Handbook of Materials Behavior Models
VOLUME I Deformations of Materials
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Handbook of Materials Behavior Models
VOLUME I Deformations of Materials
EDITOR
JEAN LEMAITRE
Universit# Paris 6 LMTCachan Cachan Cedex France
ACADEMIC PRESS
A Harcourt Science and Technology Company
San Diego San Francisco New York London Sydney Tokyo
Boston
This book is printed on acidflee paper. Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the work should be mailed to the following address: Permissions Department, Harcourt, Inc., 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, Florida, 328876777. ACADEMIC PRESS A Division of Harcourt, Inc. 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 921014495, USA http ://www.academicpress, com Academic Press Harcourt Place, 32 Jamestown Road, London, NW1 7BY, UK http ://www.aca demicpress, corn Library of Congress Catalog Number: 2001089698
Set International Standard Book Number: 0124433413 Volume 1 International Standard Book Number: 0124433421 Volume 2 International Standard Book Number: 012443343X Volume 3 International Standard Book Number: 0124433448
Printed in the United States of America 01 02 03 04 05 MB 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
CONTENTS
Foreword (E. van der Giessen) Introduction (J. Lemaitre) Contributors
VOLUME I
DEFORMATIONS OF MATERIALS
1
Chapter 1 Background on mechanics of materials Chapter 2 Elasticity, viscoelasticity Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 VOLUME II Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 VOLUME III Chapter 9 Yield limit Plasticity Viscoplasticity FAILURES OF MATERIALS Continuous damage Cracking and fracture Friction and wear MULTIPHYSICS BEHAVIORS Multiphysics coupled behaviors
69 125 195 299
409 537 673
793 955 1073 1179
Chapter 10 Composite media, biomaterials Chapter 11 Geomaterials
INDEX
vi
Contents
CHAPTER
1
Background on mechanics of materials
1.1 Background on modeling
J. Lemaitre
1.2 Materials and process selection
Y. Brechet
15 30
1.3 Size effect on structural strength
Z. Bazant
CHAPTER
2
71 75 84 91 95
Elasticity, viscoelasticity
2.1 Introduction to elasticity and viscoelasticity
J. Lemaitre
2.2 Background on nonlinear elasticity
R. W. Ogden
2.3 Elasticity of porous materials
N. D. Cristescu
2.4 Elastomer models
R. W. Ogden
2.5 Background on viscoelasticity
K. Ikegami
2.6 A nonlinear viscoelastic model based on fluctuating modes
R. Rahouadj, C. Cunat
107 117
2.7 Linear viscoelasticity with damage
R. Schapery
CHAPTER
3
127
Yield limit
3.1 Introduction to yield limits
J. Lemaitre
Contents
vii 129 137 155 166
3.2 Background on isotropic criteria
D. Drucker
3.3 Yield loci based on crystallographic texture
P. Van Houtte
3.4 Anisotropic yield conditions
M. Zyczkowski
3.5 Distortional model of plastic hardening
T. Kurtyka
3.6 A generalized limit criterion with application to strength, yielding, and damage of isotropic materials
H. Altenbach
175 187
3.7 Yield conditions in beams, plates, and shells
D. Drucker
CHAPTER
4
197
Plasticity
4.1 Introduction to plasticity
J. Lemaitre
4.2 Elastoplasticity of metallic polycrystals by the selfconsistent model
M. Berveiller
199
4.3 Anisotropic elastoplastic model based on crystallographic texture
A. M. Habraken, L. Duchr A. Godinas, S. Cescotto
204
4.4 Cyclic plasticity model with nonlinear isotropic and kinematic hardening: No LIKH model
D. Marquis
213
4.5 Muhisurface hardening model for monotonic and cyclic response of metals
Z. Mroz
223
4.6 Kinematic hardening rule with critical state of dynamic recovery
N. Ohno
232
viii 4.7 4.8 4.9 Kinematic hardening rule for biaxial ratcheting
H. Ishikawa, K. Sasaki
Contents
240 247 255 265
Plasticity in large deformations
Y E Dafalias
Plasticity of polymers
J. M. Haudin, B. Monasse
4.10 Rational phenomenology in dynamic plasticity
J. R. Klepaczko
4.11 Conditions for localization in plasticity and rateindependent materials
A. Benallal
274 281
4.12 An introduction to gradient plasticity
E. C. Aifantis
CHAPTER 5
Viscoplasticity
5.1 5.2 Introduction to viscoplasticity
J. Lemaitre
301
A phenomenological anisotropic creep model for cubic single crystals
A. Bertram, J. Olschewski
303
5.3
Crystalline viscoplasticity applied to single crystals
G. Cailletaud
308
5.4
Averaging of viscoplastic polycrystalline materials with the tangent selfconsistent model
A. Molinari
318 326
5.5 5.6
Fraction models for inelastic deformation
J. E Besseling
Inelastic compressible and incompressible, isotropic, smallstrain viscoplasticity theory based on overstress (VBO)
E. Krempl, K. Ho
336
Contents
ix
5.7
An outline of the BodnerPartom (BP) unified constitutive equations for elasticviscoplastic behavior
S. Bodner
349
5.8
Unified model of cyclic viscoplasticity based on the nonlinear kinematic hardening rule
J. L. Chaboche
358 368 377
5.9
A model of nonproportional cyclic viscoplasticity
E. Tanaka
5.10 Ratedependent elastoplastic constitutive relations
E Ellyin
5.11 Physically based rate and temperaturedependent constitutive models for metals
S. NematNasser
387 398
5.12 Elasticviscoplastic deformation of polymers
E. M. Arruda, M. Boyce
CHAPTER
6
411 413
Continuous damage
6.1 6.2 6.3 Introduction to continuous damage
J. Lemaitre
Damageequivalent stressfracture criterion
J. Lemaitre
Micromechanically inspired continuous models of brittle damage
D. Krajcinovic
417 421 430
6.4 6.5 6.6
Anisotropic damage
C. L. Chow, Y. Wei
Modified Gurson model
V. Tvergaard, A. Needleman
The Rousselier model for porous metal plasticity and ductile fracture
G. Rousselier
436 446
6.7
Model of anisotropic creep damage
S. Murakami
Contents
6.8 6.9
Multiaxial fatigue damage criteria
D. Sauci
453
Muhiaxial fatigue criteria based on a muhiscale approach
K. Dang Van
457
