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Continuous and Discrete Time Signals and Systems (Mandal & Asif) Solutions - Chap03

# Continuous and Discrete Time Signals and Systems (Mandal & Asif) Solutions - Chap03

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## Sections

• Problem 3.2
• Problem 3.3
• Problem 3.4
• Problem 3.5
• Problem 3.6(vi)
• Problem 3.7
• Problem 3.8
• Problem 3.9
• Problem 3.10
• Problem 3.11
• Problem 3.12
• Problem 3.13
• Problem 3.14
• Problem 3.15
• Problem 3.16
• Problem 3.17
• Problem 3.18
• Problem 3.19

Chapter 3: Time Domain Analysis of LTIC Systems

Problem 3.1
Linearity:
For x3(t) = α x1(t) + β x2(t) applied as the input, the output y3(t) is given by

))

(

)

(

(

))

(

)

(

(

))

(

)

(

(

))

(

)

(

(

)

(

2

1

0

2

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

2

1

3

0

3

1

13

1

1

3

t

x

t

x

b

dt t

x

t

x

d

b

dt

t

x

t

x

d

b

dt t

x

t

x

d

b

t

y

a

dt

dy

a

dt y

d

a

dty

d

m

m

m

m

m

m

n

n

n

n

n

β

α

+

β

+

α

+

+

β

+

α

+

β

+

α

=

+

+

+

+

.

Rearranging the terms on the right hand side of the equation, we get

+

+

+

+

β

+

+

+

+

+

α

=

+

+

+

+

)

(

)

(

)

(

2

0

2

1

12

1

1

2

1

0

1

1

11

1

1

1

3

0

3

1

13

1

1

3

t

x

b

dt

dx

b

dt x

d

b

dtx

d

b

t

x

b

dt

dx

b

dt x

d

b

dt x

d

b

t

y

a

dt

dy

a

dt y

d

a

dty

d

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

n

n

n

n

n

Expressing the higher order derivatives of x1(t) and x2(t) in terms of y1(t) and y2(t), we get

+

+

+

+

β

+

+

+

+

+

α

=

+

+

+

+

)

(

)

(

)

(

1

0

1

1

11

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

11

1

1

1

3

0

3

1

13

1

1

3

t

y

a

dt

dy

a

dt y

d

a

dty

d

t

y

a

dt

dy

a

dt y

d

a

dty

d

t

y

a

dt

dy

a

dt y

d

a

dty

d

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

or,

(

)

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

2

1

0

2

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

2

1

3

0

3

1

3

1

3

t

y

t

y

a

dt y

y

d

a

dt y

y

d

a

dt y

y

d

t

y

a

dt

dy

a

dty

d

a

dty

d

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

β

+

α

+

β

+

α

+

+

β

+

α

+

β

+

α

=

+

+

+

+

which implies that

)

(

)

(

)

(

2

1

3

t

y

t

y

t

y

β

+

α

=

.

The system is therefore linear.
Time-invariance: For x(tt0) applied as the input, the output y1(t) is given by

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

0

0

0

1

10

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

11

1

1

1

t

t

x

b

dt t

t

dx

b

dt t

t

x

d

b

dt t

t

x

d

b

t

y

a

dt

dy

a

dt y

d

a

dty

d

m

m

m

m

m

m

n

n

n

n

n

+

+

+

+

=

+

+

+

+

Substituting τ = tt0 (which implies that dt = dτ), we get

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

10

1

1

1

0

1

τ

+

ττ

+

+

τ τ

+

τ τ

=

+

τ

+

τ+

τ

+

+

τ +

τ

+

τ +

τ

x

b

d

dx

b

d x

d

b

dx

d

b

t

y

a

d t

dy

a

d t

y

d

a

d t

y

d

m

m

m

m

m

m

n

n

n

n

n

Comparing with the original differential equation representation of the system, we get

78 Chapter 3

)

(

)

(

or,

)

(

)

(

0

1

0

1

t

y

y

t

y

y

τ

=

τ

+

τ

=

τ

,

proving that the system is time-invariant. Note that the time invariance property is only valid if the
coefficients ar’s and br’s are constants. If ar’s and br’s are functions of time, then the substitution (τ = t
t0) will also affect them. Clearly, y(τ) ≠ y1(τ + t0) in such a case and the system will NOT be time-
invariant.

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