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Continuous and Discrete Time Signals and Systems (Mandal & Asif) Solutions - Chap03|Views: 3,303|Likes: 94

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09/02/2015

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- Problem 3.2
- Problem 3.3
- Problem 3.4
- Problem 3.5
- Problem 3.6(vi)
- Problem 3.7
- Problem 3.8
- Problem 3.9
- Problem 3.10
- Problem 3.11
- Problem 3.12
- Problem 3.13
- Problem 3.14
- Problem 3.15
- Problem 3.16
- Problem 3.17
- Problem 3.18
- Problem 3.19

**Chapter 3: Time Domain Analysis of LTIC Systems
**

**Problem 3.1
Linearity:** For

))

(

)

(

(

))

(

)

(

(

))

(

)

(

(

))

(

)

(

(

)

(

2

1

0

2

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

2

1

3

0

3

1

13

1

1

3

*t
*

*x
*

*t
*

*x
*

*b
*

*dt t
*

*x
*

*t
*

*x
*

*d
*

*b
*

*dt
*

*t
*

*x
*

*t
*

*x
*

*d
*

*b
*

*dt t
*

*x
*

*t
*

*x
*

*d
*

*b
*

*t
*

*y
*

*a
*

*dt
*

*dy
*

*a
*

*dt y
*

*d
*

*a
*

*dty
*

*d
*

*m
*

*m
*

*m
*

*m
*

*m
*

*m
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

β

α

+

β

+

α

+

+

β

+

α

+

β

+

α

=

+

+

+

+

−

−

−

−

−

−

.

Rearranging the terms on the right hand side of the equation, we get

+

+

+

+

β

+

+

+

+

+

α

=

+

+

+

+

−

−

−

−

−

−

−

−

−

)

(

)

(

)

(

2

0

2

1

12

1

1

2

1

0

1

1

11

1

1

1

3

0

3

1

13

1

1

3

*t
*

*x
*

*b
*

*dt
*

*dx
*

*b
*

*dt x
*

*d
*

*b
*

*dtx
*

*d
*

*b
*

*t
*

*x
*

*b
*

*dt
*

*dx
*

*b
*

*dt x
*

*d
*

*b
*

*dt x
*

*d
*

*b
*

*t
*

*y
*

*a
*

*dt
*

*dy
*

*a
*

*dt y
*

*d
*

*a
*

*dty
*

*d
*

*m
*

*m
*

*m
*

*m
*

*m
*

*m
*

*m
*

*m
*

*m
*

*m
*

*m
*

*m
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

Expressing the higher order derivatives of *x*1(*t*) and* x*2(*t*) in terms of *y*1(*t*) and* y*2(*t*), we get

+

+

+

+

β

+

+

+

+

+

α

=

+

+

+

+

−

−

−

−

−

−

−

−

−

)

(

)

(

)

(

1

0

1

1

11

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

11

1

1

1

3

0

3

1

13

1

1

3

*t
*

*y
*

*a
*

*dt
*

*dy
*

*a
*

*dt y
*

*d
*

*a
*

*dty
*

*d
*

*t
*

*y
*

*a
*

*dt
*

*dy
*

*a
*

*dt y
*

*d
*

*a
*

*dty
*

*d
*

*t
*

*y
*

*a
*

*dt
*

*dy
*

*a
*

*dt y
*

*d
*

*a
*

*dty
*

*d
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

or,

(

)

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

2

1

0

2

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

2

1

3

0

3

1

3

1

3

*t
*

*y
*

*t
*

*y
*

*a
*

*dt y
*

*y
*

*d
*

*a
*

*dt y
*

*y
*

*d
*

*a
*

*dt y
*

*y
*

*d
*

*t
*

*y
*

*a
*

*dt
*

*dy
*

*a
*

*dty
*

*d
*

*a
*

*dty
*

*d
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

β

+

α

+

β

+

α

+

+

β

+

α

+

β

+

α

=

+

+

+

+

−

−

−

−

which implies that

)

(

)

(

)

(

2

1

3

*t
*

*y
*

*t
*

*y
*

*t
*

*y
*

β

+

α

=

.

The system is therefore linear.

**Time-invariance:** For *x*(*t* – *t*0) applied as the input, the output *y*1(*t*) is given by

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

0

0

0

1

10

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

11

1

1

1

*t
*

*t
*

*x
*

*b
*

*dt t
*

*t
*

*dx
*

*b
*

*dt t
*

*t
*

*x
*

*d
*

*b
*

*dt t
*

*t
*

*x
*

*d
*

*b
*

*t
*

*y
*

*a
*

*dt
*

*dy
*

*a
*

*dt y
*

*d
*

*a
*

*dty
*

*d
*

*m
*

*m
*

*m
*

*m
*

*m
*

*m
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

−

+

−

+

+

−

+

−

=

+

+

+

+

−

−

−

−

−

−

Substituting τ = *t* – *t*0 (which implies that *dt* = *d*τ), we get

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

10

1

1

1

0

1

τ

+

ττ

+

+

τ τ

+

τ τ

=

+

τ

+

τ+

τ

+

+

τ +

τ

+

τ +

τ

−

−

−

−

−

−

*x
*

*b
*

*d
*

*dx
*

*b
*

*d x
*

*d
*

*b
*

*dx
*

*d
*

*b
*

*t
*

*y
*

*a
*

*d t
*

*dy
*

*a
*

*d t
*

*y
*

*d
*

*a
*

*d t
*

*y
*

*d
*

*m
*

*m
*

*m
*

*m
*

*m
*

*m
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

*n
*

Comparing with the original differential equation representation of the system, we get

**78** **Chapter 3
**

)

(

)

(

or,

)

(

)

(

0

1

0

1

*t
*

*y
*

*y
*

*t
*

*y
*

*y
*

−

τ

=

τ

+

τ

=

τ

,

proving that the system is time-invariant. Note that the time invariance property is only valid if the

coefficients *ar*’s and *br*’s are constants. If *ar*’s and *br*’s are functions of time, then the substitution (τ = *t* –

*t*0) will also affect them. Clearly, *y*(τ) ≠ *y*1(τ + *t*0) in such a case and the system will NOT be time-

invariant.

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