6.10 A probabilistic approach to fracture in high cycle fatigue
E Hild
464 472
6.11 Gigacycle fatigue regime
C. Bathias
6.12 Damage mechanisms in amorphous glassy polymers: Crazing
R. Schirrer
488 500 513
6.13 Damage models for concrete
G. PijaudierCabot, J. Mazars
6.14 Isotropic and anisotropic damage law of evolution
J. Lemaitre, R. Desmorat
6.15 A twoscale damage model for quasibrittle and fatigue damage
R. Desmorat, J. Lemaitre
525
7 Cracking and .fracture
CHAPTER
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5
Introduction to cracking and fracture
J. Lemaitre
539 542 549 558 566
Bridges between damage and fracture mechanics
J. Mazars, G. PijaudierCabot
Background on fracture mechanics
H. D. Bui, J. B. Leblond, N. StalinMuller
Probabilistic approach to fracture: The Weibull model
E Hild
Brittle fracture
D. Franc~ois
Contents
xi 577 582
7.6 7.7 7.8
Sliding crack model
D. Gross
Delamination of coatings
H. M. Jensen
Ductile rupture integrating inhomogeneities in materials
J. Besson, A. Pineau
587
7.9
Creep crack growth behavior in creep ductile and brittle materials
T. Yokobori Jr.
597 611
7.10 Critical review of fatigue crack growth
T. Yokobori
7.11 Assessment of fatigue damage on the basis of nonlinear compliance effects
H. Mughrabi
622
7.12 Damage mechanics modeling of fatigue crack growth
X. Zhang, J. Zhao
633 645
7.13 Dynamic fracture
W. G. Knauss
7.14 Practical applications of fracture mechanics: Fracture control
D. Broek
661
CHAPTER 8
Friction a n d w e a r
8.1 8.2 8.3 Introduction to friction and wear
J. Lemaitre
675 676 700
Background on friction and wear
Y. Berthier
Models of friction
A. Savkoor
xii 8.4 Friction in lubricated contacts
J. FrCne, T. Cicone
Contents
760
8.5 A thermodynamic analysis of the contact interface in wear mechanics
H. D. Bui, M. Dragonlouiset, C. Stolz
768
8.6 Constitutive models and numerical methods for frictional contact
M. Raous
777 787
8.7 Physical models of wear, prediction of wear modes
K. Kato
CHAPTER 9
Multiphysics coupled behavior
9.1 Introduction to coupled behaviors
J. Lemaitre
795
9.2 Elastoplasticity and viscoplasticity coupled with damage
A. Benallal
797
9.3 A fully coupled anisotropic elastoplastic damage model
S. Cescotto, M. Wauters, A. M. Habraken, Y. Zhu
802 814 821
9.4 Model of inelastic behavior coupled to damage
G. Z. Voyiadjis
9.5 Thermoelastoviscoplasticity and damage
P. Perzyna
9.6 Hightemperature creep deformation and rupture models
D. R. Hayhurst
835
9.7 A coupled diffusionviscoplastic formulation for oxidasing multiphase materials
E. P. Busso
849
Contents
xiii 856
9.8 9.9
Hydrogen attack
E. van der Giessen, S. Schl6gl
Hydrogen transport and interaction with material deformation: Implications for fracture
P Sofronis
864 875
9.10 Unified disturbed state constitutive models
C. S. Desai
9.11 Coupling of stressstrain, thermal, and metallurgical behaviors
T. Inoue
884
9.12 Models for stressphase transformation couplings in metallic alloys
S. Denis, P Archambault, E. Gautier
896 905
9.13 Elastoplasticity coupled with phase changes
E D. Fischer
9.14 Mechanical behavior of steels during solidsolid phase transformations
J. B. Leblond
915
9.15 Constitutive equations of a shape memory alloy under complex loading conditions
M. Tokuda
921 928 944
9.16 Elasticity coupled with magnetism
R. Billardon, L. Hirsinger, E Ossart
9.17 Physical aging and glass transition of polymers
R. Rahouadj, C. Cunat
CHAPTER 1 0
Composite media, biomaterials
10.1 Introduction to composite media
J. Lemaitre
957 959
10.2 Background on micromechanics
E. van der Giessen
xiv 10.3 Nonlinear composites" Secant methods and variational bounds
P. Suquet
Contents
968 984 996 1004
10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7
Nonlocal micromechanical models
J. Willis
Transformation field analysis of composite materials
G. Dvorak
A damage mesomodel of laminate composites
P Ladev~ze
Behavior of ceramixmatrix composites under thermomechanical cyclic loading conditions
E A. Leckie, A. Burr, E Hild
1015
10.8
Limit and shakedown analysis of periodic heterogeneous media
G. Maier, V. Carvelli, A. Taliercio
1025 1037 1048 1057
10.9
Flowinduced anisotropy in shortfiber composites
A. Poitou, E Meslin
10.10 Elastic properties of bone tissue
Stephen C. Cowin
10.11 Biomechanics of soft tissue
S. C. Holzapfel
CHAPTER 1 1
Geomaterials
11.1 11.2 11.3 Introduction to geomaterials
J. Lemaitre
1075 1076
Background of the behavior of geomaterials
E Darve
Models for compressible and dilatant geomaterials
N. D. Cristescu
1084
Contents
XV
11.4 11.5
Behavior of granular materials
I. Vardoulakis
1093
Micromechanically based constitutive model for frictional granular materials
S. NematNasser
1107 1118
11.6 11.7
Linear poroelasticity
J. W. Rudnicki
Nonlinear poroelasticity for liquid nonsaturated porous materials
O. Coussy, P. Dangla
1126
11.8
An elastoplastic constitutive model for partially saturated soils
B. A. Schrefler, L. Simoni
1134
11.9
Sinfonietta classica: A strainhardening model for
soils and soft rocks
R. Nova
1146
11.10 A generalized plasticity model for dynamic behavior of sand, including liquefaction
M. Pastor, O. C. Zienkiewicz, A. H. C. Chan
1155 1164
11.11 A critical state bounding surface model for sands
M. T. Manzari, Y. E Dafalias
11.12 Lattice model for fracture analysis of brittle disordered materials like concrete and rock
J. G. M. van Mier
1171
Index
1179
FOREWORD
