, which causes future births. Liberation also requires a lifelong commitment to the yogic practices of the eradication of latent tendencies (vsankaya) and elimination of the mind (manonaa). To be liberated in this lifetime, a jvanmukta, the individual who realizes the equivalence of self and Brahman, must sustain further yogic discipline and a renunciant lifestyle for the rest of his life, renouncing even the fact that he is a knower of Brahman. Yoga of Patajali was by this time already very ancient, originating as early as perhaps the second century B.C.E. Yoga philosophy had permeated the religious life of Hindus in various forms, including by this time the 23

Kualini Yoga of Tantric cults and the Haha Yoga of the Nath ascetics. I believe that one reason Vidyraya went back to the earlier Yoga of Patajali and integrated it with Sakara's philosophy of the liberating knowledge was to accommodate the conservative rvaiava view of Vednta Deika. Making the renouncer responsible for further moral perfecting beyond the attainment of knowledge puts him above all reproach directed at him by the housholder community. Indeed, one of the purposes of liberation-in-life that Vidyraya treats in Chapter Four of the JMV is the "absence of opposition" (visavdbhva) to the master yogin by members of varying sects. [4.3] His virtue is obvious to everyone. Viewed from a sociopolitical standpoint, Vidyraya wanted to mitigate the ambiguity of the individual renunciant's position in the mainstream community by directing him to sustain the path toward his spiritual goal, knowledge and liberation from desire. even after attaining

Vidyraya preserved the possibility of

complete liberation in this lifetime, while not disturbing the conventional religious social order. In following Vidyraya's teaching, the individual who renounces society lessens the resulting tension by maintaining an identifiable lifestyle, and the highest moral standards, with conventional ascetical practices. He does not

compromise his position but remains an ascetic outside of, while still recognized by, the householder society. Granted, this may not have satisfied the rvaiava community. The

interpretation and reinterpretation of normative texts and teachings, and the appropriation of legitimate views of opposing sides continues still. It is in this sense we can see why Walter Slaje believes that Vidyraya's JMV is "tendentious," though 24

I don't think Vidyraya is "naive."23 It is the business of theologians to look for ways to interpret their normative textual tradition in order to apply it to their contemporary situations. We do not hear scholars criticizing Thomas Aquinas for changing anything in his new treatment of Aristotle. It may well be that Vidyraya changed ideas in his normative textual tradition, though all the while not admitting he had made anything new.


The term jvanmukta (not jvanmukti) appears in the Mahbhrata in the context of battle but does not carry the Advaitin meaning. See Minoru Hara, "A Note on the Epic Phrase Jvanmukta," Adyar Library Bulletin: 60 (1996) pp. 181197. Walter Slaje has taken this point and attempts to trace sources for jvanmukti that are separate and independent of the Advaita Vednta treatment of the concept. See Slaje, "Towards a history of the jvanmukti concept: the Mokadharma in the Mahbhrata," in Festschrift Minoru Hara, (2000b) pp. 325348. See also Slaje, "Liberation for Intentionality and Involvement: On the Concept of Jvanmukti according to the Mokopaya," JIP 28 (2000a) pp. 171194. For studies of jvanmukti as it developed through different Indian philosophical schools, including Advaita Vednta, see Gerhard Oberhammer, La Dliverance, Ds Cette Vie (jvanmukti), Collge de France Publications de L'Institut de Civilisation Indienne. Srie in 8, Fasc. 61 (Paris: ditions-Difussion Boccard, 1994); Andrew O. Fort and Patricia Y. Mumme, eds., Living Liberation in Hindu Thought (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996); Fort, Jvanmukti in Transformation: Embodied Liberation in Advaita and Neo-Advaita (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998); L. K. L. Sristava, Advaitic Concept of Jvanmukti (Delhi and Varanasi: Bharatiya Vidya Prakashan, 1990); and A. G. Krishna Warrier, The Concept of Mukti in Advaita Vednta (Madras: University of Madras, 1981). In the introduction to his Italian translation of the JMV, Roberto Donatoni offers a more extensive philosophical background for the text than what I have attempted here. See his La Liberazione in Vita: Jvanmuktiviveka (Milano: Adephi Edizioni, 1995) pp. 1183.
2 1

For studies of renunciation in Brahmanism, see Har Dutt Sharma, Contributions to the History of Brhmaical Asceticism (Sanysa), (Poona: Oriental Book Agency, 1939); and Patrick Olivelle, Sanysa Upaniads: Hindu Scriptures on Asceticism and Renunciation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992) pp. 19112, where he has given an extended introduction to his translation of these Upaniads. See also Olivelle, "A Definition of World Renunciation," WZKS 19 (1975) pp. 7583. "The Integration of Renunciation by Orthodox Hinduism," Journal of the Oriental Institute (Baroda) 28 (1978) pp. 2736; "Contributions to the Semantic History of Sanysa," Journal of the American Oriental Society 3 (1981) pp. 265274; "Renouncer and Renunciation in the Dharmastras," in Studies in Dharmastra, ed. Richard W. Lariviere (Calcutta: Firma KLM, 1984) pp. 81152; and Renunciation in Hinduism: A Medieval Debate, De Nobili Research Library, vols. 1314 (Vienna: University of Vienna Institute for Indology, 19861987). Olivelle has also edited and translated two nibandha-s, or legal digests, on yatidharma, or the rules and duties governing the life of renouncers. See Vsudevrama Yatidharmapraka: A Treatise on World Renunciation, De Nobili Research Library, vols. 34 (Vienna: University of Vienna Institute for Indology, 19761977), which is a work coming from the Advaita tradition of renunciation; and Rules and Regulations of Brahmanical Asceticism: Yatidharmasamuccaya of Ydava Praka, (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995), which belongs to the rvaiava tradition. Olivelle also critically edited another text of this type called the Sanysapaddhati of Rudra Deva Adyar Library Series 114 (Madras: Adyar Library, 1986). Another work of this later type that has been edited and published is the Yatidharmasagraha, ed. Pt. Ganesha Shastri Joshi, nSS 60 (Pune: nandrama Sansth, 1980).

The date 1380 is given by J. F. Sprockhoff in the first part of his thorough study of the JMV in "Der Weg zur Erlsung bei Lebzeiten, ihr Wesen und Wert, Nach dem Jvanmuktiviveka des Vidyraya," WZKS 8 (1964) p. 225. He assigned it to 1350 in the earlier article "Zur idee der Erlsung bei Lebzeiten in Buddhismus," Numen 9 (1962) p. 202. Andrew Fort (1996, 1998) has characterized Vidyraya's contribution as "Yogic Advaita," stating that the JMV is syncretic. Elsewhere Fort analyzes Vidyraya's use of the YS in his text but maintains that Vidyraya still believed that "ultimately there is no doubt that knowing brahman is the essential element for full liberation." See Fort, "On Destroying the Mind: The Yogastras in Vidyraya's Jvanmuktiviveka," JIP 27 (1999) pp. 377378.


See Pararasmti - Parara Mdhava [PM], ed. Chandrakanta Tarkalankara, 1st ed. Bibliotheca Indica Series 1893, rpt. ed., 3 vols. (Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, 19731974) vol. 1, pp. 530 ff. Vednta Deika titles his specific refutations not as via-s but rather as bhagavda-s.

6 7

For example, Vidyraya disagrees with the view in Nyya that the mind is eternal and atomic in size. See below, 2.5.1, and Chapter 2, n.48.

Throughout my translation of the JMV, I have not translated the Sanskrit words ruti, smti, stra, and stra. Rather than translate them as "heard or revealed scripture," "remembered tradition," "aphorism," and "technical treatise," I wish to focus the reader's mind on the specifics of literary genre as they were formulated in Indian culture.

See PM vol. 1, p. 3, verses 67: rmat janan sukrtir myaa | syao bhogantha ca manovuddh sahodarau || yasya baudhyaa stra kh yasya ca yju | bhradvja kula yasya sarvaja sa hi mdhava || The inscription has been translated and published in Vidyraya, prepared by Uttankita Sanskrit Vidy-Aranya Trust, Uttankita Sanskrit Vidy-Aranya Epigraphs (Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1985) vol. 1, pp. 112117. It records a grant made by Harihra II to the maha upon Vidyraya's death and is dated May 26, 1386.
11 10

See verse 4:vykhyya mdhavcryo dharmn prsarnatha | tadanuhnaklasya niraya kartum udyata || Klamchava, ed. Braja Kishore Swain, Kashi Sanskit Series 45 (Varanasi: Chaukambha Sanskrit Sansthan, 1989) p. ii.

P. V. Kane in HDh vol. 1, pt. 2, 3d ed. (1997) believes Syaa must have collaborated. "It should not be supposed that Syaa single-handedly composed the Vedabhyas. He was probably the chairman of the committee of scholars fathered for carrying out the work of several bhyas" (p. 781). This debate was carried on by historians in series of articles in the 1930s. R. Rama Rao, in "Origin of the Mdhava-Vidyraya Theory," Indian Historical Quarterly 7 (1931) p. 7892, denied this identity, while K. Markandeya Sarma, in "Identity of Vidyraya and Mdhavcrya," Indian Historical Quarterly 8 (1932) p. 611614, rejoins Rao and cites the same evidence given here from PM. M. A. Doraiswamy Iyengar, in "The Mdhava-Vidyraya Theory," Journal of Indian History 12 (n.d.) p. 241250, rejects the identity and would "reduce Vidyraya from the position of a world-figure to that of an insignificant ascetic who presided over the geri Mah from c. 1377 to 1386 A.D." (p. 243). My own view here is that they are the same, but Mdhava-Vidyraya's political role is less clear than the historians of the twentieth century want to ascribe to him. I would not, however, call him "an insignificant ascetic."
14 13

See Mahadevan's The Philosophy of Advaita with Special Reference to Bhrattrtha-Vidyraya (Madras: Ganesh and Co. Pvt. Ltd., 1957) pp. 18.

See also his Vijayanagara: Origin of the City and Empire, orig. pub. 1933 (New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1990) pp. 5990. Published by Dharwar: Vijayanagara Empire Sexcentenary Association, 1936.

16 17

This view was proposed by Father Henry Heras in Beginnings of Vijayanagara History (Bombay: n.p., 1929) and B. A. Saletore in Social and Political Life in the Vijayanagara Empire, 2 vols. (Madras: n.p., 1931).


18 19

See above, Introduction 1, n.3.

See Anila Verghese, Religious Traditions at Vijayanagara as Revealed Through its Monuments, Vijayanagara Research Project Monograph Series, vol. 4 (New Delhi: Manohar, American Institute of Indian Studies, 1995). "Earlier writers have interpreted titles such as 'supporters of dharma' or 'upholders of the ancient constitutional usage' too literally. Such titles constitute an important part of the traditional pedigree of the kings of ancient India and 'protection of dharma' formed part of the coronation oath of Hindu kings. It is true that wars against the Bahman sultns were frequent. But their cause was more political and economic rather than religious. It was but a revival of the ancient feud that had existed between the Deccan and south India under the earlier Hindu sovereigns, e.g., between the Chlukyas of Badami and the Pallavas, the Chlukyas of Kalyi and the Chas, the Ydavas and the Hoysaas. Besides, the major victims of the Vijayanagara arms were not always the Muslims. The expansion and maintenance of the Vijayanagara empire also necessitated military expeditions against less powerful Hindu rulers, such as the abuvaryas, the Reis of Koavdu, the Vlamas and the Gajapatis. Also, Muslim soldiers played an important part in the successes of the Vijayanagara army. "Therefore, the Hindu nature of the Vijayanagara state should not be overstressed. However, it must be accepted that the empire did create conditions for the defense of Hindu culture and institutions and it succeeded in limiting the expansion of Muslim power in the Deccan for over two centuries. During this period the outlook of the Hindus of the south developed into an orthodoxy in social and religious matters. The encouragement of religion by the Vijayanagara monarchs, as revealed by the numerous inscriptions, included promotion of Vdic and other studies, support of brhmaas, generous patronage extended to mahas and temples, pilgrimages to religious places and celebration of public rituals." (pp. 23) For a theory of the power structure of South Indian temple complexes in the premodern South Indian state, see Arjun Appadurai, "Kings, Sects, and Temples in South India: 13501700 A.D.," in South Indian Temples: An Analytical Reconsideration, ed. Burton Stein (New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., 1978) pp. 4773. Those who actually carried out the operations of the temple complexes such as riragam and Tirupati were not the theologians like Rmnuja and Vednta Deika.


See "Crisis of Authority in a Hindu Temple under the Impact of Islam," in Religion and the Legitimation of Power in South Asia ed. Bardwell L. Smith (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1978) pp. 1427.


Cf. Arthasagraha of Laugki Bhskara, 23, eds. A. B. Gajendragadkar and R. D. Karmarkar, (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1998) p.19: "Where there is a specification or mention of all subsidiaries, that [is] the arche-type, as the new moon and full moon sacrifices and others. For, in their context all subsidiaries are mentioned. Where all subsidiaries are not specified, that [is] is the modification, as the oblation to the sun (saurya). There some subsidiaries become available (prpta) by means of extended application."


See Slaje (2000a) p. 171, and "On Changing Others' Ideas: the case of Vidyraya and the Yogavsiha," Indo-Iranian Journal 41 (1998) p. 103.


Introduction Part Two The Means of Liberation according to the Jvanmuktiviveka

2.1 The Problem of Operative Action At the outset of the JMV, Vidyraya makes a basic distinction between the renouncer who desires knowledge (vividisanysin) [1.1], and renouncer who is a knower (vidvatsanysin) [1.2].1 Both are subtypes of the highest type of renouncer, the paramahasa. [1.2.17] As an Advaitin, Vidyraya of course gives importance to the realization of knowledge of the truth of the non-dual equivalence of the Self and Brahman. However, realizing the liberating knowledge is not sufficient and is not the ultimate goal. It remains possible for the renouncer who has attained that knowledge to achieve complete liberation from all future births while still in the physical body. The possibility of liberation-in-life, while accepted in Advaita Vednta, remained controversial and paradoxical and was rejected by other schools of Indian philosophy.2 Vidyraya defines liberation-in-life: The nature of the mind of a living persona nature that is characterized by such things as being a doer or an experiencer, happiness and sufferingconstitutes bondage because it consists in affliction (klea). Removal of this (bondage) is liberation-in-life. [1.3.2]3 Initially the bondage is removed by the knowledge of truth, but according to Vidyraya, bondage is not permanently removed. Knowledge is not stabilized until the individual knower goes on to master yogic discipline, whose purpose is the "suppression of mental activity" (cittavttinirodha) [YS 1.2], and he must ultimately reach enstasis (samdhi). With knowledge alone, the knower can achieve bodiless29

liberation or liberation after the death of the present body (videhamukti). Both the Adyar and nSS editions and some manuscripts of the JMV contain the reading that says that liberation-in-life resembles bodiless-liberation.4 However, there is

compelling manuscript evidence that Vidyraya meant that the two types of liberation are equal, not merely similar.5 The reading that states that liberation-in-life resembles bodiless-liberation is a citation of LYV 3.1.88: nn jnaikanihnm tmajnavicrim / s jvanmuktatodeti videhamuktateva y // [LYV 3.1.88: P1, P2, Adyar, nSS] In men focused only on knowledge, and who investigate the knowledge of the self, there arises the state of liberation-in-life which is like (iva) the state of bodiless-liberation. Some manuscripts, and the Adyar and nSS editions of JMV, read iva here rather than eva. However, there is compelling manuscript evidence that Vidyraya meant that the two types of liberation are equal, not merely similar. s jvanmuktatodeti videhamuktataiva y. [B1, B2, B3, PGh, LYV (1937), YV (1911)] The B1, B2, B3, and PGh, as well as the 1937 Nirnayasagar edition of LYV, and the 1911 Nirnayasagar edition of the YV at the corresponding text 3.9.2, read eva. Though it is a mere matter of a stroke in the e versus ai vowel sign in sandhi for -iva versus -eva in the devangar script, the difference is significant for the argument put forth here. I contend that Vidyraya believes that liberation-in-life is equal to bodiless-liberation, rather than merely resembling bodiless-liberation as the other reading has it. The author takes up this point again at the end of the discussion of bodiless-liberation, where another difficult reading in the text occurs and I believe that 30

this reading was changed by the scribes. The Adyar and nSS editions, as well as all the manuscripts I have been able to collate, have the reading: evavidhay videhamukty sdyokter jvanmuktv api yvad yvan nirvikalptiayas tvat tvad uttamatva draavyam || [1.5.7] In this manner, because of the mentioned resemblance with bodiless liberation (sdyokte), one must recognize that liberation-in-life is better and better insofar as there is an increasing abundance of no-distinctions (nirvikalptiaya). All the manuscripts have some form of sdyokter: P2 and B3 read sdyatvokter; which PGh has corrected in the margin by an editor to sdyatvokter yathokta. P1 reads sadyatvokter yathokta; B2, sadatvokter yathokta; and nSS, sadatvotkaratvokter yathokta. I discovered that the B1 manuscript, which regularly has the difficult readings, in this instance again has the difficult reading. Instead of some form of sdyokter, it clearly has sadasatvokter. To make sense of this reading I have made a small emendation here on the basis of the frequency with which visarga-s are dropped before sibilants in manuscripts. The emendation simply involved adding a visarga to make the instrumental videhamukty a genitive videhamukty. The instrumental evavidhay must also be emended to the genitive evavidhy with its visarga dropped in sandhi. This then yields the text and translation: evavidhy videhamukty sadasatvokter jvanmuktv api yvad yvan nirvikalptiayas tvat tvad uttamatva draavyam. [1.5.7] Because bodiless-liberation of such a kind has been described as existent and non-existent, one must recognize that in liberation-in-life also, the more there is an increasing abundance of no-distinctions (nirvikalptiaya), the more eminent it (liberation-in-life) is.


The reference made by sadasatvokter is not to LYV 3.1.88 as in the others, but to another loka much closer to this comment. Only a few lines away, at 1.5.4, LYV 3.1.99, was cited: videhamukto nodeti nstam eti na myati | na san nsan na drastho na cha na ca netara || [1.5.4; LYV 3.1.99] The bodiless-liberated neither rises nor sets, nor does he rest. He is neither existent nor non-existent; neither is he distant and not (near);6 neither I nor the other. Liberation-in-life and bodiless-liberation are equal for Vidyraya to the extent that the person liberated-in-life has an increasing abundance of "no-distinctions" (nirvikalptiaya). [1.5.7] I believe this is an important semantic distinction brought out in the editing of the text that may have philosophical importance for its interpretation. Given this different reading of the text, liberation-in-life is equivalent to bodiless-liberation when the yogin is in nirvikalpa. Vidyraya is not explicit about what he means by nirvikalpa. He may mean nirvikalpapratyaka or nirvikalpajna, which is "indeterminate perception" and "indeterminate knowledge" of the Nyya philosophy. However, because the JMV has a great deal to do with yoga, we may also take it as nirvikalpasamdhi, the "enstasis-without-distinctions." In this state the agent of perception, the instrument of perception, and the object of perception disappear, and there is no longer a sense of being a separate individual, nor any "experience" at all. There is "no one there," which psychologically may be equal to death. Therefore we may interpret this statement to say that because there can be an increasing abundance of nirvikalpasamdhi, the embodied yogin can psychologically disappear to a greater or lesser degree. Thus when the body finally dies, there is no


one there to die, and therefore the liberation-in-life is already essentially equal to liberation after the death of the body. To show how this may be possible, Vidyraya must deal with the problem of "operative action" (prrabdhakarma).7 Operative, or "commenced," action is action that brought one's current life into existence and has already begun to produce its result, which is the continuation of the body. "Uncommenced action"

(anrabdhakarma), on the other hand, is action that is simply waiting its turn to bear fruit. Actions are so numerous that they cannot operate simultaneously but only sequentially. Even after the advent of the liberating knowledge, the operative action continues and the knower lives it through until the death of the body, whereupon he attains the bodiless-liberation. This notion is commonly expressed in the metaphors of the arrow already in flight, or the spinning of the potter's wheel.8 Thus the liberation-in-life in the current physical body is a liberation within the confines of operative action that continues to sustain the body for a time. The presence of operative action in one liberated-in-life remained an elusive problem for the Advaitin thinkers before Vidyraya, though they still accepted liberation-in-life.9 How can one be said to be truly liberated-in-life by means of the realization of the knowledge of truth alone when operative action still continues to sustain the body? Does it not still present an obstacle to the knower's freedom?

Vidyraya attempts a novel solution to this problem by defining the word "body" in bodiless-liberation to mean only the "subtle body" (sukmadeha, ligadeha) or "future body" (bhvideha)10 [2.3.4875]. Knowledge is the principal means for the removal of bondage, and bodiless-liberation arises simultaneously with knowledge. After 33

equating the yogic goal of "perfect isolation" (kaivalya) with bodiless-liberation, Vidyraya then says that there is no perfect isolation for those who have not studied the authoritative texts on knowledge "because the subtle body has not passed away" [2.3.39]. The individual knower will not achieve bodiless-liberation upon the death of his current physical, gross body, for the subtle body will produce a new gross body into which his soul (jva) will be reborn. We must remember in this context the way in which the Mkya Upaniad [GK 1.14] analyzes the four states of consciousness: waking (jgaraa), dreaming (svapna), deep sleep (suupti), and the Fourth (turya). Consciousness is conceived of in its individual/microcosmic (vyai) and comprehensive/macrocosmic (saai) aspects. Prja is the individual/microcosmic soul in the deep sleep state. It is conditioned by ignorance (avidy). vara is the comprehensive/macrocosmic soul in the deep sleep state. It is conditioned by illusion (my). The two aspects of the waking state are called viva and vaivnara. The two aspects of the dreaming state are called taijasa and hirayagarbha. Consciousness is also conceived of as being experienced in a different body in each state: In the waking state, experience takes place in the gross body (sthla deha); in the dreaming state, in the subtle body (sukmadeha, ligadeha); in deep sleep, the causal body (kraadeha). The bodilessliberated man has neither the individual/microcosmic aspect nor the

comprehensive/macrocosmic aspect. This is the Fourth state, or turya, in which there is no distinction between these two aspects. Though Vidyraya does not explicitly state it in the JMV, I suspect that he maintains here that the subtle body contains the seeds of future actions and thus leads 34

to rebirth. Vidyraya was probably aware of akara's treatment of the subtle body in BSBh 3.1.1. Here akara discusses how the soul departs from the body and takes a new one, citing the caterpillar analogy from BU 4.4.3. The soul, still surrounded by the subtle elements, must experience thoughts regarding the future body, for it has its attention turned to past action. It lengthens to the next body like the caterpillar reaches from blade of grass to another.11 Thus for a time the soul in the subtle body, existing in the dreaming state of consciousness, forms the final vsan, or latent tendency, of the former birth, which contains the conception for the future body; mentally attaches to it; and leads the soul into rebirth in a new physical body. Although Vidyraya does not refer to this explanation, at 2.3.55 he speaks of the future body (bhvideha) interchangeably with the subtle body. I believe that for Vidyraya the subtle body is the same as or connected with the future body, and the subtle body contains the potential for generating future births. Thus with the liberating knowledge of the Self, the knower will be freed from future births, for their potential contained in the subtle body is removed by this knowledge. Earlier on, Vidyraya interprets the statement in KU 5.1, which says ". . . and freed from it, he is set free," to mean that "a living person is already freed especially from visible bonds such as desire, but when the body dies, one is freed especially from bondage to future births" [1.4.3]. The further explanation of what he earlier means by "body" comes only later in 2.3.55. Vidyraya first presents an objection, according to which bodiless-liberation takes place after the death of the body. For support, the objector cites Vkyavtti 5253, which says one that becomes liberatedin-life through operative action and then attains perfect isolation upon the destruction 35

of operative action, i.e., at the death of the body. He also cites LYV 3.1.98, which says that one abandons the state of one liberated-in-life at the death of the body and enters the state of bodiless-liberation. Vidyraya responds: This is not a problem, because the two views are not contradictory, owing to the specific distinction of meaning. In their descriptions, many have taken the word "body," which occurs in the expression "bodiless-liberation," to refer to all types of bodies. But we say it exclusively implies the "future body," because one acquires knowledge for the sole purpose of preventing the arising of such a body. But this body has already arisen, and therefore one cannot prevent its arising even through knowledge. Nor is removing the present body the result of knowledge, because, even for the ignorant, it is removed when operative action is exhausted. [2.3.55] Vidyraya will admit the type of bodiless-liberation that occurs after the death of the current body [1.5] but elaborates on the use of this same term to include his notion of liberation-in-life, which involves the death of the future body; for him the latter is in essence another type of bodiless-liberation. [1.5.7] This argument is consistent with the notion of the equivalence of liberation-in-life and bodiless-liberation and also supports the textual emendation I have made at 1.5.7. In the subsequent discussion, Vidyraya refers interchangeably to this body as the "future" body and the "subtle" body. This future/subtle body has in some way "already arisen" and seems to exist as the potential cause of future births, acting similar to the way in which operative action causes experience, because it too has already arisen and continues to sustain the present (physical) body. Bodiless-liberation is the death of this future/subtle body rather than the death of the present body, for the death of the present body obviously occurs even among the ignorant. If knowledge cannot remove this body that has already arisen, the objector asks, what will? Vidyraya answers that we cannot see an opposing force that will 36

remove this future/subtle body; therefore one must remove the whole "causal complex" (smagr) [2.3.61]. This causal complex, Vidyraya says, is operative and uncommenced, and he goes on to say that uncommenced action can be removed by knowledge, and operative action, which is unopposed by knowledge, is removed only by living through it. However, the future/subtle body is removed only through the removal of this causal complex, and therefore the removal of the future/subtle body is not the result of knowledge. One would like Vidyraya to say more here, but evidently he equates uncommenced and operative action with the causal complex. The objector continues to offer other arguments for the bodiless-liberation as the death of the body, such as its being the result of an aprva, or "remote or unseen consequence of a ritual act" [2.3.68; Chapter 2, n.24], and that it occurs through another knowledge consisting in an immediate realization of truth at the last moment [2.3.70]. Vidyraya dismisses each of these, saying that his type of bodiless-liberation is achieved ultimately only by the removal of the causal complex through knowledge and when operative action, which is not opposed by knowledge, is lived through. Operative action itself ends, for it does not produce any further causes. All causal factors, such as the body, senses, and so on, are removed because there is no cause at the end of operative action. Therefore, we grant the bodiless-liberation you postulate, characterized by the freedom from the current body, whereas (the bodiless-liberation) we postulate, (characterized by the freedom from a future body,) arises at precisely the same time as knowledge. [2.3.73] Therefore, it appears that the problem of operative action faced for so long by the other Advaitin thinkers has still not been completely solved by redefining bodilessliberation. The difference is that Vidyraya's type of liberation requires the personal yogic effort in the current life to achieve it and thus leads to his whole program of 37

yogic discipline for renouncers. One might think that it ought to be enough for somebody seeking liberation from rebirth in sasra to be satisfied with having attained knowledge that will remove all future births and thus to stop making further efforts at liberation-in-life. This rather ambiguous attempt by Vidyraya at

redefining bodiless-liberation is, I believe, meant to accommodate the motivation some may have to reach videhamukti. Vidyraya's main argument, though, is to allow for a person to make further effort in the possibility of reaching jvanmukti. Liberation-in-life involves complete control of the living mind, speech, and body, and the attainment of greater virtues in this world, as discussed in Chapter Four of the JMV, that would manifest themselves in a fully liberated human being. I argue that these latter aims are thus perhaps good and ethical ends in themselves, apart from the attainment of an individual's own personal release from sasric existence, and are possible only for one still in a living human body. In order to understand how liberation-in-life could be equal to Vidyraya's type of bodiless-liberation, we need to consider the value and necessity of yogic discipline beyond the attainment of the liberating knowledge of Self. Yogic discipline becomes all the more pertinent when considered in light of the need to "live through" operative action. Vidyraya points out earlier that "because operative action is more powerful than knowledge of truth, we could take it that yogic discipline is more powerful than this action" [1.3.11].12 Vidyraya hypothesizes that while operative action may be more powerful than knowledge, yogic discipline may be more powerful than operative action, and cites the example of Uddlaka [LYV 5.6], who gave up his body at will. This statement


therefore has the force of a hypothesis, and Vidyraya sets out to prove this hypothesis through the rest of his book. 2.2 The Knowledge of Truth As the two types of renunciation differ in relation to the aims of knowledge and liberation-in-life, so also do they differ with respect to their duties (dharma-s) [1.2.24] and the means employed for achieving these duties. The means Vidyraya gives are the same for both and must all be practiced simultaneously, for they exist in a mutual causality (parasparakaraatvam). If they are not practiced together they will not bring the desired result [2.1]. However, Vidyraya explains the respective difference (vyavasth) between each type of renouncer's employment of these means by way of the hermeneutic move of saying which is principal and subsidiary

(pradhna/upasarjana) for each [2.3.2]. The principal goal for the renouncer who desires knowledge is, of course, the knowledge of truth (tattvajna). The knowledge of truth must be achieved before liberation-in-life may be considered. The one who renounces for the desire of knowledge must achieve it by performing Vedic study, reflection, and meditation (ravaamanananididhysana) until the knowledge comes about.13 The subsidiary means of the renouncer-for-knowledge are (1) the eradication of latent tendencies, i.e., desire, anger, etc., and (2) the elimination of the mind itself in which the latent tendencies arise. I shall discuss these latter two in the context of the renouncer who is a knower, for whom they are the principal means. This distinction of principal and subsidiary appears to describe a proper order of progress in the attainment of liberation, for without having the knowledge of truth first, nothing is possible, and without a measure of eradication of 39

latent tendencies and elimination of the mind at this stage where they are subsidiary to the attainment of knowledge, problems arise later. Consequently, Vidyraya also combines the eradication of latent tendencies and elimination of the mind carried out in this prior stage of renunciation-for-knowledge with "symbol-oriented meditation" (upsti, upsana). He describes two types of candidates for knowledge: those who have performed symbol-oriented meditation, and those who have not. Upsti or upsana is a course of spiritual training through meditation on a symbol prescribed in the Upaniads. Meditation is understood as making mental equivalencies between symbol and abstraction. The symbol, which is qualified by perceptible characteristics, helps concentrate the skittish mind on the abstraction, which is without qualification. For example, the prescriptions "One should venerate: the mind is Brahman" (mano brahmety upsta) [ChU 3.18.1] and "The sun is Brahman" (dityo brahmety) [ChU 3.19.1] furnish something on which to focus the mind that, after long training, is meant to lead to the highest knowledge. Vidyraya mentions "men of the present time" who "generally engage in knowledge straightaway merely out of curiosity without having gone through symbol-oriented meditation" [2.4.2]. Without some proficiency in symbol-oriented meditation prior to the advent of knowledge, Vidyraya explains, although these "men of the present time" may properly perform Vedic study, reflection, and meditation

(ravaamanananididhysana) and properly achieve the knowledge of truth, the eradication of latent tendencies and elimination of the mind practiced by them after the advent of knowledge "are quickly extinguished like a lamp in a windy place because they have not been practiced rigorously, and because they are now and again opposed 40

by operative action, which produces experience" [2.4.3]. On the one hand, for the renouncer-for-knowledge who has carried out symbol-oriented meditation, upon the advent of knowledge "the renunciation-of-the-knower and liberation-in-life are established all on their own because of the greater strength of (his) eradication of latent tendencies and elimination of the mind" [2.4.2]. But on the other hand, for those "present-day renunciants who are knowers" who lack this important supplement of symbol-oriented meditation, Vidyraya says that "knowledge merely persists" [2.4.6]. "What has arisen does not diminish because there is no evidence (prama) that would annul it, and there is no cause (karaa) that would create the ignorance that has been eliminated" [2.4.3]. It appears to be in the nature of this liberating knowledge of truth that can arise in someone and not be falsified, for it is indeed simply true, and still, nevertheless, not necessarily lead to the complete liberation of that individual. Therefore these three means including symbol-oriented meditation must be carried out at the right time with their proper emphasis. The distinction Vidyraya is making between symboloriented meditation (upsana) and other means to knowledge

(ravaamanananididhysana) would involve study of the Great Texts (mahvkya-s) of the Upaniads, though the two types of meditation would seem to be very similar. akara in BSBh 4.1.1 also distinguishes upsana and nididhysana when speaking of the need to carry out both of them repeatedly in order to achieve a deep understanding of the mahvkya such as tat tvam asi, because knowledge of Brahman cannot come after the first hearing. He further prescribes at BSBh 4.1.79 performing upsana while in a sitting posture. This posture enables meditation (here dhyna) 41

without distractions, which akara defines as "causing a flow of similar cognitions" (samnapratyayapravhakaraam). If meditation as nididhysana is profound abstract meditation then follows Vedic study and reflection, then "symbol-oriented meditation," or upsana, is meditation at an earlier stage. For the interpretation of the word upsana in Vidyraya's historical context, we may also consider the term's connotation with "worship" and "devotion." In this sense, upsana would include a growing devotional and emotional element, as the term and the practice are intended in bhakti of the Viidvaitins.14 I have yet no way to prove this, but it is possible Vidyraya is admitting an emotional element to meditation, albeit at an initiatory level. This element appears nonetheless necessary in order to lay the foundation for further spiritual progress, whereas without it knowledge "merely persists." Vidyraya uses the term bhakti at 1.8.8 referring to the impartial (udsna) nature of the one who has transcended-the-qualities (gutta). This type of person is said to carry out knowledge and meditation with "unswerving devotion" (avyabhicribhakti). One may ask here, what is such knowledge of truth that "merely persists" and "does not diminish"? How can this knowledge arise even in one who Vidyraya says later has more difficulty achieving liberation because of his neglect of carrying things out in the proper order? Vidyraya gives this definition: Knowledge of truth is this certainty: The Self is simply all this. The world consisting of form, taste, and so on that we perceive is illusory, and it does not exist in reality. [2.2.8] Earlier on in his first discussion of the renunciation prompted by the desire for knowledge, Vidyraya distinguishes between "the world that is the Self and world that is the non-Self" [1.1.1]. Citing BU 4.4.22, "What would we do with progeny, 42

we for whom this Self is this world?" and "Desiring this alone as their world, the renouncers undertake the life of wandering," Vidyraya interprets the ruti to say that the world of the Self is something that is experienced: "The term 'world' (loka) is derived from (the verb) 'it is seen' (lokyate), i.e., 'it is experienced' (anubhyate). So, accordingly, the intended meaning of the ruti is this: they wander forth desiring the experience of the Self" [1.1.8]. The term "experience" (anubhava) is problematic, for it has been adopted by the so-called Neo-Advaita thinkers in modern times and has been associated with subjective, psychological empirical states.15 The experience of the world of the Self is the knowledge of truth, or if we take the compound tattvajna as a karmadhraya, it is knowledge that is reality. It is an internal cognitive

experience, but because the knower arrives at it through Vedic study, reflection, and meditation on the sayings of the Vedic revelation, which, according to Mms, are not creations of any person (apaurueya) and are intrinsically self-valid (svatapramya), I believe we must understand Vidyraya and the other Advaitins to say that this experience is not a subjective experience but rather an objective experience of the world existing in reality.16 Furthermore, the sayings of Vedic ruti exist in the human subjective world as models of the objective world and make it available to human cognition, even when, as Vidyraya appears to say, the individual human knower receiving this experience of the objective world has present in him the subjective experiential hazards of improper preparation. This person takes the ruti alongside the subjective truth or falsehood that has been acquired during his own personal experience. The knowledge arising in this person then "merely persists." It may be impossible for such a person to continue. As Vidyraya says this person's 43

further efforts at the eradication of latent tendencies and elimination of the mind "are quickly extinguished like a lamp in a windy place because they have not been practiced rigorously, and because they are now and again opposed by operative action, which produces experience" [2.4.3]. Without some further training to quiet his subjective mental activity (cittavtti-s), the cognition of the objective truth of the Vedic reality would merely persist, though hindered from its fullness. At this point a comment about Vidyraya's audience and his program of preservation of the Advaita Vednta tradition may be appropriate. Whenever we read about "men of the present time" who do not perform quite as well as those of ancient times, the author appears to harken back to a prior age when people were closer to truth. Whether or not there was a "golden age," in this regard Vidyraya recalls the figure of Janaka from tradition who could merely hear the truth and attain knowledge and liberation directly [2.8.7].17 Vidyraya is also aware, however, that for "men of the present" the goal is not attained so easily. It appears that for Vidyraya, these men are every one of his contemporaries. He preserves the mainstream Vedntic tradition of akara concerning the knowledge of truth he is heir to, while also understanding that his contemporaries cannot adequately fulfill it. It is a risky thing to add onto a tradition, but Vidyraya also sees that his contemporaries require help from something more than the Vedntic knowledge, which was all that was required by the ancient people. Walter Slaje (1998:103) has argued that Vidyraya changed the ideas of his normative tradition and that he was "naive" about what he had inherited. In a series of articles, Slaje attempts to discern other strains of liberation theories independent of the 44

Advaita Vednta, which nevertheless were subsumed in Vidyraya's treatment in the JMV. The first thing Slaje does is criticize Vidyraya's alteration of his sources in order to free them of his interpretation. While this is a valid project, and necessary in order to reveal earlier historical currents, to criticize Vidyraya and to call "naive" seem to me unfair to Vidyraya's effort to deal with his historical situation. In this instance one may point out the obvious fact that Vidyraya was a theologian and not a modern philological historian. Whether or not Vidyraya could or should have known of the earlier recensions of his texts, in particular the earliest layers of the Yoga-Vsiha tradition and their proper interpretation in former times, which Slaje is most interested in, we may presume that Vidyraya is primarily speaking to his own contemporaries and addressing their problems as he sees them. It is of course necessary to discern differing historical currents in the effort to come to historical understanding, but to criticize Vidyraya for changing other's ideas in the interest of history misses the point of Vidyraya's historical condition that we might discover as well. As a constructive theologian, he may well have reinterpreted or changed his normative tradition to suit contemporary needs. I believe Slaje (2000a:171) also misses the point in criticizing Vidyraya for making "conscious efforts at a tendentious text revision" of the LYV. To say that Vidyraya is "tendentious," which I read as derogatory, is too strong a word for what he was trying to do. This robs him of his creative theological insight employed at the service of his contemporaries. It is obvious that he was an upholder of a particular tradition vis--vis other traditions, and as such he had an agenda for his own tradition. He was considered a great leader and was probably considerate of the 45

needs of his people. While he also sought to "adapt an originally alien Yogic strand to the Advaitavednta tradition in his Jvanmuktiviveka" (Slaje, 2000a:180), Vidyraya perhaps saw that in the broader Indian tradition, yogic discipline was the best remedy available to his contemporaries. Many traditions speak of a "golden age" that came before their own failing contemporary age, but I believe we may also give Vidyraya his due in clearly seeing the human condition and the necessity for yogic practice in all ages for the frail, historically-bound, human subjectivity in the face of the ultimate. 2.3 Eradication of Latent Tendencies For the renouncer who is a knower, the knowledge of truth becomes subsidiary because he already has knowledge, but he must still practice it as a "sustained remembrance (anusmaraa) of the truth by some means or other" [2.3.4]. At the earlier stage of renunciation out of the desire for knowledge, the practice of eradication of latent tendencies and elimination of the mind helps the renouncer attain knowledge. At the later stage, they become principal for him because he has still not "done all there is to do" (ktaktya). Operative action remains and must be lived through. However, for Vidyraya, living through until the ultimate death of the body does not involve doing whatever the renouncer pleases and merely waiting to die. It is evident there were Advaitin renouncers like this, at least insofar as we see Vednta Deika criticizing the Advaitins who abandon the duties (dharma-s) and emblems of the order of renunciation (sanysrama) on the basis of their attainment, which for him constitutes antinomian libertinism (svaira).18 I argued above in the historical portion of this introduction that Vidyraya wished to counter Vednta Deika's critique of the Advaitin institution of renunciation. Here I want to simply note the internal 46

consistency in Vidyraya's program of yogic training for renouncers that in essence places a much greater personal responsibility on the renouncer who is a knower, which Vednta Deika does not even conceive of, quite apart from external duties and the wearing of emblems of the order of renunciation. Even though the renouncer may live with the knowledge of truth, Vidyraya says, he must still practice the eradication of latent tendencies and the elimination of the mind until the death of his body. Vidyraya gives the example of Yjavalkya, who, the tradition says, is a knower of Brahman but still desires to defeat all comers in a debate on the nature of Brahman [2.9.22 ff.; BU 3]. He thus continues to have desires, insofar as he desires to win the debate and take home the prize, and to have anger, because of his killing of kalya. Yjavalkya has the liberating knowledge, but he is not finished, as it were, for impure latent tendencies continue in him; he has yet to enter the renunciation-of-the-knower. In this stage, the purpose of practicing of the eradication of latent tendencies and the elimination of the mind is to purge him of his bondage to afflictions (klea-s), which prevent liberation-in-life. For both types of renouncers, as noted earlier, the three means exist in mutual causality (parasparakaraatvam). In actual practice, Vidyraya prescribes for each type a balance between the knowledge of truth, on the one hand, and the eradication of latent tendencies and elimination of the mind, on the other, depending on which is principal and which is subsidiary for each type of renouncer. They are all practiced together, for as Vidyraya says, "Practicing the means one by one not only fails to produce the result, but their identity as a means (tatsvarpa) is not even established" [2.1.9]. However, the renouncer also acquires "discernment" (viveka) that is not as 47

strong perhaps prior to knowledge, and upon acquiring it, he sees the need for "personal effort" (puruaprayatna). According to Vidyraya: "'Somehow I will definitely accomplish this': this sort of resolution is the perseverance that is 'personal effort.' 'Discernment' is the definite analytical knowledge (vibhajyanicayah) of these: the means of the knowledge of truth are Vedic study (ravaa) and the rest, the means of the elimination of the mind is yoga, and the means of the eradication of latent tendencies is producing contrary latent tendencies" [2.2.16]. In order to analyze the knower's principal practice, let us consider the eradication of latent tendencies first. Latent tendencies can be variously translated as "subliminal impressions," "traces," "desires," "habits," etc. A latent tendency is a formalized notion of

something that apparently must exist in an individual's mind and that brings about the experience of an object, whether one enjoys it or is repelled by it. Latent tendencies can either be goodarising from previous merit or obtained by personal effort, and in accord with the authoritative textsor badarising from one's own natural disposition and not in accord with the authoritative texts. Vidyraya also relates the good tendencies to the sattvagua, and the bad to the rjasa and tmasa gua-s. He defines latent tendencies in general by citing LYV 5.10.4851 at 2.4.811: Taking to things that make one give up inquiring into their cause and effect because of a strong feeling (dhabhvanay).19 That is called latent tendency. [LYV 5.10.48] What has been manifested with sharp force by oneself, that he becomes immediately, O Strong-Armed One, forgetting all other things. [LYV 5.10.49] For, when a person like this, who is subjugated by a latent tendency, sees whatever object, he is fooled, believing it is a real thing. [LYV 5.10.50]


That (object) abandons its true form because (he) loses self-control to the power of the latent tendency. One with poor sight sees everything confusedly, as if he were drunk. [LYV 5.10.51] Vidyraya also defines latent tendencies in regard to their relationship to the other two means. In regard to the elimination of the mind, they are equivalent to the "residual impressions" mentioned by Patajali: Latent tendencies (vsan) are residual impressions (saskra) situated in the mind that are the cause of certain mental activities such as anger, which are produced suddenly without consideration of what is before and after; they are called "latent tendencies" because they are caused to reside20 in the mind by all previous mental activity. [2.2.5] In concert with the full arising of knowledge, one must also have some measure of "mental control" and "sense control" (ntidnti; amadama), which we may also translate as "tranquillity" and "patience." In regard to the mutual causality existing between the eradication of latent tendencies and the knowledge of truth, Vidyraya says, "When the latent tendencies of anger, etc., are not destroyed, one lacks the means such as mental control and sense control; consequently knowledge does not arise" [2.3.10]. Mental control and sense control are apparently a form of yogic

discipline at an earlier stage in the practice of the renouncer-for-knowledge. At the later stage in the practice of the renouncer who is a knower, he can use this mental control and discernment gained from knowledge to see more precisely what his own latent tendencies are, and the practice of the eradication of latent tendencies becomes a sort of counterbalance to what is bad in him with what is good, eventually outweighing and subduing the bad. In regard to the mutual causality existing between the knowledge of truth and the elimination of the mind, Vidyraya says: When this (knowledge) has not arisen, the sense objects of form, taste, and so on continue to exist; therefore it is impossible to neutralize the mental activities that relate to those (sense objects), just as the flames of a fire are not 49

extinguished when one continues to put kindling into it. When there is no quieting of the mind, forms and so on continue to be grasped by the mental activities. [2.2.8] Vidyraya also equates the good and bad tendencies with the Divine fortune and Demonic fortune (daivasapad, asurasapad)21 mentioned in the sixteenth chapter of the BhG. The good latent tendencies, or Divine fortune, will lead to liberation. Of these, here liberation-in-life occurs when the good latent tendenciesthe Divine fortune that can be acquired by personal effort and is in keeping with the authoritative textsdestroy the bad latent tendenciesthe Demonic fortune that results because of one's natural disposition and is contrary to authoritative texts. [2.3.15] In discussing the Demonic fortune, Vidyraya explains that bondage is either intense or weak [2.3.20]. The Demonic is the intense bondage and consists of tamas, e.g., hypocrisy, arrogance, conceit, anger, rudeness, and ignorance [BhG 16.4]. These things continue to be roused through operative action and require eradication. Commenting on LYV 4.5.2023, Vidyraya states that these types of latent tendencies are those "concerning sense objects" [2.6.6]. They are residual

impressions (saskra-s) generated by actually enjoying or experiencing objects. Vidyraya also analyzes "impure latent tendencies" (auddhavsan) as they actually manifest in a person's behavior concerning the world, learning, and the body [2.4.5087]. These are the latent tendencies "concerning the mind," and Vidyraya further says they are the residual impressions generated by desiring the objects and constitute the weak bondage. The weak bondage, Vidyraya explains, consists of inevitable experiences that even the virtuous people such as Nla, Rma, and Yudhihira could not avoid and is only subdued through the elimination of the mind [2.3.2526]. Therefore there are four types of latent tendencies subsumed under two


general categories: the Demonic fortune, and those concerning the world, learning, and the body. They constitute the weak bondage concerning the mind when they come about by merely desiring objects, or they become intense bondage concerning sense objects by actually experiencing the sense objects. The eradication of latent tendencies and the elimination of the mind are similar in that they both involve an inner suppression of mental impulses. The elimination of the mind, however, is a general program of yogic practice that Vidyraya derives in part from the Ptajalya Yoga Stras. The intense bondage, which is the Demonic fortune as it manifests in a particular individual, requires a specific intervention to suppress it. It seems that this must take place before or in concert with the application of the general program of yoga meant to suppress the entire mental functioning in which all latent tendencies of both the intense and weak types arise. The personal effort of vsankaya is not a violent act, as the term kaya might imply. Although Vidyraya does say it must be practiced rigorously, it seems, rather, that it is a delicate counterbalancing of intangible inner impulses that the individual must learn to see impartially through the discernment of his own functioning as though he were viewing it in another person [2.9.28]. I do not wish to speculate here too much on what the actual practice must be like, yet we gather from Vidyraya's own words that upon the arising of the knowledge of truth, which as noted above is objective truth and not subjective, the individual renouncer gains the advantage of the light of discernment. This allows him to distinguish the pure and impure latent tendencies and the tendencies of the Demonic fortune that actually dwell in his character, which amount to his virtues and his flaws. Discernment has its own intrinsic value, for if the 51

renouncer actually sees the true and the false, some impure latent tendencies can be burnt [2.10]. Yet there is more the renouncer who is a knower has to do. Coupled with the restraint of the powerful senses, he is able to choose the specific pure tendencies he must cultivate as a remedy for his own particular intense impure tendencies [2.7]. Vidyraya cites Patajali in this regard: By cultivation of friendliness, compassion, contentment, and equanimity toward objects that are pleasant, painful, virtuous, or vile, the mind becomes serene. [YS 1.33; 2.7.1] It is at this point that the renouncer stops being merely a renouncer, or what Vidyraya calls a "mere paramahasa" or "paramahasa only" facing

(kevalaparamahasa). He states: "Though the mere paramahasa knows,

outward he does not abide in Brahman because he has no mental tranquillity" [5.1.24]. With application of yogic discipline, the renouncer who is a knower starts becoming a true yogin as well. The paramahasa yogin may be extremely rare, or perhaps even rejected by other schools, nevertheless this state is a real possibility for Vidyraya and not merely an ideal. Vidyraya is clearly aware of the extreme rarity of such a person and cites the support of BhG 7.3: Among thousands of men only a few strive for perfection. Even of those who strive and become perfected, only a few see me in reality. [BhG 7.3; 5.1.21] We see here in YS 1.33 an indication of the transcendence of opposites such as the pleasant and the painful, the virtuous and the vile, a transcendence that is another hallmark of the renouncer's ongoing development of detachment. The state of a person in ordinary consciousness is constantly pulled between objects sitting somewhere between the poles of attraction and revulsion, the agreeable and the disagreeable. The renouncer comes to see the entire spectrum and presumably can 52

learn to manifest anywhere on it at will. He may be aware of the false appearance of objects, but there is no harm, for he does not react to them. Not only is there no harm, but it is precisely this recognition of the false appearances, without reaction to them, that Vidyraya recognizes as liberation-in-life [2.9.2122]. However, this requires the entrance into the renunciation-of-the-knower in order to calm the mind. By

discerning specific impure tendencies or flaws in himself, cultivating friendliness and the rest, and controlling the senses, he reaches the eradication of the Demonic fortune. Once the impure tendencies are eradicated, Vidyraya says, the pure ones continue naturally and without personal effort, like breathing or blinking the eyes. The latent tendency left to practice is pure consciousness (cinmtra) [2.11.1 ff.]. Pure consciousness also must become natural like breathing. But when this latent tendency first arises, the world is seen as made up of the conscious and the unconscious (jaa). The practice of the latent tendency of pure consciousness requires the firm basis of pure latent tendencies and cannot come at the beginning. The paramahasa yogin requires what Vidyraya compares to a foundation of a house, or a purgative that allows the medicine taken to work [2.11.89]. According to this analogy, the

eradication of latent tendencies would be the foundation or purgative, and yoga would be the house or the medicine taken. By knowing how to purge himself first and completing this purging, the paramahasa yogin can correctly practice the latent tendency of pure consciousness. This latent tendency is in essence the last object of experience in the mind before it falls completely still. It is of two types: where it is still related to the mind as instrument, and the intellect as agent, which Vidyraya equates with meditation (dhyna); and where all three elements in consciousness have 53

been abandoned through "skillful practice" (abhysapava), which he equates with enstasis (samdhi) [2.11.11]. Thereafter the paramahasa yogin also abandons the effort to abandon. The objector raises the problem of "infinite regress" (anavasth) here. Logically one would also have to abandon the effort to abandon abandonment. Vidyraya responds with the well-known image of the kataka powder used to precipitate dirt out of a jar of water. The effort at abandonment also removes itself when removing the awareness of the agent and instrument [2.11.16]. At this point, Vidyraya describes the state without latent tendencies as one where a paramahasa yogin still engages in ordinary duties and activities (vyavahra) and even experiences operative action but is unaffected by them in one way or another. Vidyraya cites the following metaphors of LYV 4.2.1415 at 2.11.2829. If the yogin honors a thief while knowing him as a thief, that person becomes a friend and not a thief. Also, for a yogin seeing objects of pleasure and wealth is like being a traveler who unexpectedly comes upon a village procession. Everything can be experienced, yet with complete impartiality, without having to react in one way or another. This appears to be part of the solution Vidyraya gives to the problem of operative action I raised earlier. The picture given of a paramahasa yogin still acting in the world is not vastly different from the mainstream Advaita view of the renouncer's "higher standpoint" (pramrthika) and "lower standpoint"

(vyavahrika),22 though I suggest that Vidyraya's work represents a development on this doctrine. The difference is that Vidyraya would admit the complete

extinguishing of latent tendencies that are productive of experience, practicing in their stead the last latent tendency of pure consciousness, which amounts to the enstasis of 54

yoga, and then the abandonment of even the last tendency. It appears, however, that we are still left with some logical paradox, for he also admits that the paramahasa yogin can still experience operative action, even inasmuch as it may have no persistent, controlling effect on his inner state. 2.4 The Elimination of the Mind When the practice of the eradication of latent tendencies reaches its most advanced level, it appears to be virtually equivalent to the other ongoing prescribed practice of the elimination of the mind. Vidyraya, however, treats the elimination of the mind in a separate analysis. Liberation-in-life has been defined as the removal of bondage [1.3.2], and this removal is effected through the eradication of latent tendencies. This eradication becomes secure, however, through the elimination of the mind. These two means together become the means for liberation-in-life. The elimination of the mind is controlling the mind through the "methods" (yukti). Here I do not translate yukti as "reasoning," for in this instance it appears to mean something more than vicra, which is rational investigation in philosophy through syllogistic inference (anumna) or analogical reasoning (upamna). These methods do have an element of reasoning insofar as the knowledge of Self would involve some rational investigation at the various progressive stages of discernment and Vedic study, reflection, and meditation. However, at the level of development of the renunciation-of-knowledge, the methods employed there have much greater emphasis on yogic discipline. These methods are different from forceful (haha) yoga, which seeks to control the mind by controlling the seat of each of the sense organs (golaka). The methods are the acquisition of the knowledge of the Self and complete 55

abandonment of latent tendencies, which I have already discussed here, as well as the association with good people (sdhusagama) and the control of the rhythm of breathing (praspandanirodha, also pryma). It is at this juncture that Vidyraya cites LYV 5.10.129131 and introduces a crucial point concerning his attempt to incorporate Yoga philosophy into the argument [3.2.12]. Vidyraya dismisses forceful restraint and endorses only gradual restraint through the methods. He makes this statement in two verses that precede the LYV 5.10.129131 passage but are not found in the available texts of the LYV or YV. These statements are meant to appear to be verses belonging of this LYV passage in both the Adyar and nSS editions of the JMV. I suspect they are perhaps

Vidyraya's own interpolation, if we may presume he meant for them to appear to be part of the LYV text. They are loka-s and not prose like the rest of the JMV text, and they are present in my best manuscripts. Making a clear distinction between forceful yoga and the methods, Vidyraya stresses the need for the proper combination of the methods in order to still the mind. These latter methods are what has also been commonly called rja-yoga. He says that the forceful physical yoga is ultimately ineffective and compares it to the ineffectiveness of trying to restrain an elephant in rut with the fibers of a lotus stalk. One cannot control the organ of the mind with forceful yoga because its organ is intangible and lies within the heart. Once again, this organ of the mind is affected through discernment gained through Selfknowledge, or what Vidyraya now calls "true-seeing" (dgvastu), where the sense objects are perceived as being false, and the mind "becomes extinguished on its own, like a fire without fuel" [3.2.8]. 56

Breath-control (pryma) is a well-known practice in yoga, and Vidyraya treats it extensively. The notion of the integral place of the breath reaches far back into some of the earliest ritual literature, such as the atapaha Brahmaa 2.3.139 on the prgnihotra. In that text the invisible life-breath is ritually understood as equivalent to the sacrificial fire.23 The making of mental equivalencies or homologies in the ritual perhaps led to the "interiorization of the sacrifice" that is central in the understanding of Brahmanical asceticism.24 Breath-control and other practices became central to the creation of inner ascetic heat (tapas).25 Vidyraya also presumes an understanding of the association of the breath with the mind. [3.4.1] This seems crucial, and yet I do not find any discussion in the secondary literature on Yoga philosophy that attempts to explain how breath and mind are connected in practice. Later Upaniadic

homologies of breath in BU 1.5.21 and 3.7.3 are cited by Vidyraya 3.4.56. Breath-control appears to be a radical intervention insofar as Vidyraya says that when a person cannot follow other good people because of the powerful latent tendency of the pride of learning, he must employ breath-control. Otherwise,

association with good people is sufficient aid for those who have not fully grasped the truth or who forget it, because "good people repeatedly make them aware and remind them" [3.2.10]. Although breath-control is one of the "methods," it can also qualify as part of haha-yoga. The yogin must resort to breath-control to still the mind because, perhaps more often than not, the latent tendencies are too powerful. Though Vidyraya indicates a preference for the "methods" of rja-yoga over haha-yoga, he recognizes the need to employ what amounts to "surgery,"26 forcing the mind to keep off sense objects when the latent tendencies are overwhelming the other means. Thus 57

Vidyraya devotes a large part of Chapter Three on the elimination of the mind [3.4] to the technique of breath-control. Sprockhoff (1964:n.79) has pointed out that Vidyraya closely follows Vysa's commentary on the YS in his treatment of yoga in the JMV. Fort (1999:377) has also said that Vidyraya's "view of Yoga is not identical with that of Patajali in his Yogastras." I cannot presently assess all possible external sources used by

Vidyraya adequately enough to make such a judgment. However, in well over a millennium of systematic study and application of yoga in South Asian religions, it is more than likely that some adaptations were admitted in the understanding of Patajali's original formulations. I argue that for his time Vidyraya, as a theologian and pontiff of the geri maha, treated the application of yoga in his overall program constructively and creatively. We can thus consider Vidyraya's

contribution a major statement of the understanding and practice of yoga for the medieval times. After treating the yogas of posture, diet, and breath-control at 3.3 and 3.4, which includes mention of the proper conditions and posture for meditation from vU 2.810, Vidyraya proceeds to treat enstasis (samdhi). The point of coalescence of all the foregoing practices is enstasis. Sprockhoff (1964:n.79) observed that

Vidyraya here follows Vysa's comment on YS 1.1, where Vysa says that "Yoga is enstasis." Vidyraya goes on to present the five stages of the mind (cittibhmaya), citing Vysa's comment on Patajali and giving his own comment [3.5.13]. He equates the first stage of the mind, the "distracted' (kipta), with the four types of bad latent tendencies already analyzed. The second stage, "stupefied" 58

(mha), is when it is overwhelmed by "sleep, laziness, and the like." The third, "occasionally distracted" (vikipta), is when the mind can sometimes meditate and sometimes not, falling back into distraction. Enstasis cannot occur in these three stages. The other two are "one-pointedness" (ekgrat) and "suppression" (nirodha). For Vidyraya, enstasis begins to occur in the one-pointedness stage when the yogin gradually diminishes the mind's sequential grasping at all objects [3.5.47]. In

Patajali's YS enstasis is known as the "eighth limb" coming after the mastery of the first through fifth "external limbs" and sixth and seventh, the "internal limbs" of concentration and meditation. Vidyraya adopts this eight-limb yoga (agayoga) but makes his own adaptation wherein he elaborates on the phases around this eighth limb, moving from the fourth stage of the mind of one-pointedness. This is

meditation gradually leading to the enstasis-with-conceptualization (saprajtasamdhi) and moving gradually to the fifth stage of the mind of suppression, which is the enstasis-without-conceptualization (asaprajtasamdhi). Vidyraya reviews Patajali's stras on the eight limbs of yoga in 3.5.836 with little comment and then takes an objection concerning his treatment of enstasis. There appears to be an inconsistency between the enstasis he referred to, coming about in the one-pointedness and suppressed stages of the mind, and the enstasis that is the eighth limb coming after meditation. Vidyraya responds that there is no great difference between these stages of enstasis. Rather, they are degrees of the development of meditation on the same object. The yogin is like a Vedic student learning verses; he learns haltingly at first, while later as a teacher he never stumbles even though he may be inattentive sometimes. This distinction of gradation is apparently not clarified in the 59

citation he gives of Muktika Upaniad 2.53 [3.5.33].27 However, below in 3.10.12, Vidyraya states there is a great difference between enstasis-with-conceptualization and enstasis-without-conceptualization. He, therefore, elaborates three general states of enstasis: enstasis that is the eighth limb of yoga; enstasis-with-conceptualization, which is the greater development of the eighth limb and not an end in itself; and enstasis-without-conceptualization, which seems to be completely beyond mental activity of any kind. The latter enstasis is said in YS 1.47 and 3.38 to be "seedless" (nirbja), and in YS 1.48 to be "truth-bearing" (tabhara), and is an end in itself. In distinguishing enstasis as the eighth limb from enstasis-with-conceptualization, Vidyraya appears to depart from the more standard Advaita view as expressed in the Vedntasra28 using the Vednta terminology that enstasis-with-distinction (savikalpasamdhi) is the same as the eighth limb. Vidyraya then concludes this section saying that enstasis-with-conceptualization is the cause of both the eradication of latent tendencies and the enstasis-of-suppression. The enstasis-of-suppression is defined for Vidyraya in YS 3.9 [3.6.2]: The transformation of suppression (nirodha), which associates the mind with a moment of suppression, occurs when the residual impressions (saskra) of coming out (of enstasis) (vyutthna)29 are overcome and the impressions of suppression arise. The process that began in the stage of one-pointedness, where the yogin gradually meditated on diminishing his mind's sequential grasping after outer objects, develops into a stage where the yogin intervenes moment to moment, suppressing each inner residual impression in his mind arising from the state of vyutthna. With more suppression gradually comes more stillness. This state is what is meant by enstasis-without-conceptualization, for no concepts of the grasper, the grasped, and 60

grasping30 are left, and the mind is left with only a residual impression of stillness. This state of mind with only stillness remaining might be equivalent to the latent tendency of pure consciousness and its similar abandonment discussed here earlier. Vidyraya had defined vsan-s as saskra-s and did equate the stage of the practice of the latent tendency of pure consciousness with enstasis. [2.11.11] Following the analysis of enstasis, Vidyraya presents what might be considered the metaphysical analogue to the practical yogic progression of development, in which the refinement of awareness of levels of consciousness occurs [3.7; 3.8; 3.9]. He adopts the teaching from KU 3.13 for his analysis. This text defines the progressive stages of control, first of speech in the mind, on up through more encompassing levels of mind from egoic consciousness (ahakra) to the knowing self (jntma), the Great Self (mahtma), and the Tranquil Self (nttma). In this context Vidyraya merely alludes to some interesting recommendations for the practice of yoga. For instance, in the context of control of the mind in the Great Self, only the Great Principle (mahat) remains. Here Vidyraya makes an intriguing analogy between the decrease of the individual ego in ordinary life when one becomes fatigued, and the ego's dissolution in the Great Self when a person makes an effort at "forgetfulness" (vismaraa). This forgetfulness resembles the indeterminate

knowledge (nirvikalpajna)31 of the Naiyyikas [3.9.1]. Vidyraya does not give textual source for or elaborate on what the effort at vismaraa could mean, yet this seems to be an important definition for the practice involved, and I offer the following speculation. Before there is a specific knowledge, there must be a general knowledge. In order to know a particular case or manifestation of something, one must know the 61

universal without specifics first. That is indeterminate knowledge. The meaning of forgetfulness as something similar to this stage of pure knowledge of things, free of particulars, may be clearer if one thinks of it in a positive statement as "the elimination of the past in memory." The mind is freed from particular associations of a thing remembered from the past and, therefore, one sees more clearly the reality of the thing being perceived at present. In general, Vidyraya expresses in these sections the same growing competence at yogic practice. It requires the establishment of a firm grounding on each level that permits the stability of the next. Just as a person engaged in practicing the stras, before he gains proficiency he needs explanation of every text. Yet when he has sufficient proficiency, the meaning of the later text appears by itself. So also, for a yogin who has correctly mastered the previous stage, the means of the later stage appears by itself. [3.9.3] In section 3.10, Vidyraya examines more closely the two advanced states of enstasis that he defines as beyond the enstasis that is the eighth limb of Patajali. Here he again considers the relation between knowledge of truth and elimination of the mind, though now at the high level of the enstasis-of-suppression. The separate individual self (tvapadrtha) can be purified through the enstasis-of-suppression, yet to know oneself as Brahman, one requires the knowledge of Brahman, arrived at by means of the Great Texts in the Upaniads. Thus Vidyraya admits that yoga and knowledge gained through discernment are equally valid means at direct realization of the purified individual self (padrtha). In this instance he cites LYV 5.9.72 and 6.1.60, which says that yoga and knowledge are both options available to humanity in order to carry out the elimination of the mind.32 The objector argues that discernment 62

also amounts to yoga insofar as it relates to one-pointedness completely absorbed in the realization of the Self and is equal to enstasis-with-conceptualization. Vidyraya agrees but then, contrary to what he said earlier, states that the two higher types of samdhi are very different from each other, owing to the presence or absence of any mental activity. The three limbs of concentration (dhra), meditation (dhyna), and enstasis derived from Patajali are internal limbs for enstasis-with-conceptualization and external limbs for enstasis-without-conceptualization. These types of enstasis thus depend again on the yogin's practicing them at their proper time in the overall development of the practice. The internal limb of enstasis-without-conceptualization is ultimately an effort to suppress the enstasis-with-conceptualization, whereby the "seedless" is brought about. This state is similar to the "deep sleep" (suupti) state of consciousness, though it is devoid of any mental activities. This then is the Fourth state of consciousness (turya). Vidyraya then cites GK 3.4246 and comments on still another series of states of the mind: dissolution (laya), distraction (vikepa), taint (kaaya), and the attainment of equilibrium (samaprpti) [3.10.3858]. For Vidyraya these states are meant to describe the mind of the yogin in enstasis-without-conceptualization and the effort needed to stay there. Vidyraya interprets "dissolution" as a moment when, as the yogin controls the mind and turns it away from objects, he tends to fall asleep.33 He must rouse himself somehow or take care of the potential causes of this sleep, such as lack of proper sleep for the body, indigestion, overeating, or making oneself tired. All this again points to proper preparation. It would appear that even on a daily basis the


yogin must conserve his energy for its proper use in his daily effort at meditation. In this instance Vidyraya cites Saubhgyalakm Upaniad 2.2: After completing sleep (one should eat) a small amount of easily digestible food, avoid tiring exercise, and in an isolated place free of disturbances, always sit effortlessly free of longing, or control the breathing in the way he has become adept. [3.10.44] If the yogin can hold the mind in control from objects and not dissolve into sleep, the mind may still become "distracted"34 by desires and enjoyments. This simply requires more discernment, repeatedly recalling the suffering created by such things, and comparing them to the reality of the non-dual Brahman, thus seeing their unreality. Vidyraya interprets "taint" as the same as latent tendencies, which again are the bondage constituted by affliction leading to dualities such as attraction and aversion. Interestingly, Vidyraya says that the state of a mind with this taint can amount to a state similar to enstasis (tay citta kadcit samhitam iva). The mind can enter a state of one-pointedness where it is free from dissolution and distraction, yet it is actually suffering, because it is seized by latent tendencies. In order to see his way free of this taint, the yogin again requires discernment, comparing this suffering in one-pointedness to true enstasis. The "attainment of equilibrium" is what remains after the yogin has discerned the pitfalls of the other three states. Establishing the mind in it with the subtle intellect (skmay buddhy), the yogin should remain absolutely still and not move. Holding the mind still in this way the yogin permits the "highest happiness" (paramnanda) that is the essential nature of Brahman (brahmasvarpa) to manifest fully in his mind. This state seems to be both a positive move of grasping happiness by the intellect and a negative suppression of all the yogin's own mental activity moment to moment. 64

Vidyraya then cites the Maitryani Upaniad 4.9 where it says this state is impossible to describe with words. It seems Vidyraya might emphasize a lifelong practice of yoga and discernment rather than permanence of such a state. He has already described the nature and characteristics of one liberated-in-life and the various types found in authoritative texts in sections 1.3 through 1.10 and does not dwell on describing this highest happiness here. However, in the Chapter Five, he does go on to describe the way and behavior of the paramahasa yogin who is established permanently in this state. The objector leads into the final issue of this part of the discussion of enstasiswithout-conceptualization [3.10.5160], saying that ruti and Smti mention the manifestation of the bliss of Brahman, yet Gauapda gives the prohibition that "one should not relish the happiness there" (nasvdayet sukha tatra) [3.10.41; GK 3.45]. Vidyraya responds that this does not prohibit the intellect from grasping this happiness, but rather it prohibits remembering it and trying to describe it later when one has come out of enstasis (vyutthna). This constitutes another attachment to relishing this happiness and describing it. The mind of a yogin might come out from time to time wishing to relish happiness or might come out because of the experience of "cold, wind, or mosquitoes" [3.10.56]. He must bring the mind back into

unification again in order to allow Brahman to manifest continually. The knower's principal aim is to root out as much as possible the bad latent tendencies, habits, desires, and so on still lurking in him and finally to completely quiet the mental apparatus in which these tendencies arise. Only then is there nothing left to do. He has to practice his own personal work, such as friendliness and so on, 65

according to the specific defects in his character. Ultimately he discards even the need for good latent tendencies. He must then practice the latent tendency of pure

consciousness and the yogic discipline as described by the YS and achieve the state of enstasis in which all parts of the structure of cognition are gathered together in completely controlled stillness. Only then he may be said to have achieved all there is to achieve.


Donatoni (1995) p. 39 n.1 states that this same distinction is evident in the commentaries of Surevara, and that nandagiri found it in akara, citing an example in nandagiri's Bhagavad Gta Bhya Vivecana in his commentary on BhG 4.21. In particular Vednta Deika's atadani, refutation 31. For a discussion of this refutation, see S. M. Srinivasa Chari, Advaita and Viidaita: A Study based on Vednta Deika's atadani (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1976) pp. 170172.
3 2 1

jvata puruasya karttvabhokttvasukhadukhdilakaa cittadharma klearpatvd bandho bhavati, tasya nivraa jvanmukti. [1.3.2] See 1.4.8 where Vidyraya cites LYV 3.1.88. The Adyar and nSS editions, and some mss. have: nn jnaikanihnm tmajnavicrim / s jvanmuktatodeti videhamuktateva y // See also 1.5.7 and Chapter 1, n.31 where the variant reading eva vidhay videhamukty sadatvokter of the Adyar and nSS editions would refer to LYV 3.1.88.
5 6 4

Ibid. In this case, LYV 3.1.88 reads: s jvanmuktatodeti videhamuktataiva y. Cf. U 5. For a discussion on karma in Advaita Vednta see Fort (1998) pp.811.

7 8

Cf. SK 67: samyagjn 'dhigamd dharmdnm akranaprptau / tihati saskravac cakrabhramavad dhtaarra // See Sprockhoff (1964) n. 29 where he notes the image of the spinning wheel in SK 67 and gives some of the history of its interpretation as referring to liberation-in-life.

For a study of how the problem of operative action was dealt with by akara and later Advaita, see Lance Nelson, "Living Liberation in akara and Classical Advaita: Sharing the Holy Waiting of God," in Fort and Mumme (1996) pp. 1762, esp. pp. 2738. I think the solving of this problem is most relevant to Vidyraya's philosophic program, and while it is well known from BSBh 2.1.3 that akara thought yogic practice is only preparatory and conducive to the knowledge of truth obtained from the Upaniads, Nelson finds instances where even akara could not completely explain how knowledge of Brahman produces ultimate liberation and seems also to have had to endorse some sort of yogic efforts beyond the attainment of knowledge: "One would not expect to find the great Advaitin slighting jna in favor of karma. But at least in the case of prrabdha-karma he does. In his commentary on BU 1.4.7, to give the most remarkable example, he speaks of the 'weakness of the operation of knowledge (jnapravtti-daurbalya),' in comparison with that of prrabdha: 'Because the fruition of the karma that has produced the body is inevitable, activity of speech, mind, and body will be necessary, even after the attainment of knowledge. As the flight of the arrow that has been released [is stronger than any effort to arrest it], the karma that has already become active is stronger [than right knowledge].' In the face of this admission, akara finds it necessary to add an uncharacteristic reference to yogic praxis. The Brahmanknower, in some cases, may need to employ methods of disciplined concentration to overcome the power of prrabdha-karma: 'Therefore one must maintain a continuous stream of recollection of Selfknowledge by having recourse to the strength of disciplines (sdhana) such as renunciation and detachment.'" (p. 28, emphasis mine) See Sprockhoff (1964) pp. 234236, and Fort (1998) pp. 104105. For a book-length discussion on the states of consciousness doctrine in Advaita Vednta see Andrew Fort, The Self and its States (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1990).



BSBh 3.1.1: nanvany rutir jalkvat prvadeha na mucati yvan na dehntaram kramatti darayati "tad yath tajalyuk" [BU 4.4.3] iti. tatrpyappariveitasyaiva jvasya karmopasthpitapratipattavya dehaviayabhvan drghbhvamtra jalkayopamyata ity avirodha. 1.3.11: athav prrabdha karma yath tattvajnt prabala tath tasmd api karmao yogbhysa prabalo 'stu. The imperative third person of as astu expresses here possibility or potential.
13 For a study of the knowledge of truth as understood in the earlier Upaniadic literature, see Sprockhoff, "Die Vorbereitung der Vorstellung von der Erlsung bei Lebzeiten in den Upaniads," WZKS 6 (1962) 153 ff. I have translated tattvajna everywhere as a genitive tatpurua, "knowledge of truth." Donatoni (1995) p. 39, n. 3 points out that Abhyankar in his Advaitamoda paragraph 3.12 interprets tattvajna as either a genitive tatpurua, or as a karmadhraya in the sense of "knowledge that is reality." 12


See S. S. Raghavachar, Viidvaita (Madras: University of Madras, 1977). In this public lecture on Viidvaita he says: "By bhakti is meant a form of knowledge, for ultimately love is just knowledge of what is a source of joy to the knower. This is not the knowledge of the scriptures. That knowledge, however necessary, is lower. It is not the knowledge gained through divine self-revelation. That would constitute the very end pursued, the phala itself. Bhakti must be an intermediate type, rising beyond and on the basis of scriptural revelation, but striving after the final perceptual experience. So it is properly called meditation. It is a conscious and willed practice of upsana or dhyna, intense concentration characterized by intense love. When the Upaniads say that only jna liberates, they signify this exercise of intelligence by way of perpetual, ever-growing and imaginatively vivid meditation on God with utmost love towards object and therefore towards the meditation itself. So bhakti, in short, is living mediation on God. The maturation of it in point of magnitude and of depth brings about the saving illumination" (pp. 5556). See Wilhelm Halbass's essay "The Concept of Experience" in India and Europe: An Essay in Understanding, (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988) pp. 378402. Ibid. "akara uses such terms as anubhava rarely and cautiously. But this does not mean that experience is not very significant for his thinking and his interpretation of the Veda. On the contrarythe Upaniads are texts which teach or indicate the knowledge of brahman (brahmajna), and that means ultimate experience. akara uses the example of sense perception, of the sheer perceptual, experiential giveness of something, in order to illustrate the nature of brahmanjna and to distinguish it from anything that can be produced or pursued by human action. However, that experience which the Veda itself teaches as a transcendent soteriological goal, the sheer undisguised presence of brahman, should not be confused with "personal experiences," or "observations" which one might use as evidence for or against the Veda. The Veda reveals brahman and its modes of presence; and it legitimizes anubhava as a mode of access to it. "Instead of being a documentation of subjective experience, the Veda is an objective structure with guides, controls and gives room to legitimate experience, as well as legitimate argumentation. akara compares the Veda to a sun which shines into the world of appearance, orienting man towards what transcends such appearance and making true seeing possible. It is an objective, transpersonal epiphany, an authorless, yet didactically well-organized body of soteriological instruction, which distinguishes between different levels of qualification, eligibility or mandate (adhikra). It adjusts its message, in its work and knowledge portions, accordingly. Although its ultimate message is that of the unity and identity of tman and brahman, it carefully structures the path towards such unity through the multiplicity of appearance." (p. 388)
17 16 15


2.8.7: "But for Janaka knowledge of truth arose suddenly like fruit falling from the sky merely by listening to the Siddha Gt, as a result of the ripening of the vast quantity of his merit accumulated in previous lives."


18 19

See Olivelle (1987) pp. 126127. See below, Chapter 2, n.30.

Compare the roots vas class 1: (1) to dwell, reside, stay, and (2) exist, be found in; and vs class 10: (1) to scent, perfume, incense, fumigate, make fragrant, (2) to steep, infuse, and (3) to spice, season. Cf. Apte's dictionary.

sapad: fortune. This term has been translated variously in the BhG. I have chosen the term "fortune" to indicate what one arrives at in life by fate or chance, similar to the term "lot" chosen by Franklin Edgerton. This is a more neutral sense and has less to do with riches or success. Another even more neutral sense of the root sapad is "to take place," and we may understand the term sapad as "what takes place," "what comes together," or simply as "a grouping." Therefore the BhG may simply be listing traits with each sapad as the Divine or Demonic "group (of traits)." See Karl Potter, Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Advaita Vednta up to akara and his Pupils, vol. 3 (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1981): "It is evident that akara does not teach withdrawal from the work at any point along the path of spiritual progress, even at the sanysa or jvanmukta stage. The sanysin is working out this karma, and although from the higher standpoint he is not "acting," this makes not difference at all fro the lower standpoint, which is only standpoint from which questions about social mores matter. As far as the rest of us are concerned, the sanysin is actinghe eats, sleeps, and moves aroundand furthermore, he is doing so motivated by vsans determined by his karmic residues. What kind of vsans these are must, then, depend on what kind of residues he has stored up, which in turn must depend on the acts he has performed in previous lives, and earlier in this one" (pp. 3536). See H. W. Bodewitz, Jaiminya Brhmaa I, 1065: Translation and Commentary With a Study: Agnihotra and Prgnihotra, Orientalia Rheno-Traiectina, vol. 17 (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1973).
24 23 22


See below, 4.2.2734, where Vidyraya cites and comments on the passage in the Mahnaryana Upaniad which homologizes the renouncer's activity with the sacrifice. See also, Olivelle (1992) p. 6871. See Walter Kaelber, Tapta Marga: Asceticism and Initiation in Vedic India(Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989) p. 101124. The connection of yogic breath-control with tapas, or "austerity," "ascetic heat," and the sacrifice, as in the "interiorization of the sacrifice," is well known and has been noted often by others. See for instance Mircea Eliade Yoga: Immortality and Freedom (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969) pp. 106114.
26 25

Cf. below, 3.10.1, where Vidyraya's objector refers to enstasis as "therapy for the mind" (cittacikitsaka).

"This flow of mental activity in the form of Brahman and without egoism, produced by the intensity of the practice of meditation, is enstasis-with-conceptualization" [MukU 2.53]. Following the statement on meditation (dhyna) which is the seventh limb, the Vedntasra states: samdhis tkta savikalpaka eva. See Swami Nikhilananda, Vedntasra or The Essence of Vednta of Sdanda Yogndra, 5th Impression (Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama, 1968) pp. 121122.
29 28

vyutthna: coming out (of enstasis). I have chosen to translate this term differently than others have, e.g., "agitation," "emergence," "distraction."

Cf. YS 1.41: graht, grhya, grahaa.



See Tarkasagraha of Annabhaa, sec. 42, ed. Yashwant Vasudev Athalaye, tr. Mahadev Rajaram Bodas(Pune: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 1988) pp. 2931 and 21520. This citation of LYV shows that Vidyraya has some awareness of the diverging views in his source concerning yoga versus knowledge. I argue that Vidyraya interprets the knowledge referred to in his source as the Sakya path of knowledge as contrasted with the Yoga path. Based on V. Raghavan's study in "The Yogavasiha Quotations in the Jvanmuktiviveka of Vidyraya," Journal of the Andhra Historical Research Society 12 (19381939) pp. 142156 , we may presume Vidyraya had before him the LYV, and not the longer, earlier YV. Slaje (1998) would argue, however, that Vidyraya was aware of the earlier, longer YV tradition before the abstracted LYV version. Slaje says in his published remarks that he is even convinced of Raghavan's study, as well as his own investigations into the LYV abstract available in South Indian Grantha mss. which do not extend past the Sarga 6.15, just as Vidyraya's citations of it do not. Slaje then remarks: "Still, we cannot exclude the possibility that he was at least acquainted with the text of one of the longer versions, but nevertheless avoided exploiting it for his purposes." (p. 104) I, for one, cannot see why we have to include this possibility that Vidyraya knew of a longer YV version. We may, however, accept Slaje's excellent analysis of the Mokopaya recension showing that it did not endorse yoga or the doctrine of samdhi from the agayoga of Patajali (p. 112113). This tradition defines samdhi quite differently from that of Patajali. It involves a detached state based on a prior development through vicra and jna that is wakeful and frees one of intentionality and involvement with the world. The final vsan remaining in the jvanmukta allows him to see life in a calm, detached attitude, "causing calm actions as if life were indeed nothing but a game: things lose their importance for someone whoin the absence of the notion of an individual selfhas no opportunity to establish intentional references to himself or rather, to his self" (Slaje, 2000a:178180). It seems to me that we also cannot exclude the possibility that Vidyraya's understanding of yoga by which he interprets passages such as LYV 5.9.72 is contrary to this understanding of samdhi that Slaje has recovered from the Mokopaya because Vidyraya did not know about it, and not, as Slaje argues, because he wanted to change the YV tradition. Whether or not Vidyraya did know about it, this is not relevant because it seems to me much more likely that Vidyraya would place great importance on Patajali's version of samdhi and ascetical sanysa because this is the tradition he did know. Thus as I argued above in 1.4 of this introduction, Vidyraya, being a constructive theologian, interpreted his later version of the LYV based on his own Advaita Vednta background and study of the YS and Sakhya, which were probably more accessible to him, and not the earlier layers of the YV tradition Slaje has revealed.
33 32

akara, however, interprets laya in the GK 3.42 to refer to suupti, "deep sleep," and not the ordinary sleep of the body. See Sagaudapdyakrikrthavavedyamkyopaniat nSS 10, ed. Viutanu Abaijiarma (Pune: nandrama Sansth, 1984) p. 150151.


Distraction (vikepa) in this instance may be understood as the same thing as the "occasionally distracted" state (vikipta) of Vysa in his YSBh 1.1.


JVANMUKTIVIVEKA (TREATISE ON LIBERATION-IN-LIFE) Chapter One: The Authoritative Basis for Liberation-in-Life
1.0 Benediction 1. I venerate the Great Lord Vidytrtha, whose breath is the Vedas [BU 2.4.10; MtrU 6.32] and who created the whole world from the Vedas. 2. I will discuss separately the renunciation-for-knowledge (vividisanysa) and the renunciation-of-the-knower (vidvatsanysa). The former is the cause of bodiless-liberation (videhamukti); the latter is the cause of liberation-in-life (jvanmukti), respectively. 3. The reason for renunciation is detachment, because of the Vedic declaration: "The very day when one becomes detached, one should wander forth." [JU 4 p. 64] But its divisions are found in the Puras. 4. Detachment is declared to be of two types: sharp and sharper. When the sharp type is present, the yogi should renounce into the kucaka status, 5. and if he is strong enough, into the bahdaka status. When the sharper type is present, one should renounce into the hasa state, and if he is desirous of liberation, into the paramahasa state, which is the means of attaining knowledge directly. 6. "Away with sasra" is when a temporary thought occurs at the time of the loss of a son, wife, wealth, and so on; it is the dull state of detachment. 7. "In this world let me not have a son, wife, etc.," that sort of firm mind is the sharp detachment. 8. "Let there never be a world subject to rebirth," that is the sharper detachment. There is not any renunciation in the dull level of detachment. 9. In the sharp type, there may be two types of renunciation on the basis of the ability or inability to undertake pilgrimages, and so forth. The two types are the kuicaka and the bahdaka. Both of these are triple-staffed.

10. In the sharper type, there are two types of renunciation, according to the distinction of Brahmaloka and liberation. The Hasa knows the truth in that world (Brahmaloka); the paramahasa knows the truth in this world. 11. Now, the practices of these (renouncers) have been described by us in the commentary on the Prarasmti. Here the paramahasa is described. 12. The paramahasa is thought to be of two types: one desirous of knowledge and a knower. The Vajasaneyins have prescribed renunciation for one desirous of knowledge for the purpose of acquiring knowledge. 13. "Wanderers renounce desiring this world." [BU 4.4.22] Now the meaning of this will be explained in prose for the benefit of those who are dull-minded. 1.1 The Renunciation-for-Knowledge 1. Now, the world is twofold, namely, the world that is the Self and the world that is the non-Self. 2. Of these, in the third chapter of the Bhadrayaka, the world that is the non-Self is declared to be threefold: Now, there are clearly three worlds: the world of men, the world of the ancestors, and the world of the gods. This world of men here is to be won only by sons and by no other (action). The world of the ancestors is to be won by ritual action. The world of the gods is to be won by knowledge. [BU 1.5.16] 3. The world of the Self is also declared in the same text: Clearly, for one who departs from this world not having seen his own world, that, being unknown, would be of no use to him. [BU 1.4.15] 4. And: He should venerate the Self alone as his world. If he venerates the Self alone as his world, his rites indeed do not diminish. [BU1.4.15] 5. Also in the sixth chapter: What would we do with progeny, we for whom this Self is this world? [BU 4.4.22] 6. Thus in: Desiring this alone as their world, the renouncers undertake the life of 72

wandering, [BU 4.4.22] it is understood that the world that is the Self is meant, 7. because of the fact that the term "this" refers to the Self that is introduced by the statement beginning: This is the great, unborn Self. [BU 4.4.22] 8. The term "world" (loka) is derived from (the verb) "it is seen" (lokyate), i.e., "it is experienced" (anubhyate). So, accordingly, the intended meaning of the ruti is this: they wander forth desiring the experience of the Self. 9. The Smti also declares: For the purpose of attaining knowledge of Brahman, the one named paramahasa should have all the means such as mental control and sense control (ntidnti). [NpU p. 195] 10. Because it has been brought about by the desire for knowledge that has arisen through Vedic recitations and so on, properly performed in this life here or in a former life, this is called "renunciation-for-knowledge." 11. And this renunciation, which is cause of knowing, is twofold: the one consisting only in the abandonment of rites1 and the like, which produces rebirth; the other constitutes an order in society (rama) that is connected with carrying a staff and the like, which are preceded by uttering the praia ritual formula.2 12. And abandonment is declared in the Taittirya and other Upaniads: Some have reached immortality by abandonment, and not by rites, offspring, or wealth. [T 10.10.21; KaiU 1.3] 13. Even women are qualified to undertake this abandonment. For this reason, the statement of Maitrey was given in sacred scripture: What would I do with that which doesn't make me immortal? Tell me, Lord, what you know. [BU 4.5.4] 14. When, for whatever reason, Vedic students, householders, and forest-dwellers are prevented from entering the renunciant order, there is nothing to prevent the mental 73

abandonment of rites and the like for the purpose of knowledge, even while they remain performing the duties (dharma-s) of their own order, because we see many such knowers of truth in the rutis, Smtis, Itihsas, and Puras.3 15. The order of the paramahasa, which is the cause of knowing and consists in carrying the staff and the like, has been treated at length in many ways by earlier teachers. Therefore, we will not deal with it. 1.2 The Renunciation-of-the-Knower 1. Now we consider the renunciation-of-the-knower. The renunciation-of-the-knower is that which is brought about by those who have come to know the highest truth by properly performing Vedic study, reflection, and meditation. Yjavalkya carried out. 2. This is what

For example, the blessed crest-jewel of knowers,

Yjavalkyaafter he had defeated the sages, beginning with valyana, by explaining the truth in various ways in the discussion on one seeking victory and by enlightening Janaka through a variety of short and long explanations in the discourse of one who has gone beyond passionwishing to awaken Maitrey, declared to her the (the rite of) renunciation, which he himself was about to undertake, so as to make her quickly turn to the truth. Then, having awakened her, he performed (the rite of) renunciation. 3. This is given in the Vedic tradition of the Vajasaneyins both at the beginning and end of the Maitrey Brhmaa. Now when he was about to begin another activity of life, Yjavalkya said, "Maitrey as you see, my dear, I am about to wander forth from this station," [BU 4.5.12] 4. And also: "That, my dear, you should know is the extent of immortality." Having spoken 74

thus, Yjavalkya went forth. [BU 4.5.15] 5. Even in the Kahola Brhmaa [BU 3], the renunciation-of-the-knower is given: Clearly, having known just that Self, the Brhmaas rise above the desire for sons, wealth, and the world; afterwards they live as mendicants. [BU 3.5.1] 6. One should not presume that this statement refers to the renunciation-forknowledge, because it would result in the annulment of the meaning of the word(s) "having known" (viditv), which expresses a previous time with a "tv" suffix, and because the word "Brhmaa" expresses the one who knows Brahman. 7. Nor is the word "Brhmaa" here the designation of caste, because in the remainder of the passage "(from) then (on a) Brhmaa" [BU 3.5.1] was declared with reference to the direct realization of Brahman, which is attained by Vedic study, reflection, and meditation (ravanamanananididhysana) and is referred to by the terms "learning," "living as a simpleton," and "remaining silent" (pityablyamauna), respectively. 8. [Objection] Does the word "Brhmaa" in this passage not also refer to someone who has undertaken the renunciation-for-knowledge and is living as a scholar and so on? Therefore, a Brhmaa having completely mastered learning may wish to live as a simpleton. [BU 3.5.1] 9. [Reply] No, because the use of the word "Brhmaa" there refers to future activity. Otherwise, how would the word "then" be used (in the text) "(from) then (on a) Brhmaa," a term that refers to a time after the employment of the means? 10. In the arra Brhmaa [BU 4] also, both the renunciation-for-knowledge and the renunciation-of-the-knower are clearly specified. This (Self) alone having known, one becomes a sage (muni). Desiring this alone as their world, the renouncers undertake the life of wandering. [BU 4.4.22] 75

11. The state of the sage is one in which a person is disposed to reflection (mananalatvam). This is possible only when there is nothing else that has to be done. By implication, therefore, it ("sage") refers only to the manifest (sanihita).4 12. This is made clear in the rest of the sentence: Indeed, the ancient people who knew this didn't want offspring, (thinking) "What shall we do with offspring, we for whom this Self is this world?" Indeed they rise above desire for sons, wealth, and the world, and afterwards they live as mendicants. [BU 4.4.22] "This world" means it is being directly experienced. 13. [Objection] In this passage, after attracting (someone) with the fruits of the state of a sage, just this (type of renunciation) is explained at length in the rest of the sentence that contains an injunction concerning the renunciation-for-knowledge. Consequently, one need not conceive of another type of renunciation. 14. [Reply] This is not so, because of the fact that knowing itself is the result of the renunciation-for-knowledge. Moreover, one should not suspect that knowledge and the state of the sage are identical, because we see that these two, of which the former is prior to the latter according to the statement "(This alone) having known, one becomes a sage," have the nature of the means and the goal. 15. [Objection] The state of the sage is simply another, albeit highly developed, condition of knowledge. Hence, it is a result, through the intermediary of knowledge, of the previously mentioned renunciation itself. 16. [Reply] Certainly. It is for this very reason that we posit this renunciation, which is different from and constitutes the result of the renunciation that constitutes the means. Just as the renouncer seeking knowledge should carry out Vedic study and so on for the purpose of knowing the truth, so also should the renouncer who is a 76

knower carry out elimination of the mind (manona) and eradication of latent tendencies (vsankaya) for the purpose of liberation-in-life. We will deal with this in greater detail later on.5 17. Even though there is the subdistinction of these two types of renunciation, nevertheless, having combined them under the the general rubric of paramahasa, the Smtis consider there to be four in number: "Mendicants are of four kinds." [MhB 13.129.29]6 18. From the Jbla ruti we gather that both the former and the latter two types of renunciation fall within the category of paramahasa. For in that text, when being asked by Janaka about renunciation, Yjavalkya first explained the renunciation-for-knowledge, together with the rule regarding the special qualification for it and the rites a person should perform after he has the necessary qualification. [JU 4 pp. 6367] Later on, when Atri raised the objection as to whether a man who has abandoned the sacred string retains the rank of a Brhmaa, he established that knowledge of the Self alone constitutes the sacred string. [JU 5 pp. 6769] 19.

Therefore we conclude that it is the state of a paramahasa because of the absence of an external sacred string. 20. So also in another section, the same text introduces the subject thus: "Of these, the paramahasas are" [JU 6 p. 69], then gives examples of Brahma-knowers such as Samavartaka and others who are liberated-in-life and goes on to describe renouncers who are knowers: Those who have no visible emblems and practices, are not insane, but behave as if insane. [JU 6 p. 69] 21. Likewise, the text enjoins the renunciation-for-knowledge, which is characterized by the single-staff, for one who is a triple-staff carrier in the statement: 77

When abandoning the triple-staff, the water pot, the sling, begging bowl, strainer, tuft of hair, sacred string, and all this, saying "Bh svh" in water, he should seek the Self. [JU 6 p. 70] 22. Then the text describes the renunciation-of-the-knower, which constitutes the result of the renunciation-for-knowledge, thus: He is called paramahasa who is one who keeps the form he had at birth [naked], is indifferent to pairs of opposites, has no possessions, is firmly set on the way of Brahman, has a pure mind, randomly begs with the belly as a begging-bowl7 for the sake of supporting life, is impartial to gain and loss; (making an abode in) a deserted house, temple, haystack, and anthill, the root of a tree, a potter's house, a fireplace, a sandy riverbank, a mountain cave or cleft, the hollow of a tree, a river bed in a deserted place; he does not strive, has no egoism, with an aim of meditation in the self-luminous Brahman, he has steadiness in the supreme Self; dedicated to rooting out impure actions, he abandons the body by means of renunciation. [JU 6 p. 70] 23. Therefore it is established that both of these (types of renunciation) have the character of the state of a paramahasa. 24. Even though we have determined (that both of these are included in) the state of a paramahasa, we should also admit their subclassification because they are associated with different duties (dharma-s). We can see the fact that their duties are different by examining the rui and Paramahasa Upaniads. 25. When he was asked by student rui about the renunciation-for-knowledge, which consists in abandoning all ritual actions, such as the topknot, the sacred string, private Vedic recitation, and private recitation of gyatr, (the question) "By what, Lord, can I give up rites completely?" [rU 1 p. 3], teacher Prajpati explained the abandonment of everything in the statement beginning with "topknot, sacred string." [rU 1 pp. 34] He then enjoined taking the staff and so on with the words "He should take a staff and a robe" [rU 1 p. 5]8 and enjoined as obligatory the duties of the order (ramadharma-s), which are the cause of knowing, 78

26. He should bathe at the beginning of the three junctures of the day (trisadhy-s), he should realize union in the Self in enstasis (samdhi), and turn to all the Vedas, which are the rayakas, i.e., he should turn to the Upaniads. [rU 2 pp. 67] 27. When he was asked by Nrada about the renunciation-of-the-knower: "What is the path of the paramahasa yogins?" [PhU 1 p. 45] the Lord teacher (Prajpati) explained renunciation as before, beginning with the words: "(That man should renounce his own) sons, friends. . ." 28. Then he explained that taking up the staff and so on has a worldly motive (laukikatvam), in the words: He should take up the loincloth, the staff, and robe, for the good of his own body and as a benefit to the world. [PhU 1 p. 46] 29. Then he denied that that custom is based on scriptural authority (by the statement): "That is not principal." He then declared that the absence of emblems such as the staff and so on is founded on scripture: If it is asked "What is principal?" (he said,) What is principal? paramahasa lives without the staff, topknot, sacred string, and robe. [PhU 1 p. 46] 30. And further, with the words "Neither the heat nor the cold (affect him)" and "with the sky as clothing, paying no homage," [PhU 2 p. 47; 4 p. 50] he explained that it goes beyond social conventions. 31. Finally, he stated that it ultimately results in direct realization of Brahman with the section ending: "I am Brahman, which is perfect bliss and unitary consciousness:" realizing this, he is one who has done all there is to do. [PhU 4 p. 55] 32. Hence, because of the fact that these states contain different duties, there is indeed a great distinction between these two (types of renunciation). 33. Even in the Smtis this distinction can be seen in the way I have pointed out. 34. Statements such as this refer to renunciation-for-knowledge: 79

Having seen that the world is simply without substance, those desiring to see the substantial wander forth, without getting (married), seeking the highest detachment. [BS 2.534; NpU p. 139]9 35. Yoga10 is characterized by the life of action (pravtti). Knowledge is characterized by renunciation. Therefore, the wise should renounce here, with knowledge as his objective. [NpU p. 139] 36. Statements such as this refer to the renunciation-of-the-knower: When That is known as the highest eternal Brahman, then having taken the single staff, he should abandon the topknot together with the sacred string. [NpU p. 139]11 37. Having realized perfectly the highest Brahma, he should abandon everything and wander forth. [untraced] 38. [Objection] As in the case of the fine arts, sometimes the desire to know is indeed produced also by mere curiosity. One also observes the state of knower in a person who sees superficially, who is also thought of as a learned man. But these two are not seen to be wanderers. Therefore, what is the type of desire for knowledge and state of a knower that is meant here? 39. [Reply] When sharp hunger arises, one doesn't want to do anything but eat, and one cannot tolerate any delay in eating. In this same way, there arises complete disgust regarding the rites that cause birth, and a great urge to undertake the means of knowing, beginning with Vedic study and rest. Such is the desire for knowledge that causes renunciation. 40. The condition of the state of the knower is declared in the Upadeashasr: For one who has the knowledge that suspends the notion that the body is the Self and is like that notion, should he be in the Self, he is released without wishing it. [US 4.5] 41. Also in the ruti passage: The knot of the heart is split, all doubts are cut off, and his actions come to an end when that, the highest is the lower (parvara), is seen. [MuU 2.2.8] 80

42. He, with respect to whom even the "highest" state, such as that of the Hirayagarbha, is "lower," is "parvara." "Heart" refers to the intellect. Its

superimposition of identity on the witness is called "knot" because it is of the nature of a strong conjoining like a knot, created as it is by ignorance that has no beginning. Such things (as these) are the doubts: Is the Self a witness or a doer? Even in the case of its being the witness, is it Brahman or not? Even in the case that it is Brahman, is it possible to know this by the intellect or not? Even in the case of its being possible, does knowing that alone bring about liberation or not? "Actions" refers to what has not begun (bearing fruit and is) the cause of future births. Seeing the Self brings about the cessation of these three, namely the knot and so on, because they are created by ignorance. 43. This meaning is also found in the Smti: For one whose nature is not to make an I, and whose intellect is not tainted, even though he kills these worlds, he does not kill and is not bound. [BhG 18.17] 44. "One whose" means one who knows Brahman. "Nature" means existence, one's true nature, in this case the Self. "Is not to make an I" means that he is not inwardly involved because of a superimposition of identity by making an "I." Taint of intellect is doubt. In the absence of that (doubt), he is not bound even by killing the "three worlds," let alone by any other action. That is the meaning. 45. [Objection] If this is so, because future births are prevented simply by the knowledge of truth, which is the result of renunciation-for-knowledge, there is no use troubling with the renunciation-of-the-knower, because it is impossible to get rid of the remainder of the present birth without experiencing it. 81

46. [Reply] No, because of the fact that renunciation-of-the-knower is the cause of liberation-in-life. Therefore, just as renunciation-for-knowledge is to be carried out for the purpose of acquiring knowledge, so also the renunciation-of-the-knower is to be carried out for liberation-in-life. Thus ends the discussion of the renunciation-ofthe knower. 1.3 The Nature of Liberation-in-Life 1. [Objection] What is this liberation-in-life? What authoritative basis (prama) is there for it? How is it achieved? What is the purpose of achieving it? 2. [Reply] We respond: The nature of the mind of a living persona nature that is characterized by such things as being a doer or an experiencer, happiness and sufferingconstitutes bondage because it consists in affliction (klea). Removal of this (bondage) is liberation-in-life. 3. [Objection] Is bondage removed (a) from the witness or (b) from the mind? Not the first, because bondage is removed only through knowledge of the truth. Nor in the second, because it is not possible. When one can remove fluidity from water, or heat from fire, then there is the possibility of removing the notion of being a doer from the mind; the fact that these attributes are a part of the nature of the things discussed is common to all. 4. [Reply] This is not so, because while their complete removal is not possible, overcoming them, however, is possible. Just as one overcomes the fluidity of water by mixing soil with it, just as one overcomes the heat of fire with such things as a jewel or a mantra, so also it is possible to overcome all mental activities with the practice of yoga. 82

5. [Objection]

When operative action (prrabdhakarma)12 has blocked the

knowledge of truth, which is engaged in destroying the totality of ignorance and its effects, it fixes the body, the sense organs, and the like, to giving its (operative action's) own results. Moreover, it isn't possible to bring about the experience of happiness or suffering, and the like, except through mental activities. How then is it (mental activity) overcome? 6. [Reply] There is no difficulty, because liberation-in-life, which is the

achievement of this overcoming, is included within the category of the result of operative action by the fact that it consists in the highest happiness.13 7. [Objection] In that case, that acquired action itself will bring about liberationin-life; there's no need for a person's effort. 8. [Reply] This argument is the same even in regard to agriculture, commerce, and other efforts. 9. [Objection] In such things as agriculture, personal effort is required because, in regard to an action which is itself invisible, it is not possible for it to produce a result without the application of a visible instrument. 10. [Reply] The same justification would apply to liberation-in-life. Even when there is personal effort, wherein one does not see the resulting yield of agriculture and the like, there we must assume there is an impediment created by some more powerful action. And that powerful action hinders only by producing a visible complex of conditions, consisting in the absence of rain and so on, which is helpful to itself. This hindrance is removed by an action such as the Karri14 rite, which is opposed to that hindrance and supports (personal effort) in a stronger manner. This action removes 83

the hindrance only by producing a visible complex of conditions, consisting in rain and so on, helpful to itself. 11. In short, by greatly supporting a belief in operative action, Sir, you can't even think with the mind about the futility15 of personal effort consisting in yogic discipline. Rather, because operative action is more powerful than knowledge of truth, we could take it that yogic discipline is more powerful than this action. Accordingly, we find Uddlaka [LYV 5.6] and others abandoning the body by their own free will. Even if such yoga is not possible for people such as us who live a short time, nevertheless, what problem is there in yoga merely to suppress mental activities such as desire? 12. If you do not accept the strength of effort sanctioned by stra, then it would follow that all stras beginning with medicine right up to liberation are useless. Merely because there is sometimes a disappointment owing to the result of action, we can't assume that action in general is ineffectual. Otherwise, having seen an

occasional defeat, all kings would dissolve their armies of elephants and horses, etc. 13. For the same reason, nandabodhcrya said: One does not give up food out of fear of indigestion, nor does one not cook a meal out of the fear of beggars, nor does one give up clothes out of a fear of lice. [Prm p. 21] 14. We gather clearly the power of effort sanctioned by stra in the dialogue of Vasiha and Rma beginning with "Everything here" and ending with "afterward let go of even that, and stand virtuous." 15. Vasiha: Everyone attains everything here in this sasric existence, O Son of Raghu, by properly performed personal effort. [LYV 2.1.1] 84

"Everything" means rewards such as sons, wealth, heaven, Brahman loka, etc. "Personal effort" means effort by people consisting in ritual to acquire sons, agriculture, commerce, and the Soma sacrifice. 16. The Smtis say personal effort is twofold: in accord with stra and deviating from stra. Of these, effort deviating from stra leads to harm, effort in accord with stra leads to the highest good. [LYV 2.1.2] "Deviating from stra" refers to such things as sleeping with another's wife and stealing another's property. "In accord with stra" refers to such things as carrying out perpetual and occasional rituals. "Harm" is hell, while "highest good" is

liberation, namely, the highest among good things such as heaven. 17. That aim which is beneficial is brought about by personal effort (endowed) with qualities such as association with good people and stra cultivated well from childhood. [LYV 2.1.3] "Well" is fully, i.e., perfectly fulfilled. One needs to supply the word "endowed" before "with qualities." "Beneficial" means consisting of the ultimate bliss. 18. r Rma: O Muni! I stand just as the prior web of latent tendencies (vsan) compel me to. What will a limited creature such as I do? [LYV 2.1.4] "Latent tendencies" refers to residual impressions (saskra) contained in the individual self (jva) consisting of either what is right and what is wrong (dharmdharma). 19. Vasiha: Precisely because of that, O Rma, you will attain the highest good (reya)16 only by your personal effort and by none other. [LYV 2.1.5] Precisely because you are subject to latent tendencies, in order to oppose the subjugation, you require personal work (vypra) brought about by one's own energy (utsha), produced in the mind, speech, and body. 85

20. The multitude of previous latent tendencies is twofold; they are good and bad. Are both found in you, O Rma, or just one of them? [LYV 2.1.6] The distinction is this: do both what is right and what is wrong (dharmdharma) propel you, or just one of the them? Even if it is just one, a further alternative of "good and bad" is established by implication. 21. Of these, if you are swept away by a flood of tendencies that are good, then you will gradually just in this way reach the eternal state without delay. [LYV 2.1.7] "Of these" means among these options. "Then" means in that case. "Just in this way" means by the behavior that is conveyed by the good latent tendencies alone without any other effort. "Eternal state" is liberation. 22. Now if the bad inclination (bhva) propels you into trouble, then that previous thing should be conquered by your own effort. [LYV 2.1.8] "Inclination" (bhva) refers latent tendencies. "Then" means in that case. "Effort" means carrying out duty (dharma) that is opposed to the bad and is sanctioned by stra. It should be conquered by him himself, but it is not possible to conquer by means of another person, as in war it is not possible to conquer by means of soldiers.17 23. One should channel the river of latent tendencies that carry the good and bad ways onto the good path by personal effort. [LYV 2.1.9] In the alternative when both are present, even though there is no need for effort with respect to the good latent tendencies, the bad tendencies should be removed by effort sanctioned by the stra. The good alone should be practiced in its place. 24. O Best of the Strong, carry your mind that is entangled with the bad things over to the good things by one's own strong personal aim. [LYV 2.1.10] "Bad things" refers to such things a stealing another's property and sleeping with another's wife. "Good things" refers such things as contemplation of the gods, which 86

is the meaning of the stras. "By personal aim" means by personal effort. "Strong" means powerful. 25. Like a child, the mind of a person is caused to move from the bad, goes to the good, and vice versa. Therefore one should cause it to move by force. [LYV 2.1.11] Just as child is prevented from eating clay by directing him to eat fruit, so also it is possible to restrain even a mind from objects that are opposed to the mind by means of association with the good. 26. One might coax the child that is the mind quickly by soothing words that lead to equanimity, and not quickly but gradually by strong personal effort. [LYV 2.1.12] 27. There are two ways to make a restive beast enter a stall: one is showing green grass, scratching it, etc., and the other shouting at it with harsh speech and threatening it with a stick, etc. Of these two means, one makes the beast enter quickly by the first; one makes it enter gradually, running here and there, by the second. Likewise, there are two ways to still the mind: by perceiving enemies, friends, etc., with equanimity and happiness, and by personal effort such as breath control and withdrawal of the senses. One will quickly coax the mind by the first way, which is gentle (mdu) yoga; one would not coax the mind quickly by the second way, forceful (haha) yoga, but only gradually. 28. When the development of (good) latent tendencies comes about in you through the influence of the quick exercise, O Arisdana, know that the practice has attained its fruit. [LYV 2.1.13] When the good latent tendencies have arisen through the practice of gentle yoga, then it should be said that the practice has attained fruit. But you should not worry that it is impossible because you have practiced for such a short time. 87

29. Even in doubt, vigorously bring together just the good (latent tendencies). There isn't any fault, dear one, when there is an excess in the good tendencies. [LYV 2.1.14] 30. When there is doubt as to whether the good latent tendencies being practiced are complete or not, even then one should certainly continue to practice the good. It is like this. When a man who has undertaken the one thousand recitations has a doubt about the tenth hundred, then he should recite one hundred times more. If it was incomplete, it would become complete and will bear fruit. But if it was complete, by doing an excess the one thousand recitations are not spoiled. 31. So long as you have not cultivated the mind, you have not realized the highest state. However, to that extent practice what has been determined by the authority of the Gurus and the stras. [LYV 2.1.15] 32. Then, when you have extinguished the bad deeds and understood reality, with restraint, you should give up also that flood of good tendencies. [LYV 2.1.16] 33. When having performed by means of an intellect of an agreeable nature that auspicious practice followed by the noble, always bring yourself to that state without sorrow, and afterward let go of even that, and stand virtuous (sdhu). [LYV 2.1.17] 34. The meaning is clear. Therefore there cannot be a dispute over the existence of liberation-in-life because one can overcome desire and the like by means of the practice of yoga. Thus ends the description of the nature of liberation-in-life. 1.4 The Characteristics of Liberation-in-Life 1. Declarations in ruti and Smti provide us with the authoritative basis of the existence of liberation-in-life. They are taught in texts such as the Kahavall. 2. There is in the Kahavall the statement: . . . and freed from it, he is set free. [KU 5.1] 3. A living person is already freed especially from visible bonds such as desire, 88

but when the body dies, one is freed especially from bondage to future births. One is certainly released from desire and the like prior to the advent of knowing by bringing about mental control, sense control (amadama), etc.; nevertheless, at that time the desires and the like that have already arisen are suppressed through effort. 4. But in the case we are discussing, there is simply no arising of such things as desire because of the mere non-arising of mental activities. It is for this reason we say "especially." Likewise, when the world dissolves and the body dies, one is freed from the bondage to future bodies for a short while. In this case, we said "especially" with reference to permanent liberation. 5. We read in the Bhadranyaka: When all the desires that are lurking in his heart are let go, then the mortal becomes immortal and attains Brahman here (in this world). [BU 4.4.7; KU 6.14] 6. Also in another ruti: Although he has sight, he is as if sightless. Although he has hearing, he is as if without ears. Although he has a mind, he is as if with no mind. [Quoted in BSBh 1.1.4] In like manner, one can also cite similar texts from other sources. 7. In the Smtis in different places, liberation-in-life is designated by such names as "steady-in-wisdom" (sthitapraja), "devotee-of-the-Lord" (bhagavadbhakta), "transcended-the-qualities" (guntta), "Brhmaa," and "beyond-the-castes-andorders" (ativarramin). In the conversation between Vasiha and Rma

beginning with "In men focused only on knowledge" [LYV 3.1.88] and ending with "some little thing remains" [LYV 3.1.100], one who is liberated-in-life is taught. 8. Vasiha: In men focused only on knowledge, and who investigate the knowledge of the self, there arises the state of liberation-in-life that is the very (eva)18 state of bodiless-liberation. [LYV 3.1.88] 89

