Architectural Positions The role of mass media in the public sphere The western democracy is dependent on a public sphere

where people can debate and communicate. Richard Sennet observes that the decline of the public sphere is associated with strong tendency towards individualization (p.43 paragraph 4.3). Yochai Benkler, for example, paints a picture of the public sphere that sharply deviates from the traditional view. He argues that the Internet has created conditions for a public sphere that no longer has a fixed, ascertainable location, like the surface of a public square or the editorial page of the newspaper. (p.42 paragraph 4.2) The lack of a fixed location and the fact that social encounters take place in a virtual public sphere brought the possibility for anonymous debate where no social constraints exist. - Assignment of the dutch house for democracy - (dutch politician ask for a physical public domain (again)) So how should an architect design a physical public domain, in a society which operates in a virtual public sphere? Koolhaas: His essay ʻGeneric Cityʼ contends that the city of the future will have no history, no centre, and, most importantly, no public life - or at least, its public life will no longer be visible. (p.41 paragraph 4.1) Combination - Library Amsterdam - sendai mediatheque Toyo Ito - koolhaas seatle library Architecture as the connection between the public, the virtual and the physical.

- Today, the public sphere is a collection of countless little spheres: the parochialisation of the public (p.45 paragraph 4.4).

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