We know that there is an abundance of models for particular materials and for specific types of mechanical responses. Indeed, both the developers of models and their users sometimes criticize this situation, for different reasons. The presence of different models that attempt to describe the same material and response is due not only to the personal style of their inventors, but also to a desirable element of competition that drives the progress in the field. Given this situation, the selection of the proper constitutive model from all the available ones can be difficult for users or even materials modelers when they are not experts in the field. This Handbook is the first attempt to organize a wide range of models and to provide assistance in model selection and actual application. Endusers will find here either potential models relevent for their application and ready to be used for the problem at hand, or an entrance to the specific technical literature for more details. Recognizing the breadth of the field as well as the unavoidable personal touch of each approach, Jean Lemaitre has chosen to include in this Handbook the writings of as many as 130 authors. Drawing on his wide experience developing and using constitutive models for many materials, he has addressed his worldwide network of colleagues, all experts in their pertinent subject, to accomplish this difficult task. Yet, even though the Handbook covers an unprecedented range of materials and types of behavior, it is only a sample of currently available models, and other choices would have been possible. Indeed, more choices will become possible as the development of novel and improved material models continues.
Erik van der Giessen Koiter Institute Delft Delft University of Technology The Netherlands xvi
INTRODUCTION
Why a Handbook of models? Handbooks are often compilations of characteristic numbers related to wellestablished laws or formulae that are ready to apply. In this case of the behavior of materials, no unique law exists for any phenomenon, especially in the range of nonlinear phenomena. This is why we use the term model instead of law. During the past thirty years many models have been proposed, each of them having its own domain of validity. This proliferation is partly due to advances in computers. It is now possible to numerically simulate the "inservice life" of structures subjected to plasticity, fatigue, crack propagation, shock waves and aging for safety and economy purposes. The time has come to try to classify, compare, and validate these models to help users to select the most appropriate model for their applications. How is the Handbook organized? All solid materials are considered, including metals, alloys, ceramics, polymers, composites, concrete, wood, rubber, geomaterials such as rocks, soils, sand, clay, and biomaterials. But the Handbook is organized first by phenomena because most engineering mesomodels apply to different materials. 9 In the first volume: "Deformation of Materials," the first chapter is an attempt to give general methodologies in the "art" of modeling with special emphasis, on domains of validity in order to help in the choice of models, in the selection of the appropriate materials for each specific application, and in the consideration of the socalled "size effect" in engineering structures. Chapter 2 to 5 deal, respectively, with elasticity and viscoelasticity, yield limit, plasticity, and viscoplasticity. 9 The second volume is devoted to "Failure of Materials": continuous damage in Chapter 6, cracking and fracture in Chapter 7, friction and wear in Chapter 8. 9 In the third volume "Multiphysics Behaviors" are assembled. The different possible couplings are described in Chapter 9. Chapters 10 and 11 are devoted to special classes of materials: composites and
xvii
xviii
Introduction
geomaterials, respectively, because they each corresponds to a particular modeling typed and moreover to a selforganized community of people. 9 In each chapter the different sections written by different authors describe one model with its domain of validity, its background, its formulation, the identification of material parameters for as many materials as possible, some advice on implementation or use of the model, and some references. The order of the sections follows as much as possible from physical and micromechanical oriented models to more phenomenological and engineering oriented ones. How to use the Handbook? 9 Search by phenomena: This is the normal order of the Handbook described in the "Contents". 9 Search by model name: Unfortunately, not all models have a name, and some of them have several. Look in the list of contributors, where the names of all authors are given. 9 Search by type of application: Each chapter begins with a chapter introduction in which a few words are written on each section. If you do not find exactly what you are looking for, please remember that the best model is the simplest which gives you what you need and nothing more! In case of any difficulty, get in touch with the author(s), whose address is given after the title of each section. Some personal comments. This Handbook has been initiated by the editor of "Academic Press" who gave me much freedom to organize the book. It took me two years to prepare the contents, to obtain the agreement of more than 100 authors, to ask for manuscripts, to ask again and again (and again for some of them!) to review and to obtain the final material. It was an exciting experience for which all actors must be thanked: the editors Z. Ruder, G. Franklin, and M. Filion, all the authors who are still my friends, my colleagues and friends from the LMTCachan who often advised me on subjects and authors and particularly Erik van der Giessen, who helped me in the selection of the subjects, who corrected the chapter introductions, and who agreed to write the foreword, Catherine Genin who was so kind and so efficient with letters, fax, email, telephone, disks and manuscripts and answered so many questions in order to obtain the materials in due time. I must also mention Annie, my wife, who accepted 117 articles on the table at home!