To be "focused only on knowledge" means to abandon all Vedic and worldly (laukika) ritual. The distinction between these two types of liberation is based merely on the presence or absence of the body and the senses, but not on experience, because in both the perception of duality is absent. 9. r Rma: Tell me, O Brhmaa, the characteristics of the bodiless-liberation and liberation-in-life by which I may thus strive by the vision found in the stras. [LYV 3.1.89] 10. Vasiha: One for whom, behaving even when this continues to exist as it is, it has set, it is empty spacehe is liberated-in-life. [LYV 3.1.90] 11. "This," consisting of such things as mountains, rivers, and oceans that are being perceived together with operations of the body and the senses of the perceiver at the time of the great dissolution being absorbed by the Supreme Lord, "has set" because the characteristic form of its existence has been abolished. But in this case (of the one liberated-in-life) this (abolition of characteristic form) is not so. On the

contrary, the operation of the body, senses, and so on are still present. And because the mountains, rivers, and so on have not been absorbed by the Supreme Lord, they are clearly observed by all other beings. 12. In the case of the one liberated-in-life, everything "has set" as in deep sleep because he does not have mental activities that cause perception of the world. Only the self-luminous space of consciousness remains. Though a bound person when in deep sleep has a similarity (to the one liberated-in-life, in that) during that time there are no mental activities, nevertheless he does not have the state of liberation-in-life because of the existence of the seed of future mental activities. 13. The shine of his face does not rise or set in pleasure or pain, and he 90

subsists on whatever he happens to gethe is liberated-in-life. [LYV 3.1.91] 14. "The shine of his face" is elation. Even when he encounters pleasure from garlands, sandal paste, and other ministrations like other people in the world, the elation does not arise. The setting of the shine of his face is dejection. Even when he encounters the pain from the decrease of wealth, someone speaking insolently to him, and so on, he does not become dejected. "Whatever he happens to get" refers to such things as begged food that he found in the prior course of events generated by operative action and without any special effort at the time on his part.19 "Subsists" refers to sustenance of the body. The absence of elation is reasonable because (a) he is not aware of garlands, sandal paste, and so on, because of his firmness of enstasis (samdhi), and (b) whenever it happens that he also becomes aware (of them) unexpectedly when he comes out (from his enstasis), by the firmness of his discernment, he has no consciousness that one thing should be shunned and another welcomed. 15. One who remains awake while experiencing deep sleep, and who is never awake, whose understanding (bodha) is free of latent tendencieshe is liberated-in-life. [LYV 3.1.92] 16. He "remains awake" because his sight and other senses have not ceased to function, because they remain in contact with their respective sense organs. He remains "in deep sleep" because he is free of mental activities. Consequently, he is "never awake" because the waking state as defined in the statement "perceiving objects through the senses" [PK p. 416] is not present in him. Even when there is "understanding" (bodha), defects of thought continue to arise, defects consisting in such things as pride in being a knower of Brahman and desire caused by pleasurable


objects. Such defects are not found in him, because he lacks the mental activities resulting from latent tendencies. Consequently, he is "free of latent tendencies." 17. One who, though behaving in conformity with craving, hatred, fear, and so on, internally he is clear like the skyhe is liberated-in-life. [LYV 3.1.93] 18. "In conformity with craving" is the activity of eating and so on. "In

conformity with hatred" is the aversion to Buddhists, Kaplikas, and so on. "In conformity with fear" is running away from such things as snakes and tigers. The words "and so on" refer to jealousy and the like. In conformity with jealousy is carrying out enstasis in a manner more than other yogins. Even though at the time of coming out (from enstasis) (vyutthana) such behavior takes place because of previous habit, one whose mind is still is inwardly clear because he is free from impurity. His case is just like that of the sky, which, though it is contaminated with smoke, dust, clouds, and the like, it is nevertheless extremely clear because it is by its very nature untainted. 19. One whose nature is not to be egotistical and whose intellect is not tainted,20 whether he is performing action or nothe is liberated-in-life. [LYV 3.1.94] 20. I explained the first half in my treatment of the renunciation-of-the-knower.21 In the world, the pure consciousness (cidtman) of a bound person performing action sanctioned by the stras assumes a sense of ego thinking "I am the doer." The intellect is tainted by elation, thinking "I will attain heaven in the future." But (the pure-consciousness) of one not performing action, there is egoism in thinking "I have abandoned." In his case, his taint consists in dejection over not attaining heaven. Likewise, this reasoning should be extended to prohibited and worldly actions as


appropriate. But one who is liberated-in-life does not have these two taints because of the absence in him of the superimposition on the Self (on the non-self), and the absence of elation and the like. 21. One from whom the world is does not recoil, and who does not recoil the world,22 and who is free from excitement, indignation, and fearhe is liberated-in-life. [LYV 3.1.95] 22. Because he does not engage in assault and verbal abuse, people do not fear him. For the very same reason, because the world doesn't engage in abuse and so on toward him, even though some wicked person may engage in such activities (toward him), such mental changes (vikalpa) do not arise in his mind. For these reasons he does not recoil. 23. One in whom the defects of sasric existence have come to an end, who, although he is master of the arts, is without arts, with a mind but without a mindhe is liberated-in-life. [LYV 3.1.96] 24. The "defects of sasric existence" are distinctions such as those between enemies and friends, respect and disrespect. The "arts" are the sixty-four branches of learning.23 Even though they are present, he is "without arts" because he neither practices them nor is proud of them. Even though the mind as such is present in him, he is "without a mind" because no activities arise in him. If we use the reading "(even though he is) thinking, (he is not thinking)," (it would mean that) even though the mental activities directed at the contemplation of the Self are present in him by force of latent tendencies, "he does not think," because mental activities directed at the world are absent. 25. One who even though he is engaged in activities of all kinds, he is cool as if engaged in the activities of others, having a perfect nature (prtm)he is liberated-in-life. [LYV 3.1.97] 93

26. As when a man goes to another's house for a marriage festival and the like, though he may help in the other person's work as a favor to him, nevertheless, his mind is not disturbed by rejoicing at gains and being dejected at losses. Likewise, a liberated man is "cool" even with regard to his own affairs. This coolness is not only due to the absence of disturbance, but also because he is aware of the fully perfect nature (pariprasvarpnusadhna).24 characteristics of the one liberated-in-life. 1.5 Bodiless-Liberation 1. Now we will discuss the characteristics of bodiless-liberation. 2. When abandoning the state of one liberated-in-life at the death of the body, one enters the state of bodiless-liberation, like the wind that falls still. [LYV 3.1.98] 3. As the wind sometimes gives up its movement, it abides in its own nature, so also is a liberated man who abandons sasric existence made of attributes and remains in his own nature. 4. The bodiless-liberated neither rises nor sets, nor does he rest. He is neither existent nor non-existent; neither is he distant and not (near);25 neither I nor the other. [LYV 3.1.99] 5. Rising and setting are elation and dejection. "Nor does he rest" means he does not abandon them because his subtle body dissolved in this very world. What is designated by "existent" is prja and vara which are the cause of the world and have the limiting attributes of ignorance and illusion; he is not that.26 What is Thus ends the discussion of the

designated by "non-existent" is what consists of material elements; he is not that. The expression "neither is he distant" means he hasn't gone beyond illusion.27 The

expression "and not (near)" denies that he lives close by, as one enjoying of the world 94

in a gross body (sthula bhuk.)28 in the waking state. "Neither I" means he is not the macrocosm (saai), and "nor the other" means he is not the microcosm (vyai).29 The meaning of all this is that (in this case) the distinctions we normally make are totally inapplicable. 6. Then some little thing remains, immovably profound, neither light nor dark, indescribable, unmanifest. [LYV 3.1.100] 7. Because bodiless-liberation of such a kind has been described as existent and non-existent, one must recognize that in liberation-in-life also, the more there is an increasing abundance of no-distinctions30 (nirvikalptiaya), the more eminent it (liberation-in-life) is.31 1.6 One Steady-in-Wisdom 1. In regard to the one who is steady-in-wisdom,32 in the second chapter of the Bhagavad Gt we read: 2. Arjuna said: How, O Keava, do you describe one who is steady-in-wisdom, who is steady in enstasis? How should one whose thought is steady speak? How should he act? How should he walk? [BhG 2.54] 3. "Wisdom" means the knowledge of truth. It is twofold: steady and unsteady. The steady wisdom is this. The mind of a woman in love who focuses only on her lover, even during all her activities, instantly forgets the tasks at hand deemed to be standard (pramapramitni) even as she is doing them. In like manner the mind of one who has reached the highest detachment, and who has achieved complete control through skillful practice of yoga, once there is knowledge of the truth, focuses on nothing except the truth in the same way (the mind of the woman focuses) on the lover. The unsteady wisdom is this. In regard to one who does not possess these 95

said qualities, while at some time he also may have achieved knowledge of truth through some special merit, he forgets the truth like (that woman forgets her) housework. 4. In reference to this same thing, Vasiha says: A wife obsessed with another, though engrossed by housework, internally relishes only that which is the elixir of being with another. [LYV 5.9.58] 5. Thus, a wise man that has come to rest in the pure, highest truth, internally relishes only that, though engaging in external affairs. [LYV 5.9.59] 6. In the above passage,33 the one "steady-in-wisdom" is twofold, depending on the time: one who is in enstasis, and one who has come out (of enstasis). Arjuna asks about the characteristics to these two in the first and second halves of the stanza: How do you describe one who is steady-in-enstasis, who is steady-in-wisdom? This means: By what words and indicating what characteristics do we speak of him? In what manner does the one steady-in-wisdom speak when he has come out (of enstasis)? In what way does he differ from the dull-minded in his acting or walking? 7. The Lord said: When one has abandoned all desires that are found in the mind, O Partha, content with the mind in the mind, then he is called on who is steady-inwisdom. [BhG 2.55] 8. There are three types of "desires:" the external, the internal, and those that consist only in latent tendencies. The external are such things as sweets that have been procured. The internal are such things as sweets that are dreamt of. The latent tendencies consist in the (desires) perceived fleetingly, such things as grass found on a path.34 Because of the complete destruction of the mental activities, the one in enstasis abandons all (desires). Nevertheless, he has contentment, which can be gathered from the sign of gratification in the face. Moreover, this (contentment) does not relate to desires but rather to the Self alone, because he has abandoned desires, and 96

because his mind is face-to-face with the reality of Self as the highest bliss. In this case however, the happiness of the Self is shaped not by mental activities as in the state of enstasis-with-conceptualization (saprajtasamdhi)35 but by the Self that is self-illuminated consciousness (svaprakacid).36 And contentment does not consist in mental activities but consists in the residual impression (saskra). One in enstasis is spoken of with words indicating such characteristics. 9. One who is free from sorrow while in suffering, who is free from longing while feeling pleasure, and who is free of passion, fear, and anger is called a sage with a steady mind. [BhG 2.56] 10. "Suffering" is the disagreeable mental activity produced by causes such as disease, consisting of an effect derived from the quality of energy (rajogua) and constituted by anguish (at that moment). "Sorrow," i.e., the mental activity that consists of delusion insofar as it is an effect of the mental activity of the quality of darkness (tamogua), is constituted by remorse (afterward) once such suffering has taken place as expressed in the sentiment: "I am a sinner. Shame on me, one with an evil nature." If it were done in the previous life, it would be useful because it would prevent the tendency toward that sin. But now it is useless. Therefore, even though this looks like discernment, nevertheless, we must see it as delusion. "Pleasure" is an agreeable mental activity consisting in joy and goodness (sttvik) produced by the acquisition of kingdom, sons, and so on. "Longing" is the mental activity consisting of darkness (tamas) whereby one vainly expects to have that pleasure without performing the merit that would create such future pleasures. 11. In the case at hand, both the activities of pleasure and suffering are possible, because both are caused by operative action, and because the mind of one who has 97

come out (of enstasis) (vyutthana) is capable of mental activities. But sorrow and longing are not possible in the case of one possessed of discernment. So also, passion, fear, and anger, since they are derived from darkness, aren't found in him, because they are not forced on him by action. Thus distinguished by such

characteristics, the one "with a steady mind" makes statements based on his own experience that explain freedom from sorrow and freedom from longing, and so on, for the sake instructing his students. That is the meaning (of this quotation). 12. One who is everywhere without attachment (anabhisneha), whatever he may attain whether good or bad, who neither rejoices nor hates, his wisdom is well established. [BhG 2.57] 13. "Attachment" is the special kind of mental activity consisting of darkness that refers to someone else whenever someone else's success or failure is superimposed on oneself. "Good" is one's wife and the like, which is the cause of happiness. "Rejoice" is the mental activity that is the activity of talk of good qualities and so on. In this case, because talking of good qualities has no intention of exhorting another, rejoicing, which is the cause of that, consists of darkness because it has no purpose. A "bad" thing is someone else's knowledge and the like, which is the cause of suffering by generating jealousy with regard to another person. "Hatred" is the mental activity that causes the condemnation of that person. This also consists in darkness because there is no intention of making the person desist by condemning that person. Therefore it has no purpose. How could these qualities consisting of darkness be possible in a person who has discernment? 14. And when he withdraws his senses from sense objects on all sides, as a tortoise withdraws his limbs, he is well established in wisdom. [BhG 2.58] 15. In the previous two verses, the complete absence of mental activities deriving 98

from darkness in one who has come out (from enstasis) has been declared. One who is in enstasis, on the other hand, has no mental activities at allhow could one even suspect that (he has) mental activities connected to darkness? This is the meaning of the foregoing passage. 16. For the embodied soul that is not allowing admittance,37 the sense objects disappear, but the taste (rasa) for them does not; for one who has seen the highest, even the taste disappears. [BhG 2.59] 17. Operative action, just by itself, brings about some sense objects that are the cause of pleasure and pain, consisting of such things as the rising of the moon and darkness. But it brings about sense objects such as houses, fields, and so on by means of a personal effort. Among these the rising of the moon and so on

"disappear" only by means of enstasis, which is characterized by the prior withdrawal of the senses, and in no other way. But houses and so on disappear even without enstasis. "Allowing admittance" is taking in with effort. For one who is without effort, objects such as houses fade away, but the taste for them does not. "Taste" is mental thirst. 18. That (thirst) also disappears from things that are the cause of little joy in accordance with the ruti: What would we do with progeny, we for whom this is our Self, this is our world? [BU 4.4.22] when one has seen Brahman, which is the highest bliss. 19. To be sure, O son of Kunti, the tormenting senses forcibly carry off even the mind even of a wise man who is making effort. [BhG 2.60] 20. After restraining them all, he should sit in yogic discipline with Me as the highest aim; for when one's senses are subdued, his wisdom is well established. [BhG 2.61] 21. Enstasis is practiced for the sake of taking away occasional lapses, even for 99

someone who is making efforts at the preparation for abandonment and the realization of Brahman. This verse is a reply to the question "How should he sit?" [BhG 2.54] 22. When a man thinks about sense objects, he becomes attached to them. From attachment grows desire; from desire grows anger. [BhG 2.62] 23. Out of anger grows delusion; out of delusion grows loss of memory; from loss of memory the intellect is destroyed; because of the destruction of the intellect, the man is lost. [BhG 2.63] 24. The details of lapses (that occur) when a man fails to practice enstasis is introduced. "Attachment" refers to a nearness to the sense objects reflected on. "Delusion" refers to turning away from discernment. "Loss of memory" refers to the absence of investigation of the truth. "Destruction of the intellect" refers to the incapacity of knowledge to yield liberation, when that knowledge is hindered by the accumulated fault of brooding over (bhvan) (objects) contrary (to Brahman). 25. But when exposed to sense objects with senses that are separated from passion and hatred and controlled by the Self, a man who has mastered the Self attains serenity. [BhG 2.64] 26. To have "mastered the Self" is to have the mind under control. "Serenity" is purity, namely, freedom from bondage. One who practices enstasis, by the power of the latent tendencies left by that enstasis, attains serenity perfectly even while engaging in normal activities with his senses during times when he has coming out (of enstasis). This verse is a reply to the question "How should he walk?" [BhG 2.54] One who is steady-in-wisdom is also explained in several portions (of the BhG) further on. 27. [Objection] Is not the freedom from such things as passion and hatred required even before the knowledge has arisen and become established as the means of that knowledge? 100

28. [Reply] Certainly. Nevertheless there is a distinction. This has been pointed out by the author of the reyomrga:38 29. Things that play the role of a means for the purpose of the establishment of knowledge are to be achieved by effort, but now they become characteristics that come naturally to one steady-in-wisdom. [Untraced] 30. They say "liberation-in-life" is the state of the sustained awareness of the Self, which is the appearance in the mind of the invalidation of duality because of its power of its perpetual awareness of the Self. [Untraced] 1.7 The Devotee-of-the-Lord 1. The "devotee-of-the-Lord" is described by the Lord in the twelfth chapter of the Bhagavad Gt: 2. One without hatred, truly friendly and compassionate toward all beings, without possessiveness and egoism, the same toward either suffering or happiness, one who is patient, [BhG 12.13] 3. One who is contented, a yogin who always controls the Self, with firm resolve, with the mind and intellect fixed on me, devoted to Me, he is dear to Me. [BhG 12.14] 4. A man in the state of enstasis is the same toward happiness and suffering because he is not aware of other things, since the mind is fixed on the Lord; and even one who has come out (of enstasis) is the same toward happiness and suffering because he has no elation or dejection since his awareness is impartial (udsna). 5. The same reasoning applies to the pairs of opposites listed below. 6. One who the world does not fear and is not afraid of the world, who is free from excitation, impatience, fear, and anxiety, he is also dear to me. [BhG 12.15] 7. One who is disinterested, pure, capable, impartial, free from distress, who abandons all undertakings, devoted to me, he is dear to me. [BhG 12.16] 8. One who is not excited nor repelled, neither laments nor craves, who abandons the good and the bad, full of devotion, he is dear to me. [BhG 101

12.17] 9. One who is the same toward an enemy and a friend, so also to fame and dishonor, who is the same toward cold and heat, happiness and suffering, free from attachment, [BhG 12.18] 10. One who is the same toward condemnation and praise, who is silent, content with whatever comes, homeless, with a firm mind, full of devotion, that man is dear to me. [BhG 12.19] 11. Here also the Vrttikakra (Surevara) has pointed out the distinction as before: The qualities such as non-hatred and so on exist without effort in one who has awakened to the arising of the Self, but they do not constitute a means for him.39 [Nks 4.69] 1.8 One Who Has Transcended-the-Qualities 1. One who has transcended-the-qualities has been described in the fourteenth chapter of the Bhagavad Gt: Arjuna said: What are the marks of one who has transcended these three qualities, O Lord? What is his conduct and how does he get beyond these three qualities? [BhG 14.21] 2. The three qualities are goodness, energy, and darkness. The sasric

existence of everything continues from the force of the permutations (parima) of these. Therefore the state of having transcended-the-qualities is not being sasric, and that is "liberation-in-life." "Marks" are what indicate to others that a person has transcended the qualities. "Conduct" is the way this person's mind acts. "How" is a question about the means (for transcending the three qualities). 3. The Lord: One who is not repelled by the illumination, activity, or even delusion when they are present, O Paava, and doesn't long for them when they disappear. [BhG 14.22] 102

4. Sitting like one who is impartial, he is not agitated by the qualities; saying "The qualities exist," he remains unshaken. [BhG 14.23] 5. One who is the same in suffering and happiness, self-contained, for whom a clod of earth, a stone, and gold are the same, for whom the pleasing and displeasing are the same, firm, for whom condemnation and praise of himself are the same. [BhG 14.24] 6. One for whom honor and dishonor are the same, friendly and enemy partisans are the same, who has abandoned all undertakings, he is said to have transcended-the-qualities. [BhG 14.25] 7. And one who serves me with constant yoga of devotion, transcending these qualities, he is fit to become Brahman. [BhG 14.26] 8. "Illumination," "activity," and "delusion," refer to goodness, energy, and darkness. They are active during waking and dreaming, and inactive during the states of deep sleep, enstasis, and when the mental states cease (turya).40 "Activity" is twofold: agreeable and disagreeable. Of these, when a fool is awake, he hates the disagreeable activity and longs for the agreeable activity. But for a man who has transcended-the-qualities, there is no hatred or desire, because of the absence of the superimposition of what's agreeable or disagreeable. As an onlooker observing two people having a dispute remains impartial himself, not agitated as to who wins or loses this way or that, so also the discerning man beyond-the-qualities himself remains impartial. This "impartiality" is the discernment expressed in the statement: "The qualities operate among the qualities. But not I." [BhG 3.28] "Agitation" is the superimposition "I do," and he (the one who has transcended-the-qualities) doesn't have that (superimposition). This is the answer to the above question "What is his conduct?" [BhG 14.21; above 1.8.1] "Marks" [BhG 14.21; above 1.8.1] are such as being "the same in suffering and happiness," [1.8.5] the service to the Highest Self carried out by the practice of knowledge and meditation together with unswerving 103

devotion (avyabhicribhakti). [Cf. BhG 13.10] The above is the answer to the question concerning the means of transcending the qualities. 1.9 The Brhmaa 1. The Brhmaa has been described by Vysa and others: One who has no outer garment, who lies down with no spreading, who has his arm as a pillow, and is tranquil, him the gods know as a Brhmaa. [MhB 12.261.29] 2. The word "Brhmaa" has been described as the knower of Brahman because of the ruti: "(from) then (on a) Brhmaa;" [BU 3.5.1] 3. it is also because a knower of Brahman has the entitlement to the renunciation-of-the-knower. 4. ruti such as: As one wearing the form in which he was born [JU 6 p. 70] the paramahasa goes about unclothed. [PhU 2 p. 47] declare that being without possessions constitutes the principal type of paramahasa. For this reason, the statement that he has "no outer garment" and so on is proper to him. 5. One who would wear whatever garment he gets, who would take whatever food he gets, who would sleep wherever he is, him the gods know as a Brhmaa. [MhB 12.237.12] 6. Even when looking for food for the subsistence of the body, clothes, and a place for a bed, he does not question the quality or fault in food and so forth, because in regard to the subsistence consisting in filling the belly, good nourishment, and like, they are the same, and because futile inquiry after whether they are good or bad causes a mental fault. 7. For this very reason, it is taught in the Bhagavata: Why further describe the characteristics of quality or fault? Discerning good or fault is a fault. But avoiding both of them is a quality. [BhP 11.19.45] 104

8. But one who is dressed in a patched garment and loincloth, who is holding a staff and is devoted to meditation, who delights in being alone, him the gods know as a Brhmaa. [YDhS p.37] 9. He should bear the emblems of the staff, the loincloth, and so on to create faith by making known his eminence in wishing to show favor to living beings through the teaching of Brahman and the like,41 because of the ruti: He should take up the loincloth, the staff, and the robe for the good of his own body and as a benefit to the world. [PhU 1 p. 46] 10. He should not discuss his affairs such as household business even out of the desire to show favor, but rather he should be focused on meditation, because of the ruti: You must know that alone is the Self; discard all other talk. [MuU 2.2.5] 11. and because of the ruti: By knowing that very one, a wise Brhmaa should create wisdom for himself. He should not think too much of words, for that tires the voice. [BU 4.4.21] 12. Teaching Brahman is not "other talk;" this ruti is not a prohibition to meditation. This meditation becomes unobstructed when a person is in solitude. 13. For this very reason the Smti declares: One (man) constitutes a mendicant as prescribed. Two (men), the Smtis say, constitute a pair. Three constitute a village. But beyond that constitute a city. [DSm 7.34] 14. A man should not make a city, a village, or a pair, for among such mendicants there would be discussion of politics and alms. [DSm 7.35a36a] 15. One who offers no blessing and has no undertakings (rambha), one who pays no homage and no praise, one who is undiminished and whose ritual actions are diminished, him the gods know as a Brhmaa. [MhB 12.237.24, 12.255.33] 16. The worldly people of higher status pronounce blessings to persons who pay 105

respects (to them). A "blessing" is prayer for the success of something that each person desires. Likewise, because people want different things, the worldly latent tendency of mental agitation increases when a person is trying to find out what people want, and this tendency obstructs knowledge. declares: A man who has latent tendencies regarding the world, the body, and even learning simply cannot produce knowledge correctly. [MukU 2.2; SS 14.15; Vcm 202] 18. The same thing also applies in the case of "undertakings," "paying homage," and so on. "Undertakings" are things such as the effort to acquire a house, land, etc., for one's own sake or for the sake of benefit to another. A man who is liberated should abandon both giving a blessing and undertakings. One should not presume that when a blessing is no longer given, the men offering an obeisance (will be) offended, because to eliminate both worldly tendencies and giving offense, one employs of the word "Nryaa" as a substitute for all types of blessings. [Cf. NpU p. 146] But all (types of) undertakings are also bad. 19. Accordingly the Smti prescribes: For all undertakings are accompanied by defects like fire by smoke. [BhG 18.48] 20. Even paying homage is prescribed to the renouncer-for-knowledge: Homage is to be paid to someone who is a senior renouncer and if he is one's equal in Dharma, never to another. [YU p. 314; YDhS p. 105] 21. Among these, when one examines (another's) seniority and equal duty (dharma), the mind is disturbed. For this very reason, we find many (renouncers) 17. Accordingly another Smti


quarreling over simple matters of homage. 22. The reason for that is given by the Vrttikakra (Surevara): One even sees renouncers who are careless, with minds drawn to the outside, scandalous, and looking for fights, and whose minds are impaired by fate. [BBhV 1.4.1584] 23. Bhagavatpada (akara) describes the absence of homage among ones who are liberated: If one is situated on the earth that is beyond name42 and the like, that is sovereign and non-dual, then to whom would one who knows the Self bow? There is no use for ritual action then. [US 17.63] 24. Even while the homage that is the cause of mental disturbance is prohibited, one accepts homage that creates mental serenity through perceiving the sameness (of all creatures). 25. Accordingly the Smti declares: Thinking that the Great Lord has entered through the portion as an individual Self, he should make obeisance by prostrating on the ground even to a dog, an outcast, a cow and a donkey. [BhP 3.29.34cd11.29.16cd; YU p. 314] 26. The "praise"43 prohibited is that which has men as the object, but not that which has the Lord as its object. 27. Accordingly the Smti declares: As a man respectfully praises a rich man for the sake of wealth, who would not be liberated from bondage if he praises the maker of the universe? [VU 3.13; YDhS p. 89] 28. The state of being "undiminished" [MhB 12.237.24] is the state of not feeling dispirited. 29. For this very reason the Smti declares: When the resolute man has not gotten (food) at the proper time, he should not be despondent. Having gotten it, he should not feel elated. Both are dependent on fate. [BhP 11.18.33]


30. The state of one "whose ritual actions are diminished" [MhB 12.237.24] refers to the state of being beyond injunctions or prohibitions, because the Smti declares: How can there be an injunction or a prohibition for one who walks on the path beyond the three qualities? [Untraced] 31. It was with reference to this very thing that the Lord said: The Vedas have as their domain the three qualities. Be beyond the three qualities, O Arjuna! Without the pairs of opposites, always established in goodness, without acquisition and preservation, possessed of the Self. [BhG 2.45] 32. Nrada declares: One should always keep Viu in mind and never let him out of the mind. All injunctions and prohibitions would just be subordinates to these two. [NPS 4.2.23] 33. One who fears a crowd as he would a snake, honor as he would death, women as a corpse, him the gods know as a Brhmaa. [MhB 12.237.13] 34. The fear of a crowd in the same way as a snake stands to reason because of the statement "for among such mendicants there would be discussion of politics." [1.9.14; DSm 7.36a] Honor is to be shunned as death because is an obstacle to the aim of human life by being a cause of attachment. Or there is the reading "as Hell."44 35. For this very reason the Smti declares: An increase in asceticism comes from dishonor, but a destruction of asceticism comes from honor. The sage who is respected and worshipped wastes away like a cow that is not milked. [Untraced]45 36. With reference to this very point in mind, Smti presents dishonor as something to be courted: Without discrediting the duty (dharma) of good people, the yogin should behave so that people would dishonor him and refuse to associate with him. [ViP 2.13.43] 108

37. There are two types of defects among women: they are both forbidden and disgusting. The rule forbidding them is violated sometimes because of the strength of operative action. 38. It is with reference to just this that the Smti says: One should never be in the same bed or chair with one's mother, sister, or daughter. The senses are powerful and pull on even a wise man. [MDh 2.215] 39. Likewise, the Smti describes their disgusting nature thus: Even though there is no difference between the unspeakable place on a woman and a running tubular sore, people are generally deceived by imagining them to be different. [NpU p. 160] 40. It is a bifold slitted piece of skin, stinking from gas. How are the men who take pleasure in it not equal to worms? [NpU pp. 160161; YDhS p. 92] 41. There is a variant reading: "What could be more reckless than men taking delight in that?"46 In the above passage [1.9.33], the comparison (of a woman) with a corpse was with the intention of indicating a woman is both forbidden and disgusting. 42. A man by whom alone the whole atmosphere is as if always filled, and for whom a crowded place is empty, him the gods know as a Brhmaa. [MhB 12.237.11] 43. Remaining alone is to be avoided in the case of those in sasric existence because it causes fear, torpor, etc., and the company of people is to be pursued because it does not have such characteristics (that cause of fear, torpor, etc.). But it is the opposite for yogins. When a course of meditation is followed unhindered in solitude, the whole atmosphere appears as if filled by the complete highest bliss of the Self. 44. Hence such things as fear, torpor, sorrow, and confusion do not arise, because of the ruti: (When the Self becomes all beings in the one who has understood,) seeing this unity, what confusion, what sorrow is there? [U 7] 109

45. Because it obstructs meditation by such things as "discussion of politics" [1.9.14; DSm 7.36a], a "crowded place" [1.9.42; MhB 12.237.11], where the perception of the Self as bliss is absent, It afflicts the mind as empty of that (bliss), because the world is not real and the Self is perfect. That is the meaning. 1.10 One Beyond-Castes-and-Orders 1. In the Sta Sahit the fifth adhyya of the section on liberation,47 Paramevara describes one who is beyond-castes-and-orders: Student and householder, then forest-dweller, mendicant, the one beyondcastes-and-orders: these all are listed in the order of their superiority of knowledge. [SS 5.9] 2. It is declared that the one beyond-castes-and-orders is the preceptor of all those qualified to study (adhikrin-s). Just like me, O Best of men, he can never be a pupil of anyone. [SS 5.14] 3. The one beyond-castes-and-orders is said to be the teacher of teachers in reality. There is no doubt that no one in this world is equal or superior to him. [SS 5.15] 4. He who understands the highest state as the witness of everything, distinct from the body and senses, the absolute consciousness, Self as bliss, selfluminoushe is one beyond-castes-and-orders. [SS 5.1617ab] 5. He who realizes the Lord as the Self only by hearing the great sayings of Vednta, O Keavahe is one beyond-castes-and-orders. [SS 5.17cd18ab] 6. He who is freed from the three states and knows the great Lord as always witness of the three stateshe is one beyond-castes-and-orders [SS 18cd19ab] 7. When a man knows through Vednta: "The castes, orders, and so on are made to appear in the body by illusion. They never belong to me who am the Self consisting in consciousness"he is one beyond-castes-and-orders. [SS 5.19cd20]


8. When a man knows through Vednta: "As all people pursue their activities on their own in the presence of the sun, so also the people pursue activities in my presence"11. he is one beyond-caste-and-orders. [SS 5.2122ab] 9. When a man knows through Vednta: "As necklaces, upper arm bracelets, rings, good-luck charms, and so on are fashioned in gold, so also, by means of illusion the world is constantly imagined in me"he is one beyond-castesand-orders. [SS 5.2223ab] 10. When a man knows through Vednta: "As in mother-of-pearl one imagines silver through illusion, so the universe consisting of the Great Principle (maht)48 and so on consisting of illusion is imagined in me"he is one beyond-castes-and-orders. [SS 5.2425ab] 11. He, O Puruottama, who knows through Vednta: "I am that highest immortal, the great god, steadfast, uniform, who is freed of all bonds, who, like the atmosphere, has constantly penetrated into the body of an outcast, into the body of a beast and the like, into the body of a Brhmaa, and into other beings standing in varying degrees"he is one beyond-castes-and-orders. [SS 5.25cd27] 12. When a man knows through Vednta: "As the direction appears as before even to one whose confusion over directions is removed, so also the world, falsified by knowledge, appears to me, for it is non-existent"he is one beyond-caste-and-orders. [SS 5.2829ab] 13. When a man knows through Vednta: "As the visible world in the dreaming state expands in me through illusion, so also the visible world in the waking state expands in me through illusion. [SS 5.29cd30] 14. When the practice of castes and orders has drained away in someone because of the vision of the Self, he, going beyond all castes and orders, is established in his own Self. [SS 5.31] 15. The man who, abandoning his own caste and order, is established in the Self, him the knowers of the meaning of all the Veda declare to be beyond castes and orders. [SS 5.32] 16. As the Self is in fact Brahman, absolute consciousness, being, and bliss, so it is not the body, nor the senses, nor the breath, nor the mind, nor the intellect, nor egoism, nor thinking, nor even illusion and the world starting with the atmosphere; it is not a doer, nor even an experiencer, nor one who causes experiencing. [SS 5.3334]


17. As the sun's unsteadiness is only due to the movement of the water, so the sasric existence of the Self is only due to the sasric existence of egoism. [SS 5.35] 18. Therefore, O Keava, the castes and orders are also existing in something else. They are superimposed on the Self only by confusion, and they do not belong to the knowers of the Self. [SS 5.36] 19. O Janardana, neither injunctions, nor prohibitions, nor ideas about what should and should not be avoided, likewise nothing else exists for the knowers of the Self. [SS 5.37] 20. O lotus-eyed, the mortals who are deceived by illusion never understand the state (nih) of the men of realization (sdhu). [SS 5.38] 21. O Keava, this state of the knowers of Brahman cannot be seen by the fleshly eye; it is brought about on its own by a person who knows. [SS 5.39] 22. O Keava, where people are always asleep, the restrained-one is awake. Where they are awake, the knower is in deep sleep.49 [SS 5.40] 23. Thus, he is indeed the highest preceptor and is declared to be beyond castes and orders who knows with certainty, through the Vednta and by his own experience, the Self that is without pairs of opposites, which is formless, spotless, always pure, without false appearance, which is being and pure consciousness, and the highest immortal. [SS 5.4142] 24. Therefore, in this way, the rutis such as ". . . and freed from it, he is set free" [KU 5.1] and the statements in the Smti teaching the one liberated-in-life, the "one steady-in-wisdom," the devotee-of-the-Lord," the "one who has beyond-thequalities," the "Brhmaa," and the "one beyond-castes-and-orders" are the authoritative basis for the existence of liberation-in-life. 25. So ends the discussion of the authoritative basis for liberation-in-life.



The Adyar and nSS editions of JMV and some mss. read "the abandonment of optional rites, and the like, which cause rebirth" (janmapdakakmyakarmdityga-), indicating perhaps that some redactors would not permit the abandonment of the permanant (nitya) and occasional (naimittika) rauta and smrta rites. The renunciation out of the desire for knowledge (vividisanysa) may be either a private practice that is open to men of other rama-s as well as to women, involving the adandonment of all rites, or a public renunciation considered to be an rama , i.e., an organized order or life-stage recognized by the Brahmanical society at large. The latter involves a specific rite of renunciation, which is the last official public rite the individual renouncer performs. The "praia ritual formula" is a technical name for the words sanystam may, "I have renounced," which the individual declares during the public rite. For a description of the rite, see YDhP 16, Olivelle (1976) pp. 4647 and (1977) pp. 9596. The conclusion is that members of the other orders may inwardly, mentally abandon rites (karmdityaga), without living as formal members of the public renunciant order (sanysrama), and still be qualified for and attain knowledge. In his study of akara's views on renunciation, Roger Marcaurelle argues that Vidyraya was following akara in the idea that formal, physical renunciation is not necessary for the attainment of knowledge. See Freedom through Inner Renunciation: akara's Philosophy in a New Light (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2000) pp. 188194. In Marcaurelle's view, Vidyraya justifies entering the sanysrama on a public, formal basis when a person cannot be one-pointed, free from distractions, and cannot make Self-knowledge permanent. Therefore one who has attained knowledge may have to resort to physical renunciation as a full-time mode of living in order to safeguard that knowledge. The safeguarding of knowledge is, according to Vidyraya's argument in JMV Chapter 4, one of the major purposes of liberation-in-life itself. The safeguarding of knowledge would seem, then, all the more elusive and not assured even by physical renunciation. Here following sanihita the lectio difficilior, rather than sanysa. Cf. the same term in MuU 2.2.1: vi sanihita guhcara nma mahat padam atraitat manarpitam.

The eradication of latent tendencies and the elimination of the mind are the subjects of JMV Chapters 2 and 3 respectively.

This idea of there being four types of mendicants is found also in PM vol. 1 (1973) pp. 530553. The four types are the kucaka, bahdaka, hasa, and the paramahasa. udarapatrea: with the belly as a begging-bowl. This phrase refers to a vow a mendicant has undertaken to imitate the behavior of an animal, such as the govrata, or "cow-vow." People throw food on the ground and he eats it directly from the ground, without using his hands, like a cow. Thus he has only his belly as a begging-bowl. The entire text reads: "rui went to the world of Prajpati. Approaching, he asked: "By what, Lord, can I give up rites completely?" And Prajpati said: "One should leave his sons, friends, brothers, relatives, and so on; he should give up the topknot, sacred string, the sacrifice, the ritual stra, and Vedic recitation; he should turn away from the worlds of Bhr, Bhuvas, Svar, Mahas, Jana, Tapas, Satya, Atala, Ptla, Vitala, Sutala, Rastala, Taltala, and Mahtala, and the whole Universe. He should take a staff and a robe. Let him reject the rest." [rU 1, pp. 35]


Also cited in PM vol. 1 (1973) p. 532.

10 Schrader's text of NpU here reads pravttilakaa karma "rites are characterized by the life of action," and he gave no variants. I have so far not found variants for yogo in JMV mss. It is not clear whether Vidyraya or the redactors have deliberately changed this received text in order to define yoga as associated with pravtti. This definition is not commented on elsewhere in JMV, and is inconsistent with the theology of renunciation. 11 12 13

Also cited in PM vol. 1 (1973) p. 547 See Introduction 2.1. See also Fort (1998) pp. 8-11.

Apparently the understanding is that operative action, while it conditions existence, does not deny the possiblity of changing the course of events in life, allowing actions which result in the highest happiness, which is liberation and the experience of the Self. This happiness is still a conditioned result of operative action.

karri: the sacrifice with bamboo. Refers to the bamboo used in the rite meant to bring rain.

15 vaiyarthyam: futility, uselessness. This reading obviously does not make sense, and one would rather have the direct opposite meaning here. In the absence of clear mss. evidence, I have not changed it. However, a ms. deposited at the Praja Phaala Maala Collection in Wai, 6617/82/439, which I obtained but did not fully collate for this edition, reads prayatnasyaiveyarthya here instead of prayatnasya vaiyarthyam.

reya: highest good. For Vidyraya the highest state is the same liberation-in-life. Walte Slaje has studied the use of this same term by Uddyotkara in the Nyyavrttika where he distinguishes nireyasam as having a lower and a higher state. For Uddyotkara the lower state is the same as liberation-in-life. See Slaje, "Nisreyasam im alten Nyya" WZKS 30 (1986) pp. 172ff. Slaje (2000b) pp. 336337 would take this "a separate jvanmukti current, independent from that of the Vednta tradition." tena svayam jetavya, na tu yuddhe bhtyamukheneva puruntara mukhena jetu akya. Here I have gone against B1, which along with P1 has bhtyamukhenaiva, in order to preserve the comparison being made through iva. One may, however, accept this reading of eva over iva and translate eva as "only" in which it might make more sense:"in war it is not possible to conquer only by means of soldiers."
18 19 20 21 22 23 17


See my discussion above, Introduction 2.1, p. 2932; see also below, 1.5.37 and n. 30. This may refer to the five types of begging mentioned in the SU (Adyar: 1912) p. 266. First pda borrowed from BhG 18.17. See 1.2. First pda borrowed from BhG(?).

The sixty-four branches of learning: arts, crafts, literary arts, and other skills traditionally considered to be sixty-four in number.


purtm /prasvarpa: tman is understood as "nature" or svarpa. Svarpa is also synonymous with Brahman, so purtm here describes the one liberated-in-life who is completely unified with Brahman because of his awareness (anusadhna) of the perfect nature, which is Brahman.


Cf. U 5. See Introduction 2.1 and GK 1.14 on the states of consciousness. Meaning unclear See Introduction 2.1, pp. 3233 on the "bodies." See also Fort (1990). Ibid.

26 27

28 29 30

Because the author states only nirvikalptiaya, is not entirely clear whether this nirvikalpa refers only to the yogic nirvikalpasamdhi "enstasis-without-distinctions." The commentator Acyutaryamoaka clearly takes it as asamprajtasamdhi, nSS 20 (1916) p. 177. We cannot exclude the possibility that it refers to the Nyya concept of nirvikalpapratyaka, "indeterminate perception." See also nirvikalpajna mentioned in 3.9.1, and my discussion in the Introduction, 2.1, p. 31. I take this to mean that liberation-in-life, insofar as the individual is in nirvikalpasamdhi, can be said to be existent and non-existent (sadasat) and is in this way the same as bodiless-liberation. I argue that, in other mss., the scribes changed sadasatvokter to sadatvokter and in some cases added other words to support this reading. See above Introduction, 2.1, pp. 29-32. This statement in 1.5.7 would be referring to LYV 3.1.88 if one accepts the reading evavidhay videhamukty sadatvokter, "In this manner, because of the mentioned resemblance with bodiless liberation..." However, we may emend the instumental evavidhay videhamukty to the genitive evavidhy videhamukty. Thus it would give the reading evavidhy videhamukty sadasatvokter, "Because bodiless-liberation of such a kind has been described as existent and non-existent," and would refer to the citation of LYV 3.1.99, which says, na san nsan. I think the reading evavidhy videhamukty sadasatvokter would also make more sense because this citation is nearer to this commentarial statement in the text.
32 33 34 35 31

The names listed above in 1.4.7, are now explained in 1.6 ff. BhG 2.54 [1.6.2]. The meaning here is unclear. See Donatoni (1995) p. 123, n. 4.

saprajtasamdhi: enstasis-with-conceptualization. The term from the Yoga system for the state in which the struggling spiritual aspirant is aware of Brahman, but a mental activity still intervenes that consists in the awareness of the process of knowing the distinctions of the knower, the knowledge, and the object of knowledge. The Vednta term for this state is savikalpasamdhi, "enstasis-withdistinctions." See Swami Nikhilananda,Vedntasra 194 (1968) pp. 116117.
36 This presumably is asaprajtasamdhi, "enstasis-without-conceptualization," also understood by the Vednta term nirvikalpasamdhi, "enstasis-without-distinctions." It is the state where there is no longer any awareness of the conceptualizations or distinctions of the knower, known, or knowing in consciousness. Cf. below, Chapter 3, n. 7.

Nirhrasya: one who is not allowing admittance. Vidyraya takes this expression in the sense of nirodha, "suppression," i.e., blocking the sense objects. Therefore I have not translated Vidyraya's quotation from the BhG literally as "one who is abstaining from food."



The term reyomarga may not refer to a text, but rather, literally, to "the way of the highest good." Donatoni (1995) p. 128, n. 3 finds the same phrase mentioned in Vidyraya's Taittirya Upaniad Dpika nSS 36 (1981) vol. 3, 6, p. 678. I was not able to obtain the 1981 printing of this nSS edition.


This verse of Nks has the same purport of the reyomarga verse quoted earlier, that what was a means (sdhana) for the liberated later becomes his characteristic (lakana). Jgrat and svapna, suupti and samdhi. The first three of these states correspond to those mentioned in GK 1.14 but for Vidyraya enstasis (samdhi) is an intervening state between deep sleep and the fourth state (turya) "when the mental states cease." See above, Introduction 1.3 on the four states of consciousness, and Introduction 1.6 on Vidyraya's elaboration on the concept of enstasis, and Vidyraya's discussion of enstasis below, 3.10.


41 If he feels the kindness to impart his knowledge, and if ordinary people want to have his knowledge, they must have faith. Before attempting to have discourse, he must create this faith in the people, and he does this by wearing the loincloth. 42 43 44

Cf. ChU 7.1 ff. Nma is wordy knowledge. Here resumes Vidyraya's commentary on MhB 12.237.13. This is a variant reading of MhB 12.237.13.


Donatoni (1995) p. 136, n. 4, finds this citation in Brahnoktayjavalkyasahit 7, 51cd52ab in the Smtisadarbha, vol. 4, (Delhi: Nag Publishers, 1988) p. 2409. I could not obtain this text. Schrader selected this variant for his constituted text of NpU (Adyar: 1912).


Sta Sahit of the Skanda Pura, Chapter 5 (Muktikhaa) nSS 25 vols. 13 (Pune: nandrama Sansth, 1898). Maht : A Sakhya term; next highest form of consciousness after prakti, produced out of egoism/identity. See 3.8.12.
49 48


Cf. BhG 2.69.


Chapter Two: The Eradication of Latent Tendencies

2.1 The Mutual Causality of the Means of Liberation-in-Life 1. Next we examine the means of achieving liberation-in-life. 2. Its means are the knowledge of truth, the elimination of the mind, and the eradication of latent tendencies. 3. For this very reason, at the end of the Vsiharmyaa [Chapter on Becoming Still (Upaamaprakaraa), LYV 5]1 when dealing with the topic introduced by the verse: "in the bodies of ones liberated-in-life," Vasiha says: Eradication of latent tendencies, knowledge of truth,2 and elimination of the mind, O man of great intelligence, practiced simultaneously and for a long time, are bearers of fruit. [LYV 5.10.116] 4. Having declared the positive connection (of these means), he gives the negative converse: As long as these three are not well practiced equally again and again, the state is not attained even for hundreds of years. [LYV 5.10.115] 5. He shows how success is prevented when they are not practiced simultaneously: If these are pursued even for a sufficiently long period, but one at a time, they do not bring success like mantras proclaimed together. [LYV 5.10.117] 6. It's like this. During bathing at twilight devotions, three verses beginning with "apo hi ha" [RV 10.9.1] have to be recited together. By reciting one of those verses each day, the bathing is not carried out as scripturally enjoined. Similarly, one does not accomplish anything by reciting singly a mantra of mantras relating to six body parts.3 Again, in ordinary life, (serving) a vegetable, a soup, and boiled rice

separately does not constitute a meal. 7. (Vasiha) states the purpose of long practice:

The tight knots of the heart are undoubtedly split apart by long practice of these three, like the fibers (split apart) from the cutting off of a lotus stalk. [LYV 5.10.118] 8. He gives the negative converse of this: O Rma, sasric existence has repeated through the repetition of a hundred former lives. It is never destroyed except by engagement with long and repeated practice. [LYV 5.10.119] 9. Practicing the means one by one not only fails to produce the result, but their identity as a means (tatsvarpa) is not even established. Therefore he says: Since knowledge of truth, elimination of the mind, and eradication of latent tendencies exist in mutual causality, they are difficult to accomplish (separately). [LYV 5.10.113] 2.2 Negative and Positive Statements of the Three Pairs of Means 1. Of these (three means), three pairs are produced by uniting any two from among these three. 2. Accordingly, (Vasiha) gives the mutual causality of the pair of elimination of the mind and eradication of latent tendencies by means of the negatively converse statement: So long as the mind is not dissolved, latent tendencies are not destroyed; so long as latent tendencies are not destroyed, mental activity does not become quieted. [LYV 5.10.110] 3. Because this elemental substance4 (dravya) of the inner organ (antakaraa) is being transformed, insofar as it consists in a continuous series of mental activities like the continuous flame of a lamp, it is called "mind" (manas) because of its nature to think (manana). Now its elimination is a transformation (pariama) in the form of an opposition after one gives up the transformation that is of the nature of various mental activities. 4. Accordingly, Patajali gives a stra in his Yogastra: The transformation of suppression (nirodha), which associates the mind with a moment of suppression, occurs when the residual impressions (saskra) of 118

coming out (of enstasis) (vyutthna) are overcome and the impressions of suppression arise. [YS 3.9] 5. "Residual impressions" (saskra) (leading to) the "coming out (of enstasis)" (vyutthna) are subjugated. Residual impressions (leading to) supression become manifest. The moment of suppression is connected with the mind. This should be recognized as elimination of the mind. Latent tendencies (vsan) are residual

impressions situated in the mind that are the cause of certain mental activities such as anger, activities that are produced suddenly without consideration of what is before and after;5 they are called "latent tendencies" because they are caused to reside6 in the mind by all previous mental activity. 6. And the eradication of these latent tendencies is the non-production of anger and so on, even in the presence of an external cause, when there are latent tendencies such as mental control and sense control (ntidnti) that are firm and generated by discernment. In this case, when there is no elimination of the mind and mental activities arise, there is no eradication of latent tendencies, because sometimes anger and the like arise through an external cause. And when there is no eradication of latent tendencies, likewise there is no elimination of the mind because mental activities continue to arise. 7. (Vasiha) then gives the mutual causality of the knowledge of truth and the elimination of the mind by means of the negatively converse statement: So long as there is no knowledge of truth, how can there be mental quieting (ama)? So long as there is not mental tranquillity (upaama) there is no knowledge of truth. [LYV 5.10.111] 8. Knowledge of truth is this certainty: The Self is simply all this. The world consisting of form, taste, and so on that we perceive is illusory, and it does not exist in 119

reality. When this (knowledge) has not arisen, the sense objects of form, taste, and so on continue to exist; therefore it is impossible to neutralize the mental activities that relate to those (sense objects), just as the flames of a fire are not extinguished when one continues to put kindling into it. When there is no quieting of the mind, forms and so on continue to be grasped by the mental activities. Consequently, one doubts rutis such as "the sacrificer (yajamna) is the grass-bundle (prastara)"7 [TS 2.6.5], and "Brahman is without a second" [cf. ChU 6.2.1], which is because of the ruti "there is here no diversity at all" [KU 4.11], and consequently uncertainty arises. 9. (Vasiha) states the mutual causality of the eradication of latent tendencies and the knowledge of truth by means of the negatively converse statement: So long as there is no attainment of truth, there is no eradication of latent tendencies. So long as there is not eradication of latent tendencies, how could there be knowledge of truth? [LYV 5.10.112] 10. When the latent tendencies of anger, etc., are not destroyed, one lacks the means such as mental control and sense control (amadama); consequently knowledge does not arise. And when the truth of the secondless reality of Brahman is not understood, the confusion about the reality of the cause of anger and the like is not blocked, and consequently the latent tendencies are not destroyed. 11. Now we state the mutual causality of the three aforementioned pairs by positive statements. When the mind has been eliminated, there is no perception of an external cause that awakens residual impressions, and latent tendencies are destroyed. And when latent tendencies are eradicated, the mind is eliminated because mental activities such as anger do not arise, owing to the absence of their cause. This, then, is


the pair consisting of elimination of the mind and eradication of latent tendencies. 12. Because of the ruti: Yet it is seen with a sharpened and subtle mind [KU 3.12] (we understand that) seeing is the cause of the mental activity focused on the oneness of Self. Consequently, elimination of the rest of mental activities is the cause to the knowledge of truth. And when there is knowledge of truth, the mind is eliminated like a fire without kindling, because (a) no mental activity arises relating to the world that is not real, like a man's horns and so on, and (b) there is no further use for mental activities since the Self has been seen.8 This, then, is the pair consisting of elimination of the mind and the knowledge of truth. 13. The author of the Vrttikas (Surevara) states that the knowledge of the truth is the cause of the eradication of latent tendencies, such as anger: Seeing one and the same Self present in an enemy, relative and in his own body, like it is present in the parts of his own body, how can a discerning man possess anger? [NkS 2.18] 14. It is widely known that mental control (nti) and so on is the cause of knowledge consisting in the eradication of latent tendencies such as anger. Vasiha also states: Qualities such as tranquillity (ama) (arise) from knowledge; so knowledge (arises) from such things as tranquillity. The two enrich one another like the lotus in a pond. [LYV 2.1.107] This, then, is the pair consisting of eradication of latent tendencies and the knowledge of truth. 15. (Vasiha) states the means in the bringing about of the three, knowledge of truth and the rest: 121

Therefore, O Raghava, one should resort to these three with personal effort together with discernment, abandoning from afar the desire for enjoyment. [LYV 5.10.114] 16. "Somehow I will definitely accomplish this": this sort of resolution is the perseverance that is "personal effort." "Discernment" is the definite analytical

knowledge (vibhajyanicayah) of these: the means of the knowledge of truth are Vedic study (ravaa) and the rest, the means of the elimination of the mind is yoga, and the means of the eradication of latent tendencies is producing contrary latent tendencies. "From afar" was said because of the difficulty of restraining the

exceedingly undesirable result in admitting even a small desire for enjoyment,9 as in the maxim: "It grows ever more like fire with an oblation." [MDh 2.94] 2.3 The Principal and Subsidiary Relation of the Three Means 1. [Objection] Earlier, you explained the respective difference (vyavasth)10 this way: the result of renunciation-for-knowledge is knowledge of truth and the result of renunciation-of-the-knower is liberation-in-life.11 If that is the case, it seems that a man, having first acquired the knowledge of truth and then entering the renunciationof-the-knower, should finally carry out the destruction of his own latent tendencies and mental activities, which constitute bondage while he is still alive. But here you ordain simultaneous practice of knowledge of truth and the rest; hence there is a contradiction between what you said and what you say now. 2. [Reply] This is not a difficulty, because we can prove their respective difference on the basis of (their) being principal and subsidiary. For the renouncerfor-knowledge, knowledge of truth is principal, while elimination of the mind and eradication of latent tendencies become subsidiary. But for the renouncer who is a 122

knower, just the opposite is the case. In both cases, therefore, there is no contradiction in their being practiced together. And one should not entertain the doubt: "What is the use of practice at a future time for a man who has obtained the purpose merely by attaining the knowledge of truth?" because it will be refuted in our explanation of the purpose of liberation-in-life.12 3. [Objection] Even with the subsidiary status in the case of the renouncer who is a knower, what is the sort of practice taking place at a future time, for (a) carrying out the means of knowing such as study and so on is fruitless, and (b) it is impossible to carry out knowing, which by nature is beyond doing, not doing, or otherwise? [cf. BSBh 1.1.4] 4. [Reply] We say: it is the repeated, sustained remembrance (anusmarana) of the truth by some means or other. And such practice is described in the Lla episode (of LYV): Thinking about That, discussion about That, enlightening one another in regard to That, and singular devotion to That: (these) the wise know as the practice of knowledge. [LYV 3.2.108] 5. At the beginning of creation, this visible manifestation did not exist, at no time does it exist as "the world and I": (this the wise) know as the highest practice of enlightenment. [LYV 3.2.111] 6. [Objection] The practice of elimination of the mind and eradication of latent tendencies is also described in the same passage: Those who apply themselves through authoritative texts and methods (yukti) to realizing the complete absence of the existence of the knower and what is to be known, they are accepted as its practitioners. [LYV 3.2.110] 7. Realizing the absence is the discretion that the knower and what is to be known are illusory. "Realizing the complete absence" is not to recognize them even in 123

themselves (in their physical form). "Methods" are yoga.13 This is the practice of elimination of the mind. 8. When passion, anger, and so on become reduced through awakening to the non-existence of the visible world, a strong delight (rati) arises. That is called the practice of Brahman. [LYV 3.2.112] This is the practice of eradication of latent tendencies. It is not possible to discriminate among these three admittedly similar practices which is principal and which is subsidiary. 9. [Reply] This is not so, because it is possible to discern according to the objective (prayojana). For a person who desires liberation, the two objectives are liberation-in-life and bodiless liberation. Because of precisely this the ruti declares: "But freed from it, he will be set free." [KU 5.1] In this instance, liberation comes for the living man through Divine fortune; bondage comes through Demonic fortune.14 10. This was declared by the Lord (Ka) in the sixteenth chapter (of BhG): The Divine fortune is regarded as leading to liberation, and the Demonic fortune to bondage. [BhG 16.5] 11. And these two fortunes described in the aforementioned chapter: Fearlessness, purity of goodness, steadfastness in the yoga of knowledge, alms-giving, self-control, and sacrifice, Vedic recitation (svdhyya), austerity, and uprightness, [BhG 16.1] 12. Non-violence, truthfulness, absence of anger, abandonment, peace, absence of slander, compassion toward living beings, absence of greed, kindness, modesty, and absence of capriciousness. [BhG 16.2] 13. Energy, patience, resolve, purity, and absence of treachery and of excessive pride are (the qualities) of one born to the Divine fortune, O Bhrata. [BhG 16.3]


14. Hypocrisy, arrogance, conceit, anger and rudeness and ignorance are (the qualities) of one who is born to the fortune of the Demonic, O Partha. [BhG 16.4] 15. The Demonic fortune is described all the way up to the end of the chapter. Of these, here liberation-in-life occurs when the good latent tendenciesthe Divine fortune that can be acquired by personal effort and is in keeping with the authoritative textsdestroy the bad latent tendenciesthe Demonic fortune that results because one's natural disposition and is contrary to authoritative texts. 16. The ruti teaches that the cause of liberation-in-life is also the elimination of the mind accompanied by the eradication of latent tendencies: Mind alone is the cause of man's liberation and bondage. Attached to sense objects, (it leads) to bondage; free of objects, (it leads) to liberation. So teach the Smtis. [AmbU 2] 17. Because one desires liberation of the mind free from objects, therefore a man desiring liberation should always keep the mind free of objects. [AmbU 3] 18. When the mind has rejected attachment to sense objects and is restricted to the heart, then it attains the transmental state (unmanbhvam).15 This is the highest state. [AmbU 4] 19. Until (the mind) has become eliminated in the heart, it should be restricted. This is knowledge and meditation. The rest is the prolixity of logic. [AmbU15] 20. Bondage is twofold: intense and weak. Of the two, intense bondage is the Demonic fortune because it is the immediate cause of impurities. But weak bondage is the perception of mere duality because (a) it does not consist of impurity by itself, and (b) because it generates the Demonic fortune. Of these two, eradication of latent tendencies removes only the intense bondage, but elimination of the mind removes both.


21. [Objection] In this case, elimination of the mind alone is sufficient, while eradication of latent tendencies is useless. 22. [Reply] This is not so, because eradication of latent tendencies is useful in removing the intense bondage that is aroused in the mind by powerful operative action, which is the cause of enjoyment, and because enjoyment arises even through weak bondage. Intense bondage is the mental activity consisting in darkness (tamas). Weak bondage is the two mental activities consisting in goodness and energy (sattva, rajas). 23. This was made clear in this passage (beginning with): One who is free from sorrow while in suffering, (who is free from longing while feeling pleasure, and who is free of passion, fear, and anger is called a sage with a steady mind.) [BhG 2.56] 24. [Objection] In that case, because the weak bondage has to be admitted and the intense bondage has been removed by only the eradication of latent tendencies, the elimination of the mind is useless. 25. [Reply] This is not so, because it (elimination of the mind) is useful in remedying inevitable experiences brought about by weak operative action. 26. With reference to the ability to remove such experiences by means of a remedy, it was stated: If there were a remedy of inevitable experiences, then Nala, Rma, and Yudhihira would not have been subject to suffering.16 [PD 7.156]17 27. In this way then, because the elimination of the mind and eradication of latent tendencies are the direct means of liberation-in-life, (they are) principal. Whereas, knowledge of truth, because it is farther removed (from liberation-in-life) by production of the other two, is therefore subsidiary. 28. It is declared frequently in the ruti that the cause of eradication of latent tendencies is the knowledge of truth: 126

Having known God, all the bonds fall off. [vU 1.11] 29. Thinking of (him) as God, the wise man leaves joy and sorrow through learning the contemplation of the highest Self. [KU 2.12] 30. One who knows Self crosses over sorrow. [ChU 7.1.3] 31. What confusion, what sorrow is there for a man who sees this unity? [aU 7] 32. Having known God, he is freed from all bonds. [vU1.8] 33. The ruti establishes that the cause of the elimination of the mind is the knowledge of truth. 34. With regard to the condition of knowledge, we find Vedic statements such as: But when everything has become one's very Self, then whom and by what means does one see, whom and by what means does one smell, . . . ? [BU 2.4.14] 35. Gaudapdcarya also says: When one does not form concepts owing to awakening to the truth of the Self, then he attains the condition of not having a mind; when there is nothing to grasp, he does not grasp. [GK 3.32] 36. Just as in the case of liberation-in-life, elimination of the mind and eradication of latent tendencies are principal, so also in the case of bodiless-liberation, knowledge is principal because it is the immediate cause of bodiless-liberation, (and) because of the Smti: Perfect isolation is achieved through nothing but knowledge, by means of which one is liberated. [Untraced] 37. The state of the Self alone is "perfect isolation," namely, the absence of a body and so on. And this is "achieved through nothing but knowledge" because the state of having a body, since it is created by ignorance, is removed only through knowledge.


38. The words "nothing but" in "nothing but knowledge" indicate the exclusion of ritual action because of the ruti: Neither through ritual action, nor offspring, nor wealth. [T 10.10.21] 39. But for one who has not studied the authoritative texts on knowledge, though he has practiced the eradication of latent tendencies and elimination of the mind as far as possible, (and) worships Brahman as having attributes, there is no perfect isolation for him because the subtle body has not passed away. Hence, because of the words "nothing but," those two18 are also excluded. 40. The meaning of the phrase "by means of which one is liberated" is as follows: by means of which, i.e., by means of this isolation attained through knowledge, one is freed from all bondage. And bondage is of many kinds, because of the usage here and there of such words as "the knot of ignorance," "believing that one is not Brahman," "the knot of the heart," "doubts," "actions," "not desiring the All," "death," and "rebirth." All these types of bondage can be removed by knowledge. 41. Accordingly the rutis state: One who knows this that is placed within the cave, my dear, cuts the knot of ignorance in this world. [MuU 2.1.10] 42. (He who) knows (the highest) Brahman, himself becomes Brahman. [MuU 3.2.9] 43. The knot of the heart is split, all doubts are cut off, and his actions perish when that, with reference to which the highest is the lower, is seen. [MuU 2.2.8] 44. He who knows (Brahman) placed in the cave, in the highest heaven, enjoys all his desires together (with the wise Brahman.) [TU 2.1.1] 45. Only when a man knows him (purua) does he pass beyond death. [vU 3.8] 128

46. But one who has understanding, who is mindful and always pure, attains that state from which he is not reborn again. [KU 3.8] 47. One who knows "I am Brahman" in this way becomes the All. [BU 1.4.10] These and other similar statements concerning the removal of such bondages as "not knowing the All" could be cited here. 48. This bodiless-liberation one should understand comes about at the same time as the arising of knowledge, because when these bondages that have been superimposed on Brahman by ignorance have been destroyed by knowledge, they cannot arise again nor be experienced. 49. The commentator (akara) has explained that bodiless-liberation comes about at the same time as knowledge in his commentaries on the stra on the cohesion (samanvaya) [BS 1.1.4] and on the stra: Upon the realization of that, there occurs the non-attachment and destruction (respectively) of subsequent and previous sins,19 because it is so declared (in the Upaniads). [BS 4.1.13] 50. [Objection] Many describe the bodiless-liberation as taking place immediately after the death of the present body. So the ruti declares: There is a delay for me only until I am freed; then I will succeed.20 [ChU 6.14.2] 51. It is also stated in the Vkyavtti: One becomes liberated-in-life for a time through the power of operative action; then, on the destruction of the bondage of operative action, 52. One attains the perfect isolation freed from rebirth, the highest state of Viu, which is the unsurpassed bliss. [Vv 5253] 53. The author of the stras (Badaryana) also says: But by having exhausted the two others by experiencing (them), he merges (into Brahman). [BS 4.1.19]


54. "The two others" refers to the good and the bad operative action. Vasiha says: Having abandoned the state of one liberated-in-life at the death of one's body, one passes into the state of bodiless-liberation, like the wind falls into stillness. [LYV 3.1.98] 55. [Reply] This is not a problem, because the two views are not contradictory, owing to the specific distinction of meaning. In their descriptions, many have taken the word "body," which occurs in the expression "bodiless-liberation," to refer to all types of bodies. But we say it exclusively implies the "future body,"21 because one acquires knowledge for the sole purpose of preventing the arising of such a body. But this body has already arisen, and therefore one cannot prevent its arising even through knowledge. Nor is removing the present body the result of knowledge, because, even for the ignorant, it is removed when operative action is exhausted. 56. [Objection] In that case, let us say the removal of the current subtle body is a result of knowledge, because it cannot be removed without knowledge. 57. [Reply] This is not so, because in the case of liberation-in-life, even when there is knowledge, there is no removal of that (subtle body). 58. [Objection] Is it not true that even though knowledge cannot remove it for some time, because it is obstructed by operative action, it will be able to remove the subtle body when that obstruction is destroyed? 59. [Reply] No, because the teacher of the Pacapdika (Padmapda) has demonstrated: Because knowledge removes only ignorance. [Ppd 1.3] 60. [Objection] Then what is the means of removing the subtle body?


61. [Reply] We say: the removal of the whole complex (of causes). For what removes an effect is twofold: the existence of an opposing force and the elimination of the whole causal complex. So a lamp is extinguished by the opposing force of the wind or by the removal of the whole causal complex of the oil and the wick. We do not see an opposing force in the case of the subtle body. Its causal complex is twofold: operative and uncommenced.22 Through these two, the subtle body of the ignorant exists in this world and the next. In the case of knowers, when the uncommenced action has been eliminated through knowledge and when operative action has been eliminated by living through it, the subtle body is eliminated because of the removal of the causal complex. Therefore the removal of that (subtle body) is not a result of knowledge. 62. [Objection] Is it not true that according to this line of argument, the nonoccurrence of a future body is also not the result of knowledge. For either the nonoccurrence itself should be the result, or its continuation. It is not the first, because it (non-occurrence) consists in a prior non-existence;23 it is established with no beginning. It is not the second, because preservation of the prior non-existence of (future) embodiment takes place only through the elimination of the entire causal complex consisting of uncommenced action. And the result is not the removal of that (future body), because only the removal of ignorance is the result of knowledge. 63. [Reply] This is not a difficulty, because of the fact that the non-occurrence of future births, etc., is the result of knowledge based on authoritative texts. authoritative basis is rutis that have been cited above beginning with: (From which) he is not reborn again. [KU 3.8] 131 The

64. This does not contradict the doctrine that knowledge removes only ignorance, because by the word "ignorance," [2.3.59] the teacher of the Pacapdika (Padmapda) meant the definite associations joined to ignorance, such as believing that one is not Brahman, and so on. Otherwise it goes against experience, for we experience such things as the removal of the belief that we are not Brahman, just as we experience the removal of ignorance. Therefore, bodiless-liberation, in the sense of freedom from the future body, is simultaneous with knowledge. 65. And thus the words of Yajavalkya are handed down in the ruti: Truly, Janaka, you have attained freedom from fear. [BU 4.2.4] 66. And: That (experience) is all there is to immortality. [BU 4.5.15] 67. Another ruti also states: A man who knows him in this way becomes immortal in this world. [T 3.12.7; NPU 1.6] 68. [Objection] If even after the arising of the knowledge of truth, bodilessliberation, which is its result, does not arise at that moment, but at another time, then one must assume some sort of aprva24 generated by knowledge, just as in the Jyotioma ritual and so on. Consequently, the entire stric teaching on knowledge would be subsumed under the stric teaching on ritual action. Suppose that

knowledge impeded by operative action, like fire impeded by incantations and the like, will give bodiless-liberation at another time. 69. [Reply] This is not so, because there is no opposition (between operative action and knowledge). For the bodiless-liberation that we mean, characterized by the total non-existence of the future body, is not opposed by operative action, which only 132

establishes the current body and which (you say) might impede (knowledge). Moreover, how could knowledge, since it is momentary,25 give liberation at another time, (while it) itself is not found? 70. [Objection] Another knowledge will arise that is characterized by immediate realization at the last moment. 71. [Reply] No, because there is no means. What means could there be for you, because all appearances of the world such as teachers, texts, bodies, and senses are removed, together with the removal of the impeding operative action? 72. [Objection] In that case, what is the meaning of this ruti? . . . and further in the end all illusion ceases. [vU 1.10] 73. [Reply] The meaning is simply this. All causal factors, such as the body, senses, and so on, are removed because there is no cause at the end of operative action. Therefore, we grant the bodiless-liberation you postulate, characterized by the freedom from the current body, whereas (the bodiless-liberation) we postulate (characterized by the freedom from a future body,) arises at precisely the same time as knowledge. 74. It is with reference to this very point that Lord ea says: At a pilgrimage site or in the house of a dog-cooker (an outcaste), even with memory lost, abandoning the body, liberated at the same time (he attains) knowledge, he attains perfect isolation, with sorrow destroyed. [Ps 81] 75. Therefore, with regard to bodiless-liberation, knowledge of truth, which is its immediate cause, is principal. Whereas eradication of latent tendencies and elimination of the mind are subsidiary because they are the means of knowledge.


76. We learn in ruti and Smti that the means of knowledge is the Divine latent tendencies, which are the cause for the eradication of Demonic latent tendencies because of the ruti: (A man who knows this, therefore,) having become mentally still, with senses controlled, quiet, patient, and collected, he sees the Self in just himself. [BU 4.4.23] 77. The smti also says: Absence of pride and deceit, non-violence, patience, sincerity, respect for the teacher, purity, steadfastness, self-restraint. [BhG 13.7] 78. Detachment from sense objects, and also without egoism, insight into the defects of birth, death, old age, illness, and suffering. [BhG 13.8] 79. Non-attachment, absence of intense attachment for son, wife, house, and so on, and with a constant even-mindedness among desired and undesired events. [BhG 13.9] 80. With engagement in Me and no other, with unswerving devotion, inhabiting isolated places, dislike for a crowd of people. [BhG 13.10] 81. Constancy in the knowledge of the highest Self, seeing the purpose of the knowledge of truth. This is called knowledge; ignorance is what is otherwise. [BhG 13.11] 82. "Intense attachment" refers to the feeling of one's ego in another. The word "knowledge" (jna) here has the sense of the means of knowledge (and not the act of knowledge), according to the etymology "that by which (something) is known."26 83. It is well known in the rutis and Smtis, moreover, that elimination of the mind is a means of knowledge because of the ruti: But a man sees him who is without parts, as he meditates. [MuU 3.1.8] 84. And also: Realizing the God by acquiring the yoga of the Self, the wise man leaves elation and sorrow. [KU 2.12] 134

The meaning (of the latter text) is having realized the God27 by means of the attainment of enstasis on the Self. 85. The Smti declares: Homage to that Self of yoga,28 which those who are engaged, are vigilant, have controlled the breath, are contented, and have the senses controlled see as the light. [MBh 12.47.35] 86. Therefore, in this way, we have established the following distinction: the three means, namely, knowledge of truth, eradication of latent tendencies, and elimination of the mind are subsidiary and principal, depending on whether we are dealing with bodiless-liberation or liberation-in-life. 2.4 Pure and Impure Latent Tendencies 1. [Objection] Given that these three means have been carried out by the renouncerfor-knowledge after he has reached the renunciation-of-the-knower, do they merely continue, or is special effort required? It cannot be the first case, because even when someone achieves the other two, in the same way just as knowledge, without effort, then it would result in not treating those that are principal with special attention (dara). It cannot be the second case, because when knowledge also requires effort like the other two, then it would result in not treating those that are subsidiary with impartiality. 2. [Reply] This is not a difficulty, because our position is that knowledge merely continues, while the other two are attained with effort. Accordingly, a person entitled to knowledge is of two kinds: one who has gone through symbol-oriented meditation (upsti),29 and one who has not. Of these two, if a man were to engage in knowledge after going through training until he has directly realized the object of meditation, then, after that realization, the renunciation-of-the-knower and liberation-in-life are 135

established all on their own because of the greater strength of (his) eradication of latent tendencies and elimination of the mind. Such a one is the principal type of person entitled to knowledge, the type postulated in the authoritative texts. Therefore, because renunciation-for-knowledge and renunciation-of-the-knower are both prescribed together for him in authoritative texts, these two appear as if they are overlapping even though they are by nature distinct. 3. The men of the present time, however, generally engage in knowledge straightaway merely out of curiosity without having gone through symbol-oriented meditation (upsana). They carry out a temporary eradication of the latent tendencies and elimination of the mind. To that extent, they also practice Vedic study, reflection, and meditation. By the strength of these practices ignorance, doubt, and

misapprehension are expelled, and the knowledge of truth properly arises. What has arisen does not diminish, because there is no evidence (prama) that would annul it, and there is no cause (karaa) that would create the ignorance that has been eliminated. But eradication of latent tendencies and elimination of the mind are quickly extinguished like a lamp in a windy place because they have not been practiced rigorously, and because they are now and again opposed by operative action, which produces experience. 4. Vasiha (describes it) in this way: But this is considered more difficult than the previous efforts; for abandonment of latent tendencies is considered to be even more difficult to achieve than uprooting Mount Meru. [LYV 5.10.109] 5. Arjuna also says: For this mind is fickle, O Ka, impetuous, strong, and obstinate. I think it is as difficult to restrain as the wind. [BhG 6.34] 136

6. Therefore, in the case of the present-day renunciants who are knowers, knowledge merely persists. It is made steadfast, while eradication of latent tendencies and elimination of the mind are carried out by means of effort. 7. [Objection] What is this latent tendency which one must make effort in order to destroy? 8. [Reply] Vasiha states the nature of it: Taking to things that make one give up inquiring into their cause and effect because of a strong feeling (dhabhvanay).30 That is called latent tendency. [LYV 5.10.48] 9. What has been manifested with sharp force by oneself, that he becomes immediately, O Strong-Armed One, forgetting all other things. [LYV 5.10.49] 10. For, when a person like this, who is subjugated by a latent tendency, sees whatever object, he is fooled, believing it is a real thing. [LYV 5.10.50] 11. That (object) abandons its true form because (he) loses self-control to the power of the latent tendency. One with poor sight sees everything confusedly, as if he were drunk. [LYV 5.10.51] 12. The Demonic people do not know action nor inaction. Neither purity, nor even good custom, nor truth are found in them. [BhG 16.7] 13. They say the world is without truth, without foundation, without God, produced by one another. What else causes it? Simply desire. [BhG 16.8] 14. Maintaining this view, from those whose Selves are lost, have little intelligence. [BhG 16.9ab] 15. Moreover, (this passage) illustrates in general terms the insistence of peoples on the traditions of their countries, customs of their families, the dialects, as well as the proper and improper usages found in them, and so on. But we will give specific examples after stating their varieties. 16. With reference to latent tendencies as we have described, then, it is stated in the Bhadrayaka: 137

As is a man's desire, that becomes his will; what his will becomes, that is the action he does; what action he does, he turns out to be that. [BU 4.4.5] 17. Vlmki describes the varieties of latent tendencies: Latent tendency is said to be twofold: pure and impure. The impure is the cause of births; the pure is the destroyer of births. [LYV 1.1.10] 18. The wise people say the impure latent tendency has the form of very dense ignorance, is full of dense egoism, and causes rebirth. [LYV 1.1.11] 19. The pure is said to be that which has known what is to be known, has remained like a dried seed having given up the sprout of rebirth, and lives for the sake of the body. [LYV 1.1.12] 20. The meaning of the phrase "has the form of very dense ignorance" is as follows. The covering up of the difference between the five sheaths,31 beginning with the body and so on, and the witness of that, which is the pure consciousness (cidtman), is ignorance, i.e., that whose form has become exceedingly dense. This "has the form of very dense ignorance."32 Just as milk becomes dense by mixing with buttermilk, or as melted ghee becomes dense (when) placed for a long time in a very cool place, so also should we understand latent tendencies. And here density means a perpetuation of confusion. 21. The Lord states this in the explanation of the Demonic fortune: (They) perform cruel deeds, become dominant for the destruction of the world. [BhG 16.9cd] 22. Attached to insatiable desire, possessing deceit, pride, and arrogance, having taken untrue conceptions because of delusion, they engage in impure vows. [BhG 16.10] 23. And they have relied on unbounded care, which continues until death. With enjoyment of desires as the highest, they have become certain that is all there is. [BhG 16.11] 24. Bounded by hundreds of chains of desire, they have become chiefly intent on desire and anger. Gathering wealth by the wrong means, they endeavor for the sake of enjoyment of desire. [BhG 16.12] 138

25. "Dense egoism" [2.4.18, LYV 1.1.11] is also illustrated in the same text: I acquired this today; I will attain what I have set my heart on. This wealth is mine, and that too will be mine. [BhG 16.13] 26. I have slain that enemy, and I will also slay others. I am the Lord. I am the enjoyer. I am the perfected one, strong and happy. [BhG 16.14] 27. I am rich and of noble descent. Who else is there like me? I will sacrifice, give alms, and rejoice. So say the ones deluded by ignorance. [BhG 16.15] 28. Confused by many thoughts, tangled in a snare of delusion, intent on the gratification of desires, they fall into a foul hell. [BhG 16.16] 29. The passage states that (impure latent tendencies) are the cause of rebirth and goes on to explain it: Self-conceited, stubborn, full of pride and arrogance, they fraudulently perform sacrifices only in name, not according to injunction. [BhG 16.17] 30. Indulging in egoism, power, arrogance, desire, and anger, the indignant ones hating Me in the bodies of themselves and others. [BhG 16.18] 31. These hateful, cruel, and vile men, I perpetually throw these evil ones only in sasric existence, into Demonic wombs. [BhG 16.19] 32. They have attained a Demonic womb and are deluded in birth after birth; not having attained Me, O son of Kunti, they then go to the lowest state. [BhG 16.20] 33. Pure latent tendencies are "that which has known what is to be known." [2.4.19, LYV 1.1.12] The Lord states the nature of what is to be known in the thirteenth chapter: I shall tell what the object to be known is, knowing which, one attains immortality. With no beginning, the highest Brahman, it is said to be neither existent nor non-existent. [BhG 13.12] 34. That has hands and feet on all sides, eyes, heads, and mouths everywhere. That is heard everywhere, it stands in the world encompassing everything. [BhG 13.13]


35. Appearing to have the qualities of all the senses, yet free of all the senses. Unattached, and yet supporting everything; without the qualities, and yet enjoyer of the qualities. [BhG 13.14] 36. Outside and inside of beings; moving and unmoving. Because of subtlety, that is incomprehensible. That stands far, and yet it is near. [BhG 13.15] 37. Undivided, yet it has stood as if shared among beings. That is to be known as the supporter of beings, as well as (their) devourer and creator. [BhG 13.16] 38. That is also called the light of lights beyond darkness (knowledge, what is to be known, and attainable through knowledge, standing in the heart of everything.) [BhG 13.17] 39. In this passage, the two natures conditioned (with adjuncts) and absolute (without adjuncts) have been presented, which are to be understood through temporary definitions and inherent definitions. 40. [Objection] You have said that a characteristic feature (of latent tendencies) is the disregard of the investigation of what is before and after.33 But the knowledge of what is to be known is to be produced by rational investigation (vicra). Therefore, this definition does not apply to pure (latent tendencies). 41. [Reply] This is not so, because the definition uses the words "because of a strong feeling." [2.4.8, LYV 5.10.48] It is just as impure latent tendencies such as egoism, possessiveness, desire, and anger arise without any instruction from another in this life, because they have been felt strongly during many births. Similarly the reality bursts forth like a jar and the like standing in front of you, without any dependency on words, reasoning,34 or judgment, when one cultivates (bhvite) the truth for a long time, uninterruptedly, and with deep care, [YS 1.14, adapted] even though the first understanding (bodha) of it is produced by rational investigation.


42. Pure latent tendencies are the operation of the senses connected with such continuing understanding. They are good only for the purpose of sustaining the body, but not for the purpose of producing the Demonic fortune, such as deceit and pride, nor for the production of what is right and what is wrong (dharmdharma), which are the cause of future births. It is just as roasted grain such as rice is good only for the purpose of filling a granary35 but not for preparing delicious food or for planting another crop. 43. Impure latent tendencies are of three types:36 tendencies having to do with the world, those to do with learning, and those to do with the body. "I will always behave in such as way that no one criticizes me, but rather so that everyone praises me," such an urge constitutes a latent tendency concerning the world. It is impure because it is impossible to bring about. 44. Vlmki posed this question in many ways: Who presently in this world is virtuous and heroic? [Rm 1.1.2] 45. Nrada gave the answer beginning with: It is Rma, arisen from the Ikvku lineage, renowned to everyone. [Rm 1.1.8] 46. Even in the case of Rm, who was a person like that, and his devoted wife, St, the crest-jewel of women and the Mother of the world, people said awful things that one could not bear to hear. How much more so then in the case of others? Just so, people frequently insult each other with respect to their native place. The northern priests, knowers of Veda, are condemned by the southern priests as meat-eaters. And the southerners are condemned by the northerners for marrying their cross-cousin and for carrying a clay pot while traveling. The g Vedins consider the valyana 141

kh to be better than the Kva kh, but the Vjasaneyins think the opposite. So it is well known that everywhere, from the learned, to women and cowherders, that people praise their own family, gotra, relatives, gods, and so on and belittle those of others. 47. With reference to just this it was said: A thoughtless person is considered a thief, and a beautiful person a lecher. Who is capable of winning the favor of the world? [Untraced] 48. And: One can find (or knows) no way of completely satisfying the whole world. By all means one should manage one's own welfare. What can critical people do to you? [Untraced] 49. Therefore, with reference to the impurity of latent tendencies concerning the world, the stras on liberation describe the master yogin as being the same both when people praise him and when people revile him.37 50. Latent tendencies having to do with learning are of three types: attachment to study, attachment to many stras, and attachment to performance of ritual action. We recognize the addiction to study in Bharadvja. He studied many Vedas during three human lifetimes. Then when he was enticed into a fourth lifetime by Indra, he endeavored to study Vedic appendices. Because such study is impossible to

complete, it is impure. Indra, making him (Bharadvja) realize the impossibility of such study, turned him away from it and, for the sake of an even higher human goal, taught (him) the knowledge of the Brahman with qualities. This all can be seen in the Taittirya Brahmaa. [TB 3.1.35] 51. In the Kvaeya Gt38 we find the impurity of attachment to many stras because it does not lead to the ultimate human goal. A sage named Durvsa

approached Mahdeva to pay homage, bringing along many kinds of stric books. 142

In that god's council a certain sage Nrada compared him to a donkey carrying a load. Durvsa then in anger threw the books in the salt ocean. Mahdeva introduced (him) to the knowledge of the Self. Knowledge of the Self does not arise merely by studying the Veda for one who is not inward-looking and is without a guru who has compassion for him. 52. Similarly the ruti states: This Self cannot be attained by teaching, by intelligence, or by great learning. [KU 2.23] 53. Elsewhere it is said: Talking a lot of straswhat use is there is chewing that rag? Knowers of truth should seek strenuously their inner light. [MukU 2.63] 54. As the ladle does not know the taste of cooking, so a man does not know the truth of Brahman by studying the four Vedas and innumerable Dharmastras. [MukU 2.65] 55. We read in the Chandogya Upaniad (seventh dhyya) that, even though conversant with the sixty-four arts, dejected over not having found the Self, Nrada approached Sanatkumra. 56. We recognize the attachment to performance of ritual action in the case of Nidgha in the Viu Purna, and in the case of Dra in the

Vsiharmyaa. For Nidgha, even though instructed by bhu again and again, did not give up the dullness of faith in ritual action for a long time. [ViP 2.1516] And Dra, owing to his exceeding dullness of faith, did not find any pure place on the earth for the purpose of performing ritual actions. [LYV 4.4.122259] This latent tendency of ritual action is impure because it is the cause of rebirth. 57. Similarly an Atharvaic passage reads:


Frail vessels are they in the form of sacrifices, in which inferior action (characterized by) eighteen39 is prescribed. Fools who praise that as the best, they again go to old age and death. [MuU 1.2.7] 58. Wallowing amid ignorance, wise unto themselves, thinking they are learned, fools, being hurt repeatedly, go about as a group of blind men being led by someone who is himself blind. [MuU 1.2.8] 59.Wallowing in ignorance so many times, simpletons think "We have reached our aim." Those who perform rites do not understand, because of their passion. Therefore they fall down sick, their world exhausted. [MuU 1.2.9] 60. Thinking sacrifice and charitable deeds (iaprta)40 are the best, fools know nothing better. Having enjoyed their good deeds at the height of heaven, they enter this world or a lower one. [MuU 1.2.10] 61. The Lord has also said: That flowery talk the undiscriminating use, those that delight in Vedic discourse, O Partha, who say "there is nothing else," [BhG 2.42] 62. Whose self is desire, who seek heavenit (that talk) gives rebirth as the fruit of ritual; it is full of many distinct rites aimed at pleasure and power. [BhG 2.43] 63. In those who are attached to pleasure and power and whose minds are carried off by this (talk), no resolute intellect is established in enstasis (samdhi). [BhG 2.44] 64. The Vedas have the three qualities as their domain. Be without the qualities, O Arjuna, without duality, always steadfast in goodness, without concern for acquiring and keeping property, and self-possessed. [BhG 2.45] 65. There is as much value in all the Vedas for a Brhmaa who knows as there is in a pond when it is flooding everywhere. [BhG 2.46] 66. The latent tendency of learning is impure because it is the cause of arrogance. In the sixth dhyya of the Chandogya Upaniad we read that vetaketu, having studied all the Vedas in a very short time, did not behave with respect even in the presence of his father. Similarly it is recorded among the Kautakins and the Vjasaneyins that Blki, becoming arrogant by learning some meditative practice,41 having humiliated many sages by his world conquest through many regions such as 144

Unara, reached Kai and had the audacity to teach the crest-jewel of Brahmaknowers, Ajtaatru. [KauU 4.1.20; BU 6.2.1] 67. The latent tendency of the body is also threefold, owing to the distinction between the error of ascribing Selfhood to the body, the error of developing good qualities, and the error of removing defects. 68. Of these, the commentator

(Sakara) describes ascribing Selfhood to the body: The ordinary people and materialists think that the Self is merely the body characterized by consciousness. [BSBh 1.1.1] 69. The Taittirya Upaniad makes this same thinking of ordinary people clear in the passage beginning with "Indeed this very person is formed from the essence of food," [TU 2.1.1] and ending with "Therefore it is called food." [TU 2.2.1]42 The eighth dhyya of the Chandogya Upaniad gives a tradition that Virocana, even though he was taught by Prajpati, clung to the idea that the Self is the body, because of faulty thinking, and taught (it) to all the asuras. [ChU 8.78] 70. Developing good qualities is twofold: worldly and according to stric authority. Developing such things as a good voice is worldly. People try hard to sing and recite with a good voice by drinking oil and eating pepper. People take

nourishing medicines and food in order to get soft skin. They rub oils, apply powders, and wear fine clothes and ornaments in order to be beautiful. They wear garlands and apply ointments in order to smell good. To acquire qualities according to stric authority, they perform religious acts such as bathing in the Ganges and going on pilgrimage to lagrama.43 71. Getting rid of defects (is achieved) by drugs prescribed by a doctor and by rinsing out the mouth, etc., and this is worldly. It is also achieved by purification and 145

sipping water, and this is Vedic. Thus this is also achieved through both worldly and stric means. We will explain the impurity of this latent tendency of the body. The selfhood of the body is impure because it has no authoritative basis and because it is the cause of all suffering. All former teachers without exception attacked this

(fallacy). For the most part, we do not see people developing qualities. There are singers and teachers very well known, many of whom, even though they try, do not obtain a beautiful voice. A soft skin and a well-nourished body are not guaranteed. Also looking beautiful and smelling good depend on fine clothes and garlands, etc., but not on the body. 72. For this reason it was declared in the Viu Pura: If a fool delights in the body, a mass of flesh, blood, pus, excrement, urine, tendon, marrow, and bone, he will find delight even with Hell. [ViP 1.17.63; NpU 3.48] 73. A man who is not disgusted with the foul smell of his own body, what other reason for detachment can one teach him? [MukU 2.66; PaP 2.66.80] 74. Developing qualities according to stric authority is set aside by another stronger stra. It is like the injunction "You must not harm any living being" [MhB 3.203.45; 12.269.5, 316.18] (is set aside) by the special rule (apavda)44 "You must sacrifice the beast in the Agnioma." [TS] 75. The following stra is stronger: One who thinks of the Self in the mortal body consisting of three humors, who thinks his family and so on are his, who thinks God is a clay statue, who thinks a place of pilgrimage is the water, but never wise menhe is like an ass among animals. [BhP 10.84.13] 76. Also: The body is absolutely impure and the embodied soul is absolutely pure. When one knows the difference between the two, to whom will one prescribe purification? [MukU 2.67; SS 2.14.19] 146

77. Even if this stra prohibits getting rid of defects but not developing qualities, nevertheless, because it is impossible to develop a quality when a stronger opposing defect is present, this stra by implication also prohibits developing qualities in the case of the body. 78. The absolute impurity is declared in the Maitryaya kh: O Lord, what is the use of enjoying pleasures in this body, which is without substance, smelly, an aggregate of excrement, urine, air, bile, and phlegm, and polluted by bones, flesh, tendon, marrow, semen, blood, the rheum discharged from the eyes, and tears? [MtrU 1.3] 79. And: This body, born from sex and without intelligence, is a Hell, come forth through the urinary tract, built up by bones, coated with flesh, covered over with skin, and filled up with excrement, urine, phlegm, bile, marrow, lymph, fat, and many other impurities, like a bag filled with riches. [MtrU 3.4] 80. Furthermore, curing sicknesses by medical treatment is uncertain. Even when a disease is in remission, sometimes it arises again. Through its nine openings filth constantly oozes out; through its innumerable pores it is covered with sweatwho indeed is able even with the greatest effort to wash the body? 81. Therefore the former teachers have said: The bodies made of nine holes leak like a clay pot. They are not cleansed by external purifications, but there is no internal purification. [Untraced] Therefore the latent tendency of the body is impure. 82. Vasiha says this with regard to this impurity: "From head to toe, I am what my mother and father made me," this single fixed opinion, O Rma, leads to bondage because it is an untrue perception. [LYV 5.2.42] 83. The belief that "I am the body," that is the path to the Klastra Hell, that is the trap of the Mahvci Hell, that is the row of trees of the forest of the Asipatra Hell,45 [LYV 4.5.16; NpU 3.49]


84. Spare no effort to abandon this, even if it exposes one to total destruction. A righteous person must avoid this like the outcast woman carrying dog meat. [LYV 4.5.17; NpU 3.50] 85. These three latent tendencies concerning the world, learning, and the body, then, although they appear attractive to the indiscriminate, must be abandoned by the discriminate because they obstruct the arising of knowing in those desiring knowledge and obstruct the stability of the knowledge of those who do know. 86. Precisely because of this the Smti declares: Surely knowledge does not arise properly in a person with the latent tendency of the world, learning, and the body. [SS 4.14.51] 87. The impurity of the latent tendencies of the mind,46 which is the Demonic fortune, consists in deceit, pride, and the like and is very well known because it is the cause of Hell. Hence, by some means or other, one must bring about the eradication of the fourfold latent tendency. 2.5 The Nature of the Mind and the Elimination of the Mind 1. Just as one must bring about the eradication of latent tendencies, so also one must eliminate the mind. The Vedic people do not agree with the view of the logician that the mind consists of an eternal substance the size of an atom,47 in which case the elimination of the mind would be difficult to attain. On the contrary, the mind is something that is composed of parts, not eternal, and is subject to constant manifold changes in the same way as lac and gold, and the like. The Vedic tradition of the Vjasaneyins gives its definition and its evidence (prama). 2. This is its definition: Desire, forming concepts, doubt, faith, lack of faith, steadfastness, lack of steadfastness, shame, intelligence, and fearall this is simply the mind. [BU 1.5.3] 148

3. The meaning is this: mental activities, such as desire arising gradually, appear very clearly through the direct perception of the witness, as a clay pot and so on appears to the direct perception of the eye. The mind is the material cause of these mental activities. 4. Such (ruti) is the evidence: We say "I didn't see; my mind was elsewhere. I didn't hear; my mind was elsewhere." For it is through the mind that one sees and hears. [BU 1.5.3] 5. The meaning is this: when a man is inattentive, he does not perceive a clay pot in front of his eyes and in the middle of full light, or the Veda recited loudly close to the ear, but when he is attentive, he perceives them. One arrives at this sort of common means of perception of all objects through positive and negative concomitance.48 6. And this is the example: Therefore, even when someone touches us on the back, we perceive it through the mind. [BU 1.5.3] 7. Because the mind has been established by giving the definition and the evidence (for it), consequently an example is provided for it this way. Even though he has been touched by another on the back, Devadatta knows specifically "This is the touch of a hand; this is the touch of a finger." The eyesight does not extend to it, while the sensation of the skin reaches its limit in mere softness and hardness. Therefore, only the mind remains as a means of knowing such distinctions. It is called "mind" (manas) because of internal reflection (manana) and it is called "mind" (citta) because of its awareness of things (cetana). This mind (citta) consists in the qualities of goodness, energy, and darkness, because in it we see illumination, activity, and delusion, which are the effects of goodness and the others. 149

8. By the definition of the one who has transcended-the-qualities [1.8], we recognize that illumination and so on are the effects of qualities (because it is stated): One who doesn't hate the illumination, activity, or even delusion when they are present, O Paava, (and does not long for them when they disappear). [BhG 14.22] 9. Also in the Sakhya stra it has been said that Illumination, activity, and delusion have the purpose of restriction (of the other effects of the qualities). [SK 12, adapted]49 10. "Illumination" in the above passage does not mean a white or shining color, but on the contrary, it means knowledge, because it has been said: Knowledge is born of goodness, just as greed is born of energy, and negligence, delusion, and ignorance have come from darkness. [BhG 14.17] 11. Happiness, like knowledge, is also an effect of goodness. This has also been stated: Goodness causes attachment to happiness, energy to action, O Bharata, but darkness, having obscured knowledge, certainly causes attachment to negligence. [BhG 14.9] 12. Among the qualities that constantly change like waves on the ocean, at a given time one of them comes into power, while the other two are overpowered. This has been declared: Goodness, having overcome energy and darkness, prevails, O Bharata; as energy prevails over darkness and goodness, and darkness, having overcome goodness and energy. [BhG 14.10] 13. And: They assume the relative position of suppressed and suppressor, like waves on the ocean. [ViP 5.1.20] 14. Among these, when darkness prevails, the Demonic fortune arises. When energy prevails, the three latent tendencies, namely, those concerning society, etc., 150

come into being. When goodness prevails, the Divine fortune is produced. 15. With reference to this it has been said: When illumination that is knowledge is produced in all the openings of this body, then it is said you should know that goodness becomes strong. [BhG 14.11] 16. Even if the internal organ appears to consist of the three qualities, nevertheless goodness alone is its primary material cause. But energy and darkness are supporting causes. For this reason, goodness alone remains the knower's nature when energy and darkness are removed by means of yogic practice. reference to this it has been said: The mind of the knower would become a non-mind; the mind of the knower is called goodness. [LYV 6.3.13ab] 18. This goodness is one-pointed because it is devoid of the quality of energy that is the cause of unsteadiness. It is subtle because it is devoid of the quality of darkness that is the cause of the forms of gross material objects, which are of the nature of the non-Self and fabricated by false cognition. Therefore, it (goodness) is capable of seeing the Self. 19. Precisely because of this the ruti declares: Yet it is seen with a sharpened and subtle mind by people with subtle vision. [KU 3.12] 20. It is not possible to ascertain the characteristics of a jewel, a pearl, and the like with a lamp that is flickering in the wind. Nor can one sew a fine cloth using a big shovel as one can with a needle. This very goodness as we have described, when it is colored by the quality of energy with a core of the quality of darkness, and when it operates in imagination with multifarious dualities, becomes the mind in non-yogins. 17. With


This mind, when there is an abundance of the quality of darkness, becomes swollen by accumulating Demonic fortune. 21. Thus Vasiha says: By taking the Self to be in the non-Self, thus having regard for merely the body, by having children, wife, and family, the mind becomes swollen. [LYV 5.6.17] 22. By the disease of egoism, by amusement in the dirt of possessiveness, by thinking "This is mine," the mind becomes swollen. [LYV 5.6.18] 23. By playing in mental and physical disease, by believing in sasric existence, by dividing things into what is to be thrown away and what is not, the mind becomes swollen. [LYV 5.6.19] 24. By affections, by greed for wealth, by acquiring jewels and women, which are momentarily pleasing, the mind becomes swollen. [LYV 5.6.20] 25. By drinking the milk of vain hope, and by the strength of (inhaling) the air of enjoyment, by the movement of taking hope, the snake of the mind becomes swollen. [LYV 5.6.21] 50 26. Thus the nature of latent tendencies (2.4) and the mind (2.5), which must be destroyed, has been defined. 2.6 The Way Latent Tendencies Are Eradicated 1. Hereafter we will describe in the proper order the eradication of latent tendencies and elimination of the mind.51 2. Of these two, Vasiha describes the way latent tendencies are eradicated: Bondage is simply the bondage of latent tendencies, so liberation is the eradication of latent tendencies. Having abandoned latent tendencies, abandon even the pursuit of liberation. [LYV 4.5.20] 3. Having earlier on renounced the latent tendencies concerning the mind and latent tendencies concerning sense objects, take up pure latent tendencies concerning the development of friendliness and the other virtues. [LYV 4.5.21]


4. Even having internally abandoned them, continuing to engage in them, become a person who internally develops love in highest stillness and whose latent tendency is of pure consciousness. [LYV 4.5.22] 5. Having internally abandoned even that, which is connected with mind and intellect, absorbed firmly in what is left, abandon that by which you abandon. [LYV 4.5.23] 6. Here by the expression "latent tendencies concerning the mind" the author intends to refer to the three latent tendencies described above, [2.4.43 ff.] namely, latent tendencies concerning the world, learning, and the body. By "latent tendencies concerning sense objects" he intends such things as deceit and pride, which are the Demonic fortune. The reason for his distinguishing the implications is that one is weak and the other is intense. An alternative interpretation is that sense objects are sounds, textures, forms, tastes, and smells. The residual impressions (saskra) produced from the state of desiring these are the latent tendencies concerning the mind. Residual impressions produced from actually enjoying them constitutes latent tendencies of objects. In the latter alternative, the four types of latent tendencies

mentioned earlier [2.4.8587] are included in just these two types, because besides what exist internally in the mind or what attach externally to objects, there can be no other type of latent tendencies possible.52 7. [Objection] How is the abandonment of latent tendencies possible? Surely they have no tangible form whereby we could pick them up with the hand and throw them out like dust and straw are swept up with a broom. 8. [Reply] This is not so, because one can do it like one keeps a fast or a vigil. Eating and sleeping are naturally valid functions, even though they are intangible, and yet everyone keeps fasts and vigils, which entail giving up these two. In this instance also, we can assume this happens in the same way. 153

9. [Objection] Abandonment in the other instance is remaining alert after the declaration of intent beginning with: "Remaining today without food." 10. [Reply] In this instance also, there is no punitive measure to prevent such an abandonment. One can remain alert after making the declaration of intent with the praia ritual formula.53 People who are not entitled to utter Vedic mantras can declare their intention using common language.54 If in the other instance one abandons proximity to using vegetables, soup, rice and so on, in this instance also, one can say that he abandons proximity to garlands, sandal paste, and women. Further, in the other instance, the mind is entertained with recitation of Puras, worship of the gods, dancing, singing, and music, and so on, to make it forget about hunger, sleep, and laziness; also in this instance, the mind would be entertained by "friendliness and the other virtues." 2.7 The Practice of Pure Latent Tendencies 1. Patajali comments on "friendliness and the other virtues" in the stra: By cultivation of friendliness, compassion, contentment, and equanimity toward objects which are pleasant, painful, virtuous, or vile, the mind becomes serene. [YS 1.33] Mind is turbid by attachment and hatred, virtue and vice. 2. Patajali comments on passion and hatred in the stras: Attachment follows what is pleasant. [YS 2.7] 3. Hatred follows what is painful. [YS 2.8] 4. A particular mental activity following a pleasure one experiences is "Would that all kinds of pleasures were mine." But this is not possible to attain, because of the lack of a causal complex, seen or unseen. Hence, this attachment makes the mind 154

turbid. When a person cultivates friendliness toward happy beings, thinking "All these happy people are mine," then he realizes that their happiness is his very own. Hence, his attachment to those is removed. It is just like a person who, even though he has no kingdom of his own, regards the kingdom of his son and so on as his own. When attachment is removed, the mind settles like a river during the autumn season55 when the monsoon rains have ceased. 5. Likewise, the thought "Let such pain never be mine" follows pain. It is not possible to remove all pain when there are diseases, enemies, tigers, and so on. Nor is it possible to remove all the causes of pain. Therefore, this hatred always burns the heart. When a person cultivates compassion toward suffering beings in this manner: "As for me, so for all, let there be no untoward pain," then hatred toward enemies ceases, and the mind becomes clear. 6. Hence the smti declares: As life is dear to oneself, it is also just so to other beings. Men show compassion to other beings by putting themselves in their place. [MBh 13.116.21cd22ab; YDhS p. 31] 7. The great people show how this can be done: May everyone be happy here, may everyone be healthy, may good things come to everyone, may no one suffer any pain. [BhMP 2.35.14] 8. Now it is not in the nature of living things to do good; instead they do evil things. So, they say: People want the results of good deeds, but do not want to do good deeds. They do not want the results of evil, yet they diligently do evil. [Untraced] Both these, good and evil, produce remorse. 9. This remorse is described by ruti: Why did I not do the right thing? Why did I do evil? [TU 2.9]


10. If this person were to cultivate joyfulness toward virtuous people, then through the latent tendency created by that, he would himself vigilantly engage in good deeds. Likewise, by cultivating indifference toward evil sinners, he would himself desist from sin. Therefore, through the absence of remorse, the mind becomes calm. 11. When a person cultivates friendliness toward happy people, not only is attachment eliminated, but also calumny, envy, etc., are removed. Calumny is the intolerance of another's virtues. Envy is finding faults in virtues. When the happiness of others is made into one's own through the power of friendliness, then how could jealousy and the like toward virtues be possible? In this manner one should infer the removal of other faults according to the circumstances. When a person cultivates compassion toward people who suffer, and hatred, which causes such things as the killing of enemies, ceases, then the pride generated by one's own happiness, which belongs to the antithesis of suffering, ceases. 12. This pride was cited earlier in the context of egoism in (the treatment of) the Demonic fortune: I am the lord. I am the enjoyer. I am the perfected one, strong, and happy. I am rich and noble descent. Who else is there like me? [BhG 16.14cd15ab] 13. [Objection] You have presented the engagement in good deeds as the result for a person who cultivates joyfulness toward virtuous people. This is not suitable for a yogin, because in a previous passage you have included virtue within the impure latent tendencies related to learning.56 14. Reply: This is not so, because in that discussion rites prompted by desire, such as the sacrifices and charitable deeds57 that are the cause of rebirth, are mentioned as impure. But in this instance, we mean the action produced from yogic practice,


which, because it is neither white nor black, as such is not productive of future births. 15. Patajali declared that it is neither white nor black in this stra: The action of a yogin is neither white nor black; in the case of others it is threefold. [YS 4.7] 16. Rites prompted by desire are "white" because they are enjoined. Those that are prohibited are "black." Those that are mixed are white and black. These three come about "in the case of others," i.e., in the case of people who are non-yogins. And these three produce three kinds of birth. 17. This is stated by the Vivarpcaryas: By good actions a person attains the divine; by prohibited acts he goes to Hell, and by both virtuous and evil acts he then comes to the human state. [NkS 1.41] 18. [Objection] Although yoga is not black, because it is not prohibited, nevertheless it is white because it has been enjoined. 19. [Reply] This is not so because it is called non-white, with the meaning that it is not prompted by desire. Hence, yogins are expected to engage in virtuous activities that are neither white nor black. 20. [Objection] Even yogins, by this principle, having, as is proper, cultivated joyfulness toward virtuous people, would engage only in virtuous activities. 21. [Reply] Let him by all means do so, because true yogins are only those who have calmed their minds through friendliness and so on. The four virtues beginning with friendliness constitute a synecdoche (upalakaa), which implicitly includes Divine fortune "fearlessness, purity of goodness," etc., [2.3.11; BhG 16.1] the means of knowledge such as "absence of pride and deceit," etc., [2.3.77; BhG 13.7] and qualities indicated by the words "liberation-in-life, steady-in-wisdom, etc.," [1.3, 1.4,


and 1.6] because all these, insofar as they constitute pure latent tendencies, remove impure latent tendencies. 22. [Objection] There are an unlimited number of latent tendencies. It is

impossible for one person to practice them all. Attempting to practice them is futile. 23. [Reply] No, because it is not possible for there to be in the mind of a single person an unlimited number of impure latent tendencies that are to be removed by the practice of pure latent tendencies. Surely it is not possible for one person to take all the medicines mentioned in the Ayurveda. Nor do all diseases to be cured by those medicines exist in the body of one person. Similarly in this case, one should first examine one's own mind. When one finds in it a certain number of impure latent tendencies, then he should practice an equal number of opposing pure latent tendencies. 2.8 The Practice of Discernment 1. As a man who is vexed by such things as children, friends, and wife becomes detached from them, and takes renunciation as a removal of them, so also, being irritated by such impure latent tendencies as the arrogance of learning, the arrogance of wealth, and the arrogance of family and conduct, one should practice discernment that is opposed to them. 2. Janaka describes this discernment: Those who today are the greatest of the great, as days go by they fall downward. O mind, why do you place such faith in your greatness? [LYV 5.1.39] 3. Where is the wealth of kings? Where are the worlds of Brahman? The ancient things have crumbled. Why do you place such faith in your greatness? [LYV 5.1.41]


4. Ten millions of Brahms have come and gone. A succession of heavens have vanished. Earth-lords have crumbled like dust. What confidence do I have in life? [LYV 5.1.42] 5. People the closing and opening of whose eyes signal the creation and destruction of worldseven they have died. What significance does someone like me have? [LYV 5.1.49] 6. [Objection] This discernment, however, comes before the rise of the knowledge of truth, because in the absence of the means58 such as discernment of eternal and non-eternal reality cannot possess knowledge of Brahman. But here you have begun to discuss means such as the eradication of latent tendencies in order to attain liberation-in-life for a person who has realized Brahman. So, what is this offbeat (akaa) dance? 7. Reply: This is not a difficulty. "Knowledge of Brahman comes to a man after he has equipped himself with the four means"this is the main road trod upon by, and common to, all people. But for Janaka knowledge of truth arose suddenly like fruit falling from the sky, merely by listening to the Siddha Gt,59 as a result of the ripening of the vast quantity of his merit accumulated in previous lives. Therefore, because this discernment is done for the purpose of calming the mind, the dance is not offbeat. 2.9 The Continuance of Impure Latent Tendencies 1. [Objection] Even so, since this discernment arises immediately after the rise of knowledge, impure latent tendencies do not continue. Therefore, the practice of pure latent tendencies is not required. 2. [Reply] No, because even though they do not continue in the case of Janaka, we see their continuance in the case of Yjavalkya, Bhagratha, and others. It is 159

obvious that Yjavalkya and his opponents Uasta, Kahola, and the others were extremely arrogant about their learning, because they were all participants in the story about people desiring victory. [BU 3] 3. [Objection] They have quite another type of knowledge, but not knowledge of Brahman. 4. [Reply] No, because the questions and answers found in the story have Brahman as their object. 5. [Objection] Even though they have Brahman as their object, these people have only a general knowledge but not a complete comprehension. 6. [Reply] No, because based on the undesirable result that if that is the case, our own knowledge based on their discourses would also be incorrect. 7. [Objection] Even though it is correct, yet their knowledge is indirect. 8. [Reply] No, because (in passages such as:) "(explain to me) the Brahman that is directly and not indirectly perceived" [BU 3.4.1]60 we find questions that have as their object the direct knowledge of the ultimate that is directly (perceivable). 9. [Objection] The Teacher (akara) does not accept the arrogance of learning in the case of knowers of the Self. 10. Accordingly he states in the Upadeashasr in this way: Likewise only he who has freed himself from being a knower of Brahman, he becomes a knower of Self and no other. [US 12.13] 11. In the Naikarmyasiddhi also: The knower does not even have the pride associated with the knowledge of Self, since it is demonic. If a knower has the Demonic quality, the knowledge of Brahman would be fruitless. [NkS 1.75]


12. [Reply] This is not a problem, because what is intended here is the knowledge of truth that has culminated in liberation-in-life. We certainly do not claim that those who are liberated-in-life have pride of learning either. 13. [Objection] Then let us admit that those who desire victory simply do not have the awareness of the Self, since the Teachers (Surevara) admit: Attachment to objects that cause strife for the mind is the mark of one who is ignorant. How can a tree that has fire in its hollow produce foliage? [Nks 4.67] 14. [Reply] No, because the Teachers (Surevara) admit attachment and the like in this passage: Granted, attachment and the like exist abundantly; its existence does not pose a threat. Like a snake with its fangs pulled out, what can ignorance do? [BBhV 1.4.1539.2, 1.4.1746.1] 15. There is no mutual contradiction here in these passages, because the two statements refer to two distinct individuals, the one steady-in-wisdom and the mere knower61 respectively. 16. [Objection] If we admit that a knower can have attachment and the like, there is the undesirable result that he may be reborn through righteous and unrighteous acts. 17. [Reply] This is not so, because like unburnt seeds, only desire and the like preceded by ignorance, insofar as they are the principle form of attachment and the like, are the cause of rebirth. But for a knower, attachment and the like only appear to be what they are, like unburnt seeds.62 18. With reference to just this it has been said: Attachment and the like are burnt as they arise by the fire of discernment right then and there. How could they sprout? [VU 3.24] 19. [Objection] In that case, let us grant that the one steady-in-wisdom also has them (attachments). 161

20. [Reply] No, because, at that moment, the (falsely) apparent one is also detrimental, just as the real form. It's just like this. Even the rope-snake causes fear at the moment it is perceived just as a real snake. 21. [Objection] In that case, there is no impediment in continuing to be aware of the (false) appearance. 22. [Reply] Agreed, Sir! It is precisely this that we recognize as liberation-in-life. But Yjavalkya, at the time when he was desirous of victory, was not such a person, and he had yet to enter the renunciation-of-the-knower in order to calm the mind. [BU 3] He had not only the desire for victory but also a great thirst for wealth, because of which, after driving away the thousand richly adorned cattle arrayed in front of the numerous knowers of Brahman, he himself said: 23. We bow to the wisest Brhmaa. But we just want these cows. [BU 3.1.2] 24. [Objection] This is some sort of ironic sentence (intended) to snub the other knowers of Brahman. 25. [Reply] In that case, this is still another problem. The other knowers of Brahman also became angry realizing that he had deprived them of their wealth. Yjavalkya for his part, overcome by anger, brought about the death of kalya with a curse. One should not presume that liberation was not possible for Yjavalkya as a killer of a Brhmaa. Kautakins: By no act here whatever is the world diminished; not by killing the mother, nor by killing the father, nor by stealing, nor by killing a fetus. [KauU 3.1] 27. ea also, in his work the rypacati,63 says this: 162 26. Because of this, we have the text given by the

He may perform 100,000 horse sacrifices, or he may kill a lakh of Brahmaas, but the knower of highest truth is not touched by good and evil deeds and remains immaculate. [Ps 77] 28. What is the use of further discussion? Impure latent tendencies continue to exist in Brahman-knowers such as Yjavalkya. Vasiha [LYV 6.8.161] relates in one episode that Bhagratha, even though he knew the truth, because his consciousness was not stilled, due to the influence of impure latent tendencies, while he was ruling his kingdom, he abandoned everything and thereafter became still. Therefore, after clearly observing the kind of impure tendencies going on within himself, just as he would a flaw in another person, he should cultivate the remedy for that. 29. With just this sense, the Smti declares: If a very clever person who takes delight in examining the flaws of others in great detail were to take as much delight in examining his own, he would not be freed from bondage? [VU 3.25] 2.10 The Remedy for Impure Latent Tendencies through Discernment 1. [Objection] To begin with, what is the remedy for the arrogance of learning? 2. [Reply] Are you talking about a remedy for one's own arrogance, or is it for another's arrogance directed at oneself? In the first case, one should constantly keep in mind the thought: "One day my pride will surely be crushed." So, for example, vetaketu, feeling proud of his learning, went to the court of King Pravhaa. When questioned by the king on the doctrine of the five fires, he was ignorant of it and could not give a response. Derided by the king in many ways, he returned to his father and told of his frustration. But the father, being without pride, approached that king and obtained the knowledge. Likewise, the proud Blki, derided by the King jtaatru,


abandoned his pride, and he became the student of the king. [cf. ChU 8.78] Also, Uasta, Kahola, and others proudly engaging in debate were vanquished. 3. If another's arrogance were directed at oneself, one should cultivate these thoughts: "Let this proud man insult and deride me. There is no harm in any way." 4. For just this reason they say: If they insult the Self, they only insult their own Self. If they insult the body, I would consider them as my allies. [Untraced] 5. When insult and derision are the highest ornaments of a yogin, how can babblers here disturb his mind? [Untraced] 6. Jnkua64 describes how insult is an ornament: If people derive pleasure by insulting me, is this not a favor I have generated without effort? For, desiring the highest goal, people even donate all the wealth they have acquired with great difficulty to please others.65 7. In the human world where happiness is absent and suffering is always abundant, if someone derives joy by criticizing me, let him criticize me at will to my face or behind my back. For in a world of much suffering, it is hard to find joy. [Untraced] 8. The Smti describes how derision is an ornament: Without discrediting the duty (dharma) of good people, a yogin should behave so that people dishonor him and refuse to associate with him. [ViP 2.13.43] 9. As (we understand) both the arrogance of learning based in oneself and based in others that Yajavalkya, Uasta, and the others have remedied by discernment, so should we understand the remedies for greed and anger. 10. This is discernment concerning wealth: There is trouble in earning wealth, so also in guarding it. When it is lost, here is suffering. When it is wasted, there is suffering. Damn wealth, the maker of trouble! [PD 7.139]66


11. Anger is also twofold: one's anger directed at another, and another's anger directed at oneself. Of these, this passage addresses anger situated in oneself: If you have anger at one who does you harm, why do you not have anger at anger which violently hinders Dharma, Artha, Kma, and Moka? [YU p. 317] 12. If it destroys the Dharma, fame, and wealth of one seeking results, if it is useless, burns up one's body, if it does not benefit you, in this world or the next, why does anger occupy the minds of the righteous? [Untraced] 13. This passage addresses anger directed at oneself: One must never think "I have done not wrong, so why are people angry with me for no reason?" He should consider his inability to remove the bondage with sasra to be his greatest fault. [Untraced] 14. Let homage go to the god of anger, who is violently burning his own dwelling, who is bestowing detachment on me, a man prone to anger, and who is causing me to perceive flaws. [YU p. 317] 15. In the same way as anger and craving for wealth, craving for women and children is also to be removed through discernment. describes the discernment toward women:67 What beauty is there in women who are puppets of flesh stuffed with tendons, bones, and joints, in a cage of limbs moved by a mechanism? [LYV 1.2.90; YU pp. 314315] 17. Look closely if there is something pleasing in her eyes, after separating the membrane, flesh, blood, and watery tears. Why are you vainly infatuated? [LYV 1.2..91; YU p. 315] 18. Shining with the glitter of a string of pearls on her breast comparable to the rapid waters of the Ganges glittering on the slopes of Mount Meru, [LYV 1.2.92; YU p. 315] 19. This very breast of a woman is, at death, devoured by dogs like a small morsel of food at a remote cremation ground. [LYV 1.2.93; YU p. 315] 20. Wearing tresses of hair and collyrium, charming to look at but unpleasant to touch, women, who are the flame of fire of sins, burn a man like grass. [LYV 1.2.94; YU p. 315] 165 16. Of these, Vasiha

21. Even from afar they burn; appearing as full of love,68 they are without love. For women are the fuel of hell-fire, beautiful yet terrifying. [LYV 1.2.95; YU p. 315] 22. Women are snares set by the hunter named Desire, binding the limbs of birds that are men with foolish minds. [LYV 1.2.96; YU p. 316] 23. A woman is the bait on a hook tied to the line of evil latent tendencies of men, who are fish in the pond of rebirth, wallowing in the mud of their minds. [LYV 1.2.97; YU p. 316] 24. May I be through with woman foreverof the beautiful casket of all the jewels of evil wrapped with the chain of suffering. [LYV 1.2.98; YU p. 316] 25. Flesh here, blood here, bones thereso woman, O Brahman, becomes a beauty that is poison in just a few (days). [LYV 1.2.99; YU 316] 26. One who has a woman has desire for pleasure. Where is there room for pleasure in one who is without a woman? Abandoning woman, you have abandoned the world; abandoning the world, you would become happy. [LYV 1.2.100; YU p. 316] 27. Discernment toward children is described in the Brahmnanda:69 Not conceiving a son causes a married couple distress for a long time. Even if he is conceived, (the pregnancy) is troubled by miscarriage and (labored) delivery. [PD 12.65; YU p. 316] 28. When he is born, one worries about spirits and diseases and the like, and the youth may be a rogue. Even after he has received Vedic initiation, he may remain ignorant. When he has become learned, he may remain unmarried. [PD 12.66; YU pp. 316317] 29. When he is young, he may commit adultery and the like; when he has a family, he may be poor. If he possesses wealth, then he dies (young). There is no end to the suffering of a parent. [PD 12.67; YU p. 317] 30. As discernment is the remedy for impure latent tendencies concerning learning, wealth, anger, women, children, and so on, so also one should employ the remedy for others by investigating their flaws using the stras or one's own reasoning as circumstances merit. And when he has employed the remedy, he attains the highest state, described as liberation-in-life. 31. This is stated by Vasiha: 166

If you make sufficient effort in the abandonment of latent tendencies, then all your mental and physical diseases become diminished. [LYV 5.10.107ab108] 32. Vigorously abandoning latent tendencies by personal effort, if you remain firm, then you are able to reach the (highest) state. [LYV 5.10.101cd102ab] 33. [Objection] Surely "personal effort" here refers to the discernment of flaws of sense objects discussed earlier. This discernment, though exercised repeatedly, is overwhelmed by the activity of the exceedingly powerful senses. 34. This has been stated by the Lord: The annoying senses forcibly carry off the mind, O son of Kuti, even of a discerning person who strives. [BhG 2.60] 35. For when the mind yields to the wandering senses, it carries off its wisdom like the wind a boat on the water. [BhG 2.67] 36. [Reply] Yes, but in that case, in order to safeguard the discernment that has arisen, the senses should be restrained. 37. This has also been described in the very next couple of verses in the same text: Controlling them all, one should sit disciplined, focused on Me. For if one's senses are in control, his wisdom is fully steadfast. [BhG 2.61] 38. Therefore, O Strong-Armed One, if one's senses have been completely withdrawn from sense objects, his wisdom is fully established. [BhG 2.68] 39. Also in another Smti: An ascetic is one whose hands and feet are not fidgety, whose eyes are not darting to and fro, and whose voice in not quavering. Thus is the mark of a liberated man. [MhB 14.45.18; YU p. 317; VDh 6.42] 40. This very thing has been made clear elsewhere, both through short summaries and long commentaries: A mendicant who has no tongue, is impotent, lame, blind, deaf, and foolish, is without a doubt liberated by these six. [NpU pp. 146147]


41. One who is not attached while eating saying "I like this, I do not like that," he speaks beneficially, truthfully, and temperately, that one is considered tongueless. [NpU p. 147] 42. One who remains unchanged seeing a sixteen-year old girl as when seeing a girl born today and woman of a hundred years, he is impotent. [Ibid.] 43. One who, roaming about for alms or going out for the purpose of relieving himself, goes altogether no farther than a yojana,70 he is surely lame. [Ibid.] 44. Whether standing or walking, one whose gaze does not go far, except four yoke-lengths,71 he is called a blind renouncer. [Ibid.] 45. One who, hearing words beneficial, temperate, pleasant to the mind, and relieving sorrow, is as if he does not hear, he is called deaf. [Ibid.] 46. A mendicant whose senses are intact and able to perceive objects close by, but acts like he is asleep, he is called foolish. [Ibid.] 47. One like this would not give blame or praise, nor touch any vulnerabilities, nor speak overbearingly, but would be even in all things. [Untraced] 48. He would not address any woman, nor remember one seen before. He would avoid conversation with her, and not even see a picture of her. [NpU p. 156]72 49. As someone taking a vow, after declaring his intent to perform a vow such as eating at night, eating once a day, fasting, or silence, and remaining cautious that he make no deviation, guards himself well, so also a man who has undertaken vows such as tonguelessness should attentively guard his discernment. So in this way, when the latent tendencies of friendliness and so on are firmly established through discernment and restraint of the senses attended to with long and uninterrupted care [YS 1.14, adapted], the impure latent tendencies constituting the Demonic fortune are eradicated. 2.11 The Latent Tendency of Pure Consciousness 1. Even though he continues to act in the world, accompanied by latent tendencies such as friendliness, etc., which continue without personal effort, like inhaling and 168

exhaling, or opening and closing the eyes, a man should abandon in his mind consideration of whether these (friendliness, etc.) are complete or insufficient. He should vigorously still all activities consisting in sleep, fantasy, and so on, and he should practice the latent tendency of pure consciousness. The world, then, reveals itself to consist in both consciousness and unconsciousness (cijjaobhaytmaka).73 2. According to the ruti: The Self-Existent One pierced the openings outward, [KU 2.1.1, 4.1] even if the senses were created for the purpose of illuminating unconscious things such as sound and touch, nevertheless, because it is impossible to ignore consciousness since it is the material cause, the unconscious world reveals itself only when preceded by consciousness, according to the ruti: 3. Him alone, as he shines, do all things reflect. This whole world radiates with his light. [KU 2.2.15, 5.15] 4. That being the case, having determined that consciousness alone, which shines first, is the true form of the unconscious, which shines later, he should disregard the unconscious and cause the pure consciousness to dwell in his mind. understand this clearly from the dialogue between Bali and ukra: What is there here? What is its extent? What does it consist of? Who are who? Who am I? What are these worlds? Tell me immediately. [LYV 5.3.50] 6. There is consciousness. This is pure consciousness. This consists in consciousness alone. You are consciousness, I am consciousness, and these worlds are consciousness. This entire world is consciousness. This is the short answer. [LYV 5.3.51] 7. As someone wanting gold tries to focus his mind only on the color and the weight when buying a bracelet, while disregarding its refinements and its 169 5. We

imperfections, so also one should focus one's mind on pure consciousness. As long as one has entirely disregarded the unconscious and the concentration of the mind on pure consciousness takes place as naturally as breathing in and out, one must strive after the latent tendency of pure consciousness. 8. [Objection] Let the latent tendency of pure consciousness come at the very beginning, since that alone will remove impure latent tendencies. What, then, is the point of this superfluous exercise of friendliness and so on? 9. [Reply] This is not so, because of the undesirable consequence that the latent tendency of consciousness would have no firm basis. As a house, though built with posts and walls, does not stand firmly without a solid foundation, or as medicine taken without cleansing the strong impurities through a purgative does not promote health, so it is in the case of the latent tendency of consciousness. 10. [Objection] We gather from the text "Now even this should be renounced" [LYV 4.5.23, adapted] that even the latent tendency of pure consciousness should be abandoned. This is not correct, because after abandoning pure consciousness, there is nothing else that one can take up. 11. [Reply] This is not a problem. The latent tendency of pure consciousness is twofold: one accompanied by mind and intellect, and one free from them. Mind is the instrument and intellect has the attribute of the agent. That being the case, one should abandon the primary type of latent tendency of pure consciousness bearing the name "meditation" (dhyna) and accompanied by such awareness of the agent and the instrument as "I will attentively and with a sharpened mind cultivate pure consciousness." But one should take up the latent tendency of pure consciousness, 170

which bears the name "enstasis" (samdhi) and is free from the interruption caused by the awareness on the agent, etc., by means of skillful practice. 12. Patajali has given a stra about the definition of meditation and enstasis: Meditation is the continuity of cognition there (on a place). [YS 3.2] 13. Enstasis is the illumination of the place alone, as if (the perceiver) is empty of form. [YS 3.3] 14. After having gotten settled in such enstasis attended with long and uninterrupted care, [YS 1.14, adapted] one must thereafter abandon even the effort aimed at abandoning the awareness of the agent and instrument. 15. [Objection] If this is the case, then even the effort to abandon that should be abandoned. Thus there would be infinite regress. 16. [Reply] This is not so, because it removes both itself and the other in the same way as kataka powder.74 Just as kataka powder when thrown into dirty water also removes itself along with the other impurities, so too the effort aimed at abandonment will remove itself while removing the awareness on the agent and the instrument. When this is removed, the mind remains without any latent tendencies, because the pure latent tendencies are diminished just like the impure latent tendencies. 17. With reference to this very thing, Vasiha says: Therefore, the mind is bound when it has latent tendencies and is free without them. O Rma, secure the state without latent tendencies through discernment at once. [LYV 4.3.45] 18. Through the true complete insight, latent tendencies are dissolved. On the dissolution of latent tendencies, the mind becomes still like a lamp. [LYV 4.3.46] 19. One who remains awake while experiencing deep sleep, and who is never awake, whose undertanding (bodha) is free of latent tendencieshe is liberated-in-life. [LYV 3.1.92] 171

20. And: With a mind whose activities have been extinguished as if in deep sleep, who always remains awake, who is always served by wise men like the full moon by the godshim the Smtis call liberated. [LYV 5.2.36] 21. And: The wise man who abandons everything from his heart and stands without agitationhe is liberated, he is the highest Lord. [LYV 4.5.26] 22. Let him perform enstasis and rituals, or let him not; a man who has discarded all desires with his heart is indeed liberated, and with the highest mind. [LYV 4.5.27] 23. One whose mind is without latent tendencies, he has no use for abstinence from ritual action, or for ritual actions, or for enstasis and muttering prayers. [LYV 4.5.28] 24. The stras have been studied enough, clarified through debate long enough. Except for the silence that comes from the abandonment of latent tendencies there is no higher state. [LYV 4.5.29] 25. One should not suspect that ordinary activity which is the cause of living would be stopped for one whose mind is without latent tendencies. Is it the stopping of the activity of sight and the rest, or is it stopping the mental activity? 26. Of the two, Uddlaka rejects the first: The senses such as sight proceed outward to their respective objects all by themselves even without latent tendencies; in this case (of a liberated person) latent tendencies are not the cause (of the operation of the senses). [LYV 5.6.70; MukU 2.22] 27. Vasiha rejects the second: Just as the eye settles without attachment to things that appear without effort (on the part of the viewer) in space, so does a man of firm thought on his duties. [LYV 4.2.13] 28. The same author argues for the enjoyment of operative action with such a mind:


When a person enjoys something knowing what it is, enjoyment brings contentment. When a person honors a thief knowing who he is, he becomes a friend and not a thief. [LYV 4.2.14] 29. Just like travelers behold a village procession they have come upon even unexpectedly, so too do the knowers look upon pleasure and wealth. [LYV 4.2.15] 30. For contentment, the bliss of liberation, but not for bondage, he describes the distinction of those without latent tendencies from those with latent tendencies even at the moment of enjoyment: Like the golden lotus at night, they do not completely sink down. They do not think of anything other than the present case; they delight in the path of the superior people. [LYV 4.5.42] 31. Even in misfortune they do not give up their constant fullness, which is undisturbed within and beautiful like the moon; like the moons, they do not lose coolness. [LYV 4.5.43] 32. Like the ocean, they are spread wide but keep within the bounds. Like the suns, the great ones never swerve from the fixed path. [LYV 4.5.45] 33. Janaka also when he was awakened from enstasis is said to have behaved like this: After remaining in silence for a long time, awakened, Janaka reflected upon the life of people with a mind completely still. [LYV 5.1.60] 34. What is there to be attained here? What can I accomplish through effort? With a pure mind contained in myself, what imagination could I have? [LYV 5.1.61] 35. I do not long for what I have not acquired. I do not give up what I have acquired. Contented I remain in myself. Let that be mine what is mine. [LYV 5.1.62] 36. Thus that awakened Janaka, after reflecting, unattached, arose to perform the appropriate duties, just as the sun rises to make the day. [LYV 5.1.63] 37. He does not think about the future, nor think about the past, but happily follows the present moment. [LYV 5.1.64] 38. Therefore, in this manner as described it is firmly established that liberation173

in-life will arise through the eradication of latent tendencies as described. Thus the eradication of latent tendencies has been described in the Treatise on Liberation-inLife.


vsiharmyaasyvasne: "at the end of the Vsiharmyaa." The following citation is in the fifth sarga of LYV and obviously not at the end of the text. The earlier nSS and Adyar editions of JMV changed this to vsiharmyaa upaamaprakaraasyvasne. I have as yet found no manuscript evidence for this change. The editor of the nSS 20 1916 edition of JMV with Acyutarya Moaka's commentary notes that mss. K and have this reading but it is not clear whether these mss. are the same K and used in the earlier nSS 20 (1978) edition without the commentary. I was able to obtain a photocopy of the ms. K deposited at the nandrama Sansth collection in Pune. However, it does not have the upaamaprakaraasyvasne reading as the 1916 edition noted. V. Raghavan (19381939) p. 151, had noted this discrepancy and pointed out that Acyutarya Moaka, the commentator on JMV, said Vidyraya was quoting from a Madhyavsiha. Cf. nSS 20 (1916) p. 148. A condensation of YV with this title has not to my knowledge so far been discovered.
2 1

Here the term for the knowledge of truth is vijnam, whereas elsewhere tattvajna is used.

Cf. Andre Padoux, Vc (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990) pp. 346347 and n. 40. See also H. Brunner, "Les membres de iva," Asiatische Studien/Etudes Asiatiques 40.2 (1986) pp. 89132, and also valyana Ghapariiha Ghyastra, ed. V. . R. R Gokhale, nSS 105, (1936) pp. 142143.
4 In Nyya philosophy an elemental substance is a thing that supports a quality or adjunct, e.g., paper is a substance, and white is a quality or adjunct of that paper. 5 6 7

Cf. 2.4.811 [LYV 5.10.4851]. See above, Introduction 2, n.20.

On "yajamna prastara" (TS 2.6.5), cf. abarabhya, trans. G. Jha (1933), rpt. Gaekwad Oriental Series 70 (Baroda: Oriental Institute, 1973) pp. 155157. abara concludes this text is to be taken as an arthavda, or statement of praise, not as an injunction whereby the use of the word "sacrificer" eulogizes the "grass-bundle," since the sacrificer is the most important person in the sacrificial ceremony. This is a lakana, or figurative description. The grass-bundle thus is understood to partake of the sacrificer's qualities, even though it does not possess the quality of a person as such. abara says the quality understood in the sacrificer is accomplishment of purpose, and this is denoted by the grassbundle's accomplishment of the sacrificer's purpose in the ceremony. Vidyraya, however, resolves this conflict of terms according to the Advaita Vednta epistemology. He takes this text as indicating the realization of ontological equivalence of the world and Brahman, and not as mere figurative speech. The reality is that the two are the same, and their apparent difference is due to ignorance and illusion.

A mental activity (vtti) is the mind taking shape of the object. Once it takes shape of the Self, the mind stays there. There is no need to know itself further. Knowing has a range of purposes, but knowing the Self is itself the ultimate purpose. Initially knowledge of Self is necessary; then it deepens through the process of intellectual level to the experiential. After the mental activity is no longer necessary, what remains to be achieved is to continue to live the Self. The liberated one discards desires "from afar," before they come near, not allowing desires to arise even at the slightest impulse.

10 vyavasth: respective difference, or restrictive option. This is a hermeneutic concept used by the Advaitins to avoid a vikalpa, or option, in a debate that might give legitimacy to the opponent's position. By restricting the option, there is therefore no option, but rather the Advaitin would show that there are different alternatives referring to different classes of individuals. In the present case the objector


is not attacking the author's position, as much as clarifying up his use of the concept of vyavasth: in regard to the legitimate existence of renouncer who desires knowledge and the renouncer who is a knower, where each has his own specific qualifications and duties, making them legitimate alternatives. See Olivelle (1987) pp. 5661.
11 12 13

See above, 1.1, 1.2. See Chapter 4.

yukti : methods. In the gloss of "methods" here as "yoga" the objector perhaps takes them as synonymous with dhyna, or "meditation," rather than "reasoning." The first stage of understanding of the knower and the known is that they are false through authoritative texts. The second stage is not even to recognize them. This is possible only when one has undone the mind through yoga and experienced what before was known only intellectually. However, below in 3.2.34, Vidyraya cites the definition of the methods in LYV as acquiring knowledge of the Self, association with good people, [LYV 5.10.128ab] complete abandonment of latent tendencies, and controlling the rhythm of breathing. [LYV 5.10.128cd] Below in 2.4.41, yukti as "reasoning" appears to be synonymous with vicara, "rational investigation."

See above, Introduction 2, n.21.

15 unmanbhva is a suspicious reading here, and indeed, the Adyar edn of Amtabindu Up in The Yoga Upaniads (Madras: The Adyar Library, 1968) p. 27, has tmano'bhva. The conventional sense of unmanbhu is "to become uneasy or mentally disturbed," and cannot fit here. There is a tantric usage of this term indicating the highest level of the utterance of O. See Padoux (1990) pp. 348 and 405 or a "prematerial stage of speech." See also Teun Goudriaan and Sanjukta Gupta Hindu Tantric and akta Literature, History of Indian literature vol. 2, fasc. 2 (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1981) pp. 62 and 68, and n. 36. However, these meanings also seem out of place in a Vednta text. Vidyraya may have considered the term synonymous with amanibhva as "state of being with no-mind" as found in GK 3.31. Cf. also the use of the term unmanibhvam in Brahmabindu Upaniad 1.4. 16 This is a vyatirekha dnta, or example through the negative statement of the converse. Nala et al. did not have the requisite elimination of mind, and therefore they suffered from experiences that are bound to occur because of weak operative action. 17 The Vidyraya of the JMV does not seem to treat this quote from the PD as his own. It may have been quoted from yet a third source other than the PD or may lend some support to the view of Mahdevan in The Philosophy of Advaita (Madras: Ganesh and Co. Pvt. Ltd., 1957) pp. 18 that there are two Vidyrayas, one who composed the JMV and another who composed the Pacada. See also the discussion above, Introduction 1.3, p. 9. 18 19 20

Eradication of latent tendencies and elimination of the mind, or these two together and Brahman. The sins coming after attaining knowledge do not stick to him, and the previous sins are destroyed.

In Vedic usage the third person singular is also possible: "There is delay only until he is freed; then he will succeed." One waits only so long, until the body drops; then he is united with Brahman.

See Introduction, 2.1, pp. 3233. Ibid. See also above, 1.3.56 and 2.3.61.



prgabhva: prior non-existence. This is one of the four types of non-existence which include pradhvasbhva, "posterior non-existence;" atyantbhva, "total non-existence;" and anyonybhva, "mutual non-existence." Prior non-existence only applies to the material cause, e.g. the clay, wherein the non-existence of an object, e.g., the pot, resides. Non-occurrence is the prior non-existence of the future body. It is not the result of knowledge, because knowledge does not destroy the material cause of the future body, which is operative action. Cf. also Tarkasagraha, sec. 9, ed. Yashwant Vasudev Athalaye, trans. Mahadev Rajaram Bodas, 2d ed., rev. and enl., Bombay Sanskrit Series 55 (Pune: BORI, 1988) pp. 6 and 99103. aprva is the "remote or unforeseen consequence of an act (as heaven or religious rites)" (MonierWilliams). Kane calls it "invisible, mysterious, or subtle potency," HDh vol. 5, pt. 2, (1977) pp. 12101212. Aprva is presumed to exist because a sacrifice is only of brief duration, whereas the sacrificer attains the desired result only after a long time. There must be, therefore, some potency in the doing of the sacrifice that accrues to the sacrificer and connects him to the results in the future, which he cannot achieve by himself. Vidyraya says bodiless-liberation is simultaneous with knowledge. He challenges the opponent that if the result of knowledge is deferred, then it lands him in the undesirable position having to presume there is an aprva, and this would mean that knowledge is subsumed under ritual action.
25 Knowledge is momentary because it occurs as a perception in the inner organ (antakaraa), and the inner organ does not hold more that one perception at once. Knowledge registers there only once and goes on. 26 24


The suffix "ana" in "jna" has the sense of "the means of knowing" or "the act of knowing," according to Pini 3.3.115, 117. Vidyraya wishes to restrict the interpretation of jna in BhG 13.11 to "the means of knowing" to support his discussion on the means of knowledge. Deva here is understood as the effulgent tman.


28 yogtmane: to that Self of yoga. A variant of the MhB 12.43.55 text here, vidytmane, "to the Self of knowledge," possibly reveals an interesting doctrinal difference in the transmission of the JMV. The mss. P1 and B2 had copied the reading vidytmane here, perhaps reflecting a more purely Advaitin association, but this was corrected in both to the reading yogtmane. Both of the earlier editions of the JMV also have the reading vidytmane.

upsti: symbol-oriented meditation. See also the discussion on symbol-oriented meditation above, Introduction 2.2, pp. 3941.
30 Donatoni (1995) translates bhvan as evocazione in every instance, but evocation or conjury does not seem to me as felicitous in English. The difficulty lies in the sense that bhvan means to deliberately bring something into being in oneself, which can be done either consciously or unconsciously, for either the good or the bad. To manifest oneself consciously, under controlled awareness of everything internally and externally, and not under the sway of latent tendencies, would be to bring up thoughts, emotions, and gestures in accord with the real nature of objects being perceived. To manifest oneself unconsciously, while it seems one is deliberately choosing how to manifest oneself, is actually to bring up thoughts, emotions, and external behaviors that are a reaction to the perception of objects, mostly under the power of whatever latent tendencies reside in the individual. The result is that "one with poor sight sees everything confusedly, as if he were drunk." [2.4.11, LYV 5.10.51] In cases where bhvan means a conscious deliberate manifestation for a special yogic or religious purpose, as in YS 1.33 [2.7.1], I translate it as "cultivation." In this latter instance Vidyraya describes the bringing of pure latent tendencies into being in oneself where there is full awareness of the purpose and the circumstance. In cases where bhvan refers to an unconscious reaction to objects, which for the Advaitin have no existence in themselves, I have translated the term variously.



pacakoa: the five sheaths. According to the doctrine derived from TU 2.19 and 3.16, the "five sheaths" are food (anna), breath (praa), mind (manas), knowledge/perception (vijna), and bliss (nanda). Each is a sheath within a sheath, suffused like the layers of an onion, covering the cidtman and Brahman within.
32 For the sake of clarity in English translation, I have further paraphrased the Sanskrit vigraha of the compound as it reads in the original: tena suhu ghanbhta kro yasy seyam ajnasughankr. 33


See above, 2.2.5 and 2.4.811 [LYV 5.10.4851].

34 yukti: reasoning. I have translated the term yukti elsewhere as "methods" where it appears to mean yogic methods and not reasoning. See above, 2.3.7 and n.13, and below, 3.1.17 and 3.2.1 ff. In this instance here, Vidyraya contrasts the attainment of knowledge by means of vicara, or "rational investigation," which may be synonymous with yukti, with another means that is only loosely defined here with a participial form of bhvan in a locative absolute, i.e., "when one cultivates the truth" (bhvite tattve). A form of the same term bhvan was used earlier in the defintion of impure latent tendencies, which I translate as "because of a strong feeling" (dhabhvanay) [2.4.8, LYV 5.10.48] But this former use of bhvan must refer to an internal yogic discipline involving more than rational investigation. Vidyraya clearly does not deny rational investigation or reasoning as a means to the knowledge of truth but hastens to add that only the "first understanding" is produced by it. A "continuing understanding" (bodhnuvtti) partly involves the cultivation (bhvan) of the senses to sustain contact by means of the "methods" with the pure latent tendencies mentioned in YS 1.33: friendliness, compassion, contentment, and equanimity toward objects. See below 2.7.1 and 3.2. For the Mimsa definition of bhvan as "creative energy" see also, Arthasagraha, sec. 49, (1998) pp. 47 and 8196. 35

Presumably the purpose is to protect the grain from insects, etc.

36 Though Vidyraya begins this discussion by saying that there are three types of latent tendencies, at the end he adds a fourth, which is the Demonic fortune. 37 38 39 40

A paraphrase of BhG 12.19. Source untraced. "Eighteen" may refer to the sixteen officiating priests in the sacrifice, the sacrificer, and his wife.

iaprta: sacrifice and charitable deeds. Ia is Vedic ritual and prta is performing charitable deeds such as constructing gardens or wells for the public or rest houses for pilgrims.
41 42

See above, Introduction 2.3, pp. 3941. The entire passage is: Indeed this very person is formed from the essence of food. This surely is his head; this is his right side; this is his left side; this is the torso; this is his hind end on which he rests. [TU 2.1.1] There is also a verse on this: From food surely creatures are bornwhoever live on the earth. Then they live on food alone; then they pass into it also at the end. Food is the chief of beings; therefore it is called "all herbs." From food, beings are produced; once they are born, they grow by food. It is eaten and it eats food; therefore it is called food. [TU 2.2.1]


A Vaiava pilgrimage site on the river Gaak in Bihar near which the black stone worshipped as Viu is found. apavda : special rule. The term here refers to the grammatical rule of exceptions to the general rule (utsarga). Cf. Paini 3.1.94. In this case the rule is applied to a ritual context as an analogue to the present discussion of injunctions in stra for developing good qualities being set aside by special exceptions to the general stric authority.
45 44


For a description of hells in Hindu mythology, cf. BhP 5.26, and HDh vol. 4, (1991) pp. 162165. The Klastra derives its name from the thread on a potting wheel a potter uses to cut off a raw clay pot. (Kane) It is paved with heated copper plates, and the sun above and fire below continually burn the sinners, who hate Brahmins. (BhP) Mahvci is for those who tell a lie under oath in court, while buying and selling, or when making a gift. The name comes from the land's resemblance to waveless water. The sinner is continually thrown from a mountaintop down into this hell. (BhP) The name Asipatra refers to the leaves of a forest hell whose sharp edges continually cut the sinner who has embraced a heretical view against the Veda. (BhP)

Here a fourth type of impure latent tendency is added to the three discussed at length. It is the same as the Demonic fortune which was discussed earlier. Cf. Tarkasagraha 18, (1998) pp. 1314 and 145150. The system of logical realistic philosophy (Nyya) holds that the mind is the instrument of cognition of inner experiences and is atomic and therefore eternal. Although the mind is not an external sense organ (indriya), it functions like a sense organ insofar as it receives the data of a sense object and aids in linking the data to the seat of consciousness in the Self. But the mind directly receives the data of internal experiences, like pleasure, etc., and links those data to the Self. Nyya still refers to mind by the term indriya, while Vednta prefers the term antakaraa. This may be only a quibble of terms, for they nevertheless agree on the process of cognition. A cognition occurs when there is contact between the mind and a sense organ carrying data of a sense object, or contact between the mind and an internal experience, like pleasure, etc. The mind then connects to the Self with the data of the external sense object or the inner state, and the actual cognition is made in the Self. Appealing to the evidence of our daily existence, the Naiyyikas note that the mind can be connected to only one sense organ at a time, and thus we have only one cognition at a time. We experience a lapse of time in the process of sensing an object and perceiving it, and we experience the world and our inner state as a succession of one such perception followed by another. Because this succession of cognitions is limited to one at a time, the Naiyyikas infer that the magnitude of mind as an internal connecting link is by nature atomic. The mind can admit only one connection to a sense organ or internal experience at a time because it is infinitesimally small. Apparently the mind is not itself an atom but is like an atom in size. Thus it also possesses the qualities of atoms, such as being eternal and without parts. The Naiyyikas further state that every self has its own mind, and the number of selves can be infinite, and therefore the number of minds can also be infinite. Vidyraya as a Vedntin denies the Naiyyika view that the nature of the mind is atomic and eternal, for then there could be no elimination of the mind.
48 47


anvayavyatirekha: positive and negative concomitance. This phrase also occurs earlier in 2.2 where I translate it without a technical meaning as simply a "positive and negative statement." In this instance I translate it with its technical meaning from Nyya philosophy. To elaborate the concomitance: Where there is mind, there is awareness; where there is no mind, there is no awareness. Mind is the element of cognition, depending on the presence or absence of which there is the awareness or not of the object before one.

49 Sakhya Krika 12 states that the qualities (gua-s) have as their purpose illumination (praka), activity (pravtti), and restriction (niyama). The Adyar and nSS (mss. K Kh) editions of JMV add "delusion" (moha) to illumination and activity, making it the third effect of the three qualities, and then


put "restriction" (niyama) in a bahuvrihi compound with "purpose" (artha). This insertion makes Sakhya Krika 12 accord with Vidyraya's discussion of the way the qualities are mutually overpowering, which is further below described as like waves on the ocean. By quoting only a part of the whole krika and adding "delusion" in this way, the phrase can mean: "Illumination, action, and delusion have the purpose of restriction (of the other effects of the qualities)." The editors of both the two aforementioned editions of JMV chose this reading for their constitution of the text. Although moha is not present in most my mss., it was added by a second hand in the margin of B1. I have included this reading in my edition because I follow B1 as the best ms.
50 The passage quoted from LYV 5.6.21 is a sagarupaka, or multiple metaphor. The main metaphor is the snake compared with the mind. The subordinate metaphors are the milk compared to vain hope, the air to enjoyment, and the movement of the snake compared to the movement of the mind. Snakes are thought to be fond of drinking milk, and when drinking it, they poison it. So the mind, when feeling hope, does it in vain. Snakes are also thought to drink air, because they are observed with their tongues moving in and out, lapping the air as it were. Snakes move in a zigzag pattern, which movement is commented on in a gloss interpolated here at 2.5.25 as a "coming and going" (gamangamanakriy) pattern of the mind. In such a pattern of taking hope in this or that, the mind keeps moving onward.

Vidyraya will discuss the eradication of latent tendencies for the remainder of Chapter 2, and the discussion of the elimination of the mind constitutes Chapter 3.
52 53


The rest of Chapter 2 is a commentary on LYV 4.5.2023.

See Chapter 1, n. 2. A person is to keep alert to the temptations he discarded, which were pointed out in his declaration of intent, just as in fasting or keeping a vigil.

Even if one isn't entitled to speak official Vedic mantras, one could use the bha, or common language. Women and udra-s were not entitled to say Vedic mantras because they had not undergone the Vedic initiation, nor were they even permitted initiation. But here, according to Vidyraya, a declaration of intent could still carry the same force even though it is not an official Vedic mantra. It was believed that there is a power in words that binds one to the act. Vidyraya allows that if someone intends to eliminate latent tendencies, they can say it in common language, maybe in a regional language or even spoken Sanskrit, but not use the Vedic mantras. arad: the season occurring during the months Bhadra and vin, or vin and Karttika, from August to November, depending on the climate in the different parts of India. See above, 2.4.5969. Cf. MuU 1.2.10, cited above in 2.4.60. See also Chapter 2, n. 40.


56 57

58 The four sdhana-s, or means, mentioned in BSBh 1.1.1 are discernment (viveka), detachment (vairgya), acquiring the six requisites (asapatti), and desire for liberation (mumukutva). 59 60

Cf. YV 5.8.918, and LYV 5.1.2231. The entire passage from BU 3.4.1. runs: Then Uasta Ckryana began to question him. "Yjavlkya," he said, "explain to me the Brahman that is directly and not indirectly perceived, the Self that is within all." "This is your Self. It is the Self within all."


One with intellectual knowledge but not the experience of Brahman.


62 63

Cf. PD 7.16365

This text was also known as Paramrthasra, erya, or dhrakrika by diea, assigned to the fourth century. Cf. New Catalogus Catalogorum; an alphabetical register of Sanskrit and allied works and authors ed. J. Kunjunni Raja, vol. 11, (Madras: University of Madras, 1949) p. 126. For mss. of Jnkua, see New Catalogus Catalogorum vol. 7, (1949) p. 343.

64 65

This verse is cited in Sktimuktval of Bhagadatta Jalhaa, ed. Embar Krishnamacharya, Gaekwad Oriental Series 82, (Baroda: Oriental Institute, 1938) p. 445.
66 67 68

Also cited in MhB 13, app. 15, 39713972. See Olivelle (1992) pp. 279 ff. See also YV 1.21.1 ff.

Rasa as "love" here instead of "juice." As "juice" it would be contradictory here, but as "love" it is not, based on being merely apparent.
69 70 71

tmnanda section of the PD. A yojana is eight miles. Four cubits, or six feet. The entire passage from NpU is also cited in YDhS (1980) pp. 2829, where it is attributed to Jbla. Commentary on LYV 4.5.22; see above 2.6.4.

72 73 74

Strychnos potatorum; commonly called the soap nut or clearing nut plant, from which the kataka powder is made.


Chapter Three: The Elimination of the Mind

3.1 The Necessity of Elimination of the Mind 1. Now we explain the elimination of the mind, which is the means of liberation-inlife. Although when all the remnants of latent tendencies are eradicated, by

implication, the mind is surely eliminated, nevertheless, when one properly practices elimination of the mind by itself, the eradication of latent tendencies becomes secure. And one must not presume that it becomes secure through the practice of tonguelessness, impotence, and the rest [2.10.4351], for the effort in their practice becomes impossible because, upon elimination of the mind, tonguelessness and the like follow as a natural consequence. 2. [Objection] Is the effort of practicing elimination of the mind not present there at this stage also? 3. [Reply] Let it be present, for it is necessary. Without elimination of the mind, tonguelessness and the rest, though practiced, are still not steady. 4. For just this reason, Janaka declares the necessity of eliminating the mind: The mind is the root of this tree1 of sasric existence, possessing thousands of sprouts, branches, boughs, fruits, and leavesthat is the truth. [LYV 5.1.53] 5. The mind, I believe, is just imagination. When imagination is stilled, the mind disappears. As I make that dry up, so the tree of sasric existence dries up. [LYV 5.1.54] 6. I am awakened, I am awakened! I have seen the thief of the Self. I strike him who is called the mind, and I have been struck by the mind for a long time. [LYV 5.1.55] 7. Vasiha has also said: 182

There is but one way (to destroy) this tree of sasric existence, bringer of all disastersrestraint of one's own mind. [LYV 4.4.1] 8. Flourishing of the mind leads to destruction, while destruction of the mind leads to ultimate bliss. The mind of a knower is destroyed, but it is the chains of an ignorant man. [LYV 4.4.5] 9. As long as the mind is not subdued from intense practice of the single truth,2 the midnight demons of latent tendencies play havoc in the heart. [LYV 4.2.23] 10. For one whose mental conceit has perished, and whose enemy, the senses, are restrained, the desire for pleasure withers, like a lotus in winter. [LYV 4.2.22] 11. At first, one should overcome one's own mind, pressing hand against hand, grinding teeth against teeth, and attacking limbs with limbs. [LYV 4.2.18] 12. Those who are not overcome by their own mind, they are the blessed people, people with saintly minds who should be counted among the stories of great men on this vast Earth. [LYV 4.2.19] 13. I venerate that unchanging one, arisen like the moon, whose snake of the mind with its powerful poison that is imagination is stilled, coiled within the cave of his heart. [LYV 4.2.20] 14. The mind is undoubtedly here the hub of the wheel of illusion. If one remains, subduing it (the mind) in every way, it harms one in no way. [LYV 5.5.92] 15. Gauapdcarya has also said: For all yogins, fearlessness, elimination of suffering, as well as imperishable stillness, depends on restraint of the mind. [GK 3.40] 16. But as to what Arjuna has said: For this mind is fickle, O Ka, impetuous, strong, and obstinate. I think it is as difficult to restrain as the wind. [BhG 6.34] that statement refers to forceful (haha) yoga. 17. For this reason Vasiha says: By assuming different yogic postures over and over again, one cannot subdue the mind, without using methods (yukti)3 that are faultless. [LYV 5.10.126]


18. As a vicious elephant in rut cannot be controlled without a goad, just so the mind cannot be controlled without using the methods. [LYV 5.10.127] 3.2 The Methods for the Mind's Dissolution 1. Vasiha has first of all properly explained the methods that cause the dissolution of the mind. When a man employs them steadfastly, his mind comes under his control. [Untraced] 2. Control of the mind is said to be twofold: by force and by employing the methods. Control by force is the control of the modifications of thought through the control of the seat of the organs. 3. Rarely is someone born who dissolves the mind through force. [Untraced]4 Acquiring knowledge of the Self, association with good people, [LYV 5.10.128ab] 4. complete abandonment of latent tendencies, and controlling the rhythm of breathing [LYV 5.10.128cd]they say these are the methods in subduing the mind that are powerful. [LYV 5.10.129ab] 5. When these methods are available, those who control the mind out of force are throwing out the lamp and trying to dispel darkness by using soot. [LYV 5.10.130] 6. Those fools who are working to subdue the mind by forceful exercises, they are tying up a huge elephant in rut with fibers from a lotus stalk. [LYV 5.10.131] 7. Restraint is twofold: forceful restraint and gradual restraint. Among these, a man restrains through forceful exercise the eyesight, hearing, and the other sensory faculties, as well as the voice, the hands, and other faculties of action, simply by controlling the respective bodily organs. Following this example, a fool makes an error by thinking: "I will also restrain the mind in the same way." But one does not restrain it, because it is not possible to control its organ, which is the lotus of the heart. Hence, only gradual restraint is suitable. 8. Moreover, the means of gradual restraint consists only of "acquiring the knowledge of the Self" and the rest. This knowledge makes one aware that the objects of knowledge are false and that true-seeing (dgvastu) is self-illuminated. 184

When this happens, the mindbecoming aware that the objects that fall within its field of perception are of no value, and that the true-seeing, which is of value, is imperceptiblebecomes extinguished on its own, like a fire without fuel. 9. The ruti declares thus: Like a fire without fuel is extinguished within its source, so also the mind is extinguished within its own source by the destruction of activities. [MtrU 4.4] The "source" is the Self. 10. But for one who, though he has been made aware of the truth, does not grasp it fully, and for one who forgets itthe only means for both of these is association with good people. For good people repeatedly make them aware and remind them. But for one who, being beset with bad latent tendencies such as the pride of learning, cannot bear to follow the good people, the means are to abandon the latent tendency by the discernment discussed earlier. [2.8] 11. In the event that it is impossible to abandon latent tendencies because of their great power, the means is to control the rhythm of breathing. Because the rhythm of breathing and latent tendencies propel the mind, with the control of these two, the mind becomes still.5 12. Vasiha states how they propel the mind: There are two seeds of the tree of the mind, bearing the creeping vine of mental activities. The first is the rhythm of breathing, and the second is strong latent tendencies. [LYV 5.10.38] 13. When the omnipresent consciousness (sarvagat savit) is aroused by the rhythm of breathing, then from this act of perception (savedana) come endless harmful experiences of the mind. [LYV 5.10.40] 14. Just as blacksmiths blow with a bellows on a fire covered in ashes and the fire flares up because of the wind produced by the bellows, so too, consciousness, covered by ignorance, which acts like kindling wood and is the material cause of 185

mind, flares up in the form of mental activities being awakened by the rhythm of breathing. From this act of perception, which has the designation "mental activity," painful experiences are produced. This is how the mind comes into being propelled by the rhythm of breathing. 15. This same author points out another way it comes into being: Listen to another way the mind comes into being, O Raghava, generated by latent tendencies, manifested through states of consciousness, and experienced. [LYV 5.10.47] 16. The extremely fickle mind is produced by thinking (bhvan) constantly of things that have been strongly experienced, the mind that is the cause of birth, old age, and death. [LYV. 5.10.53] 17. Not only do breathing and latent tendencies propel the mind, but they also propel each other. This is stated by Vasiha: The rhythm of breathing depends on latent tendencies and vice versa. By means of that, the sequence of seeds and sprouts of the tree of the mind comes into being. [LYV 5.10.65] 18. For this reason, he also declares that the elimination of either one results in the elimination of both: There are two seeds of the tree of the mind: the rhythm of breathing and latent tendencies. When one of them is destroyed, both are also quickly eliminated. [LYV 5.10.64] 19. And he declares the means of eliminating them and the results of their elimination: Through the firm practice of breath control and methods prescribed by the teacher, by following the yogas of posture and diet, the rhythm of breathing is restrained. [LYV 5.10.122] 20. By carrying out one's daily activities without attachment, by refraining from thinking about the world (bhavabhvan), by the habit of seeing the perishability of the body, latent tendencies cease. [LYV 5.10.123]


21. By completely abandoning latent tendencies and controlling the rhythm of breathing, the mind reaches the state of mindlessnessperform whichever you wish. [LYV 5.10.121] 22. Just this much, O Raghava, I think is the nature of the mind: the internal brooding over (bhvan) an object as a thing and as something of interest. [LYV 5.10.57] 23. When one does not brood over an object as something to be abandoned or acquired, and remains steadfast after abandoning everything, then the mind does not arise. [LYV 5.10.54] 24. When the mind stops brooding because of the continuous absence of latent tendencies, then the state of mindlessness (amanast)6 arises, which bestows the highest stillness. [LYV 5.10.55] 25. He states that peace is absent when the state of mindlessness does not arise: Friends, relatives, teachers, and other people cannot save a man firmly seized by the evil spirit that is the mind. [LYV 6.2.18] 3.3 The Yogas of Posture and Diet 1. With regard to what was mentioned above: "by following the yogas of posture and diet," [LYV 5.10.122] among these, Patajali has given three stras on the definition, means, and result of posture: Posture is stable and comfortable. [YS 2.46] 2. By the relaxation of effort and meditative identification7 with Ananta. [YS 2.47] 3. Thence there is no effect from pairs of opposites. [YS 2.48] 4. Any position of the body, such as the Padma or Svstika, which for a particular man brings comfortdefined as not producing pain in his limbsand stabilitydefined as the absence of movement in his bodyis the principal posture.8 The ordinary (laukika) means to this is the "relaxation of effort." And the spiritual (alaukika) is to relax the effort, namely, the mental preoccupation, with reference to 187

moving around and performing household duties, to going on pilgrimage, ritual bathing, performing sacrifices, ritual offerings, and so on. Otherwise, having

forcefully stirred up the body, this preoccupation sends the body wherever it will. 5. The meditative identification of the mind with Ananta is this meditation: "I am the very same Ananta who with his thousand serpent hoods is steadfast holding up the Earth." This brings about the unseen subtlety (ada)9 that bestows the prescribed posture. When the posture is perfected, one is not affected as before by the pairs of opposites such as cold and heat, pleasure and suffering, respect and contempt. 6. The ruti declares the place for that type of posture: One adopts a comfortable posture in an isolated, clean place, with the head, neck, and body in a straight line. [KaiU 4] 7. In a level and clean place, free of gravel, fire, and sand, with the sound of running water and so on; in a place agreeable to the mind but not offensive to the eye, with a cave or a retreat protected from the wind, let him practice (yoga). [vU 2.10] This is the yoga of posture. 8. But the yoga of eating is the moderation with food because of the ruti: A yogin should always avoid overeating and fasting. [AmbU 27] 9. The Lord has also said: Yoga is not for an overeater, nor for one who does not eat at all; nor is it for one who sleeps too much, nor for one who always stays awake, O Arjuna. [BhG 6.16] 10. But for one whose eating and diversion are disciplined, whose effort in actions is disciplined, whose sleeping and waking are disciplined, it becomes the yoga that destroys suffering. [BhG 6.17] 11. The elimination of the mind through breath-control for one who has gained mastery over posture has been given in the Vedic tradition of the vetvatara: 188

Supporting the body evenly, with the three parts erect, merging the senses together with the mind into the heart, the wise man should cross all the dangerous rivers with the raft of Brahman. [vU 2.8] 12. Controlling the breath here (in the posture), a man whose movements are disciplined should breathe through the nose when the breath is stopped. A wise man should restrain the mind vigilantly, as if that were a carriage hitched to wild horses. [vU 2.9] 3.4 The Yoga of Breath-Control 1. Then there are two types of yogins: one is free of the Demonic fortune consisting of the pride of learning and so on, and the other is subject to that. Of these two, in the case of the first when his mind is restrained by meditation on Brahman, his breath is also restrained, because it is inseparably associated with the mind.10 The verse that reads "with the three parts erect" [vU 2.8] refers to this type. In the case of the second type, his mind is also restrained, because it is inseparably associated with the breath when the breath is restrained through practice. The verse that has been given as "controlling the breath" [vU 2.9] refers to that type. We will describe the method of controlling the breath. A person becomes one "whose movements are disciplined" [vU 2.9] by means of this control. Mental movements, such as the pride of learning and so on, are restrained. 2. Elsewhere the ruti gives an example regarding the restraint of the mind's defects though restraint of the breath: Just as impurities in the metal ore are burned off by a bellows, so are defects that are the activities of the senses burned off by control of breath. [AmnU 7] 3. In this regard Vasiha shows its correctness: For the rhythm of the wind of breath is the very same thing as the rhythm of mind. The wise man should make a supreme effort to control the breath. [LYV 5.10.125]


4. Mind, voice, eyesight, and other sensesthese deities, after taking a vow that "We will each constantly perform our own function," were overtaken by death in the form of exhaustion. But (the deity of) death did not capture (the deity of) breath. Therefore, (the deity of) breath, though continuously performing the exhaling and inhaling, does not feel exhausted. Then, after reflecting, the deities adopted the form of breath. 5. This point is made in the Vedic tradition of the Vjasaneyins: "He is surely the best among us; whether moving or still, he is not exhausted nor suffers harm. Come! Let us all assume forms of him." They all became a form of him; therefore they are called "breath" after him. [BU 1.5.21] Hence, to say that the senses have the form of breath is to say that their activity depends on breath. 6. This is declared in the brahmaa on the Inner Controller (antarym) [BU 3.7] in the context of the essential thread (strtman): The air is clearly that thread, Gautama. By the thread of air, Gautama, this world and the world beyond and all beings are strung together. It's because of just this, Gautama, that they say of a dead person: "His limbs have fallen apart," for, Gautama, they are strung together by the thread of the air. [BU 3.7.3] Hence, because of the association of the rhythm of breath and mind, when the breath is restrained, the mind is restrained. 7. [Objection] It does not stand to reason that the two operate with the same rhythm, because in deep sleep we find the action of breathing, but we do not find the action of the mind. 8. [Reply] This is not so, because the mind is absent at that time since it has dissolved. 9. [Objection] Is it not contradicted by the statement: "(A man whose movements are disciplined) should breathe through the nose when the breath is stopped"? [vU 190

2.9] For we do not see breathing anywhere in a dead person whose breath has been stopped. Nor is there stopping of breath in a person who is alive and breathing. 10. [Reply] This is not so, because in this verse "stop" is meant to indicate a lack of (breathing). Just as we do not find as much (breathing) in one who is standing, sitting, or sleeping as in one who is busy digging, chopping wood, climbing a mountain, or running quickly, where there is a rapidity of breathing, so also we find less breath in one who has become skilled in breath-control than in someone else. 11. With reference to this the ruti declares: With the breath having become lengthened in that (posture), he should breathe very slowly. [YU 6.7cd; KU 5] 12. Just as when a chariot with wild horses, leaving the road, is drawn here and there, and the charioteer pulling the horses firmly at the reins returns (the chariot) to the smooth road, so also the mind, when it is drawn here and there by the senses and latent tendencies, is brought under control by firmly pulling the reins of the breaths. 13. With regard to what was said in the passage beginning "controlling the breath," [vU 2.9] and another Vedic passage provides the method of controlling the breath: With the breath lengthened, he should recite the vyhti, the prava, the gyatr along with the iras three timesthis is called breath-control.11 [AmnU 11] 14. There are said to be three breath-controls: exhalation, inhalation, and retention. Raising the air, making the inner space void, empty, one should connect the air with voidness. This is the definition of exhalation. [AmnU 12] 15. (Just as) a man should draw water up through a lotus stalk with his mouth, so should he take in air. This is the definition of inhalation. [AmnU 13] 16. And one should not exhale, nor inhale, nor should he move the limbs, thus should one organize (the air). This is the definition of retention. [AmnU14] 191

In this respect, raising the air inside the body in order to expel it outside, making the space in the body "void," "empty," i.e., deprived of air, not letting even the smallest amount of air to enter, one should regulate it only with voidness. This is exhalation. 17. Retention is twofold: internal and external. Both of these are described by Vasiha: As long as the out-breath has stopped, and the in-breath has not yet arisen into the heart, that is the state of (internal) retention that is experienced by the yogins. [LYV 6.1.211] 18. As long as the in-breath has stopped from outside and the out-breath has not yet arisen (from inside), that fullness they know as the state of external retention. [LYV 6.1.216] 19. As regards the above passage, exhaling is an obstacle to internal retention, (and) inhaling is an obstacle to external retention. Moving the limbs is an obstacle to both, because when it occurs, either one or the other, inhaling or exhaling, necessarily occurs. 20. Patajali also gives a stra on breath-control that falls within the context of posture: When this (posture is perfected), the halting of the movement of inhaling and exhaling is breath-control. [YS 2.49] 21. [Objection] Even in the absence of movement in retention, when there is exhalation and inhalation, we find the movements of exhaling and inhaling. 22. [Reply] It is not so, because the two are halted as a result of the evenness of breath brought about naturally by practicing them in increasing measure. Patajali gives a stra on this very practice: External, internal, and fixed phase; regulated by location, duration, and number; it becomes long and subtle. [YS 2.50] 23.


24. Exhalation is the "external" phase.

Inhalation is the "internal" phase.

Retention is the "fixed" phase. These should be tested, one after another, by means of "location," and so on. It is like this. In the case of exhalation established naturally, the breath, coming out from the heart, terminates as far away as twelve digits in front of the tip of the nose. But through practice, the air gradually comes forth from the navel, or the base (dhra), and terminates as far away as twenty-four or thirty-six digits. In this respect, when exhalation is practiced with special effort, it can be internally confirmed by a sensation at a location (down to) the navel and so on. Holding out a bit of cotton, one should make external confirmation by the motion of that cotton. This is a "location" test. 25. To mentally repeat "OM" ten, twenty, or thirty times during the time of one exhalation: such (practices are) a "duration" test. To practice ten exhalations per day during this month, twenty per day during the coming month, and thirty per day during the following month: such (practices are) a duration test. Now a "number" test (is carried out) by (practicing) the particular location or duration of breath-controls as mentioned ten, twenty, thirty times, and so on in one day. A number test should be applied in this way even in the case of inhalation. 26. Even if one does not perceive the correlation (vypti) of a specific distance with the development of the retention of breath, nevertheless one certainly perceives the correlation of a duration and a number. As a dense ball of cotton being stretched out becomes "long," and because of attenuation it becomes "subtle," so also breath, being trained with increasing location, duration, and number (tests), it possibly arrives at "long" and, because of its being barely perceptible, "subtle." 193

27. Patajali gives a stra on another kind (of movement of breath-control) different from the three beginning with exhalation: The fourth transcends (akep) the region of the external and internal. [YS 2.51] 28. One performs external retention having exhaled all the air inside as much as one can. One performs internal retention having inhaled air inside as much as one can. Thus the retention being practiced by itself, without concern for either exhalation or inhalation, becomes the fourth, relative to the previously mentioned three. The

distinction is that the three beginning with exhalation are for those who are under the influence of the powerful defects of sleep, laziness, and so on, whereas the fourth is for those who are free of such defects. 29. Patajali gives another stra on the result of breath-control: From this the covering of the light is eliminated. [YS 2.52] The "light" is goodness. The "covering" of the light is darkness, which is the cause of sleep, laziness, and so on. Its elimination is (through breath-control). 30. Patajali gives a stra on another result: And the mind fit for concentration (dhra). [YS 2.53] 31. "Concentration" is fixing the mind on specific places such as the base plexus, navel plexus, heart, interval between the eyes, or Brahma's aperture (on top of the head), from the stra: Concentration is binding the mind to one place. [YS 3.1] 32. The ruti also states: Considering that the mind is prone to imagination, the discerning person withdraws it into the Self and holds it in that mannerthis is called concentration. [AmnU 15] 194

A mind that becomes fit for this concentration by means of breath-control is removed from changeability, which is the effect of the quality of energy, and removed from laziness, which is caused by the quality of darkness. 33. Through the firm practice of breath-control and the methods given by the teacher (...) [LYV 5.10.122ab] The word "methods"12 in this passage is understood (to be referring to practices) well known to yogins, such as moving Mount Meru in the form of the head, moving the uvula around with the tip of the tongue, meditating on the light in the navel plexus (and) in the heart, and taking drugs that give forgetfulness. 3.5 Enstasis and the Eight Limbs of Yoga 1. So far we have described the following means of elimination of the mind: application of spiritual knowledge, meeting with the good people, eradication of latent tendencies, and restraint of breath. Now we shall describe the enstasis that is a means (of elimination of the mind). Enstasis (samdhi) consists of the two stages that remain after abandoning the first three of the five stages of the mind. 2. The commentator on the Yogastras (Vysa) has described these stages: Distracted, stupefied, occasionally distracted, one-pointed, and suppressed are the stages of the mind. [YSBh 1.1] 3. The "distracted" mind exists in the latent tendencies concerning the world, learning, and the body, which are the Demonic fortune. [2.4.4387] It is "stupefied" when overwhelmed by sleep, laziness, and the like. It is "occasionally distracted" when it is disciplined from time to time by meditation, thereby being distinct from "distracted." Among these, as far as the states of distracted and stupefied are concerned, there is no question of enstasis. But when the mind is occasionally 195

distracted, enstasis, being dependent on the distraction, does not persist on the side (paka) of yoga. By being in the midst of the occasionally distracted stage, it (enstasis) is quickly annihilated, like a seed that is engulfed in flames. But what enlightens the object properly shaped in the one-pointed stage, loosens the bonds of action, and makes one inclined toward restraintthis is called "yoga-withconceptualization." But when every (mental) activity is removed, this is the "enstasiswithout-conceptualization" stage.13 4. Among these, Patajali gives a stra on onepointedness, which is the stage of enstasis-with-conceptualization: When the stilled or arisen cognitions (pratyaya)14 are alike, this is the transformation of the mind that is one-pointedness (ekgrat). [YS 3.12] 5. "Stilled" refers to what is past. "Arisen" refers to what is present. "Cognitions" refers to activities of the mind. If an arisen cognition were to grasp the same object that a past cognition grasps, then the two become "alike." Such a transformation of the mind is called "one-pointedness." 6. Patajali gives a stra on enstasis that is characterized by an increase in one-pointedness: When there is the diminishing of (the grasping at) all objects and the arising of one-pointedness, this is the enstatic transformation of the mind. [YS 3.11] 7. A mind being stirred up by the quality of energy (rajas) sequentially grasps at all objects.15 The special effort of the yogin being made so as to suppress this quality of energy diminishes day by day the "grasping at all objects" and brings about onepointedness. Such a transformation of the mind is called enstasis. 8. Among the eight limbs of enstasis, restraint, discipline, posture, breath-control, and withdrawal of the senses are the five external limbs. Among these, Patajali gives this stra on restraint: 196

The restraints are non-violence, truthfulness, non-stealing, chastity, and nonacquisitiveness. [YS 2.30] "Restraints" are what restrain a yogin away from prohibited practices (dharma-s) such as doing violence and the rest. 9. Patajali gives this stra on discipline: The disciplines are purification, contentment, austerity, private Vedic recitation, and devotion to the Lord. [YS 2.32] They are "disciplines" because they discipline, i.e., they drive a person toward actions free from desire, which cause liberation, having turned one away from actions motivated by desire, which cause rebirth. 10. The Smti points out the difference between carrying out restraint and discipline: A wise man should constantly perform discipline, but he should not always perform restraint; when he engages only in discipline and fails to perform restraint, he falls. [MDh 4.204] 11. A man falls engaged in discipline and indifferent to restraint; but one engaged in restraint and idle in regard to discipline does not sink. Thus after thoughtfully distinguishing between restraint and discipline, one should apply the mind principally to restraint. [Untraced] 12. Patajali gives these stras on the results of restraint and discipline. (When a person is grounded in non-violence,) in his presence (living beings) give up natural enmity. [YS 2.35] 13. (When grounded in truthfulness,) actions and results depend on him. [YS 2.36] 14. (When grounded in non-stealing,) precious things come to him. [YS 2.37] 15. (When grounded in chastity,) vigor is enhanced. [YS 2.38] 16. (When grounded in non-acquisitiveness,) he recognizes how rebirth happens, [YS 2.39] 17. From purification there is disgust for one's own body and no contact with another's, [YS 2.40]


18. also the washing (of the impurities) of mind, purity of mind, onepointedness, control of the senses, and fitness of the realization of the Self [YS 2.41] become possible. 19. From contentment, there results the attainment of unsurpassed happiness. [YS 2.42] 20. From austerity, there is the diminishing of impurity and the purity of mind, body, and the senses. [YS 2.43] 21. From private Vedic recitation, there is union with the favored deity. [YS 2.44] 22. From meditation on the Lord, there is the attainment of enstasis. [YS 2.45] 23. Posture and breath-control have been explained already. [3.3] Patajali gives this stra on the withdrawal of the senses: When the senses disconnect from their respective sense objects as if adopting the form of the mind, it is the withdrawal of the senses. [YS 2.54] "Objects" are sounds, textures, forms, tastes, and smells, and the like. Turning away from them, the sense of hearing and the rest attain a state as if they were adopting the form of the mind. 24. And there is also the ruti: One should think of the five, whose objects are sound and so on, and the very changeable mind, as the reins of the Selfthis is called withdrawal of the senses. [AmnU 5] The meaning of this is: the "five" are hearing, etc., whole "objects" are sound, etc. With the mind, these constitute six. One thinks of these as reins of the Self insofar as one restrains them from sound, etc., which are different from the Self. That is the withdrawal of the senses. 25. Patajali gives a stra on the result of the withdrawal of the senses: From this (results) the highest control of the senses. [YS 2.55] 26. Then Patajali gives three stras on concentration, meditation, and enstasis: 198

Concentration is fixing the mind on a place. [YS 3.1] 27. Meditation is the continuity of cognition there (on a place). [YS 3.2] 28. Enstasis is the illumination of the place alone, as if (the perceiver) is empty of form. [YS 3.3] 29. The "places" such as the base have been discussed earlier. [3.4.31] The ruti mentions another place: Considering that the mind is prone to imagination (sakalpaka), the discerning person withdraws it into the Self and holds it in that mannerthis is called concentration. [AmnU 15] 30. Withdrawal into the Self is this sort of effort: "The mind that is forming an image of every thing, let it form an image of just the Self and nothing else." "The continuity of cognition there" [3.5.27; YS 3.2] is the flow whose object is in one place. This is of two types: being generated intermittently or continuously. These two become meditation and enstasis, respectively. 31. The yogin Sarvnubhava described both of them: Since the mentioned knowledge arises from mental one-pointedness, hence meditation is correctly taught as the means of that (knowledge). [MukU 2.49] 32. After causing the dissolution of the entire complex of effects (vikti) gradually in the reverse order of its creation,16 he should meditate only on the remaining being, consciousness, and bliss. [MukU 2.50] 33. And: This flow of mental activity in the form of Brahman and without egoism, produced by the intensity of the practice of meditation, is enstasis-withconceptualization. [MukU 2.53] 34. The Bhagavatpd (akara) explained the same: The highestwhose nature is cognition, like the sky, forever shining, but unborn, singular, imperishable, unmixed, present everywhere, and nondualI am That alone, forever liberated. OM. [US 10.1]


35. I am cognition, with a pure and unchanging nature. I have by nature no object. I am filled by the plenitude (bhman)17 in front and across, above and below, everywhere. Though unborn, I subsist in the Self. [US 10.2] 36. I am unborn and deathless, not aged, immortal, self-luminous, present everywhere, and non-dual. I am neither cause nor effect, altogether immaculate, always contented, therefore liberated. OM. [US 10.3] 37. Objection: Enstasis-with-conceptualization has subordinate limbs (i.e., is principal). How can you show that it is in the position of enstasis, which is the eighth limb coming immediately after meditation? 38. Reply: This is not a problem, because there is no great difference (between these types of enstasis). A young Vedic student stumbles at every word and corrects himself again and again, one who has studied the Veda does not stumble so long as he is attentive (svadhana), and a teacher does not stumble even when he is inattentive or fatigued. Similarly, one must understand the mutual difference among meditation, enstasis (the eighth limb), and enstasis-with-conceptualization by their differing degrees of development, even though their object of meditation is the same.18 39. The three beginning with concentration are the internal limbs in (enstasis-with-) conceptualization because they are located in the mind. But the five beginning with restraint are its external limbs. 40 . Patajali gives a stra on this: The three are internal limbs compared to the previous (five). [YS 3.7] Therefore, when the internal limbs are accomplished first by some sort of merit, one does not have to make a great deal of effort in order to accomplish the external limbs. 41. Even though Patajali detailed in many ways the enstases-withconceptualization and with-distinctionshaving as their object the effects of elements, elements, subtle elements, the senses, and egotismnevertheless, we take no notice of them because, by being the cause of supernatural powers such as invisibility and the 200

like, they oppose enstasis, which is the cause of liberation. 42. In the same vein Patajali gives this stra: In enstasis they are obstacles; in coming out (from enstasis) (vyutthna) they are supernatural powers. [YS 3.38] 43. And: When there is an invitation from highly placed ones, one should not feel attachment or pride because they may lead to undesirable conditions. [YS 3.51] The "highly placed ones" are the gods. The story is told that Uddlaka, though invited by the gods, snubbed the gods and cultivated only enstasis-without-distinctions. [LYV 5.6.125137] 44. We also gather the very same thing from this dialogue: r Rma: Why is it, O best of Self-knowers, that we do not see such powers as the ability to fly through the air among the bodies of those liberated-in-life? [LYV 5.10.1] 45. Vasiha: O Raghava, even one who does not know the Self and is not liberated acquires the trick (yukti) of roaming about the clouds and the like through the use of elixirs, incantations, rites, and time. [LYV 5.10.2] 46. This concern does not belong to the Self-knower, for the Self-knower sees only the Self. Satisfied by himself in himself, he does not run after ignorance. [LYV 5.10.3] 47. Any worldly things whatsoever, the wise know them to be fashioned by ignorance. How could a Self-knower who has abandoned ignorance possibly plunge into these things? [LYV 5.10.5] 48. The powers of elixirs, incantations, rites, and time are effective for bestowing supernatural abilities, but none of these help in attaining the state of the highest Self. [LYV 5.10.7] 49. The attainment of the Self arises when the web of all desires comes to an end. How could a mind immersed in the pursuit of supernatural abilities attain that? [LYV 5.10.9]


50. None of these worldly things attract the knower of truth, as ordinary village women do not attract the courtly gentleman who is in love with a refined courtesan. [LYV 4.5.34] 51. The man liberated-in-life does not show amazement even when the sun emits cool rays or when the orb of the moon is hot or when a fire shoots downward. [LYV 5.9.66] And: 52. Curiosity in these sorts of wonders does not arise for him because he knows that these powers thus appear in the world from the highest Self. [LYV 5.9.67] 53. But enstasis-with-conceptualization whose object is the Self is the cause both of the eradication of latent tendencies and the enstasis-of-suppression. Therefore we have given it (rather than supernatural powers) serious attention here. 3.6 Enstasis-of-Suppression 1. Now we examine the enstasis-of-suppression (nirodhasamdhi), which constitutes the fifth stage (of the mind). 2. Patajali comments on this suppression in the stra: The transformation of suppression (nirodha), which associates the mind with a moment of suppression, occurs when the residual impressions (saskra) of coming out (of enstasis) (vyutthna) are overcome and the impressions of suppression arise. [YS 3.9]19 The residual impressions (saskra) of coming out (of enstasis) are opposite to enstasis. 3. They have been illustrated in the enstasis of Uddlaka: When will I ever reach that continuous repose for a long time in the state that is most purifying, free from deliberations, like a cloud on the peak of Mount Meru? [LYV 5.6.29] 4. Thus overwhelmed by this thought, the twice-born Uddlaka forcibly sat and practiced meditation again and again. [LYV 5.6.35] 5. But when the mind like a fickle monkey was being led about by worldly objects, he did not reach the stability that gives joy in enstasis. [LYV 5.6.36]


6. Sometimes after it left external objects, his monkey-mind jumped to groups of internal objects. [LYV 5.6.37] 7. Sometimes jumping from internal objects, his mind seized on external objects. Sometimes soaring up, his mind flitted about like a frightened bird. [LYV 5.6.38] 8. Sometimes he saw pervasive light resembling that of the rising sun, sometimes only the sky, then pitch darkness. [LYV 5.6.39] 9. With the mind, he cut through the illusions repeatedly coming up at random, like a hero with this sword cutting through an enemy in combat. [LYV 5.6.109] 10. When the multitude of images was completely cut down, he saw the sun of discernment blocked by a billowing cloud dark as lampblack. [LYV 5.6.110] 11. He destroyed that with the sun of correct knowledge as well; when the darkness had ceased, he saw light building up within his mind; he destroyed that like a young elephant trampling on a bed of ground lotuses. [LYV 5.6.111] 12. When the light had ceased, that sage's mind, revolving, went to sleep like a lotus at night. He immediately cut off that as well. [LYV 5.6.112] 13. When sleep disappeared, there arose in his mind the consciousness like the sky. When the consciousness like the sky disappeared, his mind became stupefied. This noble man wiped away even that delusion from the mind. [LYV 5.6.113] 14. Then reaching an indescribable state untouched by light, darkness, sleep, delusion, and the rest, his mind became still for a moment. [LYV 5.6.114] 15. These residual impressions of coming out (from enstasis) are overcome moment to moment through the yogin's effort, which is the cause of suppression, and the residual impressions of suppression opposed to that (coming out) arise. When this happens, suppression follows the mind at each moment. The "transformation of suppression" of the mind comes about in this manner (as mentioned above). [YS 3.9] 16. [Objection] According to the maxim: Things except for the energy of consciousness undergo transformation at each moment [Untraced] 203

it must be said that there is a flow of transformation in the mind at all times. 17. [Reply] Certainly. In that passage the flow of activities of the mind that has come out (from enstasis) is made clear. 18. [Objection] But what of the mind that is suppressed? 19. [Reply] Anticipating this doubt, Patajali gives the next stra: Then its flow is calmed because of the residual impressions. [YS 3.10] As a fire flames up increasingly higher and higher when oblations of fuel and ghee are thrown into it, and when the fuel and so on are burned up, in the first moment it calms down slightly, and moment by moment it becomes increasingly still. Just so for the mind that has been suppressed, stillness flows more and more. In those moments, each residual impression that was previously generated by stillness is the cause of each and every (effect of) stillness (generated) later. 20. The Lord clearly describes this same flow of stillness: When the restrained mind is established only in the Self, free from longing for all desires, one is then called a man established in yoga. [BhG 6.18] 21. "As a lamp in a windless place does not flicker," that is the simile quoted for the yogin with a controlled mind who is practicing the yoga of meditation on the Self. [BhG 6.19] 22. When the mind becomes quiet, suppressed by the practice of the yoga of meditation, and when seeing the Self by himself, he is content in himself; [BhG 6.20] 23. When a man experiences that ultimate happiness which is to be grasped by the intellect beyond the senses, and when established only in this, he does not move from reality; [BhG 6.21] 24. And attaining which, he thinks there is no greater attainment than it, when he is in that state, he is not disturbed even by heavy suffering. [BhG 6.22]


25. He should know that separation (viyoga) from the connection with suffering is what is called yoga. That yoga should be practiced with resolve and a mind that is not despairing. [BhG 6.23] 26. Patajali gives a stra on the means of enstasis-of-suppression: The other (i.e., enstasis-of-suppression) is left with only the residual impression and is preceded by the practice of the basis (pratyaya) of cessation. [YS 1.18] "Cessation" is the stopping of mental activities. Its "basis," i.e., cause, is personal effort aimed at stopping mental activities. Its "practice," i.e., frequent repetition, brings it about; (it) "is preceded by" that (practice), i.e., (it) results from that (practice). Because the enstasis-with-conceptualization was declared in the immediately preceding stra, with respect to that, the "other" is enstasis-without-conceptualization. In this passage, because absence of activity is difficult to characterize, the mind is left in the form of a residual impression. 27. The Lord clearly states (that this enstasis) results from the basis of cessation: Completely giving up all desires springing from imagination (sakalpa),20 controlling the group of senses on all sides with only the mind; [BhG 6.24] 28. He should gently and gradually become quiet, with a resolute intellect. Making the mind abide in the Self, he should not think of anything else. [BhG 6.25] 29. Wherever the fickle and unsteady mind proceeds, controlling that, he must ever lead it back from there under the influence of the Self. [BhG 6.26] 30. Although desirable things such as garlands, sandal paste, women, children, friends, houses, land, and so on are associated with many defects well known to discerning people adept in the stra of liberation, they imagine (kalpyanti) there is goodness in these things, having covered up the defects through beginningless ignorance. From this imagination (sakalpa), desires with the form of "May this be mine" develop. 31. Likewise the Smti declares: 205

Surely desire is rooted in imagination; and sacrifice arises from (that) imagination. [MDh 2.3] 32. O desire, I know your rootyou clearly grow out of imagination. I will not think of you. You will be destroyed along with the root. [MBh 12.171.25] 33. In this passage, when the defects of sensory objects have been manifested through discernment, one gives up desire for them as one does for milk-porridge that has been vomited by a dog. The word "all" [BhG 6.24] was used in reference to giving up desires involving the Brahma world and the eight superhuman powers,21 such as the ability to become as small like an atom, like (one would give up) things such as garlands, sandal paste, and women. Now, in a man who has made the vow of a month-long fast, although he has given up food for a month, desire arises again and again. To indicate that he should not be like this, the word "completely" [BhG 6.24] was used. Even when the intentional tendencies created by mind are eliminated, upon the abandonment of desire, the mind itself should make every effort to control also the natural tendency of the eyes and the rest toward form and the like. The words "on all sides" [BhG 6.24] were used to indicate turning away from continuing even to view the gods (devatdarana) and so on. The words "gently and gradually" [BhG 6.25] were used because what is implied is cessation (of activities) with progressive perfection by stages. 3.7 The Four Stages of Control. The First Stage: Control of Speech in the Mind 1. There are four stages as explained in the Kahavalli: (1) The wise man should control speech in the mind; (2) should control the latter in the knowing self (jntman); (3) he should control knowing in the Great Principle (mahtman); (4) he should control that in the Tranquil Self (ntman). [KU 3.13] 206

2. The function of speech is twofold: worldly and Vedic. The worldly speech is talk about daily affairs, and the Vedic speech is private recitation of sacred words and the like. Of these, because the worldly speech causes a great deal of distraction, the yogin should abandon it, even at the time when he has come out (from enstasis). 3. For just this reason a Smti declares: The single-staffed ascetic practices seven things: silence, yogic posture, meditation (yoga), endurance, the habit of staying in seclusion, freedom from longing, and equanimity. [NpU pp. 159160] 4. But one should give up such things as silent recitation of sacred words in the enstasis-of-suppression. This is that first stage, which pertains to speech. Having firmly mastered this stage only through effort in a few days, months, or years, afterward one should make efforts on the second stage, which pertains to the mind. Otherwise, the upper levels of yoga would be destroyed like a multistorey palace because of the collapse of the first stage. Though the eyes and the rest have to be suppressed, nevertheless one should consider that they are included in the level pertaining either to speech or to the mind. 5. [Objection] "(The wise man) should control speech in the mind." [KU 3.13] This is impossible because one organ cannot merge into another. 6. [Reply] This is not so, because merging is not implied. What is meant here is this. Both speech and mind create various distractions. Of these two, when one first controls the function of speech, only the function of mind remains. 3.8 Control of the Mind in the Knowing Self 1. When the control of speech has become natural as in the case of cows, buffaloes, horses, and so on, then he should control mind in the "knowing self." The self is 207

threefold: knowing self (jntma), the Great Self (mahtma), and the Tranquil Self (nttm). In this passage, what is meant by the word "knowing" is the ego (ahakra), which possesses the attribute of being the knowing subject, as in: "The self residing here (in the body) knows," because the mind, which is an instrument, was mentioned separately as something to be controlled. Ego is twofold: individual and universal. The specific thought "I am his son" constitutes the individual ego. The simple thought "I am" is the universal ego. It is called "Great" because it is pervasive among all individuals. There are two types of selves with these two types of egos as their attributes. The Tranquil Self is without attributes. All these operate both internally and externally. The Tranquil Self exists within everything and is pure consciousness (cidekarasa). 2. It is on this (Tranquil Self) that the Primal Nature (mlaprakti), which is unmanifest (avyakta) and constituted by inanimate power (jaaakti), rests. This becomes manifest first with the name "Great Self" in the form of the universal ego. Then it becomes manifest externally in the form of the individual ego; then it becomes manifest externally in the form of the mind; and finally it becomes manifest extenally in the form of the senses, such as speech and so on. 3. With regard to this, the ruti makes clear that each of them is progressively more internal: They say the senses are high; the mind is higher than the senses. The intellect is higher than the mind, and the Great Principle is higher than the intellect. [KU 3.10] 4. The Unmanifest is higher than the Great Self, and the Spirit (purua) is higher than the Unmanifest. [KU 3.11ab] 5. This being the case, one should control the mind, which is an instrument and is that by which one forms concepts and makes distinctions (sakalpavikalpa) in the 208

ego. Having abandoned the function of mind, only the ego should be allowed to remain. 6. One must not say "This is impossible," because giving an answer to Arjuna, who says: I think it is as difficult to restrain as the wind. [BhG 6.34] the Lord says: 7. Without a doubt, Great Arm, the mind is difficult to restrain and fickle. But with practice and detachment, son of Kunti, it is restrained. [BhG 6.35] 8. Yoga is difficult to attain by someone who is not self-disciplined. That is my view. But for someone who is self-controlled and has made effort, it is possible to attain with the right means. [BhG 6.36] "Practice" and "detachment" will be explained later through citation of Patajali's stras. "Someone who is not self-disciplined" refers to one who is not firmly established in the previous stage. "Someone who is self-controlled" refers to one who is so established. 9. Gauapdcarya declares the attainment "with the right means" with an example: As one would empty the ocean drop by drop with the tip of a blade of kua grass, so should one untiringly restrain the mind. [GK 3.41] 10. In this connection, those versed in the tradition relate the following story. It is said that the ocean arrogantly carried off with its tide a bird's eggs that were lying somewhere on the shore. Thinking "I shall dry up the ocean," the bird set upon throwing out one drop at a time with its beak. Then, though many groups of relatives tried to dissuade the bird, undeterred, it on the contrary asked them for assistance. Nrada took pity, seeing them all toiling so much flying up and down, and sent forth Garua into the vicinity (to help). Then the ocean, drying up from the wind of Garua's wings, was frightened and, bringing back the eggs, gave them to the bird.22 209

11. In this same manner, the Lord graces the yogin engaging in the highest religious practice (dharma) of tirelessly restraining the mind. The tirelessness is brought about by combining it (restraining the mind) with a supportive activity at intervals. It is just like a person who is eating rice tastes a bit of curd and relish in between mouthfuls. 12. In regard to just this, Vasiha says: In the ideal schedule of one who is without knowledge, he would fill up two parts of the mind with enjoyment, one part with stra, and one part with service to the teacher. [LYV 5.3.36] 13. For one who has gained some knowledge, he would fill up one part with enjoyment, two parts with service to the teacher, and one part with thinking over the meaning of the stra. [LYV 5.3.37] 14. For one who is advanced in the knowledge, he should every day fill up two parts of the mind with stra and detachment, and two parts with meditation and service to the teacher. [LYV 5.3.38] In this passage, the word "enjoyment" refers to the activity of begging, which is the means for (sustenance of) the life, and activities that are proper to one's caste and order. 15. He should practice yoga for a half hour or one hour23 according to his ability; attend to his teacher for an hour, either by listening to stra or serving him; take care of his own physical needs for an hour; reflect on Yogastra for an hour; and again practice yoga for another hour. In this manner, having combined other activities so as to give priority to yoga, and having practiced those activities quickly, when going to bed one should count the hours spent in yoga during the day. Then on the next day, or in the next two weeks, or in the next month, one should increase the periods of yoga. So, even when a single moment of yoga is added on to each hour, within just a year the total amount of time spent on yoga becomes greater. 210

16. Other activities would be neglected if one is devoting oneself only to yoga. The qualification for yoga is only for one who has given up all other activities. For this reason, it requires the renunciation-of-the-knower. Therefore, a man focused solely on that gradually becomes elevated through yoga, like one who is a student or a merchant and the like. Just as a young student who, gradually learning part of a quarter of a Vedic verse, then a quarter, then a half of a verse, and then a whole verse, then two verses, and then a whole section, becomes a teacher in ten or twelve years, or just as one conducting a business earns one coin, then two coins, etc., eventually becomes a millionaire or a billionaire, so also, why would one having begun along with this same student and merchant, joining in as if seized with envy, not ascend into yoga during that same time period? Therefore, like Uddlaka [above, 3.6.314] giving up by personal effort the forming of concepts and making of distinctions (sakalpavikalpa), which one is arriving at again and again, one should control the mind within the knowing self, namely, the ego. 3.9 Control in the Great Self and in the Tranquil Self 1. Having mastered this second stage, when the state of mindlessness becomes natural as in children, the deaf and dumb, etc., then one should control the knowing self, which is manifest and constituted by individual ego, within the Great Principle (mahattattva), which is the unmanifest universal ego. Just as the individual ego decreases on its own for one who has become fatigued, so also the ego decreases even without fatigue (tandr) for one who makes an effort at forgetfulness (vismarana). This is the third stage that is similar to fatigue well known in the world, similar to


indeterminate knowledge (nirvikalpajna)24 acknowledged by the logicians, and is the condition in which only the Great Principle remains. 2. When this (third stage) has been subdued by skill gained through practice, one should control the Great Principle, which is constituted by the universal ego, in the Tranquil Self, which, insofar as it is without attributes, is pure consciousness. Having set aside the Great Principle, one should let pure consciousness remain. [Untraced] 3. In this passage also, the effort at forgetfulness mentioned earlier becomes a means to a greater degree (in the fourth stage than what it was in the third stage). Just as a person engaged in practicing the stras, before he gains proficiency, he needs explanation of every text. Yet when he has sufficient proficiency, the meaning of the later text appears by itself. So also, for a yogin who has correctly mastered the previous stage, the means of the later stage appears by itself. 4. The author of the Yogabhaya (Vysa) also states this: Yoga is to be known through yoga; yoga proceeds from yoga. That yogin who is attentive by means of yoga is content for a long time. [YSBh 3.6; SauU 2.7] 5. [Objection] The ruti [KU 3.11] stated a principle called "Unmanifest," which is the material cause of the Great Principle, occurring in between the Great Principle and the Tranquil Self. Why was no mention made of control within that? 6. [Reply] We answer that it is not mentioned because it would result in dissolution (of the Great Principle). Just as a clay pot submerged in water, which is not the pot's material cause, does not dissolve in it but is dissolved in clay, which is the element of the pot's material cause, so also the Great Principle is not dissolved in the Self but is dissolved in the Unmanifest. 7. To dissolve one's own nature is of no 212

benefit to a person because (a) it is not conducive to the vision of the Self, (b) having prescribed the vision of the Self in the statement quoted earlier [2.2.12]: Yet it is seen with a sharpened and subtle mind by people with subtle vision. [KU 3.12] suppression was stated in order to bring about this subtlety (of the mind), and (c) because the dissolution occurs on its own every day during sleep, an effort toward it would be pointless. 8. [Objection] Enstasis-with-conceptualization, which is to be brought about by concentration, meditation and enstasis, is a cause of seeing (the Self) since it consists in the one-pointed mental activity. But the mind, held in check in the Tranquil Self and brought to enstasis-without-conceptualization, is bereft of mental activities as in sleep, and therefore is not the cause of seeing (the Self). 9. [Reply] This is not so, because it is impossible to take away the vision that has come about on its own. 10. Wherefore the reyomrga25 declares: The mind, which by nature always takes on the form of both the Self and the non-Self, one should make the mind bereft of the non-Self by making it exclusively take on the form of the Self. [Untraced] 11. As a pot is being produced, it is automatically produced full of empty space, but afterward when the pot has been produced, it becomes full of water, rice, and so on by human effort. Though the water and so on has been poured out, it is impossible to pour out the empty space. Even when the mouth has been covered, the empty space inside still remains. In like manner, when the mind is being produced, it is made full only with consciousness of the Self. Afterward when the mind has been produced, it assumes the form of mental activities such as pots, cloth, shape, taste, pleasure, and


suffering like molten copper poured into a mold, due to the power of virtue and vice, etc., which are the causes of experience. 12. Among these, even if shape, taste, and the like, which are the form of the non-Self, have been taken away, the shape of pure consciousness, which is without a cause, cannot be taken away. Then the mindwhich is without activities because it is restrained by enstasis-(of-suppression), which is subtle because only residual impressions are left, and which is one-pointed because it is focused only on pure consciousnessexperiences the Self unhindered. 13. With the same intention the author of the Vrttikas (Surevara) and yogin Sarvnubhava state: The mind consists of jars, suffering and so on because of virtue, and the like. The Self that has no cause comes about because of its essential activity. [BUBhV 1.1.544] 14. The mind whose activities are stilled illuminating the highest bliss: this is the enstasis with the name "without conceptualization," and dear to the yogins. [MukU 2.54] Even when the vision of the Self has been established automatically, the practice of suppression is intended to ward off the non-Self. 15. For just this reason it was declared: Making the mind abide in the Self, he should not think of anything else. [BhG 6.25] 3.10 The Nature and Means of Entasis-with-Conceptualization and Enstasis-without-Conceptualization 1. [Objection] Because the endeavor of the Yogastra is focused only on enstasis as the therapy for the mind,26 the vision of the Self in the enstasis-of-suppression is not mentioned there directly.


2. [Reply] But it is understood indirectly because, when having first given the stra: Yoga is the suppression of mental activity, [YS 1.2] 3. Patajali then gives the stra: Then the seer resides in his own form. [YS 1.3] 4. Even if the unchanging "seer" always resides only in his own form, nevertheless, when the mental activities are being produced, an image of consciousness becomes reflected in them, and the seer is as if not firm in himself, because he is unable to discern it in the reflection (from his own form).27 5. This is also explained in the next stra: At other times he takes the same form as the activity. [YS 1.4] 6. Elsewhere there is the stra: Experience comes about by not perceiving the distinction between the goodness (sattva) and Spirit (purua), which are completely different. [YS 3.35]28 7. And: When unchanging consciousness assumes the form of that (mode of goodness), there is a combined cognition of itself with the intellect. [YS 4.22] 8. Even when the individual self (tvampadrtha) purified through the enstasis-ofsuppression has been realized directly, in order to make it possible to perceive that it is Brahman, another mental activity called knowledge of Brahman is generated (for the meditator) by means of the Great Text (tat tvam asi). The enstasis-of-suppression is not the sole means of direct realization of the purified individual self (padrtha). For, on the contrary, its direct realization is possible also in making the separation through


the discernment of consciousness from the inanimate (jaa).29 9. For just this reason Vasiha says: There are two paths to the elimination of the mind, O Raghava: yoga and knowledge; yoga is the suppression of activity in the mind, and knowledge is right perception. [LYV 5.9.72] 10. And: For some, yoga is unattainable; for some, conviction through definite knowledge is unattainable; therefore, God, the highest Lord of the world, made two ways from the world of the gods. [LYV 6.1.60] 11. [Objection] Even "discernment" itself ends up as yoga, because the onepointed mental activity, which is totally absorbed in just the Self at the time of realization, is indeed momentary enstasis-with-conceptualization. 12. [Reply] Quite so. Nevertheless there is indeed a great difference between enstasis-with-conceptualization and enstasis-without-conceptualization in regard to their inherent nature and means of attaining them. The difference in their natures is clear because of the presence and absence (respectively) of mental activity. But since the three means beginning with concentration and the others are similar to enstasiswith-conceptualization, they are the internal limbs; whereas since they are dissimilar to enstasis-without-conceptualization, which has no mental activity, they are the external limbs (for establishing enstasis). 13. Likewise, Patajali gives a stra: Even they30 are external limbs to the seedless. [YS 3.8] 14. Even though they are dissimilar (to enstasis-without-conceptualization), because they are helpful in removing the many kinds of mental activities relating to the non-Self, it is not contradictory to take them as external limbs. 15. Patajali gives a stra to clarify this same helpfulness: 216

For others (yogins) it is preceded by faith, vigor, memory, enstasis, and wisdom. [YS 1.20] 16. After pointing out the enstasis that occurs right from birth in the case of some gods and others in the previous stra, he gives this stra with reference to man. "Faith" is the conviction "For me this yoga alone is the means of attaining the highest goal of human life." It is brought about by hearing about the excellence (of yoga). 17. This excellence (of yoga) is declared in the Smti: The yogin is greater than the ascetic; he is considered greater even than men of knowledge; and the yogin is greater that ritual performers. Therefore, Arjuna, be a yogin. [BhG 6.46] 18. Yoga is greater than ascetic practices such as the painful vow and the lunar fast,31 and ritual actions such as the Soma sacrifice, because it is the means of attaining the highest world. It is even greater than knowledge because with respect to

knowledge it is an internal limb and it is a cause of mental control/tranquillity* (nti). When a man knows this, faith in yoga wells up in him. When this faith has been internalized, "vigor," i.e., strenuous effort, comes into being with the thought "I shall carry out yoga in every possible way." By means of strenuous effort, the yogin remembers to perform the limbs of yoga at the (proper) time. Similarly, when the tranquillity of the highest Self has arisen as a result of the enstasis correctly performed, through that "memory," the truth-bearing insight comes about. For it to be achieved by "others," i.e., by men who are below the gods and the like, enstasis-withconceptualization has to be preceded and caused by that insight. 19. Patajali gives a stra on that insight: There the insight is truth-bearing. [YS 1.48]


20. It is "truth-bearing" because it bears, i.e., illuminates, "truth" (ta), i.e., reality (satyam), or the actual nature of a thing. This all means "truth-bearing." "There"

refers to when the serenity (prasda) of the highest Self produced by the height of enstasis has arisen. 21. Patajali gives a stra on the reason for its being "truthbearing:" It has objects other than scriptural or inferential knowledge because its object is particular. [YS 1.49] 22. The perception of non-yogins does not extend to things that are subtle, concealed, or remote. Non-yogins come to know those things through scripture (gama) and inference (anumna). Those two types of knowledge produced by stra and

inference perceive objects only in their universality. But this direct perception of a yogin is "truth-bearing" because it perceives an object in its particularity. 23. In order to show that the direct perception of a yogin is an external limb with respect to enstasis-without-conceptualization, Patajali gives a stra stating that the direct perception of a yogin is helpful (to enstasis-without-conceptualization): The residual impression generated by it blocks other impressions. [YS 1.50] 24. Having declared the means that is the external limb of enstasis-withoutconceptualization, Patajali gives a stra declaring the effort to suppress that as being the means that is the internal limb (of enstasis-without-conceptualization): Because of the suppression of everything upon the suppression of even that, the seedless enstasis comes about. [YS 1.51] 25. This enstasis is similar to deep sleep (suupti) and is able to be experienced by the witness-consciousness. One must not presume that this is the same as deep sleep


since it lacks all mental activities, because they are different insofar as the mind as such is present in one and not in the other. 26. This has been stated by Gauapdcarya: But one should know that this is the functioning mind that is controlled, free from making distinctions, and intelligent. Its functioning is different from deep sleep, and is not similar to that. [GK 3.34] 27. For that (mind) is absorbed in (its material cause) in deep sleep; it is not absorbed when controlled. That very (mind) becomes the fearless Brahman; it is the light of knowledge (shining) all around. [GK 3.35] 28. In the Mkya kha is it also declared: The non-perception of duality is the same in both prja32 and the Fourth (turya). Wisdom is associated with germinal sleep, and it is not found in the Fourth. [GK 1.13] 29. The first two are associated with dreaming and sleep, but wisdom with dreamless sleep. Those who are settled in the Fourth neither perceive sleep nor even dream (i.e., those settled in the Fourth perceive neither nonknowledge nor mistaken knowledge). [GK 1.14] 30. Dreaming belongs to one who has misperception, and sleep to one who does not know the truth. When the mistake has been destroyed in these two, the Fourth state is attained. [GK 1.15] 31. "The first two" refers to viva and taijasa.33 The "misperception" of the non-dual reality is its appearance as dual. When this is present in both viva and taijasa, it is called "dream." "Sleep" is not knowing the truth, and this exists in viva, taijasa, and prja. The "mistake" in dream and sleep in their essential nature is false knowledge. There is a "mistake," which is false knowledge. When it "has been destroyed" through knowledge, the "Fourth state," i.e., the non-dual, "is attained." 32. [Objection] Let us grant that there is such a great distinction between enstasiswithout-conceptualization and deep sleep. In the case of someone who is still striving to see reality, there is a need for enstasis as the means of vision (darana). 219

Nevertheless, for someone who has seen it, that (enstasis) is not needed for the purpose (of attaining) liberation-in-life, because even in deep sleep there is the removal of bondage to afflictions such as the attachment and aversion. 33. [Reply] This is not so. Is it the everyday sleep one gets automatically for some time that removes the bondage, or is it that which is continuous through practice? In the first case, is it the removal of the bondage to afflictions during deep sleep, or that existing at the other times? It is not the first, because it is not applicable (to one liberated-in-life). For even ignorant persons have no bondage to afflictions during deep sleep. It is not the second, because it is impossible. For the afflictions existing at one point in time cannot be destroyed by deep sleep existing at another (future) time; otherwise it would follow that even ignorant persons destroy afflictions even during waking or dreaming states. Nor is continual practice of deep sleep even possible, because deep sleep results from the cessation of activity. Therefore even a knower of reality undoubtedly needs enstasis-without-conceptualization in order to destroy afflictions. 34. In this enstasis the first stage is the control of speech as found in cows, horses, and so on. The second is mindlessness as found in children, fools, and so on. The third stage is the freedom from the ego as in fatigue. The fourth is freedom from the Great Principle as in deep sleep. 35. It is with reference to these four stages that it was said: "He should gently and gradually become quiet." [3.6.28; BhG 6.25] 36. And in this passage, the "resolute intellect" [3.6.28; BhG 6.25] is the means in (effecting this) quieting. Great resolve is required for the suppression of the Great


Principle, the ego, the mind, speech, and so on, which naturally are flowing out at a fast speed like a river washing away its banks. "Intellect" refers to discernment. 37. From time to time one should discern in this manner: After examining whether the previous stage has been mastered or not, he should, when he has mastered it, undertake the next stage. But when he has not mastered it, he must practice the same stage again. The Smti declares the practice of the fourth stage in the verse and a half beginning with: "(Making the mind) abide in the Self, (he should not think of anything else)." [3.6.28; BhG 6.25] 38. Gauapdcarya says: One should hold the mind that is distracted by desire and enjoyment with (the proper, prescribed) means, and even (the mind) that is very contented in dissolution (laya) should be held. Just as desire (is bad), so is dissolution. [GK 3.42] 39. One should turn (the mind) away from desires and enjoyment, remembering that all is suffering. One does not even see the born remembering that all is the unborn. [GK 3.43] 40. One should arouse the mind in dissolution; when distracted, calm it again. One should notice the mind tainted, and when it has attained equilibrium, one should not move it. [GK 3.44] 41. One should not relish happiness (sukha) there (in enstasis); one should be unattached by means of wisdom (praja), and with effort one should unify the steady mind that moves out. [GK 3.45] 42. When the mind does not dissolve and does not become distracted again, when it is unwavering and without a reflection of worldly objects, then that is made perfect as Brahman. [GK 3.46] 43. "Dissolution," "distraction," "taint," and the "attainment of equilibrium" are the four states of the mind. Among these, (a) when the mind is being controlled and turned away from objects, if it tends to be dissolved, i.e., tends to fall asleep owing to the force of previous habit, at that moment, one should properly awaken the mind by an effort to rise up or by warding off the causes of dissolution. The causes of 221

dissolution are lack of sleep, indigestion, overeating, and making oneself tired. 44. Because of this it is said: After completing sleep (one should eat) a small amount of easily digestible food, avoid tiring exercise, and in an isolated place free of disturbances, always sit effortlessly free of longing, or control the breathing in the way he has become adept. [SauU 2.2] 45. (b) If the mind roused from dissolution as a result of the daily practice of awakening becomes distracted by "desire and enjoyment," then one should again and again quiet the mind that has been distracted by recalling all the suffering found in objects of enjoyment, which is well known to people of discernment, and by seeing the real nature of objects of enjoyment preceded by the recalling of the reality of Brahman that is non-dual, free from rebirth, and so on, as is well known in stra. 46. (c) "Taint" is a defect of the mind that is the latent tendencies such as sharp attachment and aversion. A mind that is as if in a state of enstasis, sometimes seized by those (latent tendencies), remains in a state of one-pointed suffering free from dissolution and distraction. One should "notice" [3.10.40; GK 3.44] that mind in that condition, that is, one should understand by discerning it from a mind in enstasis. After understanding that this (mind) is not in enstasis, one should counteract the taint in the same way as dissolution and distraction. 47. (d) The word "equal" refers to Brahman because of the Smti: The Supreme Lord situated in all beings in equal measure. [BhG 13.27ab] 48. When the mind avoids dissolution, distraction, and taint, it attains the state of equilibrium, which is Brahman, because this is what remains. And then "when it has attained equilibrium, one should not move it" [3.10.40; GK 3.44] by mistaking it with taint and dissolution. Knowing distinctly the conditions of dissolution and taint with 222

a penetrating intellect, one should establish the mind in that condition of equilibrium with great effort. [3.10.41; GK 3.45] When it (the mind) has been established in it, the supreme happiness that is the essential nature of Brahman becomes fully manifest. 49. Similarly, it has been described in this way: When one feels the ultimate happiness (in meditation), which is grasped by the intellect beyond the senses. [BhG 6.21] 50. And there is also the ruti: The happiness of a mind whose impurities have been shaken off by enstasis, and which has entered into the Self, cannot then be described with words. That is grasped with one's own inner organ. [MtrU 4.9] 51. [Objection] The ruti and Smti have declared [MtrU 4.9; BhG 6.21, 25] that the intellect can grasp the bliss of Brahman that becomes manifest in enstasis. But the teacher (Gauapda) prohibits its grasping of the intellect in the statement "One should not relish happiness there." [3.10.41; GK 3.45] 52. [Reply] This is not a problem. This passage does not prohibit the grasping by the intellect of that happiness arising from suppression. Rather, what is prohibited is the recollection (of this happiness) taking place in the state of coming out (from enstasis), a recollection that is an obstacle to enstasis. It is just like the pleasure of coolness, which, although a person enjoys it when jumping into the depths of Jhanav (Gng) at midday during the summer heat and cannot express it at that time, one describes it afterward when emerging from the water. Or it is like the happiness of one's own form (svarpa), which a person enjoys through very subtle mental activities of ignorance during deep sleep. Although one cannot perceive it at the time through the cognition with distinctions brought by the mental activities, one recalls it clearly through memory when one wakes up. It is in this way that the rutis and 223

Smtis imply the experience of happiness in enstasis by a mind that is free of mental activities or is subtle because it has a remnant of a mere residual impression (saskra). 53. The "relish" in this passage is the recollection with distinctions of a person who has come out (of enstasis) thinking: "I have experienced this great happiness of enstasis"this is what the teacher (Gauapda) prohibited. 54. To make plain his intention, he said: "One should be unattached by means of wisdom (praja)." [3.10.41; GK 3.45] 55. "Wisdom" (pra-ja) is heightened (pra-kam) cognition (jna) that has distinctions. One should abandon attachment to this. Alternatively, wisdom is the resolute intellect mentioned above. [3.6.28; BhG 6.25] By means of that (intellect), one should avoid the attachment constituted by such things as relishing happiness and describing it. 56. If the mind that is immersed during the enstasis in bliss of Brahman should "move out" [3.10.41; GK 3.45] at some time, (a) either in order to relish happiness, or (b) because of a disturbance such as cold, wind, or mosquitoes. Then he should reunite the mind that moves out with the Brahman again and again so as to make it motionless. The only means to accomplish this is the effort of suppression. 57. Unification itself is further explained by the verse "When the mind does not dissolve." [3.10.42; GK 3.46] 58. The two pda-s of the verse "when it is

unwavering and without a reflection of worldly objects," [3.10.42; GK 3.46] prohibit both taint and relishing in bliss. A mind free from dissolution, distraction, and taint becomes established in Brahman uninterruptedly. 59. With reference to this same thing, it is said in Kahavall: 224

When the five senses are settled, together with the mind, and the intellect shall not stir, that they say is the highest state. [KU 6.10] 60. The wise regard that, which is the steady control of the senses, as yoga. Then one becomes alert, for yoga is both creation and dissolution. [KU 6.11] 3.11 The Practice of Yoga 1. Yoga neglected makes the operations of the senses become powerful. But properly performed, it is the cause of their dissolution (laya). 2. It is for this reason that Patajali gives a stra about the nature of yoga as: Yoga is the suppression of mental activity. [YS 1.2] 3. In order to counter the doubt that it is impossible to suppress these mental activities because they are endless, Patajali gives a stra on their extent: There are five types of activities, and they are afflicted or unafflicted. [YS 1.5] 4. The "afflicted" are the Demonic activities which consist in afflictions such as attachment and aversion. The "unafflicted" are Divine activities, which are free from attachment and the like. Although the afflicted and unafflicted are included in the five types, nevertheless the unafflicted are also mentioned along with these in order to avoid the foolish idea that only the afflicted should be suppressed. 5. Patajali gives six stras to make the activities clear by their names and definitions: They are valid means of knowledge, misapprehension, making distinctions, sleep, and memory. [YS 1.6] 6. The valid means of knowledge are direct perception, inference, and authoritative testimony. [YS 1.7] 7. Misapprehension is false cognition based on an unreal form of that. [YS 1.8]


8. Making distinctions results from verbal knowledge and is without any real substance. [YS 1.9] 9. Sleep is the mental activity that rests on the basis (pratyaya)34 of absence. [YS 1.10] 10. Memory is not losing an object that has been experienced. [YS 1.11] 11. When in the presence of the covering power of darkness, one perceives the absence of an object, that darkness is "the basis of absence." The mental activity that has the quality of darkness as its object is called "sleep." "Not losing an object that has been experienced" refers to recollection produced by an experience of it. 12. Patajali gives a stra on the means of suppressing the five types of activities: Suppression of these is by means of practice and detachment. [YS 1.12] 13. Just as after controlling the flow of a river with a swift current by building a dam, another flow is created branching off toward a field by digging a canal, so also controlling the flow that consists of objects in the river of the mind by means of detachment (the dam), a calm flow is brought about by means of the practice of enstasis (the canal). 14. [Objection] "Practice" defined as repetition is possible in the case of repeating mantras and meditating on God, because these consist of activity. What sort of practice of enstasis consists of the ceasing of all actions? 15. [Reply] In order to remove this doubt, Patajali gives the stra: Practice is the effort to be steady in that (state of suppression). [YS 1.13] 16. "Steady" refers to motionlessness, i.e., suppression. "Effort" refers to mental exertion. "I will control by all means the mind naturally habituated to flow out," such an exertion when repeated is called "practice."