Merci d tous, Jean Lemaitre Septembre 2000
CONTRIBUTORS
Numbers in parentheses indicate the section of authors' contributions. ELIAS C. AIFANTIS (4.12), Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 54006 Greece, and Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan HOLM ALTENBACH (3.6), Fachbereich Ingenieurwissenschaften, MartinLutherUniversitat HalleWittenberg, D06099 Halle (Saale), Germany E ARCHAMBAULT (9.12), Laboratoire de Science et GSnie des Mat~riaux et de M~tallurgie, UMR 7584 CNRS/INPL, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, 54042 Nancy Cedex, France ELLEN M. ARRUDA (5.12), Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan C. BATHIAS (6.11), Laboratoire de M~canique de la Rupture, CNAM/ITMA, 2 rue Conte, 75003 Paris, France ZDENEK P. BAZANT (1.3), Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA AHMED BENALLAL (4.11, 9.2), Laboratoire de M~canique et Technologie, ENS de Cachan/CNRS/Universit~ Paris 6, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan, France ALBRECHT BERTRAM (5.2), OttovonGuerickeUniversity Magdeburg, Universit/~tsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany YVES BERTHIER (8.2), Laboratoire de M~canique des Contacts, UMR CNRSINSA de Lyon 5514, Batiment 113, 20, Avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex, France
xix
XX
Contributors
B. J. BESSON (7.8), Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre des Mat~riaux, UMR CNRS 7533, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex, France J. E BESSELING (5.5), j.f.besseling@wbmt.tudelft.nl M. BERVEILLER (4.2), Laboratoire de Physique et M&anique des Mat~riaux, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex, France RENt~ BILLARDON (9.16), ENS de Cachan/CNRS/Universit~ Paris 6, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan Cedex, France SOL R. BODNER (5.7), Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel MARY C. BOYCE (5.12), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA YVES BRECHET (1.2), L.T.EC.M. BP75, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, 38402 St Martin d'Heres Cedex, France DAVID BROEK (7.14), 263 Dogwood Lane, Westerville, Ohio, USA HUY DUONG BUI (7.3, 8.5), Laboratoire de M&anique des Solicles, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau, France Electricit4 de France, R&D, Clamart, France ALAIN BURR (10.7), Laboratoire de PhysicoChimie Structurale et Macromol&ulaire, UMR 7615, ESPCI, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France ESTEBAN P. BUSSO (9.7), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College, University of London, London, SW7 2BX, United Kingdom GEORGES CAILLETAUD (5.3), Centre des Mat4riaux de l't~cole des Mines de Paris, UMR CNRS 7633, BP 87, F91003 Evry Cedex, France VALTER CARVELLI (10.8), Department of Structural Engineering, Technical University (Politecnico) of Milan, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy SERGE CESCOTTO (4.3, 9.3), D4partement MSM, Universit4 de Liege, 1, chemin des Chevreuils bfit.B52/3, 4000 Liege, Belgique J. L. CHABOCHE (5.8), O.N.E.R.A., DMSE, BP 72, 92322 ChStillon Cedex, France and LASMIS, Troyes University of Technology, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex, France A. H. C. CHAN (11.10), School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
Contributors
xxi
C.L. CHOW (6.4), Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of MichiganDearborn TRAIAN CICONE (8.4), Dept. of Machine Elements and Tribology, Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Romania N.D. CRISTESCU (2.3), 231 Aerospace Building, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida OLIVIER COUSSY (11.7), Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees, Paris, France STEPHEN C. COWIN (10.10), New York Center for Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, The City College, New York CHRISTIAN CUNAT (2.6, 9.17), LEMTA, UMR CNRS 7563, ENSEM INPL 2, avenue de la ForetdeHaye, 54500 VandoeuvrelesNancy, France PATRICK DANGLA (11.7), Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees, Paris, France FI~LIX DARVE (11.2), EINP Grenoble, L3SBP 53 38041 Grenoble, France YANNIS E DAFALIAS (4.8, 11.11), Civil and Environmental Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C. S. DENIS (9.12), Laboratoire de Science et G~nie des Mat~riaux et de