17. [Objection] How can this practice that has operated only now (in this life), which is unconfirmed in itself, overpower the latent tendencies of coming out (of enstasis) that have operated without beginning? 18. [Reply] To answer this doubt, Patajali gives the stra: But this is firmly established when attended to for a long time, uninterruptedly, and with care. [YS 1.14] 19. For people repeat the saying of the fool: "There are only four extant Vedas. Five days have gone by since the youngster went to study them. Even today he has not returned." The yogin would be just like this, if he would want to perfect yoga in a matter of days or months. Therefore, yoga should be attended to for a long time through years or lifetimes. 20. Similarly, the Smti declares: Perfected through many births, he reaches the highest goal. [BhG 6.45] 21. Even being attended to for a long time, if (yoga) is attended to intermittently, then, when the residual impressions of yoga that are being created are overpowered by the residual impressions of coming out (after meditation) that follow immediately at the intermittent times, what is spoken by the Khaana author (r Hara) in this maxim would come to pass: 22. Running ahead, being robbed from behind like the learning of a man in the habit of forgetting, what would support him? [Kha 1.9.32] Therefore, (yoga) should be attended to without break. 23. "Care" means to take pains. Attending to (yoga) without taking pains, what is spoken by Vasiha in this maxim would come to pass: Even if this mind with latent tendencies destroyed is acting, it is not the actor, like the mind of an absent-minded man listening to a story. [LYV 5.7.13]


24. Not taking pains means not avoiding dissolution, distraction, taint, and relishing happiness. Therefore, one should painstakingly attend (to yoga). To be "firmly established" in enstasis, attended to through the threefold means such as a "long time" and so on, means that it is immovable by either latent tendencies toward objects of pleasure or latent tendencies of suffering. 25. And the Lord has described this: This is the highest attainment, on attaining which he thinks there is nothing higher, and established in which he is unmoved even by severe suffering. [BhG 6.22] 26. Vasiha illustrates that there is nothing higher than the highest attainment by means of the story of Kaca:35 Once, when waking up from enstasis in solitude with a delighted mind, Kaca said this one thing with a voice choked with emotion: [LYV 4.5.37] 27. "What do I do? Where do I go? What do I take? What do I discard? Everything is filled by the Self as with floodwaters during the great deluge. [LYV 4.5.38] 28. "For, outside and inside the body, below and above, and in all directions, here, there, there is the Self; there is no world made of the non-Self. [LYV 4.5.39] 29. "There is no place I am not present, and nothing not in me; what else can I long for? All is pervaded with and made of consciousness. [LYV 4.5.40] 30. "All the great mountain ranges are foam on the sparkling ocean of the great Brahman. The riches of the world are mirages formed in the great luster of the sun of consciousness." [LYV 4.5.35] 31. Vasiha illustrates that he is "unmoved even by severe suffering" in the story of the three-year enstasis of ikhidhvaja: She (Cula) saw the king there fixed in enstasis-without-distinctions and (she) thought: "I shall awaken the king from this supreme state." [LYV 6.9.447] 32. So thinking, Cula made the roar of a lion over and over in front of the king, terrifying the forest-dwellers. [LYV 6.9.448] 228

33. Then, O Rma, when he did not move even from the roar she made over and over, she shook him. [LYV 6.9.449] 34. Though shaken and fallen over, this wise one still did not awaken. [LYV 6.9.450] 35. Vasiha also illustrated this in the story of Prahlda: Thinking in this way, Prahlda, killer of enemy heroes, attained the enstasis of bliss that is without distinctions. [LYV 5.4.92] 36. He appeared as if a painted in a picture, fixed in enstasis-withoutdistinctions for five thousand years; he remained with a fat body, focused on one point. [LYV 5.4.93] 37. Then Viu addressed him thus: "Awaken, O Great Soul," and blew his conch Pacajanyam filling the many quarters. [LYV 5.4.106] 38. The king of the Danavas was gently, gradually awakened by the great sound produced by the breath of Viu. [LYV 5.4.107] 39. The enstasis of Vtahavya [LYV 5.9] and others should also be mentioned in this same vein. 40. Detachment is twofold: lower and higher.36 The lower type is further divided into four: striving (yatamna), analysis assessment (vyatireka),37 sensory unification (ekendriya), and mastery (vakra). 41. Among these, Patajali, commenting on the first three by implication, comments directly on the fourth: Detachment is the sign of mastery attained by one who is free of craving for objects directly seen or known from tradition. [YS 1.15] Garlands, sandal paste, women, sons, friends, lands, wealth, and so on are "objects directly seen." Heaven and so on spoken of in the Vedas are "known from tradition." 42. Even when there is craving for both types of objects, there exist the three types of detachment, beginning with striving, on the basis of the gradation of discernment. (a) Striving is the endeavor "I shall learn from teachers and stras what is substantial in this world and what is not." (b) When by the exercise of discernment 229

one distinguishes that among the faults that were previously present in one's mind, this much has ripened and this much is still left over, that is analysis assessment. (c) When one abandons the inclination to objects directly seen or known from tradition by realizing the nature of suffering of that activity, and is made to remain free from craving with merely a longing in his mind, that is sensory unification. (d) Mastery is absence of craving. This lower type of detachment is the limb to enstasis-withconceptualization, insofar as it promotes the eightfold limbs of yoga. However, it is the external limb of enstasis-without-conceptualization. 43. Of these, Patajali gives a stra on the higher detachment, which is an internal limb (to enstasis-withoutconceptualization): The higher form of detachment is the freedom from craving for qualities, owing to the knowledge of Spirit (purua). [YS 1.16] 44. Through the proficiency in enstasis-with-conceptualization there arises knowledge, i.e., direct realization of the Spirit that is detached from the Ultimate Cause of the material universe (pradhna)38 consisting in the three qualities. The "freedom from craving" toward the operation of all the three qualities, as a result of that direct realization, is the "higher form of detachment." 45. Patajali gives a stra on the gradations of rapidity of enstasis based on the gradations of this detachment: (Attainment of enstasis) is close for those with intense urgency. [YS 1.21] "Urgency" is detachment. Depending on the divisions of that (detachment), yogins are threefold: those with mild urgency, moderate urgency, and sharp urgency. "Close" means enstasis is attained in a very short time. 46. Patajali gives a stra on the different degrees of enstasis among only those with intense urgency: 230

There is even a further distinction because it is mild, moderate, and excessive. [YS 1.22] 47. That is, (a yogin) is mildly intense, moderately intense, or excessively intense. Even among these, one should understand that the subsequent ones bring mastery quicker. The highest are those who are excessively urgent, such as Janaka, Prahlda, and others, because they achieve firm enstasis after thinking only for a while. The lowest are those who have mild urgency such as Uddlaka and others, because they achieve enstasis after long efforts. Others should also be likewise ascertained as is proper. 48. In this way, then, when one with excessive urgency has reached enstasiswithout-conceptualization that is firmly established, the mind, being unable to be awakened (vyutthtum aakta) again, is eliminated. And when the eradication of latent tendencies has been safeguarded through the elimination of the mind, liberationin-life becomes firmly established. 3.12 Elimination of the Mind with Form 1. One should not suppose that elimination of the mind brings bodiless-liberation and not liberation-in-life because this was settled by the dialogue (between Vasiha and Rma): r Rma: Do tell, O Muni, when the nature of the mind disappears because of the rise of discernment, where do the qualities of yogins such as friendliness arise? [LYV 5.10.15] 2. Vasiha: The elimination of the mind is twofold: that with form and the formless. That with form is found in liberation-in-life; the formless is found in bodilessliberation. [LYV 5.10.16]


3. Many think: "I have all the natural qualities." They (the wise) know the mind is placed to be resting on pleasure, suffering, and so on.39 [LYV 5.10.18ab, 19ab] 4. I have described the existence of the mind, O descendent of the Raghus; now, best of the questioners, hear of its elimination. [LYV 5.10.20] 5. That intelligent man, whom the states of pleasure and suffering do not carry away from balance, like exhalation (does not carry away) the Lord of mountains (the Himlaya), the wise know his mind is dead. [LYV 5.10.21] 6. One whom misfortune, misery, exertion, excitement, dullness, and rejoicing do not lead to change, the wise know his mind is dead. [LYV 5.10.22] 7. For when the mind, a store of expectations, is destroyed, O Raghava, then goodness arises filled with the qualities such as friendliness. That is the mind of the one liberated-in-life who is freed from further births. [LYV 5.10.23ab, 24abcd] 8. This extinguishing of mind with form pertains in one liberated-in-life. [LYV 5.10.25ab] 9. But the formless extinguished mind that I mentioned, O descendent of Raghus, consisting without any parts, this exists only in bodiless-liberation. [LYV 5.10.26] 10. Though it supports all the best qualities, goodness is dissolved in the pure, most purifying state of bodiless-liberation. [LYV 5.10.27] 11. That (state) in which suffering has become still, which consists in consciousness, uniform, with deep bliss, in which the qualities of energy and darkness have disappeared; the great ones whose bodies are all-pervasive like the sky and incorporeal, with all traces of the mind drained away, stay in this state. [LYV 5.10.32] 12. Therefore, the means to liberation-in-life is the elimination of the mind with the residue of form. 13. So ends the chapter defining the elimination of the mind as the means to liberation-in-life.


1 2

Cf. KU 6.1 and BhG 15.1 ff. on the Avattha tree.

Cf. YS 1.32. "To prevent them (the obstacles) one should practice the single truth" (tat pratiedhrtham ekatattvbhysa). ekatattv can also be taken as "a single object," an object on which the yogin chooses to meditate in order to focus the mind in one-pointedness.
3 4

See above, 2.3.67; Chapter 2, n. 13; and LYV 3.2.110.

These verses do not appear in the LYV text, and they may be Vidyraya's own interpolation following the verse form. See above, Introduction 2.4, p. 55. Breath-control is part of the methods Vidyraya contrasts to the forceful haha-yoga, yet it amounts to a radical intervention to force the mind away from sense objects and latent tendencies when the other means are not adequate. See above, Introduction 2.4, p. 56. See above, Chapter 2, n. 15.

Cf. YS 1.4146 and 3.42. "Meditative identification with" translates a term in Patajali's stra (sampatti) that refers to the technical process of the state of enstasis-with-conceptualization (samprajtasamdhi). It is the merging of the knowing mind (citta) with the object known, which in the stra is the god Ananta also known as the serpent ea who holds up the world. By meditatively identifying with ea, the meditator/yogin can support the posture with stability. YS 1.41 describes the three components of enstasis-with-conceptualization as grasper, thing to be grasped, and grasping (graht, grhya, grahaa), where the mind, like a crystal, takes on the color of an object near it. The technical process involves all the three components flowing as one, yet still held conceptually distinct. In the state of "enstasis-without-conceptualization" (asamprajtasamdhi) or "enstasis-withoutdistinctions" (nirvikalpasamdhi) the three components of cognitive experience do not arise. For a full analysis of YS 1.41 ff., see Ian Whicher The Integrity of the Yoga Darana: A Reconsideration of Classical Yoga (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998) pp. 216257.

For Patjali sana is only a sitting posture. The other postures that are part of haha-yoga are not treated in the YS. Cf. Also vU 2.8. ada: unseen subtlety. This notion seems very close to aprva, discussed above, Chapter 2, n. 23. See above, Introduction 2.4, p. 56, and Introduction 2, n.24.

10 11

The seven vyhti, "sounds, exclamations," are bh, bhuva, sva, maha, jana, tapa, and satya. The gyatr is: tat sarvitvareya bhargo devasya dhmati | dhiyo yo na pracodayt || [RV 3.62.10] The iras, "head of gyatr," is a prose formula: po jyot raso 'mta brahma bhr bhuva svarom. The oldest textual version of this may be TA 10.27.1. The mantras are recited together three times beginning with the vyhti, then gyatr, and then iras: once during an inhalation through the left nostril, once silently during a retention, and once during an exhalation through the right nostril. The entire recitation is: o bh, o bhuva, o sva, o maha, o jana, o tapa, o satyam, o tat savat vareya bhargo devasya dhmati, dhiyo yo na pracodayt, om po jyot raso 'mta brahma bhr bhuva svar om. Recitation of this one formula is thought to bring the merit of reciting the entire Veda, and with breath-control creates ascetic heat. Cf. MDh 2.76; MDh 6.81.

"Methods" here again translates yukti; however, it refers to specific yogic techniques other than the methods discussed above in 3.2.34. It is unclear to me what "moving Mount Meru in the form of the head" is. "Moving the uvula" may refer to the khecarmudr or the nabhomudr. Each of these practices is process where the frenum joining the tongue to the lower jaw is cut, the tongue is lengthened in order



to enable this long tongue to reach up into the upper palate, and the gaze is then fixed upward to the space between the eyebrows. It is believed this stops various diseases by containing the life-breath and aids the yogin's further perfecting. Only the nSS edition does not have "in the heart" (hdaye), but I have retained it, for it is in my best mss. It is unclear what this adds to "meditating on the light in the navel plexus." It is also not clear to which of the psychoactive drugs available in ancient and medieval India Vidyraya refers, or his attitude about them, other than that they "give forgetfulness."

See above, Chapter 3, n. 7.

14 pratyaya: cognition. Although in YS 1.18 [3.6.26] I have translated pratyaya as "basis," here it is "cognition." Cognition of a "stilled" object might also mean it is in the past, and an "arisen" object is in the present. For a yogin in concentration the object of cognition is continuous without reference to past and present, and thus the two types of cognition are "alike." The object of such concentration can be anything. YS 1.39, yathvhimatadhynad v, recommends choosing an object the meditator likes. Once the mind becomes capable of being steady on a certain object, it can be steady on other objects also, so it is best for one to start with an object one likes in order to get accustomed to concentration. In the state of "one-pointedness," the mind is aware of what it thought at the beginning as at the end of the meditation and, for the mind in this state, time has stopped. Therefore, if the present cognition seizes the same object that the past cognition does, then we can say that both of these cognitions are alike. 15

See above, Chapter 2, n. 47. According to the Nyya view, the mind can grasp only one object at a time, sequentially, not simultaneously. The mind quickly shifts from one aspect of the senses to another at a time, then gradually constructs a full picture.

vilpya vikti ktsn sabhavavyatyakramt-: After causing the dissolution of the entire complex of effects gradually in the reverse order of its creation. This refers to the overturning of the superimposition of the unreal on the real. The method differs from subject to subject, but the basic model in earliest literature may be dea in such passages as ChU 6.1; ChU 3.18.1, and BU 2.3.6. Olivelle (1996) has translated this term as the "rule of substitution" drawing on the grammatical notion. See his BU 2.3.6n. In ChU 6.1, rui first gives his son vetaketu the analogy of the pot (effect) and clay (material cause). Looking at a pot, one is seeing it as a name, while the reality is that one is looking at clay. In this way insight moves from gross to subtle and subtler by seeing through the names and concepts that have been superimposed when perceiving a thing. The later standard Advaita terms for this process are apavda or adhysa,sometimes translated as "de-superimposition." This term apavda derives from the grammatical rule of exceptions to the general rule. See above, Chapter 2, n. 44.


Cf. ChU 7.23.1. See above, Introduction 2.4, pp. 5859 See above, 2.2.45.


19 20

sakalpa: imagination. The term sakalpa may also be translated as "thought," "intention," or "conceptualization" in the following discussion. The basic understanding is that temptation for objects of pleasure has its roots in thinking they are good. Once convinced they are bad, one tends to give them up.

The eight superhuman powers are aiman, ability to become as small as an atom; laghiman, lightness; mahiman, to become big; prpti, to go anywhere at will or get whatever is desired; prkniya, omnipresences; itva, the power to control everything; vaitva, self-control; kmvasvitva, to stay wherever one pleases. Some lists add garima, to become heavy. Other additional powers are sarvaja, omniscience; duraravanam, tele-hearing; parakayapraveanam, entering any body; vaksiddhi, whatever one says becomes reality; kaplavkatvam, whatever one wishes becomes true; sraum samhartum at, power to create and destroy; and amaratvam savga, immortality all over the body. Cf. YSBh 3.45.




Cf. Pacatantra Mitrabheda, Kath 8, and Hitopadea, Suhdabheda, Kath 9.

23 The Indian time increment here is the muhrta, which is 48 minutes, and the ghaik, which is 24 minutes. For the sake of convention in English, I translate them as hour and half hour. 24 25

See above, Introduction 2.4, p. 60, and Introduction 2, n.31. See above, Chapter 1, n. 38.

26 Patajali, the author to the YS, is traditionally considered to be an incarnation of Lord ea. Lord ea also was incarnated as Caraka, the author of Carakasahita, which deals with therapy for the body, and Patajali, the author of the grammatical text Mahbhya, which is therapy for speech. 27 That is, consciousness reflected appears to be dirty because the mind, analogous to a mirror, is dirty. Yoga is thus analogous to cleaning a mirror, blocking in the mind-mirror the process of generation of the impure mental activities consisting in rajas and tamas. Ian Whicher (1998) p. 169, terms this "sattvification."

My collated JMV mss. and the Adyar and nSS editions omit the final two compounds in the received text of the stra 3.35: svrthasayamt puruajnam, "conscious identification (sayama) on that which exists for itself leads to knowledge of Spirit." It is not clear to me if this omission was Vidyraya's intention, but the ms. evidence demands that the omission remain.
29 This process of discernment perhaps refers to the Sakhya path of knowledge. See also my discussion in the Introduction 2, n.32.


"They" refers to concentration, meditation, and enstasis, also known by the collective term sayama. I translated this term above in n. 28 as "conscious identification." Sayama seems to be a state in which the yogin proficient at concentration, meditation, and enstasis can consciously reenter existence in the body-mind complex without the constraints of ordinary existence, and experience vastly heightened knowledge and powers.
31 For the different forms of kccha (painful vow) and cndrayna (lunar fast), see MDh 11.212220. See also Olivelle (1986) p. 130, n. 42. 32


See above, Introduction 2.1, p. 33. See also Fort (1990). Ibid.

33 34

pratyaya: basis. Here basis means "cause," as above in YS 1.18 [3.6.26]. It is unclear to me whether Vidyraya may take the term both ways. See also above, Chapter 3, n. 14.
35 36 37

The following is a commentary on BhG 6.22. Detachment was earlier defined as "sharp" and "sharper," in 1.0.4.

vyatireka: analysis assessment. This term might also be translated as "taking stock." The root vy-ati ric literally means "remaining beyond" or "excess," and therefore its derivative here is "assessing what is left over." See above, 2.2, where I translate it in its logical discursive usage as "negative statement" of the converse.
38 pradhna: Ultimate Cause of the material universe. It is literally the "Principle." This term from Sakhya is synonymous with prakti.


Unclear. 3.12.3 ab corresponds to YV 5.90.7ab and LYV 5.10.18ab. But 3.12.3cd is a combination of words in YV 5.90.6ab, 8ab, 9ab, and LYV 5.10.19ab, 19cd, and 22cd.



Chapter Four The Purpose in Attaining One's True Nature

4.1 Safeguarding of Knowledge 1. We have discussed the answers to these three questions: What is liberation-in-life? What authority is there for it? How is it attained? Now we shall set forth the answer to a fourth question: What is the purpose in attaining it? There are five purposes: the safeguarding of knowledge, austerity, the absence of opposition, the elimination of suffering, and the manifestation of bliss. 2. [Objection] In the case of the knowledge of reality arisen through the authoritative means, what obstacle could possibly be there to require its safeguarding? 3. [Reply] When the mind is not still, doubt and misapprehension may follow. For instance, Vivmitra described the doubt of Raghava, who was a knower of truth prior to his achieving the stillness of mind: O Raghava, best of the knowers, there is nothing else for you to know. You know everything with your own subtle intellect. [LYV 1.3.17] 4. Although your mind, which is like that of uka, son of Lord Vysa, has known what is to be known, it needs here only stillness. [LYV 1.3.18] 5. uka, on the other hand, first having realized the truth by himself, entertained doubts. So he asked his father. When his father also taught the very same, he entertained doubts even about that. So he went to Janaka. When Janaka also taught the very same, uka said to him: 6. I realized this myself earlier through discernment. My father when asked taught just the same thing. [LYV 1.3.43] 237

7. You have also described the meaning of the same thing, O best of knowers of the Word. And just this is the meaning of the statements we learn in the stras. [LYV 1.3.44] 8. The certainty is that as this miserable, worthless world arises from one's own imagination, it is destroyed by the destruction of one's own imagination. [LYV 1.3.45] 9. Therefore, what is this, Great Arm? Tell me the unchanging truth. Because of you the world put in error by the mind attains stillness. [LYV 1.3.46] 10. Janaka replied: O sage, there is no other certainty whatsoever beyond what you yourself have realized, and again heard from your teacher. [LYV 1.3.47] 11. In this world there is one Person (pumn), who is unbroken pure consciousness, and no other. Bondage is from the compulsion of one's own mental fabrication. Without fabrication, one is freed. [LYV 1.3.48] 12. O sage, you have clearly realized what is to be known. The indifference to enjoyments or to the visible totality has been born here in your great Self. [LYV 1.3.49] 13. With a mind that is fulfilled you have attained all that is to be attained. O Brahman, you are not striving after the seen; you are freed! Let go of confusion! [LYV 1.3.50] 14. Thus he was taught by the great soul Janaka. uka let go silently into the highest reality abiding in itself. [LYV 1.3.51] 15. With his sorrow, fear, and weariness gone, without desire, and his doubts cut off, he climbed to the summit of Meru, favorable for the purpose of enstasis. [LYV 1.3.52] 16. After remaining there for ten thousand years in enstasis without concepts, he came to an end in the Self like a lamp without oil. [LYV 1.3.53] 17. Therefore even when the truth has been realized, doubt arises for one who lacks stillness, as it did for uka and Raghava. It is an obstacle to liberation just like not knowing. 18. For this reason the Lord said: One given to ignorance and unbelief, who has a doubting nature, perishes. Neither this world, the world beyond, nor bliss is for one who has a doubting nature. [BhG 4.40] 238

19. "Unbelief" is misapprehension; this will be explained later on. Ignorance and misapprehension oppose only liberation. But doubt opposes both enjoyment and liberation because it swings between two mutually opposed extremes. When there is action for the sake of pleasure in sasric existence, the intellect on the path to liberation opposes it. When there is activity on the path to liberation, the intellect in sasric existence obstructs it. Therefore since there is no happiness whatsoever for one who has a doubting nature, one desirous of liberation should completely cut off doubt. 20. For this reason the ruti declares: (The knot of the heart is split,) all doubts are cut off, (and his actions perish when that, with reference to which the highest is the lower, is seen.) [MuU 2.2.8] 21. The story of Nidgha is also an illustration of misapprehension. bhu went to Nidgha's house out of deepest compassion and left after awakening him in various ways. Even when awakened, Nidgha lacked belief in the reality of what had been taught. Arriving at the misapprehension that ritual actions alone are the means to the highest aim of human existence, he continued as before to perform ritual actions. And out of pity the teacher went back, fearing that the student would lose the cause of the highest aim, and awakened him. Even then he did not abandon his misapprehension. But by the third awakening he got rid of the misapprehension and attained stillness. [ViP 2.1516] Doubt and misapprehension, which consist in not understanding

(asabhvan) and in erroneous understanding (vipartabhvan), obstruct the fruit of the knowledge of truth. 22. This has been declared by Parara: As a fire, though burning brightly, would be unable to burn fuel if obstructed by jewels, mantras, or herbs,


23. Likewise, the fire of knowledge, though kindled and burning brightly, would be unable to burn sin if obstructed. [PU 14.4] 24. Erroneous understanding as well as not understanding, O uka, make an obstruction to only the knowledge of truth and no other. [PU 14.5] 25. Therefore, for one whose mind is not still, because doubt and misapprehension are possible, safeguarding the knowledge of truth from the obstacle characterized by the obstruction of the fruit becomes necessary. But for one whose mind has been stilled when by elimination of the mind even the world itself has been dissolved, what possibility is there for doubt or misapprehension? 26. Even the bodily functions of a knower of Brahman who is free of the phenomenal appearance of the world take place without any effort on his own part by means of the life-breath inspired by the Great Lord. 27. Because of this, the Vedic tradition of the Chandogya gives: Not remembering this body that is near people, as a draught animal yoked to a cart, just so is the life-breath yoked to this body. [ChU 8.12.3] 28. The knower of Brahman functions not remembering this body "near people," i.e., existing in the presence of people. Only the people standing nearby see the body of the knower of truth. But he himself does not remember "This is my body," because his mind has been eliminated. "Draught animal" refers to a horse, bullock, and the like, trained and fit to be harnessed to a vehicle such as a chariot or cart. Just as the animal, set on the course of the road by the charioteer, leads the cart or chariot and the like to the village up ahead all by itself with no need for the charioteer's repeated effort, so also this life-breath yoked to this body by the Great Lord performs its function with or without of the effort of the individual self (jva). 29. Also in the Bhagavata Pura it is declared: 240

The accomplished person does not see the perishable body, whether it stays in place or moves about, because he has mastered his nature, just as one blind with drunkenness, possessed by chance, then taken by the force of fate, does not see whether his clothes are properly held up. [BhP 11.13.36] 30. Vasiha also says: Good people, awakened by those around them, follow the proper conduct derived in due course from previous behavior unaffected, like someone awakened from sleep. [LYV 1.3.127] 31. [Objection] The two statements that "the accomplished person does not see" and "(good people) follow the proper conduct" are mutually contradictory. 32. [Reply] Not so, because it is possible that they refer to two different situations based on the relative degree of stillness. 33. Just this relative degree is referred to in the ruti: One who plays in the Self, who delights in the Self, one who is active, this one is the best of the knowers of Brahman. [MuU 3.1.4] 34. In this passage, four types appear. The first is the knower of Brahman, the second is the higher knower of Brahman, the third is the next higher knower of Brahman, and the fourth is the highest knower of Brahman. This is how we should understand them: beginning with the fourth of the seven stages of yoga, they occupy in due order the final four (stages of yoga). 35. Vasiha has described these (seven) stages: The first stage of knowledge is called desire for the good, the second is reflection, the third is mental refinement. [LYV 3.9.113] 36. The fourth is attaining goodness (sattva), and the next is called nonattachment. The sixth stage is nonawareness of objects; the seventh is known as abiding in the Fourth state (turya). [LYV 3.9.114] 37. "Why do I remain so stupid? I shall think with help of stra and wise men" is the desire with detachment that the wise call "desire for the good." [LYV 3.9.116] 241

38. The activity of investigation of the good preceded by (studying) stras, association with good people, and detachmentthis is called reflection. [LYV 3.9.117] 39. When the nonattachment to sense objects by means of desire for the good and investigation becomes refined, it is called mental refinement. [LYV 3.9.118] 40. When the mind by force of desisting from (perception of) objects through the practice of these three stages is established in the essence of pure goodness, it is described as attaining goodness. [LYV 3.9.119] 41. But that which has as its fruit the disconnection because of the practice of these four stages and which has the wonder of increasing goodness, that is called by the name nonattachment. [LYV 3.9.120] 42. By practicing the five stages, because he is unaware of internal or external objects as a result of the intense delight in the Self, [LYV 3.9.121] 43. He is awakened only through the persistent efforts of others. This is the sixth and named nonawareness of objects. [LYV 3.9.122] 44. Total absorption in his own being resulting from the long practice of the six stages and the nonperception of separateness, is to be known as the state of attaining the Fourth (turya). [LYV 3.9.123] 45. In this passage, the (first) triad of stages [4.1.35; LYV 3.9.113] is only a means for the knowledge of Brahman but is not included in the highest kind of knowledge. This is because in the three stages the perception that the distinctions are real is not removed. For this reason they are designated "waking." 46. This has been stated: But this triad of stages, O Rma, is the state called "waking." In waking this world is seen as it is through the perception of distinctions. [LYV 6.15.62] 47. In the fourth stage, after determining the truly nondual nature of Brahman, which is the material cause of the entire world, the yogin understands in this the falsehood of the name and form (nmarpa)1 that are expressed by the word "world" and are


superimposed on Brahman. For the one desirous of liberation, it is this that is the state of dreaming relative to the waking mentioned earlier. 48. This has been stated: When the nondual has attained stability and the dual has become calm, those who have attained the fourth see the world as if it were a dream. [LYV 6.15.70] 49. He vanishes like a bit of cloud in autumn that has dispersed. The one who abides as only the remnant of the pure existent has attained the fourth. [LYV 6.15.71] It is this yogin who has achieved the fourth stage who is called the "knower of Brahman." 50. The three stages beginning with the fifth are the subdivisions of liberation-inlife. And these stages are brought about by relative degrees of stillness produced by the practice of enstasis-without-distinctions (nirvikalpasamdhi). In the fifth stage (the yogin) comes out on his own from enstasis-without-distinctions. It is this yogin who is the higher knower of Brahman. In the sixth stage he comes out (from enstasis) when aroused by people around him. It is he who is called the next higher knower of Brahman. These two stages, then, are referred to as deep sleep and very deep sleep. 51. This has been declared thus: Having attained the fifth stage named the deep sleeping state, he stays only in the nondual, with all his various components completely at rest. [LYV 6.15.73] 52. By always facing inward, even when occupied in outward activity, by always being completely still, he seems as if he is sleepy. [LYV 6.15.75] 53. Practicing in this stage, one without latent tendencies gradually falls into the sixth stage known as very deep sleep, [LYV 6.15.76] 54. Wherein there is no existent nor nonexistent, no egoism nor even nonegoism, free of unity and duality, he remains in alone with mentation eliminated. [LYV 6.15.77] 243

55. Empty inside and empty outside, like the empty pot in space. Full inside and full outside, like the full pot in the ocean. [LYV 6.15.79] 56. The mind that has achieved the deep enstasis-without-distinctions, and which has only remnants of residual impressions, is empty inside and outside like a pot standing in space, because it is incapable of either fantasizing or perceiving external objects. It is immersed in Brahman, which is the unified essence of self-luminous existence, consciousness, and bliss, and because it sees Brahman outside everywhere, it is full inside and outside like a pot full of water set in the middle of the ocean. 57. For the yogin who has achieved the seventh stage called the Fourth state (turya), no coming out (from enstasis) is possible at all, (prompted) either by oneself or by another. Statements in the Bhagavata Pura such as "the perishable body, whether it stays in place or moves about," [4.1.29; BhP 11.13.36] have been used with reference to just such a person. The statements of the Yogastras explaining enstasis-without-conceptualization amount to (paryavasitni) just this. It is such a yogin who is described in ruti mentioned earlier as "the highest knower of Brahman."2 Therefore in this way there is no contradiction, because the two

statements "awakened by those around them" [4.1.30; LYV 1.3.127] and "the accomplished person does not see" [4.1.29; BhP 11.13.36] refer to these two stages, respectively. 58. When liberation-in-life consisting in the three stages starting with the fifth is being brought about, the knowledge of truth that has arisen is safeguarded from hindrance because there is no occasion for doubt and misapprehension since there is no appearance of duality. This safeguarding of knowledge is the first purpose of liberation-in-life. 244

4.2 Austerity 1. The second purpose is austerity. We should consider the stages of yoga to be austerity insofar as they are the means of the attainment of the state of godliness and the like. We can gather that it is the means of that godliness from the dialogues between Arjuna and the Lord, and between r Rma and Vasiha. 2. Arjuna said: What path, O Krishna, does a man take who is not an ascetic, possessing faith, whose mind has wandered away from yoga without achieving perfection in yoga? [BhG 6.37] 3. Would he not fall in both, perish like a dispersed cloud without support, O Great Arm, bewildered about the path of Brahman? [BhG 6.38] 4. The Lord said: Having reached the worlds of those who do good, and dwelt there infinitely long, the man fallen from yoga is born in the home of a pure and fortunate people. [BhG 6.41] 5. Or else, he is born in the very family of wise yogins. Such a birth is indeed most difficult to obtain in this world. [BhG 6.42] 6. There he obtains the connection with the intellect of the previous body and strives again then for perfection, O son of Kurus. [BhG 6.43] 7. r Rma said: What sort of condition, O Lord, is there for one who ascends to the first, second, or third stage of yoga and then dies? [LYV 6.15.53] 8. Vasiha said: For one embodied whose life expires during a stage of yoga, the previous sins are destroyed according to the particular stage. [LYV 6.15.57] 9. Then he delights in celestial cars and in cities of the world-protectors and in the breezy arbors of Meru with lovely mistresses. [LYV 6.15.58] 10. Then when the collection of good and bad previous deeds is completely exhausted by experience, the yogins are born in the world [LYV 6.15.59] in a safe house of pure, distinguished, virtuous, and good people. [LYV 6.15.60]


11. Then after he has touched the three stages of yoga that he had practiced in his previous meditations (prgbhvan), the higher stages sequentially fall upon the wise man in abundance. [LYV 6.15.61] 12. [Objection] Let us grant that the stages of yoga are thus the means of attaining the world of the gods. Yet how do they constitute the means of attaining austerity? 13. [Reply] We say because it is so stated in the ruti. 14. Thus the Vedic tradition of the Taittirya gives the statement: In the beginning the gods attained divinity through austerity; the is discovered heaven by austerity. [TB 3.12.3] 14. While the three stages preceding the knowledge of truth have the nature of austerity, all the more in the three stages beginning with the fifth subsequent to knowledge of truth, stages that consist in enstasis-without-distinctions, have the nature of austerity. 15. For this reason the Smti declares: The highest austerity is the one-pointedness of the mind and senses. That is superior to all virtues (dharma-s); it is called the highest virtue. [MBh 12.242.4] 16. Even if there is no other birth attained through austerity according to this doctrine, nevertheless this is called austerity for the "benefit of the world." 17. For this reason the Lord said: You also must act considering only the benefit of the world. [BhG 3.20] 18. The people who are to be benefited are threefold: pupils, devotees, and outsiders. Among these, when the pupil through the intensity of his belief in the authority of the inward-facing yogin teacher has attained the highest confidence in the truth taught by him, he quickly becomes mentally still. 19. For this reason the ruti declares: In someone who has the highest faith in God, has faith in his teacher as in God, these points taught by the noble shine forth. [vU 6.23] 246

20. And the mti declares: With senses controlled, being devoted, a faithful one obtains knowledge. Having obtained knowledge, he soon reaches the highest stillness. [BhG 4.39] 21. The devotee attending on the yogin through such things as giving food and building a place to live acquires that person's austerity for himself. 22. Similarly the ruti declares: His sons take possession of the inheritance, his friends take his good deeds, and his enemies his sins. [Cf. BSBh 3.3.26 and 4.1.16] 23. The outsider (taastha) is of two kinds: the believer (stika) and the nonbeliever (nstika). Among these, the believer, seeing the yogin walking on the good path, also proceeds along the good path himself. 24. Similarly the Smti declares: Whatever the best person does, just that the other people do. The standard that he sets, the world follows it. [BhG 3.21] Even the nonbeliever, seen by the yogin, is released from sins. 25. This has been stated: When a man's intellect is pervaded by experience and established in reality, everyone seen by him is released from all sins. [SS 2.20.44] 26. Because of wishing to state in this way that a yogin is beneficial to all beings, he continues: When a man's mind has dissolved into this highest Brahman, which is the boundless ocean of consciousness and bliss, his family becomes purified, his mother attains her purpose, and the earth becomes sanctified. [SS 2.20.45] 27. Not only do the yogin's practices prescribed by the stra constitute austerity, but also all his ordinary activities. Similarly a tradition is given among the members of the Taittirya branch of the Veda. They give a tradition on the greatness of the 247

knower in a chapter of the Veda. 28. In the early section of this chapter, the components of the yogin are equated with materials of the components of the sacrifice. In the case of the sacrifice of the man who knows thus, his self is the sacrificer, his faith is the wife, his body is the sacred fuel, his chest is the sacrificial altar, his hairs are the bed of kua grass, the broom is his tuft of hair, his heart is the sacrificial post, his desire is the ghee, his anger is the sacrificial animal, his austerity is the fire, his control of the mind is the priest who slays the animal, (alms-giving is) the sacrificial fee, his speech is the Hot priest, his breath is the Udgat priest, his eyesight is the Advaryu priest, his mind is the Brahm priest, his hearing is the Agndh priest. [MNU 80] 29. Here one should supply a word: "(alms-giving is) the sacrificial fee," because it is mentioned by the Chandogya: Austerity, alms-giving, integrity, nonviolence, and truthfulness, these are his sacrificial fee. [ChU 3.17.4] 30. In the middle of the mentioned chapter the practice of the yogin and the time periods of his life are equated with the component parts of the Jyotioma sacrifice; and in the later section with the component activities of all sacrifices: As long as he continues to live, that is the religious consecration (dk);3 what he eats that is the oblation; what he drinks, that is his drinking soma; what he delights in, that is the upasada-homa;4 when he moves about, sits, or stands, that is the pravargya-homa;5 his mouth is the havanya fire;6 what he says, that is the oblation; when he knows, that is his performance of sacrifice; whatever he eats in the evening and morning, that is the sacrificial fuel sticks; when he takes his morning, midday, and evening meals, those are the three pressings of soma; his days and nights, they are full and new moon sacrifices; his fortnights and months are the four-month sacrifices;7 his seasons are the animal sacrifices; his full years (samvatsara) and yearly cycles (parivatsara) are the series of sacrificial days; indeed this is a sacrificial session (satra) at which all his property is given away. His death is the final bath after the sacrifice. [MNU 80] 31. "At which all his property is given away" means "at which all he owns is given as a sacrificial fee." The word "this" in the passage refers to the yogin's life beginning with "days and nights" and ending with "yearly cycles" under discussion, 248

indicating in one word the totality of time. The meaning is that his life is a sacrificial session, at which all he owns is given as a sacrificial fee. 32. In the final section the mentioned chapter declares that one who honors a yogin as the personification of all sacrifices receives the fruit that is characterized by identity with sun and moon, that is, Brahman as cause and effect,8 and which fruit consists in gradual liberation. 33. This (life) is indeed the agnihotra9 sacrificial session, ending in old age. When a man who knows this dies during the sun's northward course (toward summer solstice), having attained in the greatness that belongs to the gods alone, he then becomes unified with the sun. One who dies during the southward course, on the other hand, having attained the greatness that belongs to the ancestors alone, attains communion with and residence in the same world as the moon. A Brhmaa who is a knower wins the greatness of both the sun and the moon. Therefore he attains the greatness of Brahman, indeed the greatness of Brahman. Thus ends the Upaniad. [MNU 80] 34. "The activities of a yogin who lasts until old age and death have the nature of rites prescribed in the Veda from the daily fire sacrifice to the year-long sacrificial session"one who meditates thus, by means of the intensity of reflection, attains communion, i.e., identity, with the sun and the moon. Such a man, by means of weak concentration attains the same world (of the sun and the moon) and having experienced their power, attains thereafter the greatness of the four-faced Brahma in the world of truth. There having attained knowledge of truth, he attains thereafter the greatness of the highest Brahman consisting in truth, knowledge, and bliss. The words "thus ends the Upaniad" form the conclusion of the book teaching that knowledge as discussed. In this way, then, is established austerity as the second purpose of liberation-in-life.


4.3 Absence of Opposition 1. A common person or person of another faith does not oppose a master-yogin who is faced inward and does not see outward activities. The absence of opposition is the third purpose. Opposition is of two kinds: quarreling or censure. Among these, how can a common person quarrel with a yogin who is free of anger and so on? 2. The freedom from this (anger) is stated in the Smti: One should not return anger for anger, reviled, one should give good wishes. One should patiently endure abuse and show contempt to no one. [MDh 6.48ab.47ab] 3. [Objection] The renunciation-of-the-knower comes before liberation-in-life, knowledge of truth comes even earlier than that, and renunciation-for-knowledge even earlier than that. How is it that with reference to the latter, (and) with reference to the former, the Smti speaks of virtues (dharma-s) such as freedom from anger and so on? 4. [Reply] Quite so. For this very reason it is not possible to presume that a person liberated-in-life would possess anger and the like. When (they do not exist) even in the lower state of renunciation-for-knowledge, how can they exist in the state of the knowledge of truth, which is higher than that? And how much the less in the renunciation-of-the-knower? And how much less in liberation-in-life? Therefore it is not possible for a common person to have a quarrel with a yogin. One should not even presume the existence of opposition in the form of censure, because it is not possible to ascertain that he is worthy of blame. 5. Similarly the Smti declares: When no one knows whether he is is good or bad, learned or ignorant, virtuous or vile, he is the true ascetic. [VDh 6.44; NpU p.161] "Good or bad" refers to high or low birth. 250

6. Is the opposition of a person of another faith directed at the doctrine of his stra or the yogin's conduct? With regard to the first, a yogin does not find fault with doctrines of other stras because he complies with rutis such as: 7. You must know that alone is the Self; discard all other talk. [MuU 2.2.5] 8. (By knowing that very one, a wise Brhmaa should create wisdom for himself.) He should not think too much of words, for that tires the voice. [BU 4.4.21] 9. Nor does he defend the doctrines of his own stra before an opponent, because he is committed to what rutis such as these say: One should abandon books completely, as a man wanting grain discards the straw. [AmbU 18] 10. Having known the highest Brahman, he should then throw them (his books) away like a torch (used to light the way). [AmnU 1] 11. When a yogin regards even an opponent as identical with his own Self, then what question can there be of desiring victory? Persons of all faiths (tairthika-s), except for the materialists, accept liberation. So they would never oppose the conduct of the yogin, because even though the teachings in the treatises of liberation of the Jainas, the Bauddhas, of Vaieika, of Nyya, the aivas, the Vaiavas, the aktas, of Sakhya, of Yoga, and so on are different, they are nevertheless in agreement as to the eightfold yoga of restraint, discipline, etc.,10 which is the means to liberation. Therefore the master yogin is approved by all without opposition. 12. With reference to just this, Vasiha said: For one for whom this birth is the last, O Best Mind, pure knowledge enters him very quickly, like the bamboo-pearls in the best bamboo.11 [LYV 5.1.9] 13. Nobility, cordiality, friendliness, gentleness, emancipation, and intelligence always seek refuge together in him, like women seek refuge in the women's chambers. [LYV 5.1.10] 251

14. All people seek after him who is sweet with charming conduct, like the wild deer in the forest seek out the sweet sound of the bamboo flute. [LYV 5.1.11] 15. The one who, because the mind's activities are calm as in sleep, is always steadily awake, who is always attended to by the wise like the full moon is sought out (by the digits)he the Smtis say is liberated in this world. [LYV 5.2.36] 16. All beings wild or tame become faithful in the presence of one full of stillness, like they become still in the presence of their mother. [LYV 2.1.62] 17. Among ascetics, the learned, and men offering sacrifices, kings, powerful men, and men rich with virtues, the man with stillness alone shines forth. [LYV 2.1.66] 18. In this way then is established the third purpose of liberation-in-life, namely, the absence of opposition. 4.4 Elimination of Suffering and the Manifestation of Bliss 1. The fourth and fifth purposes, namely, the elimination of suffering and the manifestation of bliss, have been described in the fourth chapter, the Brahmnanda [PD 14], which deals with knowledge and bliss. 2. Both of these are stated in brief here: If a person were to realize the Self as "I am him," desiring what, for love of what would he worry about the body? [BU 4.4.12; PD 14.5] This ruti states the elimination of suffering with regard to this world. 3. rutis such as this state the elimination of suffering caused by anxiety with regard to merit and sin, which determine the next world: He is not tormented, thinking, "Why did I not do what is good? Why did I do what is bad?" [TU 2.9] 4. The manifestation of bliss is threefold: attaining all desires, having done all there is to do, and achieving all there is to achieve. Attaining all desires is threefold: 252

being witness of everything, being free of desires under all circumstances, and being the enjoyer of everything. "I am just that Brahman which consists in the

consciousness that is the witness present in all bodies from the Hiranyagarbha to inanimate objects"when a man knows this, he becomes witness to every desire in the bodies of others as in his own body. 5. With reference to this the ruti states: He attains all desires, together with the wise Brahman. [TU 2.1] 6. In the world the freedom from desires resulting from the enjoyment of pleasures is said to be the attainment of desires. In the same way the attainment of desires can be ascribed to a knower of the truth who sees the fault of all pleasures, because he is free of desires under all circumstances. For this reason when speaking of bliss multiplied a hundred times higher at each stage beginning with the universal emperor all the way up to the Hiranyagarbha, the ruti repeats: "of the man versed in the Vedas and free from desires." [TU 2.8] When a man reflects on his own Self as subsisting in everything in the form of being, in the form of consciousness, in the form of bliss, he is an enjoyer of everything. 7. With this in mind the ruti states: I am food, I am food, I am food. I am the eater of food, I am the eater of food, I am the eater of food. [TU 3.10] 8. With regard to having done all there is to do, the Smti states: There is nothing for a Yogin who has done all there is to do and is contented with the nectar of knowledge; and if there is anything to do, he is not a knower of truth. [JdU 1.23] 9. But for a man who delights in the Self, who is contented in the Self, and is fulfilled only in the Self, there is nothing that must be done. [BhG 3.17] 10. Also the ruti declares achieving all there is to achieve: Truly, Janaka, you have achieved freedom from fear. [BU 4.2.4] 253

11. Therefore he became the whole. [BU 1.4.10] 12. And also: He who knows that highest Brahman, indeed becomes Brahman. [MuU 3.2.9] 13. [Objection] These two the elimination of suffering and the manifestation of bliss, are established merely through the knowledge of truth. Therefore they cannot be the purpose of liberation-in-life. 14. [Reply] This is not so, because what is meant here is these two insofar as they are well protected. Just as the knowledge of truth, though arisen earlier, becomes well protected by liberation-in-life, so also do these two become well protected. 4.5 The Master Yogin and the Knower of Truth 1. [Objection] Given these five purposes of liberation-in-life, it must be admitted that the master yogin is superior even to the knower of truth who is still performing worldly activities. 2. But this is contradicted by the dialogue: r Rma: Lord of what has been and will be, one for whom enstasis has arisen, who, even when engaged in activity, is calm as if he has come (out of enstasis), [LYV 5.7.5] 3. Or one who is firmly dedicated to the control of enstasis, resorting to some secluded place. O Lord, tell me, which of the two is superior. [LYV 5.7.6] 4. Vasiha: Enstasis described as that state of inward coolness of a person who sees this world as a combination of the qualities that are the non-Self. [LYV 5.7.7] 5. Having ascertained that: "There is no connection for me with the visible world" and remaining cool, some remain engaged in activity, some are intent on meditation. [LYV 5.7.8] 6. Both these two, O Rma, are quite equal if they are fully cool within. Such a state of inward coolness would be the fruit of endless austerity. [LYV 5.7.9] 254

7. Reply: This not a difficulty. This passage teaches only that one should necessarily bring about the inward coolness that consists in the eradication of latent tendencies. However, it is not refuting the superiority of the elimination of the mind with what comes immediately after that. 8. Vasiha himself clarifies the intended meaning by saying that coolness is the pacification of craving: But when inward coolness has been attained, the world is cool. For those burning from inner craving, this world is a forest fire. [LYV 5.7.24] 9. [Objection] But in this passage we hear the censure of enstasis and the praise of worldly activities: If the mind of one fixed in the position of enstasis is turbulent with mental activities, then his enstasis is the same as a mad dance. [LYV 5.7.10] 10. If the mind of one caught up in a mad dance has the latent tendencies destroyed, then his mad dance is the same as the enstasis of Brahman. [LYV 5.7.11] 11. [Reply] This is not so, for in this passage, having upheld only the praise of enstasis, it censures the latent tendencies. This is the specific meaning of this passage: Even if enstasis is better than worldly activities, nevertheless, if that is accompanied by latent tendencies, then it is surely lower than worldly activities that are without latent tendencies. When both the man in enstasis and the man engaged in worldly activities are still not knowers of truth and have latent tendencies, then enstasis is more praiseworthy, because enstasis produces merit that is the cause of the attainment of the highest world. But when both are focused on knowledge and are without latent tendencies, even then this enstasis consisting of elimination of the mind is definitely superior as protective of liberation-in-life, which consists in the eradication of latent tendencies. Therefore, because the master yogin is superior (to the man of knowledge 255

engaged in worldly activity), it is established that there is no impediment to liberationin-life, which is endowed with the five purposes. 12. Thus we have explained liberation-in-life by examining its nature, authoritative basis, means, and purpose. Next we will explain the renunciation-of-theknower, which supports it.



See above, Chapter 3, n. 16. See above 4.1.3536; 4.1.4749. dk: religious consecration. An initiation ceremony preliminary to conducting the soma sacrifice.

2 3

4 upasada-homa. Offerings that occur for three days after the religious consecration and before the soma sacrifice. 5

pravargya-homa. A rite within the soma sacrifice where a pot of ghee is heated and a combination of cow and goat milk is poured into it, creating a pillar of fire as the butter and milk overflow. Offerings from the pot are made to Indra and the Avins. havanya fire (east fire). The fire into which most offerings to the gods are made in any Vedic rite.

6 7

The seasonal rites at the beginning of spring, the rainy season, and the cool season. A fourth rite representing the thirteenth month may be attached to this.

That is, the sagua Brahman and the nirgua Brahman: the Brahman with qualities, and the Brahman without qualities.

agnihotra. The daily sacrificial rite to agni, the god of fire, that the householder makes in the morning and evening for his entire life. Cf. above 3.26.

10 11

bamboo-pearls. Apparently the belief is that pearls can grow in the best bamboo as they grow in oysters.


Chapter Five: The Renunciation-of-the-Knower

5.1 The Path of the Paramahasa Yogins 1. The renunciation-of-the-knower has been explained in the Paramahasa Upaniad. We will quote this Upaniad and give a commentary. 2. At the

beginning of this work, the author introduces a question bearing on the renunciationof-the-knower: Then Nrada approached the Lord and asked him, "What is the path of the paramahasa yogins? What is their state?" [PhU 1 p. 45] 3. The word "then" implies that something has come immediately afterward, but in this passage nothing immediately precedes. Nevertheless, the matter under inquiry here is the renunciation-of-the-knower. And the person qualified to undertake this is the one who has come to know the truth but is distracted by worldly activity and desires stillness of the mind. Therefore the meaning of the word "then" is that it follows immediately after acquiring this type of qualification. 4. The two terms ("paramahasa" and "yogin") are used together in order to exclude someone who is only a yogin and someone who is only a paramahasa. Someone who is only a yogin is a person who, because of his lack of the knowledge of truth, is attached to amazing feats of yogic power, such as knowing the past, present, and future, flying through the air, etc., and has made efforts toward this or that (feat) with the various conscious identifications (sayama).1 Consequently he becomes separated from the highest aim of human existence. 5. The stra on this point has been quoted already: 258

In enstasis they are obstacles; in coming out (from enstasis) they are supernatural powers. [YS 3.38] 6. Someone who is only a paramahasa, however, realizing the worthlessness of yogic powers, becomes detached. 7. This has also been quoted: Curiosity in these sorts of wonders does not arise for him because he knows that these powers thus appear in the world from the highest Self. [LYV 5.9.67] Though detached, that one violates the injunctions and prohibitions because of the fullness of his knowledge of Brahman. 8. Of this it has been said: How can there be an injunction or a prohibition for one who walks on the path beyond the three qualities? [Untraced] 9. Similarly the people who have faith and are cultured censure that person in this way: And when the Kali Yuga has arrived, everyone will speak of Brahman. They will not carry out their duties, O Maitreya, devoted only to satisfying their lust and hunger. [Untraced] 10. But in the yogin paramahasa the two defects mentioned above do not exist. Also his other excellent qualities are described in the dialogue: r Rma: O Lord, even when he is in that state, what, O best of the knowers of Self, is this extraordinary excellence of one liberated-in-life with the mind absorbed in being? [LYV 6.14.1] 11. Vasiha: A person who knows gives no thought to excellence. He who is ever contented, and with the Self at peace, stands in the Self alone. [LYV 6.14.2] 12. Flying through the air and so on have been performed in many ways by means of the supernatural powers of mantra, austerity, and yoga.2 What is extraordinary in that? [LYV 6.14.3] 13. He has only one distinction not shared with those of a dull intellect: a mind that is unattached and pure by abandoning concern for everything. [LYV 6.14.5] 259

14. For a man who appears without an emblem, whose sasric existence has ended, and whose long confusion has ended, and who knows That, this much alone is the emblemthe daily and complete attenuation of passion, anger, sorrow, delusion, greed, and anxiety. [LYV 6.14.6] 15. We now inquire into the "path" and "state" [PhU 1 p. 45] of those who possess this excellence and are free of the two defects. "Path" refers to external conduct consisting in dress and speech and so on. "State" refers to the virtue (dharma) that is the internal quieting of the mind. "Lord" is the four-faced Brahm. 16. The answer to the question stated above is introduced with: The Lord said to him: [PhU 1 p. 45] 17. In order to generate an abundance of faith in the path to be discussed, he praises this path: This path of the paramahasa is very difficult to find in the world; it is not at all common (bhulya). [PhU 1 p. 45] 18. We construe "this" as what has been inquired about. The word "this" refers to the main path, which is the indifference to clothing and so on for the good of one's own body and for the benefit of the world, to be discussed later in the text. This path is "very difficult to find" because this type of detachment that has reached the highest level of intensity is extremely rare. Lest this leads someone to presume that the path is completely nonexistent, the Lord denies that in the statement "it is not at all (common)." The inversion of gender is a Vedic peculiarity. 19. [Objection] If this way is very difficult to find, then one should not strive towards that end because there is no purpose in it. 20. [Reply] Having anticipated this the Lord says:


Even if there is one such man, he alone abides in the eternally pure and he alone is the Person of the Veda so the learned think. [PhU 1 pp. 4546] 21. Among thousands of men only a few strive for perfection. Even of those who strive and become perfected, only a few see me in reality. [BhG 7.3] 22. According to this maxim, anyone who is yogin paramahasa is found anywhere, at any time. In that case, he alone is one who "abides in the eternally pure." 23. "Eternally pure" refers to the highest Self, because a ruti states, "The Self that is free from evil." [ChU 8.7.1] 24. The mere yogin and the mere paramahasa are excluded by the word "alone." The mere yogin does not know the eternally pure. Though the mere paramahasa knows, facing outward, he does not abide in Brahman, because he has no mental tranquillity. The "Person of the Veda" means the Person taught by the Veda. The "learned," i.e., knowers, are yogins who are well versed in the stras that teach the experience of Brahman and mental tranquillity. People generally acknowledge that a paramahasa is someone focused on Brahman. But the knowers just mentioned cannot accept even that and think he is Brahman itself. 25. Similarly the Smti declares: He who, after leaving behind knowing and not knowing, remains only in his own form, O Brhmaa, he is not a knower of Brahman but is himself Brahman. [PD 4.68; MukU 2.64] From this, one cannot even think that there is no purpose in it. 26. Explaining directly how they are in the eternally pure and how they are the person of the Veda, the Lord then gives an answer to the question "What is their state?" by implication:


He is a great man whose mind is always fixed on Me alone; and therefore I am always fixed in him alone. [PhU 1 p. 46] 27. The yogin paramahasa is the great man because he is the very best among those persons who are qualified for Vedic knowledge and ritual. And this "great man whose"i.e. his very own"mind is always (caused to be) fixed on me alone," because he has suppressed his own mental activities relating to sasric existence by means of practice and detachment. Hence, saying "on Me," the Lord Prajpati means the Highest Self established in the stras, referring to it through his own experience. Because the yogin fixes his mind "on Me alone," "therefore I am" also "fixed," i.e., manifested, "in him alone," i.e., in the yogin alone in the natural form of the Highest Self, not in other non-knowers, because of their being covered by ignorance. There is not such a manifestation in the knowers who are non-yogins either, because of their being covered by external mental activities. 28. At this point the Lord teaches the way asked about in the question "What is the way?": That man should renounce his own sons, friends, wife, relatives, and so on, as well as the topknot, sacred string, and Vedic recitation. Abandoning all rites and this universe, he should take up the loincloth, staff, and the robe for the good of his own body and as a benefit to the world. [PhU 1 p. 46] 29. Consider a householder who has not taken up the order of the paramahasa consisting of the renunciation-for-knowledge because of the caste3 of his mother and father, etc. When the quantity of merit gathered in his previous births reaches maturity, and having performed the means such as Vedic study (ravaa), he properly understands truth. Then when the mind becomes distracted by the thousand worldly and Vedic activities that are obligatory (prpta) for a householder, he desires to take 262

on the renunciation-of-the-knower in order to attain tranquillity. At such a person is directed the teaching "his own sons, friends, etc.," because, for one who comes to know the truth after taking up the renunciation-for-knowledge and desires now to take on the renunciation-of-the-knower, the very question of sons, etc., does not arise. 30. [Objection] Should the renunciation-of-the-knower be brought about like the other types of renunciation that are given in the injunctions such as the recitation of the praia ritual formula,4 or else is it an ordinary abandonment such as like throwing away a worn out garment or leaving a village plagued by misfortune? It is not the first, because injunctions and prohibitions do not pertain to one who knows the truth, since he is free from agency. 31. For this reason a Smti declares: There is nothing to do for the yogin who has done all there is to do and is content with the nectar of knowledge; if there is anything to do, he is not a knower of truth. [JdU 1.23] It is not the second, because the ruti enjoins on him the emblems of the order of renunciation such as the loincloth and the staff. 32. Reply: This is not a problem, because it is reasonable that this renunciation has the characteristics of both as in the concluding rite of a sacrifice (pratipattikarman).5 For instance, in the Soma sacrifice, the Veda prohibits the person consecrated for the sacrifice from scratching the body with the hand during the time he is practicing the restriction connected with the consecration, and enjoins the use of the horn of a black antelope (in the following passages): 33. Should he scratch with the hand, his children would become affected by the scab disease; should he smile, they would become naked. [TS 6.1.3] 34. And: He scratches himself with the horn of a black antelope. [TS 6.1.3] 263

At the conclusion of the restrictions, since there is no purpose for this horn of a black antelope and it cannot be carried about, it is natural to discard it. 35. The Veda, however, enjoins this discarding and the manner of discarding it: When the sacrificial fees have been carried away, he throws the horn of the black antelope into the ctvala. [TS 6.1.3] This concluding rite of a sacrifice has the characteristics of both: the common and the Vedic. Likewise the renunciation-of-the-knower has the characteristics of both. 36. It must not be presumed that agency is absolutely absent in a knower of truth. For even when agency superimposed on the Self, which is pure consciousness, has been put aside by knowledge, the naturally established agency present in the adjunct inner organ (antakaraa),6 which has taken on the reflection of consciousness and is subject to a thousand changes, cannot be removed as long as the material substance (the inner organ) exists. Furthermore, this does not contradict the Smti "content with the nectar of knowledge." [JdU 1.23] For even when there is knowledge, one who lacks tranquillity has not "done all there is to do," since he has no contentment and thus has something left to do, namely, to bring about tranquillity. 37. [Objection] When we accept that the knower of truth is subject to injunctions, another body would begin through that aprva.7 38. [Reply] This is not so. For when there is a visible fruit of this aprva characterized by a removal of the obstacles to mental tranquillity, there is no justification for imagining something unseen. Otherwise, one might imagine the cause of another birth even in the injunctions for Vedic study and the rest, overlooking their visible fruit in the form of the removal of obstacles to the arising of the knowledge of Brahman. Therefore, since there is no problem in accepting (abandonment according 264

to injunctions), even a householder who is a knower, like one desiring knowledge, should renounce only by following the injunctions to perform such rites as the offering to the ancestors with joyful faces (nndmukharddha),8 fasting, and keeping a vigil. 39. Even if things like the faithful offering (rddha)9 are not prescribed in this case, nevertheless, because this renunciation-of-the-knower is a modification of the renunciation-for-knowledge, all of the ritual details (dharma-s) pertaining to the former are also applicable to the latter according to the maxim: "The modification should conform to the archetype."10 This is just as in the case of the Agnioma

Soma sacrifice, where the ritual details pertaining to it are applicable to the modified rites such as the Atirtra. Therefore, as in the other type of renunciation, here too one should declare the intention to give up sons, friends, etc., with the praia ritual formula. 40. The words "and so on" in "relatives, and so on" [5.1.28; PhU 1 p. 46], include particular things like worldly possessions consisting of such things as servants, animals, houses, and fields. By the word "and" in "and Vedic recitation" (svdhyya) the author includes the stras on grammar, exegesis, and logic, which are useful in determining the meaning of the Veda, and the Epics, Puras, and the like, which enhance the Veda. This establishes all the more that one must give up things like poetry and drama, which serve only to soothe mental anxiety. The word "all" in "all rites" includes the non-Vedic,11 Vedic, daily, occasional, prohibited, and optional.


41. Giving up "sons" and the like encompasses giving up enjoyments of this world. Giving up "all rites" encompasses giving up hope for enjoyments in the next world, which causes distraction for the mind. Using the masculine nominative of the pronoun "this" (ayam) in "this universe" is a Vedic inversion of case and gender: therefore one should read "this" (idam neuter accusative). Giving up the universe refers to giving up the worship of Virt, which is the cause of attaining that universe. The word "and" in "and this universe" encompasses the worship of the Hirayagarbha, which is the cause of attaining the strtman, and Vedic study (ravaa) and the like, which is the cause of the knowledge of truth. After giving up by means of the praia ritual formula all means to pleasure in this world and the next, beginning with one's sons, and ending with the worship of Hirayagarbha, one should take up the loincloth and the other things. The word "and" in "and the robe" includes things like sandals. 42. Similarly the Smti declares: One may take up a pair of loincloths, a garment, a patched garment to shield against the cold, and a pair of sandals. He may take nothing else. [LVS 4.7] 43. "The good of his own body" [5.1.28; PhU 1 p. 46] refers to keeping himself from shame by wearing the loincloth, protection against attacks from animals and snakes by carrying the staff, and protection against cold weather and the like by wearing the robe. The word "and" (in "and the robe") includes protection against touching impure places by wearing sandals. "A benefit to the world" [5.1.28; PhU 1 p. 46] refers to (the common people's) accomplishment of good deeds through such activities as giving him the proper veneration and alms when they have recognized that he is in the highest order of society (rama) by his emblems like the staff. Both


words "and"12 include his maintenance of the proper bounds of his order (rama) derived from the practice of the cultured people. 44. With intention of indicating the secondary nature (anukalpatvam) of taking up the loincloth and the rest, the text denies that this is principal: And that is not principal. [PhU 1 p. 47] 45. Even taking up the loincloth and the rest is not a principal rule (mukhya kalpa) for the yogin paramahasa, but it is only secondary (anukalpa). But because taking up the staff is principal for the renouncer-for-knowledge, the Smti prohibits parting with it: 46. It is enjoined that the staff and the body be in contact at all times. The wise one must not go beyond the distance of three arrow shots without the staff. [SU p. 252] Also the Smti declares that the expiation for defiling the staff is one hundred breathcontrols: "If he abandons the staff he must do one hundred." [Untraced] 5.2 The Principal Rule of the Paramahasa Yogin 1. The author describes the principal rule of the paramahasa yogin by means of a dialogue: If it is asked "What is principal?" (he said) "This is principal. The paramahasa lives without the staff, topknot, sacred string, and robe." [PhU 12 p. 47] "Topknot" (ikha)the neuter gender, it must be noted, is a Vedic inversion of gender. 2. Just as a person free from the topknot and the sacred string is the principal type of the paramahasa desirous of knowledge, so a person free from the staff and robe is the principal type of yogin. For when the mind is occupied with examining such 267

things as the required characteristics of the staffthat it should be bamboothe required characteristics of the robethat it should be a patched garmentand with obtaining and protecting the staff and so on, yoga, which is characterized by the suppression of mental activity, would not be successful. This is not proper according to the maxim: "One does not marry off his daughter in order to kill the bridegroom." 3. [Objection] What remedy is there against cold, etc., when he has no robe? 4. [Reply] To answer this doubt the text declares: There is no cold, there is no heat, neither pleasure nor pain, and neither respect nor disrespect; he is free from the six waves. [PhU 2 p. 4748] 5. For the yogin whose mental activity is completely suppressed there is no "cold," because he does not perceive it. Just as a child who is absorbed in play feels no cold, even without clothing on a winter or early spring morning, so also the yogin absorbed in the highest Self feels no cold. We should understand the absence of feeling "heat" during the summer in the same way. The word "and" is meant to include its absence during the rainy season. When there is no perception of cold and heat, it is right that there is the absence of the "pleasure" and "pain" that these two generate. Cold generates pleasure during the summer and pain during the winter. And the opposite is true in the case of heat. "Respect" refers to the care by another person. "Disrespect" refers to disdain. When the yogin does not perceive any other person distinct from his own Self, then both respect and disrespect have vanished far away. The word "and" includes the absence of pairs of opposites such as enemies and friends, love and hate, etc. The "six waves" are hunger and thirst, sorrow and delusion, and old age and death. It is proper that the yogin seeking the true reality of 268

his Self avoid these three pairs of opposites, since they are attributes of the life-breath, the mind, and the body, respectively. 6. [Objection] Let us grant that in a state of enstasis, there is no such thing as cold, etc. But in a state of coming out (of enstasis), afflictions such as slander trouble this person just as it does a person who is in sasric existence. 7. [Reply] To answer this doubt the text says: Having given up blame, pride, jealousy, hypocrisy, insolence, desire, hate, pleasure, pain, lust, anger, greed, delusion, excitement, indignation, egoism, and so on. [PhU 2 p. 48] 8. When opposing people point out faults in oneselfthat is "blame." "Pride" is the mental activity: "I am above others." "Jealousy" is the belief: "I am like others on account of learning and wealth, etc." "Hypocrisy" is flaunting things like private recitation (japa) and meditation in front of other people. "Insolence" is a mind bent on things like making threats. "Desire" is wanting things like wealth. "Hate" is thinking about killing enemies, etc. "Pleasure" is contentment of mind through the acquisition of agreeable objects. "Pain" is the opposite of this. "Lust" is wanting women and so on. "Anger" is agitation in thought produced by being prevented from getting things one wants. "Greed" is the inability to endure parting with wealth one has gained. "Delusion" is thinking that the bad is the good and that the good is the bad. "Excitement" is the mental activity that shows the pleasure in the mind and causes the face to change, etc. "Indignation" is presenting another's good qualities as faults. "Egoism" is confusing the Self with the aggregate of the body, senses, etc. The words "and so on" are understood as the thoughts of possessiveness and ownership, etc., about objects of enjoyment. The word "and" includes the opposites of blame and 269

the rest of the things mentioned, such as praise and so on. "Having given up" all these things, namely, blame and the rest, refers to abandoning them through the practice of the eradication of latent tendencies discussed earlier. "He should remain" completes the sentence. 9. [Objection] While one's body exists one cannot give these up. 10. [Reply] To answer this doubt the text says: He views his own body as a corpse, because that body is rejected. [PhU 2 p. 48] 11. The body, which was his own before, the yogin now looks upon as a corpse, insofar as it is separate from consciousness, which is his own Self. Just as a pious person, fearing to touch a dead body, looks at it standing far off, so also this yogin, fearing that he may make the mistake of equating (the body and the Self), is careful to constantly distinguish the body from the Self, which is pure consciousness. "Because"for this reason"that body," by the teacher's instructions, religious texts, and experience, "is rejected"removed from the Self, which is pure consciousness. Therefore, the point is that one strives to abandon blame and the rest, even when the body is present, because one sees what is separated from consciousness as equal to a corpse. 12. [Objection] Just as an instance of confusion over the cardinal directions, though it is destroyed by seeing the sunrise, in some way continues, so also the uncertainty over the identity of the body with the Self continues; afflictions such as blame and the rest may follow over and over again. 13. Reply: To answer this doubt the text says:


The cause of knowledge that is doubtful, erroneous, illusoryfrom that he turns away continually. [PhU 2 p. 48]


14. "Doubtful knowledge" is wondering whether the Self possesses the attribute of being a doer, etc., or whether it is free of that and other such doubts. "Erroneous knowledge" is thinking the Self is just the body. Both of these refer to the object of experiencer. But "illusory knowledge" is intended here to refer to the object of experience. 15. This is of many kinds and is made clear in this passage, which begins: Completely giving up all desires springing from imagination, (controlling the group of senses on all sides with only the mind;) [BhG 6.24] 16. The "cause" of this is fourfold, according to the stra: Ignorance is the perception of the permanent, the pure, the pleasant, and the Self in things that are impermanent, the impure, the painful, and the non-Self. [YS 2.5] 17. The first is the error of perceiving permanence in impermanent things such as mountains, rivers, oceans, etc. The second is the error perceiving purity in the impure bodies of sons, wives, and the like. The third is the error of perceiving happiness in painful things such as agriculture and commerce. The fourth is the error of perceiving the principal self in individuals like the son, who is the secondary self,13 and the wife, who is the false self, and also the selves made of food14 and the like which are nonselves. 18. The "cause" of doubt and the rest is ignorance, which covers up the truth that the Self is the nondual Brahman, and the latent tendencies resulting from ignorance. In the paramahasa yogin the ignorance there has been turned away from15 by understanding the meaning of the Great Texts. But the latent tendencies have been turned away from by the practice of yoga. In the example of confusion over the 271

cardinal directions, even when ignorance has ceased, confused behavior still occurs as before because of the existence of latent tendencies. But how could doubt and the rest continue, since a yogin is free from these two causes of confusion? With reference to this absence of continuity (anuvtti) (of confusion), it is said, "from that," i.e., from those two causes, the yogin "turns away continually." Also, when the cessation of ignorance and its latent tendency has taken place, we must view this cessation as continual, because they are not destroyed. 19. The text tells the cause in this continuance (tasmin nityatve): (He has) a continual awakening in That. [PhU 2 p. 48] The word "That," because it is a pronoun, expresses a well-known meaning. Here it signifies the highest Self well known from all the upaniads. "In That," i.e., in the highest Self, the yogin has a continual awakening(that is the meaning of the phrase) he has "a continual awakening in That."16 20. By knowing that very one, a man17 should create wisdom for himself. [BU 4.4.21] Following this ruti, the yogin, removing mental distractions through yoga, constantly creates the wisdom concerning only the highest Self. Therefore, because the

awakening is continual, the cessation of ignorance and its latent tendency, which are to be destroyed by the awakening, is continual. That is the meaning. 21. The text excludes the presumption that the highest Self to be awakened to stands aloof like the Lord of the logicians: That is in himself alone(that is his) state. [PhU 2 pp. 4849]


The highest Brahman to be known through the Upaniads"That is himself alone" and not something other than himself. By ascertaining this, the "state" of the yogin comes about. 22. The text describes the way in which such a yogin has experience: He tranquil, unmoving, and a mass of non-dual bliss and knowledge he alone am I. That alone is my highest abode. [PhU 2 p. 49] 23. The three words "he," "tranquil," and "unmoving" in the accusative case are to be understood as nominatives. The highest Self, who is "tranquil," i.e., free from the distractions of anger and the rest; who is "unmoving," i.e., free of action such as coming and going; who is devoid of duality, whether within himself, among other things that are similar, or among other things that are different (svagatasajtyavijtyadvaitaunya);18 and whose only essence is being, consciousness, and bliss,"he alone am I." "That alone," i.e., the reality of Brahman, is "my," i.e., the yogin's, "highest abode," i.e., real nature. But that is not connected to such states as being a doer or an experiencer, because these are fashioned from illusion. 24. [Objection] Although the highest Brahman belongs to the Self, why is it that we do not attain bliss right now? 25. [Reply] In response to this, those versed in the tradition have stated the attainment of bliss here in this body with illustrative examples: Although butter is in a cow's body, it does not nourish her limbs. That same butter, when prepared through activity, becomes medicine for this same cow. [KT 6.77] 26. In like manner, God, the highest Lord, who like butter exists in the bodies of everyone, does not help people with symbol-oriented meditation. [KT 6.78]


27. If those who were known as teacher, father, brother, etc., in a yogin's previous order in society (rama), who are ritualists and dulled by their worship, should bewilder him by identifying him as a heretic because of his lack of such things as the topknot, sacred string, and performance of worship at the three junctures of the day, then the text points out to the yogin the ongoing certainty, so as to prevent the arising of bewilderment and the like: 28. And That alone is the topknot, and That alone is the sacred string. By knowledge of the unity of the higher Self and the lower self, their distinction is shattered. This (knowledge) is the worship at the junctures of the day. [PhU 2 p. 49] 29. The knowledge of the highest Brahman that is to be known in the Upaniads: "That alone" takes the place of the external topknot and sacred string, which form the subsidiary parts of the sacrificial rite. Furthermore, the two instances of the word "and" include the other parts of the rite defined as the ritual formulas and requisite materials. Everything such as heavenly bliss, which is produced by rites that are to be accomplished by subsidiary parts such as the topknot, is attained by the knowledge of Brahman alone, for all sensory bliss is a slight trace of the bliss of Brahman. 30. The ruti declares: The other beings live on a fraction of this bliss. [BU 4.3.32] 31. With reference to just this point the Vedic tradition of the Atharvaikas gives in the Brahma Upaniad: After cutting his hair along with the topknot, the wise man should discard his external string. He shall wear the eternal highest Brahman as his string. [BU 2 p. 85] 32. They say "string" is derived from "stringing" together. The string is indeed the highest state. He who knows this string is a wise Brhmaa who has gone through to the end of the Veda. [BU 2 p. 85] 274

33. Let the yogin who knows yoga and sees the truth wear that string on which this whole world is strung like pearls on string. [BU 2 p. 86] 34. The knower established in the highest Yoga should discard the external string. He who is conscious should wear this string, which has the nature of Brahman. From wearing this string he shall not become impure and unclean. [BU 2 p. 86] 35. They whose string is within and have the sacred string of knowledge, they alone in the world know the string and possess the true sacred string. [BU 3 p. 86] 36. Their topknot is knowledge; they are focused in knowledge; their sacred string is knowledge. For them knowledge alone is the highest, and is said to be purifying. [BU 3 pp. 8687] 37. The knower whose topknot is made of knowledge, like a flame made of firenot a topknot that is separate, he is said to possess the true topknot, and not the others who wear only long hair. [BU 3 p. 87] 38. However, only the Brhmaas and others who are qualified to perform Vedic rites should wear this string, for the Smtis declare it is a (subsidiary) part of ritual. [BU 3 p. 87] 39. The knowers of Brahman say he whose topknot and sacred string are made of knowledge possesses the complete Brhmaa state. [BU 3 p. 87] 40. He for whom this sacred string is the highest aimhe is the knower. The string belongs to him. The knowers say he is the real sacrificer. [BU 3 pp. 8788] 41. Therefore, the topknot and sacred string exist for a yogin. Just so, the worship at the three daily junctures also exists. Through the knowledge of the oneness between the highest Self, which is understood from the stras, and the individual self, which is understood from experience of an ego, a knowledge of their oneness produced by hearing the Great Texts, the erroneous notion of their division is completely "shattered."19 It is completely shattered because the error does not

reemerge. The awareness of this oneness, because it is being produced at the juncture of the two selves, is called "juncture"20 in the same way as the rite performed at the 275

juncture of the daytime and nighttime, which is known as "juncture." When all this is so, the yogin cannot be confused by those dulled by worship. 5.3 The Paramahasa Yogin's Staff of Knowledge 1. The answer to the question "What is the path?" was given in the passage beginning with "That man should renounce his own sons, etc." After giving the answer to "What is their state?" briefly in the passage beginning with "He is a great man, etc.," and developing it in the passage beginning with "The cause of knowledge that is doubtful, erroneous, and illusoryfrom that he turns away continually," [PhU 2 p. 48] now he summarizes: Giving up all desires, the highest state is in the nondual. [PhU 3 p. 50 ] 2. Because things like anger and greed are preceded by desire, by giving up desire, all mental flaws are also given up. 3. It is with reference to just this that the Vedic tradition of the Vjasaneyins has given: And so people say, "This person here is simply made of desire." [BU 4.4.5] Therefore, it is proper that the yogin's mind that is without desire is an uninterrupted state in the nondual. 4. [Objection] Renouncers-for-knowledge, who still possess the latent tendency for following the injunction to carry the staff, do not accept the paramahasa yogin without a staff. 5. [Reply] To answer this doubt the text says: He who carries the staff of knowledge is called a single-staffed ascetic.


6. He who carries a wooden staff, takes food from all, and is devoid of knowledge goes to the terrible hell known as Mahraurava. 7. One who is devoid of qualities like endurance, knowledge, detachment, mental control, etc., but lives merely on alms-food, he is a sinner and a destroyer of the life of the ascetic. 8. He who knows this difference is a paramahasa. [PhU 3 p. 50] 9. This single-staff of the paramahasa is twofold: the staff of knowledge and the wooden staff, in the same way as the staff of the triple-staffed ascetics is threefold: the staff21 of speech, the staff of mind, and the staff of action. 10. Manu has described the staff of speech and the others: The staff of speech, the staff of mind, and the staff of actionhe in whose mind these are firmly fixed is called the triple-staffed. [MDh 12.10] 11. By keeping these three staffs with reference to all beings, and by subduing desire and anger, then a man attains success. [MDh 12.11] 12. Daka declares the nature of these: The staff of speech, the staff of mind, and the staff of action a man in whom these staffs are firmly fixed is called a triple-staffed ascetic. [NpU p. 192; VaP 17.6] 13. In the staff of speech one should remain silent, in the staff of action one should remain indifferent, but for the staff of mind breath-control is prescribed. [DSm 7.30; SU p. 272] 14. A reading from another Smti says, "The staff of action is to eat little." [SU p. 272]22 15. Such characteristics of the triple-staffed ascetic exist also in the paramahasa. With this in mind Pitmaha declares: The paramahasa ascetic is called the fourth, as enjoined in the ruti. Possessing restraints and disciplines, carrying the triple-staff, he is a form of Viu. [Untraced]23


16. When this is so, just as silence and the rest are characterized as "staff" since they are the cause of the control of passion and the rest, so also is knowledge a staff since it is the cause of the control of ignorance and its effects. Only the paramahasa who carries this staff of knowledge is called the principal single-staffed ascetic. Because one might sometimes forget the mental staff of knowledge because of a mental distraction, in order to prevent this, one carries a wooden staff as a reminder. 17. When a paramahasa, without having realized this secret meaning of the stras, carries a wooden staff, thinking that the aim of human existence can be achieved merely with his outward appearance, that person goes to the terrible the hell that is known as Mahraurava because it has torments (ytana) with many forms. He tells the reason for this: Seeing him in the appearance of a paramahasa and confusing him with a knower, all the people feed him in their own homes. This person with a greedy tongue, making no distinction between who should be avoided and who not, eats the food of everybody and thereby commits an offense. The Smti texts such as "the mendicant is not affected by polluted food" and "he should collect alms from the four castes" refer only to the knower. Since this person lacks

knowledge, it is proper that he belongs in hell. 18. For this reason Manu declares the rule of begging for the ascetic without knowledge: He should never desire to obtain alms by reading portents or omens, by astrology or medicine, or by giving instruction. [MDh 6.50] 19. One should collect alms once a day and should not be attached to excess, for attached to alms, the ascetic also becomes attached to sense objects. [MDh 6.55] 20. But the Smti speaks in this way to the practitioner of knowledge:


The paramahasa may eat either once or twice a day, but in any manner whatsoever should always practice knowledge. [Untraced] 21. Thus, realizing the difference between the staff of knowledge and the wooden staff as that between the highest and the lowest, we must realize that the one who carries the highest, i.e., the staff of knowledge, is alone the principal paramahasa. 5.4 The Conduct of the Paramahasa Yogin 1. [Objection] Let us grant that the paramahasa with understanding possesses the staff of knowledge, and has no obligation to carry the wooden staff. But how should he behave in all other matters? 2. Reply: To answer this doubt the text says: A mendicant shall have the sky as clothing, pay homage to no one, neither utter svh nor svdh,24 nor give either blame nor praise, and act as he pleases. Making neither invocation nor dismissal (of the gods), neither ritual mantra, nor meditation, and neither symbol-oriented meditation. Neither is there something indirectly implied nor directly indicated for him. Neither separate nor identical. Neither "I," nor "you," and neither the all. The mendicant simply remains homeless. He should not take gold and the like, nor gather people, and not look at them. [PhU 4 pp. 5052] 3. "Sky" is the directions of space. One who has that alone as "clothing," i.e., dress or covering, this person has "the sky as clothing." 4. He should wear one piece of cloth that goes above the knees and below the navel, a second garment on the upper body, and go around to homes for alms. [Untraced] This statement of the Smti, however, refers to a non-yogin. For this reason, earlier on the text declared, "That is not principal." [PhU 1 p. 47] 5. Though another Smti declares: Homage is to be paid to someone who is a senior renouncer and if he is one's equal in Dharma, never to another. [YU p. 314; YDhS p. 105] 279

because this also refers to a non-yogin, one does not have to pay him homage. 6. For this reason, in the description of a Brhmaa it was cited, "one who pays no homage and no praise." [1.9.15; MhB 12.237.24] It is forbidden to utter "svdh" at such places of pilgrimage as Gay and Prayga, a practice derived from the dullness of worship. In the text quoted earlier: "Having given up blame, pride, etc.," [5.2.7; PhU 2 p. 48] there is a prevention of the affliction caused by blame directed at him by someone else, while this text prohibits "blame" and "praise" in one's own action toward someone else. 7. To "act as one pleases" is the absence of obligations. He should not act in an obligatory manner in any of his daily activities. 8. But as for what the Smti says about his obligation to perform divine worship: Mendicancy, private Vedic recitation, purification, bathing, meditation, and worship of the godsthese six should always be performed like a command of the king. [Untraced]25 with the intention of showing this refers to a non-yogin, the text states, "Making neither invocation nor dismissal." 9. "Meditation" (dhyna) is remembering once

(saktsmarana), while "symbol-oriented meditation" (upsana)26 is uninterrupted, sustained remembrance27 (nairantaryennusmarana): that is the difference between the two. 10. Just as a yogin does not engage in activities such as giving praise and blame, or as he does not engage in activities enjoined in the dharmastras such as divine worship, he also does not engage in activities given in treatises on knowledge, such as (interpretive techniques) of what is "indirectly implied," (lakya) and so on.28 The supreme consciousness, which is the witness, is what is indirectly implied by the term 280

"you" in the Great Text "You are That." [ChU 6.8.716.3]29 The consciousness based in a particular body is not indirectly implied but directly indicated. The

consciousness directly indicated is "separate" from what is meant by "That," but the consciousness indirectly implied is "identical" with it. The directly indicated meaning based in one's own body is properly expressed by the word "I," while that based in someone else's body is properly expressed by the word "you." Both what is

indirectly implied and directly indicated possess consciousness. What is other than this, the unconscious universe, is properly expressed by the word "all." This sort of analysis is completely absent in a yogin, because his mind has become stilled in Brahman. 11. For this very reason, "The mendicant simply remains homeless." If he were to come to some monastery in order to have a permanent residence, then, given that he feels a sense of ownership with regard to it, its decline and growth would distract his mind. 12. With reference to all this, Gauapdcarya says: Giving no praise, paying no homage, nor even uttering svdh, without a fixed abode, the ascetic should act as he pleases. [GK 2.37] 13. Just as a yogin must not take residence in a monastery, so also he must not take even one vessel for alms or drinking that is made of gold, silver, etc. 14. On this Yama has said: Vessels of gold and iron are not proper vessels for ascetics. Mendicants should avoid them. [Untraced]30 15. Manu has also said: His vessels should be non-metallic and unbroken. Their cleaning is carried out with water, smtis say, like that of vessels at a sacrifice.31 [MDh 6.53]


16. The vessel made of gourd, wood, clay, or bamboothese are the vessels of an ascetic, said Manu, son of Svyambh. [MDh 6.54] 17. Baudhyyana also has said: He should eat off leaves that have fallen by themselves and he has picked up himself, but never off leaves of the Banyan, holy Fig, or the Karaja. [Untraced] 18. Even in a time of distress he should not eat off of a brass plateone who eats off brass is eating filthor off a plate of gold, silver, copper, clay, tin, or lead. [Untraced] 19. In the same way he should not "gather people," i.e., pupils. This is stated by Manu: He should always go about all alone, and without companions, for the sake of success. For seeing the success of one who is alone, he neither leaves anyone nor is left by them. [MDh 6.42] 20. Also Medhtithi has said: Sedentariness, loss of bowl, hoarding, gathering pupils, sleeping during the day, idle talkthese are the six things that create bondage for the ascetic. [SU pp. 268-269] 21. Remaining for over one day in a village or for over five days in a city at a time other than the rainy seasonthis is what is called "sedentariness." 22. For a mendicant who partakes of alms not to keep even one of the prescribed vessels of gourdthis is called "loss of bowl." 23. When someone who already has a staff and other articles takes a second staff for use at a future timethat is called "hoarding." 24. When someone gathers pupils in order to receive service, profit, honor, or fame, but not out of compassionthis should be known as "gathering pupils." 25. Since it illuminates, knowledge is called "day," while ignorance is called "night." When one who is negligent is practicing knowledgehe is called one who is "sleeping during the day." 26. Speech pertaining to the highest Self, while begging, praise of the gods, benedictions, asking for directionsspeech other than this is idle talk. [SU pp. 268269] 282

27. Not only should he not take "people," i.e., pupils, but he should not even "look at them," because they are the cause of bondage. "And not"this expression is used to show that he should not also do other things prohibited by the Smtis. 28. Medhtithi describes those prohibited things: Immovable property, movable property, seed, precious metals, poison, and weaponsthe ascetic should not grasp these six, as he would not grasp urine and feces. [SU p. 271] 29. Alchemy, legal suits, astrology, buying and selling, and the various arts and craftshe should avoid these like another's wife. [Untraced] 30. The text has stated the avoidance of things found in the worldly or Vedic activities, which are impediments for the yogin. 31. Now, pointing out the extreme impediment in the form of a dialogue, the text states its avoidance: What is its great impediment? Yes, indeed it is a great impediment. Because, if a mendicant has looked at gold with relish, he becomes a killer of a Brhmaa. Because, if a mendicant has touched gold with relish, he becomes an outcast. Because, if a mendicant accepts gold with relish, he becomes a killer of the Self. And therefore the mendicant should not look at, and should not touch, and should not hold gold with relish. [PhU 4 p. 5253] 32. The affix "" (in bdhaka, "great impediment") has the meaning "encompassing pervasion," because is has been stated, "the little '' affix means encompassing pervasion." An encompassingly pervasive impediment is an extreme impediment. After acknowledging its existence, the text says that gold is that type of impediment. If he "has looked at gold with relish"with eager desire, with

longingthen the mendicant "becomes a killer of Brahman." Through his attachment to gold, he always endeavors to acquire and keep it, and in order to avoid its uselessness, he clings to its reality by falsifying the Vedntic teaching that the visible 283

world is illusory. In this way the nondual Brahman well known in stras is indeed killed by this mendicant. Therefore, this person "becomes a killer of Brahman." 33. Likewise the Smti states: One who says "Brahman does not exist," one who hates a knower of Brahman, and one who believes the Brahman is what it is not, these three are killers of Brahman. [Untraced] 34. And also: But he should be known as a killer of Brahman, excluded from all religious rites (dharma-s). [Untraced] 35. If he has touched gold with longing, then, since the mendicant who touched it has fallen, "he becomes an outcast," i.e., like a barbarian. 36. Smti describes the falling from caste: That mendicant surely falls who commits these two: intentionally ejaculating semen and hoarding possessions. [Untraced]32 37. If he holds gold with longing, then he becomes the killer of pureconsciousness, which is the nonattached witness of the body, senses, and the rest. For, denying the nonattached nature of his own Self, he accepts its being an enjoyer of possessions such as gold. 38. The Smti declares that this acceptance of the contrary has the nature of all sins: He who accepts the Self as being contrary to what it really iswhat sin has not been committed by that thief who has stolen his own Self? [MhB 1.68.26] 39. Furthermore, the ruti declares for the killer of the Self worlds that are without even a trace of happiness, and filled with manifold suffering: Those worlds are called "demonic," filled with blind darkness. After death, all killers of the Self go to them. [U 3]


40. The word "and" in "And therefore the mendicant should not look at" includes "should not hear about" also. "And should not touch" (includes) "should not speak about." "And should not hold" includes "and should not deal in it." The meaning is that even listening to stories about gold with longing, speaking of its form, and dealing in it such as buying it, just like seeing, touching, and holding, are the causes of falling from caste. All of this means that since such things as seeing gold with desire causes sin, therefore the mendicant should avoid things like seeing gold. 41. The text states the result of avoiding gold: All desires concealed in his mind are turned away. In pain, he does not tremble. In pleasure, he is free from longing. In passion, abandonment. Everywhere he has no love for either the good or the bad. He does not hate and does not take delight. The activity of all the senses stops who is firmly fixed in the Self alone. [PhU 4 pp. 5354] 42. Because all desires such as a son, a wife, a house, land, and the like are founded on gold, when he has given up gold, these "desires concealed in his mind are turned away," i.e., they become removed from their place in the mind. When desire has been removed, the trembling and longing in the face of "pain" and "pleasure" brought about by activity cease to exist. This was explained in the section describing one who is steady-in-wisdom. [See above, 1.6] 43. Because pain and pleasure in this world cause distraction, there is the "abandonment" also of "passion" concerning the next world. For a person who longs for pleasure in this world also becomes passionate about pleasure in the next world, postulated through the example of pleasure in this world. Therefore it is proper that a person without longing for this-worldly pleasures will have no passion for pleasure in


the next world. When this is the case, "everywhere," i.e., in both worlds, "he has no love" for whatever is "good or bad," i.e., whatever concerns the agreeable or the disagreeable. 44. This implies that he is also free from hatred. Such a knower "does not hate" any person who does bad things to him, and he "does not take delight" upon seeing someone who does good things to him. The man free from hatred and delight, who is always firmly fixed in the Self alone"activity," i.e., the functioning, "of all" his "senses stops." When the senses have stopped, there is never any hindrance for enstasis-without-distinctions. The answer to the question "What is their state?" was given earlier both briefly and at length. The same thing has been clarified here again in connection with the prohibition against gold. 45. Now the text summarizes the discussion on the renunciation-of-the-knower: Realizing: "I am Brahman who is complete bliss and unified consciousness," he becomes one who has done all there is to do. He has done all there is to do. [PhU 4 p. 55] 46. This paramahasa "becomes one who has done all there is to do," always experiencing in this way: "The Brahman, which has been defined in the Upaniads as complete bliss and unified consciousness, and as the highest SelfI am Brahman." 47. Likewise the Smti states: There is nothing to do for the yogin who has done all there is to do and is content with the nectar of knowledge; if there is anything to do, he is not a knower of truth. [JdU 1.23] 48. May the Lord Vidytrtha, removing the bondage in the heart through the discernment of Liberation-in-Life, grant the complete aim of human existence. 49. Thus ends the Treatise on Liberation-in-Life composed by the Blessed Paramahasa renouncer and teacher, the Venerable Sage Vidyraya. 286

1 2

See above, Chapter 3, n. 30.

The nSS edition of JMV (1978) and the Nirnayasagar edition of LYV (1937) both read tantrasiddhi instead of yogasiddhi here.

A variant reading here in the Adyar edition has "because of the command on the mother and father, etc." (matpitrjdin) See above, Chapter 1, n. 2.

pratipattikarman : concluding rite of a sacrifice. At the end of a sacrifice, the ritual utensils and other items smeared with soma are put in water. Cf. HDh vol. 5, pt. 2, (1977) pp. 12311232 and Mimsakoa ed. Kevalnanda Sarasvat, vol. 5, (Wai: Prja Phal Maala, 1960) pp. 2723 ff. See also Olivelle (1986) p. 135, n. 103104. See above, Chapter 2, n. 47. See above Chapter 2, n. 24.

6 7 8

nndmukharddha: offering to the ancestors with joyful faces. Synonymous with the vddhirddha, this is an offering at the time of a lucky or auspicious occasion where rice balls (pia) are given to the Nndmukha pits and Brhmaas are fed. According to Kane, "the occasions specified are: on the marriage of sons and daughters, on entering a new house, on naming a child, at the time of Ckarma, a Smantonnayana, on the birth of a son, a householder should honor the group of pits called Nndmukha." See HDh vol. 4, (1991) pp. 527529, and ViP 3.13.57. See also YDhP 7, Olivelle (1976) pp. 3839 and (1977) pp. 7277.

For a full discussion of rddha, see HDh vol. 4 (1991) pp. 334551.


Cf. Arthasagraha, 23, (1998) p. 19. "Where there is a specification or mention of all subsidiaries, that [is] the arche-type, as the new moon and full moon sacrifices and others. For, in their context all subsidiaries are mentioned. Where all subsidiaries are not specified, that [is] is the modification, as the oblation to the sun (saurya). There some subsidiaries become available (prpta) by means of extended application." The householder, temple, folk, or any other type of rite that is not prescribed by the Veda.

11 12

The dual cakrbhym would indicate one pair of "relatives, and so on," "and Vedic recitation," or "and the robe." It is unclear to which pair of the uses of the word "and" mentioned above that this refers. Each one of these phrases might be construed to delineate the proper bounds of the renunciant order.

Cf. AitB 7.13, Ait 2.5. See also Olivelle The rama System: The History and Hermeneutics of a Religious Institution (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993) pp. 4246. A son is believed to be the rebirth of the father inside the mother and is effectively the father's second self. annamaya: made of food. Cf. TU 2.19 and 3.16. See also above, 2.4.20, and Chapter 2, n. 31.

14 15

nivttam: has been turned away from. As a gloss on tena nityanivtta, "he turns away continually," [PhU 2 p. 48] I have translated forms of nivtta as "has been turned away from" where they are used intransitively in regard to the yogin in whom the nivtti takes place.


16 17

This is the avagraha or analysis/resolution of the compound tannityabodha.

The text of BU 4.4.21 reads "a Brhmaa should create wisdom for himself" (prjam kurvta brhmaa), but the collated mss. all drop the word brhmaa. Forsvagatasajtyavijtyabheda, cf. Olivelle YDhP 52.32.n. (1977) p. 155.


19 Vieea bhagna: completely shattered. This glosses the prefix vi- in the root text vi-bhagna in PhU 2 as vieea. 20 21

Sadhya as "juncture" here can also mean "union."

The word "staff" (daa) also can mean "control." Therefore we can understand "staff" as a metaphor for the control of speech, mind, and action.
22 23

Schrader followed this reading in his constituted text of the SU.

Also cited in PM vol. 1, (1973) p. 549. Vidyraya here appears to be appropriating a Vaiava image. Cf. Yatiligasamrthana of Varadcarya 24, 28, and 32 in Olivelle (1987) vol. 2, pp. 4950 and trans. 6465, where Varadcarya cites various authors on the triple-staff as a Vaiava image. Datttreya: "The bearer of the triple staff is a form of Viu," Harita: "At all times let an ascetic carry the image of Viu that is the triple-staff," and Atri and Dattatreya: " The triple Veda was protected formerly by Viu carrying a triple staff." These same authors are also cited by Vednta Deika in Yatiligabhedabhagavda 160, 162, and 164 in Olivelle (1987), vol. 2, p. 78 and trans. 94.

Uttering svh and svdh is in the ritual context of making offerings to the gods and ancestors. The yogin is forbidden to do these rites. Also cited in PM vol. 1, (1973) p. 557. See above, Introduction 2.2, pp. 3941


26 27

Cf. above, 2.3.4. These terms, dhyna, upsana, etc., are perhaps used here in a ritual context, not a yogic one. Donatoni (1995) p. 312, n. 2, also observes that dhyna here seems to have a nontechnical meaning. Cf. Vedntasra 153, (1968) p. 95, and YDhP 52.20.n, Olivelle (1977) p. 154.


29 tat tvam asi: You are That. I have translated tat tvam asi in the traditional way. However, see J. P. Brereton, "'Tat Tvam Asi ' in Context," Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlndishe Gesellshaft 136 (1986) pp. 98109. Contrary to the tradition and the usual convention that has been followed by scholars, it probably originally meant "That is how you are" because no identity could be implied since tvam is masculine and tat is neuter. 30 31

Also cited in PM vol. 1, (1973) p. 562.

Vessels at a sacrifice are not viewed as being polluted by the soma, so they do not need to be cleaned with soft earth to scour them out. Similarly the ascetic does not scour his vessels with earth. Cited also YDhP 68.136138, Olivelle (1976) p. 104 and (1977) p. 194. Attributed to a work titled the Bahvcapariita.



Introduction to the Critical Edition of the Jvanmuktiviveka

Description of the Manuscripts B1 Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune. Ms. no. 9 of 190715. Descriptive catalogue of the government collections of manuscripts deposited at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. Vol. IX: pt. 1 Vednta. Compiled by S. M. Katre (Pune, 1949), serial no. 248. Country-made paper. Devanagari script. 106 folia. 24cm x 13.5cm. 10 lines per page. 34 akaras per line. Complete. Date given is in the collophon aka 1626 (1705 CE) 3rd year of the 4th Jupiter cycle. A photocopy was used. Beautifully written with very few corrections. Collophon: 1626 trabde vena ka saptam pkhau lekhana samptim agamat. B2 Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune. Ms. no. 682 of 188791. Descriptive catalogue of the government collections of manuscripts deposited at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. Vol. IX: pt. 1 Vednta. Compiled by S. M. Katre (Pune, 1949), serial no. 246. Country-made paper. Devanagari script. 69 folia. 24cm x 10.5cm. 14 lines per page. 36 akaras per line. Complete. No date. A photocopy was used. Clearly written with frequent corrections in yellow pigment and marginal corrections. B3 Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune. Ms. no. 314 of 18991915. Descriptive catalogue of the government collections of manuscripts deposited at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. Vol. IX: pt. 1 Vednta. Compiled by S. M. Katre (Pune, 1949), serial no. 249. Country-made paper. Devanagari script. 67


folia. 26.5cm x 10.3cm. 11 lines per page. 42 akaras per line. Complete. Worm eaten. No date. A photocopy was used. Clearly written with frequent corrections. P1 University of Pennsylvania Library Manuscript Collection, Philadelphia. Indic ms. no. 814. A Census of Indic Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Compiled by H. I. Poleman (New Haven, 1938), serial no. 3978. Paper. Devanagari script. 68 folia. 24.5cm x 10.5cm. 10 lines per page. 48 akaras per line. Complete. No date. A photocopy was used. Clearly written with a few marginal corrections. P2 University of Pennsylvania Library Manuscript Collection, Philadelphia. Indic ms. no. 1089. A Census of Indic Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Compiled by H. I. Poleman (New Haven, 1938), serial no. 3979. Imported Paper. Devanagari script. 66 folia. 33.5cm x 10.5. 9 lines per page. 58 akaras per line. Complete. Date given in collophon is aka 1766 (1844 CE). A photocopy was used. Clearly written but with frequent marginal corrections. Collophon: ida pustaka marhe ity upanmena mayrevarasuta gadkitavasa karasya. sne ity upanmena nryaena likhita. ake 1766 krodhinma savatsare dakiyane hemanta tau mrgarauklatrayoday bhnuvsare kttiknaketre sdhya yoge r ketrava gagpur tadvraksanidhe sampta. bhagnapir adhogrvstabdhadir adhomukha. kae na likhita grantha yatne na pratiplayet. bhranti deamanekadurgaviama prpta na kicit phala. tyaktv jtikulbhimnam ucita evkt niphal. bhukta mnavicarjita paraghe sakaykkavat te jbhasi ppakarmaduritendhypi satuyasi. PGh nandarama Sansth, Pune. Location Number 1849734. Sigla stands for "Paakara's Gh" following Vasudeva arma Paakara's sigla for this same ms. which he also used for his edition of the JMV, nSS 20. Country-made paper. 290

Devangar script. 67 folia. 25cm x 11cm. 11 lines per page. 50 akaras per line. Complete. Date given in the collophon is the 6th day of the waxing moon of the month of mtkrtika, savat 1828 (1774 CE). A photocopy was used. Clearly written with a few marginal corrections. Folia 3638 break the flow of the text where it has been copied out of order or perhaps inserted by another copyist. Collophon: mtkrtka vadya 6 kelya savat 1828 mely. Other Editions of the Jvanmuktiviveka used in this Edition Adyar The printed edition and English translation of the JMV prepared by Pt. S. Subramanya astri and T. R. rinivasa Ayyangar. First published by the Adyar Library and Research Centre, Madras, in 1935. The Adyar Library General Series, 6. Reprinted 1978. I used the 1978 reprint edition. The editors do not mention what mss. used to constitute this edition. I visited Adyar Library in March, 1998 to see if there was any record of what mss. were used, but this information was not available. nSS The edition of the JMV prepared by Vasudeva Laxmana arma Paakara. First published by the nandrama Sansth, Pune, 1890.

nandrama Sanskrit Series, 20. Reprinted 1901, 1978. Paakara used six manuscripts and gave a short description of them in his introduction. I collated his "Gh" for this edition. Another edition of the JMV, but given the same number nandrama Sanskrit Series 20, was published in 1916 with Acyutaraya Moaka's commentary the Prnandendukaumudi. The ms. of this commentary is stored at 291

the Oriental Institute, Baroda.

No. 93/263.

The title given in the ms. is

"Jvanmuktivivekavykhytmaka." The ms. has no date. I acquired a photocopy of this ms. from the Oriental Institute but have not included collation of it for this edition. I compared these two nSS 20 editions closely and found that there are many inconsistencies between them. The 1916 edition with the commentary does not have the list of manuscripts used, but seems to follow the same sigla as the other 1978 printing. Therefore one can only presume that the editor meant they are the same. Comparing the constituted texts and the variants in the apparatus, it is clear that the editor chose to constitute the text one way in one edition, and vice versa in the other. No explanation is offered because there is no introduction in the 1916 edition. Stemma Codicum The geneaological relationship of the mss., where Z* is the hypothetical original text of the author, is described in this stemma codicum. The mss. form two recensions X* and Y*. Within the X* recension I detect two subrecensions X1* and X2*. Z*

X* X1* X2* Y*



P1 292




Recension X* This recension preserves the best readings and perhaps is closer to the text of the author. The evidence has shown that B1, B2, and P1 share more readings as against P2, B3, and PGh. However, in a tally of the significant variants, B1 is different from all the rest of the mss. There are possibly three recensions, but more mss. evidence belonging to sub-recension X1* will be necessary to prove that it actually represents a third recension. The subrecension X1* is represented only by the B1 ms. In addition to giving the most difficult readings, it is shorter and freer of interpolations and glosses, giving a generally cleaner text. It is also the oldest dated paper ms. I collected. I believe more research into the southern mss. will confirm or deny the importance I have assigned to it. A few examples of its readings that differ strikingly from all the others are as follows. 1.2.11: sanihita sa ev-. 1.3.11: evtyuttabhakena. 1.4.7: yat kicid. 1.4.8: videhamuktataiva. 1.4.16: dhdoo yas tasya vsanvtti-. 1.5.7: sadasatvokter. 1.9.34: maraavad. 3.4.25: itydi klapark. atha

sakhypark yatho-. 3.10.22: tabharakam.

3.10.58: aniganam-. 4.1.35:

ubhecchkhy prathama. 5.1.18: abhipretya tam eva. 5.1.26: strayati. 5.2.8: hite ahitabuddhir ahite. 5.2.2426 included. 5.3.9: karmadaa. I chose against B1 at 1.2.16: sapdayiyma; and 2.3.46: amanaska. The subrecension X2* shows a consistency not found in the other mss., the two mss. differ from each other enough to consider them as representatives of this recension such that they are not merely two copies of another undiscovered ms. The subrecension X2* also shares readings in common with recension Y* that


subrecension X1* does not have. Some of the consistent variants of X2* are as follows. 1.0.3: purata. 1.3.11: uddlakavtahavydn. 1.3.15: -prayatnt.

1.4.5: sthit. 1.6.13: buddhivttir. 1.7.7: bhaktimnya. 1.9.18: puru. 1.9.29: albhe na vid syt lbha caina na hared iti || alabdhv na videta kle kle na kvacit | 1.9.36: dayan. 1.9.40: ye ramanti manastebhyo shasa kim ata param. 2.3.26: -bhvibhvn. 2.3.85: vidytmane. 2.4.57: karma yajamna patn tvija etac. 2.9.10: ukta. 3.2.7: tata. 3.2.17: kriyate cittabjasya. 3.4.24: bhyantaravtti; tatra recake. 3.4.33: ghaikkramaa. 3.6.26: udjahra. 3.10.28: na yujyate. 3.11.42: manasy autsukya-. 3.12.1: vara. 4.1.13: dee. 4.1.29: uta. 4.5.8: vyavastha. 5.1.29: upanysa. 5.2.5: aprtau. 5.2.27: paatvam. 5.4.1: paramahasasya sanysino mbht. Recension Y* The recension Y* repesented by B3, P2, and PGh differs more from the subrecension X1* than X2*. There is some variation internally among the mss. where they hold readings in common with X2*. Nevertheless the variants I observe that occur among the three representative mss. are so frequent and consistent that it clearly shows another line of transmission. Because it differs more from X1, I have placed more of the variants of Y* in the critical apparatus. Some examples are as follows. 1.0.1: myay yo 'khila. 1.1.7: ucyate. 1.2.2: -prabhtn munn. 1.2.8: nirvedya. 1.2.21: visjytmnam. 1.2.26: sadhy. 1.2.34: bhaspati || pravtti-. 1.3.1: siddhau. 1.3.28: mantavyam. 1.3.33: -uddhy. 1.6.3: pramapramitni. 1.9.16: sanysibhi. 1.9.40: ye ramanti namastebhya shasa kim ata param. 2.3.8: smnyena. 2.3.19: vtti. 2.3.35: -nurodhena. 2.4.52: bahudh. 2.7.6: 294

sdhava. 2.10.25: viarrutm. 2.10.28: mrkhat. 3.1.4: khgra. 3.5.14: sarvaratnopasthnam. 3.6.3: muktamanane. 3.9.4: yoge. 3.11.22: lyamno. 4.1.1: siddhau. 4.1.49: -vilpya. 5.1.14: ramanirvtasya. 5.1.33: ppamna. 5.1.38: adaphalakalpany. 5.2.8: vividhai. 5.2.28: vibhinna. 5.4.29: kriycram. Constitution of the Text There are four principles I have followed in constituting the text: (1) I have followed as much as possible the readings where X1*, X2*, and Y* agree with each other. (2) Where they disagree I have followed the X* recension where X1* and X2* agree, or (3) I have followed the readings where X1* and Y* agree. (4) In instances of difficult readings where there is no agreement I have always followed X1*. To restate principles 2 and 3 in terms of the mss. themselves, I have put the readings that B2 and P1 (X2*) share with B1 (X1*), or the readings B3, P2, and PGh (Y*) share with B1 into my constituted text. An early example of principle 2 this occurs at 1.0.1: vedebhyo' khilam of B1, B2, and P2 as opposed to myy yo 'khilam of B3, P2, and PGh. Instances of principle 3 involve a mistake in mss. B2 and P1, or a mere case of disagreement with B1. I excluded the readings of B2 and P1 wherever they do not agree with B1, regardless of whether this reading is unique to them or is shared with B3, P2, and PGh. An example of this is 1.1.14: tdm of B1, B3, P2, and PGh as opposed to tdn of B2 and P1. Also 1.4.26: tadyakryeu as opposed to tadyekrye. To restate principle 4, I found that the B1 ms. consistently gives the most difficult readings, and because of this have trusted the readings of this ms. above all the others. The best example of this occurs at 1.5.7: sadasatvoke as opposed to 295

different forms of sadyatvokter yathokta. This reading then lead me to emend the text at this place to fit the new meaning. See the discussion of this emendation in the Introduction, 2.1, pp. 30 to 32. B1 is free of most words and passages present in the other mss. and the other editions that seem to have been added as explanatory glosses of terms in the text over the years of copying. This ms. is obviously superior to the others and, therefore, when the variant readings were more or less equal, I followed the B1 readings throughout based on the degree of confidence gained in it. I followed other readings against it in only in a few cases of clear mistakes. Previous Editions of the Jvanmuktiviveka There have been four editions of the Jvanmuktiviveka published. The nSS 20 is an edition by Vasudeva Laxmana Sharma Pakar first published in 1890 and again in 1901, and recently again in 1978. It is much better than the others insofar as Pakara does give evidence of variant readings, and descriptions of the manuscripts he used. Four of these manuscripts are still held at the nandrama Sansth. Two others he used I could not find. The edition by Manilal N. Dvived published in 1897 by the Bombay Theosophical Publication Fund is very rare, and as far as I know has not been reprinted. I did not have access to this edition. The third was edited by Mahprabhu Lal Goswami and includes the Hindi commentary by Thakur Udaya Nryana Siha and was first published in 1913 by Chaukambha Sankrit Sansthan as the Kashi Sanskrit Series 39, and reissued in 1984. The fourth edition is perhaps the one most familar to those who might know the text. It is the Adyar Library General Series, 6 edited with a translation by S. Subrahmanya Sastri and T. R. Srinivasa Ayyangar first published in 1935, and reissued in 1978. The 296

Sanskrit text of these two latter editions seem to me to be identical. The editors do not mention what manuscript evidence they used to constitute their texts. I visited Adyar Library in March of 1998 to ask if there was any record of what they used, but there was none. There was another edition published by the Advaita Ashrama in 1996 with an interlinear translation by Swami Moknanda. This text also appears to be merely the same as these other two by Chaukambha Sanskrit Sansthan and the Adyar Library. None of these previous editions are critical editions, but rather, editions based on selective readings. This present edition is much improved based on the very helpful B1 ms, and I believe is a good start at a critical edition. A great number of mss. of the JMV exist, including the southern palm-leaf mss., that I have not yet collated for this edition. There is good reason to believe a fuller critical edition of the JMV can be constructed and that historical conclusions can be drawn on basis of such an edition in the future. I would like to make the edition more thorough by collating and using the southern palm-leaf mss. With these mss. I would very much like to find parallels to B1 in order to confirm or deny its difficult readings, as well as find its mistakes.


JVANMUKTIVIVEKA [atha prathama jvanmuktipramaprakaraam]

1.0 [magalacranam] 1. yasya nivasita ved [BU 2.4.10] yo vedebhyo 'khila jagat | nirmame tam aha vande vidytrthamahevaram || 2. vakye vividinysa vidvannysa ca bhedata | het videhamukte ca jvanmukte ca tau kramt || 3. sanysahetur vairgya yad ahar virajet tad | pravrajed [JU 4 p. 64] iti vedoktes tadbhedas tu puraga || 4. viraktir dvividh prokt tvr tvratareti ca | satym eva tu tvry nyasyed yog kucake || 5. akto bahdake tvratary hasasajite | mumuku parame hase skd vijnasdhane || 6. putradradhandn ne ttklik mati | dhik sasram itdk syd virakter mandat hi s || 7. asmin janmani m bhvan putradrdayo mama | iti y susthir buddhi s vairgyasya tvrat || 8. punarvttisahito loko 'ya mstu kacana | iti tvrataratva syn mande nyso na kacana || 9. ytrdyaaktiaktibhy tvre nysadvaya bhavet | kuicako bahda cety ubhv etau tridainau || 10. dvaya tvratare brahmalokamokavibhedata | talloke tattvavid dhaso loke 'smin parahasaka || 11. ete tu samcr prokt prarasmte |

1.0 1) vedebhyo'khila: P2 B3 PGh myay yo 'khila | 3) puraga: P1 P2 B3 purata | 5) akto: B3 aktau, P1 akyo | 8) loko ya mstu: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh loko me mstu | kacana: P1 B2 ko'pi hi | 10) dhaso loke 'smin paramahasaka: B3 dhasau loke 'smin paramahasakau | prarasmte: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh prarasmtau | 298

vykhyne 'smbhir atrya parahaso vivicyate || 12. jijsur jnav ceti parahaso dvidh mata | prhur jnya jijsor nysa vjasaneyina || 13. pravrjino lokam etam icchanta pravrajanti hi | [BU 4.4.22] etasyrthas tu gadyena vakyate mandabuddhaye || 1.1 [vividisanysa] 1. loko hi dvidha, tmaloko 'ntmaloka ceti. 2. tatrntmalokasya traividhya bhadrayake ryate: atha trayo vva lok manuyaloka pitloko devaloka iti. so 'ya manuyaloka putreaiva jayyo nnyena karma pitloko vidyay devaloka iti. [BU 1.5.16] 3. tmaloka ca tatraiva ryate: yo ha v asml lokt sva lokam adv praiti sa enam avidito na bhunaktti. [BU 1.4.15] 4. tmnam eva lokam upsta sa ya tmnam eva lokam upste na hsya karma kiyata iti ca. [BU 1.4.15] 5. ahdhyye 'pi: ki prajay kariymo ye no 'yam tmya loka iti. [BU 4.4.22] 6. eva saty: etam eva pravrjino lokam icchanta pravrajanti [BU 4.4.22] 1.0 11) 13) etasyrthas tu: P2 B3 PGh etasyrtha tu | vakyate mandabuddhaye: P2 B3 PGh vakye madavibuddhaye 1.1 1) hi: P1 B2 om. | 2) bhadrayake: P2 B3 PGh bhadrayaka | -yake: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh add -yake ttydhyye ryate | nnyena karma: PGh nnyena karma karma > P2 sh cor. | 4) hsya karma kiyata : PGh hsyyu kiyata | After 4, P2 Adyar nSS (K, Kh) add: yo msdikapialakat sva loka paramtmkhyam aha brahmsmi ity aviditv mriyate sa svo loka paramtmvidito 'vidyay vyavahita sann enam aveditra preta mta na bhunakti okamohdi dopanayanena na playati > but omitted in P1 B1 B2 B3 PGh | After this addition Adyar nSS (K Kh) add: upsakasya ha nicita karma na kyate eka phaladnenopaka na bhavati, kmitasarvaphala moka ca dadttyartha > but omitted in P1 P2 B1 B2 B3 PGh | 5) After 5, Adyar nSS add: kimarth vayam adhyeymahe kimarth vaya yakamahe. [Ait 3.2.6] ye prajmire te manni bhejire. ye praj neire te'mtatva hi bhejire. > but omitted in P1 P2 B1 B2 B3 PGh | 6) eva saty: P1 P2 B3 PGh eva ca saty | etam: P1 tam > B2 sh cor. etam | 299

ity atrtmaloko vivakita iti gamyate. 7. sa v ea mahn aja tm [BU 4.4.22] iti prakramytmanas etacchabdena parmatvt. 8. lokyate 'nubhyata iti loka. tath ctmnubhavam icchanta pravrajantti rutes ttparyrtha sapadyate. 9. smti ca: brahmavijnalbhya parahasasamhvaya | ntidntydibhi sarvai sdhanai sahito bhaved || iti. [NpU p. 195] 10. iha janmani janmntare v samyaganuitair vednuvacandibhir utpannay vividiay sapditatvd aya vividisanysa ity abhidhyate. 11. aya ca

vedanahetu sanyso dvividha, janmpdakakarmditygamtrtmaka, praioccraaprvakadaadhradyramarpa ceti. 12. tyga ca taittirydau ryate: na karma na prajay dhanena tygenaike amtatvam naur iti. [T 10.10.21; KaiU 1.3] 13. asmi ca tyage striyo 'py adhikriyante. mnyate: yenha nmt sy kim aha tena kurya yad eva bhagavn veda tad eva me brhti. [BU 4.5.4] 14. brahmacrighasthavnaprasthn kenacin nimittena sanysramasvkre pratibaddhe sati, svramadharmev anuhyamnev api vedanrtho mnasa karmdityago na virudhyate, rutismttihsapureu loke ca td tattvavid bahnm 1.1 7) prakramytmana etacchabdena: P1 prakrtasytmana ea chabdena >B2 etachabdena | 10) abhidhyate: P2 B3 PGh ucyate | 11) -karmdi-: Adyar nSS (KKh) -kmyakarmdi- | 12) dhanena: B3 na dhanena | 13) adhikriyante: Adyar nSS add bhikuk ity anena strm api prgvivhd v vdhavyd rdhva v sanyse 'dhikro 'stti daritam; tena bhikcarya mokastraravanam eknta tmadhyna ca tbhi kartavyam, tridadika ca dhryam; iti mokadharme [MhB 12.168-12.352] caturdharky sulabhjanakasavde (nSS savda). rrakabhye [BSBh, 9th adhikraa, 36 stra] vcaknav itydi [BS, 3.4.36] ryate devatdhikaraanyyena vidhurasydhikraprasagena ttydhrye caturthapde > but omitted in P1 P2 B1 B2 B3 PGh | brhi: Adyar vibrhi [Mdhyndina recension of BU] | 14) td: P1 B2 tdn | 300 ata eva maitreyvkyam

upalambht. 15. yas tu daadhradirupo vedanahetu paramahasrama sa prvair cryair bahudh prapacita ity asmbhir uparamyate. 1.2 [vidvatsanysa] 1. atha vidvatsanysa nirupayma. samyaganuhitai ravaamanana2. ta

nididhysanai paratattva viditavadbhi sapdyamno vidvatsanysa.

ca yjavalkya sapdaym sa. tatha hi, vidvacchiromair bhagavn yjavalkyo vijigukathy bahuvidhena tattvanirpaenvalayanaprabhtn pravijitya, vtargakathy sakepavistrbhym anekadh janaka bodhayitv, maitrey

bubodhayius tasys tvaray tattvbhimukhyya svakartavya sanysa pratijaje. tatas t bodhayitv sanysa cakra. 3. tad ubhaya maitreybrhmaasydyantayor mnyate: atha ha yjavalkyo 'nyad vttam upkariyan maitreyti hovca yjavalkya pravrajiyan v are 'ham asmt sthnd asmti, [BU 4.5.12] 4. etvad are khalv amtatvam iti hoktv yjavalkyo pravavrja iti ca. [BU 4.5.15] 5. kaholabrhmae 'pi vidvatsanysa mnyate: eta vai tam tmna viditv brhman putraiay ca vittaiay ca lokaiay ca vyutthytha bhikcarya carantti. [BU 3.5.1] 6. na caitad vkya vividisanysaparam iti akanyam, prvaklavcino "viditv" iti ktvpratyayasya brahmavidvcino brhmaaabdasya ca bdhaprasagt. 7. na ctra brhmaaabdo jtivcaka, vkyaee pityablyamaunaabd-

1.2 1) paratattva: P2 B3 PGh para tattva | 2) -prabhtn: P2 B3 PGh -prabhtn munn > B2 sh cor. | pravijitya: P2 B3 PGh vijitya | maitrey: P1 B2 maitrey tu | 4) pravavrja [Mdhyadina recension of BU] : Adyar vijahra [Kava recension of BU] | 301

bhidheyai ravaamanananididhysanai sdhya brahmasktkram abhipretya "atha brhmana" [BU 3.5.1] ity abhihitatvt. 8. nanu tatra vividisanysopeta pitydau pravartamno 'pi brhmaaabdena parma: tasmd brhmana pitya nirvidya blyena tihsed iti. [BU 3.5.1] 9. maivam, bhvin vttim ritya tatra brhmaaabdasya prayuktatvt. anyath katham "atha brhmaa" iti sdhannuhnottaraklavcinam athaabda prayujta? 10. rrabrhmane 'pi vidvatsanysavividisanysau spaa nirdiau: etam eva viditv munir bhavati, etam eva pravrjino lokam icchanta pravrajanti [BU 4.4.22] iti. 11. munitva mananalatvam. tac csati kartavyntare sabhavatty artht

sanihita sa evbhipreyate. 12. etac ca vkyaee spaktam: etad dha sma vai tat prve vidvsa praj na kmayante ki prajay kariymo ye no 'yamtmya loka iti, te ha sma putraiay ca vittaiay ca lokaiay ca vyutthytha bhikcarya carantti. [BU 4.4.22] aya loka ity aparokenubhyata ity artha. 13. nanv atra munitvena phalena pralobhya vividisanysavidhyakavkyaee sa eva prapacita. ato na sanysntara kalpanyam. 14. maivam, vedanasyaiva vividisanysaphalatvt. na ca vedanamunitvayor ekatva akanyam, "viditv munir bhavati" [BU 4.4.22] iti prvottaraklnayos

1.2 8) nirvidya: B3 PGh nirvedya | tihsed iti: P2 B3 tihsed iti cet | 11) sanihita sa ev-: P1 B2 sanihita sanysa ev-, P2 B3 PGh sanysa ev- | evbhipreyate: P2 B3 PGh evbhidhyate | 12) ity aparokenubhyata: P1 B2 itydy aparokea anubhyata | 13) phalena: P2 B3 PGh phalatvena | vividisanysavidhyakavkyaee: P2 B3 PGh vividisanysa vidhya vkyaee | 302

tayo sdhyasdhanabhvapratte. 15. nanu vedanasyaiva paripktiayarpam avasthntara munitvam. vedanadvr prvasanysasyaivaitat phalam iti cet, 16. bham. ata eva sdhanarpt sanysd anya phalarpam eta sanysa brma. yath vividisanysin tattvajnya ravadni ato

sapdanyni, tath vidvatsanysinpi jvanmuktaye manonavsankayau sapdanyau. etac coparit prapacayiyma. 17. saty apy anayo sanysayor avntarabhede paramahasatvkreaikktya "caturvidh bhikava" [MhB 13.129.29] iti smtiu catusakhyokt. 18. prvottarayo sanysayo paramahasatva jblarutv avagamyate. tatra hi janakena sanyse pe sati, yjavalkyo 'dhikravieavidhnenottaraklnuheyena ca sahita vividisanysam abhidhya, [JU 4 pp. 6467] pacd atri yajopavtarahitasykipte brhmaye sati, pacd tmajnam eva yajopavtam iti samdadhau. [JU 5 pp. 6769] 19. ato bhyayajopavtbhvt paramahasatva nicyate. 20. tathnyasy kaikym "tatra paramahaso nma" [JU 6 p. 69] ity upakramya savartakdn brahmavido jvanmuktn udhtya, avyaktalig avyaktcr anunmatt unmattavad caranta [JU 6 p. 69] iti vidvatsanysino darit. 21. tath tridaa kamaalu ikya ptra jalapavitra ikh yajopavta cety etat sarva bh svhety apsu parityajytmnam anvicched [JU 6 p. 70] 1.2 15) prvasanysasyaivaitat: P2 sarvasanysasyaivaitat | 16) eta: P2 B3 PGh ena | prapacayiyma: B1 sapdayiyma | 18) prvottarayo: P2 B3 PGh prvoktayos tayo, Adyar prvottarayor ubhayo | 'dhikra-: P2 B3 PGh 'dhikrti | 19) bhyayajopavtbhvt: P1 B2 bhyopavtbhvt | 20) paramahaso: P1 parahaso, B2 parahas, Schrader paramahas | savartakdn brahmavido: P2 B3 PGh bahuvidhn brahmavido, B2 Adyar savartakdn bahn brahmavido | avyaktalig avyaktcr: PGh B3 avyaktaligcr | caranta: P2 carati | 21) parityajytmnam: P2 B3 PGh visjytmnam | 303

iti tridaina sata ekadaalakaa vividisanysa vidhya, 22. tatphalarpa vidvatsanysam evam udjahra: yath jtarpadharo nirdvandvo niparigrahas tatra brahmamrge samyaksapanna uddhamnasa prasadhrartha yathoktakle vimukto bhaikam carann udaraptrea lbhlbhau samau ktv nygre devatghe takavalmkavkamlakullalgnihotranadpulinagirikuharakandarakoaranirjharasthailev aniketavsy aprayatno nirmama ukladhynaparyao 'dhytmaniha ubhubhakarmanirmlanapara sanysena dehatyga karoti, sa paramahaso nmeti. [JU 6 p. 7071] 23. tasmd anayor ubhayo paramahasatva siddham. 24. samne 'pi paramahasatve siddhe viruddhadharmkrntatvd avntarabhedo 'py abhyupagantavya. viruddhadharmatva cruyupaniatparamahaso-

paniado parylocanym avagamyate. 25. "kena bhagavan karmy aeato visjmi" iti [rU 1 p. 3] ikhyajopavtasvdhyyagyatrjapdyaeakarmatygarpe vividisanyse iyeruin pe sati, guru prajpati "ikh yajopavtam" [rU 1 p. 34] itydin sarvaparitygam abhidhya, "daam cchdana kaupna ca parigrahed" iti [rU 1 p. 5] dadisvkra abhividhya, 26. trisadhydau snnam cret, sadhi samdhv tmany caret, sarveu vedev rayam vartayet, upaniadam vartayet [rU 2 p. 67] iti vedanahetn ramadharmn anuheyatay vidhatte. 27. "atha yogin paramahasn ko 'ya mrga" [PhU 1 p. 45] iti vidvatsanyse nradena pe sati, gurur bhagavn "svaputramitra" itydin prvavat 1.2 21) sata: B1 sata, P1 B2 om. | 22) tatra: B1 tattva | lbhlbhau samau: Adyar lbhlbhayo samo | ktv: P2 B3 PGh bhtv > P2 sh cor. ktv | nygre devatghe: P2 nygradevatgha- | -ghe takua: P1 ghea takua, P2 B3 PGh ghatakua | aniketavsy aprayatno: P2 B3 PGh aniketavs niprayatno | nirmlanapara: P2 B3 PGh nirmlanya | sa parama: P2 B3 PGh sa eva parama- | 24) -bhedo 'py : P2 B3 PGh om. 'py | cruyupaniat: P2 B3 PGh crayopaniat, B1 cruyopaniat, Adyar cruikopaniat | 25) pe sati : P2 B3 PGh om. sati | sarvaparitygam-: P2 B3 PGh sarvatyagam- | -svkra abhidhya: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh -svkra vidhya | 26) sadhi: B3 PGh sadhy | rayam: P1 B2 rayakam | 304

sanysam abhidhya, 28. kaupna daam cchdana ca svaarropabhogrthya lokasyopakrrthya ca parigrahet [PhU1 p. 46] iti dadisvkrasya laukikatvam abhidhya, 29. tac ca na mukhyo 'stti stryatva pratiidhya, ko 'ya mukhya iti ced aya mukhyo na daa na ikh na yajopavta na ccchdana carati paramahasa [PhU 12 p. 47] iti dadiligarhityasya stryatm uktv 30. "na ta na coam" itydivkyena "mbaro nanamaskra" itydivkyena [PhU 2 p. 47; PhU 4 p. 50] ca lokavyavahrttatvam abhidhya, 31. ante, yat prnandaikabodhas tad brahmham asmti ktaktyo bhavati [PhU 4 p. 55] ityantena granthena brahmnubhavamtraparyavasnam cae. 32. ato viruddhadharmopetatvd asty evnayor mahn bheda. smtiv apy aya bheda uktadi draavya. 33. sasram eva nisra dv sradidky | pravrajanty aktodvh para vairgya rit || [BS 2.534; NpU p. 139] 34. pravttilakao yogo jna sanysalakaam | tasmj jna purasktya sanyased iha buddhimn || [NpU p. 139] itydi vividisanysa. 35. yad tu vidita tat syt para brahma santanam | tadaikadaa saghya sopavt ikh tyajet || [NpU p. 139] 37. jtv samyak para brahma sarva tyaktv parivrajet || itydi vidvatsanysa. 1.2 27) sanysam: P1 sarvatygam | 30) nanamaskra: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh nirnamaskra | 32) smtiv apy: P2 B3 PGh smtv apy | 34) pravtti-: P2 B3 PGh bhaspati || pravtti- | iha: P2 B3 PGh iti | 35) tat syt param: P2 tatva para | 305

38. nanu kalvidysv iva kadcid autsukyamtrepi veditum icch sabhavaty eva, vidvattpy ptadarina paita manyamnasypy avalokyate, na ca tau pravrajitau dau. ato vividividvatte kdyau vivakite iti cet, 39. ucyate: yath tvry bubhukym utpanny bhojand anyo vypro na rocate, bhojane ca vilambo sohu na akyate, tath janmahetuu karmasv atyantam arucir vedanasdhanaravadiu tvar mahat sapadyate, td vividi

sanysahetu. 40. vidvatty avadhir upadeashasrym abhihita: dehtmajnavaj jna dehtmajnabdhakam | tmany eva bhaved yasya sa necchann api mucyata || iti. [US 4.5] 41. rutv api: bhidyate hdayagranthi chidyante sarvasaay | kyante csya karmi tasmin de parvare || iti. [MuU 2.2.8] 42. param api hairayagarbhdika padam avara yasmd asau parvara, hdaye buddhau, skias tdtmydhyso 'ndyavidynirmitatvena granthivad dhasalearpatvd granthir ity ucyate. tm sk kart v, skitve 'pi

brahmatvam asti na v, brahmatve 'pi buddhy veditu akyate na v, akyatve 'pi tadvedanamtrea muktir asti na vetydaya saay. gmijanmakrani. nirvartate. 43. smtv apy ayam artha upalabhyate: yasya nhakto bhvo buddhir yasya na lipyate | hatvpi sa iml lokn na hanti na nibadhyate || iti. [BhG 18.17] 1.2 38) eva: P1 B2 eva | manyamnasypy: Adyar manyasytr- | kdyau: P2 B3 PGh kde | 39) vypro na rocate: P2 B3 PGh na rocate vypra | vilambo: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh vilambo 'pi | sohu na akyate: P1 B2 B3 PGh na sohum akyate | -sdhanaravadiu: P1 B2 -sdhaneu ca ravadiu | 42) 'pi brahmatvam: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh 'py asya brahmatvam- | brahmatve'pi buddhy: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh brahmatve'pi tad buddhy | akyate na v: P1 akyatve na v | 306 karmy anrabdhny

tad etad granthyditrayam avidynirmitatvd tmadaranena

44. yasya brahmavido, bhva satt svabhva tm, nhakto nhakrea tdtmydhysd antarbhvito, buddhilepa saaya. tadabhve trailokyavadhenpi na badhyate, kim utnyena karmaety artha. 45. nanv eva sati vividisanysaphalena tattvajnenaivgmijanman nivritatvd vartamnajanmaeasya bhogam antarea nivrayitum aakyatvt alam anena vidvatsanysaprayseneti cet, 46. maivam, vidvatsanysasya jvanmuktihetutvt. tasmd vedanya yath iti vidvat-

vividisanysa eva jvanmuktaye vidvatsanysa sapdanya. sanysa. 1.3 [jvanmuktisvarpa]

1. atha keya jvanmukti, ki v tatra pramam, katha v tatsiddhi, siddhy v ki prayojanam iti cet, 2. ucyate: jvata puruasya karttvabhokttvasukhadukhdilakaa cittadharma klearpatvd bandho bhavati, tasya nivraa jvanmukti. 3. nanv aya bandha ki skio nivryate, ki v cittt? ndya,

tattvajnenaiva nivritatvt. na dvitya, asabhavt. yad tu jald dravatva vahner voatva nivryeta tad cittt karttvdinivraasabhava. sarvatra samnam. svbhvikatva tu

1.2 44) nhakto nhakrea: Adyar nSS nhakto'hakrea | tdtmydhysd: P2 B3 PGh tdtmytiayd | antarbhvita: Adyar nSS antar ncchdita | 45) -janman: P1 B2 -janmano | nivrayitum aakyatvt alam anena: P2 nivrtitum aakyatvt kim anena, B3 PGh nivartitum aakyatvt ktam anena | 46) yath: P2 om. 1.3 1) siddhy: P2 B3 PGh siddhau | 3) ki v cittt: P2 B3 PGh ki v nivaryate cittt | tattvajnenaiva: P2 tattvajnena | vahner voatva nivryeta: P2 nivryate 'gnir, P1 B2 B3 PGh nivryeta vahner voatva | sarvatra samnam: P2 B3 PGh samnam sarvatra | 307

4. maivam, tyantikanivrasabhave 'py abhibhavasya sabhavt.


jalagata dravatva mttikmelanenbhibhyate vahner voatva manimantrdin tath sarv cittavttayo yogbhysenbhibhavitu akyante. 5. nanu prrabdha karma ktsnvidytatkryanane pravttasya tattvajnasya pratibandha ktv svaphaladnya dehendriydikam avasthpayati, na ca

sukhadukhdibhoga cittavttibhir vin sapdayitu akyate, tata katham abhibhava? 6. maivam, abhibhavasdhyy jvanmukter api sukhtiayarpatvena

prrabdhaphala evntarbhvt. 7. tarhi karmaiva jvanmukti sampdayiyati, m bht puruaprayatna iti cet, 8. kivijydv api samna paryanuyoga. 9. karmaa svayam adarpasya dasdhanasapattimantrea phalajanansamarthatvd apekita kydau puruaprayatna iti cet, 10. jvanmuktv api sama samdhnam. saty api puruaprayatne kyde phalaparyavasna yatra na dyate tatra prabalena karmntarea pratibandha kalpanya. tac ca prabala karma svnukla vyabhvdirp dasmagr sapdyaiva pratibadhnti. sa ca pratibandho virodhin prabalatareottambhakena krrydirpea karmapanyate. tac ca karma svnukl vilaka

dasmagr sapdyaiva pratibandham apanayati. 11. ki bahun prrabdhakarmay evtyuttabhakena bhavat yogbhysa

1.3 4) abhibhavasya sabhavt: P2 B3 PGh abhibhavasabhavt | vahner voatva: P2 B3 PGh vahner uatva, P1 B2 vahner auatva | 5) -tatkryanane: P2 B3 PGh -tatkryane | 6) -sdhyy: P1 B2 -sdhyy | 10) sama: P2 B3 PGh samna | puruaprayatne: P2 B3 PGh puruasya prayatne | kyde: P2 PGh kyadau | 10) pratibandham: B1 pratibandhakam | evtyuttabhakena: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh atyantabhaktena, Adyar nSS evtyantabhaktena | 308

rpasya puruaprayatnasya vaiyarthya manaspi cintayitu aakyam.


prrabdha karma yath tattvajnt prabala tath tasmd api karmao yogbhysa prabalo 'stu. tath ca yoginm uddlakaprabhtn svecchay dehatyga upapadyate. yady apy alpyum asmka tdo yogo na sabhavati, tath 'pi kmdirpacittavttinirodhamtre yoge ko nma praysa? 12. yadi stryaprayatnasya prbalya ngkriyate tad cikitsm rabhya mokastraparyantn sarvem narthakya prasajyeta. na hi kadcit

karmaphalavisavdamtrea daurbalyam pdayitu akyam; anyath kdcitka parjaya dv sarvair bhpair gajvdisenopekyet. 13. ata ev-

nandabodhcry hu: na hy ajrabhayd hraparitygo, bhikukabhayd v sthlyanadhirayaam, ykbhayd v prvaraaparityga iti. [cf. Prm p. 21] 14. stryaprayatnasya prbalya vasiharmasavde vispaam

avagamyate "sarvam eveha hi sad" ity rabhya "tad anu tad apy avamucya sdhu titha" ityantena granthena. 15. vasiha: sarvam eveha hi sad sasre raghunananda | samyakprayuktt sarvea paurut samavpyate || [LYV 2.1.1] sarva putravittasvargalokabrahmalokdiphalam. paurua putrakmeikivijyajyotiomdilakaa puruaprayatna. 16. ucchstra strita ceti paurua dvividha smtam | tatrochhstram anarthya paramrthya stritam || [LYV 2.1.2] 1.3 11) uddlakaprabhtn: P1 B2 uddlakavtahavydn | kmdirpacittavtti: P2 B3 PGh kmdi dhvtti | 12) stryaprayatnasya: P1 B2 stryasya prayatnasya | 13) paritygo bhiku-: P1 B2 parityga bhiku- | -rayaam: P2 B3 PGh -riyaam | 14) stryaprayatnasya: P2 B3 PGh stryasya pratyatnasya | sarvam eveha (...) granthena: B1 om. | 15) -prayuktt : P1 P2 B3 -prayatnt | -jyotiomdilakaa: P1 -jyotiomabrahmopsandilakana, P2 B2 B3 PGh -jyotiomabrahmopsannuhnadilakana | 309

ucchastra parastrgamanaparadravypahrdi. strita nityanaimittiknundi. anartho naraka artheu svargdiu paramo moka paramrtha. 17. blyd alam abhyastai strasatsagamdibhi | guai puruayatnena so 'rtha sampadyate hita || [LYV 2.1.3] ala sapura samyag ity artha. gunair yuktenety adhyhra. hita reyorpa. 18. rrma prktana vsanjla niyojayati mm yath | mune tathaiva tihmi kpaa ki karomy aham || [LYV 2.1..4] vsan dharmdharmarp jvagat saskr. 19. vasiha: ata eva hi he rma reya prpnoi vatam | svaprayatnopantena paurueaiva nnyath || [LYV 2.1.5] yato vsanparatantro bhavn ata eva hi pratantryanivraya svotshasapdito manovkkyajanya puruavypro 'pekita. 20. dvividho vsanvyha ubha caivubha ca te | prktano vidyate rma dvayor ekataro 'thav || [LYV 2.1.6] ki dharmdharmv ubhv api tv niyojyata utaikatara iti vikalpa. pake 'pi ubho 'ubho vety arthasiddho vikalpa. 21. vsanaughena uddhena tatra ced apanyase | tatkrameu tenaiva pada prpsyasi vatam || [LYV 2.1.7] tatra teu pakeu. tat tarhi. tenaiva kramea ubhavsanprpitenaivcaraena prayatnntaranirapekea. vata pada mokam. 22. atha ced aubho bhvas tvm yojayati sakae | 1.3 16) parastrgamanaparadravypahrdi: P2 B2 paradravypaharaparastrgamandi | 26) jvagat saskr: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh jvagatasaskr | 19) prapnoi : P2 prapnoti, PGh prapnosi | 20) ubhv: B1 om. | arthasiddho: Adyar nSS (K) artht siddho | 21) teu pakeu: PGh B3 tasmin pake > P2 sh cor. pakeu | tat: P1 P2 om. | ubhavsan-: P2 B3 PGh ubhavsanay | 22) yojayati: P2 niyojayati | 310 ekatara-

prktanas tad asau yatnj jetavyo bhavat svayam || [LYV 2.1.8] bhvo vsan. tat tarhi. yatno 'ubhavirodhistryadharmnuhnam. tena svayam jetavya, na tu yuddhe bhtyamukheneva puruntaramukhena jetu akya. 23. ubhubhbhy mrgbhy vahant vsansarit | pauruea prayatnena yojany ubhe pathi || [LYV 2.1.9] ubhayapake tu ubhabhgasya prayatnanair apekye 'py aubhabhga stryaprayatnena nivrya ubham eva tasya sthne samcaret. 24. aubheu samviam ubhev evvatrayet | svamana pururthena balena balin vara || [LYV 2.1.10] aubheu parastrparadravydiu. ubheu strrthadevatdhyndiu. pururthena puruaprayatnena. balena prabalena. 25. aubhc clita yti ubham tasmd aptarat. | janto citta tu iuvat tasmt tac clayed balt || [LYV 2.1.11] yath iur mdbhakan nivrya phalabhakae niyojyate, tath cittam api satsagena tadvipartaviayn nivrayitu akyam. 26. samatsntvanenu na drg iti anai anai | pauruea prayatnena llayec cittablakam || [LYV 2.1.12] 27. capalasya paor bandhanya dvv upyau bhavata. haritatadarana kayandikam, vkpruya dadibhir bhartsana ceti. tatrdyena sahas praveyate, dvityenetas tato dhva chanai anai praveyate. tath atrumitrdisamatvasukhabodhana prymapratyhrdipuruaprayatna cety etau dvau cittantyupyau. tatrdyena mduyogena ghra llayet. dvityena hahayogena drg 1.3 22) bhtyamukheneva: P1 B1 bhtyamukhenaiva, Adyar nSS (G K) mtyumukheneva | 23) parastrparadravydiu: P2 B3 PGh parastrdravydiu | 25) niyojyate: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh yojyate | After yojyate P1 P2 B2 B3 insert gloss: maimuktkarn; (B3) maimuktdy nivrya kandukdy karae yojyate | After satsagena Adyar nSS (K Kh) insert dusagt | tadviparta: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh tattadviparta | 27) bandhanya: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh bandhanasthne praveanya | -darana: P1 B2 om. | vkpruya: P1 B2 vrupruya(?) | dadibhir: P1 dadi > B2 sh cor. dadibhir | samatvasukha-: P2 B3 PGh -samatva sukha- | 311

iti na llayet, ki tu anai anai. 28. drgabhysavad yti yad te vsanodayam | tadbhysasya sphalya viddhi tvam arisdana || [LYV 2.1.13] mduyogbhysc chghram eva sadvsanodaye sati sphalyam abhysasya vaktavyam, na tv alpaklatvensabhvan akany. 29. sadigdhym api bha ubhm eva samhara | ubhy vsanvddhau tta doo na kacana || [LYV 2.1.14] 30. ubhavsanbhyasyamn sapr na veti yad sadehas tadpi ubhm abhyasyed eva. tad yath sahasrajape pravttasya daam atasakhy yad sadigdh, tad punar api ata japet. asaprtau saprti phaliyati, saprtau tadvddhy na sahasrajapo duyati, tadvat. 31. avyutpannaman yvad bhavn ajtatatpada | gurustrapramais tu nirta tvad cara || [LYV 2.1.15] 32. tata pakvakayea nna vijtavastun | ubho 'py asau tvay tyjyo vsanaugho nirodhin || [LYV 2.1.16] 33. yad atisubhagam ryasevita tac chubham anustya manojabhvabuddhy | adhigamaya pada yad advitya tad anu tad apy avamucya sdhu tiheti || [LYV 2.1.17] 34. spao 'rtha. tasmd yogbhysena kmdyabhibhavasabhavj jvanmuktau na vivaditavyam. iti jvanmuktisvarpam. 1.4 [jvanmuktilakana] 1. rutismtivkyni jvanmuktisadbhve pramni. pahyante: 2. tni ca kahavallydiu

1.3 28) arisdana: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh arimardana | vaktavyam: P2 B3 PGh mantavyam | 33) -buddhy: P2 B3 PGh -uddhy | yad advitya: Adyar sad vioka | 1.4 2) kahavallydiu: P1 B2 kahavallu | After pahyante P2 B3 PGh insert tatra | 312

vimukta ca vimucyate [KU 5.1] iti. 3. jvann eva dabandht kmder vieea mukta san dehapte bhvibandhd vieea mucyate. vedant prg api amadamdisapdanena kmdibhyo mucyata eva, tathpy utpannn kmdn tatra prayatnena nirodha. 4. atra tu dhvttyanudayamtrd anutpattir eva, tato vieeety ucyate. tath pralaye dehapte ca sati kacit kla bhvidehabandhn mucyate. atrtyantiko moka ity abhipretya vieeety uktam. 5. bhadrayake pahyate: yad sarve pramucyante km ye 'sya hdi rit. atha martyo 'mto bhavaty atra brahma samanute [BU 4.4.7; KU 4.14] iti. 6. rutyantare 'pi: sa cakur acakur iva sakaro 'kara iva saman aman iva [cf. BSBh 1.1.4] iti evam anyatrpy udhryam. 7. smtiu jvanmukta sthitaprajabhagavadbhaktaguttabrhmativarramdinmabhis tatra tatra vyavahriyate. vasiharmasavde "n

jnaikanihnm" ity arabhya "yat kicid avaiyata" ity antena granthena jvanmukta pahyate. 8. vasiha: nn jnaikanihnm tmajnavicrim | s jvanmuktatodeti videhamuktataiva y || [LYV 3.1.88] jnaikanihatva laukikavaidikakarmatyga. dehendriyasadasadbhvamtrea muktidvayasya vieo na tv anubhavata, dvaitapratter ubhayatrbhvt. 9. rrma: 1.4 3) dabandht: P2 B3 PGh dabandhant | utpannn kmdn: P2 B3 PGh utpannakmdn | 4) -anudayamtrd: Adyar edn. -abhvd | kacit-: P2 B3 PGh kicit- | ca: P2 B3 PGh om. | atrtyantiko: P2 B3 PGh atra tv tyantiko | 5) rit: P1 B2 PGh sthit (Mdhyndina recension of BU) > B2 sh cor. rita | 6) After aman iva Adyar edn. inserts sapro'pra iva | 7) -ramdi-: P1 P2 -ramydi- | yat kicid: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh sat kicid | granthena: P2 B3 PGh om. | 8) s jvanmuktatodeti videhamuktataiva y: B3 jvanmuktas tato dehd videhnmukta eva yau > PGh jvanmuktis | videhamuktataiva: P1 P2 videhamuktateva, B2 videhonmuktataiva | 313

brahman videhamuktasya jvanmuktasya lakaam | brhi yena tathaivha yate stragay d || [LYV 3.1.89] 10. vasiha: yathsthitam ida yasya vyavahravato 'pi ca | asta gata sthita vyoma sa jvanmukta ucyate || [LYV 3.1.90] 11. ida pratyamna girinadsamudrdika jagatpratipattur dehendriyavyavahrea saha mahpralaye paramevareopasahta satsvarpopamardensta gata bhavati. atra tu na tath; ki tu vidyata eva dehendriydivyavahra. girinadydika ca paramevarenupasahtatvd yathprvam avatihamna sat sarvair anyai pribhir vispaam avalokyate. 12. jvanmuktasya jagatpratyyakadhvttyabhvt suuptv iva sarvam asta gata bhavati. svaya prakamna cidvyoma kevalam avaiyate. baddhasya suuptau ttklikadhvttyabhvasmye 'pi bhvidhvttibjasadbhvn na jvanmuktatvam. 13. nodeti nstam yti sukhadukhair mukhaprabh | yathprpte sthitir yasya sa jvanmukta ucyate || [LYV 3.1.91] 14. mukhaprabh hara. srakcandanasatkrdisukhe prpte 'pi sasria iva haro nodeti. astamayo dainyam. dhanahnidhikkrdidukhe prpte 'pi na dno bhavati. idntanasvaprayatnavieam antarea prrabdhakarmpditaprvapravhgatabhiknndika yathprptam tasmin. sthitir deharak. samdhidrhyena srakcandandiprattyabhvt, kadcid vyutthnadaym ptata prattv api

vivekadrhyena heyopdeyatvabuddhyabhvd dhardirhityam upapadyate.

1.4 9) stragay: P1 B2 P2 PGh Adyar strajay | 11) dehendriydivyavahra: P2 B3 PGh om. -di- | 12) jagatpratyyaka-: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh tatpratyyaka- | -bjasad-: P2 B3 PGh -bjasya sad| 13) sukhadukhair: P1 B2 B3 PGh sukhe dukhe | 14) astamayo: P1 B2 mukhaprabhstamayo | 14) -svaprayatna-: P1 B2 -prayatna- | -pdeyatva-: P2 B3 PGh om. -tva- | 314

15. yo jgarti suuptistho yasya jgran na vidyate | yasya nirvsano bodha sa jvanmukta ucyate || [LYV 3.1.92] 16. cakurdndriy svasvagolakev avasthnenoparatyabhvj jgarti. manovttirahitatvt suuptistha. ata eva indriyair arthopalabdhir ity [PK p. 416] etasya jgaraalakaasybhvj jgran na vidyate. saty api bodhe jyamno

brahmavittvbhimndir bhogrthpditakmdi ca dhdoo yas tasya vsanvttirhityena taddobhvn nirvsanatvam. 17. rgadveabhaydnm anurpa carann api | yo 'ntarvyomavad atyaccha sa jvanmukta ucyate || [LYV 3.1.93] 18. rgnurpa bhojandipravtti. vimukhatvam. dvenurpa bauddhakplikdibhyo diabdena

bhaynurpa sarpavyghrdibhyo 'pasaraam.

mtsarydi. mtsarynurpam itarayogibhya dhikyena samdhyanuhnam. saty api vyutthnadaym da carae prvbhysena kluyarahitatvd antasvacchatvam. prpite virntacittasya

yath vyomni dhmadhlimeghdiyukte 'pi

nirlepasvabhvatvd atiayena svacchatva tadvat. 19. yasya nhakto bhvo buddhir yasya na lipyate | kurvato 'kurvato vpi sa jvanmukta ucyate || [LYV 3.1.94] 20. prvrdha vidvatsanysaprastve vykhytam. loke baddhasya puruasya strya karma kurvato 'ha karteti cidtmhakto bhavati. bhvi svarga prpsymti harea buddhir lipyate. akurvatas tu tyaktavn asmty ahaktatvam. svarglbhavido lepa. evam pratiiddhakarmai laukikakarmai ca yathsa-

1.4 16) ata eva indriyair arthopalabdhir: P2 eva sarvendriyair | jgarana-: P2 B3 jgrata | -bhimndir: B3 PGh - bhimndibhir | -kmdi: B3 PGh -kmdibhi | dhdoo yas tasya vsanvtti-: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh dhdoo vsan vtti- | 18) mtsarydi: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh om. | dhikyena: B1 pardhikyena, P1 B2 mamdhikyena | samdhyanu-: B2 P2 B3 PGh samdhydyanu- | antasvacchatvam: P2 B3 atyacchatvam > PGh sh cor. antasvachatvam | dhma-: B1 B3 om. | -tvd atiayena svacchatva: P2 B3 PGh -tvd atycchatva | 20) -vido: B3 PGh vidder | 315

bhava yojanyam. jvanmuktasya tu tdtmydhysbhvd dhadyabhvc ca na doadvayam. 21. yasmn nodvijate loko lokn nodvijate ca ya | harmarabhayn mukta sa jvanmukta ucyate || [LYV 3.1.95] 22. adhikepatandv apravttatvd etasml loko nodvijate. ata evaitasmil lokasydhikepdav apravtte, kasyacid duasya tatpravttv apy etaccitte tdavikalpnudayc cyam api nodvijate. 23. ntasasrakalana kalvn api nikala | ya sacitto 'pi nicitta sa jvanmukta ucyate || [LYV 3.1.96] 24. atrumitramnvamndivikalp sasrakalan. catuair vidy kal, tatsadbhve 'pi tadabhimnavyavahrbhvn nikalatvam. cittasya svarpea sadbhve 'pi vttyanudayn nicittatvam. cintety phe vsanvad tmadhynavttisadbhve 'pi laukikavttyabhvn nicintatvam. 25. ya samastrthajteu vyahry api tala | parrthev iva prtm sa jvanmukta ucyate || [LYV 3.1.97] 26. paraghe vivhotsavdau svaya gatv tatprtyai tadyakryeu vyavaharann api lbhlbhayor haravidarpa buddhisatpa na prpnoti. aya mukta svakrye 'pi tala. na kevala satpbhvc chtalatvam, ki tu evam pariprasvarpnusadhnd api. iti jvanmuktalakaam. 1.5 [videhamuktilakaa] 1. atha videhamuktalakaam. 1.4 22) apravttatvd: P1 B2 apravttd | lokasydhi-: P2 B3 PGh lokasydy adhi- | adhikepdv apra-: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS -dhikepdy apra- | 24) After sasrakalan P2 B3 insert nt yasya sa > PGh B2 insert in mar., P1 inserts ntya | 24) tatsadbhve'pi: P1 tasmdbhvepi | -abhimnavyavahrbhvan: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh -abhimnavyavahrayor abhvan | cintety: P2 B3 PGh sacinteti, P1 cittepi, B2 sh cor. nicinteti | 26) tadyakryeu: P1 B2 tadyekrye | paripra-: P2 B3 PGh pra- | 316

2. jvanmuktapada tyaktv svadehe klastkte | viaty adehamuktatva pavano 'spandatm iva || [LYV 3.1.98] 3. yath vyu kadcic calana tyaktv svarpevatihate, tath mukto 'py updhikta sasram tyaktv svarpevatihate. 4. videhamukto nodeti nstam eti na myati | na san nsan na drastho na cha na ca netara || [LYV 3.1.99] 5. udaystamayau haravidau. na myati na ca tatparityg ligadehasytraiva lnatvt. sadvcyo jagaddhetur avidymyopdhir na prjevara. asadvcyo npi bhtabhautika. na drastha ityukty na mytta. na cetyukty sthlabhuk-

sampasthatva niidhyate. aha na ceti na samai ca. netara iti na vyai ca. vyavahrayogyo vikalpa ko 'pi nstty artha. 6. tata stimitagambhra na tejo na tamastatam | ankhyam anabhivyakta yat kicid avaiyate || [LYV 3.1.100] 7. evavidhy videhamukty sadasatvokter jvanmuktv api yvad yvan nirvikalptiayas tvat tvad uttamatva draavyam. 1.6 [sthitapraja] 1. bhagavadgtsu dvitydyye sthitapraja pahyate: 2. arjuna uvca: sthitaprajasya k bh samdhisthasya keava | sthitadh ki prabheta kim sta vrajeta kim || [BhG 2.54]

1.5 1) atha videhamuktalakaam: P1 B2 om., P2 B3 PGh atha videhalakaa | 3) calaa: P2 cacalatva, B3 PGh calatva | muktopy: P1 P2 B3 PGh mukttmpi | svarpe-: P1 B2 nicalasvarpe-, P2 B3 nicalarpe- | 5) na myati : B1 na ca myati | -sampasthatva: P2 B3 PGh -sampastho'pi, P1 B2 -sampastho | 6) yat kicid: P2 B3 PGh sat kicid | 7) evavidhy videhamukty: Here reading ex. conj. the genitive instead of the instumental evavidhay videhamukty in B1 et al. | sadasadtvokter: P1 sadyatvokter yathokta, B2 sadatvokter yathokta, P2 B3 sdyatvokter, PGh sdyatvokter yathokta | yvad yvan nir- : P2 B3 PGh yvan nir- | nirvikalptiayas: P1 B2 nirvikalpatvtiayas | tvat tvad uttamatva: P2 B3 PGh tvad uttamatva | 317

3. praj tattvajnam. tad dvividha sthitam asthita ceti. yath jre 'nurakty nry sarvev api vyavahreu buddhir jram eva dhyyati, pramaprattni kriyamny api ghakarmi sadya eva vismaryante tath paravairgyopetasya yogbhysapaventyantavaktasyotpanne tattvajne tadbuddhir jram iva

nairantaryea tattva dhyyati; tad ida sthita prajnam. uktaguarahitasya kenpi puyavieea kadcid utpanne 'pi tattvajne ghakarmavat tatraiva tattva vismaryate; tad idam asthita jnam. 4. etad evbhipretya vasiha ha: paravyasanin nr vyagrpi ghakarmai | tad evsvdayaty anta parasagarasyaam || [LYV 5.9.58] 5. eva tattve pare uddhe dhro virntim gata | tad evsvdayaty antar bahir vyavaharann api || [LYV 5.9.59] iti. 6. tatra sthitapraja klabhedd dvividha, samhito vyutthita ca. tayor ubhayor lakaa prvottarbhym ardhbhy pcchate samdhisthasya sthitaprajasya k bh? kdair lakaavcakai abdai aya bhyate? vyutthita sthitapraja kda vgvyavahra karoti? yasyopaveanagamane mhebhyo vilakae kde? 7. rbhagavn uvca: prajahti yad kmn sarvn prtha manogatn | tmany evtman tua sthitaprajas tadocyate || [BhG 2.55] 8. kms trividh, bhy ntar vsanmtrarp ceti. uprjitamodakdayo bhy, modakdaya ntar, pathigatatdivad ptata pratt vsanrp ca. samhito 'eadhvttisakayt sarvn parityajati. asti csya mukhaprasdaligagamya satoa. sa ca na kmeu ki tv tmany eva, kmn tyaktatvt, buddhe 1.6 3) jre'nurakty nry: P2 PGh jre'nuraktynry | pramaprattni: P2 B3 PGh pramapramitni | ghakarmi: P2 ghasthakarmi | -vaktasyotpanne: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh -vaktacittasyotpanne | tadbuddhir: P2 B3 PGh buddhir | 6) pcchate: P2 B3 PGh pcchyati | abdai: P2 abdai sarvair | kda vag-: B3 PGh kdgvk- | yasyo-: P2 B3 PGh tasyo- | mhebhyo: P2 B3 PGh mandebhyo | 8) pathigatatdi: Adyar pathipatitatdi | 318

paramnandarpetmatattvbhimukhatvc ca. na ctra saprajtasamdhv ivtmnando manovttyollikhyate, ki tu svaprakacidrpetman. satoa ca na

vttirpa, ki tu saskrarpa. evavidhair lakaavcakai abdai samhito bhyate. 9. dukhev anudvignaman sukheu vigataspha | vtargabhayakrodha sthitadhr munir ucyate || [BhG 2.56] 10. dukha rogdinimittajany rajoguavikrarp satptmik pratikl

cittavtti. tde dukhe prpte sati "aha ppa, dhi m durtmnam" ity anutptmik tamoguavttivikratvena bhrntirp cittavttir udvega. yady apy

aya viveka ivbhti tathpi prvasmi janmani cet tatppapravttipratibandhakatvt saprayojano bhavati, idn tu niprayojana iti bhrntitva draavyam. sukha rjyaputralbhdijany sttvik prtirpnukl cittavtti. tasmin sukhe saty gminas tdasya sukhasya kraa puyam ananuhya vthaiva tadapek tmas cittavtti sph. 11. tatra ca sukhadukhayo prrabdhakarmaprpitatvd vyutthitacittasya vttisabhavc ca tad ubhayam utpadyate. udvegasphe tu na vivekina sabhavata. tath rgabhayakrodh ca tmasatvena karmaprpitatvbhvn nsya vidyante. evalakaalakita sthitadh svnubhavaprakaanena iyaikrtham anudveganisphatvdigamaka vaco bhata ity artha. 12. ya sarvatrnabhisnehas tat tat prpya ubhubham | nbhinandati na dvei tasya praj pratihit || [BhG 2.57] 1.6 8) -rpetmatattvbhi-: P1 B2 -rpea tmbhi- | manovttyollikhyate: P2 B3 PGh manovttylakyate | saskrarpa: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh tatsaskrarpa | 10) rogdi-: Adyar nSS rgdi- | tamoguavttivikratvena: B1 tamoguavtti vikratvena, P1 B2 -guavieatvena | 10) -labhdijany: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh -dinimittajany | vthaiva: P1 B2 tathaiva | 11) utpadyate: P1 B2 samupapadyate, P2 B3 PGh upapadyate | karmaprpita-: P2 B3 PGh karma prpita- | lakaalakita : P2 B3 PGh om. lakita > P2 sh cor. | 319

13. yasmin saty anyadye hnivddh svasminn ropyete tdo 'nyaviayas tmasavttiviea sneha. ubha sukhahetu svakalatrdi. tadguakathandipravttik dhvttir abhinanda. atra guakathanasya paraprarocanrthatvbhvena vyarthatvt taddhetur abhinandas tmasa. asyotpdanena dukhahetu parakyavidydir ena praty aubho viaya. tannindpravttik dhvttir dvea. so 'pi tmasa, tannindy nivrarthatvbhvena vyarthatvt. ta ete tmas dharm katha vivekini sabhaveyu? 14. yad saharate cya krmo 'gnva sarvaa | indriyndriyrthebhyas tasya praj pratihit || [BhG 2.58] 15. vyutthitasya samastatmasavttyabhva prvalokbhym abhihita.

samhitasya tu vttaya eva na santi kutas tmasatvaakety abhiprya. 16. viay vinivartante nirhrasya dehina | rasavarja ramo 'py asya para dv nivartate || [BhG 2.59] 17. prrabdha karma sukhadukhahetn kcid viay candrodayndhakrdirpn svayam eva sapdayati. anys tu ghaketrdn puruodyogadvrea. tatra candrodaydaya prveendriyasahralakaena samdhinaiva nivartante, nnyath. ghdayas tu samdhim antarepi nivartante. haraam hra udyoga. nirudyogasya ghdiviay nivartante; rasas tu na nivartante. raso mnas t. 18. spi paramnandasya brahmao darane sati svalpnandahetubhyo nivartate, ki prajay kariymo ye no 'yam tm 'ya loka [BU 4.4.22] iti rute. 1.6 13) ubha sukhahetu svakalatrdi: P1 B2 sukhahetu svakalatrdi ubha vastu, P2 PGh sukhahetur ya svakalatrdi ubha vastu, B3 sukhadukhahetu svakalatrdi ubha vastu, Adyar -di ubho viaya | tadgua: B3 PGh om. tad- > P2 sh cor. | dhvttir: P1 B2 buddhivttir | 17) prveendriyasa-: B3 PGh prva idriya-, P1 B2 idriyasa-, P2 prneendriydisam- | antarepi : B3 PGh om. api > P2 sh cor. | 18) spi: P1 B2 sopi | paramnandasya: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh paramnandrpasya | brahmao: P1 B2 parabrahmao, other mss. parasya brahmao | 320

19. yatato hy api kaunteya puruasya vipacita | indriyi pramthni haranti prasabha mana || [BhG 2.60] 20. tni sarvi sayamya yukta sta matpara | vae hi yasyendriyi tasya praj pratihit || [BhG 2.61] 21. udyogatygabrahmadaranaprayatna kurvato 'pi kdcitkapramdaparihrya samdhyabhysa. tad etat kim stetyasya pranottaram. [BhG 2.54] 22. dhyyato viayn pusa sagas tepajyate | sagt sajyate kma kmt krodho 'bhijyate || [BhG 2.62] 23. krodht bhavati samoha samoht smtivibhrama | smtibhrad buddhino buddhint praayati || [BhG 2.63] 24. asati samdhyabhyse pramdaprakra upanyasta. sago dhyeyaviayasanidhi. samoho vivekaparmukhatvam. smtivibhramas tattvnusadhnbhva. buddhino vipartabhvanopacayadoea pratibaddhasya jnasya mokapradatvasmarthybhva. 25. rgadveaviyuktais tu viayn indriyai caran | tmavayair vidheytm prasdam adhigacchati || [BhG 2.64] 26. vidheytmatva vaktamanastvam. prasdo nairmalya bandharhityam. samdhyabhysayuktas tadvsanbald vyutthnadaym indriyair vyavaharann api prasda samyak prpnoti. tad etat ki vrajeteti pranottaram. uparitanenpi bahun granthena sthitapraja prapacita. 27. nanu prajy sthityupattibhy prg api sdhanatvena rgadvedirhityam apekitam. 28. bham; tathpy asti viea. sa ca reyomrgakrair darita: 29. vidysthitaye prg ye sdhanabhth prayatnanipdy | 1.6 21) stetyasya pranottaram: P1 B2 steti pranottaram, P2 B3 PGh steti pranasyottaram | 24) bhvanopacaya: P2 bhvanopacitta | 26) vyutthna-: P1 B2 abhyutthna- | vrajeteti pranottaram: P1 B2 vrajetetyasya pranasyottara, P2 B3 PGh vrajetety pranasyottaram | 321

lakaabhts tu puna svabhvatas te sthit sthitapraje || 30. jvanmuktim itm vadanty avasth sthittmasabodhm | bdhitabhedapratibhm abdhittmvabodhasmarthyt || iti. 1.7 [bhagavadbhakta] 1. bhagavadbhakto dvdadhyye bhagavat varita: 2. adve sarvabhtn maitra karua eva ca | nirmamo nirahakra samadukhasukha kam || [BhG 12.13] 3. satua satata yog yattm dhanicaya | mayy arpitamano buddhir yo madbhakta sa me priya || [BhG 12.14] 4. ivarrpitamanastvena samhitasynynusadhnbhvt, vyutthitasypy 5. eva

udsnnusadhnena haravidbhvc ca sukhadukhasmyam. vakyamev api dvandveu draavyam: 6. yasmn nodvijate loko lokn nodvijate ca ya | harmarabhayodvegair mukto ya sa ca me priya || [BhG 12.15] 7. anapeka ucir daka udsno gatavyatha | sarvrambhaparityg yo madbhakta sa me priya || [BhG 12.16] 8. yo na hyati na dvei na ocati na kakati | ubhubhaparityg bhaktimn ya sa me priya || [BhG 12.17] 9. sama atrau ca mitre ca tath mnpamnayo | toasukhadukheu sama sagavivarjita || [BhG 12.18] 10. tulyanindstutir maun samtuo yena kenacit | aniketa sthiramatir bhaktimn me priyo nara || [BhG 12.19] iti. 11. atrpi prvavadvieo vrttikakrair darita: utpanntmabodhasya hy advetvdayo gu | ayatnato bhavanty asya na tu sdhanarpia || [Nks 4.69] iti.

1.6 30) jvanmuktim itmam: P1 P2 B2 jvanmuktir itmam | vadanty avast: P2 B3 PGh avastha vadati | 1.7 4) vyutthitasypy ud-: P1 B2 vyutthitasya sukhadukhdi sadbhve saty apy ud- | 5) vakyamev api dvandveu: P2 B3 PGh vakamepi dvadve > P2 sh cor. | 7) yo madbhakta: P1 B2 bhaktimnya | 8) bhaktimn ya: B1 yo madbhakta | 9) mnpamnayo: P2 mnvamnayo | 11) -tmabodhasya: P2 B3 PGh -tmvaprabodhasya | 322

1.8 [gutta] 1. gutta caturdadhyye varita: arjuna uvca: kair ligais trn gun etn atto bhavati prabho | kimcra katha caits trn gun ativartate || [BhG 14.21] 2. trayo gu sattvarajastamsi; te parimavat sarvasasra pravartate; ato guttatvam asasritvam; jvanmuktatvam iti yvat. ligni parem etadyaguttatvabodhakni. cras tadyamana sacraprakra. katham iti sdhanaprana. 3. rbhagvan uvca: praka ca pravtti ca moham eva ca pava | na dvei sapravttni na nivttni kkati || [BhG 14.22] 4. udsnavad sno guair yo na viclyate | gu vartante ity eva yo 'vatihati negate || [BhG 14.23] 5. samadukhasukha svastha samalomakcana | tulyapriypriyo dhras tulyanindtmasastuti || [BhG 14.24] 6. mnpamnayos tulyas tulyo mitrripakayo | sarvrambhaparityg gutta sa ucyate || [BhG 14.25] 7. m ca yo 'vyabhicrea bhaktiyogena sevate | sa gun samattyaitn brahmabhyya kalpate || [BhG 14.26] 8. prakapravttimoh sattvarajastamogu. te ca jgratsvapnayo pravartante; suuptisamdhinyacittatvvasthsu nivartante. pravtti ca dvividh, anukl pratikl ceti. tatra mho jgarae pratiklapravtti dvei, anuklapravttim kkati. guttasya tv anuklapratikldhysbhvd dvekke na sta. yath dvayo kalaha kurvator avalokayit kacit taastha svaya kevalam udste, na tu

1.8 2) -vat: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh -viet | sarvasasra: B2 sarva sasra | 6) mnpamnyos : P2 mnvamnayos | 8) -nyacittatv-: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh -nyacittavttitv- | dvei, anu-: P1 P2 dvei nya cittatvaday anu- > P2 sh cor. | 323

jayaparjaybhym itas tata clyate, tath gutto vivek svayam udste. "gu gueu vartante, na tv aham" [BhG 3.28] iti viveka audsnyam. aham eva karomty adhyso vicalanam; na csya tad asti. tad ida "kimcra" ity pranasyottaram. samadukhasukhdni ligni; avyabhicribhaktisahitajnadhynbhysena paramtmasev ceti gutyayasdhanapranasyottaram. 1.9 [brhmaa] 1. brhmao vysdibhir varita: anuttaryavasanam anupastryayinam | bhpadhyina nta ta dev brhmaa vidu || [MhB 12.261.29] 2. brhmaaabdo brahmavidvcti "atha brhmaa" [BU 3.5.1] iti ruty varita, 3. brahmavida ca vidvatsanysdhikrt. 4. yathjtarpadharo [JU 6 p. 70] ncchdana carati paramahasa [PhU 2 p. 47] ityadiruty parigraharhityasya mukhyatvbhidhnd anuttaryatvdika tasya yuktam. 5. yena kenacid cchanno yena kenacid ita | yatrakvacanay syt ta dev brhmaa vidu || [MhB 12.237.12] 6. dehanirvhyancchdanaayanasthnpekym apy aandigatau guadoau nnviyete, udarapraapuydirpasya nirvhasya samatvn niprayojanasya guadoavicrasya cittadoatvt. 7. ata eva bhgavate pahyate: ki varitena bahun lakaa guadoayo | guadoadir doo guas tbhayavarjita || [BhP 11.19.45] iti. 1.8 8) viveka audsnyam: P2 B3 PGh vivekd audsnyam | adhyso vicalana: P1 adhysa clitatva | ity pranasyottaram: P1 B2 ity asya pra- | 1.9 2) anupastrya-: P1 B2 anupastra- | padhyina: B3 PGh -padhnya > P2 sh cor. | 2) varita: Adyar varita |


8. kanthkaupnavss tu daadhgdhynatatpara | ekk ramate nitya ta dev brhmaa vidu || [YDhS p.37] 9. brahmopadedin pryanujighkym uttamatvajpanena utpdayitu daakaupndiligam dhrayet kaupna daam cchdana ca svaarropabhogrthya ca lokasyopakrrthya ca parigrahet [PhU 1 p. 46] iti rute. 10. anujighkaypi tady ghaktydivrtt na kuryt ki tu raddhm

dhynaparo bhavet tam evaika jnatha tmnam any vco vimucatha [MuU 2.2.5] iti rute, 11. tam eva dhro vijya praj kurvta brhmaa | nnudhyyd bah chabdn vco viglpana hi tad || [BU 4.4.21] iti rute ca. 12. brahmopadeas tv any v na bhavatti na dhynavirodh. tac ca dhynam ekkitve nirvighna sabhavati. 13. ata eva smtyantare 'bhihitam: eko bhikur yathokta syd dvau caiva mithuna smtam | trayo grma samkhyta rdhva tu nagaryate || [DS 7.34] 14. nagara na hi kartavya grmo v mithuna tath | rjdivrtt teu syd bhikvrtt parasparam || [DS 7.35a36a] iti. 15. niriam anrambha nirnamaskram astutim | aka kakarma ta dev brhmaa vidu || [MhB 12.237.24; MbB 12.255.33] iti. 16. viiai sasribhi praamat purum rvda prayujyate. yasya

1.9 9) -bhogrthya ca lokasyopakrthya ca: P2 B3 PGh -bhogrthya lokasyopkrthya ca | 10) -pi tady gha-: P2 B3 PGh -pi tady svaya gha- | jnatha: P2 vijnatha, B3 PGh vijntha | 11) nnudhyyd: P1 B2 nnudhyyed, B1 nnudhyyn | 12) ekkitve nirvighna sabhavati: P1 ekkitvena, P2 B3 PGh ekkitvena nivie sabhavati | 13) dvu caiva: P2 B3 PGh dvv eva | 14) rjdivartt: nSS grmavrt hi | te: B1 teu | 16) sasribhi: P2 B3 PGh sanysibhi | prayujyate: P2 B3 PGh na prayujyate | 325

yad apekita ta prati tadabhivddhiprrthanam .

tath ca puru s ca

bhinnarucitvt tattadabhimatnveae vyagracittasya lokavsan vardhate. jnavirodhin. 17. tath ca smtyantaram: lokavsanay janto stravsanaypi ca | dehavsanay jna yathvan naiva jyate || [SS 14.15; MukU 2.2; Vcm 202]

18. etac crambhanamaskrdiv api draavyam. rambha svrtha parrtha v ghaketrdisapdanaprayatna. tv etv rvdrambhau muktena tyjyau. na crvdbhve praamat n kheda akanya, lokavsankhedayor ubhayo parihrya nikhilrvdapratinidhitvena nryaaabdaprayogt. rambhas tu sarvo 'pi dua eva. 19. tatha ca smti: sarvrambh hi doea dhmengnir ivvt | [BhG 18.48] iti. 20. namaskro 'pi vividisanysino 'bhihita: yo bhavet prvasanys tulyo vai dharmato yadi | tasmai prama kartavyo netarya kadcana || [YU p. 314; YDhS p. 105] iti. 21. tatra prvatvadharmatulyatvavicre citta vikipyate. ata eva namaskramtre bahava kalahyamn upalabhyante. 22. tatra nimitta vrttikakrair daritam: pramdino bahicitt piun kalahotsuk | sanysino 'pi dyante daivasaditay || [BBhV 1.4.1584] iti. 23. muktasya namaskrbhvo bhagavatpdair darita: nmdibhya pare bhmni svrjye 'vasthito 'dvaye | praamet ki tadtmajo na krya karma tad || [US 17.63] iti. 24. cittakluyahetor namaskrasya pratiedhe 'pi sarvasmyabuddhy

1.9 16) tath ca puru: P1 tath ca pururthn | tattada-: P2 B3 PGh tada- | 17) tath ca smtyantaram: P2 B3 PGh tath smtyantaram ca | 18) api: P2 B3 PGh om. | parrtha: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh paropakrrtha | muktena : P2 B3 PGh yuktena | n: P1 B2 puru | 21) upalabhyante : P2 B3 PGh upalakyante | 23) svrjye 'vasthito 'dvaye: P2 B3 PGh svrjye cet sthito'dvaye, nSS svrjye' vasthito yad | karma tad iti: P2 B3 PGh karma bhaved iti | 326

prasdahetur namaskro 'bhyupeyate. 25. tath ca smti: varo jvakalay pravio bhagavn iti | praamed daavad bhmv vaclagokharam || [BhP 3.29.34cd 11.29.16cd; YU p. 314] iti. 26. stutir manuyaviay pratiidhyate, na tv varaviay. 27. tath ca smti: darea yath stauti dhanavanta dhanecchay | tath ced vivakartra ko na mucyeta bandhand || [VU 3.13; GP 222.50; YDhS p. 89] iti. 28. akatvam adnatvam. [MhB 12.237.24] 29. ata eva smti: albhe na vid syt kle kle 'ana kvacit | labdhv na hyed dhtimn ubhaya daivatantritam || [BhP 11.18.33] iti. 30. kakarmatva [MhB 12.237.24] vidhiniedhttatvam "nistraiguye pathi vicarat ko vidhi ko niedha" iti smarat. 31. etad evbhipretya bhagavatpy uktam: traiguyaviay ved nistraiguyo bhavrjuna | nirdvandvo nityasattvastho niryogakema tmavn || [BhG 2.45] iti. 32. nrada: smartavya satata viur vismartavyo na jtucit | sarve vidhiniedh syur etayor eva kikar || [NPS 4.2.23] iti. 33. yo 'her iva gad bhta samnn marad iva | kuapd iva ya strbhyas tam dev brahmaa vidu || [MhB 12.237.13] 34. rjdivartt te syt [1.9.14; DS 7.36a] ity uktatvt sarpavad gad bhtir utpadyate. samnasysaktikraatay pururthavirodhitvn maraavad dheyatvam.

1.9 26) pratiidhyate: P1 B2 niidhyate | 27) tath ca smti: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh tath ca bhaspatismti | 29) albhe na vid syt kle kle 'ana kvacit: P2 alabdhv na vid syt kle yady aana kvacit, B3 PGh alabdhv na vid syt kle kle 'ana kvacit, P1 B2 albhe na vid syt lbha caina na hared iti || alabdhv na videta kle kle na kvacit | 30) vidhiniedhttatvam: other mss. vidhiniedhnadhnatvam | 32) nrada: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh nradopi | 33) yo 'her: P2 aher iva | marad: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh narakd | 34) rjdivartt: P1 B2 rjvarttdi | gadbhtir: P1 B2 gadbhter ity | utpadyate: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh upapadyate | maraavad: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh narakavad | 327

narakd iva iti va ptha. 35. ata eva smti: asamnt tapovddhi samnt tu tapakaya | arcita pjito vipro 'dugdh gaur iva sdati || 36. etad evbhipretyvamna updeyatay smaryate: tath careta vai yog sat dharmam anusmaran | jan yathvamanyeran gaccheyur naiva sagatim || [ViP 2.13.43] iti. 37. stru dvividho doa, pratiiddhatva jugupsitatva ceti. tatra

pratiiddhatvamtra kadcid prrabdhabald ullaghyate. 38. tad etad abhipretyha smti: mtr svasr duhitr v na viviktsano bhavet | balavn indriyagrmo vidvsam api karati || [MDh 2.215] 39. tath ca smtibhir jugups varit: strm avcyadeasya klinnanvraasya ca | abhede 'pi manobhedj jana pryea vacyate || [NpU p. 160] 40. carmakhaa dvidh bhinnam apnodgradhpitam | ye ramanti nars tatra krimituly katha na te || [NpU p. 160161; YDhS p. 92] 41. "ye ramanti namas tebhya shasa kim ata param" iti v pha. pratiedhajugupsayor ubhayor vivakay kuapadnto 'trbhihita. 42. yena pram ivka bhavaty ekena sarvad | nya yasya jankra ta dev brahmaa vidu || [MhB 12.237.11] ata

1.9 34) narakd iva iti v pha: B2 sh cor. maraavad iti v pha | 35) samnt tu: B3 PGh om. tu | gaur iva sdati: P2 B2 B3 PGh gaur iva gacchati, P1 gacchati > sh cor. mar. sdati; 36) updeyatay: B3 deyatay | anusmaran: P1 B2 dayan | sagatim: P2 B3 PGh sagatam | 37) prrabdhabald: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS rgt prrabdhabald, B2 ragd, cor. rgdbald | 39) smtibhir: P2 PGh smtibhyo > B3 smtibhya | pryea: P1 prena | 40) ye ramanti nars tatra krimituly katha na te: P1 B2 ye ramanti manastebhyo shasa kim ata param > both cor. namastebhyo, P2 B3 ye ramanti namastebhya shasa kim ata param | 41) ye ramanti namastebhya shasa kim ata param iti v pha: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh om. | 328






janasabandhasytathvidhatvd abhyupeya. yoginas tu tadvipartatvam. ekkitve saty avighnena dhynnuvttau pariprena paramnandtman sarvam ka pram ivvabhsate. 44. ato bhaylasyaokamohdayo na bhavanti: tatra ko moha ka oka ekatvam anupayata [U 7cd] iti rute. 45. jankra sthna [1.9.42; MhB 12.237.11] rjavarttdin [1.9.14; DS 7.36a] dhynavirodhitvd nandtmaprattirahita tac chnyam iva citta kleayati, jagato mithytvd tmana pratvc cety artha. 1.10 [ativarram] 1. ativarram stasahity muktikhae pacamdhyye paramevarea varita: brahmacr ghastha ca vnaprastho 'tha bhikuka | ativarram te 'pi kramc chreh vicaka || [SS 5.9] 2. ativarram prokto guru sarvdhikrim | na kasypi bhavec chiyo yathha puruottama || [SS 5.14] 3. ativarram skd gur gurur ucyate | tatsamo ndhika csmil loke 'sty eva na saaya || [SS 5.15] 4. ya arrendriydibhyo vibhinna sarvaskiam | pramrthikavijna sukhtmna svaya prabhum || [SS 5.16] para tattva vijnti so 'tivarram bhavet | 5. yo vedntamahvkyaravaenaiva keava || [SS 5.17] 1.9 43) janasabandhasytath-: P2 B3 PGh janasamhas tv atath-, P1 B2 janasamardhas tv atath-, nSS janasabadha ctath- | 44) P2 B3 PGh include U 7ab: yasmin sarvi bhtni tmaivbhd vijnata | 45) jankra sthna: P1 B2 jankrna iti | rjavarttdin dhyna-: PGh rjavarttdi dhyna- | 1.10 1) -dhyye parame-: P2 B3 PGh -dhyye viu prati parame- | 2) puruottama: P1 B2 B3 PGh puruottama | 4) prabhum: P1 B2 prabham | 5) keava: P2 kevala | 329

tmnam vara veda so 'tivarram bhavet | 6. yo 'vasthtrayanirmuktam avasthskia sad || [SS 5.18] mahdeva vijnti so 'tivarram bhavet | 7. varramdayo dehe myay parikalpit || [SS 5.19] ntmano bodharpasya mama te santi sarvad | iti yo veda vedntai so 'tivarram bhavet || [SS 5.20] 8. dityasanidhau loka ceate svayam eva tu | tath matsanidhnena samasta ceate jagat || [SS 5.21] iti yo veda vedntai so 'tivarram bhavet | 9. suvare hrakeyrakaakasvastikdaya || [SS 5.22] kalpit myay tadvaj jagan mayy eva sarvad | iti yo veda vedntai so 'tivarram bhavet || [SS 5.23] 10. uktiky yath tra kalpita myay tath | mahaddijaganmymaya mayy eva kalpitam || [SS 5.24] iti yo veda vedntai so 'tivarram bhavet | 11. caladehe pavdiarre brahmavigrahe || [SS 5.25] anyeu tratamyena sthiteu puruottama | vyomavat sarvad vypta sarvasabandhavarjita || [SS 5.26] ekarpo mahdeva sthita so 'ha parmta | iti yo veda vedntai so 'tivarram bhavet || [SS 5.27] 12. vinaadigbhramasypi yathprva vibhti dik | tath vijnavidhvasta jaganme bhti tan na hi || [SS 5.28] iti yo veda vedntai so 'tivarram bhavet | 13. yath svapnaprapaco 'ya mayi myvijmbhita || [SS 5.29] tath jgratprapaco 'pi mayi myvijmbhita | iti yo veda vedntai so 'tivarram bhavet || [SS 5.30] 14. yasya varramcro galita svtmadarant | sa varnramn sarvn attya svtmani sthita || [SS 5.31] 1.10 6) yo 'vasthtrayanirmuktam avasthskia sad: P2 B3 PGh yo varramanirmuktam avasthtrayaskiam | 9) suvare ... -daya: P2 om. | 12) yathprva: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh yathprv |


15. yas tyaktv svramn varn tmany eva sthita pumn | so 'tivarram prokta sarvavedrthavedibhi || [SS 5.32] 16. na deho nendriya pro na mano buddhyahakt | na citta naiva s my ca na ca vyomdika jagat || [SS 5.33] na kart naiva bhokt ca na ca bhojayit tath | kevala citsadnanda brahmaivtm yathrthata || [SS 5.34] 17. jalasya caland eva cacalatva yath rave | tathhakrasasrd eva sasra tmana || [SS 5.35] 18. tasmd anyagat var ram api keava | tmany ropit eva bhrnty te ntmavedin || [SS 5.36] 19. na vidhir na niedha ca na varjyvarjyakalpan | tmavijninm asti tath nnyaj janrdana || [SS 5.37] 20. tmavijnin nihm sdhnm abujekaa | myay mohit marty naiva jnanti sarvad || [SS 5.38] 21. na msacaku nih brahmavijninm iyam | drau aky svata siddh vidu saiva keava || [SS 5.39] 22. yatra supt jan nitya prabuddhas tatra sayam | prabuddh yatra te vidvn suuptas tatra keava || [SS 5.40] 23. evam tmnam advandva nirkra nirajanam | nityauddha nirbhsa saccinmtra parmtam || [SS 5.41] yo vijnti vedntai svnubhty ca nicitam | so 'tivarram prokta sa eva gurur uttama || [SS 5.42] iti. 24. tad evam "vimukta ca vimucyate" [KU 5.1] ity dirutayo jvanmuktasthitaprajabhagavadbhaktaguttabrhmativarramipratipdakasmtivkyni ca jvanmuktisadbhve pramnti sthitam. 25. iti jvanmuktipramaprakaraa. 1.10 15) vedrtha-: P2 vednta- | 16) pro: P1 B2 prair | naiva s my: P1 B2 B3 PGh naiva my, P2 naiva myaiva | kart naiva: P2 B3 PGh kart na ca | citsadnanda: P2 B3 PGh citsadnando | 17) sasrd: P2 B3 PGh sasargd | 18) te ntmavedin: P1 P2 B2 B3 te'ntmavedin | 19) -inm asti tath nnyaj: P2 B3 PGh -in nsti tath cnyaj | 20) tmavijnina nihm sdhnm: P2 B3 PGh svtmavijnin nihm dm | 21) vidu: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh vidu | 21- 22) keava || yatra : P2 B3 PGh keava || pacavidyy || yatra | 23) nirkra: P1 B2 nirvikra | saccinmtra parmtam: P1 B2 cinmtra parammtam | 331

[atha dvitya vsankayaprakaraa]

2.1 [jvanmuktisdhann parasparakraatvam] 1. atha jvanmuktisdhana nirpayma. 2. tattvajnamanonavsankays

tatsdhanam. 3. ata eva vsiharmyaasyvasne jvanmuktaarrm ity etasmin prastve vasiha ha: vsankayavijnamanon mahmate | samakla cirbhyast bhavanti phaladyina || iti [LYV 5.10.116] 4. anvayam uktv vyatirekam ha: traya ete sama yvan na svabhyast muhur muhu | tvan na padasaprptir bhavaty api samatai || iti [LYV 5.10.115] 5. samaklbhysbhve bdhakam ha: ekaikao nievyante yady ete ciram apy alam | tan na siddhi prayacchanti mantr sakrtit iva || iti [LYV 5.10.117] 6. yath sadhyvandanamrjane sahaviniyuktnm "po hi h" [RV 10.9.1] itydn tism c madhye pratidinam ekaikasy ca phe strynuhna na sidhyati, yath v aagamantrm ekaikamantrea na siddhi, yath v loke kaspaudandnm ekaikena na bhojanasiddhi, tadvat. 7. cirbhysasya prayojanam ha: tribhir etai cirbhyastair hdayagranthayo dh | niakam eva truyanti bisacchedd gu iva || iti [LYV 5.10.118] 8. tasyaiva vyatirekam ha: janmntaraatbhyast rma sasrasasthiti | s cirbhysayogena vin na kyate kvacit || iti [LYV 5.10.119] 2.1 3) phaladyina: nSS phalad ime | samatai: P2 B3 PGh samai atai > P2 sh cor | ciram apy alam: P2 B3 PGh cirayatnata | sakrtit: P2 B3 sakalit, PGh saklit | 6) -mrjane saha-: P1 B2 P2 B3 PGh mrjanena saha- | sahaviniyuktnm: P2 B3 PGh saha niyuktnm | -spaudan-: P2 B3 PGh -spodan- | 332

9. na kevalam ekaikbhyse phalbhva, ki tu tatsvarpam api na sidhyatty ha: tattvajna manono vsankaya eva ca | mitha kraat gatv dusdhni sthitni hi || iti [LYV 5.10.113] 2.2 [trisdhanadvandvn anvayavyatireka] 1. traym ete madhye dvayor dvayor melanena tri dvandvni bhavanti. 2. tatra manonavsankayadvandvasynyonyakraatva vyatirekamukhenha: yvad vilna na mano na tvad vsankaya | na k vsan yvac citta tvan na myati || [LYV 5.10.110] 3. pradpajvlsatnavad vttisatnarpea pariamamatvd idam

antakaraadravya manantmakatvn mana ity ucyate. tasya no nma vttirpa parima parityajya niruddhatvkrea parima. yogastre straym sa: vyutthnanirodhasaskrayor abhibhavaprdurbhvau nirodhakaacittnvayo nirodhaparima [YS 3.9] iti. 5. vyutthnasaskr abhibhyante; nirodhasaskr prdurbhavanti; nirodhayukta kaa cittennvyate; so 'ya manona ity avagantavyam. prvparaparmaram antarea sahasotpadyamnasya krodhdivttivieasya hetu cittagata saskro vsan, prvaprvbhysena citte vsyamnatvt. 6. tasy ca vsany kayo nma vivekajanyy ntidntydivsany dhy saty api bhyanimitte krodhdyanutpatti. tatra manonbhve vttitpadyamnsu kadcid bhyanimittena krodhdyutpatter nsti vsankaya. 4. tath ca patajalir

akym tu vsany tathaiva vttyutpdann nsti manona. 2.2 1) melanena: Adyar melane | yvac citta tvan na: P2 Adyar yavattvac citta | 3) pariamamatvd idam antakara-: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS parianamnantakara- | 6) ntidntydivsany : P2 PGh ntydivsany, Adyar nSS ntidntydiuddhavsany, B3 nty vsany | 333

7. tattvajnamanonayo parasparakraatva vyatirekamukheha: yvan na tattvavijna tvac cittaama kuta | yvan na cittopaamo na tvat tattvavedanam || iti. [LYV 5.10.111] 8. ida sarvam tmaiva, pratiyamna tu rparasdika jaganmymayam na tv etad vastuto 'stti nicayas tattvajnam. tasynutpattau rparasdiviay sadbhve sati tadgocar cittavttayo na nivrayitu akyante yath prakipyamev indhandiu vahnijvl na nivryate tadvat. asati cittopaame vttibhir ghyameu rpdiu "neha nnsti kicana" [KU 4.11] iti rute "yajamna prastara" [TS 2.6.5] ityder iva prayakavirodhaakay "brahmdvityam" [Cf. ChU 6.2.1] ity etdas tattvanicayo nodiyt. 9. vsankayatattvajnayo parasparakraatva vyatirekamukhenha: yvan na vsannas tvat tattvgama kuta | yvan na tattvasaprptir na tvad vsankaya || iti [LYV 5.10.112] 10. krodhdivsansv anasu amadamdisdhanbhvn na tattvajnam udeti. ajte cdvityabrahmattve krodhdinimittasya satyatvabhramnapyn na vsan kyate. 11. yathoktn tray dvandvnm anyonyakraatvam anvayamukhena vayam udharma. manasi ne sati saskrodbodhakasya bhyanimittasyprattau vsan kyate; ky ca vsany hetvabhvena krodhdivttyanudayn mano nayati. tad ida manonavsankayadvandvam. 12. "dyate tv agryay buddhy" [KU 3.12] iti ruter tmaikybhimukhavtter daranahetutvd itaraktsnavttinasya tattvajnahetutvam avagamyate. sati ca tattvajne, mithybhte jagati naravidv 2.2 6) krodhdyanutpatti: P1 krodhdyanuvtti | akym ca: P2 B3 PGh Adyar tu | 8) asati citto-: P1 B2 asati ca citto- | rpdiu neha: nSS rpdiu satsu neha | 10) -bhramnapyn: P1 P2 B3 PGh -bhramasynapyn > B2 sh cor | 11) -mukhena vayam: P1 -mukhena ca vayam | 12) buddhy iti: P1 B2 buddhy skmya skma daribhir iti | 334

iva dhvttyanudayd tmana ca datvena punarvttyanupayogn nirindhangnivan mano nayati. tad ida manonatattvajnayor dvandvam. 13. tattvajnasya krodhdivsankayahetut vrttikakra ha: ripau bandhau svadehe ca samaiktmya prapayata | vivekina kuta kopa svadehvayavev iva || iti. [NkS 2.18] 14. krodhdivsankayarpasya amder jnahetutva prasiddham. vasiho 'pi: gu amdayo jnc chamdibhyas tath jat | paraspara vivardhete dve padmasaras iva || iti. [LYV 2.1.107] tad ida vsankayatattvajnayor dvandvam. 15. tattvajndn tray sapdane sdhanamha: tasmd rghava yatnena pauruea vivekina | bhogecch dratas tyakv trayam etat samrayet || iti. [LYV 5.10.114] 16. pauruo yatna kenpy upyenvasya sapdayiymty evavidhotsharpo nirbandha. viveko nma vibhajyanicayah tattvajnasya ravadika sdhanam, manonasya yoga, vsankayasya pratiklavsanotpdanam iti. bhogecchy svalpy apy abhyupagame "havi kavartmeva bhya evbhivardhate" [MDh 2.94] itinyyentiprasagasya durvratvd drata ityuktam. 2.3 [trisdhann pradhnopasarjanatvm] 1. nanu prvatra vividisanysasya tattvajnam phalam, vidvatsanysasya jvanmuktir iti vyavasth varit; tath ca sati prathamatas tattvajna sapdya pacd vidvatsanysa ktv jvata svasya bandharpayor vsanmanovttyor

2.2 16) -otsharpo : P2 B3 PGh -otshnurpo | 2.3 1) prathamatas : P1 B2 prathama | sapdya: P2 B3 PGh sapdyate | 335

vina sapdanya iti pratibhti; atra tu tattvajndn sahaivbhyso niyamyate; ata prvottaravirodha iti cet, 2. nya doa; pradhnopasarjanabhvena vyavasthopapatte. vividisanysinas tattvajna pradhnam, manonavsankayv upasarjanabhtau; vidvatsanysinas tu tadvaipartyam; ata sahbhysa ubhayatrpy aviruddha. na ca tattvajnotpattimtrea ktrthasya kim uttaraklnenbhysaprayseneti akanyam, jvanmuktiprayojananirpaena parihariyamatvt. 3. nanu vidvatsanysino vedanasdhanaravadyanuhnavaiphalyd

vedanasya ca svarpea kartum akartum anyath v kartum aakyasynanuheyatvd upasarjanatvenpy uttaraklino 'bhysa kda iti cet, 4. kenpi dvrea puna punas tattvnusmaraam iti brma. tda cbhyso llopkhyne darita: tac cintana tatkathanam anyonya tatprabodhanam | etad ekaparatva ca jnbhysa vidur budh || [LYV 3.2.108] 5. sargdv eva notpanna dya nsty eva tat sad | ida jagad aha ceti bodhbhysa vidu param || [LYV 3.2.111] iti. 6. nanu manonavsankaybhysv api tatraiva daritau: atyantbhvasapattau jtur jeyasya vastuna | yukty stair yatante ye te tatrbhysina sthit || iti. [LYV 3.2.110] 7. jtjeyayor mithytvadhr abhvasapatti. svarpepy aprattir atyantbhvasapatti. yuktir yoga. so 'ya manonbhysa. 8. dysabhavabodhena rgadveditnave |

2.3 1) pratibhti: P2 B3 PGh bhti | 2) upasarjanabhtau: P2 Adyar nSS upasarjanbhtau | -sanysinas tu: P2 B3 PGh om tu | tadvaipartyam: P2 B3 PGh tadvipartam | 3) vaiphalyd: P1 B1 B2 vaikalyd | kartum akartum: P2 B3 PGh nSS om akartum | upasarjanatvenpy: P2 B3 PGh upasarjatve 'py | 5) param: Adyar pare | 6) nanu manona-: P2 B3 PGh om. nanu | 336

ratir balodit ysau brahmbhysa sa ucyate || iti. [LYV 3.2.112] so 'ya vsankaybhysa. tev eteu triv abhyseu smyena pratyamneu pradhnopasarjanabhvo na vivektu akyata iti cet, 9. maivam; prayojannusrea vivektu akyatvt. mumuko puruasya jvanmuktir videhamukti ceti prayojanadvayam. ata eva "vimukta ca vimucyata" [KU 5.1] iti ryate. tatra jvata puruasya daivasapad moka. 10. surasapad banda etac ca oadhyye bhagavatbhihitam: daiv sapad vimokya nibandhysur mat || [BhG 16.5] iti 11. te ca sapadau tatraivbhihite: abhaya sattvasauddhir jnayogavyavasthiti | dna dama ca yaja ca svdhyyas tapa rjavam || [BhG 16.1] 12. ahis satyam akrodhas tyga ntir apaiunam | day bhtev aloluptva mrdava hrr acpalam || [BhG 16.2] 13. teja kam dhti aucam adroho ntimnit | bhavanti sapada daivm abhijtasya bhrata || [BhG 16.3] 14. dambho darpo 'bhimna ca krodha pruyam eva ca | ajna cbhijtasya prtha sapadam surm || [BhG 16.4] iti. 15. punar apy dhyya parisampter surasapat prapacit. tatrstryy svabhvasiddhy surasapado durvsany stryay puruaprayatnasdhyay daivasapad sadvsanay kaye sati jvanmuktir bhavati. 16. vsankayavan manonasypi jvanmuktihetutva ryate: mana eva manuy kraa bandhamokayo | bandhya viaysakta muktyai nirviaya smtam || [AmbU 2]

2.3 8) balodit: P1 B2 B3 PGh ghanodit > P1 sh cor navodit, P2 Adyar nSS navodit |yasau: P1 B2 csau | smyena: P2 B3 PGh Adyar smnyena | -bhvo na vivektu: P2 B3 PGh nSS -bhavena na viviktu | akyata iti cet: P2 B3 PGh akyate katha iti cet > P2 sh cor. | 12) aloluptva: P2 B3 PGh alolutva | 13-14) bhrata || dambho: P2 B3 PGh bhrata || athednm sursapad ucyate || dabhetydi || dambho | 14) darpo'bhimna: P2 B3 darpo 'timna | 337

17. yato nirviayaysya manaso muktir iyate | ato nirviaya nitya mana krya mumuku || [AmbU 3] 18. nirastaviaysaga saniruddha mano hdi | yad yty unmanbhva tad tat parama padam || [AmbU 4] 19. tvad eva niroddhavya yvad hdi gatam kaya | etaj jna ca dhyna ca eo granthasya vistarah || [AmbU15] iti. 20. bandho dvividha; tvro mdu ca. tatrsurasapat skd eva kleahetutvt tvro bandha. dvaitamtraprattis tu svayam aklearpatvd surasapad

utpdakatvc ca mdur bandha. tatra vsankayea tvrabandha eva nivartate, manonena tbhaya. 21. tarhi manonenaivlam, vsankayas tu nirarthaka iti cet, 22. na; bhogahetun prabalena prrabdhena vyutthpite manasi vsankayasya tvrabandhanivrarthatvt, bhogasya mdubandhenpy upapatte. tvrabandha. sttvikarjasavttidvaya mdubandha. anudvignaman" [BhG 2.56] ity atra spaktam. 24. eva ca sati mdubandhasybhyupeyatvt tvrabandhasya vsankayeaiva nivtter anarthako manona iti cet, 25. na, durbalaprrabdhpditnm avayabhvibhogn pratkrrthatvt. 26. tdgbhogasya pratkranivartyatvam abhipretyedam hu: avayabhvibhogn pratikro bhaved yadi | tad dukhair na lipyeran nalarmayudhihir || [PD 7.156] iti. 2.3 18) -saga: P1 B2 -sakti | unmanbhva: AmbU in Yoga Upaniads (Adyar: The Adyar Library, 1988) p. 27 tmano 'bhva | 19) hdi: P2 B3 PGh vtti | dhyna ca: Adyar moka ca | eo nyyasya vistara: P1 B2 eonyogratha vistara, Adyar eo granthasya vistara | 20) bandho dvividha: P1 B2 badho hi dvividha | manonena: P1 B2 manone | 22) vsankayasya: P2 B3 PGh om | nivrarthatvt, bhogasya : P1 nivrartha tarhi bhogasya k gatis tatrhatvd bhogasya > B2 sh adds | 23) dukhev anudvignaman: Adyar nSS dukhev anudvignaman sukheu vigataspha | 25) -pditnm avaya-: nSS -pditn avaya-, B3 PGh -pditvaya| 26) tdgbhogasya: P2 B3 PGh prabalabhogasya | -nivartyatvam: P2 B3 PGh nivttyartham > P2 sh cor. | -bhvibhogn: P1 B2 nSS -bhvibhvn, B1 same, sh cor. -bhvibhvn | 338 tmasavttayas

23. etac ca "dukhev

27. tad eva jvanmukti prati vsankayamanonayo skt sdhanatvd prdhnyam; tattvajna tu tayor utpdanena vyavahitatvd upasarjanam. 28. tattvajna vsankayahetutva bahua rutau ryate: jtv deva sarvappahni, [vU 1.11] 29. adhytmayogdhigamena deva matv dhro haraokau jahti, [KU 2.12] 30. tarati okam tmavit, [ChU 7.1.3] 31. tatra ko moha ka oka ekatvam anupayatah? [aU 7] 32. jtv deva mucyate sarvapai [vU1.8] iti. 33. manonahetutva ca tattvajnasya rutisiddham. 34. vidydam abhipretyeda ryate: yatra tv asya sarvam tmaivbht tat kena ki payet tat kena ki jighret [BU 2.4.14] itydi. 35. gauapdcry chu: tmasatynubodhena na sakalpayate yad | amanast tad yti grhybhve tadagraha || [GK 3.32] iti 36. jvanmukter vsankayamanonv iva videhamukte sktsdhanatvj jna pradhnam, jnd eva tu kaivalya prpyate yena mucyate | iti smte. 37. kevalasytmano bhva kaivalya dehdirahitatvam. tac ca jnd eva prpyate, sadehatvasyjnakalpitatvena jnaikanivartyatvt. 38. jnd evety evakrea karmavyvtti na karma na prajay dhanena [T 10.10.21] 2.3 27) tu tayor utpdanena: P2 B3 PGh tbhayotpdanena | 28) bahua rutau ryate: P2 B3 PGh bahudh ryate rutau | 34) payet tat kena: Adyar nSS om tat | 35) tmasatynu- : B3 PGh tmasattnu-, Adyar nSS tmatattvnu- | -nubodhena: P2 B3 PGh -nurodhena | 339

iti rute. 39. yas tu jnastram anabhyasya yathsabhava vsankayamanonv abhyasya sagua brahmopste na tasya kaivalyam asti, ligadehasynapyt. ata evakrea tv api vyvartyete. 40. yena mucyata ity asyyam artha. yena jnaprpitakevalatvena ktsna-

bandhd vimucyata iti. bandha cnekavidha "avidygranthi," "abrahmatvam," "hdayagranthi," "saay," "karmi," "asarvakmatvam," "mtyu,"

"punarjanman" itydiabdais tatra tatra vyavahrt. jnanivarty. 41. tath ca rutaya:

ta ete bandh sarve

etad yo veda nihita guhy so 'vidygranthi vikiratha somya || [MuU 2.1.10] 42. brahma veda brahmaiva bhavati | [MuU 3.2.9] 43. bhidyate hdayagranthi chidyante sarvasaay | kyante csya karmi tasmin de parvare || [MuU 2.2.8] 44. yo veda nihita guhy parame vyoman, so 'nute sarvn kmn saha [TU 2.1.1] 45. tam eva viditvtimtyum eti | [vU 3.8] 46. yas tu vijnavn bhavati samanaska sad uci | sa tu tatpadam pnoti yasmd bhyo na jyate || [KU 3.8] 47. ya eva vedha brahmsmti sa ida sarva bhavati | [BU 1.4.10] itydny asarvajatvdibandhanivttipari vkyny atrodharayni. 48. seya videhamuktir jnotpattisamakln jey brahmayavidyropitnm

2.3 38) bhva: B3 PGh bhva | 40) jnaprpita-: B3 PGh jnaprpti- | saay: B3 PGh Adyar nSS saaya | -ya, karmai, asarva- : P2 B3 PGh -ya karmagrathi karmai sarva- > P2 sh cor. asarva- | -di abdais: P2 B3 PGh -di badha abdais > P2 sh om. badha | sarve: P2 B3 PGh Adyar sarve'pi | somya: P2 B3 PGh saumya | 46) samanaska: B1 B2 B3 PGh nSS amanaska | 47) -dny asarvajatvdi-: P2 B3 PGh -dny abrahmatvdi- | 340

ete bandhn vidyay vine sati punarutpattyasabhavd ananubhavc ca. 49. tad etad vidysamaklnatva bhyakra samanvayastre [BS 1.1.4]

prapacaymsa, tadadhigama uttaraprvghayor aleavinau tadvyapadet | [BS 4.1.13] ity atra ca. 50. nanu vartamnadehaptntarabhvin videhamuktir iti bahavo varayanti. tath ca ruti: tasya tvad eva cira yvan na vimokye 'tha sapatsya iti. | [ChU 6.14.2] 51. vkyavttv apy uktam: prrabdhakarmavegena jvanmukto yad bhavet | kacit klam anrabdhakarmabandhasya sakaye || 52. nirasttiaynanda vaiava parama pada | punarvttirahita kaivalya pratipadyate || iti. [Vv 5253] 53. strakro 'py ha: bhogena tv itare kapayitv sapadyate | [BS 4.1.19] iti. 54. vasiho 'py ha: jvanmuktapada tyaktv svadehe klastkte | viaty adehamuktatva pavano 'spandatm iva || [LYV 3.1.98] iti. 55. nya doa, vivakvieea matadvayasyvirodht. videhamuktir ity atratyena dehaabdena ktsna dehajta vivakitatv bahubhir varitam. asmbhis tu bhvidehamtravivakayocyate, tadanrambhyaiva jnasapdant. aya tu deha prvam evrabdha, ato jnenpi nsyrambho vrayitu akyate. etad dehanivttir 2.3 49) tadvyapadet: P2 om., > B2 om, sh cor. | ity atra ca: P2 B3 PGh om. | 50) -ntarabhvin: nSS -ntara bhvin | 51) apy uktam: P2 apdam uktam | kamcit: P2 B3 PGh kicit | anrabdha-: P2 B3 PGh Adyar athrabdha- | 54) muktatva: P2 B3 PGh -muktitva | 55) atratyena: P2 B3 PGh atrnena > P2 sh cor. | jnenpi nsyrambho vrayitu akyate: P2 B3 PGh jnenpy asyrambho varayitu na akyate | 341

api na jnaphalam, ajnaninm apy rabdhakarmakaye tan nivtte. 56. tarhi vartamnaligadehanivttir jnaphalam astu, jnam antarea tadanivtter ity cet, 57. na, satyapi jne jvanmuktes tannivttyabhvt. 58. nanu jnasya kacitkla prrabdhakarma pratibandhennivartakatve 'pi pratibandhakaye ligadehanivartakatva bhaviyatti cen, 59. na, pacapdikcryea: yato jnam ajnasyaiva nivartakam (Ppd 1.3) ity upapditatvt. 60. tarhi liganivtte ki sdhanam iti cet, 61. smagrnivttir iti bruma. dvividha hi kryanivartakam, virodhisadbhva smagrnivtti ca. tadyath virodhin vyun tailavarttismagrnivtty v dpo

nivartate. ligadehasya skdvirodhina na payma. smagr hi dvividh prrabdham anrabdha ceti. tbhym ubhbhym ajnin ligadeha ihmutra cvatihate. jnin tv anrabdhe jnena nivtte prrabdhe ca bhogena nivtte, tailavartirahitadpavat smagrnivtty ligadeho nivartate. jnaphalam. 62. nanv anena nyyena bhvidehnrambho 'pi na jnaphalam. tath hi kim anrambha eva phalam, ki v tatpratiplanam? ndya, tasya ato na tannivttir

prgabhvarpatvennditvt. na dvitya anrabdhakarmarpasmagrnivttyaiva 2.3 55) jnaphalam: P2 PGh jnasyaphalam | 57) jvanmuktes tan-: nSS 20 (1916) jvanmukte tan- | 58) prrabdhakarma: Adyar nSS prrabdhena karma, P2 B3 PGh om. prrabdha- | pratibandhen-: P2 B3 PGh pratibaddhatven- | liganivtte: P2 ligadehanivtte | 61) smagrnivtti ca: Adyar nSS ceti | smagr hi: P2 B3 PGh om. hi | anrabdhe jnena nivtte: Adyar nSS anrabdhasya jnena nivtte > P2 sh cor., B1 anarabdha | prrabdhe ca bhogena nivtte: Adyar nSS prrabdhasya bhogena nivtte > P2 sh cor. | 62) tatpratiplanam: Adyar tatpariplanam | -ditvt: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS -di siddhatvt | 342

bhvidehrambhaprgabhvapariplanasiddhe. avidynivtter eva vidyphalatvt.






63. naia doa, bhvijanmnrambhdin vidyphalatvasya prmikatvt. bhyo na jyate | [KU 3.8] itydyudht rutayas tatra pramam. na ca jnam ajnasyaiva nivartakam iti nyyena virodha. 64. ajnasahabhvaniyatnm abrahmatvdnm ajnaabdena pacapdikcryair ajnanivttivad vivakitatvt. anyathnubhavavirodha. api. tasmd anubhyate hy




videhamuktir jnasamakln. 65. tath ca yjavalkya vacana ryate: abhaya vai janaka prpto 'si [BU 4.2.4] iti, 66. etvad are khalv amtatvam [BU 4.5.15] iti ca. 67. rutyantare 'pi: tam eva vidvn amta iha bhavati [T 3.12.7; NPU 1.6] iti. 68. yady utpanne 'pi tattvajne tatphalabht videhamuktis tadn na bhavet, klntare ca bhavet, tad jyotiomdv iva jnajanyam aprva kicit kalpyeta. tath ca karmaastra eva jnastram antarbhavet. athocyate mantrdipratibaddhgnivat prrabdhapratibaddha jna klntare videhamukti dsyatti. 69. maivam, avirodht. na hy asmadabhipret bhvidehatyantbhvalakan videhamuktir vartamnadehamtrasthpakena prrabdhena virudhyate, yena

pratibadhyeta. ki ca kaikatvena klntare svayam avidyamna jna katha mukti dadyt? 2.3 63) bhyo na jyate: Adyar nSS yasmd bhyo na jyate > P2 sh cor. | 67) iti: P2 B3 PGh om | 68) kalpyeta: P2 B3 PGh kalpet | 69) -abhipret: Adyar -abhimat | 69) pratibadhyeta: B3 PGh pratibadhyate > P2 om. | 343

70. jnntara caramasktkralakaam utpatsyata iti cet, 71. na, sdhanbhvt. pratibandhaka prrabdhanivttyaiva saha gurustradehendriydyaseajagatpratibhsanivtte ki te sdhana syt? 72. tarhi bhya cnte vivamy nivtte [vU 1.10] ityasy rute ko 'rtha iti cet, 73. rabdhnte nimittbhvd dehendriydyaeanaimittikanivttir ityevrtha. tato bhavadabhimat vartamnadeharhityalaka videhamukti pacd astu, asmadabhimat tu jnasamaklnaiva. 74. etad evbhipretya bhagav ea ha: trthe vapacaghe v naasmtir api parityajan deham | jnasamaklamukta kaivalya yti hataoka || [Ps 81] iti. 75. tasmd videhamuktau sktsdhanasya tattvajnasya pradhnatvam upapannam. vsankayamanonayor jnasdhanatvena vyavahitatvd upasarjanatvam. 76. suravsankayakriy daivavsany jnasdhanatva rutismtyor upalabhyate: nto dnta uparatas titiku samhito bhtvtmany evtmna payet | [BU 4.4.23] iti rute. 77. smtir api: amnitvam adamabhitvam ahis kntir rjavam | cryopsana auca sthairyam tmavinigraha || [BhG 13.7] 78. indriyrtheu virgyam anahakra eva ca | janmamtyujarvydhidukhadonudarana || [BhG 13.8] 79. asaktir anabhivaga putradraghdiu | nitya ca samacittatvam iniopapattiu || [BhG 13.9] 2.3 71) nivtte: P2 PGh nivtti | te sdhana: Adyar tatsdhana | 73) After astu Adyar nSS add dehaptn antaram. | tu: P1 B2 om. | 76) iti rute: Adyar nSS iti ruti | 344

80. mayi cnanyayogena bhaktir avyabhicri | viviktadeasevitvam aratir janasasadi || [BhG 13.10] 81. adhytmajnanityatva tattvajnrthadaranam | etaj jnam iti proktam ajnam yadato'nyath || [BhG 13.11] iti. 82. anyasminn ahabuddhir abhivaga. jyate 'neneti vyutpatty jna-

sdhanam ity artha. 83. manonasypi jnasdhanatva rutismtiprasiddham: tatas tu ta payati nikala dhyyamna | [MuU 3.1.8] iti rute. 84. adhytmayogdhigamena deva matv dhro haraokau jahti | [KU 2.12] iti ca. pratyagtmasamdhiprpty deva jtvetyartha. 85. ya vinidr jitavs satu sayatendriy | jyoti payanti yujns tasmai yogtmane nama || [MBh 12.43.55] iti smti. 86. tad eva tattvajndn tray videhamuktijvanmuktivad guapradhnabhvavyavasth siddh. 2.4 [uddhsuddhavsan] 1. nanu vividisanysin sapditnm ete ki vidvatsanysd rdhvam anuvttimtram ki v punar api sapdanaprayatno 'pekitah. ndya,

tattvajnasyevnyayor apy ayatnasiddhatve prdhnyaprayuktdarbhvaprasagt. na dvitya, itarayor iva jnasypi prayatnaspekatve saty upasarjanatvaprayuktaudsnybhvaprasagt. 2. nya doa, jnasynuvttimtram itarayor yatnasdhyatvam ity agkrt.