M~tallurgie, UMR 7584 CNRS/INPL, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, 54042 Nancy Cedex, France CHANDRA S. DESAI (9.10), Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA RODRIGUE DESMORAT (6.14, 6.15), Universite Paris 6LMS, 8, Rue du Capitaine Scott, F75015 Paris, France MARTA DRAGONLOUISET (8.5), Laboratoire de M~canique des Solides, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau, France DANIEL C. DRUCKER (3.2, 3.7), Department of Aerospace Engineering, Mechanics Engineering Service, University of Florida, 231 Aerospace Building, Gainesville, Florida 32611 GEORGE J. DVORAK (10.5), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York L. DUCHENE (4.3), D6partement MSM, Universit8 de Liege, 1, chemin des chevreuils b~t.B52/3, 4000 Liege, Belgique FERNAND ELLYIN (5.10), Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
xxii
Contributors
E D. FISCHER (9.13), Montanuniversit. at Leoben, FranzJosefStrasse 18, A8700 Leoben, Austria DOMINIQUE FRAN~;OIS (7.5), 12cole Centrale de Paris, ChfitenayMalabry, F92 295, France JEAN FRIS.NE (8.4), Laboratoire de M~canique des Solides, Universit~ de Poitiers, France E. GAUTIER (9.12), Laboratoire de Science et G~nie des Mat~riaux et de M~tallurgie, UMR 7584 CNRS/INPL, t~cole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, 54042 Nancy Cedex, France A. GODINAS (4.3), D~partement MSM, Universit~ de Liege, 1, chemin des Chevreuils bfit.B52/3, 4000 Liege, Belgium DIETMAR GROSS (7.6), Institute of Mechanics, TU Darmstadt, Hochschulstrasse 1, D 64289 Darmstadt ANNE MARIE HABRAKEN (4.3, 9.3), D~partement MSM, Universit~ de Liege, 1, chemin des Chevreuils b~t.B52/3, 4000 Liege, Belgique JEANMARC HAUDIN (4.9), CEMEF BP 207, 06904 Sophia Antipolis, France D. R. HAYHURST (9.4), Department of Mechanical Engineering, UMIST, P 9 Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, United Kingdom FRANCOIS HILD (7.4, 10.7), LMTCachan, 61 avenue du Pr4sident Wilson, F94235 Cachan Cedex, France LAURENT HIRSINGER (9.16), ENS de Cachan/CNRS/Universit4 Paris 6, 61 avenue du Pr4sident Wilson, 94235 Cachan Cedex, France K. HO (5.6), Yeungnam University, Korea GERHARD A. HOLZAPFEL (10.11), Institute for Structural Analysis, Computational Biomechanics, Graz University of Technology, 8010 Graz, Austria KOZO IKEGAMI (2.5), Tokyo Denki University, KandaNishikicho 22, Chiyodaku, Tokyo 1018457, Japan TATSUO INOUE (9.11), Department of Energy Conversion Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, YoshidaHonmachi, Sakyoku, Kyoto, Japan HIROMASA ISHIKAWA (4.7), Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kitaku, Sapporo 0608628, Japan
Contributors
xxiii
HENRIK MYHRE JENSEN (7.7), Department of Solid Mechanics, 404, Technical University of Denmark, DK2800 Lyngby, Denmark KOJI KATO (8.7), Tohoku University, AramakiAzaAoba 01, Sendal 9808579, Japan JANUSZ R. KLEPACZKO (4.10), Metz University, Laboratory of Physics and Mechanics of Materials, lie du Saulcy, 57045 Met7, France W. G. KNAUSS (7.13), California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California DUSAN KRAJCINOVIC (6.3), Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona E. KREMPL (5.6), Mechanics of Materials Laboratory, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York
TADEUSZ KURTYKA (3.5), C E R N 
European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH1211 Geneve 23, Switzerland
PIERRE LADEVI~ZE (10.6), LMTCachan, ENS de Cachan/CNRSAJniversit6 Paris 6, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan Cedex, France FREDERICK A. LECKIE (10.7), Department of Mechanical and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California JB. LEBLOND (7.3, 9.14), Laboratoire de Mod~lisation en M~canique, Universit~ de Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France JEAN LEMAITRE (1.1, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, 6.1, 6.2, 6.14, 6.15, 7.1, 8.1, 9.1, 10.1, 11.1), Universit~ Paris 6, LMTCachan, 61, avenue du Pr6sident Wilson, F94235 Cachan Cedex, France GIULIO MAIER (10.8), Department of Structural Engineering, Technical University (Politecnico) of Milan, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy DIDIER MARQUIS (4.4), Laboratoire de M~canique et Technologie, Ecole Normale Sup~rieure de Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94230 Cachan, France MAJID T. MANZARI (11.11), Department of Mechanics, National Technical University of Athens, 15773, Hellas, and Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, California JACKY MAZARS (6.13, 7.2), LMTCachan, Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 61, avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan, France and L35Institut National Polytechniquede Grenoble, F38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