2.3 83) iti rute: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS iti ruti | 85) yogtmane: P1 B2 Adyar nSS vidytmane > P1 B2 sh cor. yogtmane | 2.4 1) prayuktdarbhva: P2 B3 PGh prayukttarbhva, P2 sh cor. | 345

tath hi vidydhikr dvividha, ktopstir aktopsti ceti. tatropsya sktkraparyantm upsti ktv yadi jne pravarteta tad vsankayamanonayor dhataratvena jnd rdhva vidvatsanysajvanmukt svata eva sidhyata. tda eva strbhimato mukhyo vidydhikr. tatas ta prati streu sahopanyst svarpea viviktv api vidvatsanysavividisanysau sakrv iva pratibhsete. 3. idntans tu pryektopstaya evautsukyamtrt sahas vidyy pravartante. vsankayamanonau ca ttklikau sapdayanti. manananididhysanni nipdyante. tai ca dhbhyastair tvat ravaaajnasaaya-

viparyayanirst tattvajna samyag udeti. uditasya bdhakaprambhvn nivttvidyy punarutpattikrabhvc ca nsti tasya aithilyam.

vsankayamanonau tu dhbhysbhvd bhogapradena prrabdhena tad tad bdhyamnatvc ca savtapradea dpavat sahas nivartete. 4. tath ca vasiha: prvebhyas tu prayatnebho viamo 'ya hi samata | dusdho vsantyga sumern mland api || [LYV 5.10.109] iti. 5. arjuno 'pi: cacala hi mana ka pramthi balavad dham | tasyha nigraha manye vyor iva sudukara || [BhG 6.34] iti. 6. tasmd idantann vidvatsanysin jnasynuvttimtram. vsankayamanonau tu prayatnasapdyv iti sthitam. 7. nanu keya vsan yasy kayya prayatitavyam iti cet, 8. tatsvarpam ha vasiha:

2.4 3) - nididhysanni: P2 B3 PGh nididhysandni | nipdyante: P2 nSS nipadyante | uditasya bdhaka: P1 B2 Adyar nSS uditasya jnasya bdhaka, P2 B3 PGh tasya bdhaka | nivttvidyy: P1 B2 nivtty avidyy, P2 B3 PGh nivtty avidyy | 6) prayatnasapdyv iti sthitam: P1 B2 prayatnasapdyv iti siddha, P2 B3 PGh prayatnasdhyv iti siddha | 346

dhabhvanay tyaktaprvparavicraam | yaddna padrthasya vsan s prakrtit || [LYV 5.10.48] 9. bhvita tvrasavegdtman yat tad eva sa | bhavaty u mahbho vigatetara sasmti || [LYV 5.10.49] 10. tdgrpo hi puruo vsanvivakta | sapayati yad evaitat sadvastv iti vimuhyati || [LYV 5.10.50] 11. vsanvegavaivayt svarpa prajahti tat | bhrnta payati durdi sarva madavad iva || [LYV 5.10.51] iti. 12. pravtti ca nivtti ca jan na vidur sur | na auca npi ccro na satya teu vidyate || [BhG 16.7] 13. asatyam apratiha te jagadhuranvaram | aprasparasabhta kimanyat kmahaitukam || [BhG 16.8] 14. et dim avaabhya natmno 'lpabuddhaya | [BhG 16.9ab] 15. atra ca svasvadecrakuladharmabhbhedatadgatpaabddiu prinm

abhinivea smnyata udharaam. vieata tu bhedn uktv pacd udharma. 16. yathokt vsanm abhipretya bhadrayake ryate: sa yathkmo bhavati tat kratur bhavati. yat kratur bhavati tat karma kurute yat karma kurute tad abhisapadyate. [BU 4.4.5] iti. 17. vsanbhedo vlmkin darsita: vsan dvividh prokt uddh ca malin tath | malin janmahetu syc chuddh janmavinsin || [LYV 1.1.10] 18. ajnasughankr ghanhakaralin | punarjanmakar prokt malin vsan budhai || [LYV 1.1.11] 19. punarjanmkura tyaktv sthit sabhabjavat | dehrtha dhriyate jtajey uddheti cocyate || [LYV 1.1.12] iti. 20. dehdn pacakon tatskia cidtmana ca bhedvarakam ajnam tena 2.4 8) dhabhvanay: P2 dhavsanay | padrthasya: P1 tadrthasya | 9) yad evaitat: P2 B3 yadaivaitat | 12, 13, 14 ) P1 B2 B3 PGh Adyar om., nSS (K Kh ) includes in note, P2 pravttim ca buddhaya || atra ca | 15) -abddiu pr-: P1 B2 -abdasuabddiu pra- | 16) tat kratur bhavati. yat kratur bhavati: PGh tath kratur bhavati yath kratur bhavati | 347


ghanbhta kro yasy seyam




takramelanena ghanbhavati, yath v vilna ghtam atyantatalapradee ciram avasthpita sughanbhavati tath vsan draavy. ghanbhva ctra

bhrntiparampar. 21. t csurasapadvivarae bhagavn ha: prabhavanty ugrakarma kayya jagato 'hit || [BhG 16.9cd] 22. kmam ritya dupra dambhamnamadnvit | mohd ghtvsadgrhn pravartante 'ucivrat || [BhG 16.10] 23. cintm aparimey ca pralayntm uprit | kmopabhogaparam etvad iti niscit || [BhG 16.11] 24. paatair baddh kmakrodhaparya | hante kmabhogrtham anyyenrthasacayn || [BhG 16.12] iti. 25. ghanhakra ca tatraivodhta: idam adya may labdham ima prpsye manoratham | idam astdam api me bhaviyati punar dhanam || [BhG 16.13] 26. asau may hata atrur haniye cparn api | varo 'ham aha bhog siddho 'ha balavn sukh || [BhG 16.14] 27. hyo 'bhijanavn asmi ko 'nyo 'sti sado may | yakye dsymi modiya ity ajnavimohit || [BhG 16.15] 28. anekacittavibhrnt mohajlasamvt | prasakt kmabhogeu patanti narake 'ucau || [BhG 16.16] iti. 29. etena punarjanmakraatvam udhta bhavati, tac ca puna prapacitam: tmasabhvit stabdh dhanamnamadnvit | yajante nma yajais te dambhenvidhiprvakam || [BhG 16.17] 2.4 21) ha: prabhavanty: P1 B2 ha pravtti ca nivtti cetyrabhya, then omits all until kmam etc., B3 PGh cite entire passage of (BhG 16.7-9ab) | 24) iti.: Adyar adds iti. ta sur jagadasatyam hu. nsti satya vedapurdiprama yasmis tda jagad hu. vedn prmya na manyanta ityartha. ata eva nstvara kart vyavasthpaka ca yasmis tda jagad hu. tarhi kuto 'sya jagat utpatti vadantty atrha aparaspareti. apara ca para cety aparasparam. aparasparato 'nyonyata strpuruamithunt sabhta jagat. kim anyat kraamasya nsty anyat kicit ki tu kmahaitukam strpuruayo kma eva pravharpea hetur asyety hur ityartha. | 25) ghanhakra: PGh ghankra, nSS ahakra | 25) labdham ima: P2 B3 PGh labdham ida | 29) -kraatvam: P1 P2 B3 PGh -krakatva | 348

30. ahakra bala darpa kma krodha ca sarit | mmtmapradeheu pradvianto 'bhyasyak || [BhG 16.18] 31. tn aha dviata krrn sasreu nardhamn | kipmy ajasram aubhn surv eva yoniu || [BhG 16.19] 32. asur yonim pann mh janmani janmani | mma prpyaiva kaunteya tato ynty adham gatim || [BhG 16.20] iti. 33. uddhavsan tu jtajey. jeyasvarpa trayodadhyye bhagavn ha: jeya yat tat pravakymi yaj jtvmtam anute | andimat para brahma na sat tan nsad ucyate || [BhG 13.12] 34. sarvata pipda tat sarvato, kiiromukha | sarvata rutimal loke sarvam vtya tihati || [BhG 13.13] 35. sarvendriyagubha sarvendriyavivarjitam | asakta sarvabhc caiva nirgua guabhokt ca || [BhG 13.14] 36. bahir anta ca bhtnm acara caram eva ca | skmatvt tad avijeya drastha cntike ca tat || [BhG 13.15] 37. avibhakta ca bhteu vibhaktam iva ca sthitam | bhtabhart ca taj jeya grasiu prabhaviu ca || [BhG 13.16] 38. jyotim api taj jyotis tamasa param ucyate | [BhG 13.17ab] iti. 39. atra taasthalakaasvarpalakabhym avagantu sopdhikanirupdhikasvarpadvayam upanyastam. 40. nanu tyaktaprvparavicratva vsanlakaam uktam. jeyajna ca vicrajanyam. ato na uddhy tal lakaam asti. 41. maivam, lakae dhabhvanayety uktatvt. yath bahuu janmasu

2.4 35) B3 om. | 36) B3 om. pada ab | 38) P2 B3 PGh Adyar include BhG13.17cd jna jeya jnagamyam hdi sarvasya vihitam | 39) upanyastam.: Adyar adds upanyastam. kadacitsabandhi sadyallakayati tat taasthalakaam. yath kkavad devadattagham iti. tath klatrayasabandhi sadyallakayati tatsvarpalakaam. yath prakaprakacandra iti. | 349

dhabhvitatvensmi janmani vinaiva paropadeam ahakramamakrakmakrodhdayo malinavsan utpadyante, tath prthamikasya bodhasya vicrajanyatve 'pi drghaklanair antaryasatkrair bhvite tattve pacd vkyayuktiparmaram

antareaiva purovartighadivat sahas tattva parisphurati. 42. tdy bodhnuvtty sahita indriyavyavahra uddhavsan. s ca

dehajvanamtryopayujyate, na tu dambhadarpdysurasapadutpdanya, npi janmntarahetudharmdharmotpdanya. yath sabhni vrhydibjni

kuslapraamtryopayuktni, na tu ruciknnya npi saspanipattaye tadvat. 43. malin ca vsan trividh, lokavsan stravsan dehavsan ceti. sarve jan yath m na nindanti yath v stuvanti tathaiva sarvadcariymty abhiniveo lokavsan. tasy ca sapdayitum aaktyatvn malinatvam. 44. tath hi ko nv asmin sprata loke guavn ka ca vryavn? [Rm 1.1.2] itydin bahudh vlmki papraccha. 45. ikvkuvasaprabhavo rmo nma janai ruta | [Rm 1.1.8] itydin pratyuttara nrado dadau. 46. tdasypi rmasya pativratiromaibhty jaganmtu sty ca rotum aakyo janpavda sapravtta. kimu vaktavyam anyem? tath hi deavieea paraspara nindbhulyam upalabhyate. dkityair viprair auttary vedavido vipr msabhakio nindyante. auttaryai ca mtulasutodvhino ytrsu mdbha-

2.4 41) prthamikasya bodhasya: P2 B3 PGh prthamikabodhasya | 42) -jvanamtra-: P2 P3 PGh -jvanmtr- > P2 sh cor. | sabhni: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS bhni | ruciknnya: P1 P2 B2 rucikarnnya, B3 PGh rucirnnya | 43) m: P1 P2 B3 PGh om. | sarvad-: P2 B3 PGh sarvatha- > P2 sh cor. | 46) pativratiro-: P1 B2 ptivratyairo- | tath hi: P1 B2 om. hi | auttary: P2 B3 PGh auttar, Adyar auttarh | auttaryai: P1 P2 B2 nSS auttareyai, B3 auttarai, Adyar auttarhai | 350

vhino dkity nindyante. bahvc valyanakh kvakhy praast manyante. vjasaneyinas tu vaipartyena. eva svasvakulagotrabandhuvargea-

devatdipraas parakyanind ca vidvadagangopla sarvatra prasiddh. 47. etad evbhipretyoktam: nicittacora subhago'pi km ko lokam rdhayitu samartha || iti. 48. vidyate na khalu kacid upya sarvalokaparitoakaro ya | sarvath svahitm caraya ki kariyati jano bahujalpa || iti ca. 49. ato lokavsany malinatvam abhipreya yogvarasya tulyanindstutitva mokastreu varitam. 50. stravsan trividh, phavyasana bahustravyasanam anuhnavyasana ceti. phavyasana bharadvje 'vagamyate. bahn vedn adhtyendrea caturthyui sa hi puruyuatrayea tatrpi pariia-


veddhyayanyodyama cakra. tasypi phasyakyatvn malinavsantvam. t caktim indra pratibodhya phn nivartya tato 'py adhikya pururthya saguabrahmavidym upadidea. tad etat sarva taittiryabrhmae draavyam. 51. tathaivtyantikapururthbhvd bahustravyasanasya mlinya

kvaeyagtym upalabhyate: kacin durvs munir bahuvidhastrapustakabhrai saha mahdeva namaskartum gatas tatsabhy nradena kenacin munin bhravhir gardabhasmyam pdita, kopt pustakni lavarave parityajya 2.4 46) avalyanakh: P1 B3 -khy, PGh -khy | kvakhy pra-: P1 B3 khy, B2 -khy svakh | -ena. eva: P1 B2 -ena svakh eva | -bandhuvargeadevdi-: P2 B3 PGh -vargabadhatveu svakiyeu devdi- | 47) -oktam: Adyar nSS add -oktam uci pico vicalo vicakaa kamo 'pyaakto balav ca dua. | 49) lokavsany: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS lokavsany | 50) stravsan trividh: P2 B2 PGh -vsan ca trividha | bahustra-: nSS om bahu| phavyasana: P2 B3 PGh phasya vyasana | malinavsantvam: P1 B2 malinatva | caktim: B1 ca yathaktim, Adyar cakyatm | adhikya: P2 B3 PGh adhika | 51) kacin durvs munir: P1 B2 durvs kacin muni, Adyar nSS kacin munir durvs | nradena kenacin munin: P2 B3 PGh nradena munin, P1 B2 nradena, Adyar nSS munin nradena | 351

mahdeventmavidyy pravartita iti. tmavidy cnantarmukhasya gurukruyarahitasya na vedastramtreotpadyate. 52. tath ca ruti: nyam tm pravacanena labhyo na medhay na bahun rutena [KU 2.23] iti. 53. anyatrpy uktam: bahuastrakathkanthromanthena vthaiva kim | anveavya prayatnena tattvajair jyotir ntaram || [MukU 2.63] iti. 54. adhtya caturo vedn dharmastry anekaa | brahmatattva na jnti darv pkarasa yath || [MukU 2.65] iti ca. 55. nrada catuatikalvidykualo 'py antmavittvennutapta sanatkumram upasasd iti cchandog adhyate. 56. anuhnavyasana viupurae nidghasyopalabhyate. vsiha-

rmyae drasya. nidgho hi bhu puna puna bodhyamno 'pi karmaraddhjya cira na jahau. dra ctyantaraddhjyennuhnya uddhapradea bhmau na kvpy upalebhe. asy ca karmavsany punarjanmahetutvn malinatvam. 57. tath ctharvaik adhyate: plav hy ete adh yajarp adaoktam avara yeu karma | etac chreyo ye 'bhinandanti mh jarmtyu te punar evpi yanti || [MuU 1.2.7] 58. avidyym antare vartamn svaya dhr paita manyamn | jaghanyamn pariyanti mh andhenaiva nyamn yathndh || [MuU 1.2.8] 59. avidyy bahudh vartamn vaya ktrth ity abhimanyanti bl | yat karmio na pravedayanti rgt tentur kalok cyavante || [MuU 1.2.9]

2.4 52) bahun: P2 B2 PGh bahudh | 54) iti: B3 PGh Adyar nSS iti ca | 55) catuatikalvidykualo: P1 B2 nSS catuatividykualo > B2 sh cor., Adyar -kalkualo | 56) bodhyamno: P2 B3 PGh prabodhyamno | asy: P2 B3 PGh tasy | 57) karma. etac: P1 B2 karma yajamna patn tvija etac | 59) -loka cyavante: P1 B2 lokc cyavate > B2 sh cor. | 352

60. iprta manyamn varia nnyac chreyo vedayante pramh | nkasya pe te sukte 'nubhtvema loka hnatara v vianti || [MuU 1.2.10] 61. bhagavatpy uktam: ym im pupit vca pravadanty avipacita | vedavdarat prtha nnyad astti vdina || [BhG 2.42] 62. kmtmna svargapar janmakarmaphalapradm | kriyvieabahul bhogai varyagati prati || [BhG 2.43] 63. bhogai varyaprasaktn taypahtacetasm | vyavasytmik buddhi samdhau na vidhyate || [BhG 2.44] 64. traiguyaviay ved nistraiguyo bhavrjuna | nirdvandvo nityasattvastho niryogakema tmavn || [BhG 2.45] 65. yvn artha udapne sarvata saplutodake | tvn sarveu vedeu brhmaasya vijnata || [BhG 2.46] iti. 66. darpahetutvc chstryavsany malinatvam. vetaketur alpenaiva klena sarvn vedn adhtya darpea pitur api purato vinaya na cakreti cchandog ahdhyye pahanti. bahuu deeu tath blki kcid upsan avagatya dpta unardiu bahn viprn avajya kym ajtaatru


brahmavicchiromaim anusitu dhrya cakreti kautakino vjasaneyina cdhyate. 67. dehavsanpy tmatvagudhnadopanayanabhrntibhedt trividh. tatrtmatva bhyakra udjahra: dehamtra caitanyaviiam tmeti prkt jan lokyatik ca pratipann [BSBh 1.1.1] iti. 68.

2.4 60) iprta: P2 ipurtte, PGh iprti |sukte 'nubhtvema: P2 B3 PGh suktennubhtv ima, nSS suktennubhtvema | 66) -tvc chstrya-: P2 B3 PGh -tvc ca strya- | tath: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh om. > B2 sh cor. | kcid upsan: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS knicid upsanny | 67) bhrntibhedt trividh: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh bhrtistridh > P1 P2 sh cor. bhrtibhis tridh, > B2 sh cor. bhrntibhedt trividh | 353

69. "sa v ea puruo 'nnarasamaya" ity rabhya "tasmd anna tad ucyate" ityantena granthena tmeva prktapratipatti taittiry spakurvanti. virocana prajpatinnuio 'pi svacittadoea dehtmabuddhi dhktysurn sarvn anuasa iti cchandog aamdhyye sammananti. 70. gudhna dvividha laukika strya ceti. samcnaabddi-

sapdana laukikam. komaladhvanin gtum adhyetu ca tailapnamarcabhakadin lok prayatante. mdusparya lok puikarv auadhhrv upayujyante. lvayybhyagodvartanadukllakrn upasevante. saugandhyya sraglepene dhrayanti. strya guam dhtu gagsnnaslagrmatrthdika sapdayanti. 71. dopanaya ca cikitsakoktair auadhair mukhdipraklanena ca laukikam auccamanbhya vaidikam ity ubhayavidham. asy ca dehavsany mlinya vakyate. dehasytmatva tvad aprmikatvd aeadukhahetutvc ca malinam. asmi crthe prvcryai sarvair api parkrntam. gudhna ca pryea na payma. prasiddh eva gyak adhypak ca. prayatamn api bahavo dhvanisauhava na labhante. mdusparo 'gapui ca na niyat. lvayasaugandhye api duklasragdinihe na tu dehanihe. 72. ata eva viupure 'bhibhitam: msskpyavimtrasnyumajjsthi sahatau | dehe cet prtimn mho bhavit narake 'pi sa || [ViP 1.17.63; NpU 3.48] 73. svadehucigandhena na virajyeta ya pumn | 2.4 69) praktapratipatti: P2 B3 PGh prakt pratipatti | spakurvanti: P1 B2 spakurvate | dehtma-: P2 B3 PGh dehe tma- | sarvn: P1 B2 om. | 70) adhyetu ca: P1 B2 adhyetu v | -bhakadin: Adyar nSS (K Kh) -bhakadiu | upayujate: P2 B3 PGh upayujyete, P1 B2 upayujyante | -lagrma-: P2 B3 PGh Adyar -slagrma-, nSS -ligrma- | 71) cikitsakoktair: P1 B2 cikitstroktair > B2 sh cor. | auccamanbhya: P2 B3 PGh auccamandin, Adyar auccamandibhir | dehasytmatva: P1 dehtmatvasya > B2 sh cor. | malinam: P2 B3 PGh nSS malinatva | niyat: Adyar niyatau | 72) bhavit: P1 bhavati | 354

virgakraa tasya kim anyad upadiyate || [MukU 2.66] iti. 74. strya ca gudhna prabalena strntarepohyate. "na hisyt sarv bhtni" [MhB 3.203.45; MhB 12.269.5; MhB 12.316.18] ity asya "agnomya paum labheta" [TS] ity anenpavdas tadvat. 75. prabalatara stram etad: yasytmabuddhi kuape tridhtuke svadh kalatrdiu bhauma ijyadh | yas trthabuddhi salile na karhicij janev abhijeu sa eva gokhara || [BhP 10.84.13] 76. atyantamalino dehe deh ctyantanirmala | ubhayor antara jtv kasya auca vidhyate || [MukU 2.67; SS 2.14.19] itydi. 77. yady apy anena strea dopanayana pratiniidhyate na tu gudhnam tathpi sati virodhini prabaladoe gua dhtum aakya ityarthd gudhnasya pratiedha. 78. atyantamlinya ctra maitryayakhy ryate: bhagavann asthicarmasnyumajjmsaukraoitalemrudite vimtravtapittakaphasaghte durgandhe nisre 'smi arre ki kmopabhogair [MtrU 1.3] iti. 79. arram ida maithund evodbhta saviddhyapeta niraya eva mtradvrea nikrntam asthibhi cita msennulipta carmavanaddha vimtrakaphapittamajjmedovasbhir anyai ca malabahubhi pariprakoa iva vasun | [MtrU 3.4] iti ca. 80. cikitsay ca rogantir na niyat. nto 'pi roga kadcit punar udeti.

navachidrair nirantara sravatsu maleu romakpair asakhytai svinne gtre ko nma khedena praklayitu aknuyt? 81. tad ukta prvcryai: 2.4 73) virga-: P2 B3 PGh Adyar vairgya- | 74) strya ca gudhna: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh striyagu > P1 P2 B2 sh cor. striyagudhna | -pohyate. na: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh Adyar pohyate. yath na | 75) etad yasy-: P2 B3 PGh Adyar etad anyastrpekay yasy- | 77) pratiniidhyate: P1 B2 niidhyate, P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS pratiidhyate | 78) -oitalemrudite vi-: P1 B2 oitalemrudikvi-, Adyar -oitrudikdite vi- | -pittasaghte: Adyar pittakaphasaghte | 79) niraya eva: P1 B2 Adyar nSS niraya iva | -kapha-pitta-: P2 B3 PGh Adyar -pittakapha- | anyai ca malabahubhi: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS anyai ca malair bahubhi, P1 B2 anyai cmayair | 80) navachidrair: Adyar navabhi chidrair | 355

navacchidrakt deh sravanti ghaik iva | bhyaaucair na udhyanti nntaauca tu vidyate || ato dehavsan malin. 82. tad etan mlinyam abhipretya vasiha ha: pdam astakam aha mtpitvinirmata | ity eko nicayo rma bandhysadvilokant || [LYV 5.2.42] 83. s klastrapadav s mahvcivgur | ssipatravanare y deho 'ham iti sthiti || [LYV 4.5.16; NpU 3.49] 84. s tyjy sarvayatnena sarvane'py upasthite | spraavy s na bhavyena savamsevapulkas || [LYV 4.5.17; NpU 3.50] iti. 85. tad etal lokastradehavasantrayam avivekinm updeyatvena pratibhsamnam api vididior vedanotpattivirodhitvd viduo jnapratihvirodhitvc ca vivekibhir heyam. 86. ata eva smaryate: lokavsanay janto stravsanaypi ca | dehavsanay jna yathvan naiva jyate || [SS 4.14.51] iti. 87. y tu dambhadarpdysurasapadrp mnasavsan, tasy narakahetutvn mlinyam atiprasiddham. sapdanya. 2.5 [manasa svarpa manona ca] 1. yath vsany kaya sapdanyas tath manaso 'pi. na ca trkikavan nityadravyam auparima mano vaidik abhyupagacchanti yena manono dusapdanya syt. ki tarhi svayavam anitya sarvad jatusuvardivad ata kenpy upyena vsancatuayasya kaya

2.4 81) -kt deh: P1 B1 -kte dehe, nSS cor. -k(yu)t deh, PGh -yutd deht, Adyar -yut deh | nnta auca tu vidyate: P1 B2 Adyar nnta auca ca vidyate, B3 PGh cnta auca na vidyate | 82) ha: P2 B3 PGh om | 83) deho 'ham: P2 B3 PGh Adyar dehe 'ham | 84) spraavy: P2 B3 PGh spavy | pulkas: PGh pukas | 85) viduo jna-: P2 B3 PGh viduor jana- | ata: P2 B3 PGh tata | 2.5 1) dusapdanya: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh dusapdya, Adyar dusapda | 356

bahuvidhaparimrham dravya mana. vjasaneyina sammananti.

tasya ca lakaa prama ca

2. kma sakalpo vicikits raddhraddh dhtir adhtir hrr dh bhr ity etat sarva mana eva [BU 1.5.3] ity etallakaa. 3. kmdivttaya krameotpadyamn ckuapratyakaghadivat skipratyaketispaa bhsante tadvttyupdna mana ityartha. 4. anyatraman abhva ndaram anyatraman abhva nrauam iti manas hy eva payati manas roti [BU 1.5.3] itydi pramam. 5. cakusanika sphtvalokamadhyavart ghaa rotra-

sanika uccai pahito veda ca yasynavadhne sati na pratyate avadhne tu pratyate. tda sarvaviayopalabdhisdhraakaraam anvayavyatirekbhy

pratyata ityartha. 6. tasmd api pshata upaspto manas vijnti [BU 1.5.3] ity etad udharaam. 7. yasml lakaaprambhy siddha manas tasmt tad evam udharayam. pabhge 'py anyenopaspo devadatto vieea jnti hastasparo 'yam agulisparo 'yam iti. na hi tatra caku prasarati, tvagindriyam tu mrdavakinyamtropakam. tasmn mana eva vieajnakraa pariiyate. tac ca manann mana iti cetanc cittam iti cbhidhyate. tac ca citta

sattvarajastamogutmakam, prakapravttimohn sattvdikry tatra darant.

2.5 1) tasya ca: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS om. ca | 3) kmdivttaya: Adyar y kmdivttaya | ckuapraty-: P2 B3 cakuspraty-, PGh ckupraty- | ghadivat: P2 B3 PGh ghaavat | tadvttyupdna: P2 B3 PGh Adyar tadupdna | 4) hy eva: Adyar nSS hy ea | itydi: P1 B2 B3 PGh Adyar ity etat | 5) sphtvalokam: P2 B2 Adyar sphtlokam, P1 sphtalokam | na pratyate avadhne tu pratyate: P2 na pratyate avadhne tu pratyate | 7) yasml lakaa-: P2 B2 PGh Adyar yasmc ca lakaa- | 7) -kiyamtropa-: P1 B2 -kinyopa-, P2 B3 PGh kinyagrahae upa- , nSS -kiy(anya)mtropa- Adyar -kinyamtra grahaa upa- | cetanc cittam: P2 nSS cintanc cittam | prakdn ca: P2 B3 PGh prakdn tu | 357

8. prakdn ca guakryatva guttalakane 'vagamyate: praka ca pravtti ca moham eva ca pava | [BhG 14.22] ityabhidhnt. 9. skhyastre 'pi: prakapravttimohaniyamrtha | [SK 12b] ityuktam. 10. prako nma ntra sitabhsvararpa ki tu jnam. sattvt sajyate jna rajaso lobha eva ca | pramdamohau tamaso bhavato 'jnam eva ca || [BhG 14.17] ityuktatvt. 11. jnavat sukham api sattvakryam. tad apy uktam: sattvam sukhe sajayati rajah karmai bhrata | janam vtya tu tama pramde sajayaty uta || [BhG 14.9] iti. 12. samudrataragavan nirantara pariamamneu gueu kadcit kacid udbhavati. itarv abhibhyete. tad uktam: rajas tama cbhibhya sattva bhavati bhrata | raja sattva tama caiva tama sattva rajas tath || [BhG 14.10] iti. 13. bdhyabdhakat ynti kallol iva sgare | [ViP 5.1.20] iti ca. 14. rajasa udbhave sati lokdivsans tisro bhavanti. sattvasyodbhave sati daiv sapad upajyate. 15. etad evbhipretyoktam: sarvadvreu dehe 'smin praka upajyate | jna yad tad vidyd vivddha sattvam ity uta || [BhG 14.11] iti. 16. yady apy antakaraa tragutmaka bhsate, tathpi sattvam evsya mukhyam updnakraam. rajastamas tpaambhake. ata eva jnino yogbhysena rajastamasor apantayo sattvam eva svarpa pariiyate. evbhipretyoktam: 2.5 9) prakapravttimohaniyamrtha: P1 P2 B1 B2 PGh om. -moha- > B1 sh cor. | 10) nma ntra: P1 P2 PGh nSS nmtra | 16) evsya mukhyam: nSS evsya manaso mukhyam | Before rajastamas tpaambhake: P2 nSS add updnasahakribht avayav upaambhak > Adyar adds after rajastamas tpaambhake | 358 17. etad

jasya cittam acitta syj jcitta sattvam ucyate | [LYV 6.3.13ab] iti. 18. tac ca sattva ccalyaheturajoguanyatvd ekgram. bhrntikalpitntmasvarpasthlapadrthkrahetutamoguanyatvt yogyam. 19. ata eva ruti: dyate tv agryay buddhy skmay skmadaribhir [KU 3.12] iti. 20. na khalu vyun dodhyamnena pradpena maimuktdilakani nirdhrayitu akyante. npi sthlena khanitrea scyeva skmapaasyti sabhavati. tad etad da sattvam evyogiu tamoguagarbhitena rajoguenopaspa bahuvidhadvaitasakalpena cetayamna citta bhavati. tac citta tamogudhikye saty surm sapadam upacinvat pna bhavati. vasiha: antmany tmabhvena dehamtrsthay tath | putradrakuumbai ca ceto gacchati pnatm || [LYV 5.6.17] 22. ahakravikrea mamatm alallay | ida mameti bhvena ceto gacchati pnatm || [LYV 5.6.18] 23. dhivydhivilsena samvsena sastau | heyheyavibhgena ceto gacchati pnatm || [LYV 5.6.19] 24. snehena dhanalobhena lbhena maiyoitm | ptaramayena ceto gacchati pnatm || [LYV 5.6.20] 25. durkrapnena bhognilabalena ca | sthdnena crea citthir yti pnatm || [LYV 5.6.21] iti. 26. tad eva vinanyayor vsanmanaso svarpa nirpitam. 2.5 20) -maimuktdi-: P1 B2 -manimuktdn | tad etad da: nSS taddam | evyogiu: nSS eva yogiu | tamoguagarbhitena: nSS tamoguasahitena | upacinvatpna: B3 PGh updhvtpna | 21) dehamtrsthay: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS dehabhvanay | 22, 23) P2 B3 PGh transpose ahakra ... pnat and adhi ... pnatm | 22) alallay: P1 alallayt | heyheya-: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh Adyar heydheya- | -bhvena: P2 B3 PGh -bhagena | 25) After pnatm: P2 Adyar nSS add sth nma prapace satyatvabuddhi, tasy dnam agkra, sa eva cro gamangamanakriy teneti > P1 om., sh adds in margin | 359 21. athha skmam. tata tmadarana-

2.6 [vsankayaprakra] 1. atha vsankayamanonau kramea nirpyete. 2. tatra vsankayaprakram ha vasiha: bandho hi vsanbandho moka syd vsankaya | vsanstva parityajya mokrthitvam api tyaja || [LYV 4.5.20] 3. mnasrvsan pra tyaktv viayavsan | maitrydibhvannm nrghmalavsan || [LYV 4.5.21] 4, t apy anta parityajya tbhir vyavaharann api | anta ntatam asneho bhava cinmtravsana || [LYV 4.5.22] 5. tm apy anta parityajya manobuddhi samanvitm | ee sthira samsno yena tyajasi tat tyaja || [LYV 4.5.23] iti. 6. atra mnasavsanabdena prvokts tisro lokastradehavsan vivakit. viayavsanabdena dambhadarpdysurasapad vivakit. mdutvratve tad

vivakbhedakrae. yad v abdaspararparasagandhaviays, te kmyamnatvadajanya saskro mnasavsan. bhujyamnadajanya saskaro viayavsan. asmin pake prvoktna catasm anayor evntarbhva,

antarbhyavyatirekea vsanntarsabhavt. 7. nanu vsany parityga katha ghaate? na hi ts mrtir asti yena samrjansamhitadhlitavad dhastenoddhtya bahis tyakyma. 8. maivam, upavsajgaraavat tadupapatte. svabhvapraptayor bhujikriynidrayor amrtatve 'pi tatparitygarpe upavsajgarae sarvair apy anuhyete; tadvad atrpy astu. 9. adya sthitv nirhrama itydi mantrea sakalpam ktv svadhna2.6 4,5) From 4 tabhir (...) to 5 parityajya B1 P2 om. > P2 sh cor., B3 PGh transpose 4ab with 5ab | 5) samdhno: P2 B3 PGh Adyar samsno | 6) -gandhaviays: B3 PGh Adyar nSS -gandh viayas | bhujyamnada-: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS bhujyamnatvada- | evntarbhva: nSS (K Kh) om. eva | 7) -tavad dhasteno-: B1 -tabandhas teno > sh cor. | 9) nirhrama: PGh nirhrama | itydi mantrea: P2 B3 PGh iti mantrea | 360

tvenvasthna tatra tyga iti cet, 10. atrpi na tad daanivritam, praiamantrea sakalpypramattatvenvasthtu akyatvt. vaidikamantrnadhikri tu bhay sakalpo 'stu. yadi tatra kaspaudandisanidhitygas tarhy atrpi srakcandanavanit sanidhiparitygo 'stu. atha tatra bubhuknidrlasydivismrakai puraravaadevapjntya-

gtavditrdibhi cittam upallyeta, tarhy atrpi maitrydibhis tad upallyet. 2.7 [ubhavsanbhysa] 1. maitrydya ca patajalin strit: maitrkarnamuditopek sukha dukha puypuya viy bhvanta cittaprasdanam [YS 1.33] iti. citta hi rgadveapuyappai kalukriyate. 2. rgadveau ca patajali straym sa: sukhnuay rga | [YS 2.7] 3. dukhnuay dvea | [YS 2.8] iti. 4. svennubhyamna sukham anuete kacid dhvttiviea sukhajtya me sarva bhyd iti. tac ca ddasmagryabhvn na sapdayitu akyam. ata sa rga citta kalukaroti. yad sukhpriv aya maitr bhvayet sarve 'py ete sukhino mady iti, tad tatsukha svakyam eva sapannam iti bhvayatas tatra rgo nivartate yath svasya rjybhve 'pi putrdirjyam eva svakya rjya tadvat. 2.6 9) svadhnatvenvasthna tatra tyga iti cet: P2 B3 PGh svadhnenaivvasthna gata iti ced > P2 sh cor. -na tyga iti ced | 10) daanivritam: P2 daenivaritam > sh cor. daenanirvritam, B3 PGh daavritam | sakalpypramattatven-: P2 B3 PGh sakalpyaprasavatven- > P2 sh cor. sakalpyprasavatven- | tu: P2 B3 PGh om. | vanit: P2 B3 PGh vanitdi | vismrakai: P2 B3 PGh nivarttakai | 2.7 1) maitrydya ca: P2 B3 PGh maitrydya tu | puypuya: P2 B3 PGh puyapapa | 2) patajali stryaym sa: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh patajalir astrayat | 4) svennu-: P2 B3 PGh snehdanu-, nSS snehatsvennu | kaciddhvtti-: P2 B3 PGh kacid vtti- | sukhajtya me sarva bhyd iti: nSS sukhajta sarva me bhyd iti | sukhpriv: P2 B3 PGh Adyar sukhiv, P2 sh cor. | 361

nivtte ca rge varsvattsu aratsarid iva citta prasdati. 5. tath dukham anuete kacit pratyaya da dukha sarvad me m bht iti. tac ca rogaatruvyaghrdiu satsu na nivrtayitu akyam. na ca sarve dukhahetavo hantu akyante. tatah sa dvea sad hdaya dahati. yad svasyeva pare sarve pratikla dukha m bhyd ity anena prakrea karu dukhiu bhvayet tad vairydidveanivttau citta prasdati. 6. ata smaryante: pr yathtmano 'bh bhtnm api te tath | tmaupamyena bhtn day kurvanti mnav || [MBh 13.116.21cd 22ab; YDhS p. 31] iti. 7. tat prakra ca mahnto daryanti: sarve'tra sukhina santu sarve santu nirmay | sarve bhadri payantu m kacid dukham pnuyt || [BhMP 2.35.14] iti. 8. tath hi prin svabhvata eva puya nnutihanti, ppa tv anutihanti. tad hu: puyasya phalam icchanti puya neccanti mnav | na ppaphalam icchanti ppa kurvanti yatnata || iti. te ca puyappe pacttpa janayata. 9. sa ca tpa rutyndyate: kim aha sdhu nkaravam? kim aha ppam akaravam? | [TU 2.9] iti. 10. yady asau puyapurueu mudit bhvayet tad tadvsanay svayam apramatta puyeu pravarteta. tath ppipek bhvayan svayam api ppn nivarteta. ata pacttpasybhvena citta prasdati. 11. sukhiu maitr bhvayato na kevala rganivtti ki tv asyerydayo 'pi 2.7 5) da dukha sarvad me: P2 B3 PGh Adyar da sarva dukha sarvad me | atru-: Adyar rogaatru- | tata: P2 B3 PGh ata | m bhyd: P2 B3 PGh Adyar m bhd, nSS na bhyd | dukhiu: P1 B2 nSS dukhiu priu | 6) ata smaryante: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS ata eva smaryante | mnav: P2 B3 PGh Adyar sdhava, B1 same > sh cor. sdhava | 10) purueu: P2 B3 purue | tadvsanay svayam: P1 tadvsanvn svayam | apramatta: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS evpramatta | bhvayan: P1 bhvayet | nivarteta: P2 B3 PGh nivartate | 362

nivartante. paragunm asahanam asy, gueu dovikaraam ry. yad maitrvat parakyasukha svakyam eva sapadyate, tad gueu katham asydika sabhavet? eva dontaranivttir api yathyogam unney. dukhiu karu bhvayata atruvadhdikaro dveo yad nivartate, tad dukhitvapratiyogikasya sukhitvaprayukto darpo 'pi nivartate. 12. sa ca darpa surasapady ahakraprastve prva udhta: varo 'ham aha bhog siddho 'ha balavn sukh | hyo 'bhijanavn asmi ko 'nyo 'sti sado may || [BhG 16. 14cd15ab] itydi. 13. nanu puytmasu mudit bhvayata puyapravtti phalatvenokt, s ca yogino na yukt, maliny stravsany puyam antarbhvya prvam udhtatvt. 14. maivam, punarjanmakraasya kmyeprtdes tatra malinatvenodharat. iha tu yogbhysajanyam auklkatvena janmnpdaka karma vivakitam. 15. auklkatva patajali straym sa: karmklkam yoginas trividham itarem | [YS 4.7] iti. 16. kmya karma vihitatvc chuklam, niiddha kam, mira uklakam. tad etat trayam itarem ayogin sapadyate. tac ca trividha janma prayacchati. 17. tad hur vivarpcry: 2.7 11) paragunm asahanam asy, gueu dovikaraa ry: P2 B3 PGh Adyar gueu dovikaraam asy, paragunm asahanam ry, nSS paragunm asahanam ry, gueu dovikaraam asy | parakyasukha: P2 B3 PGh parasukha, Adyar nSS parakya sukha | tad gueu: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS tad paragueu > B1 sh cor. | -yoga unney: P2 B3 PGh yogyam anumey, P1 B2 yogyam unney | yath nivartate, tath: P2 B3 PGh Adyar yad nivartate tad > P2 sh cor. | -pratiyogikasya sukhitva: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS -pratiyogikasvasukhitva- | 12) surasapady aha-: P2 B3 PGh surasapad aha- | udhta: P2 Adyar nirpita | hyo- ... may: P2 B3 PGh om. | 14) -janmakraasya kmyasye-: P1 B2 -janmakrasya kmyasye-, nSS -janmakrasya kmye-, P2 B3 PGh Adyar -janmakraasya kmye- | -pdaka karma vivakitam: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh Adyar -pdaka puya vivakitam, nSS pdaka puya(ya) karma vivakitam | 363

ubhai prpnoti devatva niiddhair nrak gati | ubhbhy puyappbhy mnuya labhate tad || [NkS 1.41] iti. 18. nanu yogasyniiddhatvd akatve 'pi vihitatvc chuklatvam iti cet, 19. maivam, akmyatvbhipryeuklatvbhidhnt. ato 'uklake puye pravttir yogino 'pekit. 20. nanv anena nyyena yogino 'pi yathocita puytmasu mudit bhvayitv puyev eva pravarterann iti cet, 21. pravartat nama, ye maitrydibhi citta prasdayanti tem eva yogitvt. maitrydicatuayam upalakaam. tena "abhaya sattvasauddhi" (BhG 16.1) itydidaivasapat "amnitvam adambhitvam" (BhG 13.7) jvanmuktasthitaprajdivacanoktadharm copalakyante, itydi jnasdhanni sarvem ete

ubhavsanrpatvena malinavsan nivartakatvt. 22. nanu santy anant ubhavsan, na caikena t sarv abhyasitu sakyante; nirarthaka ca tadabhysapraysa iti cet, 23. na, tan nivartynm anantn malinavsannm ekasya manasy asabhavt. na hy yurvedoktni sarvy auadhny ekena sevitu akyante. npi tannivarty sarve rog ekasya dehe sabhavanti. eva tarhi svacitta prathamata parkya tatra yad yvat yo malinavsans tad tvatrvirodhin ubhavsan abhyasyet.

2.7 17) labhate tad: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS labhate' vaa > P1 sh cor. | 19) 'pekit: P2 PGh 'pekyante > P2 sh cor. 'pekit | 20) nanv anena nyyena yogino 'py: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nanu yogino 'py anena nyyena | 21) pravartat: Adyar pravartant, nSS pravartat(nt), (Kh) pravartant | vacanoktadharm: P2 B3 PGh Adyar vacanokt dharm | 22) -vsan, na caikena t sarv : P2 B3 PGh -vsan na ca t ekena sarv | -praysa iti: P1 B2 om. prayasa | 23) ekasya manasy asabhavt: nSS ekasya narasysambhavt | 23) tarhi: P1 B2 sati | tvatrvirodhin ubhavsan abhy-: P2 B3 PGh tvat ubhavsan virodhinr abhy- | 364

2.8 [vivekbhysa] 1. yath putramitrakalatrdibhi pyamnas tato viraktas tannivartaka privrjya ghti tath vidymadadhanamadakulcramaddimalinavsanbhi pyamnas tadvirodhina vivekam abhyasyet. 2. sa ca viveko janakena darita: adya ye mahat murdhni te dinair nipatanty adha | hanta citta mahatty kai vivastat tava || [LYV 5.1.39] 3. kva dhanni mahpn brahmaa kva jaganti v | prktanni praytni keya vivastat tava || [LYV 5.1.41] 4. koayo brahma yt gat svargaparampar | prayt psuvad bhp k dhtir mama jvite || [LYV 5.1.42] 5. ye nimeaonmeau jagat pralayodayau | td puru na md gaanaiva k || [LYV 5.1.49] iti. 6. nanv ayam api vivekas tattvajnodayt prcna, nitynityavastuvivekdisdhanavyatirekea brahmajnsabhavt, iha ttpannabrahmasktkrasya

jvanmuktaye vsankaydisdhana vaktum upakrntam; ata kim idam ake tavam iti cet, 7. nya doa. sdhanacatuayasapannasya pacd brahmajnam ity ea sarvapuruasdhraakua prauho rjamrga. janakasya tu prvapuyapujaparipkekaphalaptavad akasmt siddhagtravaamtrea tattvajnam

utpannam. tata ca cittivirntaye viveko 'ya kriyata iti ka evedam ucita tavam.

2.8 1) putramitrakalatrdi: P2 B3 PGh putrakalatrdi | 3) prktanni: B3 PGh prktni | vivastat: P1 vivatad | 5) jagat: P2 B3 PGh Adyar jagata | td puru na: P2 B3 PGh td puru sati > P2 sh cor. na, P1 B2 td sati vai na | 6) api: P2 B2 PGh om. | 7) -sdhraakua: P2 B3 PGh Adyar -sdhraa | 365

2.9 [malinavsannuvtti] 1. nanv evam apy asya vivekasya jnasamanantarabhvitvena malinavsannuvttyabhvc chuddhavsanbhyso npekita iti cet, 2. na, janakasya tadanuvttybhve 'pi yjavalkyabhagrathdes tadanuvttidarant. asti hi yjavalkyasya tatprativdinm uastakaholdn ca bhyn

vidymada, tai sarvair api vijigukathy pravttatvt | 3. nanu te vidyntaram evsti na tu brahmavidyeti cet, 4. na, kathgatayo pranottarayor brahmaviayatvt. 5. nanu brahmaviayatve 'pi tem ptato jnam eva na tu samyagvedanam iti cet, 6. na, tath saty asmkam api tadyavkyair utpanny vidyy asamyaktvaprasagt. 7. nanu samyaktve'pi parokajnam eveti cet, 8. na, "yat skd aparokd brahma" [BU 3.4.1] iti mukhyparokaviayatayaiva vieata pranopalambht. 9. nanv tmajnino vidymada cryair nbhyupagamyate. 10. tath copadeashasrym abhihitam: brahmavittva tath muktv sa tmajo na cetara | [US 12.13] iti. 11. naikarmyasiddhv api: na cdhytmbhimno 'pi viduo 'sty suratvata | viduo 'py sura cet syn niphala brahmadaranam || [Nks 1.75] itti cet, 12. nya doa. jvanmuktiparyantasya tattvajnasya tatra vivakitatvt. na khalu vayam api jvanmuktn vidymadam abhyupagacchma. 2.9 5) ptato jnam: P1 B2 nSS ptatajnam | 6) vidhyya: P2 B3 PGh Adyar brahmavidhyya | 10) abhihitam: P1 B2 ukta | 366

13. nanu vijigor tmabodha eva nsti, rgo ligam abodhasya cittavyymabhmiu | kuta dvalat tasya yasygni koare taro || [Nks 4.67] ity cryair abhyupagamd iti cet, 14. na, rgdaya santu kma na tadbhvo 'pardhyati | utkhtadaroragavad avidy ki kariyati || [BBhV 1.4.1539.2, 1.4.1746.1] ityatra tair eva rgdy abhyupagamt. 15. na ctra parasparavyhati, sthitapraje jnimtre ca vacanadvayasya vyavasthpanyatvt. 16. nanu jnino rgdyabhyupagame dharmdharmadvrea janmntaraprasaga iti cet, 17. maivam, adagdhabjavad avidyprvakakmder eva mukhyargditvena punarjanmahetutvt. jninas tu dagdhabjavad bhsa eva rgdaya. 18. etad evbhipretyoktam: utpadyamn rgdy vivekajnavahnin | tad tadaiva dahyante kutas te prarohaam || [VU 3.24] iti. 19. tarhi sthitaprajasypi te santv iti cet, 20. na, tatkle mukhyavad evbhsn bdhakatvt. rajjusarpo 'pi mukhyasarpavad eva tadn bhayann upalabhyate, tadvat. 21. nanv bhsatvnusadhnnuvttau na ko 'pi bdha iti cet, 22. cira jvatu bhavn. iyam evsmadabhimat jvanmukti. yjavalkyas tu

2.9 14) tadbhvo 'pardhyati: P2 B3 PGh tadbhvopardhyate | 15) vyavasthpanyatvt: Adyar vyavasthpanopayuktatvt | 17) kmder: P2 B3 PGh kraam, P1 B2 om. | 17) -bhsa: P2 Adyar -bhsamtr | 20) evbhsn: P2 B3 PGh Adyar evbhsamnn | nanv: P2 B3 PGh Adyar tarhi | 22) evsmad: P1 B2 nSS eva hy asmad | yjavalkyas tu: P1 B2 yjavalkyasya | 367

vijiguday na tda, cittavirntaye vidvatsanysasya tena kariyamatvt. na kevalam asya vijig ki tu dhanatpi mahat, yato bahn brahmavid purata sthpita slakra gosahasram apahtya svayam evedam ha: 23. namo vayam brahmihya kurmo gokm eva vaya sma iti. [BU 3.1.2] 24. itarn brahmavido 'vajtum iya kcid vacobhagti cet, 25. ayam api tarhy aparo doa. anenpahtam iti matv cukrudhu. mraym sa. itare ca brahmavida svakya dhanam

aya ca krodhaparavaa kalya pena 26. yata

na csya brahmaghno mokbhva akanya.

kautakina sammananti: nsya kena ca karma loko myate. na mtvadhena na pitvadhena na steyena na bhrahatyay. [KauU 3.1] iti. 27. eo 'pi svaktym rypactym idam ha: hayamedhaatasahasry atha kurute brahmaghtalaki | paramrthavin na puyair na ca ppai spyate vimala || [Ps 77] iti. 28. ki bahun, brahmavid yjakalkydnm asty eva malinavsannuvtti, bhagrathas tu tattva viditvpi rgjya playan malinavsanbhi cittavirntyabhve sati sarva parityajya pacd virntavn iti vasihenopkhyyate. ata svakya vartamna malinavsanviea parakyadoavat samyag utprekya tatpratkram abhyasyet. 29. anenaivbhipryea smaryate: yath sunipua samyak paradoekae ratah | tath cen nipua sveu ko na mucyeta bandhant || [VU 3.25] iti. 2.9 22) na tda: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS na hda | cittavirntaye: P1 B2 bodhacittavirataye | mahat, yato, bahn: P2 B3 PGh mahat jt. bahn, Adyar nSS mahat jt. yato bahnm | 24) iya: P2 B3 PGh ida | 25) aya ca: P2 B3 PGh svaya ca | brahmaghno: nSS brahmaghnasya, P2 same > sh cor. brahmaghnasya | 26) yata: P2 B3 PGh om. | kentra: P2 B3 PGh nSS kenpi, Adyar kena ca | myate: P2 B3 PGh hyate | 27) rypactym: P1 B2 rypacaatyam | 28) ki bahun: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS tasmt ki bahun | playan: P2 B3 PGh pariplayan | malinavsanviea: P2 B3 PGh Adyar malinavsandoa | abhyasyet: P2 B3 PGh abhyaset | 368

2.10 [malinavsann vivekena pratkra] 1. nanv dau tvad vidymadasya ka pratkra iti cet, 2. ki svanihamadasya, ki v svaviayasya paranihasya? dye bhago 'vaya kvacid bhaviyatti nirantara bhvayet. tad yath vetaketur vidyay matta pravhaasya rja sabh gatv tena pacgnividyy py svayam ajnno niruttaro rj bahudh bhartsita pitu sampam gatya svanirvedam udjahra. pit tu nirmadas tam eva rjnam upasadya t vidy lebhe. dptablki cjataatru rj bhartsito darpa satyajya rjnam upasasda. uastakaholdaya ca madena kathm ktv parjit. 3. yad svaviaya paraniho mada pravarteta tad matta sa paro m nindatu, avamanyat v sarvathpi na hnir iti bhvayet. 4. ata evhu: tmna yadi nindanti svtmna svayam eva hi | arra yadi nindanti sahys te mat mama || 5. nindvamnvatyanta bhaa yasya yogina | dhvikepa katha tasya vctai kriyatm iha || iti. 6. nindy bhaatva ca jnkue daritam: manninday yadi jana paritoam eti nanv aprayatnajanito 'yam anugraho me | reyorthino hi puru paratuihetor dukhrjitny api dhanni parityajanti || 7. satatasulabhadainye nisukhe jvaloke yadi mama parivdt prtim pnoti kacit | 2.10 2) svanihamadasya: Adyar svanihasya paraviayasya madasya, nSS svanihasya madasya paraviayasya | pravhaasya rja: P2 B3 PGh pravhaarja | py: P2 B3 PGh popi | bahudh: P2 B3 PGh bahuvidha > P2 sh cor. | upasasda: B1 upasasdya, P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS anustya | 3) na hnir: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS na me hnir | 4) ata evhu: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh Adyar tath hi | nindanti svtmna: Adyar nindanti nindanti | te jan mama: P1 B2 Adyar te mat mama, P2 P3 PGh te janmeti uktatvt | After 5, P1 P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS >B2 sh adds in margin: naikarmyasiddhau: varcaske saparityakte doata cvadhrite. yadi doa vadet tasmai ki tatroccaritur bhavet. [Nks 2.16], tadvat sthle tath skme dehe tyakte vivekata. yadi doa vadet tbhy ki tatra viduo bhavet. [Nks 2.17], okaharabhayakrodhalobhamohasphdaya. ahakrasya dyante janma mtyu ca ntmana. [BhP 11.28.13] iti | 369

parivadatu yathea matsamaka tiro v jagati hi bahudukhe durlabha prtiyoga || iti. 8. avamnasya bhaatva smaryate: tath careta vai yog sat dharmam adayan | jan yathvamanyeran gacheyur naiva sagatim || [ViP 2.13.43] iti. 9. yjavalkyoastdn yau svanihaparanihau vidymadau tayor yath vivekena pratkras tath dhanbhilakrodhayor apy avagantavya. 10. arthnm arjane kleas tathaiva pariplane | ne dukha vyaye dukha dhig arthn kleakria || [PD 7.139] iti dhanaviaye viveka. 11. krodho 'pi dvividha svaniha paraviaya, paraniha svaviaya ceti. tatra svaniha praty evam uktam: apakrii kopa cet kopa kope katha na te | dharmrthakmamok prasahya paripanthini || [YU p. 317] 12. phalrthino dharmayao 'rthanana sa ced aprtha svaarratpana | na ceha nmutra hitya ya sat mansi roa samuprayet katha || iti. 13. svaviaya praty evam ritam: na me 'pardha kim akrae n madabhyasyety api naiva cintayet | na yat kt prgbhavabandhaniktis tato 'pardha paramo 'nucintyatm || 14. namo 'stu kopadevya svrayajvline bham | ko 'py asya mama vairgyadyine doabodhine || [YU p. 317] iti. 15. dhanbhilakrodhavad yoitputrbhilv api vivekena nivartanyau. 16. tatra yoidviveko vasihena darita: msapclikys tu yantralole 'gapajare | snyvasthigranthiliny striya kim iva obhanam || [LYV 1.2.90; YU p. 314315]

2.10 6) janito: P2 B3 PGh Adyar sulabho | 9) -paranihau -paranihavidymadau | 11) svaniha praty: PGh Adyar svaniha phalrthino: P1 P2 B2 B3 nSS phalnvito | roa: Adyar nSS kopa | samrayet | 13) svaviaya: PGh Adyar svaviaya paraniha | 16) nSS striy | 370

vidymadau: P2 B3 PGh paraviaya praty | 12) samuprayet: P2 B3 PGh striya: P2 B3 PGh Adyar

17. tvamsaraktabpbu pthak ktv vilocane | samlokaya ramya cet ki mh parimuhyasi || [LYV 1.2..91; YU p. 315] 18. merugataollsigagjalarayopam | d yasmin stane mukthrasyollsalit || [LYV 1.2.92; YU p. 315] 19. maneu diganteu sa eva lalanstana | vabhir svdyate kle laghupia ivndhasa || [LYV 1.2.93; YU p. 315] 20. keakajjaladhriyo duspar locanapriy | duktgniikh nryo dahanti tavan narn || [LYV 1.2.94; YU p. 315] 21. jvalatm atidre 'pi saras api nras | striyo hi narakgnnm indhana cru druam || [LYV 1.2.95; YU p. 315] 22. kmanmn kirtena vikr mugdhacetasm | nryo naravihagnm agabandhanavgur || [LYV 1.2.96; YU p. 316] 23. janmapalvalamatsyn cittakardamacrim | pus durvsan rajjur nr baiapiik || [LYV 1.2.97; YU p. 316] 24. sarve doaratnn susamudgikaynay | dukhakhaly nityam alam astu mama striy || [LYV 1.2.98; YU p. 316] 25. ito msam ito raktam ito 'sthnti vsarai | brahman katipayair eva yti str viarrutm || [LYV 1.2.99] 26. yasya str tasya bhogecch nistrkasya kva bhogabh | striya tyaktv jagat tyakta jagat tyaktv sukh bhavet || iti. [LYV 1.2.100; YU p. 316] 27. putraviveko brahmnande darita: alabhyamnas tanaya pitarau kleayec ciram | labdho 'pi garbhaptena prasavena ca bdhate || [PD 12.65; YU p. 316] 28. jtasya graharogdi kumrasya ca dhrtat | upante 'py avidyatvam anudvha ca paite || [PD 12.66; YU p. 316317] 29. yna ca paradrdir dridrya ca kuumbina | 2.10 17) ramya: Adyar ramye | parimuhyasi: P2 B3 PGh parimuhyate | 18) -hrasyollsalit: P2 B3 PGh -hrasyorasialita | 20) nara: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS narn | 23) rajjur: Adyar rajjau | 24) susamudgikay-: P2 PGh susamudrikay, B3 susamudhikay- | 25) viacrut: B3 PGh Adyar viarrutm | 26) nistrkasya: P1 P2 B2 nSS nistrkasya | 28) dhrtat: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS mrkhat | 28) upante 'py: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh Adyar upante tv | 29) dridrya ca: P1 B2 dridrya tu | 371

pitror dukhasya nsty anto dhan cen mriyate tad || [PD 12.67; YU p. 317] iti. 30. yath vidydhanakrodhayoitputraviay malinavsann vivekena pratkras tathnysm api yathyogam strai svayukty ca doa vivicya pratkra kuryt. kte ca pratkre jvanmuktilakaa parama pada labhyate. 31. tad ha vasiha: vsann parityge yadi yatna karoy alam | tatte ithilat ynti sarvdhivydhaya kat || [LYV 5.10.107ab108] 32. pauruea prayatnena balt satyajya vsan | sthiti badhnsi cet tarhi padam sdayasy alam || [LYV 5.10.101cd102ab] iti. 33. nanv atra paurua prayatno nma prvokto viayadoaviveka. sa ca puna puna kriyamo 'pi prabalendriyavyavahrebhibhyate. 34. tad ukta bhagavat: yatato hy api kaunteya puruasya vipacita | indriy pramthni haranti prasabha mana || [BhG 2.60] 35. indriy hi carat yanmano 'nuvidhyate | tadasya harati praj vyur nvam ivmbhasi || [BhG 2.67] iti. 36. eva tarhy utpanna vivekarakrtham indriyi niroddhavyni. 37. tad api tatraivottara lokbhy daritam: tni sarvi sayamya yukta st matpara | vae hi yasyendriyi tasya praj pratihit || [BhG 2.61] 38. tasmd yasya mahbho nighti sarvaa | indriyndriyrthebhyas tasya praj pratihat || [BhG 2.68] iti. 39. smty antare 'pi: na pipdacapalo na netracapalo yati | na ca vkcapala caivam iti iasya lakaam || [MhB 14.45.18; YU p. 317; VDh 6.42] iti. 2.10 30) api yathyogam: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh Adyar api vsann yathyogam | 31) yadi: P1 B2 yad | 32) badhnsi: PGh Adyar vadhnsi | 33) -vyavahre-: P1 B2 nSS -vypre- | 34) bhagavat: P2 B3 PGh bhagavat 'pi | 372

40. etad evnyatra sagraha vivarabhy spaktam: ajihva aaka pagurandho badhira eva ca | mugdha ca mucyate bhiku abhir etair na saaya || [NpU p. 146147] 41. idam iam ida neti yo 'nann api na sajjate | hita satya mita vakti tam ajihva pracakate || [NpU p. 147] 42. adya jt yath nr tath oaavarakm | atavar ca yo dv nirvikra sa aaka || [Ibid.] 43. bhikrthamaana yasya vimtrakaraya ca | yojann na para yti sarvath pagur eva sa || [Ibid.] 44. tiito vrajato vpi yasya cakur na dragam | caturyug bhuvam tyaktv parivr so 'ndha ucyate || [Ibid.] 45. hita mita manorma vaca okpaha ca yat | rutv yo na otva badhira sa prakrtita || [Ibid.] 46. sanidhye viay ca samartho 'vikalendriya | suptavad vartate nitya bhikur mugdha sa ucyate || [NpU p. 147] 47. na nind na stuti kuryan na kacin marmai spet | ntivd bhavet tadvat sarvatraiva samo bhavet || 48. na sabhet striya kcit prvad ca na smaret | kath ca varjayet tasy na payel likhitm api || [NpU p. 156] iti. 49. yath kacid vrat naktaikabhuktopavsamaundi vrata sakalpya svadhno bhraamaktv samyakplayati, tathaivjihvatvdi vrate sthita svadhno viveka playet. tad eva vivekendriya nirodhbhy drghaklanair antaryasatkrasevitbhy kyante. maitrydivsansu pratihatsv surasapadrp malinavsana

2.10 43) -aana: P2 B3 PGh -gamana | 45) manorma: P2 B3 PGh Adyar manoramya | okpaham: P1 P2 B2 B3 Adyar okvaham | 46) sanidhye: P2 Adyar sanidhau | 48) na sabhet: B1 na satoet | na ca smaret: P1 B2 Adyar ca na smaret, B1 na sasmaret | 49) maitrydivsansu: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS maitrydibhvansu | 373

2.11 [cinmtravsan] 1. tato nivsocchvsavan nimeonmeavac ca puruaprayatnam antarea

pravartamnbhir maitrydivsanbhir loke vyavaharann api tadya skalya vaikalynusadhna citte parityajya nidrmanorjydirp samastace prayatnena nt ktv cinmtravsanm abhyasyet. svatas tvad ida jagac cijjaobhaytmaka

bhsate. 2. yady api abdaspardi jaavastubhsanyaivendriyi sni parci khni vyatat svayabh, [KU 4.1] iti rute, tathpi caitanyasyopdnatay varjayitum aakyatvc caitanyaprakam eva jaa bhsate; 3. tam eva bhntamanu bhti sarva tasya bhs sarvam ida vibhti [KU 5.15] iti rute. 4. tath sati pacd bhsamnasya jaasya prathamato bhsamnam eva caitanya vstava rpamiti nicitya jaam upekya cinmtra citte vsayet. 5. etac ca baliukrayo pranottarbh vispaam avagamyate: kimihstha kimtram ida kimayam eva ca | kastva ko 'ha ka ete v lok iti vadu me || [LYV 5.3.50] 6. cidihstha cinmtram ida cinmayam eva ca | cittva cidaham ete ca lok ciditi sagraha || [LYV 5.3.51] iti. 7. yath suvarakma kaaka vikrann api valaykrasya guadov upekya gurutvavarayor eva mana praidhitsati, tath cinmtre mana praidhtavyam. yvat klena jaa sarvathaivopekya cinmtre manasa pravttir nivsdivat svbhvik sapadyate, tvanta kla cinmtravsany prayateta. 2.11 1) maitrydivsanbhir: P1 B2 maitrydibhir vsanbhi | nidrmano-: P1 B2 nidrtandrmano-, P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS nidrtandrmano- > (K Kh) B1 sh cor. nidrtandrimano- | 2) jaa bhsate: P2 B3 PGh jaa jagat bhsate | 4) prathamato bhsamnam eva caitanya: P2 B3 PGh prathamabhsamnacaitanyam eva | 7) suvarakma: nSS suvarakra | vikrann: Adyar krann | guadov: nSS guadon | 7) prayateta: P2 B3 PGh prayatet | 374

8. nanv dveva cinmtravsanstu tayaiva malinavsan nivtte. anenntargaun maitrydy abhyseneti cen,


9. na, cidvsany apratihatatva prasagt. yath kuimadrhya vyatirekea kriyamam api stambhakuytmaka gha na pratitihati, yath v virecanena prabaladoama nisrya sevitam apy auadha nrogyakara tadvat. 10. nanu "tm apy atha parityajet" [2.6.5; LYV 4.5.23] iti cinmtravsany api parityjyatvam avagamyate. cidupdeyasybhvt. 11. nya doa. dvividh cinmtravsan manobuddhisamanvit tadrahit ceti. karaa mana, karttvopdhir buddhi. tath ca saty apramatto 'hamekgrea tad ayuktam, cinmtram, parityajynyasya kasya

manas cinmtra bhvayiymty etdena kartkaranusadhnena samanvit prthamik y cinmtravsan dhynaabdbhidhey t parityajet. y tv

abhysapavena karttvdy anusadhnavyavadhnarahit samdhiabdbhidhey tm updadta. 12. dhynasamdhyos tu lakaa patajali straym sa: tatra pratyayaikatnat dhynam | [YS 3.2] 13. tadevrthamtranirbhsa svarpanyam iva samdhi | [YS 3.3] iti. 14. tde samdhau drghaklanair antaryasatkrai sevite sthairya labdhv pact kartkaranusadhna paritygrtho ya prayatnas tam api parityajet. 15. nanv eva sati tattygaprayatno 'pi parityjya ity anavasth syt. 16. maivam. katakarajonyyena svaparanivartakatvt. yath kaluite jale

prakipta katakaraja itararajas saha svtmnam api nivartayati tath tygrtha 2.11 8) nivtte: P2 B3 PGh nivtti | 10) paritygatvam avagamyate: P2 B3 PGh Adyar paritygo 'vagamyate, P1 B2 tyajyatvam avagamyate | tad ayuktam: P2 Adyar tad apy ayuktam | 11) prthamik: P2 pthamik | karttvdy anu-: P1 B2 karttvnu- | anudhnavyavadhna-: nSS anudhnvadhna- | 375

prayatna kartkaranusadhna nivartayan svtmnam api nivartayiyati. nivtte tasmin malinavsanvac chuddhavsannm api katvn nirvsana mano 'vatihate. 17. etadevbhipretya vasitha ha: tasmd vsanay baddha mukta nirvsana mana | rma nirvsanbhvam haru vivekata || [LYV 4.3.45] 18. samyaglocant satyd vsan pravilyate | vsanvilaye ceta amamyti dpavat || [LYV 4.3.46] iti. 19. yo jgarti suuptistho yasya jgran na vidyate | yasya nirvsano bodha sa jvanmukta ucyate || [LYV 3.1.92] iti ca. 20. suuptivat praamitabhvavttin sthita sad jgrati yena cetas | kalnvito vidhur iva ya sad budhair nievyate mukta itha sa smta || [LYV 5.2.36] iti ca. 21. hdayt samparityajya sarvam eva mahmati | yas tihati gatavyagra sa mukta paramevara || [LYV 4.5.26] 22. samdhim atha karmi m karotu karotu v | hdayenstasarvo mukta evottamaya || [LYV 4.5.27] 23. naikarmyea na tasyrthas tasytho 'sti na karmabhi | na samdhnajapybhy yasya nirvsana mana || [LYV 4.5.28] 24. vicritamala stra ciram udgrhita mitha | satyaktavsann maundte nsty uttama pada || [LYV 4.5.29] iti ca. 25. na ca nirvsanamanas kasya jvanhetur vyavahro lupyeteti akanyam. ki cakurdivyavahrasya lopa, ki va mnasavyavahrasya lopa? uddlako nircae: vsanhnam apy etac cakurdndriya svata | pravartate bahi svrthe vsan ntra kraam || [LYV 5.6.70; MukU 2.22] iti. 26. tatrdyam

2.11 16) tath ... nivartayiyati: B1 om. | nivartayiyati: P1 nivartayati > B2 sh cor. | nivtte tasmin: Adyar nSS nivtte ca tasmin | mano 'vatiate: P2 manovatihati | 18) amamyti dpavat: Adyar myaty asnehadpavat | 20) suuptivat: P2 B3 PGh Adyar suuptavat, P1 B2 suptavat | sthita: P1 B3 PGh Adyar nSS sthita | yena: Adyar yasya | sa smta: P2 B2 PGh samata | 21) mahmati: B2 PGh mahmate | 25) Adyar nSS om. 2nd lopa | 376

27. dvitya vasiho nircae: e ayatnopanatev aki digdravyeu yath puna | nrgam eva patiti tadvat kryeu dhradh || [LYV 4.2.13] iti. 28. tdy dhiy prrabdhabhoga sa evopapdayati: parijyopabhukto hi bhogo bhavati tuaye | vijya sevita coro maitrmeti na coratm || [LYV 4.2.14] 29. aakitpi saprpt grmaytr yathdhvagai | prekyate tadvad eva jair bhogasrr avalokyate || [LYV 4.2.15] iti. 30. tuye mokasukhya na tu bandhya bhogakle 'pi savsanebhyo nirvsann vieam ha: na pariglnim ynti hemapadma yath nii | nehante praktd anyad ramante iavartmani || [LYV 4.5.42] 31. nityam pratm antarakubdhm indusundarm | pady api na mucanti aina tatm iva || [LYV 4.5.43] 32. abdhivad dhtamaryd bhavanti vitatay | niyati na vimucanti mahnto bhskar iva || [LYV 4.5.45] iti. 33. janakasypi samdhivyutthitasyedam evcaraa pahyate: tum atha cira sthitv janako janajvitam | vyutthita cintaym sa manas amalin || [LYV 5.1.60] 34. kim updepyam astha yatnt sasdhaymi kim | svata sthitaviuddhasya cita k me 'sti kalpan || 35. nbhivchmy asaprpta saprpta na tyajmy aham | svastha tmani tihmi yanmamsti tadastu se || [LYV 5.1.61] 36. iti sacintya janako yath prptakriym asau | asakta kartum uttasthau dina dinapatir yath || [LYV 5.1.63] 2.11 28) tdy: PGh tdy 'pi | dhiy prrabdhabhoga: P2 B2 PGh dhiy astu bhoga, P1 B2 dhiy prrabdhopabhoga | 29) aakitpi sa-: B1 aakitopi sa- > sh cor., P1 B2 prasagatopi sa-, Adyar nSS aakitopasa- | tuye mokasukhya na tu bandhya: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS om. | 30) nirvsann: nSS nirvsanasya | 30) na pariglnim: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS npadi glnim | 32) vitatay: P2 niyatay, nSS vigatay | 33) manas: P1 B2 cittena | amalin: P2 premalin | 34) sthitaviuddhasya: P1 B2 Adyar nSS sthitasya uddhasya, P2 siddhaviuddhasya | 377

37. bhaviya nnusadhatte ntta cintayaty asau | vartamnanimea tu hasann evnuvartate || [LYV 5.1.64] iti. 38. tad eva yathoktena vsankayea yathokt jvanmuktir bhaviyatti susthitam. iti jvanmuktiviveke vsanakaya nirpaa.

2.11 38) bhaviyatti: P1 B2 bhavatti | susthitam: P2 B3 PGh sthitam | iti jvanmuktiviveke vsanakaya nirpaa: P1 B2 iti vsankayaprakaraa | 378

[atha tritya manonaprakaraa]

3.1 [manonasya avayakatvam] 1. atha jvanmuktisdhana manona nirpaya. yady apy aeavsankaye sati, arthn mano nayaty eva, tathpi svtantryea manone samyagabhyaste sati vsankayo rakito bhavati. na cjihvatvaaakatvdyabhysenaiva tadrak

siddheti vcyam, nae manasy ajihvatvdnm arthasiddhatvenbhysapraysbhvt. 2. nanu manonbhysapraysas tatrpy astti ced, 3. astu nma, tasyvayakatvt. antarea manonam abhyast apy ajihvatvdayo na sthir bhavanti. 4. ata eva manaso nanyatva janaka ha: sahasrkura khtmaphalapallavalina | asya sasravkasya mano mlam iti sthitam || [LYV 5.1.53] 5. sakalpam eva tanmanye sakalpopaame na tat | oaymi yath oameti sasrapdapa || [LYV 5.1.54] 6. prabuddho 'smi prabuddo'smi da coro maytmana | mano nma nihanmy ena manassmi cira hata || [LYV. 5.1.55] iti. 7. vasiho 'py ha: asya sasravkasya sarvopadravadyina | upya eka evsti manasa svasya nigraha || [LYV 4.4.1] 8. manaso 'bhyudayo no manono mahodaya | jamano nam abhyeti mano 'jasya hi khal || [LYV 4.4.5] 9. tvan nithavetl balganti hdi vsan | ekatattvadhbhysd yvan na vijita mana || [LYV 4.2.23] 10. prakacittadarpasya nightendriyadvia | padminya iva hemante kyante bhogavsan || [LYV 4.2.22] 3.1 1) aakatvdy: Adyar atvdy | -bhysapraysbhvt: Adyar om - prays- | 3) -vayakatvt: Adyar -vayikatvt | 4) khtma: P2 B3 PGh khgra | 6) mano nma nihanmy: Adyar manonmeha hanmy | 9) balganti: P1 B3 PGh balti | 379

11. hasta hastena sapya dantair dantn vicrya ca | agny agai samkramya jayed dau svaka mana || [LYV 4.2.18] 12. etvati dharaitale subhagste sdhucetasa puru | puruakathsu ca gay na jit ye cetas svena || [LYV 4.2.19] 13. hdayabile ktakuala ulbaakalanvio manobhujaga | yasyopantim agamac candravad udita tam avyaya vande || [LYV 4.2.20] 14. citta nbhi kilsyeha mycakrasya sarvata | sthyate cet tadkramya tan na kicit prabdhate || [LYV 5.5.92] iti. 15. gauapdcryair apy uktam: manaso nigrahyat tam abhaya sarvayoginm | dukhakaya prabodha cpy akay ntir eva ca || [GK 3.40] iti. 16. yat tv arjunenoktam: cacala hi mana ka pramthi balavad dham | tasyha nigraha manye vyor iva sudukaram || [BhG 6.34] iti. tad vacana hahayogaviaya. 17. ata eva vasiha ha: upaviyopaviyaikacittakena muhur muhu | na akyate mano jetu vin yuktim aninditm || [LYV 5.10.126] 18. akuena vin matto yath duam atagaja | [LYV 5.10.127ab] vijetu akyate naiva tath yukty vin mana || [cf. LYV 5.10.126cd] 3.2 [manovilayaheto yuktaya] 1. manovilayahetn yuktn samyag raam | vasihena ktam tvat tan nihasya vae mana || 2. hahato yuktita cpi dvividho nigraho mata | nigraho dhvikriy haho golakanigraht || 3. kadcij jyate kacin manas tena vilyate | 3.1 12) -cetan: P2 B3 PGh Adyar -cetasa | 13) -bhujaga: Adyar nSS manobhujaga | agamac candravad udita : P2 B3 PGh agata udita > P2 sh cor. | 14) kilsyeha: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS kilsyeda | kicit: P1 B2 kacit | 15) nigrahyat: PGh nigrahyt | 16) yat tv : B3 PGh yat ca, nSS om. | 17) vasiha ha: Adyar vlmkir ha | -viyaika cittakena: P2 B3 PGh -viyaiva kvacitkena | 3.2 2) dhvikriy: Adyar nSS (Kh) dhkriyk > B1 sh cor. | 380

adhytmavidydhigama sdhusagama eva ca || [LYV 5.10.128ab] 4. vsansaparityg praspandanirodhanam | [LYV 5.10.128cd] ets tu yuktaya pu santi cittajaye kila || [LYV 5.10.129ab] 5. satu yuktiv etsu hahn niyamayanti ye | cetas te dpam utsjya vinighnanti tamo 'janai || [LYV 5.10.130] 6. vimh kartum udyukt ye hahc cetaso jayam | te nibadhnanti ngendram unmatta bisatantubhi || [LYV 5.10.131] 7. nigraho dvividha hahanigraha kramanigraha ceti. tatra cakurotrdijnendriyi vkpydikarmendriyi ca, tat tadgolakoparodhamtrea hahn nighyante, taddntena mano 'pi tath nigrahymti mhasya brntir bhavati. na tu tan nigrahyate tadgolakasya hdayakamalasya niroddhum aakyatvt. kramanigraha eva yogya. 8. kramanigrahe cdhytmavidyprptydaya evopy. s ca vidy ata

dyamithytva dgvastuna svaprakatva ca bodhayati. tath ca saty etan mana svagocareu dyeu prayojanbhva prayojanavati dgvastuny agocaratva ca buddhv nirindhangnivat svayam evopamyati. 9. tath ca ryate: yath nirindhano vahni svayonv upamyati | tath vttikayc citta svayonv upamyati || [MtrU 4.4] iti. 10. yas tu bodhitam api tattva na samyag budhyate, ya ca vismarati, tayor ubhayo sdhusagama evopya. sdhavo hi puna punar bodhayanti smrayanti ca. yas tu vidymaddidurvsanay pyamno na sdhn anuvartitum utsahate, tasya prvokta vivekena vsanparityga upya.

3.2 4) ets t: Adyar ets tu | bisatantubhi: Adyar nSS bisatantubhi. iti | 7) nighymti: P1 B2 Adyar nSS nigrahymti | nigrahyate: P2 B2 tath nighyate, P2 B3 PGh nightu akyate, Adyar nigrahtu akyate | ata: P1 B2 tata | eva yogya: P1 B2 evtra yogya | 8) upy: Adyar evopy | After 9, P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS add yonir tm | 10) na samyag budhyate: P1 B2 samyak na budhyate | 381

11. vsann prbalyena tyaktum aakyatve praspandanirodhanam upya. praspandavsanayo cittapretakatvttayor nirodhe cittantir upapadyate. preraktva ca vasiha ha: dve bje cittavkasya vttivratatidhria | eka praparispando dvitya dhavsan || [LYV 5.10.38] 13. sat sarvagat savit praspandena bodhyate | savedand anantni tato dukhni cetasa || [LYV 5.10.40] iti. 14. yath bhasmacchannam agni lohakr dtibhy dhamanti, tatra ca dtyutpannena vyun so 'gnir jvalati, tath cittopdnena khasthnyenjnenvt savit praspandena bodhyamn cittavttirpea prajvalati. tasmc cittivttinmakt savedand dukhny utpadyante. seya praspandena prerit cittotpatti. 15. any ca sa evha: bhvasavitprakaitm anubht ca rghava | cittasyotpattim apar vsanjanit u || [LYV 5.10.47] 16. dhbhyastapadrthaikabhvand aticacalam | citta sajyate janma jarmaraakraam || [LYV. 5.10.53] iti. 17. na kevala pravsanayo cittaprerakatvam, ki tu parasparaprerakatvam apy asti. tad ha vasiha: vsanvaata praspandas tena ca vsan | jyate cittavkasya tena bjkurakrama || [LYV 5.10.65] iti. 18. ata evnyataranenobhayanam apy ha: dve bje cittavkasya praspandanavsane | ekasmi ca tayo ke kipra dve api nayata || [LYV 5.10.64] iti. 12.

3.2 11) prbalyena: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh nSS atiprbalyena | 13) tato: P1 B2 tath > B2 sh cor. | iti: P1 B2 om. | 14) dtyutpannavyun: Adyar dtyutpannena vyun | -nmakt: P1 B2 nmikt | -kt sa-: P1 B2Adyar nSS -kt savijjvlrpt sa- | 16) iti: P1 B2 om. | 17) jyate cittavkasya: P1 B2 nSS kriyate cittabjasya | 18) cittavkasya: P1 B2 bje rma cittasya | ekasmi ca tayo: PGh ekasmicit tayo | 382

19. tayor nopya naphala cha: prymadhbhysair yukty ca gurudattay | sananayogena praspando nirudhyate || [LYV 5.10.122] 20. asagavyavahritvd bhavabhvanavarjant | arranadaritvd vsan na pravartate || [LYV 5.10.123] 21. vsansaparitygc citta gacchaty acittatm | praspandanirodhc ca yathecchasi tath kuru || [LYV 5.10.121] 22. etvanmtraka manye rpa cittasya rghava | yad bhvana vastuno'ntar vastutvena rasena ca || [LYV 5.10.57] 23. yad na bhvyate kicid dheyopdeyarpi yat | sthyate sakala tyaktv tad citta na jyate || [LYV 5.10.54] 24. avsanatvt satata yad na manute mana | amanast tadodeti paramopaamaprad || [LYV 5.10.55] iti. 25. amanastnudaye ntyabhvam ha: cittayakadhkrnta na mitri na bndhav | aknuvanti paritrtu guravo na ca mnav || [LYV 6.2.18] iti. 3.3 [sananayog] 1. sananayoge neti [3.2.19] yadukta tatrsanasya lakaam upya phala ca tribhi strai patajali straym sa: sthirasukham sanam | [YS 2.46] 2. prayatnaaithilynantasampattibhym | [YS 2.47] 3. tato dvandvn abhighta | [YS 2.48] iti. 4. padmakasvastikdin ydena dehasthpanarpea yasya puruasy-

vayavavyathnutpattilakaa sukha svadehacalanarhityalakaa sthairya ca 3.2 20) asagavyava-: PGh satsagavyava- | 23) mnav. iti : P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh mnavam. iti | 3.3 3) dvandvn abhigata: P2 B3 PGh dvandvair nbhigata > P2 sh cor. | 4) dehasthpanarpea: P1 B2 dehasthpanena, PGh dehasthpenarpea | dehacalana-: P2 Adyar svadehacalana- | 383

sapadyate, tasya tad eva mukhyam sanam. tasya ca prayatnaaithilaya laukika upya. alaukika ca gamanaghaktyatrthaytrsnnayagahomdiviayo ya prayatno mnasa utshas tasya aithilya kartavya. anyath sa utsho bald deham utthpya yatra kvpi prerayati. 5. "phasahasrea dhara dhrayitv sthairyevatihito yo 'yam ananta sa evham asmi" iti dhyna cittasynantasampatti. tay yathoktsanasapdakam ada nipadyate. siddhe csane toasukhadukhamnpamndidvandvair

yathprva nbhihanyate. 6. tathvidhasya csanasya yogyo dea ruyate: viviktadee ca sukhsanastha uci samagrvairaarra || [KaiU 4] iti, 7. same ucau arkaravahnivlukvivarjite abdajalaydibhi | manonukle na tu cakupane guhnivtrayae prayojayet || [vU 2.10] so 'yam sanayoga. 8. aanayogas tu mithratvam atyhram anhra nitya yog vivarjayet | [AmbU 27] iti rute. 9. bhagavatpy uktam: ntyanatas tu yogo'sti na caikntam ananata | na ctisvapnalasya jgrato naiva crjuna || [BhG 6.16] 10. yukthravihrasya yuktaceasya karmasu | yuktasvapnvabodhasya yogo bhavati dukhah || [BhG 6.17] iti. 11. jitsanasya prymena manona vetvatatair mnyate:

3.3 4) mukhyam sanam: P2 Adyar sukham sanam | alaukika ca: Adyar nSS om | -yaga: Adyar om. | -viayo ya prayatno: P2 B3 viaye ya prayatno, PGh -viayebhyo ya prayatno, P1 viayebhya prayatno | 5) pha-: Adyar nSS alaukikopya ca pha- | -vasthito: Adyar nSS vatihate | -nanta sam-: P2 B3 PGh nSS -nante sam- | -mnpamndi: P1 B2 -mnvammdi | -prva nbhi-: P2 B3 PGh prvavan nbhi- | nbhihanyate: B1 nbhimanyate > sh cor. | 7) arkara: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh arkar | vahniv-: P2 B3 PGh valmkav | -vivarjite abda-: P2 -vivarjite dee abda- | prayojayet: P1 B2 prayojayet. iti | 11) manona: P1 B2 Adyar nSS manovina | 384

trir unnata sthpya sama arra hdndriyi manas saniveya | brahmoupena pratareta vidvn srotsi sarvi bhayvahni || [vU 2.8] 12. prn prapyeha sa yuktacea ke pre nsikayocchvasta | duvayuktam iva vham ena vidvn mano dhrayetpramatta || [vU 2.9] iti. 3.4 [prymayoga] 1. yog dvividha, vidymaddysurasapadrahitas tatsahita ceti. tayor dyasya brahmadhynena manasi niruddhe sati, tannntaryakatay pro nirudhyate. ta prati "trir unnatam" [3.3.11; vU 2.8] iti mantra pahita. dvityasybhysena pre niruddhe, tannntaryakatay mano nirudhyate. ta prati "prn prapya" [3.3.12; vU 2.9] iti mantra pravtta. prapanaprakro vakyate. tena ca panena

"yuktaceo" [3.3.12; vU 2.9] bhavati. manace vidymaddayo nirudhyante. 2. pranirodhena cittadoanirodhe dnto 'nyatra ruyate: yath parvatadhtn dahyante dhamann mal | tathendriyakt do dahyante pranigraht || [AmnU 7] iti. 3. atropapattir vasihena darit: ya prapavanaspanda cittaspanda sa eva hi | praspandakaye yatna kartavyo dhmatoccakai || [LYV 5.10.125] iti. 4. manovkcakurdndriyadevat svasvavypra nirantara kariyma iti vrata dhtv ramarpea mtyun grast. sa ca mtyu pra npnot. tato nirantaram ucchvsanivsau kurvann apy pro na rmyati. tad vicrya devat prarpa prvian. 5. so 'yam artho vjasaneyibhir mnyate: 3.3 13) saniveya: PGh sannivea | brahmoupena: B3 PGh brahmoapena | pratareta vidvn: B3 PGh pratared vidvn, P2 prataredd hi vidvn | 12) prapyeha: B3 PGh sapyeha | nsikayocchvasta: P2 B3 PGh nsikayo vasta | vhamena: P2 B3 PGh vhanamena | 3.4 1) surasapad: B3 PGh sursapad > nSS sur(ra)sapad | niruddhe, tan nntarya: P1 B2 om. tan > B2 sh cor. | tena ca: P1 B2 om. ca | 2) dhamann mal: P2 dhamatmal > sh cor. dhamitmal, PGh dhamat mal | 4) npnot: P1 P2 B3 PGh npnoti | apy pro: P1 B2 P2 B3 PGh Adyar apy aya pro | tad vicrya: PGh tad avicrya | 385

aya vai na reho ya sacara csacara ca na vyathate atho na riyati. hantsyaiva sarve rpam asmeti. ta etasyaiva sarve rpam abhavas tasmd eta etenkhyyante pr iti. [BU 1.5.21] ata indriy prarpatva nma prdhnacevattvam. 6. tac cntarymibrhmae strtmaprastve [BU 3.7] ryate: vyur vai gautama tatstra vyun vai gautama streya ca loka para ca loka sarvi ca bhtni sadbdhni bhavanti. tasmd vai gautama purua pretam hur vyasrasi atsygnti. vyun hi gautama strea sadbdhni bhavantti. [BU 3.7.2] ata pramanaspandayo sahabhvitvt pranigrahe mano nighyate. 7. nanu sahaspando na yukta, suuptau ceamne 'pi pre manaso 'ceamnatvt. 8. na, vilnatvena tadn manasa evbhvt. 9. nanu ke pre nsikayo svasteti vyhatam. na hi kaprasya mtasya vsa kvacit payma. npi vasato jvata prakayo 'sti. 10. maivam, anulbaatvasya kayatventra vivakitvt. yath khanana-

cchedandiu vypriyamasya parvatamrohata ghra dhvato v vsavego yvn bhavati, na tvn avasthitasysnasya nidritasya v vidyate, tath prymapavopetasyetarasmd alpa vso bhavati. 11. etad evbhipretya ruyate: bhtv tatryatapra anair eva samucchvaset | [YU 6.7cd; KU 5] iti.

3.4 5) atho na riyati: B3 PGh atho na ma riyati | asmeti. ta etasyaiva: P1 B2 asmeti tasyaiva, B3 PGh bhavmeti. ta etasyaiva, Adyar nSS asmeti. etasyaiva | -cevattvam: B3 -cevatve | 6) tac cntary-: P2 B3 PGh tathtary- | pramanaspandayo: P1 B2 nSS pramanaspandanayo | 8) manasa evbhvt: P2 Adyar manasa sattvbhvt | 9) nsikayo svasteti: P1 B2 Adyar nsikayocchavasteti | 10) yath: Adyar tath | tvn avasthitasy-: P1 B2 Adyar tvn sthitasy-, nSS tvs tv avasthitasy- | -sinasya nidritasya v vidyate: P2 B3 PGh -sinasya v vso vidyate, P1 B2 nSS -snasya va vidyate > B2 sh cor. | -opetasyetarasmd alpa: nSS -opetasya tasylpa | 386

12. yath duair avair upeto ratho mrga tyaktv yatra kvpi nyate sa ca srathin dham ava rajjuv kya sukhamrge punar dhryate tathendriyair vsandibhir itas tato nyamna citta prarajjau dham dhrity dhryate. 13. "prn prapya" iti yad ukta tatra prapanaprakro 'nyatra ryate: savyhti saprav gyatr iras saha | tri pahed yatapra pryma sa ucyate || [AmnU 11] 14. pryms traya prokt recaprakakumbhak | utkipya vyum ka nyam ktv nirtmakam || [AmnU 12] 15. nyabhvena yujta recakasyeti lakaam | vaktreotpalanlena toyam karayen nara || [AmnU 13] 16. eva vyur ghtavya prakasyeti lakaam | nocchavasen na ca nivasen naiva gtri clayet || eva tvan niyujta kumbhakasyeti lakaam || [AmnU14] iti. atra arrntargata vyu bahir nisrayitum utkipya rram ka nya nirtmaka vyur ahita ktv svalpam api vyum apraveya nyabhvenaiva niyamayet. tad ida recaka bhavati. 17. kumbhako dvividha, ntaro bhya ca. tad ubhaya ca vasiha ha: pne 'sta gate pro yvan nbhyudito hdi | tvat s kumbhakvasth yogibhir ynubhyate || [LYV 6.1.211] 18. bahir asta gate pre yvan npna udgata | tvat prasamvasth bahiha kumbhaka vidu || [LYV 6.1.216] iti.

3.4 12) kya sukhamrge punardhryate: P2 B3 PGh k sukhamrgeu nirddhryate, P1 B2 kya sukhamrgeu nidhryate, nSS kya mrgeu punardhryate | vsandibhir itas: P1 B2 vsanbhi cetas | dhrity: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh Adyar dhty | 13) yadukta: P2 B3 PGh yukta, P2 sh cor. | tatra prapanapra-: P2 B3 PGh tatra prapane pra-, B1 tatra panapra- (om. pra-) | 14) recapraka-: B1 B3 PGh recakapraka- | 15) yujta : nSS yujyd | karayen-: P1 B2 karyan | 16) ghtavya: Adyar nSS grahtavya | nocchavasen na ca nivasen naiva: Adyar nocchvasen nivasen naiva naiva, P2 PGh nochvasen naiva nivven naiva | eva tvan: P1 B2 eva bhva | bahirnisrayitum utkipaya: P2 B3 PGh bahirnisaryotkipya | tad ida recaka: Adyar so 'ya recako | After 16, B1 adds in margin bhavati | prathama recakavyutyadina bahikubakopayogitayyata | 17) bhya ca: Adyar nSS bhya ceti | gate: P1 B2 gata | 387

19. tatrocchvsa ntarakumbhakavirodh. nivso bhyakumbhakavirodh. gtraclanam ubhayavirodhi, tasmin sati nivsocchvsayor anyatarasyvayabhvitvt. 20. patajalir apy sannantarabhvina pryma straym sa: tasmin sati nivsapravsayor gativicchedah pryma | [YS 2.49] 21. nanu kumbhke gatyabhve 'pi recakaprakayor ucchvsanivsagat vidyete iti cet, 22. na adhikamtrbhysena svabhvamtrasiddhy samapragater vicchedt. 23. tam evbhysa strayati: bahybhyantara stambhavttir deaklasakhybhi parido drgha skma | [YS 2.50] iti. 24. recako bhyavtti. praka antaravtti. kumbhaka stambhavtti. tatraikaiko dedibhi parkaya. tadyath svabhvasiddhe recake hdayn nirgatya

nsgrasamukhe dvdagulaparyante vsa sampyate; abhysena tu kramea nbher dhrd v vyur nirgacchati; caturviatyagulaparyante atriadagulaparyante v sampti. atra recake prayatntiaye sati nbhydipradeakobhentanicetu akyam; bahi ca skma tla dhtv tac clanena nicetavya. seya deapark. 25. recakakle praavasyvttayo daa viatis triaditydiklapark. asmin mse pratidina daa recak gmimse viati, uttaramse

triaditydiklapark. atha sakhypark yathoktadeaklavii prym 3.4 19) tasmin sati: B1 om. sati | 20) tasmin sati ni-: B1 adds in margin tasmin sati sane sati ni- | nivsapravsayor: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS nivsocchvsayor | pryma.: P1 B2 Adyar nSS pryma. iti. | 22) svabhvamtrasiddhy: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS om. -mtra- | 24) antaravtti: P1 B2 nSS bhyantaravtti | abhysena tu kramea: P1 B2 abhysennukramea > B2 sh cor. | atra recake: P1 B2 tatra recake | bahi ca: P1 B2 nSS bahi tu | nicetavya: P2 B3 PGh nicetavya | 25) daaviatis triaditydiklapark.: Adyar daaviatis triaditydibhi klapark. | 388

ekasmin dine daa viatis triad itydibhi. sakhypark prake 'py eva yojanyam. 26. yady api kumbhake deavyptivieo nvagamyate, tathpi

klasakhyvyptir avagamyate eva.

yath ghanbhtastlapia prasryamo

drgho viralatay skma ca bhavati, tath pro 'pi deaklasakhydhikyenbhyasyamno drgho durlakatay skma ca sapadyate. 27. recakdibhyas tribhyo 'nya prakra strayati: bhybhyantaraviaykep caturtha | [YS 2.51] iti. 28. yathakti sarva vyu virecynantara kriyamo bahikumbhaka yathakti vyum prynantara kriyamo' ntakumbhaka, iti recakaprakv andtya kevalakumbhako 'bhyasyamna prvatraypekay caturtho bhavati. nidrtandrdi prabaladoayuktn recakditrayam; doarahitn caturtha iti viveka. prymaphala strayati: tata kyate prakvaraam | [YS 2.52] iti. prakasya sattvasyvaraam tamo nidrlasydihetu, tasya kayo bhavati. phalntara strayati: dhrasu ca yogyat manasa | [YS 2.53] iti. 31. dhrabhicakrahdayabhrmadhyabrahmarandhrdideaviee cittasya sthpana dhra, 3.4 25) -itydiklapark. atha sakhypark yatho-: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh nSS Adyar triaditydhibhi sakhypark. yatho- |26) deavyptivieo: P2 B3 deavieo | 26) drgho viralatay: P2 B3 om., PGh viralatay drgha | skma ca: PGh skma eva | sapadyate: P2 PGh sabhavati, B3 bhavati | 27) bhybhyantaraviaykep: P2 B3 bhybhtara purvatraypek cathurtha iti > P2 sh cor. bhybhyataraviaykep, PGh bhybhyatara purvatraypekopi, P1 B2 -viaypekopi > P1 sh cor. -viaykep, B1 -viaypek | 28) kevalakumbhako: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh kevala, Adyar nSS kevala kumbhako | nidratandrdi: P1 B2 nSS nidratandrydi | 30) phalntara: P2 B3 Adyar add ksayo sati phalntara | 31) -viee citta-: P2 B3 PGh Adyar -viee vikya citta- | cittasya sth-: P2 B3 cittasth- | 389 30. 29.

deabandhascittasya dhra | [YS 3.1] iti strat. 32. ruti ca: mana sakalpaka dhytv sakipytmani buddhimn | dhrayitv tathtmna dhra parikrtit || [AmnU 15] iti. prymena rajoguakryc ccalyt tamoguakritd lasyde ca nivrita manas tasy dhray yogya bhavati. 33. prymadhbhysair yukty ca gurudattay | [LYV 5.10.122ab] ity atratyena yuktiabdena yogijanaprasiddham irorpameruclanam, jihvgrea ghaikbhramaam, nbhicakre hdaye jyotir dhynam, vismtipradauadhasev cety evamdika ghyate. 3.5 [samdhir agayoga ca] 1. tad evam adhytma vidysdhu sagama vsankaya pranirodh cittanopy darit. atha tadupyabhta samdhi vakyma. pacabhmy upetasya cittasya bhmitraya tygenvaia bhmidvaya samdhi. 2. bhmaya ca

yogabhyakt darit: kipta ma vikiptam ekgra niruddham iti cittabhmaya | [YSBh 1.1] iti 3. surasapal lokastradehavsansu vartamna cittam kipta, nidrtandrdigrasta mha, kdcitkadhynayukta kiptd viiatay vikiptam. tatra kiptamayo samdhiakaiva nsti. vikipte tu cetasi vikepopasarjanbhta

samdhir yogapake na vartate. vikepntargatatay dahanntargatabjavat sa sadya 3.4 31) deabandhacittasya dhraa: P1 B2 deabandhacittadhraa > B2 sh cor. | 32) tamoguakritd: P1 P2 B2 B3 Adyar tamogukryd, PGh tamogukrimd | 33) ghaikbhramaam: P1 B2 nSS ghaikkramaa | nbhicakre hdaye jyotir: P1 B2 Adyar nbhicakre hdaye ca jyotir, P2 B3 PGh nbhicakrahdaye, nSS om. hdaye | 3.5 1) cittanopy darit: PGh cittane darit | 2) iti cittabhmaya: Adyar iti paca cittasya bhmaya | 390

eva vinayati. yas tv ekgre cetasi sabhtam artha dyotayati, kioti ca klen, karmabandhanni lathayati nirodham abhimukhkaroti sa saprajtayoga ity khyayate. sarvavttinirodhe tv asaprajtasamdhi. 4. tatra saprajtasamdhibhmim ekgrat strayati: ntoditau tulyapratyayau cittasyaikgratparima | [YS 3.12] iti. 5. nto 'tta. udito vartamna. pratyaya cittavtti. atta pratyayo ya padrtha ghti tam eva ced udito ghyt tad tv ubhau tulyau bhavata. tda cittasya parima ekgratety ucyate. 6. ekgratbhivddhilakaa samdhi strayati: sarvrthataikgratayo kayodayau cittasya samdhiparima | [YS 3.11] iti. 7. rajoguena clyamna citta kramea sarvn padrthn ghti. tasya

rajoguasya nirodhya kriyamena yogiprayatnavieea dine dine sarvrthat kyate, ekgrat codeti. tda cittasya parima samdhir ity ucyate. 8. tasya samdher ageu yamaniyamsanaprymapratyhr paca bahiragni. tatra yamn strayati: ahissatysteyabrahmacaryparigrah yam | [YS 2.30] iti. hisdibhyo niiddhadharmebhyo yogina yamayantti yam. 9. niyamn strayati: aucasatoatapasvdhyevarapraidhnni niyam | [YS 2.32] iti.

3.5 3) sabhtam: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh sadbhtam | pradyotayati: PGh Adyar nSS dyotayati | karmabandhanni lathayati nirodham: P1 B2 -karmabandhandn lathayati nirodham, B1 karmabandha cittanirodha > sh cor. -bandhanni lathayati cittanirodha | 7) nirodhya: P1 B2 nirodht | yogiprayatna-: P1 B2 Adyar nSS yogina prayatna-, P2 B3 PGh yogin prayatna- > P2 sh cor. yogina prayatna- | tda cittasya: P2 B3 PGh tdacittasya | 8) ageu: Adyar aasv ageu | 8) niiddhadharmebhyo: P1 B2 niiddhakarmabhyo | yamayantti yam: P1 P2 B1 B2 om iti, B3 yamayati nivartayati yam |


janmaheto kmyadharmn nivartya mokahetau nikmadharme niyamayanti prerayantti niyam. 10. yamaniyamayor anuhnavailakaya smaryate: yamn kurvta satata na kuryn niyamn budha | yamn pataty akurvno niyamn kevaln bhajan || [MDh 4.204] 11. patati niyamavn yamev asakto na tu yamavn niyamlaso 'vasdet | iti yamaniyamau samkya buddhy yamabahulev anusadadhta buddhim || iti. 12. yamaniyamaphalni strayati: tatsanidhau vairatyga | [YS 2.35] 13. kriyphalrayatvam | [YS 2.36] 14. ratnopasthnam | [YS 2.37] 15. vryalbha | [YS 2.38] 16. janmakathatsabodha | [YS 2.39] 17. auct svgajugups parair asasarga | [YS 2.40] 18. sattvauddhisaumanasyaikgryendriyajaytmadaranayogyatvni | [YS 2.41] bhavanti. 19. satod anuttama sukhalbh | [YS 2.42] 20. kyendriyabuddhiuddhippakayas tapasa | [YS 2.43] 21. svdhyyd iadevatsaprayoga | [YS 2.44] 22. samdhisiddhir varapraidhnt | [YS 2.45] iti. 23. sanaprymau vykhytau. pratyhra strayati: 3.5 11) -bahulev anu-: P2 bahule hy anu- | 14) ratnopasthnam: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS sarvaratnopasthnam | After 16 Adyar nSS add janandibhaybhva > P1 B2 om. > sh adds in both | 18) bhavanti: P2 bhavanti ca, P1 B2 ca bhavanti, Adyar nSS ca sabhavanti | 20) -uddhippakayas: P2 B3 -uddhippakayt, P2 sh cor. -uddhir uddhikayt, PGh -uddhi ppakayas B1 om. > sh cor. -uddhir auddhikayas, Adyar nSS -uddhir auddhikayt | 392

svaviaysaprayoge cittasvarpnukra ivendriy pratyhra | [YS 2.54] iti. abdaspararparasagandhdiviays tebyo nivartit rotrdaya cittasvarpam anukurvanta ivvatihante. 24. rutis ca bhavati: abddiviay paca mana caivticacalam | cintayed tmano ramn pratyhra sa ucyate || [AmnU 5] iti. abddayo viay ye rotrdn te rotrdaya paca; manaanm etem antmarpebhya abddibhyo nivartanam tmaramitvena cintanam; pratyhra sa ityartha. 25. pratyhraphala strayati: tata param vayatendriym | [YS 2.55] iti. 26. dhradhynasamdhn strais tribhi strayati: deabandha cittasya dhra | [YS 3.1] 27. tatra pratyayaikatnat dhynam | [YS 3.2] 28. tad evrthamtranirbhsa svarpanyam iva samdhi | [YS 3.3] iti. 29. dhrdide prvamukt. dentara ryate: mana sakalpaka dhytv sakipytmani buddhimn | dhrayitv tathtmna dhra parikrtit || [AmnU 15] iti. 30. yat sarvavastusakalpaka mana, tad tmnam eva sakalpayatu na tv anyat ity evavidha prayatna tmani sakepa. pratyayasyaikatnat ekatraviaya

pravha. sa ca dvividha vicchidya vicchidya jyamna, satata ceti. tv ubhau kramea dhynasamdh bhavata. daritam: cittaikgryd yato jnam ukta samupajyate | 3.5 23) svaviay-: P2 B3 svasvaviay- | cittasvarp-: P2 B3 PGh cittasya svarp- | 24) viay: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS viayn | em: P1 P2 B2 B3 Adyar nSS etem | nivartanam tma: P2 B3 nivartamnam tma-, PGh nivartamntma- | 28) samdhi iti: P2 B3 PGh om. iti | 30) ekatraviaya: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS tattvaikaaya, P1 B2 -aikatnat dhyna. tattvaikaviaya | 393 31. tad ubhaya sarvnubhavayogin

tatsdhanam ato dhyna yathvad upadiyate || [MukU 2.49] 32. vilpya vikti ktsn sabhavavyatyayakramt | pariia ca sanmtra cidnanda vicintayet || [MukU 2.50] iti. 33. brahmkramanovttipravho 'hakti vin | saprajtasamdhi syt dhynbhysaprakaraja || [MukU 2.53] iti ca. 34. ta ca bhagavatpd udjahru: divarpa gaganopama param sakdvibhta tv ajam ekam akaram | alepa sarvagata yad advaya tad eva cha satata vimukta au || [US 10.1] 35. dis tu uddho 'hamavikriytmako na me 'sti kacid viaya svabhvata | puras tira cordhvam adha ca sarvata saprabhm tv aja tmani sthita || [US 10.2] 36. ajo 'mara caiva tathjaro'mta svaya prabha sarvagato'ham advaya | na kraa kryam atva nirmala sadaiva tpta ca tato vumukta aum || [US 10.3] iti. 37. nanu saprajtasamdhir ag. sa katha dhynnantarabhvino 'amgasya samdhe sthne udhriyate? 38. nya doa, atyantabhedbhvt. yath vedam adhyno mavaka pade pade skhalan puna puna samdadhti, adhtavedas svadhno skhalati, adhypako niravadhnas tandr kurvann api na skhalati; tath viayaikye 'pi

paripkatratamyena dhynasamdhisaprajtnm avntarabhedo 'vagantavya. 39. dhraditraya manoviayatvt saprajte 'ntaragam. yamdipacaka tu bahiragam. 40. tad etat strayati: trayam antaraga prvebhya | [YS 3.7] iti. 3.5 33) -prakarata: P2 B3 Adyar -prakaraja | iti: Adyar iti ca | 34) vimukta: P2 vimukta, B1 vimukto | 37) sthne: Adyar nSS sthna | 38) adhtavedas: Adyar adhtavedas tu | 39) dhraditraya: P2 B3 PGh dhynadhrannsamdhitraya | 39) saprajte 'ntaragam: P2 B3 PGh Adyar saprajtasamdher antaragam | 394

tata kenpi puyenntarage prathama labdhe bahiragalbhya ntipraysa kartavya. 41. yady api patajalin bhautikabhtatanmtrendriyhakrdiviay saprajtasavikalpasamdhayo bahudh prapacit, tathpi tem antardhndisiddhihetutay muktihetusamdhivirodhitvn nsmbhis tatrdara kriyate. 42. tath ca stritam: te samdhv upasarg vyutthne siddhaya | [YS 3.38] iti. 43. sthnyupanimantrae sagasmaykaraa punar aniaprasagt | [YS 3.51] iti ca. sthnino dev. uddlako devair mantrito 'py avajya tn devn nirvikalpasamdhim eva cakrety upkhyyate. 44. pranottarbhym apy evam evvagamyate: rrma: jvanmuktaarr katham tmavid vara | aktayo neha dyante kagamandik || [LYV 5.10.1] 45. vasiha: antmavid amukto 'pi nabhoviharadikam | dravyamantrakriyklayuktypnoty eva rghava || [LYV 5.10.2] 46. ntmajasyaia viaya tmajo hy tmamtradk | tmantmani satpto nvidym anudhvati || [LYV 5.10.3] 47. ye kecana jagadbhvs tn avidymayn vidu | katha teu kiltmajas tyaktvidyo nimajjati || [LYV 5.10.5] 48. dravyamantrakriyklaaktaya sdhusiddhid | paramtmapadaprptau nopakurvanti kcana || [LYV 5.10.7] 49. sarvecchjlasantv tmalbhodayo hi ya | 3.5 40) labdhe bahir-: P2 B3 labdhe sati bahir- | 41) -savikalpasamdhayo: P2 -nirvikalpasamdhayor, B3 -nirvikalpasamdhayo | 43) avajya devn: Adyar avajya tn devn | 44) eva: PGh om. | 45) -mukto 'pi: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh mukto hi | -klayuktypnoty: Adyar -klaaktypnoty | nabhoviharadikam: B3 PGh siddhijtni vchati | dravyamantrakriyklaaktypnoty eva rghava: P2 animdyaaaktn siddhijtvbhivchati | 49) sarvecchjla-: P1 B2 sarvecchalabha- | 395

sa katha siddhivchy magnacittena labhyate || [LYV 5.10.9] 50. na kecana jagadbhvs tattvaja rajayanty am | ngara nagarknta kugrmalalan iva || [LYV 4.5.34] iti, 51. api tarucvarke sutke cendumadale | apy adha prasaraty agnau jvanmukto na visay || [LYV 5.9.66] 52. cidtmana im ittha prasphurantha aktaya | ity asy caryajleu nbhyudeti kuthalam || [LYV 5.9.67] iti ca. 53. tmaviayas tu saprajtasamdhir vsankayasya nirodhasamdhe ca hetu. tasmd atrdara kta 3.6 [nirodhasamdhi] 1. atha pacamabhmirpo nirodhasamdhir nirpyate. 2. ta ca nirodha strayati: vyutthnanirodhasaskrayor abhibhavaprdurbhvau nirodhakaacittnvayo nirodhaparima | [YS 3.9] iti. vyutthnasaskr samdhivirodhina. 3. te coddlakasya samdhv udht: kadha tyaktamanane pade paramapvane | cira virntim eymi meruga ivmbuda || [LYV 5.6.29] 4. iti cintparavao bald uddlako dvija | puna punas tpaviya dhynbhysa cakra ha || [LYV 5.6.35] 5. viayair nyamne tu citte markaacacale | na sa lebhe samdhne pratih prtidyinm || [LYV 5.6.36] 6. kadcid bhyasasparaparitygd anantaram | tasygacchac cittakapir ntarasparasacayn || [LYV 5.6.37] 7. kadacid ntaraspard bhya viayayam dade | tasyoya mano yti kadcit trastapakivat || [LYV 5.6.38] 8. kadcid uditrkbha teja payati visttam | 3.5 49) labhyate: P2 B3 PGh labhyate iti | 50) PGh om. all > sh adds in margin | iti: P2 B3 om. | 51) cendumadale: P2 B3 PGh Adyar 'pndumaale | 52) im ittha: P2 rasdrasya > sh adds in margin | After 52, P2 Adyar nSS add yas tu v bhvittmpi siddhijlni vchati | sa siddhisdhakair dravyaistni sdhayati kramt || [LYV 5.10.6] > B1 sh adds in margin | 3.6 3) tyaktamanane: P2 B3 PGh muktamanane > P2 sh cor. | 4) punas tpaviya: P2 B3 PGh punar upaviya | 5) -cacale: PGh -cacale | 396

kadcit kevala vyoma kadcin nibia tama || [LYV 5.6.39] 9. gacchato yathkma pratibhsn puna puna | acchinan manas ra khageneva rae ripn || [LYV 5.6.109] 10. vikalpaughe samlne so 'payad dhdaymbare | tamachanna vivekrka lolakajjalamecakam || [LYV 5.6.110] 11. tam apy utsdaym sa samyagjnavivasvat | tamasy uparate svnte tejapuja dadara sa || tal lulva sthalbjn vana bla iva dvipa || [LYV 5.6.111] 12. tejasy uparate tasya ghramna mano mune | nibjavad agn nidr tmapy u lulva sa || [LYV 5.6.112] 13. nidrvyapagame tasya vyomasavitsamudhayau | vyomasavidi nay ma tasybhavan mana || moham apy ea manasas ta mamrja mahaya || [LYV 5.6.113] 14. tatas tejastamonidrmohdiparivarjitm | km apy avasthm sdya viarma mana kaam || [LYV 5.6.114] iti. 15. ta ete vyutthnasaskr nirodhahetun yogiprayatnena pratikaa cbhibhyante; tadvirodhina ca nirodhasaskr prdurbhavanti. tath sati nirodha ekaikasmin kae cittam anugacchati. bhavati. 16. nanu pratikaaparinino hi bhv te citiakte | iti nyyena cittasya sarvad parimapravho vaktavya. 17. bha. tatra vyutthitacittasya vttipravha sphua; 18. niruddhacittasya tu katham? 19. ityakyottara strayati: 3.6 9) acchinanmanas: P2 achidanmanas, B3 PGh achidatmanas | 10) samlne: P2 B3 PGh samlne | channa vivekrka: Adyar nSS channavivekrka | 11) tam apy: Adyar tad apy | 13) -savidi: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh -savidvi | 15) yogiprayatnena pratikaa: P1 B2 Adyar nSS yogiprayatnena pratidina pratikaa | sati nirodha: P2 B3 PGh sati nirodhe | 17) sphua: P2 sphua | 397 so 'yam da cittasya nirodhaparimo

tata prantavhit saskrt | [YS 3.10] iti. yath samidjyhutiprakepe vahnir uttarottaravddhy prajvalati, samiddikaye prathamakae kicic chmyati, uttarottarakae ntir vardhate. tath niruddhicittasyottarottardhika praama pravahati. evottarottarapraamasya kraam. vispaam udjahra: yad viniyata cittam tmany evvatihate | nispha sarvakmebhyo yukta ity ucyate tad || [BhG 6.18] 21. yath dpo nivtastho negate sopam smt | yogino yatacittasya yujato yogamtmana || [BhG 6.19] 22. yatroparamate citta niruddha yogasevay | yatra caivtmantmna payan ntmani tuyati || [BhG 6.20] 23. sukham tyantika yat tad buddhigrhyam atndriyam | vetti yatra na caivya sthita calati tattvata || [BhG 6.21] 24. ya labdhv cpara lbha manyate ndhika tata | yasmin sthito na dukhena gurupi viclyate || [BhG 6.22] 25. ta vidyd dukhasayogaviyoga yogasajitam | sa nicayena yoktavyo yogo 'nirviacetas || [BhG 6.23] iti. 26. nirodhasamdheh sdhana strayati: virmapratyaybhysaprvaka saskraeo 'nya | [YS 1.18] iti. virmo vttyuparama, tasya pratyaya krana vttyuparamartha puruaprayatna, tasybhysa paunapunyena sapdanam, tatprvakas tajjanya, anantarttastre saprajtasamdher uktatvt tadapekaynyo 'saprajtasamdhi. tatra tatra prvaprvapraamajanita saskra

20. tm et prantavhit bhagavn

3.6 19) pravahati: P1 B2 pravardhate > B2 sh cor. | prvaprvapraamajanita: P2 B3 PGh prvapraamajanita | evottarottarapramasya kraam: P1 B2 evottarottarapraamakraam | 26) -jtasamdhi: Adyar nSS -jta samdhi | 398

vttirahitasya durlakyatvt saskrarpea citta iyate. 27. virmapratyayajanyatva bhagavn vispaam ha: sakalpaprabhvn kms tyaktv sarvn aeata | manasaivendriyagrma viniyamya samantata || [BhG 6.24] 28. anai anair uparamed buddhy dhtightay | tmasastha mana ktv na kicid api cintayet || [BhG 6.25] 29. yato yato nicarati mana cacalam asthiram | tatas tato niyamyaitad tmany eva vaa nayet || [BhG 6.26] iti. 30. kmyamn srakcandanavanitputramitraghaketrdayo mokastra-

kualavivekijanaprasiddhair bahubhir doair upet apy andyavidyay tn don cchdya teu viayeu samyaktva kalpayati. tasmc ca sakalpd ida me syd ity evarp km prabhavanti. 31. tath ca smaryate: sakalpamla kmo vai yaj sakalpasabhav | [MDh 2.3ab] 32. kma jnmi te mla sakalpt kila jyase | na tv sakalpayiymi samlas tva vinakyasi || [MBh 12.171.25] iti. 33. tatra vivekena viayadoeu sktkteu un vnte pyasa iva kms tyajyante. srakcandanavanitdiviayev iva brahmalokdiv aimdyaaivaryeu ca kms tyjy ity abhipretya sarvn ity uktam. msopavsavratin tasmin mse 'nne tyakte 'pi kma puna punar udeti tadvan m bhd ity aeata ity uktam. kmatyage manaprvakapravttyabhve 'pi cakurdn rpdiu svabhvasiddh y pravtti spi prayatnayuktena manasaiva niyantavy. devatdarandiv apy anusaraya 3.6 26) -rahitasya: P2 B3 PGh -rahitacittasya, P1 B2 Adyar nSS -rahitasya cittasvarpasya | durlakyatvt: Adyar durlakatvt | iyate: P1 viiyate | ha: P1 B2 udjahra | 30) apy: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh om. > B2 sh adds in margin | andyavidyay: P1 B2 Adyar nSS andyavidyvat | viayeu: P1 B2 om. > B2 sh cor. | samyaktva kalpayanti: Adyar samyaktva mana kalpayati > B2 sh cor. | tasmc ca: P1 B2 yasmc ca > B2 sh cor. | 32) samlo vinaiyasi: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS samlas tva vinakyasi | 33) srakcandanavanitdiviayev: P1 B2 Adyar nSS srakcandandiv | aimdyaai: P2 B3 PGh aimadyai | mse 'nne tyakte 'pi: P1 B2 mse tyaktopy anna | rpdiu svabhva-: P2 B3 PGh rpdigrahaasvabhva-, Adyar rpdiu y svabhva- | -siddh y pravtti: Adyar nSS -siddh pravtti | anusaraavraya: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS ananusaraya | 399

samantata ity uktam. bhmikjayakrameoparamasya vivakitatvc chanai anair ity uktam. 3.7 [catasra bhmik. manasi vaniyama] 1. ts ca bhmik catasra kahavallu ryate: yacched v manas prjas tad yacchej jna tmani | jnam tmani mahati niyacchet tad yacchec chnta tmani || [KU 3.13] iti. 2. vgvypro dvividha laukiko vaidika ca. laukiko jalpdirpo vaidiko japdirpa ceti. tatra laukikasya bahuvikepakaratvd vyutthnakle 'pi yog ta parityajet. 3. ata eva smaryate: mauna yogsana yogas titikaikntalat | nisphatva samatva ca saptaitny ekadaina || [NpU pp. 159160] iti. 4. japdika tu nirodhasamdhau parityajet. seya vgbhmi pratham. t bhmi prayatnamtrea katipayair dinair msair vatsarair v dha vijitya pacd dvityy manobhmau prayateta. anyath bahubhmikprsdavat prathamabhmikptenaivoparitanayogabhmayo vinayeyu. yady api cakurdayo

niroddhavy tathpi te vgbhmau manobhmau vntarbhvo draavya. 5. nanu "vca manasi niyacched" [3.7.1, KU 3.13] ity anupapannam na hndriyasyendriyntare praveo 'sti.