5).BP 207. Brown University.6). MROZ (4. 2800 Lyngby. STALINMULLER (7. France M. CEMEF.4). Furocho. Milan. 91128 Palaiseau. 57045 MetzCedex. URGEN OLSCHEWSKI (5. Institut f~lr Werkstoffwissenschaften. Department of Mechanical Engineering. l~cole Nationale d'Ing4nieurs. France HAEL MUGHRABI (7. Glasgow G12 8QW. LMTCachan. 4648603 Japan ROBERTO NOVA (11. 61 avenue du Pr6sident Wilson. Italy A.5). Laboratoire de Physique et M&anique des Mat6riaux. Japan J. Institute of Fundamental Technological Research. Department of Mathematics.3).9). Warsaw. Universit6 Paris 6. 12200 Berlin. Technical University of Denmark.16). NEEDLEMAN (6. California R.2). San Diego.9). Institute of Fundamental Technological Research. 00049 Warsaw. 12cole Polytechnique. Centro de Estudios y Experimentaci6n de Obras P~blicas and ETS de Ingenieros de Caminos. United Kingdom NOBUTADA OHNO (4. University of California. W. Germany FLORENCE OSSART (9. Poland . Ile du Saulcy. 11. Laboratoire de M4canique des Solides. Chikusaku. France ALAIN MOLINARI (5.4). Unter den Eichen 87. Martensstr. Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. 06904 Sophia Antipolis. Universit~it ErlangenNfirnberg. Nagoya University. Universit~ de Metz. France Z.xxiv Contributors FREDERIC MESLIN (10.5). OGDEN (2. Denmark SIA NEMATNASSER (5. Solid Mechanics. BAMV2. Department of Structural Engineering.11). 2. 94235 Cachan Cedex.2. Nagoya University. Germany N. Nagoya.11. 61 avenue du President Wilson.9). Milan University of Technology (Politecnico).10). 5. Poland SUMIO MURAKAMI (6. PASTOR (11. ENS de Cachan/CNRS/Universit~ Paris 6. Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials.7). Division of Engineering.5). Swir 21. ENS de Cachan. University of Glasgow. Madrid. Polish Academy of Sciences. Spain PIOTR PERZYNA (9. 94235 Cachan Cedex. Rhode Island and Department of Mechanical Engineering. D91058 Erlangen. Chikusaku. France BERNARD MONASSE (4. Providence. Nagoya 4648603.
91003 Evry Cedex. LEMTA. EDF/R&D Division. Austin. France MICHEL RAOUS (8. France .6. ENS de Cachan. chemin Joseph Aiguier. Laboratoire de Mecanique et d'Acoustique. Illinois CLAUDE STOLZ (8. SIMONI (11.3). Urbana. University of Illinois. France A. France GILLES ROUSSELIER (6. Department of Structural and Transportation Engineering. F67083 Strasbourg. Delft. 6 rue Boussingault.8). BP 87. SCHLOGL (9. 61 avenue du President Wilson. Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics. The Netherlands R. Ecole Polytechnique. Italy L. Kitaku. N13.8). Italy PETROS SOFRONIS (9. Koiter Institute Delft. Avenue de la For~tdeHaye. 91128 Palaiseau.9). Department of Mechanical Engineering. Urbana. LMTCachan. Delft University of Technology. SAVKOOR (8. SCHREFLER (11. A. 54500 Vandoeuvrel~sNancy. 9. Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. W8.6). France SABINE M. Laboratoire de M~canique des Solides. France J. University of Padua.12). France ARNAUD POITOU (10.7). Illinois DARRELL SOCIE (6. Illinois. 31. Evanston. Centre des Mat~riaux. Delft University of Technology. PINEAU (7.6).6).13).7).8). 94235 Cachan Cedex. Northwestern University. Laboratoire de G~nie Civil de Nantes SaintNazaire. 13402 Marseille Cedex 20. France RACHID RAHOUADJ (2. BP 92101.5). Institut Charles Sadron. Hokkaido University. UMR CNRS 7533. UMR CNRS 7563. SCHAPERY (2. USA KATSUHIKO SASAKI (4. RUDNICKI (11. R. Vehicle Research Laboratory. Universit8 Paris 6.17). Texas ROBERT SCHIRRER (6. 104 South Wright Street.9). Sapporo 0608628. The University of Texas. University of Padua. University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign.8).Contributors XXV GILLES PIJAUDIERCABOT (6. ]~cole des Mines de Paris. A. F44321 Nantes Cedex 03. Japan A. W.8). Department of Structural and Transportation Engineering. Department of Civil Engineering. 77818 MoretsurLoing Cedex. Les Renardi~res. The Netherlands B. t~cole Centrale de Nantes. ENSEM INPL 2.