3.6 33) -oparamasya viva-: P2 B3 PGh nSS -oparamaviva- | 3.7 1) kahavallu: P2 kahavaly | 2) laukiko jalpdirpo vaidiko japdirpaceti: P1 B2
B3 PGh om., P2 alaukiko jalpdirpa vaidiko japdirpa, Adyar nSS jalpdirpo laukika japdirpo vaidika | 3) yogas titikaiknta-: P2 PGh yoga sthitir ekta- > P2 sh cor., B3 yoga sthitir ekta- | 4) japdika tu nirodhasamdhau: P2 B3 PGh vaidika japdika da nirodhasamdau, P1 Adyar nSS om. tu | dinair msair: P1 B2 dinair v msair | bahubhmikprsdavat: B3 PGh bahubhmiprayst, P1 B2 bahubhmikprayst, nSS bahubhmik(k) prayast | 4) -bhmikptenaivo-: P2 Adyar nSS -bhmiptenaivo- | bhmayo vinayeyu: P2 Adyar -bhmaya sarv vinayayu | manobhmau: P2 om. |


6. maivam, praveasyvivakitatvt. nnvikepakrior vmanasayor madye prathamato vgvypraniyamanena manovypramtra pariea iha vivakita. 3.8 [jntmani manoniyama] 1. gomahivdnm iva vniyame svbhvike sapanne tato jntmani mano niyacchet. tm trividha, jntm mahtm nttm ceti. jnty atra sthita tmeti jttvopdhir ahakro 'tra jnaabdena vivakita, karaasya manaso

niyamyatvena pthagupttatvt. ahakaro dvividha viearpa smnyarpa ceti. ayam aham etasya putra ity eva vyaktim abhimanyamno viearpa. asmi ity etvanmtram abhimanyamna smnyarpa. sa ca sarvavyaktiu vyptatvt mahn ity ucyate. tbhym ahakrbhy dvbhym upahitau dvv tmnau. nirupdhika nttm. cidekarasa. 2. tasminn rita jaaaktirpam avyakta mlaprakti. s ca prathama smnyhakrarpea mahattattva nma dhtv vyaktbhavati. tato tad etat sarvam antarbahirbhvena vartate. nta tm sarvntara

bahirviehakrarpea tato bahirmanorpea tato bahirvgdndriyarpea. 3. tad etad abhipretyottarottaram ntaratva vivinakti ruti: indriyi pary hur indriyebhya para mana | manasas tu par buddhir buddher tm mahn para || [KU 3.10] 4. mahata paramavyaktam avyaktt purua para | [KU 3.11ab] iti.

3.8 1) mano niyacchet: P2 mana yachet | smnyarpa ceti: P1 B2 smnyarpa ca | vyaktim: P2 B3 PGh vaktum, P1 B2 Adyar nSS vyaktam | vyptatvt mahn: P2 vyptanmahn | ahakrbhya dvbhym: P1 B2 dvbhym ahakrbhy | 2) -ahakrarpea mahat: P2 B3 PGh -ahakrarpmahat | -tattva nma dhtv vyakt-: P1 B2 -tattva nma ca dhtv vyakt-, Adyar -tattvanmn vyakt- | 3) indriyi pary hur indriyebhya para mana: P1 B2 Adyar nSS indriyebhya par hy arth arthebhya ca para mana | After 4, P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS add purun na para kicit s kh s par gati. [KU 3.11cd] | 401

5. eva saty atra nnvidhasakalpavikalpasdhana karaarpa mano 'hakartari niyacchet. manovyprn parityajayhakramtra eayet. 6. na caitad aakyam iti vcyam tasyha nigraha manye vyor iva sudukaram || [BhG 6.34] iti vadantam arjuna prati bhagavatottarbhidhnt: 7. asaaya mahbho mano durnigraha calam | abhysena tu kaunteya vairgyea ca ghyate || [BhG 6.35] 8. asayattman yogo duprpa iti me mati | vaytman tu yatat akyo 'vptum upyata || [BhG 6.36] iti. abhysavairgye patajalistrodharaena vykhysyete. drhyarahito 'sayattm. tatsahito vaytm. 9. prvaprvabhmiupyata prpti

gauapdcary sadntam hu: utseka udadher yadvat kugreaikabindun | manaso nigrahas tadvad bhaved aparikhedata || [GK 3.41] iti. 10. atra sapradyavida khyyikm cakate: kasyacit kila pakio 'ni trasthny udadhir utsekenpajahra. ta ca samudra oaymti pravtta sa ca pak svamukhgrgreaikaika jalabindu bahi prakipati sma. tad bahubhi pakibhir bandhuvargair vryamo 'py anuparata pratyuta tn api sahakrio vavre. t ca patanotpatanbhy bahudh kliyata sarvn avalokya kplur nrado garua sampe preaym sa. tato garua pakavtena uyan samudro bhtas tny any nya pakie dadau.

3.8 5) -sdhana karaa-: P1 B3 PGh -sdhanakaraa- | 8) asayattman: P1 P2 B2 B3 asayattmano | duprpa: P2 PGh duprpya, B3 duprpya | abhysavairgye: PGh abhyse vairgye | vaytm.: P1 B2 vaytm ca | 9) kugrenaika: P1 kugreaiva | After 9, Adyar nSS add bahubhir viroddhavyamekenpi balyas sa parbhavam pnoti samudra iva iabht. [Untraced] | 10) udadhir: P1 B2 udadher | 10) prakipati sma : P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh om. sma > B2 sh adds | dadau: P1 B2 pradadau | 402

11. evam akhedena manonirodhe paramadharme pravartamna yoginam varo 'nughti. akheda ca madhye madhye tad anuklavypramiraena sapadyate yathaudana bhujnas tad grsntare coyalehydn svdayati tadvat. 12. idam evbhipretya vasiha ha: cittasya bhogair dvau bhgau streaika praprayet | guruuray bhgam avyutpannasya satkrame || [LYV 5.3.36] 13. kicid vyutpattiyuktasya bhga bhogena praprayet | guruuray bhgau bhga strrthacintay || [LYV 5.3.37] 14. vyutpattim anuytasya prayec cetaso 'nvaham | dvau bhgau stravairgyair dvau dhynagurupjay || [LYV 5.3.38] iti. bhogaabdentra jvanhetur bhikvypro varramocitavypra cocyate. 15. ghaikmtra muhrta v yathakti yogam abhyasya tato muhrta straravaena paricaryay v gurn anugamya muhrta svadeham anustya muhrta yogastra parylocya puna rmuhrta yogam abhasyet. eva yogaprdhnyena vyprntari melayas tni drg abhyasya ayanakle taddinagatn yogamuhrtn gaayet. tata paredyur v parapake v paramse v yogamuhrtn vardhayet. tath caikaikasmin muhrte ekaikakaayoge 'pi savatsaramtrea

bhyn yogaklo bhavati. 16. na caiva yogaikaaraatve vyprntari lupyeran, luptetaraktsnavyprasyaiva yogdhikrt. ata eva vidvatsanyso 'pekyate. tasmt tadekaniha pumn adhyetvaigdivat kramea yogro bhavati. yathdhyet mavaka

3.8 11) 'nughti.: PGh 'nughtti | yathaudana: P2 B3 PGh yathodana | bhujnas tad grsntare: Adyar bhujnas tat tad grsntare | 12) satkrame: PGh nSS satkrama | 13) bhogena: P1 B2 Adyar nSS bhogai | praprayet: PGh prayet | 14) bhikvypro: P1 B2 bhikdivypro > P2 sh cor., Adyar nSS bhikandivypro | 15) paricaryaya v: P1 B2 paricaryaya > B2 sh cor. | anugamya: P1 B2 PGh upagamya | melayas tni: P1 B2 melayet. tni | tata: Adyar tato | paredyur v: P1 B2 paredyur | 15) caikaikasmin muhrte: Adyar nSS caikaikasmin muhrta | 16) lupyeran. lupteta-: P1 B2 dyar nSS lupyerann iti akanyam, luptetara- | yogdhikrt: P1 B2 dyar nSS yoge 'dhikrt | 403

pda pdam ardharcam cam gdvaya varga ca kramea pahan daadvdaavarair adhypako bhavati. yath ca vijya kurvann ekanika-

dvinikdikramea lakapati koipatir v bhavati, tath tbhy vaigadhyetbhy sahaivopakramya matsaragrasta iva yujnas tvat klena kuto na yogam rohet? tasmt puna puna prpyamn sakalpavikalpn uddlakavat pauruaprayatnena parityajyhakartari jntmani mano niyacchet. 3.9 [mahtmani nttmani ca niyama] 1. tm et dvityabhmik vijitya blamkdivan nirmanastve svbhvike sati, tato viehakrarpa vispaa jntmnamaspae smnyhakre mahattattve niyacchet. yath svalp tandr prptavato viehakra svata eva sakucati, tath vinaiva tandr vismarae prayatamnasyhakrasakoco bhavati. seya lokaprasiddhay tandraytrkikbhimata nirvikalpakajnena ca samn mahattattvamtra parievasth tty bhmi. 2. asy cbhysapavena vakty tam eta smnyhakrarpa mahntam tmna nirupdhitay nte cidekarasasvabhve niyacchet. mahattattva tirasktya cinmtra parieayet | 3. atrpi prvoktavismtiprayatna eva tato 'py atiayenopyatm padyate. yath strbhyse pravttasya vyutpatte prkpratigranthavykhynpekym api

3.8 16) pdamardharcam: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh pdamardham | daadvsaavarair: P2 dvdaavarair | lakapati koipatir v bhavati: P2 lakapati bhavati, nSS lakapati kroapatir v, P1 B2 lakapati koipatir bhavati | tath tbhym vaig-: P2 B3 PGh tath ca vanig- | rohet: P1 B2 arohayet > B2 sh cor. | 3.9 1) -bhmik: P1 B2 -bhmi | tath vinaiva tandr: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS vinaiva tandr tath | tandray: P1 P2 B2 PGh nSS tadry, B3 tadr | 2) cidekarasa-: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh cidaikarasa- | strbhyse pravttasya: Adyar nSS strbhysapravttasya | 404

vyutpannasya svata evottaragranthrtha pratibhti, tath samyagvaktaprabhmer yogina uttarabhmyupya svata eva pratibhti. 4. tad ha yogabhyakra: yogena yogo jtavyo yogo yogt pravartate | yo 'pramattas tu yogena sa yog ramate ciram || [YSBh 3.6; SauU 2.1] iti. 5. nanu mahattattvanttmanor madhye mahattattvopdnam avyaktkhya tattva rutyodhtam. tatra kuto niyamana nbhidhyata iti cet, 6. na, layaprasagd iti brma. yath ghao 'nupdne jale nirupadhyamno na lyate, updnabhty tu mdi lyate, tath mahattattvam tmani na lyate, avyakte tu lyate. 7. na ca svarpalaya pururtha, tmadarannupayogt, dyate tvagryay buddhy skmay skmadaribhi | [KU 3.12] iti prvavakye tmadarana abhidhya, skmatvasiddhaye nirodhasybhidhnt, layasya pratidina suuptau svata siddhatvena prayatnavaiyarthc ca. 8. nanu dhradhynasamdhisdhyasaprajtasyaikgravttirpatvena

daranahetutve 'pi nttmany avaruddhasysaprajtasamdhim pannasya cittasya vttirahitatvena suuptivan na darantahetutvam iti cet, 9. na, svata siddhasya daranasya nivrayitum aakyatvt. reyomarge 'bhihitam: tmntmkra svabhvato 'vasthita sad cittam | tmaikkratay tirasktntmadi vidadhta || iti. 11. yath ghaa utpadyamna svato viyatpra evotpadhate, jalatauldipraa ttpanne ghae pact puruaprayatnena bhavati. yath tatra jaldau nisrite 3.9 4) yog: P2 B3 PGh yoge | 5) -opdnam avyakt-: PGh -opdna 'vyakt- | 6) layaprasagd-: P1 B2 vilayaprasagd- | 7) -nupayogat: P2 B3 PGh -nupayogyatvt | abhidhya: Adyar vidhya | 8) -samdhisdhyasa-: P2 B3 PGh samdhisdhyasya sa- , P1 B2 Adyar nSS -samdhibhi sdhyasya sa- | -aikgra-: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS -aikgrya- | suuptivan: PGh suuptavan | 10) yata: P2 B3 PGh ata, P1 B2 Adyar nSS ata eva | tirasktntmadi: P1 tirasktyntmadi, B2 tirasktntmadir | 11) tatra jaldau: P2 B3 PGh Adyar yath tatra jaldau | 405 10. yata

'pi na viyan nisrayitu akyate, mukhapidhne 'py antarviyadavatiha eva; tath cittam utpadyamnam tmacaitanyapram evotpadyate. utpanne citte pacn mniiktadrutatmravad ghaapaarparasasukhadukhdivttirpatva bhogahetu-

dharmdharmdivad bhavati. 12. tatra rparasdyantmkre nivrite 'pi nirnimitta cidtmkro na nivrayitu akyate. tato nirodhasamdhinvttikena sakramtraeatay skmea cidtmamtrbhimukhatvd ekgrea cittena nirvaghnamtm 'nubhyate. 13. anenaivbhipryea vrttikakrasarvnubhavayoginv hatu: ghaadukhdirpitva dhiyo dharmdihetuta | nirhetutvtmasabodharpatva vastuvttita || [BUBhV 1.1.544] 14. prantavttika citta paramnandadpakam | asaprajtanmya samdhir yogin priya || [MukU 2.54] tmadarasya svatasiddhatve 'py antmavraya nirodhbhysa. 15. ata evoktam: tmasastha mana ktv na kimcid api cintayet | [BhG 6.25] iti. 3.10 [saprajtsaprajtayo svarpa sdhana ca] 1. yogastrasya cittacikitsakasamdhimtre pravttatvn, nirodhasamdhv

tmadarana tatra na skd uktam. 2. bhagy antarea tv abhyupagamyate: yoga cittavttinirodha | [YS 1.2] iti strayitv, 3. tad drau svarpe 'vasthnam | [YS 1.3] iti strat. 3.9 11) dharmdharmdivad: PGh dharmdivad | 12) antmkre: P2 B3 antmkra | nirnimitta: PGh animitta | cidtmkro: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS cidkro | -samdhinvttikena sa-: Adyar nSS -samdhin nirvttikena sa-, P1 B2 -samdhin nivttisa- | skmatvea: Adyar skmea | ghaadukhdi-: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS sukhadukhdi | 14) priya: P1 B2 Adyar nSS priya iti. | antmavraya: B2 Adyar nSS antmadaranavraya | 3.10 3) svarpe 'vasthnam: Adyar svarpevasthna > B1 sh cor. | 406










vttitpadyamnsu tatra citichyy pratibimbity tadavivekd asvastha iva dra bhavati. 5. tad apy anantarastreoktam: vttisrpyam itaratra | [YS 1.4] iti. 6. anyatrpi stritam: sattvapuruayor atyantsakrayo pratyayvieo bhoga parrthatvt | [YS 3.35] iti. 7. citer apratisakramys tadkrpattau svabuddhisavedanam | [YS 4.22] iti ca. 8. nirodhasamdhin odhite tvapadrthe sktkte 'pi tasya brahmatva gocarayitu mahvkyena brahmavidynmaka vttyantaram utpadyate. uddhatva padrthasktkare nirodhasamdhir eka evopya. na ca

ki tu cijjaa-

vivekenpi pthakkte tatsktkrasabhavt. 9. ata eva vasiha ha: dvau kramau cittanasya yogo jna ca rghava | yogas tadvttirodho hi jna samyag avekaam || [LYV 5.9.72] iti. 10. asdhya kasyacid yoga kasyacij jnanicaya | prakrau dvau tato devo jagdparamevara || [LYV 6.1.60] iti ca. 11. nanu viveko 'pi yoge paryavasyati, daranavelym tmamtragocary ekgravtte kaikasaprajtarpatvt. 12. bham. tathpi saprajtsaprajtayo svarpata sdhanata csty eva mahad vailakayam. vttyavttibhy sphua svarpabheda. sdhana tu

3.10 4) citichyy: Adyar nSS citichyy | 5) tad apy: P1 B2 etad apy | 6) parrthatvt iti: All mss omit svrthasayamt puruajnam the received text of YS 3.35 | 7) citer: P1 citter | svabuddhi: P2 B3 PGh sabuddhi > P2 sh cor. | 8) utpadyate: B3 PGh utpdyate | 8) tatsktkra-: Adyar tatra sktkra- | sabhavt : B3 PGh sabhava | 12) tathpi: P2 B3 PGh tath sati | csty eva: B3 PGh cstv eva | 407







avttikasya vijtyatvd bahiragam. 13. tath ca stram: tad api bahiraga nirbjasya | [YS 3.8] iti. 14. vijtyatve 'pi bahuvidhntmavttinivraenopakritay bahiragatvam aviruddham. 15. tad evopakritva viadayitu strayati: raddhvryasmtisamdhiprajprvaka itarem | [YS 1.20] iti. 16. kecid devdn prvastre janmanaiva samdhim uktv manuyn praty etad ucyate. mamya yoga eva paramapururthasdhanam iti pratyaya raddh. s cotkararavaenopajyate. 17. tadutkara ca smaryate: tapasvibhyo 'dhiko yog jnibhyo 'pi mato 'dhika | karmibhya cdhiko yog tasmd yog bhavrjuna || [BhG 6.46] iti. 18. uttamalokasdhanatvt kcchracndryaditapaso jyotiomdikarmaa ca yogo 'dhika. jna praty antaragatvc cittavisrntihetutay ca jnd apy

adhikatva. eva jnato yoge raddh jyate. tasy ca raddhy vstity vryam utsho bhavati sarvath yoga sapdayiymti. tadnuheyni yoggni smaryante. etadenotshena

tay smty samyaganuhitasamdher tatprajprvakas tatprajkraako

dhytmaprasde saty tabhar prajodeti.

'saprajtasamdhir itare devdibhyo 'rvcnn manuy sidhyati. 19. t ca praj strayati: tabhar tatra praj | [YS 1.48] iti.

3.10 12) -asya tv avtti-: P2 B3 PGh nSS -asyvtti- | 16) s : P2 B3 PGh sa | tapaso: P2 B3 PGh tapasa | 18) adhikatva: Adyar adhika | tadnuheyni: P1 Adyar nSS tad tadnuheyni, P2 B3 PGh tad anuheyni | tay: P1 P2 B2 B3 tath ca, PGh tath, Adyar nSS tay ca | samyaganuhita-: P2 B3 PGh sayanupatihata | -prvakas tat-: B3 -prvaka tat- | samdhy utkara-: P1 B2 samdher utkara- | 408

20. ta satya vastuythtmya bibharti prakayatti tabhar. samdhyutkarajanye 'dhytmaprasde sattyartha. strayati:

tatra tasmin

21. tabharatvopapatti

rutnumnaprajbhym anyaviay vierthatvt | [YS 1.49] iti. 22. skmavyavahitaviprakavastuv ayogipratyaka na pravartate. numnbhya tni vastny ayogibhir jyante. vastusmnyam eva gocarayata. tabharakam. 23. tasya ca yogipratyakasysaprajtasamdhau bahiragatvasiddhyartham upakritva strayati: tajja saskro 'nyasaskrapratibandh | [YS 1.50] iti. 24. asaprajtasamdher bahiragasdhanam uktv tannirodhaprayatnasyntaragasdhanat strayati: tasypi nirodhe sarvanirodhn nirbja samdhi | [YS 1.51] iti. 25. so 'ya samdhi suuptisamna skicaitanyennubhavitu akya. na csau sarvadhvttirhityt suuptir eveti akanyam, manasvarpasadasattvbhy viet. 26. tad ukta gauapdcryai: nightasya manaso nirvikalpasya dhmata | pracra sa tu vijeya suuptnyo na tatsama || [GK 3.34] 27. lyate hi suuptau tannighta na lyate | 3.10 21) anyaviay: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh smnyaviay | 22) vieavastu-: Adyar vastuviea- | tabharakam: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh nSS tabharatva, Adyar tabharam | 25) na csau: P2 B3 PGh tadsau | akanyam: P2 B3 PGh na akanyam | manasvarpasadasattvbhy: P2 B3 PGh Adyar manasvarpasya sadasattvbhy, P1 B2 manasa svarpasadasattvbhy | 26) suuptnyo: P2 nSS suupty anyo, Adyar suupte 'nyo | 409 gam-

te ca strnumnajanye praje

ida tu yogipratyaka vieavastugocaratvd

tad eva nirbhaya brahma jnloka samantata || [GK 3.35] 28. mkyakhyam api ruyate: dvaitasygrahaa tulyam ubhayo prjatur yayo | bjanidryuta prja s ca turye na vidyate || [GK 1.13] 29. svapnanidryutv dyau prjas tv asvapnanidray | na nidr naiva ca svapna turye payanti nicit || [GK 1.14] 30. anyath ghata svapno nidr tattvam ajnata | viparyse tayo ke turya padam anute || [GK 1.15] iti. 31. dyau vivataijasau. advaitasya vastuno 'nyathgrahaa nma dvaitarpea pratibhsa. sa ca vivataijasayor vartamna svapna ucyate. tattvasyjna nidr. s ca vivataijasaprjeu vartate. tayo svapnanidrayo svarpabhtayor viparyso mithyjnam. tasmin vidyay ke sati turya padam advaita vastv anute. 32. nanv astv evam asaprajtasamdhisuuptyor mahn bheda. tattvadidkor daranasdhanatvena samdhyapekym api tatra


jvanmuktaye nsti tadapek, rgadvedikleabandhasya suuptv api nivtte. 33. maivam. ki pratidina svata prpt kdcitk suuptir bandhanirvartik, ki vbhysena nirantaravartin? dye 'pi ki suuptiklnasya kleabandhasya

nivtti, ki v klntaravartina? ndya, aprasakte. na hi mhnm api suuptau kleabandha. na dvitya asambhavt. na hy anyaklnay suupty klntaravartina kleasya kaya. npi suupter nairantaryam abhyasitu akyam, tasy

3.10 27) janloka: P2 jne loka | samantata: Adyar samantata iti. | 28) mkyakhyam api ruyate: Adyar om. | s ca: P2 B3 PGh s tu | na vidyate: P1 B2 na yujyate > B2 sh cor. | 30) iti: Adyar iti ca | 31) advaitasya vastuno': P1 B2 advaitavastuno' | vivataijasayor: P2 B3 PGh -tejasayor | ucyate: P1 B2 PGh Adyar nSS ityucyate | pravartate: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS vartate | anute: P2 B3 PGh Adyar anute 'nubhavattyartha | 32) suuptv api: P1 B2 Adyar nSS suuptypi | 33) kdcitk: B3 PGh kdcitka | dye: P1 P2 B2 Adyar nSS dye 'pi | mhnm api: P1 B2 om. api | kleabandha: P1 B2 om klea- | After kleabandha: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS insert anyathysa prasajyeta, P1 B2 insert prasajyeta | suupter: Adyar nSS suuptau | 410

karmakayanimittatvt. samdhyapek.

tasmt tattvavido 'pi kleakayysty evsaprajta-

34. tasya ca samdher gavvdiv iva vnirodha pratham bhmi. blamhdiv iva nirmanastva dvity. tandrym ivhakrarhitya tty.

suuptv iva mahattattvarhitya caturth. 35. tad etad bhmicatuayam abhipretya "anai anair uparamet" [3.6.28; BhG 6.25] ityuktam. 36. atra coparame dhtight buddhir y s sdhanam [cf. 3.6.28; BhG 6.25]. mahadahakramanovgdn svata eva tvravegea bahi pravahat klakay nady iva nirodhe dhairya mahad apekitam. buddhir viveka. 37. prv bhmir jit na veti parkya jitym uttarabhmyupakrama; ajity tu saiva punar abhyasanyeti tad tad vivicyt. "tmasastham" [3.6.28; BhG 6.25] itydin srdhalokena caturthabhmyabhyso 'pi smta. hu: upyena nighyd vikipta kmabhogayo | suprasanna laye caiva yath kmo layas tath || [GK 3.42] 39. dukha sarvam anusmtya kmabhogn nivartayet | aja sarvam anusmtya jta naiva tu payati || [GK 3.43] 40. laye sabodhayec citta vikipta amayet puna | sakaya vijnyt samaprpta na clayet || [GK 3.44] 41. nsvdayet sukha tatra nisaga prajay bhavet | nicala nicara cittam ekkuryt prayatnata || [GK 3.45] 42. yad na lyate citta na ca vikipyate puna | aniganam anbhsam nipanna brahma tat tad || [GK 3.46] iti. 3.10 33) -sty ev: P1 -stv ev- | 34) gavvdiv: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh nSS gavdiv | 36) y s: P1 P2 B2 PGh AdyarnSS om., B3 om. y | nady iva: P2 B1 B3 PGh iva nady | 37) jit na veti: Adyar jit v na veti | vivicyt: Adyar vivicyt | 41) nicala nicara: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh nicara nicala,Adyar nicala nicarac, B1 nicala nicara > sh cor. nicala nicarac | 42) aniganam: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh nSS aliganam | 411 38. gauapdcry






nirudhyamna citta viayebhyo vyvtta sat prvbhysavad yadi layya suuptaye 'bhimukha bhavet, tadnm utthnaprayatnena layakraanivraena v tac citta samyak prabodhayet. evhu: sampayya nidr sujrlpabhoj ramatygy abdhe vivikte pradee | sadsta nista evpryatno 'tha v prarodho nijbhysamrgt || [SauU 2.2] iti. 45. layd utthpita citta dainadinaprabodhbhysavad yadi kmabhogayor vikipyeta tad vivekijanaprasiddhabhogyavastugatasarvadukhnusmaranea bhogyavastulayahetavo nidrejrabahvaanaram. 44. ata

straprasiddhajanmdirahitdvityabrahmatattvnusmaraaprvakea daranena ca puna punar vikepc cittam amayet. 46. kayas cittadoa tvrargadvedivsan.

tay grasta citta kadcit tda tac citta

samhitam iva layavikeparahita dukhaikgram avatihate.

"vijnyt" [3.10.40; GK 3.44], samhitacittd vivekenvagacchet. asamhitam etad ity avagamya layavikepavat kayasya pratkra kuryt. 47. samaabdena brahmbhidhyate: sama sarveu bhteu tihanta paramevaram | [BhG 13.27ab] iti smte. 48. layavikepakayeu parihteu pariec cittena sama brahma prpyate. tac ca "samaprpta" kayalayabhrntay "na clayet." [3.10.40; GK 3.44] skmay 3.10 43) utthna-: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS utthpana- | v tac citta: nSS om tac | -bahvaanaram: P1 B2 -bahvannanaram | 44) sampayya: P2 B3 PGh samrdhya > P2 sh cor. | sujrlpabhoj: P1 B2 sujrnnabhoj | prarodho: PGh pranirodho, Adyar prarodh | -vastudaranena: nSS -vastvadaranena | 46) kaayas cittadoas: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS kayas tvra cittadoa | vsan. tay: Adyar -vsanay, P2 vsan | 48) samaprpta kayalaya: Adyar samaprpta citta layakaya- | 412

buddhy layakayaprpt vivicya tasy samaprptv atiprayatnena citta sthpayet. sthpite tasmin brahmasvarpabhta paramnanda samyag virbhavati. 49. tath codhtam: sukham tyantika yat tad buddhigrhyam atndriyam | [BhG 6.21] iti. 50. ruti ca: bhavati samdhinirdhtamalasya cetaso niveitasytmani yat sukha bhavet | na akyate varayitum gir tad svaya tad antakaraena ghyate || [MtrU 4.9] iti. 51. nanu samdhyvirbhtasya brahmnandasya buddhigrhayatva rutismtibhym abhihitam cryais tu "nsvdayet sukha tatra" [3.10.41; GK 3.45] iti buddhigrhyatva pratiidhyate. 52. nyam doa. tatra nirodhasukha buddhigrhya na pratidhyate, ki tu samdhivirodhino vyutthnarpasya parmarasyaiva pratiedht. yath nidgha-

divaseu madhyhne jhnavhrade nimagnennubhyanam api aityasukha tad vaktum aakya pacd unmagnenbhidhyate yath v suuptv avidyvttibhir atiskmbhir anubhyamnam api svarpasukha tadn savikalpaken-

ntakaraavttijnena ghtum aakya, prabodhakle tu smty vispaa parmyate. tath samdhau vttirahitena saskramtraeatay sukmea v cittena sukhnubhava rutismtyor vivakita. 53. mahad ida samdhisukham anvabhvam ityetdo vyutthitasya

savikalpaka parmaro 'trsvdanam; tad evcryai pratiidhyate. 54. tam eva 3.10 48) citta: Adyar nSS cira | sthpite tasmin: B3 PGh sthpite 'smin | 51) virbhtasya brahma-: P2 B3 PGh nSS virbhtabrahma- | rutismtibhym abhihitam: P1 B2 rutismtyabhihitam | pratiidhyate: P2 B3 PGh Adyar pratiidhyata iti cet | 52) tatra nirodha-: P1 B2 nirodha- | jhnavhrade nim-: P1 B2 jhnavhradanim- | 52) ghtum: Adyar nSS grahtum | 53) parmaro 'trsvdanam: P2 B3 PGh parmara svadana | 413

svbhiprya prakaayitum "nisaga prajay bhaved" ity uktam. 55. paka savikalpaka jna praj; tay saha saga parityajet. yad v prvokt dhtight buddhi [cf. 3.6.28; BhG 6.25] praj, tadtmakena sdhanena sukhsvdana tadvarandirpm sakti varjayet. 56. samdhau brahmnande nimagna citta yadi kadcit sukhsvdanya v tavtamaakdyupadravea v nicaret. tad nicarat tac citta puna punar

nicala yath bhavati tath parabrahma sahaikkuryt. tatra ca nirodhaprayatna eva sdhanam. 57. ekbhva eva "yad na liyate cittam" [3.10.42; GK 3.46] ity anena lokena spakriyate. 58. "aniganam anbhsam" [3.10.42; GK 3.46] itybhy

padbhy kayasukhsvdau pratiidhyete. vighnena brahmay avasthita bhavati. pahyate:

layavikepakayebhyo citta

59. etad evbhipretya kahavallu

yad pacvatihante jnni manas saha | buddhi ca na viceeta tm hu param gatim || [KU 6.10] 60. t yogam iti manyante sthirm indriyadhram | apramattas tad bhavati yogo hi prabhavpyayau || [KU 6.11] iti. 3.11 [yogbhysa] 1. upekito yoga indriyapravttn prabhava karoti. anuhitas tu ts layahetu. 2. ata eva yogasya svarpalakaa strayati: 3.10 56) nicarat tac citta: P2 B3 PGh nicarita citta > P2 sh cor. nicarat citta, B1 nicara citta > sh cor. nicarac citta | puna punar nicala yath bhavati tath: P2 B3 PGh punar nicalam bhavati tad > P2 sh cor. | 57) ekbhva eva yad : P2 B3 PGh ekbhve yad > P2 sh cor. ekbhve eva yad | 58) aniganam-: P2 B2 (P1?) B3 PGh nSS aliganam | -sukhsvdau: B3 PGh Adyar sukhsvdau dvau ca | pratiidhyete: P2 B3 PGh niidhyete | layavikepakayebhyo: B2 nSS Adyar layavikepakayasukhsvdebhyo, P2 B3 PGh -sukhsvdibhyo | -ebhyo rahita citta: Adyar -ebhyo vinirmukta citta | vighnena: Adyar vicchedena | 59) pahyate : B2 ruyate | viceeta: P2 B2 Adyar viceati | 414

yoga cittavttinirodha | [YS 1.2] iti. 3. vttnm nantyn nirodho 'akya ity ak vrayitum iyatt strayati: vttaya pacatayya kli akli | [YS 1.5] iti. 4. rgadvediklearp suravttaya kli. rgdirahit daivavttayo 'kli. yady api pacasv eva klinm aklin cntarbhva, tathpi kli eva. niroddhavy iti mandabuddhi vrayitu tbhi sahkli apy udht. 5. nmadheyalakabhy t vttr viadayitu straakam ha: pramaviparyayavikalpanidrsmtaya | [YS 1.6] 6. pratyaknumngam pramni | [YS 1.7] 7. viparyayo mithyjnam atadrpapratiham | [YS 1.8] 8. abdajnnupt vastunyo vikalpa | [YS 1.9] 9. abhvapratyaylamban vttir nidr | [YS 1.10] 10. anubhtaviaysapramoa smti | [YS 1.11] iti. 11. vastvabhva pratyate yasmis tamasy varake sati tat tamo'bhvapratyaya. tamogua viaykurvat vttir nidrety ucyate. anubhtaviayasysapramoas

tadanubhavajanyam anusadhnam. 12. pacavidhavttinirodhasdhana strayati: abhysavairgybhy tannirodha | [YS 1.12] iti. 13. yath tvravegopeta nadpravha setubandhanena nivrya kulypraayanena ketrbhimukha tiryakpravhntaram utpdyate, tath vairgyea cittanady sampdyate. 3.11 1) indriyapravttn: P2 B2 Adyar nSS indriyavttn | 4) cntarbhva: P2 B3 PGh antarbhva | 5) vttr: nSS vtti, Adyar t vttr | 6) praty-: P2 B3 PGh tatra praty- | 11) vastvabhva: B3 PGh na svabhva | viaykurvat: P2 B3 PGh nSS viaya kurvat | 13) kulypraayanena: P2 B3 PGh kulynayanena | -mukha tiryak-: P2 B3 PGh -mukhatiryak- | pranta pravva: P2 B3 PGh prantapravaha | 415 viayapravha nivrya samdhyabhysena pranta pravha





sabhvyate. sarvavyproparamarpasya samdhe ko nmbhyasa? 15. iti ak vrayitu strayati: tatrasthitau yatno 'bhysa | [YS 1.13] iti. 16. sthitir naicalya nirodha. yatno mnasa utsha. svata eva bahipravhala citta sarvath nirodhayiymty evavidha utsha vartyamno 'bhysa ity ucyate. 17. ayam abhysa idn pravtta svayam adha sann andipravtt vyutthnavsan katham abhibhaved? 18. ity akm apavaditu strayati: sa tu drghaklanairantaryasatkrasevito dhabhmi | [YS 1.14] iti. 19. lok hi mhasya vacanam udharanti vidyamn catvra eva ved, tn adhyetu gatasya mavakasya paca divas att adypy asau ngata iti. tda evya yog tad syt yad divasair v msair v yogasiddhi vchet. tasmt savatsarair janmabhir v drghakla yoga sevitavya. 20. tath ca smaryate: anekajanmasasiddhas tato yti para gatim || [BhG 6.45] iti. 21. ciram sevyamno 'pi yadi vicchidya sevyeta, tarhy utpadyamnn yogasaskr samanantarabhvibhir vicchedaklnair vyutthnasaskrair

abhibhave sati khaanakroktanyya patet: 22. agre dhvan pacl lupyamno vismaraalarutavat kim lambeta | [Kha 1.9.32] iti.

3.11 14) samdhe ko: P2 B3 PGh samdhe sdhaka ko | 16) nirotsymty: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nirodhayiymty, nSS nirodhaymty | 19) adypy asau ngata iti : P1 B2 ndypy asau samgata iti | 19) yoga sevitavya: P2 B3 PGh yogbhysa sevitavya, P1 B2 yoga sevitavya | 21) yadi vicchidya: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh vicchidya vicchidya yad, Adyar nSS yadi vicchidya vicchidya | vicchedaklnair vyutthnasaskrair: P2 B3 PGh vicchedaklnai saskrair, Adyar vicchedakribhir vyutthnaklnai saskrair | 22) lupyamno: P2 B3 PGh lyamno | 416

tasmn nirantaram sevitavya. 23. satkra dara. andarea sevyamne vasihoktanyya patet: akartkurvad apy etac ceta cet kavsanam | dragataman jantu kathsaravae yath || [LYV 5.7.13] iti. 24. andaro layavikepakayasukhsvdannm aparihra. tasmd darea

sevitavya. drghaklditraividhyena sevitasya samdher dhabhmitva nma viayasukhavsanay dukhavsanay v clayitum aakyatvam. bhagavat daritam: ya labdhv cpara lbha manyate ndhika tata | yasmin sthito na dukhena gurupi viclyate || [BhG 6.22] iti. 26. aparalbhasyndhikya kacavttntena vasiha udjahra: kaca kadcid utthya samdhe prtamnasa | eknte samuvcedam eko gadgaday gir || [LYV 4.5.37] 27. ki karomi kva gacchmi ki ghmi tyajmi kim || tman prita sarva mahkalpmbun yath || [LYV 4.5.38] 28. sabhybhyantare dehe hy adha rdhva ca diku ca | ita tm tathehtm nsty antmamaya jagat || [LYV 4.5.39] 29. na tad asti na yatrha na tad asti na yan mayi | kim anyad abhivchmi sarva savinmaya tatam || [LYV 4.5.40] 30. sphrabrahmmalmbhodhiphen sarve kulcal | ciddityamahtejo mgat jagacchriya || [LYV 4.5.35] iti. 31. gurudukhenpy aviclyatva ikhidhvajasya vatsaratrayasamdhivttntenodjahra: 25. tac ca

3.11 23) gataman: P2 B3 PGh gatamano > P2 sh cor. | 24) andaro: P2 B3 PGh andare | sukhsvdannm: P2 B3 PGh Adyar sukhsvdnm | v clayitum: P2 B3 PGh v vrayitum | 26) prtamnasa: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh tamnasa | eko: Adyar nSS eva | 27) sarva: Adyar nSS viva | 28) jagat: Adyar kvacit | 29) savinmaya: P1 B2 saccinmaya | tatam: P2 B3 PGh tata | 30) -bhodhiphen: Adyar -bhodhe phen | jagacchriya: P2 jagat sthita | 31) vatsara-: P2 B3 PGh savatsara- | 417

nirvikalpasamdhistha tatrpayan mahpatim | rjna tvad etasmd bodhaymi part padt || [LYV 6.9.447] 32. iti sacintya cl sihanda cakra s | bhyo bhya prabhor agre vanecarabhayapradam || [LYV 6.9.448] 33. na cacla tad rma yad ndena tena sa | bhyo bhya ktenpi tad s ta vyaclayat || [LYV 6.9.449] 34. clita ptito 'py ea tad no bubudhe budha || [LYV 6.9.450] iti. 35. prahldavttntenpy etad evodjahra: iti sacintayann eva prahlda paravrah | nirvikalpaparnandasamdhi samupyayau || [LYV 5.4.92] 36. nirvikalpasamdhistha citrrpita ivbabhau | paca varasahasri pngo 'tihad ekadk || [LYV 5.4.93] 37. mahtman saprabudhyasvety eva viur udharat | pcajanya pradadhmau ca dhvanayan kakubh gaam || [LYV 5.4.106] 38. mahat tena abdena vaiavaprajanman | babhva saprabuddhtm dnavea anaih anai || [LYV 5.4.107] iti. 39. eva vtahavydnm api samdhir udharaya. 40. vairgya dvividham apara para ceti. yatamnavyatirekaikendriyavakrabhedair apara caturvidham. 41. tatrdya trayam artht strayan skc caturtha strayati: dnuravikaviayavitasya vakrasajvairgyam | [YS 1.15] iti. srakcandanavanitputramitraketradhandayo nuravik. 42. tatrobhayatra satym api ty vivekatratamyena yatamndid. vedokt svargdaya

vairgyatraya bhavati. asmi jagati ki sra kim asram iti gurustrbhy 3.11 33) na ca cla tad rma yad ndena tena sa: P1 B2 na ca cla ilevdrau (?) yad ndena tena sa | 34) ptito 'py: P1 B2 ptito hy | 36) pn so 'tihad: Adyar nSS pngo 'tihad | 37) saprabudhyasevety: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh saprabuddhasevety | 39) api: P1 B2 om. | 41) -viayavitasya : B3 -viaya ca vitasya | 418

jsymty udyogo yatamnatvam. svacitte prva vidyamnm do madhye 'bhyasyamnena vivekenaitvanta pakv etvanto 'vai iti vivecana vyatireka. dnuravikaviayapravtter dukhtmakatvabodhena t pravtti parityajya manasa caitsukyamtrea vitvasthpanam ekendriyatvam. vitatva vakra. tad idam apara vairgyam agayogapravartakatvena saprajtasyntaragam, asaprajtasya tu bahiragam. 43. tatrntaraga para vairgya strayati: tatpara puruakhyter guavaitya | [YS 1.16] iti. 44. saprajtasamdhipavena guatraytmakt pradhnd viraktasya puruasya khyti sktkra utpadyate. tasmc ca sktkrd aeaguatrayavyavahre yad vaitya tat para vairgyam. 45. tasya tratamyena samdher ghratvatratamya strayati: tvrasavegnm sanna samdhilbha | [YS 1.21] iti. savego vairgyam. tadbhedd yoginas trividh. mdusaveg madhyasavegs tvrasaveg ceti. sanno 'lpenaiva klena samdhir labhyate ityartha. 46. tvrasavegev eva samdhitratamya strayati: mdumadhydhimtratvt tato 'pi viea | [YS 1.22] iti. 47. mdutvro madhyatvro 'dhimtratvra iti. tev apy uttarottarasya tvaray siddhir draavy. uttamottam janakaprahlddayo 'dhimtratvr muhrtamtravicrea dhasamdhilbht. adhamdham uddlakdayo mdusaveg cirapraysena tallbht. evam anye 'pi yathyogam unney. 3.11 42) jsyamty: P2 PGh jnmty | prva: P2 prve | pravtter: P2 pravttir, B3 PGh pravtti du- | dukhtmakatvabodh-: P1 P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS dukhtmatvabodh- , P2 B3 PGh tmabodh- P2 sh cor. | manasa caitsukya-: P1 B2 manasy autsukya- | vit-: P1 P2 B3 PGh nSS t- | -vasthpanam: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS -vasthnam | pravartakatvena: P1 pravartakena | 44) pavena: P2 B3 PGh paripavena | 45) samdher: P1 B2 samdhau | 46) -adhimtratvt: P1 dhimattvt | 47) -tvra iti. tev: P1 B2 -tvra ca tev | dhasamdhi-: P2 B3 PGh dksamdhi- > P2 sh cor. | 419

48. tad evam adhimtratvrasya dhabhumv asaprajtasamdhau labdhe sati punar vyutthtum aakta san mamo nayati. manonena ca vsankaye rakite sati jvanmukti supratihat bhavati. 3.12 [sarpo manona] 1. na ca manonena videhamuktir eva na tu jvanmuktir iti akanyam, pranottarbhy tannirayt. rrma vivekbhyudayc cittasvarpe 'ntarhite mune | maitrydayo gu kutra jyante yogin vada || [LYV 5.10.15] 2. vasiha dvividha cittano 'sti sarpo 'rpa eva ca | jvanmuktau sarpa syd arpo 'dehamuktiga || [LYV 5.10.16] 3. prkta guasabhra mameti bahu manyate | sukhadukhdyavaabdha vidhamna mano vidu || [LYV 5.10.18ab&19ab] 4. cetasa kathit satt may raghukulodvaha | asya nam idn tva u pranavid vara || [LYV 5.10.20] 5. sukhadukhada dhra smyn na proddharanti yam | nivs iva ailendra tasya citta mta vidu || [LYV 5.10.21] 6. patkrpayam utsho mado mndya mahotsava | ya nayanti na vairpya tasya naa mano vidu || [LYV 5.10.22] 7. cittam nidhna hi yad nayati rghava | maitrydibhir guair yukta tad sattvam udety alam | bhyojanmavinirmukta jvanmuktasya tan mana || . [LYV 5.10.23ab 24] 8. sarpo 'sau manono jvanmuktasya vidyate | [LYV 5.10.25ab] 3.11 47) yathyogam: P1 B2 yathyogyam | unney: P1 B2 udharay | 48) manonena ca vsankaye rakite sati: P1 B2 tena ca manonena vsankaye sati | 3.12 1) vada: P1 B2 vara | 2) vasiha: P2 B3 PGh vasiha uvaca | 3) -avaabdha: P2 B3 PGh Adyar -avaabhya | 5) sukhadukada: P2 B3 PGh sukhadukhdayo | smyn: B3 PGh samn | 420

9. arpas tu manono yo mayokto raghudvaha | videhamuktv evsau vidyate nikaltmaka || [LYV 5.10.26] 10. samagrgryagudhram api sattva pralyate | videhamuktv amale pade param apvane || [LYV 5.10.27] 11. santadukham ajatmakam ekarpam nandamantharam apetarajastamo yat | kakoatanavo 'tanavo mahntas tasmin pade galitacittalav vasanti || [LYV 5.10.32] iti. 12. tasmt sarpo manono jvanmuktisdhanam iti. 13. iti jvanmuktisdhanamanonaprakaraa.

3.12 11) -mantheram: P1 B2 -makaram | After 11, Adyar nSS add: jvanmukt na muhyanti sukhadukharasasthitau. prktenrthakrea kicit kurvanti v na v. [LYV 3.9.126] | 12) iti: P2 B2 Adyar nSS iti sthitam. | 421

[atha caturtha svarpasiddhiprayojanaprakaraam]

4.1 [jnarak] 1. keya jvanmukti ki v tatra pramam katha v tatsiddhi ity etasya pranatrayasyottara nirpitam. siddhy v ki prayojanam ity asya

caturthapranasyottaram idnm abhidhyate jnaraktapovisavdbhvadukhanasukhvirbhv paca prayojanni. 2. nanu pramotpannasya tattvajnasya ko nma bdhaprasago yena rak apekyata iti cet, 3. ucyate: cittavirntyabhvesaaya viparyayau prasajyeytm. tattvavido rghavasya virnte prva saaya vivmitra udjahra: na rghava tavsty anyaj jeya jnavat vara | svayaiva skmay buddhy sarva vijtavn asi || [LYV 1.3.17] 4. bhagavadvysaputrasya ukasyeva matis tava | virnti mtram evtra jtajeypy apekate || [LYV 1.3.18] iti. 5. ukas tu svayam evdau tattva viditv tatra saayna pitara pv pitrpi tathaivnuias tatrpi saayno janakam upasadya tenpi tathaivnuias tam praty evam uvca, 6. svayam eva may prvam etaj jta vivekata | etad eva hi pena pitr me samudhtam || [LYV 1.3.43] 7. bhavatpy ea evrtha kathito vgvid vara | ea eva ca vkyrtha streu paridyate || [LYV 1.3.44] 8. yathya svavikalpottha svavikalpaparikayt | 4.1 1) siddhy: P2 B3 PGh siddhau | -virbhv paca: P2 B3 PGh Adyar -virbhv santi paca | 3) cittaviranty: P2 B3 PGh cittaviranter | prasajyettm: P2 B3 PGh prasajjeytm | 5) pitrpi: P1 P2 B2 om. api | upsdya: Adyar upasadya | 6) svayam: Adyar nSS add ruka svayam | hi: P1 B2 nSS ca | 422 tath hi

kyate dagdhasasro nisra iti nicaya || [LYV 1.3.45] 9. tatkim etan mahbho satya bruhi mamcalam | tvatto virntim pnomi cetas bhrmita jagat || [LYV 1.3.46] 10. janaka: nta parata kacin nicayo 'sty aparo mune | svayam eva tvay jta guruta ca puna rutam || [LYV 1.3.47] 11. avyucchinna cidtmaika pumn astha netara | svasakalpavad baddho nisakalpas tu mucyate || [LYV 1.3.48] 12. tena tvay spha jta jeya svasya mahtmana | bhogebhyo 'py aratir jt dyd v sakald iha || [LYV 1.3.49] 13. prpta prptavyam akhila bhavat pracetas | na dye yatasi brahman muktastva bhrntim utsja || [LYV 1.3.50] 14. anuia sa ity eva janakena mahtman | viarma ukas t svasthe paramavastuni || [LYV 1.3.51] 15. vtaokabhayyso nirha chinnasaaya | jagma ikhara mero samdhyartham aninditam || [LYV 1.3.52] 16. tatra varasahasri nirvikalpasamdhin | daa sthitv amsv tmany asnehadpavat || [LYV 1.3.53] iti. 17. tasmd vidite 'pi tattve virntirahitasya ukarghavayor iva saaya utpadyate. sa cjnam iva mokasya pratibandhaka. 18. ata eva bhagavatotkam: aja craddadhna ca saytm vinayati | nya loko 'sti na paro na sukha saaytmana || [BhG 4.40] iti. 19. araddh viparyaya. sa cottaratrodhariyate. ajnaviparyayau moka-

mtravirodhinau, saayas tu bhogamokayor ubhayor api virodh tasya parasparaviruddhakoidvayvalambitvt. yad sasrasukhya pravttis tad mokamrge

4.1 9) virntim pnoti: P2 B3 PGh nSS virmam pnoti, P1 B2 Adyar virntim pnomi | 11) avyucchinna: P2 avicchinna | netara: P1 B2 nSS netarat | 12) tena: P2 B3 PGh Adyar mune | bhogebhyo 'py aratir: P2 bhogebhyoparatir, Adyar nSS bhogebhyo viratir | 13) yatasi: P1 B2 Adyar yatase > nSS yatasi(se) | daa: P2 B3 PGh dham, P1 B2 dee | 18) cradda-: PGh craddha- | 19) cottaratro-: P2 B3 PGh tttaratro- | -valambitvt: P1 B2 -labitatvt | 423

buddhis t niruaddhi. yad ca mokamrge pravttis tad sasrabuddhis t pratibadhnti. tasmt saaytmano na kicit sukham astti mumuku sarvath saaya chettavya. 20. ata eva ryate: " chidhante sarvasaay" [1.2.41; MuU 2.2.8] iti. 21. viparyayasypi nidgha udharaam. bhu paramakaruay nidghasya buddhe 'pi tadupadiavastuny

gham etya bahudh ta bodhayitv nirjagma.

araddadhno nidgha karmy eva paramapururthahetur iti viparyaya prpya karmnuhne yathprva pravtte. so 'pi iyasya paramapururthabhrao m bhd iti kpay guru punar gatya bodhaymsa. tadpi viparyaya na jahau. ttyena tu bodhanena viparyaya parityajya virntim alabhata.




phala pratibadhyate. 22. tad ukta pararea: maimantrauadhair vahni sudpto 'pi yathendhanam | pradagdhu naiva akta syt pratibaddhas tathaiva ca || 23. jngnir api sajta sudpta sudho 'pi ca | pradagdhu naiva akta syt pratibaddhas tu kalmaam || [PU 14.4] 24. bhvan vipart y y csabhvan uka | kurute pratibandha s khalu jnasya nparam || [PU 14.5] iti. 25. tasmd avirntacittasya samayaviparyayaprasagena tattvajnasya

phalapratibandhalakad bdhd rakpekyate. virntacittasya tu manonena yad jagad eva pralyate tad saayaviparyayayo ka prasaga.

4.1 21) viparyayasypi: P1 B2 om. -api | vastuny aradda-: P2 B3 vastuni araddha, PGh vastuni raddha-, B1 vastuni aradda- | karmy eva: nSS karmy | pravtta: B1 pravtte | paramrthahetubhrao: P1 P2 B2 PGh pururthabhrao, B3 Adyar nSS paramapururthabhrao | 23) sudpta: Adyar nSS pradpta | 24) uka: P2 B3 PGh om. | khalu jnasya: Adyar nSS tattvajnasya | 424

26. jagatpratibhsarahitasya brahmavido dehavyavahro 'pi vinaiva svaprayatna paramevarapreritena pravyun nipdyate. 27. ata eva chandog mananti: nopajana smarann ida arra sa yatha prayogya carae yukta evam evyam asmi arre pro yukta | [ChU 8.12.3] iti. 28. upajana jann sampe vartamnam ida arra na smaran brahmavid vartate. prvasth jan eva tattvavida arra payanti. svaya tu nirmanaskatvn madyam ida arram iti na smarati. prayogyo rathaakadivahane prayoktum arha ikito 'vabalvarddi sa yath srathin mrgasycarae prerita puna puna

srathiprayatnam anapekya svayam eva rathaakadika purovartigrma nayati evam evya pravyu paramevaresmi arre niyukta saty asati v jvaprayatne vyavahra nirvhayati. 29. bhgavate 'pi smaryate: deha vinavaram avasthitam utthita v siddho na payati yato 'dhyagamat svarpam | daivd upetam atha daivavad apeta vso yath parikta madirmadndha || [BhP 11.13.36] iti. 30. vasiho 'py ha: prvasthabodhit santa prvcrakramgatam | cram caranty eva suptabuddhavad akat || [LYV 1.3.127] iti. 31. siddho na payaty cram caratty ubhayo paraparavirodha iti cet, 32. na, virntitratamyena vyavasthopapatte. 33. tad eva tratamyam abhipretya ruyate: tmakra tmarati kriyvn ea brahmavid variha | [MuU 3.1.4] iti. 34. atra catvra pratyante brahmavit prathama brahmavid varo dvitya brahmavidvarys ttyo brahmavidvariha caturtha. ta ete saptasu yogabhmiu 4.1 29) bhagavate 'pi: P2 B3 PGh bhagavate | atha: P1 B2 uta | 31) cramcaratty: P1 P2 B2 cramcaratty | ubhayo: P1 B2 anayo | prathama: B3 PGh prathama | 34) brahmavidvarys ttyo brahmavidvariha caturtha: P1 B2 nSS varys ttya, variha caturtha | 425

caturth yogabhmim rabhya kramea bhmicatuaya prpt ity avagantavyam. 35. bhmaya ca vasihena darit: jnabhmi ubhecchkhy pratham samudht | vicra dvity syt tty tanumnas || [LYV 3.9.113] 36. sattvpatti caturth syt tato 'sasaktinmik | padrthbhvin ah saptam turyag smt || [LYV 3.9.114] iti. 37. sthita ki mha evsmi preke 'ha strasajjanai | vairgyaprvam iccheti ubhecchety ucyate budhai || [LYV 3.9.116] 38. strasajjanasaparkavairgybhysaprvakam | sadvicrapravttiry procyate s vicra || [LYV 3.9.117] 39. vicraubhec chbhym indriyrthev asaktat | yatra s tanutm eti procyate tanumnas || [LYV 3.9.118] 40. bhmiktritaybhysc citte 'rthavirater vat | sattvtmani sthita uddhe sattvpattir udht || [LYV 3.9.119] 41. dacatuaybhysd asasargaphal tu y | rhasattvacamatkr prokt sasaktinmik || [LYV 3.9.120] 42. bhmikpacakbhyst svtmrmatay bham | bhyantar bhyn padrthnm abhsant || [LYV 3.9.121] 43. paraprayuktena cira prayatnenvabodhanam | padrthvin nma ah bhavati bhmik || [LYV 3.9.122] 44. bhmiakacirbhysd bhedasynupalambhant | yat svabhvaikanihatva s jey turyag gati || [LYV 3.9.123] iti. 45. atra bhmiktritaya brahmavidyy sdhanam eva na tu vidykov antarbhavati, bhmitraye bhedasatyatvabuddher anivartitatvt. ata evaitaj jgaraam iti vyapadiyate. 46. tad uktam:

4.1 35) ubhecchkhy prathama: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh nSS ubhech syt prathama | dvity syt tty: P1 B2 dvity tu tty | 37) vairgyaprvam iccheti ubhecchety ucyate: P2 vargyaprvam icheti pratham procyate, B3 PGh vairgya ubhayor icch pratham procyate | 39) indriyrthev: B3 PGh indriyrthepy | 42) -bhsant: P1 B2 -bhvant | 44) gati: Adyar sthita | 45) bhmitraye: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh om. | 426

bhmiktritaya tv etad rma jgrad iti sthitam | yathvad bhedabuddhyeda jagaj jgrati dyate || [LYV 6.15.62] iti. 47. caturthabhmau sarvajagadupdnasya brahmao vstavam advityasattasvabhva nicitya tasmin brahmay ropitayor jagacchabdbhidheyayor nmarpayor mithytvam avagacchati. bhmi svapna. 48. tad ha: advaite sthairyam yte dvaite praamam gate | pasyanti svapnaval loka caturth bhmikm it || [LYV 6.15.70] 49. vicchinnaaradabhravilaya pravilyate | sattvaea evste caturth bhmikm ita || [LYV 6.15.71] so 'ya caturthbhmik prpto yog brahmavid ity ucyate. 50. pacamydayas tisro bhmayo jvanmukter avntarabhed. te ca nirvikalpakasamdhyabhysaktena virntitratamyena sapadyante. pacamamumuko prvokta jgaraam apekya seya

bhmau nirvikalpakt tad svayam eva vyuttihati. so 'ya yog brahmavidvara. aabhumau prsvasthair bodhito vyuttiati. so 'yam brahmavidvaryn. tad etad bhmidvaya suuptir ghasuuptir iti cbhidhyate. 51. tad ha: pacam bhmikm etya suuptipadanmikm | nteavieas tihaty advaitamtrake || [LYV 6.15.73] 52. antarmukhaty nitya bahirvttiparo 'pi san | parirntatay nitya nidrlur iva lakyate || [LYV 6.15.75] 53. kurvann abhysam etasy bhmiky vivsan | 4.1 47) After 46, P2 PGh Adyar nSS add tato vedntavkyn nirvikalpako brahmtmaikyasktkra caturth bhmik phalarp sattvpatti. | tasmin: Adyar nSS om. | prvokta jgaraam apekya seya bhmi: nSS prvoktajgaraam apekya bhmi | 48) tad ha: P1 B2 om. > B2 sh cor. | praamam gate: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh ca praama gate, Adyar nSS coparati gate | 49) vicchinnaarada-: P2 B3 PGh vicchinna arada-, B1 Adyar citta tu arada- > B1 sh cor. | -vilaya: P2 B3 PGh -vilpya | After 49ab, nSS adds: svasvetara ca sanmtra yat prabodhd upsate. yogina sarvabhteu sadrpnnaumi ta harim., all mss. and Adyar om. | caturthbhmik: P2 B3 PGh caturthabhmi, Adyar nSS caturth bhmik | 50) jvanmukter avntar-: P1 B2 jvanmukty avntar- | nirvikalpakasamdhy-: P1 nirvikalpaka samdhy, Adyar nSS nirvikalpasamdhy- | -abhysaktena: nSS -abhybalena | tad: Adyar om. | Twice vyuttiati: Adyar both vyuttiate | 427

ah ghasuuptykhy kramt patati bhmikm || [LYV 6.15.76] 54. yatra nsan na sadrpo nha npyanahakti | kevala kamanana ste dvaitaikyanirgata || [LYV 6.15.77] 55. anta nyo bahi nya nya kumbha ivmbare | anta pro bahi pra prakumbha ivrave || [LYV 6.15.78] iti. 56. gha nirvikalpasamdhi prptasya saskramtraeasya cittasya manorjaya kartu bhyapadrthn grahtu v smarthyabhvd kvasthitakumbhavad; antarbahi nyatvam svayaprakasaccidnandaikarase brahmai nimagnatvena bahi ca sarvatra brahmady samudram adhyasthpitajalaprakumbhavad antarbahipratvam. 57. turybhidh saptamabhmi prptasya yogina svata parato v vyutthnam eva nsti. dam evoddiya "deha vinavaram avasthitam utthitam v" [4.1.29; BhP 11.1.36] itydibhgavatavkya pravttam. asaprajtasamdhi-

pratipdakni yogastry atraiva paryavasitni. so 'yam do yog prvodhtarutau brahmavidvariha ity ucyate. tad eva prvasthabodhita siddho na payatty anayor bhmidvaye vyavasthitatvn na ko 'pi virodha. 58. tatrya sagraha. pacamydibhmitrayarpy jvanmuktau sampdyamny dvaitapratibhsbhvena saayaviparyaprasagbhvd utpanna

tattvajnam abdhena rakita bhavati. seya jnarak jvanmukte prathama prayojanam.

4.1 54) nirgata: Adyar varjita | 56) grahtu: P1 P2 B2 ghtu | bahi ca sarvatra brahmady: P2 B3 PGh om., P1 B2 -tvena ata bahica | 57) saptamabhmi: Adyar nSS saptam bhmi | dam: P2 B3 PGh Adyar tdam | 58) pacamydi: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS tatrya sagraha. pacamydi > P2 adds in margin: sagraha. caturtha bhmikjne tisra syu sdhana pur. jvanmukte svasthstu parstistra prakrtit. | 428

4.2 [tapas] 1. tapo dvitya prayojanam. draavyam. tad dhetutva yogabhmn devatvdiprptihetutay tapastva crjunabhagavato rrmavasihayo ca

pranottarbhym avagamyate. 2. arjuna uvca: ayati raddhayopeto yogc calitamnasa | aprpya yogasasiddhi k gati ka gacchati || [BhG 6.37] 3. kaccinnobhayavibraa chinnbhram iva nayati | apratiho mahbho vimuho brahmaa pathi || [BhG 6.38] 4. bhagavn uvca: prpya puyakt lokn uitv vat sam | ucn rmat gehe yogabhrao 'bhijyate || [BhG 6.41] 5. athav yoginm eva kule bhavati dhmatm | etad dhi durlabhatara loke janma yadidm || [BhG 6.42] 6. tatra ta buddhisayoga labhate paurvadehikam | yatate ca tato bhya sasiddhau kurunandana || [BhG 6.43] ityadi. 7. rrma uvca: ekm atha dvity v tty bhmikm uta | rhsasya mtasytha kd bhagavan gati || [LYV 6.15.53] 8. vasiha uvca: yogabhmikayotkrntajvitasya arria | bhmiknusrea kyate prvaduktam || [LYV 6.15.57] 9. tata suravimneu lokaplapureu ca | merupavanakujeu ramate ramasakha || [LYV 6.15.58] 10. tata suktasabhre dukte ca pur kte | bhogakayaparike jyante yogino bhuvi || [LYV 6.15.59] 11. ucn rmat gehe gupte guavat sat | [LYV 6.15.60] tatra prgbhvanbhasta yogabhmitraya budha | 4.2 2) arjuna uvaca: P1 B2 om. uvaca | After 3, Adyar nSS add eta me saaya kra chettum arhasya eata. tvadanya saayasysya chett na hy upapadyate. [BhG 6.39], and: prtha naiveha nmutra vinastasya vidyate. na hi kalyakt kacid durgati tta gacchati. [BhG 6.40] | 7) ekmatha: Adyar dymatha | bhmikmuta: PGh bhmikmute | 10) tata sukta: P2 B3 PGh bhukte sukta | pur kte: P2 B3 PGh par kte | 429

spsvopari pataty uccair uttara bhmikkramam || [LYV 6.15.61] iti. 12. astv eva yogabhmn devaloka prptihetutvam tvat tapastva kuta iti cet, 13. ruter iti brma. tath ca taittiry mananti: tapas dev devatm agra yan tapas aya suranvavindan | [TB 3.12.3] iti. 14. tatvajnt prcnasya bhmiktrayasya tapastve sati tattvajnasyottaraklnasya nirvikalpasamdhirpasya pacamydibhmiktrayasya tapastva kaimutikanyyasiddham. 15. ata eva smaryate: manasa cendriyn ca aikgrya para tapa | taj jyya sarvadharmebhya sa dharma param ucyate || [MBh 12.242.4] iti. 16. yady apy anena nyyena tapas ppya janmntara nsti tathpi lokasagrahyeda tapa upayujyate. 17. ata eva bhagavn ha: lokasagraham evpi sapayan kartum arhasi || [BhG 3.20] iti. 18. sagrhya ca lokas trividha iyo bhaktas taastha ceti. tatra iyasyntarmukhe yogini gurau prmikatvabuddhyatiayena tad upadie tattve prama vivsa prpya citta sahas vismyati. 19. ata eva ryate: yasya deve par bhaktir yath deve tath gurau | tasyaite kathit hy arth prakante mahtman || [vU 6.23] iti. 20. smaryate ca: raddhvl labhate jna tatpara sayatendriya | jna labdhv par ntim aciredhigacchati || [BhG 4.39] iti.

4.2 11) spsvopari pataty: P2 B3 PGh yukt paripataty, Adyar psvopari pataty, nSS dvopari pataty | 13) yan: B3 PGh san | tapas aya: B3 PGh Adyar nSS tapasaraya > B2 sh cor. | suranvavindan: B2 B3 PGh Adyar svaranvavindan | 14) tapastve sati tattva-: P2 B3 PGh tapastvena tatva- | -nyyasiddham: P2 B3 PGh -nyyena siddham | 16) tapa upayujyate: B3 PGh tapa prayujyate, B2 nSS tapa ucyate | 18) lokas: P2 B3 PGh loke | 430

21. annapradnanivsasthnakalpandin yogina sevamno bhaktas tadya tapa svayam evdatte. 22. tath ca ryate: tasya putr dyam upayanti suhda sdhukty dvianta ppakty | [Cf. BSBh 3.3.26 & 4.1.16] iti. 23. taastho 'pi dvividha stiko nstika ceti. tatrstiko yogina

sanmrgcaraa dv svayam api sanmrge pravartate. 24. tath ca smti: yad yad carati rethas tat tad evetaro jana | sa yat prama kurute lokas tad anuvartate || [BhG 3.21] iti. nstiko 'pi yogin da ppn mucyate. 25. tad uktam: yasynubhavaparyant tattve buddhi pravartate | taddigocar sarve mucyante sarvaptakai || [SS 2.20.44] iti. 26. anena prakrea sarvapryupakritva yogino vivakitvt pahyate: kula pavitra janan ktrth vasudhar puyavat ca tena | aprasavit sukhasgare 'smil lna pare brahmai yasya ceta || [SS 2.20.45] iti. 27. na kevala yogina stryavyavahrasy 'pi tapastvam ki tu sarvasyaiva laukikavyavahrasypi. tath ca taittirykhy mananti. yennuvkena viduo mahimnam mananti. 28. tasmi cnuvke prvabhge yogino 'vayav

yajgadravyatvenmnt: tasyaiva viduo yajasytm yajamna raddh patn arram idhmam uro vedir lomni barhir veda ikh hdaya ypa kma jya manyu paus 4.2 20) jna (...) -gacchati: B2 (P1?) om. | 23) -caraa dv svayam api: P2 B3 PGh -carad eva svayam | 24) tath ca smti: P2 B3 PGh tath ca smaryate, B2 (P1?) tad uktam | mucyate: B2 (P1?) pramucyate | 25) paryant tattve: B2 (P1?) paryant distatve | 26) vivakitvt pahyate: B2 (P1?) Adyar nSS vivakitv pahyate, B3 PGh vivakitvd pahyate | After pahyate Adyar nSS add: snta tena samasta trtha salile sarvpi dattva niryajn ca sahasram iam akhil dev ca sapjit. sasrc ca samuddht svapitaras trailokya pjyo'pyasau yasya brahmavicrae kaam api sthairya mana prpnuyt. [LYV 6.16.34] | vasudhar: P2 B3 Adyar nSS vivabhar | 27) vyavahrasy 'pi: B2 (P1?) Adyar nSS vyavahrasyaiva, P1 B3 PGh vyavahrasya | taittirykhy mananti. yennuvkena: B2 (P1?) taittiryakyym antim evnuvkena, Adyar nSS taittiry svakhy nryaasyntim evnuvkena | viduo: B2 (P1?) B3 PGh Adyar nSS viduo 'pi | 431

tapo 'gnir dama amayit daki vg ghot pra udgt cakur adhvaryur mano brahm rotram agnt. [MNU 80] iti. 29. atra ca dna dakieti padam adhyhartavyam, atha yat tapo dnam rjavam ahis satya vacanam [ChU 3.17.4] iti t asya daki iti chandogair mntatvt. 30. uktnuvke madhyamabhgena yogivyavahrs tajjvanakl ca jyotiomvayavakriyrpatvenottarea sarvayajvayavakriyrpatvena cmnt: yvad dhriyate s dk yad anti tad dhavir yat pibati tad asya somapna yad ramate tad upasado yat sacaraty upaviaty uttihate ca sa pravargyo yan mukha tad havanyo y vyhtir hutir yad asya vijna taj juhoti yatsya prtar atti tat samidha yat prtar madhya dina sya ca tni savanni ye ahortre te darapramsau yo 'rdhams ca ms ca te cturmsyni ya tavas te paubandh ye savatsar ca parivatsar ca te 'harga sarvavedasa v etat sattra yan maraa tad avabhtha. [MNU 80] iti. 31. sarvavedasa sarvasvadakikam. atraitacchabdena prakthortrdi-

parivatsarnta sarvaklasamayupalakita yogina yur vivakyate. yad yus tat sarvasvadakiopeta sattram ityartha. 32. uktnuvke caramabhgena sarvayajtmaka yoginam upsnasya

kramamuktirpa phalam mnyate:




33. etad vai jarmaryam agnihotra satra ya eva vidvn udagayena pramyate devnm eva mahimna gatvdityasya syujya gacchaty atha yo dakie pramyate pitm eva mahimna gatv candramasa syuyja salokatm pnoty etau vai srycandramasor mahimnau brhmao vidvn 4.2 28) amayit: B3 PGh damayit | agnt iti : P2 PGh agnir iti | 29) dakieti padam adhy-: P1 B2 dakieti vaktavye dnapadam adhy-, Adyar nSS dakieti dnapadam adhy- | -avamahis: P2 B3 PGh avhis | t asya: P2 B3 PGh v asya | 30) uktnuvke: P2 B3 PGh uktnuvkena | -kriyrpeottara sarva-: B1 -kriy-(om.)-rpatvena cmnta, Adyar -rpatvena uttarabhgea sarva- | yajvayavakriyrpatvena: P1 B2 yajrpea > B2 sh cor. | tadasya soma-: P1 B2 tatsoma- | 30) samidha: B3 PGh samidho | v etat: B3 PGh vyu etat | avabhtha iti: P2 B3 PGh avadhtham iti | 32) uktnuvake: P2 B3 PGh uttarnuvkena | 33) gatvdityasya syujya gacchaty: B3 PGh -aditya syujyam salokata gacchaty | 432

abhijayati tasmd brahmao mahimnam pnoti tasmd brahmao mahimnam ity upaniat | [MNU 80] iti. 34. jarmaravadhika yad yogicaritam asti tad vedoktgnihotrdisavatsarasatrntakarmasvarpam ityevam upsnobhvantiayena srycandramaso

syujya tdtmya prapnoti. bhvanmndyena samnaloka prpya tasmil loke srycandramasor vibhtim anubhya tata rdhva satyaloke caturmukhasya brahmao mahimnam pnoti. tatrotpannatattvajnas tata urdhva satyajnnandarpasya parabrahmao mahimna prpnoti. ity upaniad ity anena

yathoktavidyys tatpratipdakagranthasyopasahra kriyate. tad eva jvanmuktes taporpa dvitya prayojana siddham. 4.3 [visavdbhva] 1. visavdbhvas ttya prayojanam. na khalav antarmukhe bhyavyavahram apayati yogvare laukikas tairthiko v kacid visavadate. visavdo dvividha kalaharpo nindrpa ca. tatra krodhdirahitena yogin saha katha nma laukika kalahyate. 2. tad rhitya ca smaryate: krudhyanta na pratikrudhyed krua kuala vadet | ativds titiketa nvamanyeta kacana | [MDh 6.48.47] iti. 3. nanu jvanmukte prcno vidvatsanysas tato 'pi prcna tattvajna tasmd api prcno vividisanysa. tatraite krodhdirhitydayo dharm atraite krodharhitydayo dharm katha smt iti cet,

4.2 34) vibhtim: P1 B2 vibht | tattvjnas: P2 B3 PGh tattvajnena | prpnoti: prpnoti: P2 B3 PGh kaivalyam pnoti, Adyar nSS kaivalyam prpnoti | -granthasyopa-: P1 Adyar nSS -granthasya copa- | 4.3 1) bhvas ttya: P1 B2 bhvas tasys ttya | vyavahramapayati: Adyar vypramapayati | visavadate: PGh visavadete | visavdo: P2 B3 PGh Adyar laukiko visavdo | 3) tatraite krodhdirhitydayo dharm: P1 P2 B3 PGh nSS om. | atraite krodharhitydayo dharm: B2 Adyar om. | 433

4. bham. ata eva jvanmuktasya krodhya akitum apy aaky. atyarvcne pade vividisanyse 'pi yad krodhdayo na santi tadottamapade tattvajne kutas te syu kutastar ca vidvatsanyse kutastam ca jvanmuktau ato na yogin saha laukikasya kalaha sabhavati. npi nindrpo visavda akanya. nindyatvasynicitatvt. 5. tath ca smaryate: ya na santa na csanta nruta na bahurutam | na suvtta na durvtta veda kacit sa vai yati || [VDh 6.44; NpU p.161] iti. sadasttve uttamdhamajt. 6. tairthako 'pi ki straprameye visavadate ki v yogicarite. dye na tvad yog parastraprameya dayati, 7. tam evaika jnatha tmnam any vco vimucatha | [MuU 2.2.5] 8. nnudhyyd bah chabdn vco viglpana hi tat | [BU 4.4.21] itydirutyanurodhena. 9. npi svastraprameya prativdino 'gre samarthayate, pallam iva dhnyrth tyajed grantham aeta | [AmbU 18] 10. para brahma vijya ulkvat tny athotsjet | [AmnU 1] itydirutyarthaparatvt. 11. yad yog prativdinam api svtmatay vkate tad vijigy k kath? npi lokyatikavyatirikta sarvo 'pi tairthiko mokam agkurvan. yogicarite 'pi

visavaditum arhati, rhatabauddhavaieikanaiyyikaaivavaiavaktaskhya4.3 4) akitum: Adyar akitum apy | atyarvcne pade: P2 B2 B3 PGh atyarvacina pade, P1 ityarvacina pade | 5) ya na santa na csanta: B3 ya na santa na vsanta, PGh ye na santa na vsanta | 6) dye na tvad yog: P2 B3 PGh dyena tu yog, P1 B2 dye 'pi na tvad yog | 7) jnatha: P2 B3 PGh jntha | 8) nnudhyyd: PGh nSS nnudhyet | vco viglpana hi tat: P1 B2 om. | anurodhena: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS anurodht, P1 arthat anurodht, B2 arthat paryavatvt > sh cor. anurodht | 11) yad yog prati-: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh nSS yad prati- > B2 sh cor. | k kath: P1 B2 kaiva kath | lokyatika: Adyar laukyatika | rhata-: P2 B3 PGh rhata | 434

yogdimokastraprameyasya nnvidhitve 'pi mokasdhanasya yamaniyamdyagayogasyaikavidhatvt. tasmd avisavdena sarvasamato yogvara. 12. etad evbhipretya vasiha ha: yasyeda janma pcttya tam v eva mahmate | vianti vidy vimal mukt veum ivottamam || [LYV 5.1.9] 13. ryat hdyat maitr saumyat muktat jat | samrayanti ta nityam antapuram ivgan || [LYV 5.1.10] 14. pealcramadhura sarve vchanti ta jan | veu madhuranidhvna vane vanamg iva || [LYV 5.1.11] 15. suuptavat praamitabhva vttin sthita sad jgrati yena cetas | kalnvito vidhur iva ya sad budhair nievyate mukta itha sa smta || [LYV 5.2.36] iti. 16. mtarva ama ynti viami mdni ca | vivsam iha bhtni sarvi amalini || [LYV 2.1.62] 17. tapasviu bahujeu yjakeu npeu ca | balavatsu guhyeu amavn eva rjate || [LYV 2.1.66] iti. 18. tadevam abdha jvanmukter visavdbhvarpa ttya prayojana siddham. 4.4 [dukhana sukhvirbhva ca] 1. dukhanasukhvirbhvarpacaturthapacamarpe prayojane vidynandtmakena brahmnandagatena caturthdhyyena nirpite. 2. tadubhayam atra sakipyocyate: tmna ced vijnyd ayam asmti prua | kim icchan kasya kmya arram anu sajvaret || [BU 4.4.12; PD 14.5] 4.3 11) mokastraprameyasya: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS mokastreu pratipdya prameyasya | 12) tam v eva: B1 tamseva > sh cor. | vidy vimala mukta: P2 vidy sarvst mukt, PGh vimal vidy mukt | 13) muktat: P2 PGh yuktat | 14) peal-: P1 B2 peatv > B2 sh cor. | 15) sthita sad: P1 B2 sthita sad | 18) visavdbhva-: P2 PGh vivdbhva- | 4.4 1) -bhvarpacaturthapacamarpe prayojane: P1 B2 Adyar nSS -bhvarpe caturthapacamaprayojane | vidynandtmakena brahmnandagatena caturthdhyyena: P1 B2 vidynandtmake brahmnandagate caturthdhyye | 435

iti ruty dukhasyaihikasya vina ukta. 3. eta ha vva na tapati kim aha sdhu nkarava kim aha ppam akaravam | [TU 2.9] itydirutaya mumikahetupuyappacintrpasya dukhasya nam hu. 4. sukhvirbhvas tredh sarvakmvpti ktaktyatva prptaprptavyatva ceti. sarvakmvptis tredh sarvaskitva sarvatrkmahatatva sarvabhokt-

rpatva ceti. hirayagarbhdisthvarnteu dehev anugata skicaitanyarpa yad brahma tad evham asmti jnata svadeha iva paradehev api

sarvakmaskitvam asti. 5. tad etad abhipretya ryate: so 'nute sarvn kmn saha brahma viparcit | [TU 2.1] iti. 6. loke bhukteu bhogev akmaharatva yat tat kmaprptir ity ucyate. tath ca sarvabhogadoadarinas tattvavida sarvatrkmahatatvd asti sarvakmvpti. ata eva srvabhaumopakrameu hirayagarbhaparyantettarottaraataguev nandeu "rotriyasya ckmahatasya" [TU 2.8] iti rutam. 7. sadrpea cidrpenandarpea sarvatrvasthita svtmnam anusadadhata sarvabhokttvam astty abhipretyaiva ruyate: aham annam aham annam aham annam | aham anndo 'ham annodo 'ham annada | iti. [TU 3.10] 8. ktaktyatva tu smaryate: jnmtena tptasya ktaktasya yogina | naivsti kicit kartavyam asti cen na sa tattvavit || [JdU 1.23; LP 1.86.105cd.106ab] 9. yas tv tmaratir eva syd tmatpta ca mnava | 4.4 2) iti ruty: P2 PGh Adyar nSS itydiruty | 4) anugata ski-: P2 PGh anugatasaki- | tadevham asmti: P2 PGh tadevsmti > P2 sh cor. | sarvakmaskitvam: P1 P2 B2 PGh om. sarva- | 6) yat skma-: P1 P2 B2 PGh yat tatsarvakma, Adyar nSS yat tatkma- | rutam: P2 B3 PGh rute | 7) -rpea sarva-: P1 B2 Adyar nSS -rpea ca sarva- | 436

tmany eva ca satuastasya krya na vidyate || [BhG 3.17] iti. 10. prptaprpyatpi ruyate: abhaya vai janaka prpto 'si | [BU 4.2.4] iti. 11. tasmt tat sarvam abhavat | [BU 1.4.10] iti. 12. brahma veda brahmaiva bhavati | [MuU 3.2.9] iti ca. 13. nanv etau dvau dukhavinasukhvirbhvau tattvajnenaiva siddhatvn na jvanmuktiprayojanatm arhata. 14. maivam surakitayos tayor atra vivakitatvt. yath tattvajna prvam evotpannam api jvanmukty surakita bhavati evam etv api surakitau bhavata. 4.5 [yogvaras tattvavic ca] 1. nanv eva jvanmukte pacaprayojanatve sati samhito yogvaro

lokavyavahra kurvatas tattvavido 'pi reha iti vaktavyam. 2. tac ca pranottarbhy nirkta: rrma: bhagavan bhtabhavyea kacij jtasamdhika | prabuddha iva virnto vyavahraparo 'pi san || [LYV 5.7.5] 3. kascid ekntam ritya samdhiniyatasthita | tayos tu katara reyn iti me bhagavan vada || [LYV 5.7.8] 4. vasiha: ima guasamhram antmatvena payata | antatalat ysau samdhir iti kathyate || [LYV 5.7.7] 5. dyair na mama sabandha iti nicitya tala | kacit savyavahrastha kascid dhynaparyaa || [LYV 5.7.8] 4.4 10) prptaprpyat 'pi: P2 B2 B3 PGh prptapraptavyat > B2 sh cor., P1 prpyaprptyat, Adyar nSS prptaprptavyatpi | 12) brahma veda brahmaiva: P2 B3 PGh brahmavid brahmaiva | 13) tattvajnenaiva: P1 B2 tatvajnaiva > P1 sh cor. | 14) jvanmukty: P2 B3 PGh jvanmuktau | tac ca pranottarbhy: P1 B2 Adyar nSS tac ca rmavasihayo pranottarbhy | 4.5 2) jtasamdhika: P2 B3 PGh Adyar jtu samhita | 3) -niyatasthita: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh -niyamasthita, Adyar nSS -niyame sthita | 4) vasiha: P2 B3 PGh vasiha uvaca | 437

6. dvv etau rma susamv anta cet paritalau | antatalat y syt tad anantatapaphalam || [LYV 5.7.9] iti. 7. naia doa. atra vsankayarpam antatalatvam avaya sapdanyam ity etvad eva sapdyate. na tu tadanantarabhvino manonasya rehatva nivryate. 8. talatva ty amanam iti td vivak svayam eva spacakra: antatalaty tu labdhy tala jagat | antastopataptn dvadham ida jagat || [LYV 5.7.24] iti. 9. nanu samdhinind vyavahrapraas ctropalabhyate: samdhisthnakasthasya ceta ced vtticacalam | tat tasya tu samdhna samam unmattatavai || [LYV 5.7.10] 10. unmattatavasthasya ceta cet kavsanam | tad asyonmattantya tu sama brahmasamdhin || [LYV 5.7.11] iti. 11. maivam. atra hi samdhiprastyam evgktya vsan nindyate. iyam atra vacanavyakti: yady api vyavahrt samdhi praasta tathpy asau savsana cet tad nirvsand vyavahrd adhama eva. yad samhitavyavahartrvubhv apy atattvajau savsanau ca, tad samdher uttamalokaprptihetupuyatvena praastyam. yad tbhau jnanihau nirvsanau ca tadpi vsankayarp jvanmukti pariplayann aya manonarpa samdhi praasta eva. tasmd yogvarasya rehatvt pacaprayojanopety jvanmukter na ko 'pi vighna iti siddham.

4.5 6) paritalau: P1 asutalau | 7) -rpam anta-: P2 PGh -rpatve saty ata- > P2 sh cor., B3 -rpatve saty ata- | -latvam avayam: B3 PGh latvvaya | ity etvad eva sapdyate: P2 B3 PGh ity eva sapdyate > P2 sh cor. sapratipdyate, P1 B2 Adyar nSS ity etvad eva pratipdyate | 8) amanam it td: P1 B2 Adyar nSS praamanam ity etd | vivak: P1 B2 vyavastha > B2 sh cor. | ida: Adyar aya | 9) -opalabhyate: Adyar -opalabhyete | 10) tadasyonmatta: nSS tattasyonmatta | 11) -prastyam: P2 B3 PGh -prptyabhvam | atra vacana-: P2 atra ca vacana- | vyavahrt samdhi: P2 B3 PGh vyavahrt tu samdhi | nirvsand vyavahrd: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh nirvsanavyavahrd | eva.: P1 B2 eva sa vsana samdhi., B3 PGh eva sa vsana samdhi., P2 eva samdhi., eveti sa na samdhi. | yad: P2 B3 PGh yadi | iti siddham: P2 om. all, B3 PGh iti | 438

12. iti svarpapramasdhanaprayojanair jvanmuktir nirpit. atha tad upakria vidvatsanysa nirpayma.

4.5 12) iti svarpapramasdhanaprayojanair jvanmuktir nirpit: P2 B3 PGh iti jvanmuktiprakarae svarpapramasdhanaprayojanair jvanmuktir nirpit, P1 om. all | 439

[atha pacama vidvatsanysaprakaraam]

5.1 [yogin parahasn marga] 1. vidvatsanysa ca paramahasopaniadi pratipdita. t copaniadam andya vykhysyma. 2. tatrdau vidvatsanysayogya pranam avatrayati: atha yogin paramahasn ko 'ya mrgas te k sthitir iti nrado bhavantam upagatyovaca | [PhU 1 p. 45] iti. 3. yady apy athaabdpekita nantaryapratiyog na ko 'py atra pratibhti tathpi praavyrtho 'tra vidvatsanysa. tasmi ca viditatattvo lokavyavahrair vikipyamo manovirnti kmayamno 'dhikr. nantaryam athaabdrtha. 4. kevalayogina kevala paramahasa ca vrayitu padadvayam uktam. kevalayog tattvajnbhavena triklajnkagamandiu yogaivaryacamatkravyavahrev sakta sayamavieais tatra tatrodyuktas, tata paramapururthd bhrao bhavati. 5. tasminn arthe stra prvam evodhtam: te samdhv upasarg vyutthne siddhaya | [YS 3.38] iti. 6. kevalaparamahasas tu tattvavivekenaivaryev asrat buddhv virajyati. 7. tad apy udhtam: cidtmana im ittha prasphurantha saktaya | ity asycaryajleu nbhyudeti kuthalam || [LYV 5.9.67] iti. virakto 'py asau brahmavidybharea vidhiniedhv ullaghayati. 8. tad uktam: nistraiguye pathi vicarat ko vidhi ko niedha | iti. 5.1 4) tatra tatrodyuktas, tata: P2 B3 PGh Adyar tatra tatrodyukte. tata, P1 B2 tatra tatrodyukte. saayaviparyair na conmuktas tata, nSS tatropayukte. tata | 5) tasminn: P1 B2 Adyar nSS asminn | stra: P1 B2 om > P1 sh cor. | 7) prasphurantha: P2 B3 PGh prasphuranti hi | -vidybharea: P2 B3 PGh -vidydarea | vidhiniedhv ull-: P2 B3 PGh vidhiniedhn ull- | 8) taduktam: P2 B3 PGh om. | 440 tatas tdgadhikrasapatty-

9. tath ca raddhlava is tam eva nindanti: sarve brahma vadiyanti saprpte ca kalau yuge | nnutihanti maitreya inodaraparya || iti. 10. yogini tu paramahase yathokta doadvaya nsti. anyo 'py asytiaya pranottarbhy darita: rrma: eva sthite 'pi bhagava jvanmuktasya sanmate | aprvo 'tiaya ko 'sau bhavaty tmavid vara || [LYV 6.14.1] 11. vasiha: jasya kasmicid evga bhavaty atiaye na dh | nityatpta pranttm sa tmany eva tihati || [LYV 6.14.2] 12. mantrasiddhais tapasiddhair yogasiddhai ca bhria | ktam kayndi tatra k syd aprvat || [LYV 6.14.3] 13. eka eva vieo 'sya na samo mhabuddhibhi | sarvatrsthparity gn nrgam amala mana || [LYV 6.14.5] 14. etvad eva khalu ligam aligamrte santasasticirabhramanirvtasya | tajjasya yan madanakopavidamohalobhpadmanudina nipua tanutvam || [LYV 6.14.6] iti. 15. anentiayenopetn doadvayarahitn mrgasthit pcchyete.

veabhdirpo hi bhyavyavahro mrga. cittoparama ntaro dharma sthiti. bhagav caturmukho brahm. 16. yathokta pranottaram avatrayati: ta bhagavan ha | [PhU 1 p. 45] iti. 17. vakyamamrge raddhtiayam utpdayitu ta rga praasati: so 'ya paramahasamrgo loke durlabhataro na tu bhulya | [PhU 1 p. 45] iti. 5.1 9) ca: Adyar nSS tu | 10) -hase doa-: Adyar nSS -hase yathokta doa- | 11) vasiha: P2 B3 PGh vasiha uvaca | evga: P2 B3 PGh Adyar apy e | 12) yogasiddhai: nSS tantrasiddhai | 14) bhramanirvtasya: P2 B3 PGh ramanirvtasya | 15) anen-: Adyar nSS eten- | vea-: P2 B3 PGh dea- > P2 sh cor. | -rpo hi bahyavyavahro: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS -rpo hi vyavahro | cittoparama ntaro: Adyar nSS cittoparamarpa ntaro | 441

18. ya pa so 'yam iti yojan.

ayam ity uttaragranthe vakyama

cchdandi svaarropabhogena lokopakrea ca nirapeko mukhyo mrga parmyate. tdasya paramakh prptasya vairgyasydcaratvt tasya mrgasya durlabhataratvam. na caitvattyantbhva akanya ity abhipretya tam eva pratiedhati na tv iti. ligavyatyata chndasa. 19. nanv aya mrgo durlabhatara cet tarhi tadarthaprayso na kartavya tena prayojanbhvd ity, akyha: 20. yady eko 'pi bhavati sa eva nityaptastha sa eva vedapurua iti viduo manyante | [PhU 1 4546] iti. 21. manuy sahasreu kacid yatati siddhaye | yatatm api siddhn kacin m vetti tattvata || [BhG 7.3] 22. iti nyyena yatra kvpi yad kadcid yog paramahaso ya kascil labhyate tarhi sa eva nityaptastho bhavati. 23. nityapta paramtm "ya tmpahatappm" [ChU 8.7.1] iti rute. 24. evakrea kevalayogikevalaparamahasau vyvartyate. kevalayog nityapta na jnti. kevalaparamahaso jnann api cittavirntyabhavd bahirmukho brahmai na tihati. vedapratipdya puruo vedapurua. viduo vidvso brahmnubhavacittavirntipratipdakastrapragat yogina. paramahasasya

brahmanihatva sarve jan manyante. yathokt vidvsas tu tad apy asahamn brahmatvam eva manyate. 25. tath ca smaryate: 5.1 17) so 'ya: P2 B3 PGh yoya > B1 same, sh cor. yoya | paramahasamrgo: Adyar nSS paramahasn mrgo | 18) ccdandi sva-: P2 B3 cchadandiu sva- | abhipretya tam eva: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS abhipretya bhulyam eva | pratiedhati: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh pratiedhyate | na tv iti. ligavyatyata chndasa: P2 B3 PGh na tv bhulya iti ligavyatyaya chdasa, P1 B2 Adyar nSS na tv iti bhulyam iti vaktavye ligavyatyata chndasa | 20) eko'pi : P2 B3 PGh om. 'pi | 22) kadcid yog: P1 B2 kadcid kevala yog > B2 sh cor. | 22) ya: Adyar nSS yadi | 23) paramtm "ya tmpahatappm": B3 PGh paramtmtha apahatappma, P2 paramtm apahatappma | 24) kevalayogi-: B1 kevalayog-nSS om. | -hasau vy-: P1 P2 B3 PGh -haso vy, Adyar nSS hasa ca vy- | 442

darandarane hitv svaya kevalarpata | yas tihati sa tu brahman brahma na brahmavit svayam | [PD 4.68; MukU 2.64] iti. ato na prayojanbhva akitum api akyate. 26. nityaptasthatva vedapuruatva ca mukhato viadayann artht "k sthiti" iti pranasyottara strayati: mahpuruo yac citta tat sad mayy evvatihate tasmd aha ca tasminn evvasthita | [PhU 1 p. 46] iti. 27. vaidikajnakarmdhikripurueu madhye yogina paramahasasytyantam uttamatvn mahpuruatvam. sa ca mahpuruo yac citta svakya tat sad mayy evvasthpayati niruddhatvt. ata sasragocar eva bhagavn tadyacittavttnm prajpati abhysavairgybhy paramtmna


svnubhavena parman mayti vyapadiati. yasmd yog mayy eva citta sthpayati tasmd aham api paramtmasvarpatvena tasminn eva yoginy avirbhto 'vasthito 'smi netarev ajniu tem avidyvtatvt. 28. tattvavitsv apy ayoginiu bhyacittavttibhir vtatvn nsty virbhva. idn ko 'ya mrga iti pa mrgam upadiati: asau svaputramitrakalatrabandhvd chikhyajopavte svdhyya ca sarvakarmi sanyasyya brahma ca hitv kaupna daam cchdana ca svaarropabhogrthya ca lokasyopakrrthya ca parigrahet | [PhU 1 p. 46] iti. 29. yo ghastha prvajanmasacitapuyapuje paripakve sati mtpitjtydin nimittena vividisanysarpa paramahasramam asvktyaiva ravadi5.1 26) mukhato: P2 B3 PGh mukhyato > P2 sh cor. | strayati : P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh nSS scayati | tatsad: P1 P2 B2 tatsarvad | evvatihate: Adyar evvasthpayati | 27) -dhikripurueu: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS -dhikriu purueu | sa ca: nSS sa tu | tat sad: P1 P2 B2 tat sarvad | yog mayy eva citta: P1 P2 B2 yog citta mayy eva | svarpatvena: P1 B2 svarpea | 28) -bhogrthya ca lokasyo-: Adyar om. ca | -opakrrthya ca: P1 B2 -opakrya ca | 29) matpitjtydin: nSS matpitjtydin > B1 sh cor., Adyar matpitrjdin | 443

sdhanny anuhya tattva samyag avagacchati, tato grhasthyaprptair laukikavaidikavyavahrasahasrai citte vikipte sati virntisiddhaye vidvatsanysa cikrati, ta prati svaputramitretydyupadea. prvam eva vividisanysa ktv tattva viditavato vidvatsanysa cikro kalatraputrdiprasagbhvt. 30. nanv aya vidvatsanysa kim itarasanysavat praioccradividhyuktaprakrea sapdanya, ki v jravastrasopadravagrmditygaval laukikatygamtrarpa. ndya tattvavida karttvarhityena vidhiniedhnadhikrt. ata eva smaryate: jnmtena tptasya ktaktyasya yogina | naivsti kicit kartavyam asti cen na sa tattvavit || [JdU 1.23] iti. na dvitya. kaupnadadyramaligavidhnaravat. 32. naia doa pratipattikarmavad ubhayarpatvopapatte. tath hi jyotiome dkitasya dkganiyamnuhnakle kayitu hasta pratiidhya kavi vihit: 33. yad dhastena kayeta pmnabhvuk praj syur yat smayeta nagnabhvuk | [TS 6.1.3] iti. 34. kaviay kayate | [TS 6.1.3] iti ca. tasy ca kaviy sampte niyame prayojanbhvd vohum aakyatvc ca tyga svata eva prpta. 35. ta ca tygaprakra vedo vidadhti: ntsu dakisu ctvle kavi prsyati | [TS 6.1.3] iti. tad ida pratipattikarma laukika vaidika cety ubhayarpam. eva vidvatsanyso 'py ubhayarpa. 5.1 grhasthya-: P2 B3 PGh Adyar ghasthasya | citte: PGh cittair | upadea: P1 B2 upanysa | kalatraputrdi-: P2 B3 PGh Adyar putrakalatrdi- | 33) pmna-: P2 B2 PGh ppamna > P2 sh cor. | yat smayeta nagnabhvuk iti: P2 B3 PGh om. | 34) iti ca: P2 B3 PGh om. ca | 35) tygaprakra: B2 Adyar nSS tyga saprakra | 444

36. na ca tattvavidi karttvasytyantbhva akanya cidtmany ropitasya karttvasya vidyaypohitatve 'pi cicchyopete 'ntakaraopdhau vikriysahasrayukte svatasiddhasya karttvasya yvad dravyabhvitaynapohitatvt. na ca "jnmtena" itydismtivirodha, saty api jne virntirahitasya tptyabhvena virntisapdanalakaakartavyaeasadbhavena ktaktyatvbhvt. 37. nanu tattvavido vidhyagkre sati tenprvea dehntaram rabhyeta. 38. maivam. tasyprvasya cittavirntipratibandhanivraalakaasya daphalasya sabhave saty adakalpany anyyyatvt. anyath ravadividhiv api brahmajnopattipratibandhanirvraarpa daphalam upekya janmntara-

hetutva kalpyeta. tasmd vidhyagkre dobhvad vidvidiur iva vidvn api ghastho nndmukharddhopavsajgaradividhim anustyaiva sanyasyet. 39. yady apy atra rddhdika nopadia tathpy asya vidvatsanysasya vividisanysaviktitvt "praktivad vikti kartavy" iti nyyena tady dharm sarve 'py atra prpnuvanti yathgnitomasya viktiv atirtrdiu tadyadharmaprptis tadvat. tasmd itarasanysavad atrpi praiamantrea putramitrdityga

sakalpayet. 40. bandhvdn ity diabdena bhtyapaughaketrdilaukikaparigrahdivie parighyante. svdhyya ceti cakrea tadarthanirayopayuktni padavkyapramastri vedopabhaktihsapurdni ca samuccinoti. autsukyanivtti-

5.1 36) cicchyopete 'nta: B3 PGh cichyopetta | 37) tattvavido: P2 B3 PGh Adyar tattvavido'pi | pratibandhanivraa-: P2 B3 PGh pratibandhavraa- | 38) adakalpany: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS adaphalakalpany | anyyyatvt. anyath: P1 B2 add anyyyatvt pratibadhanivraasya cittavirtitvt. anyath | kalpyeta: P1 B2 parikalpyeta | 40) parighyate: P2 B2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS (P1?) saghyate | 445

mtraprayojann kvyanakdn tygah kaumutikanyyasiddha. karmti sarvaabdena laukikavaidikanityanaimittikaniiddhakmyni ghyante.


41. putrditygenaihikabhoga parihta. sarvakarmatygena cmumikabhog cittavikepakri pariht. ayam iti chndasa vibhaktiligavyatyayeneda

brahmam iti yojanyam. brahmdatygo nma tatprptihetor virupsanasya tyga. brahma ceti cakrea strtmaprptihetor hirayagarbhopsanasya svaputrdihirayagarbho-

tattvajnahetn ravadn ca samuccaya.

psanntam aihikam mumika ca sukhasdhana sarva praiamantroccranena parityajya kaupndika parighyt. samuccinoti. 42. tath ca smti: kaupnayugala vsa kanth tanivrim | pduke cpi ghyt kuryn nnyasya sagraham || [LVS 4.7; LHS 6.7cd 8ab] iti. 43. svaarropabhogo nma kaupnena lajjvyvtti. upadravaparihra. cchdanena tdiparihra. daena gosarpdycchdana ceti cakrea pdukdni

cakrt pdukbhym ucchia-

deaspardiparihra samuccinoti. lokasyopakro nma dadiligenaiva tadyam uttamrama parijya taducitbhivandanabhikpradndipravtty suktasiddhi. cakrbhym ramamarydy icraprpty plana samuccinoti. 44. kaupndiparigrahasynuklyatvam abhipreya mukhyatva pratiedhati: tac ca na mukhyo 'sti | [PhU 1 p. 47] iti. 5.1 40) sarvaabdena: P2 B3 PGh om. sarva- | ghyante: P2 B2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS (P1?) saghyate | 41) tygenaihika- : B2 (P1?) tygenaivaikita- | cmumika: P2 B3 PGh amumika > om. ca | chndasa vibhakti-: P2 B2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS (P1?) chndasavibhakti- | vibhaktivyatyayeneda: Adyar nSS -vibhaktiligavyatyayeneda | pdukdni: B2 (P1?) pdukdn | 42) tath ca smti: P2 B3 PGh om. tath ca | 43) cakrt: B2 (P1?) cakrena | cakrbhym rama-: Adyar cakrerama- | 44) -nuklyatvam: P2 B2 B3 PGh (P1?) -nukalpatvam, Adyar -nuklatvam > nSS cor. | mukhyatva: P2 B3 PGh mukhatva | pratiedhati: B2 (P1?) niedhati |


45. yat kaupndiparigrahaam asti tad apy asya yogina paramahasasya mukhya kalpo na bhavati ki tv anukalpa eva. vividisanysinas tu daagrahaa

mukhyam iti ktv daaviyogasya niedha smaryate: 46. datmanos tu sayoga sarvadaiva vidhyate | na daena vin gacched iukepatraya budha || [SU p. 252] iti. pryacittam api daane prymaata smaryate: "daatyge ata caret" iti. 5.2 [yogina paramahasasya mukya kalpa] 1. yogina paramahasasya mukhya kalpa pranottarbhy darayati: ko 'ya mukhya iti ced aya mukhyo na daa na ikha na yajopavta ncchdana carati paramahasa | [PhU 12 p. 47] iti. na ikham iti chndaso ligavyatyayo 'nusadheya. 2. yath vividiu paramahasa ikhyajopavtbhy rahito mukhyas tath yog dacchdanbhy rahita san mukhyo bhavati daasya vaiavatvdilakaam cchadanasya kanthtvdilakaa ca parkitu dadika

sapdayitu rakitu ca citte vypte sati vttinirodhalakao yogo na sidhyed iti. tac ca na yuktam na hi varavightya kanyodvha iti nyyt. 3. cchdandyabhve tdibdhy ka pratkra ity akyha: 4. na ta na coa na sukha na dukha na mnvamne ca armivarjam | [PhU 2 p. 4748] iti. 5. niruddheacittavtter yogina ta nsti tatpratyaybhvt. yath llym saktasya blasycchdandirahitasypi hemantaiirayo prtakle 'pi ta nsti 5.1 45) apy: P2 B3 PGh om. | anukalpa: P2 PGh anuklya | 46) -kepatraya: B3 -kepatraka, PGh -kepaaka | 5.2 1) mukhyo: Adyar nSS mukhya | 2) -bhy rahito: B2 (P1?) -bhy api rahita | vypte: P2 B3 PGh nSS vyvte | vttinirodha-: P2 B2 B3 PGh nSS (P1?) cittavttinirodha-, Adyar cittavttir nirodha- | 4) na mnvamne ca: P2 B3 PGh om. na > P2 sh cor., Adyar na mnvamnau ca | 447







ubhvas aprattau





tajjanyayo sukhadukhayor abhva upapanna. nidghe ta sukhajanaka hemante dukhajanakam. uktaviparyaya ue draavya. mna puruntarea sapdita satkra. avamnas tiraskra. yad yogina svtmavyatirikta puruntaram eva na pratyate tad mnvamnau drpastau. cakra kutpipse




okamohau jarmarae ca. te tray dvandvn kramea pramanodehadharmatvd tmatattvbhimukhasya yoginas tadvarjana yujyate. 6. nanv astv eva samdhiday tdyabhva vyutthnaday tu ninddiklea sasriam ivaina bdhata evety akyha: 7. nindgarvamatsaradambhadarpecchdveasukhadukhakmakrodhalobhamohaharsyhakrd ca hitv | [PhU 2 p. 48] iti. 8. virodhibhi puruai svasminn pdit dooktir nind. anyebhyo 'dhiko 'ham iti cittavttir garva. vidydhandibhir anysado bhavmti buddhir matsara. parem agre japadhyndiprakaana dambha. bhartsandiu dhabuddhir darpa. dhandyabhila icch. atruvadhdibuddhir dvea. anukladravydilbhena buddhisvsthya sukham. tadviparyayo dukham. krodha. yoiddyabhila labdhasya dhanasya kma. tyg-

kmitrthavightajanyo buddhikobha

5.2 5) tatpratyaybhvt: P1 B2 Adyar nSS tatpratty abhvt | saktasya: P2 B3 PGh saktacittasya | -kale 'pi: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh nSS om. 'pi | gharmakale ubhva tathaiva-: P1 gharmaklenbhva tathaiva-, PGh gharmaklenubhva ca tathaiva-, P2 gharmakle tbhva ca tathaiva-, B3 gharamkle uabhva ca tathaiva-, Adyar nSS gharamkla uabhava ca tathaiva- | varbhva-: Adyar varsu tadabhva- | aprattau : P2 B3 PGh apantayos, P1 B2 aprtau | upapanna: P2 B3 PGh upalabdha | drpstau: B3 PGh nSS drdapetau, P1 P2 B2 Adyar drapetau > P2 sh cor. drdapetau | tu: P1 B2 om. | bdhata evety: Adyar bdhetaivety | 8) virodhibhi: P2 B3 PGh vividhai | anyasado: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh asya sado, Adyar ananyasado | -di buddhir: P2 B3 PGh nSS -diu buddhir, P1 B2 Adyar -diu dhabuddhir | 448

sahiutva lobha. hite ahitabuddhir ahite ca hitabuddhir moha. cittagatasukhbhivyajik mukhavikrydihetur dhvttir hara. parakyagueu doatvropaam asy. dehendriydisaghtev tmatvabhramo 'hakra. diabdena bhogyavastuu mamakrasamcnatvdibuddhayo ghyante. cakro yathoktaninddiviparta

stutydika samuccinoti. etn sarvn ninddn hitv prvoktavsankaybhysena parityajyvatiheteti ea. 9. nanu vidyamne svadehe tatparityago na sabhavatty akyha: 10. svavapu kuapam iva dyate yatas tad vapur apadhvastam | [PhU 2 p. 48] iti. 11. prva yat svakya vapus tad idn yogin svtmacaitanyt pthagbhtatvena kuapam ivvalokyate. yath raddhlu sparanabhty avadeha dre sthito 'valokyati tathya yog tdtmyabhrntyudayabhty svadhno deha cidtmana sakn niranta vivinakti. yata krat tad vapur cryopadegamnubhavair apadhvasta cidtmana sakn nirktam, tata caitanyaviyuktasya avatulyatay dyamnatvt saty api dehe nindditygo ghaata ity abhiprya. 12. nantpanno digbhrama sryodayadaranena vinao 'pi yath kathacid anuvartate tath dehtmasaaydyanuvttau ninddiklea puna puna prasajyetety akyha:

5.2 8) hite ahitabuddhir ahite: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS hitev ahitabuddhir ahiteu | mukhavikrydi-: P1 P2 B3 PGh mukhavikdi-, Adyar mukhaviksdi-, nSS sukhavikdi- | gueu: P2 B3 PGh gue | tmatvabhramo: P1 B2 tmatvropaam, Adyar tmabhramo | -samcnatvdi-: P2 -samcndayo, B3 PGh nSS -samcnatvdayo | 9) svadehe: P2 B3 PGh dehe | tatparityago: P2 B3 PGh parityago | 11) yat: P2 B3 PGh ya > P2 sh cor. | yogin: P2 B3 PGh om. | deha cid-: P1 B2 deha ptagbhtatvena cid- | 11) -gamnubhavair: P1 B2 -gamnumnnubhavair | viyuktasya: P2 B3 PGh vimuktasya dehasya, P1 B2 viyuktadehasya, Adyar nSS viyuktasya dehasya | 12) kathacid: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS kadcid | tath dehtma-: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh Adyar tath kadcid tmani dehtma-, nSS tath cidtmani dehtma- | dehtmasa-: P1 B2 B3 PGh nSS dehtmatvasa- | 449

13. saayavipartamithyjnn yo hetus tena nityanivtta | [PhU 2 p. 48] iti. 14. tm karttvdidharmopetas tadrahito vetydika saayajnam.

dehdirpa evtmeti vipartajnam. etad ubhaya bhoktviayam. mithyjna tu bhogyaviayam atra vivakitam. 15. tac ca: anekavidham sakalpaprabhavn kmn | [BhG 6.24] ity atra spa ktam. 16. tad dhetu caturvidha: anityucidukhntmasu nityaucisukhtmakhytir avidy | [YS 2.5] iti strat. 17. anitye girinadsamudrdau nityatvabhrntir ek. aucau

putrabhrydiarre ucitvabhrntir dvity. dukhe kivijydau sukhatvabhrntis tty. gauamithytmani putrabhrydv annamaydv antmani mukhytmatvabhrnti caturth. 18. ete saaydn hetur advityabrahmtmatattvvarakam ajna tadvsan ca. tatrjna yogina paramahasasya mahvkyrthabodhena nivttam. vsan tu yogbhysena nivtt. udhty digbhrntv ajne nivtte 'pi vsany sadbhvd yathprva bhrntivyavahra. yoginas tu bhrntihetudvayarhityt kuta saaydny anuvarteran. tam enam anuvttyabhvam abhipretynena hetudvayena yog nityanivtta ity uktam. satym apy ajnatadvsannivttau tannivtter vinbhvn nityatva draavyam.

5.2 14) bhoktviayam: P2 B3 PGh karttvabhokttvaviayam | bhogyaviayam atra viva-: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh bhogyaviayamiti viva-, B2 sh cor. bhoktviayam iti, B1 bhoktviayam atra viva> sh cor. mohaviayam atra viva- | 17) putrabhrydv annamaydv antmani: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh putrabhrydau annamaydau antmani, Adyar putrabhrydv annamaydike cntmani, nSS putrabhrydv annamaydike 'ntmani | 18) tatrjna: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS tac cjna, P1 atrjnam | udhty: B1 sh adds kevalaparamahasasya tu udhty | yoginas tu bhrnti: P2 B3 PGh yogino bhrnti, B1 sh adds paramahasa yoginas tu bhrnti | abhipretynena: P1 B2 abhipretya tena | tannivtter: P1 B2 Adyar nSS tasy nivtter, P2 B3 PGh nivtter


19. tasmin nityatve hetum ha: tannityabodha | [PhU 2 p. 48] iti. sarvanmatvt pratiiddhrthavc tac chabdo 'tra sarvavedntaprasiddha

paramtmnam cae. tasmin paramtmani nityo bodho yasya yogina so 'ya tannityabodha. 20. yog hi tam eva dhro vijya praj kurvta | [BU 4.4.21] iti rutim anustya cittavikepn yogena parihtya nairanatyaryea paramtmaviaym eva praj karoti. ato bodhasya nityatvd bodhavinyayor ajnatadvsanayor nivttir nityety artha. 21. budhyamnasya paramtmanas trkakevaravat taasthatvaak vrayati: tat svayam evvasthita | [PhU 2 p. 4849] iti. yad vedntavedya para brahmsti tat svayam na tu svasmd anyad ity eva nicitya yogino 'vasthitir bhavati. 22. tasya yogino 'nubhavaprakra darayati: ta ntam acalam advaynandavijnaghana evsmi tad eva mama parama dhma | [PhU 2 p. 49] iti. 23. tamitydipadatraye dvity prathamrthe draavy. ya paramtm nta krodhdivikeparahita, acalo gamandikriyrahita svagatasajtyavijtyadvaitanya, saccidnandaikaraso 'sti sa evham asmi. tad eva brahmatattva mama

5.2 19) tasmin nityatve: B2 Adyar nSS tan nityatve > B2 sh cor. | 20) tam eva dhro: P1 B2 B3 PGh om. | kurvta. iti: Adyar AnSS kurvta brhmaa. iti | 21) tatsvayam na tu sva-: P1 B2 Adyar nSS tatsvayam na tu sva-, P2 B3 PGh tatsvayam na ca sva- > P2 sh cor. tatsvayam eva na ca | 22) yogino 'nubhava-: P1 B2 Adyar nSS yogino brahmnubhava- | 23) -vijtyadvaita-: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS -vijtyabheda- | -aikaraso'sti sa: P2 B3 PGh -aikarasa sa | 451

yogina parama dhma vstava svarpam. na tv etat karttvabhokttvdiyuktam etasya mykalpitatvt. 24. nanv tmana parabrahmatva nandvptir idn kuto nety atrnandvpti sadntam uktbhiyuktai: 25. gav sarpi arrastha na karoty agapoaam | tad eva karmaracita punas tasyaiva bheajam || [KT 6.77] 26. eva sarvaarrastha sarpirvat paramevara | vin copsan devo na karoti hita nu || [KT 6.78] iti. 27. yadi yogina prvramaprasiddh cryapitbhrtrdaya karmia

raddhja ikhyajopavtasadhyvandandirhityena pkhaitvam ropya vymohayeyus tad vymohdyanutpattaye yogino vartamnanicaya darayati: 28. tad eva ca ikh tad evopavta ca paramtmtmanor ekatvajnena tayor bheda eva vibhagna s sadhy | [PhU 2 p. 49] iti. 29. yad vedntavedyasya parabrahmao jna tad eva karmgabhtabhyaikhyajopavtasthnyam. anye ca mantradravyalakae karmgabhte cakr-

bhy samuccyete. ikhdyagasdhyai karmabhir utpanna yat svargdisukha tat sarva brahmajnenaiva labhyate viaynandasya sarvasya brahmnandaleatvt. 30. etasyaivnandasynyni bhtni mtrm upajvanti | [BU 4.3.32] iti rute. 31 etad evbhipretytharvaik brahmopaniady mananti: saikha vapana ktv bahistra tyajed budha | yad akara para brahma tat stram iti dhrayet || [BU 2 p. 85] 5.2 23) na tv etat karttvabhokttvdi yuktam: P2 B3 PGh yat karttvabhokttvdi tat na yukta | 24-26) nanv (...) nu. iti: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh om. all > P1 sh cor. | 27) pkhaitvam: P1 B2 Adyar paatvam | tad: P1 B2 tadn | vymohdy anu-: P1 B2 mohnu-, Adyar vymohnu- | yogino vartamnanicaya: P1 B2 yogini vartamna nicaya, Adyar nSS yogino vartamna nicaya | 28) vibhagna: P2 B3 PGh vibhinna | 29) cakrbhya: P1 B2 cakrt | 30) iti rute: Adyar iti ruti | 452

32. scant stram ity hu stra nma para padam | tat stra vidita yena sa vipro vedapraga || [BU 2 p. 85] 33. yena sarvam ida prota stre maiga iva | tat stra dhrayed yog yogavit tattvadarivn || [BU 2 p. 86] 34. bahistra tyajed vidvn yogam uttamam sthita | brahmabhvam ida stra dhrayed ya sa cetana | dhrat tasya strasya nocchio nucir bhavet || [BU 2 p. 86] 35. stram antargata ye jnayajopavtin | te vai stravido loke te ca yajopavtina || [BU 3 p. 86] 36. jnaikhino jnanih jnayajopavtina | jnam eva para te pavitra jnam ucyate || [BU 3 p. 8687] 37. agner iva ikh nny yasya jnamay ikh | sa ikhty ucyate vidvn netare keadhria || [BU 3 p. 87] 38. karmay adhikt ye tu vaidike brhmadaya | ebhir dhryam ida stra karmga tad dhi vai smtam || [BU 3 p. 87] 39. ikh jnamay yasya upavta tu tanmayam | brhmaya sakala tasya iti brahmavido vidu || [BU 3 p. 87] 40. ida yajopavta ca parama yat paryaam | vidvn yajopavt syt tajjs ta yajvina vidu || [BU 3 p. 8788] iti. 41. tasmd yogina ikhyajopavte vidyete. tathaiva sadhypi vidyate. ya stragamya paramtm ya cha pratyayagamyo jvantm, tayor ekatvajnena mahvkyajanyena bhrntipratto bhedo vieea bhagna eva. punar bhrntyanudayo bhagasya vieah. yeyam ekatvabuddhi seyam ubhayor tmano sadhau

jyamnatvt sadhyety ucyate. ahortrayo sadhv anuey kriy yath sadhy tadvat. eva ca sati yog raddhjaair na vymohayitu akya. 5.2 33) yena : B1 sh cor. yasmin | 36) jnaikhino: Adyar nSS jnaikh | 38) ebhir dhryam: P1 B2 tebhir dhryam, P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS tair vidhryam | karmga: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh kriyga | 39) yasya upavta tu tanmayam: P1 B2 yasya upavta ca cinmayam, P2 B3 PGh yasyopavta ca tanmayam, Adyar nSS yasyopavta cpi tanmayam | 40) ca: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh tu | 41) -opavte vidyete: P2 Adyar nSS -opavte yath vidyete | bhagna eva. punar: P2 B3 PGh bhagna eva punar | bhagasya: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh bhagnasya > B2 sh cor. | 453

5.3 [yogina paramahasasya jnadaa] 1. ko 'ya mrga iti pranasya asau svaputretydinottaram uktam. k sthitir ity etasya mahpurua itydin samkipyottaram uktv saayavipartetydin tad eva prapacyednm upasaharati: sarvn kmn parityajya advaite param sthiti | [PhU 3 p. 50] iti. 2. krodhalobhdn kmaprvakatvt kmaparitygena cittado sarve 'pi parityajyante. 3. etad evbhipretya vjasaneyibhir mnta: atho khalv hu kmamaya evya purua | [BU 4.4.5] iti. ato nikmasya yogicittasydvaite nirvighn sthitir upapadyate. 4. nanu daagrahaavidhivsanayopet vivisanysino yogina

darahita paramahasa nbhyupagacchantty akyha: 5. jnadao dhto yena ekada sa ucyate || 6. khadao dhto yena sarv jnavarjita | sa yti narakn ghorn mahrauravasajakn || 7. titikjnavairgyaamdiguavarjita | bhikmtrea yo jvet sa pp yativttih || 8. idam antara jtv sa paramahasa | [PhU 3 p. 50] iti. 9. paramahasasya yo 'yam ekadaa sa dvividha jnadaa khadaa ceti. yath tridaino vgdao manodaa karmadaa ceti traividhya tadvat. 10. vgdanayo manun smaryante: vgdao 'tha manodaa karmadaas tathaiva ca | yasyaite niyat buddhau sa tridati cocyate || [MDh 12.10]

5.3 1) parityajya advaite: P1 P2 B2 B3 parityajdvaite | param: P2 B2 B3 PGh parame, P1 parama | 3) etad ev-: P2 B3 PGh tad ev- | 4) -vasanopet: nSS -balenopet | 6) sa yti (...) sajkn.: P1 B2 om. | 8) idam: P1 B2 add sa yati (...) sajkn. idam | 9) karmadaa: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh nSS kyadaa | 10) P1 B2 transpose MDh 12. 10 and 11 | 454

11. trikaam etan nikipya sarvabhteu mnava | kmakrodhau tu sayamya tata siddhi nigacchati || [MDh 12.11] iti. 12. te svarpa daka smarati: vagdao 'tha manodaa karmadaas tathaiva ca | yasyaite niyat das tridati sa ucyate || [NpU p. 192; VaP 17.6] 13. vgdae maunam tihet karmadae tv anhatm | mnasaya tu daasya prymo vidhyate || [DSm 7.30; SU p. 272] iti. 14. karmadao 'lpabhojanam iti smtyantarapha. 15. da tridaatva paramahasasypy asti. tad etad abhipretya pitmaha smarati: yati paramahasas tu turykhya ruticodita | yamai ca niyamair yukto viurp tridaabht || iti. 16. eva sati maundn rgdidamanahetutvd yath daatva

tathaivjnatatkryadamanahetor jnasya daatvam. aya jnadao yena paramahasena dhta sa eva mukhya ekadaty ucyate. mnasasya jnadaasya kadcic cittavikepea vismti prasajyeteti tannivrartha smraka kadao dhriyate. 17. tad etac chstrrtharahasyam abuddhv veamtrea pururthasiddhim abhipretya khadao yena paramahasena dhta sa puruo bahuvidhaytanopetatvd ghorn mahrauravasajakn narakn pnoti. tatra hetur ucyate. paramahasavea dv jnitvabhrnty sarve jan svasvaghe ta bhojayanti. aya ca jihvlampao varjyvarjyavivekam aktv sarvam annam anti. tena

5.3 11) etan: P2 B3 PGh nSS eva | nigacchati: P2 B3 PGh nSS niyacchati | 13) tu: P2 B3 PGh nSS ca | 16) rgdi-: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS vagdi- | 17) -rtharahasyam: P1 B2 rtharakaasyasvarpam; B2 sh cor. -rtharahasyasvarpam | abuddhv: Adyar abuddh | vea-: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh nSS veu- | pururthasiddhim: P1 pururthasmraka siddhim | -opetatvd ghorn: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh -opetn ghorn | pnoti: P1 B2 prpnoti | svasvaghe: P1 B2 svasvagheu | jihvlampao: P2 B3 PGh bhikalampao | sarvam annam anti: nSS sarvam anti, P2 B3 PGh samanti > P2 sh cor. sarvam anti | 455

pratyavya prpnoti.

yani tu "nnnadoea maskar" "cturvarya cared

bhaikam" itydismtivacanni tni jniviayi. aya ca jnavarjita ity yukto 'sya naraka. 18. ata eva jnahnasya yater bhikniyamam ha manu: na cotptanimittbhy na nakatrgavidyay | nnusanavdbhy bhik lipseta karhicit || [MDh 6.50] 19. ekakla cared bhaik na prasajyate vistare | bhaike prasakto hi yatir viayev api sajjati || [MDh 6.55] iti. 20. jnbhysina prati tv evam smaryate: ekavra dvivra v bhujta parahasaka | yena kena prakrea jnbhys bhavet sad || iti. 21. eva jnadaakhadaayor yad antaram uttamdhamatvarpa tad idam avagatyottama jnadaa yo dhrayati sa eva mukhya paramahasa ity abhyupagantavyam. 5.4 [yogina paramahasasya cary] 1. nanv astv abhijasya paramahasasya jnadao m bht

khadaanirbandha itar tu cary sarv kdty akyha: 2. mbaro nirnamaskro na svhkaro na svadhkro na nindstutir ydcchiko bhaved bhikur nvhana na visarjana na mantra na dhyna nopsana ca na lakya nlakya na ptha nptha na cha na tva na sarva cniketasthitir eva sa bhiku sauvardn naiva parigrahen na loka nvaloka ca | [PhU 4 p. 5052] iti. 5.3 17) yani tu nnna-: P1 B2 jtni yani nnna- | aya ca jna-: P1 B2 aya tu jna- | 19) vistare: P2 B3 PGh vistarai | bhaike: P1 P2 B2 bhaikye | 21) eva j-: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh nSS eva sati j-, Adyar eva ca sati j- | yad antaram: P2 B3 PGh nSS yat tratamyam | uttamdhamatvarpam: P2 B3 PGh uttamdhamarpa, Adyar uttamatvdhamatvarpa | 5.4 1) nanv astv abhijasya parama-: P2 B3 PGh nSS nanv amuya parama- | paramahasasya jnadao mbht : P1 B2 paramahasasya sanysino mbht, P2 B3 PGh paramahasasya sanyso mbht, nSS paramahasasystu jnadao m bht | 2) nirnamaskro: P1 B2 Adyar na namaskro | na svhkaro: P1 B2 P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS om. | nindstutir: P1 B2 P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS nind na stutir | nopsana ca: P1 B2 Adyar om. ca | na sarva: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS na ca sarva | sarva cniketa: Adyar nSS sarva na cniketa | sa bhiku: P1 B2 om. sa | sauvardn: B3 PGh sauvardn | parigrahen na loka: B3 PGh parigrahet tal loka | nvaloka: P1 B2 nvalokana ceti, P2 B3 PGh nvalokayec ceti > P2 sh cor. | 456

3. dia t evmbara vastram cchdana yasysv mbarah. smtivacanam: janvor rdhvam adho nbhe paridhyaikam ambaram | dvityam uttara vsa paridhya ghn aet ||

4. yat tu

iti tad idam ayogiviayam. ata eva prvam "tac ca na mukhyo 'sti" [5.1.44; PhU 1 p. 47] ity uktam. 5. yat tu smtyantaram: yo bhavet prvasanys tulyo vai dharmato yadi | tasmai prama kartavyo netarya kadcana || [YU p. 314; YDhS p. 105] iti. tasypy ayogiviayatvn nsya namaskra kartavyo 'sti. 6. ata eva brhmaalakae "nirnamaskram astutim" [1.9.6; MhB 12.237.24] ity udhtam. gayprayg-

ditrtheu raddhjyt prpta "svadhkro" niidhyate. prvatra "nindgarva" [5.2.7; PhU 2 p. 48] itydivkye parai ktay svaninday kleo nivrita; atra tu svakartke paraviaye nindstut niidhyete. 7. ydcchikatva nirbandharhityam. na kvacid api vyavahre nirbandha kuryt. 8. yas tu devapjy nirbanda smaryate: bhikana japa auca snna dhyna surrcanam | kartavyni a etni sarvath npadaavat || iti. tasyyogiviayatvam abhipretya nvhanam itydy mntam. dhynam nairantaryenusmaraam upsanam iti tayor bheda. 9. sakt smaraa

5.4 3) vastramcchdana: P1 B2 vastrasthanya cchdana | 4) dvityam uttara: B3 PGh dvityaottaram, P2 dvityamaittaram | 4) prvam: P1 B2 prvatra | 5) yat tu: B2 Adyar yady api > B2 sh cor. | 5) tasypy ayogiviayatvan: P2 B3 PGh nSS tasypy anyaviayatvn, Adyar tathpi tasyyogiviayatvn | namaskra: B3 PGh namaskra | 6) -vkye parai ktay: Adyar -vkyena paraktay | paraviaye: Adyar anyaviaye | 7) ydcchikatva: P2 B3 PGh yadcchika > P2 sh cor. | 8) tasyyogi-: P1 B2 P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS tasypy ayogi- | 457

10. yath yogina stutininddilaukikavyavahrbhva yath v devapjdidharmastravyavahrbhva tath lakyatvdijnastravyavahro 'pi nsti. yat skicaitanyam tad idam "tat tvam asi" [ChU 6.8.716.3] itivkye tvapadena lakyam. dehdiviia caitanya lakyam na bhavati ki tu vcyam. tac ca vcya tatpadrtht pthak lakya tv apthak. svadehaniho vcyo 'rtho 'ham iti lakya vcyam ity

vyavahrrha paradehanihas tvam iti vyavahrrha.

ubhayavidha cetanopetam, anyaj jaa jagat sarvam iti vyavahrrham, ityetdo vikalpo na ko 'pi yogino 'sti tadyacittasya brahmai virntatvt. 11. ata eva sa bhikur aniketasthitir eva. yadi niyatanivsrtha kacin maha sapdayet tadn tasmin mamatve sati tadyahnivddhyo citta vikipyeta. 12. etat sarvam abhipretya gaudapdcry ahu: nistutir nirnamaskro nisvadhkra eva ca | calcalaniketa ca yatir ydcciko bhavet || [GK 2.37] iti. 13. yath maho na parigrahtavyas tath suvararjatdn bhikcamandiptrm ekam api na ghyt. 14. tad ha yama: hiramayni ptri kryasamayni ca | yatn tny aptri varjayet tni bhikuka || iti. 15. manur api: ataijasni ptri tasya syur nirvrani ca | 5.4 10) yath v: P1 P2 B2 B3 yath ca | lakyatvdij-: B2 Adyar AnSS lakyatvlakyatvdij- | skicaitanyam tad: P1 B2 P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS skicaitanyam asti tad | pthak lakya: P2 B3 PGh nSS pthak tallakyam | 10) paradehanihas tvam iti vyavahrrha. ubaya-: P2 B3 PGh paradehanihatvam padrtha tvam iti vyavahrha. lakya vcyam ity ubaya-, P1 B2 pradehaniho vcyrthatvam iti vyavahrrha. lakya vcyam ity ubaya-, Adyar paradehanihas tvam iti vyavahrrha. lakyam vcyam ity ubaya-, nSS lakya vcyam ity ubaya- > om. paradehanihas tvam iti vyavahrrha | cetanopetam: Adyar caitanyopetam |11) kacin: Adyar kicin | vddhyo citta: P1 P2 B3 vddhau citta, B2 PGh vddho citta | vikipyeta: B3 PGh vikipyete | 13) parightavyas: Adyar nSS parigrahtavyas | suvara-: P2 B3 PGh Adyar sauvara- | ghyt: P1 B2 parighyt | 14) kya: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS krya | yatn tny aptrai: P1 B2 yatnm tmraptrai, B1 yatn cny aptrai | 458

tem adbhi smta auca camasnm ivdhvare || [MDh 6.53] 16. albudruptra v mnmaya vaiava tath | etni yatiptrni manu svyabhuvo 'bravt || [MDh 6.54] iti. 17. baudhyano 'pi svayam htapareu svayareu v puna | bhujta na vavatthakarajn ca parake || 18. pady api na ksyeu mal ksyabhojana | sauvare rjate tmre mnmaye trapussayo || iti. 19. tath loka jana iyavarga na ghyt. tad ha manu: eka eva caren nitya siddhyartham asahyaka | siddhim ekasya payan hi taj jahti na hyate || [MDh 6.42] iti. 20. medhtithir api: sana ptralopa ca sacaya iyasagraha | divsvpo vthlpo yater bandhakari a || [SU pp. 268-269] 21. ekht parato grme pacht parata pure | varbhyo 'nyatra yat sthnam sanam tad udhtam || 22. uktlbvdiptrm ekasypi na sagraha | bhikor bhaikyabhuja cpi ptralopa sa ucyate || 23. ghtasya tu dader dvityasya parigraha | klntaropabhogrtha sacaya parikrtita || 24. urlbhapjrtha yao 'rtha v parigraha | iy na tu kruyt sa jeya iyasagraha || 25. vidy dina prakatvd avidy rtrir ucyate | vidybhyse pramdo ya sa divsvpa ucyate || 26. dhytmik kath muktv bhaikacary surastutim | anugraha pathiprann vthlpo 'nya ucyate || [SU pp. 269] iti. 5.4 15) tem adbhi : P1 B1 B2 Adyar te mdbhi | 17) ca: P1 B2 tu | 19) payan: P2 B3 PGh nSS sapayan | 20) ptralopa: B3 PGh ptralobha | 22) uktlabvdi: B3 PGh uktalvdi | ekasypi: B3 PGh ekaikasypi | bhaikya-: Adyar nSS bhaika- | ptralopa: B3 PGh ptralobha | 26) bhaikya-: Adyar nSS bhaika- | surastutim: P2 narastutim > B2 sh cor. | anugraha pathiprann: P1 P2 B2 anugraha pathiprann, B3 PGh anugraham atha prano, Adyar nSS anugraha pathiprano | vthlpo 'nya ucyate: P1 B2 vthjalyo'nya ucyate, P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS vthlpa sa ucyate | 459

27. loka iyajanarpa na ghyd ity etvad eva na bhavati ki tu tasya lokasyvaloka daranam api na kuryt tasya bandhahetutvt. na cety anennyad api smtiniiddha na kuryd ity abhipretam. darayati: sthvara jagama bja taijasa viam yudham | a etni na ghyd yatir mtrapuravat || [SU p. 271] 29. rasyana kriyvda jyotia krayavikrayam | vividhni ca ilpni varjayet paradravat || iti. 30. yogino laukikavaidikavyavahragatni yni bdhakni santi te varjanam abhihitam. 31. atha pranottarbhym atyantabdhaka pradarya tadvarjanam ha: bdhaka ka iti ced bdhako 'sty eva | yasmd bhikur hiraya rasena da cet sa brahmah bhavet | yasmd bhikur hiraya rasena spa cet sa paulkaso bhavet | yasmd bhikur hiraya rasena grhya cet sa tmah bhavet | tasmd bhikur hiraya na da na spa na grhya ca | [PhU 4 p. 5253] iti. 32. kro 'bhivyptyartha "adarthe 'bhivyptau" ity abhihitatvt. abhivypto bdhako 'tyantabdhakas tasya sadbhva pratijya hirayasya tathvidhabdhakatvam ucyate. rasenbhilayuktendarea hiraya yadi da syt tadn sa dra bhikur brahmah bhavet. hiraysakty tatsapdanarakaayo sarvad prayatamnas tadvaiyarthyaparihrya prapacamithytvapratipdakn vedntn dayitv tatsatyatvam avalambate. tata strasiddham advitya brahma tena bhiku hatam eva bhavati. tasmd asau brahmah bhavet. 33. tath ca smaryate: 5.4 27) iyajanarpa: P1 B2 iyaananurpa | tu lokasy-: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS tu tasya lokasy-, P1 B2 tu tasya janasy- | 29) kriyvda: P2 B3 PGh kriycram | 30) yogino: P1 B2 e yogin | 31) ced bdhako: P1 B2 cet bdhako | paulkaso: P2 B3 PGh pauskaso | hiraya na da: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS hiraya rasena na da | na da na spa na grhya ca: P1 B2 na da na ca spa na ca grhya ca, B3 Adyar nSS na da ca na spa ca na grhya ca | 32) artha: B3 PGh nSS rtha | 'bhivyptau ity abhi-: P1 B2 P2 B3 PGh 'bhivyptav api abhi- | hatam eva: P2 B3 PGh hatam iva | 460 28. tac ca niiddha medhtithir

brahma nstti yo bryd dvei brahmavida ca ya | abhtabrahmavd ca trayas te brahmaghtak || iti. 34. brahmah sa tu vijeya sarvadharmabahikta | iti ca. 35. abhilaprvaka hiraya spa cet tad sa spra bhiku patitatvt paulkaso mlecchasado bhavet. 36. ptitya ca smaryate: pataty asau dhruva bhikur yasya bhikor dvaya bhavet | dhprva reta utsargo dravyasagraha eva ca || iti. 37. abhilapurasara hiraya ghta cet tad sa bhikur dehendriydiskiam asaga cidtmna hatavn bhavet asagatvam apohya svtmano hiraydidravya prati bhokttvena pratipannatvt. sarvapparpatva smaryate: yo 'nyath santam tmnam anyath pratipadyate | ki tena na kta ppa coretmpahri || [MhB 1.68.26] iti. 39. ki ctmaghtina sukhaleenpi rahit bahuvidhadukhenvt lok ruyante: asury nma te lok andhena tamasvt | ts te pretybhigacchanti ye ke ctmahano jan || [U 3] iti. 40. da cety anena cakrea ruta ca samuccyate. spa cety anena kathita ceti. grhya cety anena vyavahta ceti samuccaya. daranasparanagrahaavad abhilapravak hirayavttntaravaatadrpakathanatadyakriydivyavahr api pratyavyahetava ity artha. yasmt sbhilahiraya38. tasynyathpratipatte

5.4 33) abhta ... ghtak: P1 B2 om. > B2 sh cor. | 34) brahmah ... ktha: P2 B3 PGh om. | 35) tad sa spra: P1 P2 B2 B3 tad spra, PGh tad ta spra, Adyar tad tatspra | paulkaso: P2 B3 PGh pauskaro | 37) hiraya ghta: Adyar nSS hiraya na grhyam. ghta | 38) tasynyath-: P1 B2 Adyar nSS tasy cnyath-, P2, B3, PGh tasmc cnyath- | core-: P1 P2 B3 PGh caure- | 40) spa cetyanena kathita ceti: P1 B2 P2 B3 PGh Adyar spa cetyanena kathitasya samuccaya, nSS om. all | grhya ... samuccaya: B2 Adyar grhya (...) samuccyate, nSS om. all | -tadrpakathana-: P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS -tadguakathana-, P1 -tatkathanena, B2 tatkathana- | -kriydi-: Adyar -kraydi- | sbhilahirayadarandayo: B1 sbhila hiraydayo, P1 P2 sbhilsaprvaka hirayadarandayo | 461

darandayo doakrias tasmd bhiku hirayadarandayo varjany ityartha. 41. hirayavarjanasya phalam ha: sarve km manogat vyvartante dukhe nodvigna sukhe nisphas tyge rge sarvatra ubhubhayor nbhisneho na dvei na modate ca sarvem indriy gatir uparamate ya tmany evvasthyate | [PhU 4 pp. 5354] iti. 42. putrabhryghaketrdikmn sarve hirayamlatvd dhiraye

parityakte sati te km manogat manasy avasthnd vyvartante vyvtt bhavanti. kmanivttau saty karmaprptayo sukhadukhayo udvegasphe na bhavata. etac ca sthitaprajaprastve prapacitam. 43. aihikayo sukhadukhayor vikepakatvenmumikaviayarge 'pi tygo bhavati. aihikasukhasphyukto hi taddntenbhimata mumike sukhe rgavn bhavati. tasmd aihike nisphasymumike rgbhvo yujyate. eva sati sarvatra lokadvaye 'pi yau ubhubhv anuklapratiklaviayau tayor anabhisneha. 44. etac ca dvearhityasypy upalakaam. kacid api purua na dvei. tdo vidvn aubhakria

ubhakria ca dv na moda prpnoti.

dveamodarahito ya pumn tmany eva sarvadvatihate tasya sarvem indriy gati pravttir uparamate. indriyoparatau na kadcid api nirvikalpakasamdher vighno bhavati. te k sthitir iti pranasya sakepavistarbhym uttara prvam uktam. tad evtra punar api hirayaniedhaprasagena spaktam. 5.4 41) tyge rge: P1 B2 tygo rga | na modate ca: P2 B3 PGh na moda ca | uparamate: Adyar uparamati | evvasthyate: Adyar evvatihate | 42) avasthnd: P1 B2 anavasthnd | sukhadukhayor: P2 B3 PGh Adyar dukhasukhayor | 43) -yor vikepaka-: P2 B3 PGh -yor na vikepaka- | vikepaktvenmumika: P2 B3 PGh -tve saty mumika, P1 adhikepakatve sati amumika, B2 adhikepekte sati amumika | viayarge: P1 B2 viayabhoge | -yukto hi tad-: P1 B2 yuktas tad- | -bhimata: P1 B2 P2 B3 PGh Adyar nSS -numita | -aihike nisphasy-: P1 B2 -aihike sukha ni- | anuklapratiklaviayau: P1 B2 anuklapratiklau viayau | 44) -kria ca dv na moda: P2 B3 PGh nSS -kria ca dv na ca moda, P1 B2 -kria ca dv moda, Adyar -kria dv na ca moda | uparamate: Adyar uparamati | 462

45. atha vidvatsanysam upasaharati: yat prnandaikabodhas tad brahmham asmti ktaktyo bhavati ktaktyo bhavati | [PhU 4 p. 55] iti. 46. yad brahma vednteu prnandaikabodha paramtmeti nirpita tad brahmham asmty eva sarvadnubhavann aya yog paramahasa ktaktayo bhavatti. 47. tath ca smaryate: jnmtena tptasya ktaktyasya yogina | naivsti kicit kartavyam asti cen na sa tattvavit || [JdU 1.23] iti. 48. jvanmuktivivekena bandha hrda nivrayan | pumartham akhila deyd vidytrthamahevara || 49. iti rmatparamahasaparivrjakcryarmadvidyrayamuniviracito jvanmuktiviveka sampta.

5.4 45) ktaktyo bhavati ktaktyo bhavati: P1 P2 B2 B3 PGh om. second ktaktyo bhavati > B2 sh cor. | 46) yog: Adyar om. | 47) tath ca: Adyar yath ca | 48) tamo: Adyar nSS bandha | 49) iti rmat paramahasa parivrjakcrya rmad vidyrayamuni viracito jvanmuktiviveka sampta: P2 iti r jvanmktiviveka vidyraya kta samapti, P1 B2 B3 PGh iti jvanmuktiviveka sampta, Adyar sapro'ya rmadvidyraya-prato jvanmukiviveka | nSS iti rmat paramahasa parivrjakcrya rbhrattrthabhamavac-chiya rmad vidyrayaguruvara viracito jvanmuktiviveka sapra | 463

Appendix One: Index of Sources

This index lists where in the JMV Vidyraya cites a particular source whether or not he names the text or author. Whenever I could determine it, I noted in the text and translation whether a particular passage appears in more than one source. In those few instances I indexed the same numbers under two or more sources. Page numbers for the introduction are preceded by "i." Other numbers refer to the section and paragraph numbering system of the text and translation. Sanskrit alphabetical order is not followed. AmbU AmnU rU BhG 2.3.17-19, 3.3.8, 4.3.9. 3.4.2, 3.4.13-15, 3.4.32, 3.5.24, 3.5.29, 4.3.10. 1.2.25-26. 1.2.43, 1.6.2, 1.6.7, 1.6.9, 1.6.12, 1.6.14, 1.6.16, 1.6.19-20, 1.6.22, 1.6.23, 1.6.25, 1.7.2-3, 1.7.6-10, 1.8.1, 1.8.3-7, 1.9.19, 1.9.31, 2.3.10-14, 2.3.23, 2.3.77-81, 2.4.5, 2.4.12-14, 2.4.21-38, 2.4,61-65, 2.6.8, 2.6.10-12, 2.6.15, 2.7.12, 2.11.34-35, 2.11.37-38, 3.2.16,. 3.3.9-10, 3.6.20-25, 3.6.27-29, 3.8.6-8, 3.9.15, 3.10.17, 3.10.47, 3.10.49, 3.11.20, 3.11.25, 4.1.18, 4.2.2-6, 4.2.17, 4.2.20, 4.2.24, 4.5.9, 5.1.21, 5.2.17, i53. 2.2.7. 1.9.7, 1.9.25, 1.9.29, 2.4.75, 4.1.29, 42.57. 2.3.49, 2.3.53. 1.4.6, 2.3.3, 2.4.68, 4.2.22, i53, i42, i35 n.11, ch.2 n.58. 1.9.22, 2.9.14. 1.0.1, 1.0.13, 1.1.2, 1.1.3-7, 1.1.13, 1.2.3-6, 1.2.8, 1.2.10, 1.2.12, 1.4.5, 1.6.18, 1.9.2, 1.9.11, 2.3.34, 2.3.47, 2.3.65-66, 2.3.76, 2.4.16, 2.4.66, 2.5.2, 2.5.4, 2.5.6, 2.9.2, 2.9.8, 2.9.22-23, 3.4.5-6, 4.3.8, 4.4.2, 4.4.10-11, 5.2.20, 5.2.30, 5.3.3. 1.2.34. 5.2.31-40 2.2.8, 2.3.30, 2.3.50, 2.4.55, 2.4.69, 2.10.2, 4.1.27, 4.2.29, 5.1.23, 5.4.10, i40.





1.9.13-14, 5.3.13. 2.3.35, 3.2.15,3.8.9, 3.10.26-30, 3.10.38-42,3.10.51, 5.4.12, I 2 p. 35, i63. 1.9.44, 5.4.39, i32n.6, h1 n.25. 4.4.8, 5.1.31, 5.1.36, 5.4.47. 1.0.3, 1.2.17, 1.2.20-22, 1.9.4. 2.10.6-8 1.1.2, 3.3.6. 2.4.66, 2.10.26. 1.4.2, 1.4.5, 1.10.24, 2.2.8,2.2.12, 2.3.9, 2.3.29, 2.3.46, 2.3.63, 2.3.84, 2.4.52, 2.5.19, 2.11.2-3, 3.7.1, 3.7.5, 3.8.3-4, 3.9.5, 3.9.7, 3.10.59-60. 5.2.25-26. 3.11.22, i3. 3.4.11. 5.2.42. 1.3.11, 1.3.15-26, 1.3.28-29, 1.3.31-33, 1.4.7-10, 1.4.13, 1.4.15, 1.4.17, 1.4.19, 1.4.21, 1.4.23, 1.4.25, 1.5.2, 1.5.4, 1.5.6, 1.6.4-5, 2.1.3-5, 2.1.7-9,, 2.2.7, 2.2.9, 2.2.14-15, 2.3.4-6, 2.3.8, 2.3.54, 2.4.4, 2.4.8-11, 2.4.17-19, 2.4.25, 2.4.33, 2.4.41, 2.4.56, 2.4.82-84, 2.5.17, 2.5.21-25, 2.6.2-5, 2.8.2-5, 2.9.28, 2.10.16-26, 2.10.31-32, 2.11.5-6, 2.11,10, 2.11,17-24, 2.11.26-37, 3.1.4-14, 3.1.17-18, 3.2.3-6, 3.2.12-13, 3.2.1524, 3.3.1, 3.4.3, 3.4.17-18, 3.4.33, 3.5.43-52, 3.6.3-14, 3.7.12-14, 3.10.910, 3.11.23, 3.11.26-39, 3.12.1-11, 4.1.3-4,4.1.6-16, 4.1.30, 4.1.35-44, 4.146, 4.1.48-49, 4.1.51-55, 4.1.57, 4.2.7-11, 4.3.12-17, 4.5.2-6, 4.58, 4.5.9-10, 5.1.7, 5.1.10-14, i30, i32, i36, i45, i48, i49, i50, i54, i56, i60. 1.2.17, 1.9.1, 1.9.5, 1.9.15, 1.9.33, 1.9.42, 2.4.74, 2.10.39, 3.6.32, 5.4.6, 5.4.38. 1.9.38, 2.2.16, 3.5.10, 3.6.31, 4.3.2, 5.3.10-11, 5.3.18-19, 5.4.15-16, 5.4.19. 4.2.27, 4.2.29, 4.2.33. 1.0.1, 2.5.78-79, 3.2.9, 3.10.50. 465



1.2.41, 1.9.10, 2.3.41-43, 2.3.83, 2.4.57-60, 4.1.20, 4.1.33, 4.3.7, 4.4.12, ch.1 n.4, ch.2 n.57. 1.9.17, 2.4.53-54, 2.4.73, 2.4.76, 2.11.26, 3.5.31-33, 3.9.14, 5.1.25. 2.3.67. 1.7.11, 2.3.13, 2.7.17, 2.9.11, 2.9.13. 1.9.32. 1.1.9, 1.2.34-35, 1.9.39-40, 2.4.72, 2.4.83, 2.10.40-46, 2.10.48, 3.7.3, 4.3.5, 5.3.12 4.1.22-25. 2.3.26, 2.10.10, 2.10.27-29, 4.4.2, 5.1.25. 1.4.16. 1.2.27-31, 1.9.4, 1.9.9, 5.1.2, 5.1.16-17, 5.1.20, 5.1.26, 5.1.28, 5.1.44, 5.2.1, 5.2.4, 5.2.7, 5.2.10, 5.2.13, 5.2.19, 5.2.21, 5.2.22, 5.2.28, 5.3.1, 5.3.5-8, 5.4.2, 5.4.31, 5.4.41. 2.3.59. 2.3.74, 2.10.27. 1.3.13. 2.1.6. 2.4.44-45. 2.3.28, 2.3.32, 2.3.45, 2.3.72, 3.3.7, 3.3.11-12, 4.2.19, i58. 1.9.17, 1.10.1-23, 2.4.76, 2.4.86, 4.2.25-26. 3.5.31-33, 3.9.14 3.9.4, 3.10.44. 2.5.9, I 2 n. 8. 5.3.13-14, 5.3.46, 5.4.20-26, 5.4.28 1.6.28-30, 3.9.10 466

Ppd Ps Prm RV Rm vU SS Sarvnubhava SauU SK SU reyomrga


1.1.12, 2.3.38, 2.3.67. 2.4.50, 4.2,13. 2.4.74, 5.1.33-35. 2.3.44, 2.4.69, 2.7.9, 4.4.3, 4.4.5-6, 4.4.7. 1.2.40, 1.9.23, 2.9.10, 3.5.34-36 5.3.12. 1.9.17. 2.10.39, 4.3.5. 1.9.36, 2.4.56. 2.4.72, 2.5.13, 2.10.8, 4.1.21. 1.9.27, 2.9.18, 2.9.29. 2.3.51-52. 1.9.8, 1.9.20, 1.9.27, 1.10.40, 2.7.8, 5.4.5. 3.4.11. 2.2.4, 2.7.1-3, 2.7.15, 2.11.12-13, 3.3.1-3, 3.4.20, 3.4.22, 3.4.27, 3.4.2931, 3.5.4, 3.5.4, 3.5.6, 3.5.8-9, 3.5.12-23, 3.5.25-28, 3.5.40, 3.5.42-43, 3.6.2, 3.6.19, 3.6.26, 3.10.2-3, 3.10.5-7, 3.10.13, 3.10.15, 3.10.19, 3.10.21, 3.10.23-24, 3.11.2-3, 3.11.5-10, 3.11.12, 3.11.15, 3.11.18, 3.11.41, 3.11.43,3.11.45-46, 5.1.5, 5.2.16. 3.5.2, 3.9.4. 1.9.20, 1.9.25, 2.10.11, 2.10.14, 2.10.16-29, 2.10.39.



Appendix Two: Index of Subjects

This index lists relevant topics and texts as they appear in the introduction and the JMV translation. Titles of works, names of authors, and characters are listed when they are mentioned directly in the text. Names of modern scholars mentioned in the intoduction and notes have not been indexed. Page numbers for the introduction are preceded by "i". Other numbers refer to the section and paragraph numbering system of the text and translation. Sanskrit alphabetical order is not followed. Rosemary Wetherold deserves special recognition for her work in compiling this index. abandonment, 1.6.21, 2.3.12, 2.11.1424. See also under specific things abandoned abhysapava. See skillful practice absence, basis (pratyaya) of, 3.11.9, 3.11.11 abuse, verbal, 1.4.22 achieve. See all there is to achieve acting as one pleases, 5.4.2, 5.4.7, 5.4.12 action(s), 1.2.41-42, 1.4.20, 2.3.40, 2.3.42, 2.4.16, 2.5.11, 2.7.17. See also effort; future action; operative action; ritual action; staff of action; uncommenced action(s) activities, 1.10.8, 3.11.3-10, 3.11.12-13 activity (pravtti) , 1.8.8, 2.5.7-9, ch.2 n.49 activity, ordinary, as cause of living, 2.11.25-37 ada. See unseen subtlety adhikrin-s. See qualified to study, those who are adhysa, translation of term, ch.3 n.16 admittance, allowing, 1.6.16-17 adultery, 1.3.16, 1.3.24 afflictions. See klea-s agitation, 1.8.8, 1.9.16 agni (god of fire), ch.4 n.9 agnihotra sacrificial session, 4.2.33, ch.4 n.9 Agnioma Soma sacrifice, 5.1.39 agrahra (land grant), i13, i15 ahakra. See ego; egoic consciousness aim of human existence, 5.4.48 Aitareya, commentary on, i8 Ajtaatru, 2.4.66 akaa. See offbeat akep. See transcends alaukika. See renunciation; spiritual means Alepakamatabhagavda`, i18 all there is to achieve, i65, 4.4.4, 4.4.1012 all there is to do, 4.4.4, 4.4.8-9, 5.1.31, 5.1.36, 5.4.45-47; having done (ktaktya), i45 All, 2.3.40 alms, collecting, 5.3.18-19, 5.4.4. See also begging alms-giving, 2.3.11, 4.2.28-29, 5.1.43 alone, 1.9.8, 1.9.42-43, 1.9.45 amanast. See mindlessness amanibhva, translation of term, ch.2 n.15 ana, translation of as suffix, ch.2 n.26 anabhisneha. See attachment analogical reasoning (upamna), i54 analysis assessment (vyatireka), 3.11.4042, ch.3 n.37 Ananta, 3.3.2, 3.3.5, ch.3 n.7 anavasth. See infinite regress anger, delusion, 1.6.23; derived from darkness, 1.6.11; freedom from, 2.2.6, 2.2.23, 2.3.12, 4.3.1-4, 5.2.78; as impure latent tendency, 2.4.30, 2.4.41; as quality of Demonic fortune, 2.3.14; remedy for, 2.10.9, 2.10.11; twofold, 2.10.11-15 anguish, and suffering, 1.6.10 anna. See food


annamaya. See food, made of antarym. See brahmaa on the Inner Controller antakaraa, ch.2 n.47. See also inner organ Anubhtipraka, i8 anubhava (experience), i42 anubhyate (it is experienced), 1.1.8 anukalpatvam (secondary nature), 5.1.44 anukalpa (secondary), 5.1.45 anumna. See inference anusadhna. See awareness anusmarana. See remembrance, sustained anuvtti. See continuity, absence of anvayavyatirekha (positive and negative concomitance), translation of term, ch.2 n.48 anxiety, freedom from, 1.7.6 anyonybhva (mutual non-existence), ch.2 n.23 anrabdhakarma (uncommenced action), i32 Aparoknubhti, commentary on, i8 aprva, i36, 2.3.68, ch.2 n.24, 5.1.37-38 apaurueya (not created by any person), i42 apavda (special rule), translation of term, ch.2 n.44, ch.3 n.16. See also special rule appearance, false, 2.9.21 apyaya. See dissolution Arjuna, 2.4.64; quoted, 1.6.2, 1.6.6, 1.8.1-2, 2.4.5, 3.1.16, 3.8.6; and the Lord, dialogue between, 4.2.1-6 arrogance, as impure latent tendency, 2.3.14, 2.4.29-30, 2.4.66, 2.8.1, 2.10.1-9, 2.10.11 Artha, hindered by anger, 2.10.11 artha. See purpose arthavda (statement of praise), ch.2 n.7 arts, 1.2.38, 1.4.23-24, ch.1 n.23 asaprajtasamdhi (enstasis-withoutconceptualization), i58, ch.1 n.36 ascetic, practices of, 3.10.17-18; without knowledge, 5.3.17-19 Asipatra Hell, 2.4.83, ch.2 n.46

asleep, always, 1.10.22 assault, one who does not engage in, 1.4.22 association with good people (sdhusagama), i55, i56, 3.2.3, 3.2.10, 4.1.38 asurasapad (Demonic fortune), i49 auddhavsan (impure latent tendencies), i49 Avattha tree, ch.3 n.1 agayoga (eight-limb yoga), i58, i69 n.31 Atharvaic passage, regarding attachment to ritual action, 2.4.57-60 Atharvaikas, quoted, 5.2.31-41 Atirtra, rites such as, 5.1.39 ativarramin. See beyond-the-castesand-orders Atri, and abandoning sacred string, 1.2.18 attachment (anabhisneha), 1.6.12-13, 1.6.22, 1.6.24, 1.7.9, 2.7.2, 2.7.4, 2.7.11, 2.9.13-14 attentive (svadhana), 3.5.38 atyantbhva (total non-existence), ch.2 n.23 austerity, 2.3.11, 3.5.9, 3.5.20, 4.1.1, 4.2, 5.1.12 authoritative basis (prama), for liberation-in-life, 1.3.1-2 authoritative texts, 2.3.15, 2.3.39, 2.3.63 avagraha , ch.5 n.16 avidy (ignorance), i33 avyabhicribhakti. See devotion, unswerving avyakta. See unmanifest awake, always, 1.10.22, 3.3.9; never, 1.4.15-16, 2.11.19; while experiencing deep sleep, 1.4.15-16, 2.11.19 awakening, continual, 5.2.19-20 awareness (anusadhna), of the perfect nature, ch.1 n.24 awareness, impartial, 1.7.4; of things (cetana), 2.5.7 bdhaka. See impediment, great dara. See special attention 469

dea, translation of term, ch.3 n.16 dhra. See base dhrakrika, ch.2 n.63 gama. See scripture havanya fire, 4.2.30, ch.4 n.6 jtaatru, King, 2.10.2 nanda. See bliss nandabodhcrya, quoted, 1.3.13 rambha. See undertakings rayakas, turning to the, 1.2.26 rui, ch.3 n.16 rui Upaniad, quoted, 1.2.24-26 rypacati, quoted, 2.9.27 sana, ch.3 n.8 stika. See believer rama (order of society), i20, i45, 1.1.11, ch.1 n.2, 5.1.43, 5.2.27 ramadharma-s (duties of the order), obligatory, 1.2.25-26 valyana, and Yjavalkya, 1.2.2 tman (Self), i22, ch.1 n.24, ch.2 n.27 bad, as cause of suffering, 1.6.13. See also good and bad bad inclination (bhva), 1.3.22-24 Badaryana, and merging into Brahman, 2.3.53 bahdaka, i2, ch.1 n.6 Bahdaka status, 1.0.5, 1.0.9 Bahvcapariita, ch.5 n.32 Bali and ukra, dialogue between, 2.11.5-6 Ballla III, i11 bamboo, ch.1 n.13, 4.3.12, ch.4 n.11 bathing, ritual, 1.2.26, 2.1.6, 2.4.70, 5.4.8 Bauddhas, teachings on liberation of, 4.3.11 Baudhyyana, regarding vessels for ascetics, 5.4.17-18 Baudhyana dharmastra, i7 bhulya (common), 5.1.17 Blki, 2.4.66, 2.10.2 beast, body of, 1.10.11 begging, 1.4.14, ch.1 n.20, 3.8.14, 5.3.18-19. See also alms begging-bowl, belly as, 1.2.22, ch.1 n.7 470

being, Self as, 1.10.16, 1.10.23 believer (stika), 4.2.23-24 benediction, 1.0 benefit to the world, 5.1.28, 5.1.43 beyond-castes-and-orders (ativarramin), 1.4.7, 1.10 Bhagavad Gt , and yogic discipline, i1 Bhagavad Gt, quoted, 1.6.1-2, , 1.7.110, 1.8 bhagavadbhakta. See devotee-of-theLord Bhagavata Pura, quoted, 4.1.29, 4.1.57, quoted, 1.9.7 Bhagavatpada (akara), quoted, 1.9.23, 3.5.34-36 Bhagratha, 2.9.2, 2.9.28 bhakti, i41, i67 n.13 bhman. See plenitude bhagavda-s, i26 n.6 bhavabhvan. See thinking about the world bhvideha (future body), i32 Bharadvja, and addiction to study, 2.4.50 Bhradvja-gotra, i7 Bhrattrtha, i7, i9, i13-14, i16 bhva. See bad inclination bhvan, translation of term, ch.2 n.30, ch.2 n.34. See also brooding over; thinking bhvideha (future body), and subtle body, i34-36 bhvite (cultivates), 2.4.41 bha (common language), ch.2 n.54 birth, high or low, and "good or bad", 4.3.5 births. See future births; rebirth blame, abandonment of, 5.2.7-8, 5.4.2, 5.4.6 blessing, 1.9.15-16, 1.9.18 blindness, bliss (nanda), ch.2 n.31 bliss, attainment of, 5.2.24-26; of Brahman, i64, 3.10.51, 3.10.56, 4.1.56;complete, 5.4.45; deep, 3.12.11; highest, 1.6.8, 1.6.19, 1.9.43, 3.9.14; of liberation, 2.11.30-

32;manifestation of, 4.1.1, 4.4; meditation on , 3.5.32; nondual, 5.2.22-23; perfect, 1.2.31; Self as, 1.10.4, 1.10.16; sensory, 5.2.29; ultimate, 1.3.17, 3.1.8; unsurpassed, 2.3.52 bodha. See understanding bodhnuvtti, translation of term, ch.2 n.34 bodiless-liberation (videhamukti), i29, i37, 1.0.2, 1.4.8-11, 1.5, 2.3.36-37, 2.3.48-50, 2.3.54 body, i19, i34, 1.3.11, 1.5.1, 2.3.55, 2.4.67-86, 4.1.27-29. See also causal body; current body; future body; gross body; present body; subtle body bondage, 1.3.2-4, 2.3.9-10, 2.3.16-18, 2.3.20, 2.3.48, 2.6.2. See also intense bondage; weak bondage books, abandonment of, 4.3.9-10 bowl, loss of, 5.4.20, 5.4.22 Brahma Upaniad, quoted, 5.2.31-41 Brahmaloka, 1.0.10 Brahman, attaining knowledge of, 1.1.9; believing that one is not, 2.3.64; bliss of, i64; as cause and effect, 4.2.32; direct realization of, 1.2.29; essential nature of (brahmasvarpa), i63; fearless, 3.10.27; four-faced, 4.2.34; greatness of, 4.2.33-34; knowers of, 2.9.22-25, 2.9.28; knowing, 1.2.36, 2.3.40, 2.3.42, 2.3.44-45, 2.3.47, 2.8.6-7, 2.9.3-11; nondual nature of, and fourth stage of yoga, 4.1.47-49; practice of, defined, 2.3.8; realization of, 1.6.21; secondless reality of, 2.2.8, 2.2.10; as unified essence, 4.1.56; way of, 1.2.22; when a man knows (purua), 2.3.45; worlds of, 2.8.2; worship of, 2.3.39 Brahmanical householders, i19 Brahmanism, Advaita, i16; renunciation in, i25 n.2 brahmaa on the Inner Controller (antarym), regarding breath, 3.4.6

brahmasvarpa. See Brahman, essential nature of Brahm, four-faced, 5.1.15 Brahmnanda, quoted, 2.10.27-29, 4.4.1-2 Brhmaa, 1.2.5-10, 1.2.18, 1.4.7, 1.9, 1.10.11 breath (praa) , ch.2 n.31 breath retention, 3.4.14, 3.4.16-19, 3.4.21-22, 3.4.26-28 breath-control (praspandanirodha, pryma), i55, 3.3.11, 3.4, 3.10.44, ch.3 n.5; and controlling the mind, 3.2.3, 3.2.11-14, 3.2.17-21; for defiling the staff, 5.1.4; as external limb of enstasis, 3.5.8; and seeing as the light, 2.3.85; to still the mind, 1.3.27; and yogas of posture and diet, 3.2.19 brooding over (bhvan), 1.6.24, 3.2.2224 Bhadrayaka, quoted, 1.1.1, 1.4.5, 2.4.16 Bhadrayakavrtikasra, i8 Buddhists, i8, aversion to, 1.4.18 Bukka I, i10, i15 calumny, removal of, 2.7.11 capable, as quality of devotee-of-theLord, 1.7.7 capriciousness, absence of, as quality of Divine fortune, 2.3.12 Caraka, as incarnation of Lord ea, ch.3 n.26 care, unbounded, 2.4.23 caste, of Brhmaa, 1.2.7, 5.1.29, 5.4.35-36 causal body (kraadeha), i33 causal complex (smagr), i35-36, 2.3.61 causality. See mutual causality cause (karaa), i40, 2.4.3 cndrayna (lunar fast) , ch.3 n.31 Crvkas, i8 ctvala, 5.1.35 censure, as opposition, 4.3.1, 4.3.4-9 cessation, practice of basis (pratyaya) of, 3.6.26-27


cetana. See awareness of things charitable deeds (iaprta), 2.4.60, 2.7.14, ch.2 n.40 chastity, 3.5.8, 3.5.15 Chndogya Upaniad, quoted, 2.4.55, 2.4.66, 2.4.69, 4.1.27, 4.2.29, commentary on, i8 children, craving for, 2.10.15, 2.10.2729, 3.10.34 cidekarasa. See pure consciousness cidtman. See pure consciousness cinmtra. See pure consciousness citta. See mind cittacikitsaka (therapy for the mind), i68 n.25 cittavtti-s (subjective mental activity), i43 cittavttinirodha (suppression of mental activity), i28 cittibhumaya (five stages of the mind), i57 cognition (jna), heightened (prakam), 3.10.55 cognition, ch.2 n.47, 3.5.30, 3.5.34-36 cognitions (pratyaya), 3.5.4-5, ch.3 n.14 cohesion (samanvaya), 2.3.49 cold, absence of, 5.2.4-6 cool, with regard to affairs, 1.4.25-26 coming out of enstasis (vyutthna), i59, i64, i68 n.28, 2.2.4-5 company of people, pursuing, 1.9.42-43 compassion, 1.7.2, 2.3.12, 2.7.1, 2.7.56, 2.7.11 conceit, 2.3.14, 3.1.10. See also selfconceit concentration (dhra), i62, 3.4.30-32, 3.5.26, 3.5.29, 3.9.8 concepts, forming of, and making distinctions (sakalpavikalpa), 3.8.5 condemnation, 1.6.13, 2.4.46 conduct, arrogance of, 2.8.1 confidence, in life, 2.8.4 confusion, 1.9.44, 1.10.18, 2.3.31, 2.4.20, 2.4.28, 5.2.12, 5.2.18 conscious identification (sayama), ch.3 n.28, ch.3 n.29, 5.1.4 472

consciousness, absolute, 1.10.4, 1.10.16; of Brahman, 4.1.56; levels of, i60; not stilled, 2.9.28; omnipresent (sarvagat savit), 3.2.13; Self consisting in, 1.10.7; states of, i33; supreme, 5.4.10; unchanging, 3.10.7; unified, 5.4.45. See also egoic consciousness; pure consciousness; self-illuminated consciousness; unitary consciousness; witnessconsciousness consecration. See religious consecration constancy in knowledge of highest Self, 2.3.81 constant fullness, 2.11.31 contentment, 1.6.7-8, 1.7.3, 1.7.10, 2.3.85, 2.7.1, 2.11.28, 2.11.30, 3.5.9, 3.5.19 continuance (tasmin nityatve), as in continual awakening, 5.2.19 continuity, absence of (anuvtti), 5.2.18 control, four stages of, 3.7; in Great Self and in Tranquil Self, 3.9; of speech, 3.7, 3.8.1, 3.10.34, 3.10.36. See also mental control; mind, control of; sense control coolness, inward, 4.5.4-8 cordiality, of master yogin, 4.3.13 corpse, viewing body as, 5.2.10 correlation (vypti), of distance and breath retention, 3.4.26 craving, as eating, 1.4.17-18, 2.10.15, 3.11.41-44 crowd, dislike for, 1.9.33-34, 2.3.80 cruelty, 2.4.31 curiosity, 1.2.38, 2.4.3, 3.5.52 current body, and operative action, 2.3.69 customs of families, 2.4.15 Cula, 3.11.31-33 daivasapad (Divine fortune), i49 Daka, quoted, 5.3.12-13 dance. See mad dance daa (staff), translation of term, ch.5 n.21

darkness (tamogua), 1.6.10-11; as attachment, 1.6.13; covering power of, 3.4.29, 3.11.11; and Demonic fortune, 2.5.14; and laziness, 3.4.32; light of lights beyond, 2.4.38; mental activity consisting in, 2.3.22; and mental activities, 1.6.15; as quality of the mind, 2.5.7, 2.5.10-14, 2.5.16, 2.5.18, 2.5.20. See also qualities, three darana-s (philosophical schools), i8 dhabhvanay. See strong feeling day, three junctures of (trisadhy-s), 1.2.26 Dra, 2.4.56 deafness, death, 2.3.40, 2.3.45, 2.3.50, 3.4.4 deceit, 2.3.77, 2.4.42, 2.4.87, 2.6.6, 2.7.21 deep sleep (suupti), i33, i62, i69 n.32, 1.4.12, ch.1 n.40, 3. 10.25-27, 3.10.32-33, 3.10.36; and breathing, 3.4.7-8; experiencing while awake, 2.11.19-20; as fifth stage of yoga, 4.1.50-52; ignorance during, 3.10.52; knower in, 1.10.22; remaining awake while experiencing, 1.4.15-16; and the three qualities, 1.8.8 dejection, 1.4.13-14, 1.4.20, 1.5.5 delight (rati), 2.3.8, 5.4.41, 5.4.44 delusion (moha) , 1.6.10, 1.6.23-24, 2.4.28, 2.5.7-10, ch.2 n.49, 5.2.7-8 Demonic activities, 3.11.4 Demonic fortune (asurasapad), i49, 2.3.9-11, 2.3.14-15, 2.3.20, 2.4.42; accumulation of, 2.5.20; and darkness, 2.5.14; eradication of, i52; and latent tendencies, 2.4.87, 2.6.6, 2.10.49, ch.2 n.36, ch.2 n.46; and pride, 2.7.12; and yogins, 3.4.1 Demonic latent tendencies, 2.3.76 Demonic people, 2.4.12-14 Demonic wombs, 2.4.31 demonic worlds, 5.4.39 derision, 2.10.3, 2.10.5, 2.10.8

desirable things, associated with defects, 3.6.30 desire, abandonment of, 2.2.15-16, 5.2.7-8; and actions, 3.5.9; and anger, 1.6.22; as cause of rebirth, 2.9.17; as cause of world without truth, 2.4.13; chains of, 2.4.24; with detachment, 4.1.37; for good, as stage of yoga, 4.1.35, 4.1.37; as impure latent tendency, 2.4.30, 2.4.41; for liberation (mumukutva); overcoming by practice of yoga, 1.3.34; for pleasure, withered, 3.1.10; self as, 2.4.62; and will, 2.4.16. See also desires desires, abandonment of, 1.6.7-8, 2.11.21-22, 5.3.1-3; attaining all, 4.4.4-5; concealed in the mind, 5.4.41-42; consisting only in latent tendencies, 1.6.8; discarding from afar, ch.2 n.9; enjoyment of, 2.3.44, 2.4.23-24; external and internal, defined, 1.6.8; freedom from under all circumstances, 4.4.4, 4.4.6; gratification of, 2.4.28; involving the Brahma world and superhuman powers, 3.6.33; springing from imagination, 3.6.27, 3.6.30, 3.6.31; types of, 1.6.8; web of all, 3.5.49. See also desire despondent. See dispirited detachment (vairgya), 1.0.3-10, 1.6.3, ch.2 n.58, 3.11.12-13, 3.11.40, 3.11.43-44 deva, translation of term, ch.2 n.27 Devadatta, 2.5.7 devatdarana. See gods devotee-of-the-Lord (bhagavadbhakta), 1.4.7, 1.7 devotees, 4.2.18, 4.2.21 devotion, constant yoga of, 1.8.7; to the Lord, as discipline, 3.5.9, 3.5.22; unswerving (avyabhicribhakti), i41, 1.8.8, 2.3.80 Deika, Vednta, i18-20, i23, i27 n.20, i45-46, i66 n.2 Dharma, hindered by anger, 2.10.11-12 473

dharma-s. See duties; religious rites; virtues dharmastra, and Klaniraya, i7 dharmdharma, 2.4.42 dharmdharma. See right or wrong, what is dhyna (meditation), i40, i52, i62, i68 n.27, ch.2 n.13, ch.5 n.27. See also meditation dhra. See concentration dialects, 2.4.15 diet, 3.2.19, 3, 3 discernment (viveka), i46-47, i48, i5051, i63, 3.10.11; and absence of qualities of darkness, 1.6.13; and absence of sorrow and longing, 1.6.11; according to the objective (prayojana), 2.3.9; and calming the mind, 2.8.7; defined, 2.2.16; and delusions, 1.6.10, 1.6.24; of eternal and non-eternal reality, 2.8.6; following knowledge, 2.9.1; and intellect, 3.10.36-37; and personal effort, 2.2.15-16; practice of, 2.8 discipline, and restraint, 3.5.10-22 disciplines, as external limb of enstasis, 3.5.8, 3.5.9 discussion of affairs, 1.9.10-12, 1.9.14, 1.9.34, 1.9.45 disgust, 1.2.39, 3.5.16 dishonor, 1.9.35, 2.10.8 disinterested, as quality of devotee-ofthe-Lord, 1.7.7 dispirited, not feeling, 1.9.28-29 disrespect, absence of, 5.2.4-5 dissolution (apyaya), 3.10.60; (laya), i62, i69,n.32, 3.10.38, 3.10.60; causes of, 3.10.43-44, , 3.10.58, 3.11.24 distant, 1.5.4-5 distinctions, making, 3.11.5, 3.11.8. See also concepts, forming of distracted (kipta), as stage of mind, i57, 3.5.2-3. See also occasionally distracted distraction (vikepa), i62, i63, i69 n.33

distraction, of mind, , 3.10.38, 3.10.40, 3.10.42-43, 3.10.45; mind free from, 3.10.58; not avoiding, 3.11.24 distress, freedom from, 1.7.7 diversion, disciplined, 3.3.10 Divine activities, 3.11.4 Divine fortune (daivasapad), i49, 2.3.9-13, 2.3.15, 2.5.14, 2.7.21 Divine latent tendencies, 2.3.76 dk. See religious consecration doer, 1.3.2-4, 1.4.20, 1.8.8 doubt(s), as taint of intellect, 1.2.44, 1.3.29-30, 2.2.8, 2.3.40, 2.3.42, 2.4.3, 4.1.3-25 drama, giving up, 5.1.40 dravya. See elemental substance dreaming, 3.10.29-31 dreaming, state of consciousness (svapna), i33, 1.8.8, 1.10.13, ch.1 n.40, 4.1.47 drugs, that give forgetfulness, 3.4.33, ch.3 n.12 dgvastu. See true-seeing duality, perception of, 1.4.8, 1.6.30, 2.3.20, 3.10.28, 4.1.58 dull-minded, 1.6.6 duration test, of exhalation, 3.4.25-26 Durvsa, 2.4.51 duties (dharma-s), i4, i38, i45, 1.1.14, 1.2.24-43, 1.3.22, 1.9.20-21; of the order (ramadharma-s), obligatory, 1.2.25-26. See also religious rites; virtues eating, yoga of, 3.3.8-10 effects (vikti), complex of, , 3.5.32 effort, for attaining means, 2.4.1-2; as cause of suppression, 3.6.15; for eradication of latent tendencies and eliminating of mind, 2.4.6-7; as mental exertion, 3.11.15-16; of others, toward one's awakening, 4.1.30, 4.1.43; of practicing elimination of the mind, 3.1.2-3; qualities existing without, 1.7.11; relaxation of, and posture, 3.3.2, 3.3.4; sanctioned by stra, 1.3.12-


17, 1.3.23. See also action; personal effort effort-of-suppression, to still the mind, 3.10.56 ego (ahakra), 1.4.19-20, 2.3.82, 3.8.1, 3.8.5, 3.9.1-2, 3.10.34 egoic consciousness (ahakra) , i60 egoism, 1.10.16-17; abandonment of, 5.2.7-8; as cause of rebirth, 2.4.18; as impure latent tendency, 2.4.41; dense, 2.4.18, 2.4.25-28; disease of, 2.5.22; indulging in, as impure latent tendency, 2.4.30; without, 1.7.2, 2.3.78, 3.5.33 ejaculating semen, intentionally, 5.4.36 ekatattv, translation of term, , ch.3 n.2 ekendriya. See sensory unification ekgrat. See one-pointedness elation, 1.4.13-14, 1.4.20, 1.5.5, 2.3.84; not feeling, 1.9.29 elemental substance (dravya), 2.2.3, ch.2 n.4 elimination of the mind (manona), i5, i22, i38-39, i54-65, 1.2.16, 2.1, 2.2.5, 2.2.16, 3.1-3.12 elixirs, used to gain supernatural powers, 3.5.45, 3.5.48-49 emancipation, of master yogin, 4.3.13 emblems of renunciation, i45, i46, 5.1.14, 5.1.31, 5.1.43 enemies, 2.7.6, 2.7.11 energy (rajas), quality of, 3.5.7 energy (rajogua), quality of, and suffering, 1.6.10 energy, and attachment to action, 2.5.11; and latent tendencies, 2.5.14; one's own (utsha), 1.3.19; as quality of Divine fortune, 2.3.13; as quality of the mind, 2.5.7, 2.5.10-14,, 2.5.18, 2.5.20. See also qualities, three enjoyer of everything, 4.4.4, 4.4.6 enjoyment, as begging, 3.8.12-14; of desires, 2.3.44, 2.4.23-24; moment of, 2.11.30-37; of operative action, 2.11.28-29; and swollen mind, 2.5.25; and weak bondage, 2.3.22 475

enlightenment, practice of, 2.3.5 enstasis (samdhi), i28, i29, i52, i57, i59, i69 n.31, ch.1 n.40; attainment of, 3.5.22; and cognition, 3.5.30; defined, 3.5.28; and the eight limbs of yoga, 3.5; as eighth limb of yoga, i58-59, i61; and enstasis-withconceptualization, 3.9.8; external limbs of, 3.5.39; firmness in, 1.4.14; helpfulness of, 3.10.15; internal limbs of, 3.5.39-40; as intervening state, ch.1 n.40; as inward coolness, 4.5.4-8; long practice, 2.11.14; as mad dance, 4.5.9-10; and pure consciousness, 2.11.11-13; realizing union in the Self in, 1.2.26; resolute intellect established in, 2.4.63; on the Self, 2.3.84; stages of, 3.5.1; for taking away lapses, 1.6.21; as therapy for mind, 3.10.1; and the three qualities, 1.8.8; types of, i62; and uninterrupted practice, 2.11.14. See also coming out of enstasis; seedless enstasis; truth-bearing enstasis enstasis-of-suppression, i59, i61, 3.5.53, 3.6, 3.9.12, 3.10.1, 3.10.8 enstasis-with-conceptualization (saprajtasamdhi), i58, i62, i68 n.26, 1.6.8, ch.1 n.35, 3.5.33, 3.5.37-41, 3.9.8, 3.10, ch.3 n.7 enstasis-with-distinction (savikalpasamdhi), i59, ch.1 n.35 enstasis-without-conceptualization (asaprajtasamdhi), i58, i59, i62, 3.5.3-4, 3.6.26, 3.9.14, 3.10, ch.3 n.7 enstasis-without-distinctions (nirvikalpasamdhi), i31, ch.3 n.7, 4.1.50 enstatic transformation of the mind, 3.5.5-7 envy, removal of, 2.7.11 Epics, 5.1.40 equal, referring to Brahman, 3.10.47 equanimity, 2.7.1, 3.7.3

equilibrium, attainment of (samaprpti), i62, i63, 3.10.40, 3.10.43, 3.10.48 essential thread (strtman), breath as, 3.4.6 eternal state, 1.3.21 even-mindedness, constant, 2.3.79; even in all things, 2.10.47 evidence (prama), i40, 2.4.3, 2.5.1 evil deeds, 2.7.8-10 excitation, 1.7.6 excitement, 1.4.21-22, 5.2.7-8 exhalation, 3.4.14-25, 3.4.27 exhaustion, as form of death, 3.4.4 existence, self-luminous, 4.1.56 existence of the knower, 2.3.6-7 existent and nonexistent (sadasat), ch.1 n.31 experience (anubhava), i42-43 experiencer. See witness external limbs, of establishing enstasis, 3.10.12 faith, 1.9.9, ch.1 n.41, 2.8.2, 3.10.15-16, 3.10.18 faithfulness, 4.2.19-20 faiths, persons of all (tairthika-s), 4.3.11 false appearances, recognition of, i51-52 fame, 2.10.12 family, arrogance of, 2.8.1 fantasy, stilling, 2.11.1 fast, lunar (cndrayna ) , 3.10.18, , ch.3 n.31 fasting, 2.10.49, 5.1.38 fate, 1.9.29 fatigue (tandr), 3.9.1, 3.10.34 fear, 1.4.21-22 fear, absence of, 1.7.6; caused by remaining alone, 1.9.43-44; derived from darkness, 1.6.11; freedom from, 2.2.23, 2.3.65; as running away, 1.4.17-18 fearlessness, 2.3.11, 2.7.21, 3.1.15 feeling. See strong feeling fires, doctrine of the five, 2.10.2 flaws, examining, 2.9.28-29, 2.10.14, 2.10.30-33 food, 4.4.7, 5.2.17

food (anna) , ch.2 n.31, ch.2 n.42, 3.3.810, ch.5 n.14 fools, 1.8.8, 3.2.6-7, 3.11.19 foolishness, force, used to cause mind to move from the bad, 1.3.25. See also effort; personal effort forest-dwellers, 1.1.14, 1.10.1 forgetfulness (vismaraa), i60-61, 3.9.1, 3.9.3 fortune. See Demonic fortune; Divine fortune fourth stage, practice of, 3.10.37 Fourth state (turya), i33, i62 Fourth state (turya), 1.8.8, 3.10.28, 3.10.31, 4.1.36, friendliness, and calm mind, 2.7.21; cultivation of, 2.6.3, 2.7.1, 2.7.4, 2.7.11; of master yogin, 4.3.13; mind entertained by, 2.6.10; and other virtues, exercise of, 2.10.49-2.11.1, 2.11.8-9, 3.12.1; toward all beings, 1.7.2 fullness. See constant fullness futility (vaiyarthyam), ch.1 n.15 future actions, and subtle body, i33 future births, i34-35, 1.2.41-42, 1.2.45, 1.4.3, 1.4.4, 2.3.63, 2.4.42. See also future body; rebirth future body (bhvideha), and subtle body, i32, i34-36, 2.3.55, 2.3.62, 2.3.64, 2.3.69, 2.3.73, ch.2 n.23. See also future births; rebirth gamangamanakriy ("coming and going"), pattern of the mind, ch.2 n.50 Ganges, 2.4.70, 2.10.18 Garua, 3.8.10 Gauapdcrya, i64; quoted, i2, 2.3.3536, 3.1.15, 3.8.9, 3.10.26-27, 3.10.38-43, 3.10.51-55, 5.4.12 Gauapdya Kriks, and yogic discipline, i2 gyatr (the question), 1.2.25, 3.4.13, ch.3 n.11 Gay, 5.4.6 476

gentleness, of master yogin, 4.3.13 ghaik, translation of term, ch.3 n.23 God, realizing the, 2.3.84 godliness, attainment of, 4.2.1 gods (devatdarana), viewing, 3.6.33 gods, contemplation of, 1.3.24 golaka (sense organs), i54 gold, 5.4.31-32, 5.4.35, 5.4.37, 5.4.44 good, as cause of happiness, 1.6.13. See also desire for good good and bad, 1.3.20-33;1.6.12-13. See also right or wrong good deeds, 2.7.8-10, 2.7.13 good qualities, error of developing, 2.4.67, 2.4.70, 2.4.74, 2.4.77, 2.4.80 goodness (sattva), 3.10.6; attaining, 4.1.36, 4.1.40, 4.1.47-49 goodness, and Divine fortune, 2.5.14; and illumination, 2.5.15; and imagination, 2.5.20; as light, 3.4.29; as quality of the mind, 2.5.7, 2.5.1020; established in, 1.9.31. See also joy and goodness; qualities, three govrata, or "cow-vow", ch.1 n.7 grahaa , i68 n.29 graht, i68 n.29 grasper, grasped, and grasping (graht, grhya, grahaa), i59, ch.3 n.7. See also grahaa; graht; grasping grasping, 2.3.35, 3.5.6-7 grass-bundle (prastara), 2.2.8, ch.2 n.7 grhya , i68 n.29 Great Lord, 4.1.26, 4.1.28 Great Principle (mahat, mahattattva), i60, 1.10.10, 3.8.3, 3.9.1-2, 3.9.5-6, 3.7.1, 3.10.34, 3.10.36 Great Self (mahtman), , i60, 3.8.1-2, 3.8.4, 3.9 Great Text (tat tvam asi), i40, 3.10.8, ch.5 n.29 Great Texts (mahvkya-s), of the Upaniads, i40, i61 Great Texts, 5.2.18, 5.2.41 greed, 2.3.12, 2.5.10, 2.5.24, 2.10.9-10, 5.2.7-8 gross body (sthla bhuk), in the waking state, 1.5.5

gross body (sthla deha), i33 gua-s. See qualities gutta. See transcended-the-qualities hair, cutting, 5.2.31 haha yoga or haha-yoga. See under yoga happiness (sukha), relishing, i64, 3.10.41, 3.10.51-55, 3.10.57, 3.11.24 happiness, arising from suppression, 3.10.52; caused by good, 1.6.13; as effect of goodness, 2.5.11; of mind, 3.10.50; of one's own form (svarpa), 3.10.52; of others, 2.7.11; of the Self, 1.6.8; supreme, 3.10.48; ultimate, 3.6.23, 3.10.49; unsurpassed, 3.5.19 happy beings, friendliness toward, 2.7.4 Harihara I, i10 Harihara II, i26 n.10 hate, abandonment of, 5.2.7-8 hatred, 2.7.2-3; as aversion to Buddhists and others, 1.4.17-18, 1.6.13, 1.7.2, 2.4.30-31, 2.7.11, 5.4.41, 5.4.44; toward enemies, 2.7.6 hasa, i2, ch.1 n.6 hasa state, 1.0.5, 1.0.10 heart, 1.2.41-42, 2.3.18-19, 2.3.40, 2.3.42, 2.7.5, 3.2.7 heat, absence of, 5.2.4-5 heaven, 1.3.16, 1.3.20, 2.4.62, 3.11.41 hell, 1.3.16, 2.4.28, 2.4.72, 2.4.83, 2.4.87, 2.7.17, ch.2 n.45, 5.3.6. See also names of hells heroic, 2.4.44 highest good (reya), ch.1 n.16 highest happiness (paramnanda), i63 highest is the lower, 2.3.43, 4.1.20 highest Self, contemplation of, 2.3.29 highest state, and cultivation of the mind, 1.3.31 Hindus, i9-11, i14, i15-16, i23, i27 n.19 hirayagarbha (comprehensive/macrocosmic aspect of dreaming state), i33, 4.4.4, 4.4.6, 5.1.41 477

hoarding, 5.4.20, 5.4.23, 5.4.36 homage, paying, 1.7.10, 1.9.15, 1.9.2021, 1.9.23-24, 5.4.5-6 homeless, 1.9.33-34, 5.4.2, 5.4.11-12 honor, shunning, 1.9.33-34 hope. See vain hope horn of black antelope, 5.1.32, 5.1.34-35 householders, i19, 1.1.14, 1.10.1, 5.1.29 Hoysaas, i11, i13 hypocrisy, 2.3.14, 5.2.7-8 I, making an, (ahakra) 1.2.43-44 See also ego, egoic consciousness identification. See conscious identification ignorance (avidy), i33 ignorance, and attachment, 2.9.13-14; body created by, 2.3.37; and bondage, 2.3.48; born of darkness, 2.5.10; as cause of rebirth, 2.9.17; covered by, 5.1.27; defined, 2.3.64, 2.3.77-81; deluded by, 2.4.27; dense, 2.4.18; destroying the totality of, 1.3.5; devined, 5.2.16, 5.2.18; during deep sleep, 3.10.52; eliminated, 2.4.3; expelled by practices, 2.4.3; knot of, 2.3.40-41; and misapprehension, 4.1.19; as quality of Demonic fortune, 2.3.14; removed by knowledge, 2.3.59, 2.3.62, 2.3.64; that has no beginning, 1.2.42; walling in, 2.4.58-59; and worldly things, 3.5.46-47 illumination (praka), 2.5.7-10, 2.5.15, ch.2 n.49 illusion (my), i33, 1.10.7, 1.10.9-10, 1.10.13, 2.3.72-73, 3.1.14 imagination (sakalpa, sakalpaka), 3.5.29, 3.6.27, 3.6.30, 3.6.31, ch.3 n.20 imagination, 2.5.20, 3.1.5, 3.1.13, 4.1.8 immortal, highest, 1.10.11, 1.10.23 immortality, 1.1.12, 1.2.4, 1.4.5, 2.4.33, 2.3.66-67 impartial (udsna), i41, 1.7.4, 1.7.7 impartiality, 1.7.6, 1.8.3-6, 1.8.8, 2.4.1 impediment, great (bdhaka), 5.4.31-32

implied, indirectly (lakya), 5.4.10 impotence, 2.10.40, 2.10.42, 3.1.1 impurity, freedom from, 1.4.18 inanimate (jaa), 3.10.8 inanimate power (jaaakti), 3.8.2 incantations, used to gain supernatural powers, 3.5.45, 3.5.48-49 indifference, 2.7.10, 5.1.18 indigestion, i62, 3.10.43-44 indignation, 1.4.21-22, 2.4.30, 5.2.7-8 individual self (jva), without effort of, 4.1.26, 4.1.28 individual self, separate (tvapadrtha), i61, 3.10.8 individual self, purified (padrtha), 3.10.8 Indra, and Bharadvja, 2.4.50 indriya (external sense organ), translation of term, ch.2 n.47 inference (anumna), i54, 3.10.21-22 infinite regress (anavasth), i53 inhalation, 3.4.14-15, 3.4.19-25 injunctions, beyond, 1.9.30 inner ascetic heat (tapas), i56 inner organ (antakaraa), 2.2.3, 2.5.16, ch.2 n.25, 3.10.50, 5.1.36 insight, 2.3.78, 3.10.18-22 insistence on traditions, and latent tendencies, 2.4.15 insolence, abandonment of, 5.2.7-8 insults, with respect to one's native place, 2.4.46, 2.10.3-7 integrity, and sacrificial fee, 4.2.29 intellect, of an agreeable nature, 1.3.33; called heart, 1.2.42; destruction of, 1.6.23-24; resolute, 3.6.28, 3.10.36, 3.10.55; subtle (skmay buddhy), i63, 4.1.3; taint of, 1.2.43-44. See also mind intelligence, of master yogin, 4.3.13 intense attachment, 2.3.79, 2.3.82 intense bondage, i50, 2.3.20, 2.3.22, 2.3.24 internal limbs, of establishing enstasis, 3.10.12 internal organ. See inner organ intolerance, of another's virtues, 2.7.11


invisibility. See supernatural powers Islam, in South India, i14 isolation. See perfect isolation ia (Vedic ritual), translation of term, ch.2 n.40 iaprta, translation of term, ch.2 n.40. See also charitable deeds vara (comprehensive/macrocosmic soul in deep sleep), i33, 1.5.5 jagadgurus of geri, i13-14, i15, i1618 Jaiminyanyyamlvistara, i7 Jainas, i15, 4.3.11 Janaka, i43, i67 n.16, 1.2.2, 1.2.18, 2.3.65, 2.8.7, 2.9.2, 3.11.47, 4.1.5, 4.1.14; quoted, 2.8.2-5, 2.11.33-37, 3.1.3-6, 4.1.10-13 jaa. See inanimate; unconscious jaaakti. See inanimate power Jbla Upaniad, and types of renunciation, 1.2.18 jgaraa (waking, state of consciousness), i33 jgrat, ch.1 n.40 Jhanav (Gng), 3.10.52 jealousy, 1.4.18, 2.7.11, 5.2.7-8 jva (soul), i33 jva. See individual self jvanmukta-s (persons liberated-in-life), i4, i22-23, i25n.1, i69n.31 jvanmukti, i18, i20, i25 n.1, i37, 1.0.2. See also liberation-in-life Jvanmuktibhagavda, i18 Jvanmuktiviveka [JMV], style, content, and historical context, i1-65 JMV, authorship, i6-9; context of text, i18-23; structure of (table of contents), i5-6 jna, translation of term, ch.2 n.26. See also cognition; knowledge, i69 n.31 jntman. See knowing self Jnkua, quoted, 2.10.6-8 joy, freedom from, 2.3.29-31; and goodness (sttvik), 1.6.10 joyfulness, cultivation of, 2.7.10, 2.7.13, 2.7.20 479

Jyotioma ritual, 2.3.68 Kahola, 2.9.2, 2.10.2 Kahola Brhmaa, quoted, 1.2.5 kaivalya (perfect isolation), i33 Kaivalya, commentary on, i8 Kali Yuga, 5.1.9 kalpyanti. See imagine kataka powder, i53, 2.11.16, ch.2 n.74 Kahavalli, quoted, 1.4.1-3, 3.7.1, 3.10.59-60 Kaplikas, aversion to, 1.4.18 karmdityaga. See rites, inward and mental abandonment of Karnataka, i1 Karri rite, 1.3.10 karri. See sacrifice, with bamboo ktaktya (done all there is to do), i45 Kautakins, quoted, 2.4.66, 2.9.26 kaaya (taint), i62 Klamukhas, i17 Klaniraya, i7 Klastra Hell, 2.4.83, ch.2 n.46 Kma, hindered by anger, 2.10.11 kraa. See cause kraadeha (causal body), i33 Kvaeya Gt, regarding attachment to many stras, 2.4.51 kevalaparamahasa. See paramahasa, mere Khaanakhaakhdya of r Hara, i3 khecarmudr, ch.3 n.12 killer, of Brahman, becoming, 5.4.31-34; of the Self, 5.4.37-39 killing another, 2.9.25-27 kindness, as quality of Divine fortune, 2.3.12 klea-s (afflictions), bondage to, i46, 1.3.2 knots of the heart, 1.2.41-42, 2.1.7, 2.3.40, 2.3.42 knower of truth, and master yogin, 4.5 knowers of Brahman, types of, 4.1.2627, 4.1.33-58, 4.1.49-50, 4.1.57, 4.3.10 knowers of the Self, 2.9.9-12, 2.9.15-17

knowers, looking upon pleasure and wealth, 2.11.28-29 knowing mind (citta), ch.3 n.7 knowing self (jntma, jntman) , i60, 3.7.1, 3.8.1 knowledge (jna, vidy), nondual, i1, 2.3.82 knowledge, as activity, 3.11.5-6; born of goodness, 2.5.10; of Brahman, 3.10.8; defined, 2.3.77-81; definite analytical (vibhajyanicaya), i47, 2.2.16; doubtful or erroneous, 5.2.13-14; establishment of, 1.6.2720; illusory, 5.2.13-14; imparting, ch.1 n.41; indeterminate (nirvikalpajna), i31, i60-61; light of, 3.10.27; and meditation, 1.8.8; persistence of, 2.4.6; person entitled to, 2.4.2; practice of, 2.3.4; safeguarding of, 4.1; of Self, 2.4.5152, 3.2.3, 3.2.8; and yoga, i68-69 n.31, 3.10.9-10. See also definite analytical knowledge knowledge/perception (vijna) , ch.2 n.31 knowledge of truth (tatpurua), i67 n.12 knowledge of truth (tattvajna), i4, i5, i38-44, i67 n.12, ch.2 n.2 knowledge of truth, 2.1, 2.2.8, 2.2.16, ch.2 n.2 knowledge that is reality (karmadhraya), i42, i67 n.12 kccha (painful vow), , ch.3 n.31 kipta (distracted), i57 Kualini Yoga, i23 kucaka status, 1.0.4, 1.0.9 kucaka, in PM, i2, Laghu-Yogavsiha (LYV), and yogic discipline, i2, lakana (characteristic; figurative description), ch.1 n.39, ch.2 n.7 lakya. See implied, indirectly lameness, lapses, occasional, 1.6.21, 1.6.24 latent tendencies (vsan), i19, i34, i48, i60, i69 n.31, 1.3.17-18, 2.2.5

latent tendencies, abandonment of, 2.4.4, 2.6.2-5, 2.6.7-10, 2.10.31-32, 3.2.3; and actions, 2.4.16; concerning the body, 2.4.67-86, 2.6.6, 3.5.3; and energy, 2.5.14; and havoc in the heart, 3.1.9; concerning learning, 2.4.50-66, 2.6.6, 3.5.3; concerning the mind, 2.4.87, 2.6.3, 2.6.6; and obstruction of knowledge, 1.9.16-17; concerning sense objects, 2.6.3, 2.6.6; concerning society, 3.5.3; concerning the world, 2.4.43-49, 2.4.85-86, 2.6.6; continuing without personal effort, 2.11.1; defined, i4748, 2.4.8; eradication of (vsankaya), i4, i23, i38-39, i4554, 1.2.16, 2.1-2.11; impure (auddhavsan), i49, 2.4.18, 2.4.2932, 2.4.40, 2.4.42, 2.8.1, 2.9, 2.10; means of eradication of, 2.2.16; producing contrary, i47, 2.2.16; pure, i51, 2.4, 2.6.3, 2.7, 2.9.1; of suffering, 3.11.24; toward objects of pleasure, 3.11.24; types of, i49-50, 2.4.43-87 laukika. See ordinary laukika ritual. See worldly ritual laukikatvam (worldly motive), 1.2.28 laya. See dissolution laziness, 3.4.28, 3.4.32, 3.5.3 learning, ch.1 n.23, 2.4.66, 2.4.85-86, 2.8.1, 3.4.1 liberation, permanent, 1.4.4 liberation-in-life (jvanmukti), i1, i54, 1.0-1.10, 1.3, 1.4, 4.1.50 liberation. See also means of liberation libertinism, antinomian (svaira), i45 life of action (pravtti), 1.2.35 life-breath, 4.1.26, 4.1.28 light, 2.4.38, 2.4.53, 3.4.29 ligadeha (subtle body), i32-34 Lla episode, of LYV, quoted, 2.3.4 location test, of breath-control, from navel or base (dhra), 3.4.24, 3.4.26 loincloth, 1.2.28-29, 1.9.8-9, ch.1 n.41, 5.1.28, 5.1.31, 5.1.41-45 loka (world), 1.1.8 480

longing, 1.6.9-11, 2.2.23, 3.7.3, 5.4.4143 Lord Ka, quoted, 2.3.10-15 Lord of the logicians, 5.2.21 Lord ea, incarnated as Caraka, ch.3 n.26; quoted, 2.3.74 Lord, quoted, 2.4.21-24, 2.4.61-65, 3.3.9-10, 3.6.20-25, 3.6.27-29, 3.8.7-8, 3.11.25, 4.2.17, 5.1.28 love, 2.6.4 lower (parvara), highest state is, 1.2.4142 lust, 5.2.7-8 macrocosm (saai), i33, 1.5.5 mad dance, enstasis as, 4.5.9-10 mdu yoga. See yoga, gentle mahat (Great Principle), i60 mahat. See Great Principle mahattattva. See Great Principle mahotsava (great festival), i11, i13 Mahdeva, 2.4.51, 2.4.55 Mahraurava hell, 5.3.6, 5.3.17 maht (next highest form of consciousness after prakti), ch.1 n.48 mahtma. See Great Self mahtman. See Great Principle mahvkya-s (Great Texts), of the Upaniads, i40 Mahvci Hell, 2.4.83, ch.2 n.46 Maitrey, awakening of, 1.2.2-3; quoted, 1.1.13 Maitrey Brhmaa, quoted, 1.2.3 Maitryaya kh, quoted, 2.4.77-78 mlaprakti. See Primal Nature Mallapa I, i13 manana. See reflection, internal; think mananalatvam. See reflection manas. See mind manifest (sanihita), 1.2.11 manona. See elimination of the mind mantras, proclaimed together, 2.1.5, 3.11.14, 5.1.12 Manu, quoted, 5.3.10-11, 5.3.18-19, 5.4.15-16, 5.4.19 master yogin, 4.3, 4.5 481

mastery (vakra), 3.11.40-42 matpitrjdin, ch.5 n.3 material universe (pradhna), 3.11.44 maha (monastic institution). See geri maha; aivite maha Mdhava. See Mdhava-Vidyraya; Vidyraya Mdhava-Vidyraya, as author of Parara-Mdhavya [PM], i2, , i78, i14, i15-16; political role of, i26 n.13 Mdhavcrya, i13 Mdhavamantrin, i13 Mkya kha, quoted, 3.10.28-31 my (illusion), i33 means (sdhana-s), ch.1 n.39. ch.2 n.55 means, the four, 2.8.7; of knowledge, i22; of liberation, principal and subsidiary, i4, i5, i28-65, i38-39, 2.3; the three, 3.10.12. See also pairs of means; practice of means Medhtithi, quoted, 5.4.20-26, 5.4.28-29 meditation (bhakti), i67 n.13 meditation (dhyna), i40, i52, i68 n. 27, 2.11.11-12, 5.4.8 meditation (yoga), 3.7.3 meditation, 5.4.2; on Brahman, 3.4.1; Brhmaa's devotion to, 1.9.8, 1.9.10-12; and cognition, 3.5.30-33, 3.5.38-39; meditation, defined, 3.5.27; and elimination of mind, 2.3.19, 2.3.83; emotional element of, i41; and enstasis-withconceptualization, 3.9.8; on God, 3.11.14; by intensity of reflection, 4.2.34; and knowledge practiced together, 1.8.8; on the Lord, 3.5.22; mind disciplined by, 3.5.3; and nonyogin, 5.4.8; profound abstract (nididhysana), i40-41; on the Self, yoga of, 3.6.21-22; in solitude, 1.9.43-44; meditations in previous lives (prgbhvan), 4.2.11. See also symbol-oriented meditation meditative identification with Ananta, 3.3.2, 3.3.5

memory, 1.6.23-24, 3.10.15, 3.10.18, 3.11.5, 3.11.10 mendicant, and control of sense, 2.10.40; and non-yogin, 5.4.8; one man constitutes a, 1.9.13-14; and one who is beyond-castes-and-orders, 1.10.1; vow regarding beggingbowl, ch.1 n.7. See also mendicants mendicants, Brhmaas living as, 1.2.5, 1.2.12; and discussion of affairs, 1.9.34-36; types of, 1.2.17, ch.1 n.3. See also mendicant mental activities, causing perception of world, 1.4.11-12; complete destruction of, 1.6.8; deriving from darkness, 1.6.15; external, covered by, 5.1.27; freedom from in deep sleep, 1.4.16; mere non-arising of, 1.4.4; overcoming, 1.3.4-6; seed of future, 1.4.12; suppression of, 1.3.11-12. See also mental activity mental activity (vtti), ch.2 n.8 mental activity, subjective (cittavtti-s), i43 mental changes (vikalpa), 1.4.22 mental control (nti, ama), i48, 1.1.9, 1.4.3, 2.2.6, 2.2.10. See also tranquillity mental preoccupation, relaxation of, 3.3.4 mental quieting, 2.2.7. See also elimination of the mind; mental tranquillity mental refinement, as stage of yoga, 4.1.35, 4.1.39 mental tranquillity, 2.2.7, 3.10.18, 5.1.24, 5.1.38. See also elimination of the mind; mental quieting merit, 4.4.3, 5.1.29 Meru, Mount, 2.44, 2.10.18, 3.4.33, 3.6.3, 4.1.15, 4.2.9 metaphor, multiple (sagarupaka), ch.2 n.50 methods (yukti), i54, 2.3.6, ch.2 n.13, 3.2.2-5, 3.4.33, ch.3 n.12 microcosm (vyai), 1.5.5 mind (citta), 2.5.7

mind (manas), 2.2.3, 2.5.7, ch.2 n.31 mind, calm, 2.7.10, 2.8.7, 2.9.22; changeable, 3.5.24; clear, 2.7.6; control of, 3.2.2-3, 3.2.5-6, 3.8; cultivating the, 1.3.31; dead, 3.12.56; defined, 2.5.2-3; dissolution of, 3.10.38-43; enstatic transformation of, 3.5.5-7; as eternal substance, 2.5.1, ch.2 n.48; evidence of definition, 2.5.4-7; examining one's own, 2.7.23; firmness of, 1.7.10; functioning, 3.10.26-27; and heart, 2.3.18-19; mind, and illusion, 3.1.14; and imagination, 3.4.29, 3.4.32; as imagination, 3.1.5; and latent tendencies, 2.11.16-24; motionless, 3.10.56; nature of and elimination of, 2.5; nature of, as bondage, 1.3.2-4; quieting the, 3.10.45, 5.1.15; restrained by meditation on Brahman, 3.4.1; saintly, 3.1.12; staff of, 5.3.9-13; stages of (cittibhumaya), i57, 3.5.1-7; states of, i62-64, 3.10.43; steady, 3.10.4142; still, 1.3.25-27, 1.4.18, 2.11.18, 2.11.33, 3.2.11, 3.6.14, 4.1.3-4, 4.1.25, 5.4.10; subtle, 3.9.7, 3.9.12, 3.10.52; swollen, 2.5.20-25; tree of the, 3.2.17-18; turbid, 2.7.1, 2.7.4; with and without a, 1.4.23-24; with size of atom, 2.5.1, ch.2 n.48.See also elimination of the mind; intellect; mental mindfulness, 2.3.46 mindlessness, state of (amanast), 3.2.21, 3.2.24-25, 3.9.1, 3.10.34 misapprehension, expelled by practices, 2.4.3, 3.11.5, 3.11.7, 4.1.3, 4.1.19 modesty, as quality of Divine fortune, 2.3.12 moha. See delusion Moka, hindered by anger, 2.10.11 Mokopaya recension, i69 n.31 Mount Meru. See under Meru muhrta, translation of term, ch.3 n.23 mukhya kalpa. See principal rule Muktika Upaniad, i58


mumukutva. See desire for liberation muni (sage), 1.2.10 Muslims, i10, i16, i27 n.19 mutual causality (parasparakaraatvam), i38, i46, i48, , 2.1, 2.2.1-8, 2.2.11-14 muha (stupefied), i57 nabhomudr, ch.3 n.12 naimittika (occasional) rites, ch.1 n.1 nairantaryennusmarana. See remembrance Naikarmyasiddhi, quoted, 2.9.11 Naiyyikas, i60, ch.2 n.47 Nala, and suffering, 2.2.26 Nla, i49 name and form (nmarpa), of world, 4.1.47 nma (wordy knowledge), ch.1 n.42 nmarpa. See name and form Nndmukha pits, ch.5 n.8 nndmukharddha. See offering, to the ancestors with joyful faces Nrada, 1.2.27, 2.4.51, 3.8.10, 5.1.2; quoted, 1.9.32-34, 2.4.45 Nryaa, 1.9.18 nstika. See nonbeliever nature, defined as existence, 1.2.43-44; fully perfect (pariprasvarpnusadhna), 1.4.26; perfect (prtm), 1.4.25; purpose in attaining one's true, 4.14.5 negligence, born of darkness, 2.5.10-11 Nidgha, 2.4.56, 4.1.21 nididhysana (profound abstract meditation), i40-41 nirhrasya (one who is not allowing admittance), ch.1 n.37 nirbja (seedless) enstasis, i59 nirgua Brahman, ch.4 n.8 nirodha. See suppression nirvikalpa, the yogin in, i31, ch.1 n.30 nirvikalpajna. See knowledge, indeterminate nirvikalpapratyaka (indeterminate perception), i31

nirvikalpasamdhi (enstasis-withoutdistinctions), i31, ch.1 n.30, ch.1 n.31, ch.1 n.36 nirvikalptiaya. See no-distinctions nih. See state nitya (permanent) rites, permanent, ch.1 n.1 nivtta, forms of the term, ch.5 n.15 nivttam (has been turned away from), ch.5 n.15 nivtti, ch.5 n.15 niyama. See restriction no-distinctions (nirvikalptiaya), i31, 1.5.7 nobility, of master yogin, 4.3.13 non-acquisitiveness, 3.5.8, 3.5.16 non-attachment, 2.3.79, 4.1.36, 4.1.41 non-awareness of objects, 4.1.36, 4.1.43 nonbeliever (nstika), 4.2.23-25 nondual, uninterrupted state in, 5.3.1, 5.3.3 nondual nature, of Brahman, 4.1.47-48 nonexistence, 2.3.8, ch.2 n.23 non-mind, and goodness, 2.5.17 nonperception, of separateness, 4.1.44 non-Self, worlds of the, 1.1.1-2 non-stealing, 3.5.8, 3.5.14 non-violence, 2.3.12, 2.3.77, 3.5.8, 3.5.12, 4.2.29 Nsihottaratpini, commentary on, i8 number test, of breath-control, 3.4.25-26 Nyya, i3, i4, 4.3.11 objective (prayojana), 2.3.9 objects, gross material, 2.5.18 obligations, absence of, 5.4.7 obligatory (prpta) activities, of householder, 5.1.29 occasionally distracted (vikipta), as stage of mind, i57, i69 n.33, 3.5.2-3 offbeat (akaa) dance, 2.8.6-7 offering, faithful (rddha), , 5.1.39, ch.5 n.9; to the ancestors with joyful faces (nndmukharddha), 5.1.38, ch.5 n.8 OM, 3.4.25


one-pointedness (ekgrat), i57-59, i63, 3.5.2-7, 3.5.18, 3.5.31, 3.9.8, 3.9.12, 3.10.11, ch.3 n.2, ch.3 n.14, 4.2.14 operative action (prrabdhakarma), i22, i32, 1.3.5-12 operative action, and bodiless-liberation, 2.3.68-75; bringing about sense objects, 1.6.17; and happiness, ch.1 n.12; and present body, 2.3.55, 2.3.58; and subtle body, 2.3.61; as cause of the future body, ch.2 n.23; as cause of pleasure and suffering, 1.6.11; course of events generated by, 1.4.14; enjoyment of, 2.11.2829; good and bad, 2.3.51, 2.3.54-55; powerful, and intense bondage, 2.3.22; problem of, i28-37; producing experience, 2.4.3; weak, 2.2.25 opposites, transcendence of, i51-52.See also impartiality; pairs of opposites opposition, absence of (visavda), i23, 4.1.1, 4.3; kinds of, 4.3.1 order of society. See under rama ordinary (laukika) means, to principal posture, 3.3.4 ordinary duties and activities (vyavahra), i53 organ. See inner organ others, putting oneself in the place of, 2.7.6 outcast, 1.10.11, 5.4.35 outsider (taastha), 4.2.18, 4.2.23 overeating, i62, 3.10.43-44 Padma, 3.3.4 Padmapda, i1; quoted, 2.3.59, 2.3.64 padrtha. See individual self, purified pain, 1.6.17, 2.7.1, 2.7.3, 2.7.5, 2.7.7, 5.2.4-5, 5.2.7-8 pains, taking, 3.11.18, 3.11.23-24 pairs of means, 2.2 pairs of opposites, 1.9.31, 1.10.23, 3.3.3, 3.3.5, 5.2.5 paka. See side Pacada, ch.2 n.17 Pacada, i9 484

pacakoa. See sheaths, five Pacapdika, teacher of the, quoted, 2.3.59, 2.3.64 paramahasa, i2, i4, , i28, ch.1 n.6, 1.0.12, 1.1.9, 1.1.15, 1.2.17-46; mere (kevalaparamahasa), i51, 5.1.4, 5.1.24 paramahasa state, 1.0.5, 1.0.10-12 Paramahasa Upaniad, i5; quoted, 1.2.24, 1.2.27-32, 5.1 paramahasa yogin, i20, 1.2.27-31, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4. See also yogin paramahasa paramnanda (highest happiness), i63 Paramrthasra, ch.2 n.63 Paramevara, quoted, 1.10 parasparakaraatvam. See mutual causality Parara, i7; quoted, 4.1.22-24 Parara-Mdhavya [PM], description of, i2 Pararasmti, commentary on, i2, , i7, 1.0.11 parvara (highest state is the lower), 1.2.41-42 pariama. See transformation pariprasvarpnusadhna. See nature, fully perfect parivatsara. See yearly cycles paryavasitni (amount to), 4.1.57 passion, 2.7.2; abandonment of, 5.4.41, 5.4.43; derived from darkness, 1.6.11; freedom from, 2.2.23; one who has gone beyond, 1.2.2 Patajali, and enstasis, i51, i58, ch.3 n.26 Patajali quoted, on breath-control, 3.4.20, 3.4.27, 3.4.29-31; on concentration, meditation, and enstasis, 3.5.26-28; on disciplines, 3.5.9-23; on enstasis-of-suppression, 3.6.2, 3.6.26; on friendliness and the other virtues, 2.7.1; on limbs of enstasis, 3.10.23-25; on meditation and enstasis, 2.11.12-13; on nature of yoga, 3.11.2-18; on onepointedness, 3.5.4-7; on passion and

hatred, 2.7.2-3; on restraints and disciplines, 3.5.8, 3.5.12-22; on rites, 2.7.15; on the seer, 3.10.3-5; on the three means, 3.10.13-15; on transformation of suppression (nirodha), 2.2.4-5; on truth-bearing insight, 3.10.19-21; on types of detachment, 3.11.41-47; on types of enstasis, 3.5.40-43; on withdrawal of the senses, 3.5.23-28; on yogas of posture and diet, 3.3.1-3 Patajali Yoga, i23, i57, i69 n.31 patience (dnti, dama), i48, 1.7.2, 2.3.13, 2.3.77. See also sense control pityablyamauna (learning, living as a simpleton, and remaining silent), 1.2.7 pramrthika (higher standpoint), of renouncer, i53 Ptajalya Yogastras (YS), i1, i50, i57, i64 peace, 2.3.12 perception, 1.4.11-12, 5.2.16-17, 3.10.9; act of (savedana), 3.2.13-14. See also mental activity perfect isolation (kaivalya), i33-35, 2.3.36-37, 2.3.39-40, 2.3.52, 2.3.74 perishability of body, 3.2.20 permutations (parima), of the three qualities, 1.8.2 perseverance, 2.2.16 personal effort (puruaprayatna), i46, i50, 1.3.7-12, 1.3.15-17, 1.3.19, 1.3.21-26, 2.2.15-16, 2.3.15, 2.11.1 personal (yogic) effort, i36. See also effort personal work (vypra), to oppose subjugation, 1.3.19 pilgrimages, and renunciation, 1.0.9, 2.4.70, 5.4.6 pia. See rice balls Pitmaha, quoted, 5.3.15 pleasure, 1.6.17, 1.6.9-11, 2.4.63, 2.7.12, 2.7.4, 3.1.10, 5.2.4-5, 5.2.7-8 plenitude (bhman), 3.5.35 possessions, 1.9.1, 1.9.4-6, 5.1.40 possessiveness, 1.7.2, 2.4.41, 2.5.22 485

posture, 3.2.19, 3.5.8, 3.7.3; yoga of, 3.3 power, 2.4.30, 2.4.63. See also supernatural powers practice, of elimination of mind, 2.3.6-7; of enlightenment, 2.3.5; of eradication of latent tendencies, 2.3.6, 2.3.8; at a future time, 2.3.2-5; intense, of the single truth, 3.1.9; of knowledge, 2.3.4; long, 2.1.3-5, 2.1.7-8, 2.4.41, 2.10.49, 2.11.14, 4.1.44; of means, simultaneous, 2.1.3-6, 2.1.9, 2.31; as means of suppression, 3.11.12-24; steadfast, 3.2.1; uninterrupted, 2.4.41, 2.10.49, 2.11.41. See also skillful practice practices, prohibited (dharma-s), 3.5.8 pradhna (principal means of liberation; Ultimate Cause of material universe), i4, ch.3 n.38. See also material universe pradhvasbhva (posterior nonexistence), ch.2 n.23 Prahlda, 3.11.35-38, 3.11.47 praise, prohibited, 1.9.26-27, 5.4.2, 5.4.6, 5.4.12 praia ritual formula, 1.1.11, ch.1 n.2, 2.6.10, 5.1.30, 5.1.39, 5.1.41 Prajpati, 2.4.69; quoted, 1.1.25-31 Prajpati, Lord, regarding the Highest Self, 5.1.26-27 praja. See wisdom prakaraa. See treatise praka. See illumination pra-kam. 3.10.55 See cognition, heightened prakti, ch.1 n.48, ch.3 n.38. See also pradhna, prama, i3-4; (authoritative basis), for liberation-in-life, 1.3.1-2; (evidence), i40; (scriptural basis), i4. See also evidence; prama-s. pramapramitni. See tasks at hand prama-s (authoritative scriptural passages), i20 praa. See breath prasda. See serenity prastara. See grass-bundle

pratipattikarman. See rite, concluding, of a sacrifice pratyaya (basis), ch.3 n.14, ch.3 n.34. See also cognitions pravargya-homa, 4.2.30, ch.4 n.5 Pravhaa, King, 2.10.2 pravtti (life of action), 1.2.35, ch.1 n.10. See also activity prgabhva (prior non-existence), translation of term, ch.2 n.23 prgbhvan. See meditations prja (individual/microcosmic soul in deep sleep), i33, 1.5.5, 3.10.28, 3.10.31 praspandanirodha. See breath-control prava, reciting, 3.4.13 prgnihotra, i56 pryma. See breath-control prpta. See obligatory prrabdhakarma. See operative action Prayga, 5.4.6 prayojana. See objective prayojana-s (purposes), i5 present birth, 1.2.45 present body, 2.3.55 pride, abandonment of, 5.2.7-8; absence of, 2.3.13, 2.3.77, 2.7.21; as Demonic fortune, 2.4.42, 2.9.11; generated by one's own happiness, 2.7.11-12; as latent tendency, 2.4.29, 2.4.87, 2.6.6; of learning, 3.4.1 Primal Nature (mlaprakti), 3.8.2 principal rule (mukhya kalpa)a, 5.1.45, 5.2 Principle, ch.3 n.38 private Vedic recitation. See under Vedic recitation prohibitions, beyond, 1.9.30 pupils, benefited by austerity, 4.2.18-20; gathering, 5.4.2, 5.4.19-20, 5.4.24, 5.4.27 Puras, 5.1.40 pure, always, 1.10.23, 2.3.46; eternally, 5.1.20-22, 5.1.26; as quality of devotee-of-the-Lord, 1.7.7 pure consciousness (cidtman), of a bound person, 1.4.20, 2.4.20

pure consciousness (cidekarasa), and Tranquil Self, 3.8.1 pure consciousness (cinmtra), as latent tendency, i52-53, i59-60, i64 pure consciousness, 2.11.10-11, 3.9.12; as latent tendency of, 2.6.4, 2.11; Self as, 1.10.23; as Tranquil Self, 3.9.2 purification, 2.