United Kingdom A. Faculty of Civil Engineering and GeoSciences. Technical University of Denmark.3). Micromechanics of Materials. The Netherlands IOANNIS VARDOULAKIS (11. MSM1. M.12). Nyenborgh 4. Graduate School of Engineering. LMA/CNRS. Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32. 2800 Lyngby. France ALBERTO TALIERCIO (10. USA J. Nagoya 4648603. University of MichiganDearborn. Laboratoire de Mechanique des Solid. Greece GEORGE Z. Belgium YONG WEI (6.5). WILLIS (10. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Marseille. Aoba 01 Aramaki. Mie University. G. SUQUET (10. Italy EIICHI TANAKA (5. 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier.4).9). Fracture Research Institute. Cedex 20. Furocho. Delft University of Technology. B3000 Leuven.3). Department MTM. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Chemin des Chevreuils B52/3 4000 Liege.15). TOSHIMITSU YOKOBORI. Aobaku Sendaishi 9808579. Department of Mathematical Sciences. University of Bath. TVI~RGAARD (6. Tohoku University. Technical University (Politecnico) of Milan. Department of Mechanical Engineering.3). Solid Mechanics.8.8).9). University of Groningen. Graduate School of Engineering. Denmark K.4).4). 10. VOYIADJIS (9. VAN HOUTTE (3. Japan . Louisiana MICHAEL WAUTERS (9. JR. Department of MechanoInformatics and Systems. Nagoya University. The Netherlands P.4). France ERIK VAN DER GIESSEN (9. l~cole Polytechnique. 91128 Palaiseau. Louisiana State University. Chikusaku. R. Baton Rouge. Japan MASATAKA TOKUDA (9. Japan V. DANG VAN (6.9). National Technical University of Athens. 20133 Milano. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. 9747 AG Groningen. Department of Structural Engineering. (7. Bath BA2 7AY. Delft. 13402. Belgium J.XXVi Contributors PIERRE M.2). VAN MIER (11. Kamihama 1515 Tsu 5148507. Applied Physics.
Beijing 100083.12). Poland . PL31155 Krak6w. ul. Department of Flight Vehicle Design and Applied Mechanics.10). Utsunomiya. United Kingdom MICHA ZYCZKOWSKI (3.12). Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics. ANSYS Inc. Department of Flight Vehicle Design and Applied Mechanics.3). China Y. Houston.4).Contributors xxvii TAKEO YOKOBORI (7. Warszawska 24. Texas O. ZHU (9. Teikyo University.. Cracow University of Technology. Beijing 100083. China JUN ZHAO (7. University of Wales at Swansea.10). Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics. School of Science and Engineering. Division 508. Department of Civil Engineering. Division 508. Toyosatodai 3202551. ZIENKIEWICZ (11. C. Japan XING ZHANG (7.
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CHAPTER 1 Background on Mechanics of Materials .
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. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . 1. . . . . . . t e m p e r a t u r e . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 9 9 11 13 13 14 14 1.2. . . .1 State Potential . . . . . .3. . . 1. .1 Qualitative Identification . . . . . . . 1. . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . a t e c h n i q u e . . . . fracture.6 Choice of Models . . . . . . ." It is s c i e n c e b e c a u s e it is the p r o c e s s by w h i c h o b s e r v a t i o n s can be p u t in a logical m a t h e m a t i c a l f r a m e w o r k in o r d e r to r e p r o d u c e or s i m u l a t e r e l a t e d p h e n o m e n a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . 94235 Cachan Cedex. . d a m a g e . . . . . . . . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . .1. .1. .1. . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . wear. . . . . . Handbook of Materials BehaviorModels.4. . . .1.2 Internal Variables . . . . . . .SECTION 1. . . . In m e c h a n i c s of m a t e r i a l s c o n s t i t u t i v e e q u a t i o n s relate l o a d i n g s as stresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 avenue du Pr&ident Wilson. . . . . 1.2 Dissipative Potential .1. . . . . . . 1.5 Validity Domain . . . .1. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . as has a l r e a d y b e e n said for m e c h a n i c s . . . . . . . . .1.3 Formulation . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.1 INTRODUCTION M o d e l i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . .4 Identification .1 Scale of observation . . . . . . . Paris 6. 1. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .4. . to effects as strains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . France Contents 1. . etc. . . . . ISBN 0124433413. . . . . . . LMTCachan. . . . . .2 Observations and Choice of Variables . . . . . . 1. . m a y be c o n s i d e r e d "a science. . .7 Numerical Implementation .1. .1 Background O I l Modeling JEAN LEMAITRE UniversitY.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . a n d an art. . 1. . .2 Quantitative Identification . . . . 1. . etc. . . . . . . .
1 _v (M0) (2) _ (_vT_v . Furthermore. But it is sometimes difficult to select the proper model for a given application. the mathematical structure of the model may depend upon its use. The simplest is often the more efficient event. If it is the macroscopic behavior of mechanical components of structures that is being considered.1) With _F the transpose of F.2 OBSERVATIONS AND CHOICE OF VARIABLES First of all. Stress. It is an art because the sensibility of the scientist plays an important role. there is not unique way to build a model from a set of observations and test results. its contracted product by the strain rate tensor is the power involved in the mechanical process. and experiments to build close form models and to obtain numerical values for the parameters that are used in structure calculations to predict the behavior of structures in the service or forming process. thermodynamics. 1 ~ ij ~ ( u i j 3t. This is interesting from the human point of view.1. Strain. i ) (1) In practice. it exists in connection with a purpose. ~ 2. safety and optimal design being the main motivations. etc. in mechanics of materials.. which deals with the following: 1.4 Lemaitre It is a technique because it uses tools such as mathematics. a model does not exist for itself.uj . even if it is not the most accurate. 9 GreenLagrange tensor A (among others) for large perturbations. Except for linear phenomena. the hypothesis of "small" strain may be applied if it is below about 10%. a secondorder tensor related to the displacement ff of two points: 9 Euler's tensor ~ for small perturbations. if F is the tangent linear transformation which transforms under deformation a point M0 of the initial configuration into M of the actual configuration. 1. a secondorder tensor dual of the strain tensor. the basic tool is the mechanics of continuous media. computers. .
1.oiii with/ii .1. Physically. At any rate.1 Background on Modeling 9 Cauchy stress tensor _a for small perturbations.det(F_)~_F_. S _ . These are observations at a microscale. theories of plasticity have been developed at a mesoscale by phenomenological considerations. These three variables are functions of the time t. checking the equilibrium with the internal forces density f and the inertia forces pff. 9 rupture of microparticles in wear. Temperature T.1 mm for metallic materials. and now at an atomic scale when modeling the movements of dislocations. 1 0 m m for woods. (4) 1. For example. It is below these scales that observations must be done to detect the micromechanisms involved in modeling: 9 slips in crystals for plasticity of metals.dtT (3) 9 PiolaKirchoff tensor _S (among others) for large perturbations. To give a subjective order of magnitude of a characteristic length. 9 etc.1 SCALE OF OBSERVATION From the mathematical point of view. but the real materials are not continuous. d2R crijo + fi .r 3. 100 mm for concrete.2. 9 decohesions of sand particles by breaking of atomic bonds of cement for damage in concrete. 1 mm for polymers. strains and stresses are defined on a material point. strain and stress represent averages on a fictitious volume element called the representative volume element (RVE) or mesoscale. it can be 0. It is more or less an "art" to decide at which microscale the main mechanism responsible for a mesoscopic phenomenon occurs. one's first priority is to observe phenomena and to select the representative mechanism which can be put into a mathematical framework . at a microscale when dealing with irreversible slips.
2 INTERNALVARIABLES When the purpose is structural calculations with sets of constitutive equations. p the density. it is logical to consider that each main mechanism should have its own variable. the local state method postulates that the considered thermodynamic state is completely defined by the actual values of the corresponding state variables: observable and internal.~j + ~. (5) The elastic strain represents the reversible movements of atoms. It is a logical guide for incorporating observations and experimental results and a set of rules for avoiding incompatibilities. The first principle is the energy balance: If e is the specific internal energy. 9 kinematic hardening related to the internal residual microstresses at the level of crystals.2.6 Lemaitre of homogenization to give variables at a mesoscale compatible with the mechanics of continuous media. co the volume density of internal heat produced by external .3 FORMULATION The thermodynamics of irreversible processes is a general framework that is easy to use to formulate constitutive equations. and the plastic strain corresponds to an average of irreversible slips.1. 9 etc. Finally.1. but the smallest is the best. 1. 1. How many do we need? As many as the number of phenomena taken into consideration. 9 damage related to the density of defects. They should result from observations at a microscale and from a homogenization process: 9 isotropic hardening in metals related to the density of dislocations. For example. All variables which define the internal state of the RVE are called internal variables. the total strain _8 is directly observable and defines the external state of the representative volume element (RVE). but for a better definition of the internal state of the RVE it is convenient to look at what happens during loading and unloading of the RVE to define an elastic strain ee and a plastic strain e_P such as e P ~j .
(. i (6) where the sommation convention of Enstein applies.) VK.~_~ p ~ K "V K T q~r.q i . which corresponds to the positiveness of the dissipated energy and which has to be fulfilled by any model for all possible evolutions. ..i (7) If ~ = e .1. and ~' The heat flux: fie. + ~ir) q~r~ > o T  (8) This is the ClausiusDuhem inequality. . .P oe~ o~ S ~ (12) (13) OT .) (9) (10) The state laws derive from this potential to ensure that the second principle is always fulfilled. Choosing the Helmholtz free energy ~.Ts is the Helmholtz specific free energy (this is the energy in the RVE which can eventually be recovered).j~j . ~.1 STATEPOTENTIAL The state potential allows for the derivation of the state laws and the definition of the associate variables or driving forces associated with the state variables VK tO define the energy involved in each phenomenon.. r . .. The second principle states that the entropy production i must be larger or equal to the heat received divided by the temperature Ps > T . . f . v ~ . ~_p.1 Background on Modeling sources. . f . a ij fiPij .1. 0 = O(~. .~ > 0 (11) They are the laws of thermoelasticity oo ~J . it is a function of all state variables concave with respect to the temperature and convex with respect to all other VK. . or in classical elastoplasticity O = O ( F . T .0(~. 1. = cr ij ~ ij Jr.0 .3.
The flux variables are defined by the subdifferential of q~.s. .1.p _ Oq) (18) eij . VK .. a second potential is postulated.AK.Oaij (19) % _ &o OAK (z0)  =  ~ (21) T 0grad T Unfortunately. ) The kinetic laws of evolution of the internal state variables derive from . It is a function of the associate variables. and convex to ensure that the second principle is fulfilled.e.. .. .. . for phenomena which do not depend explicitly upon the time..0 is . .. V K . T .. 1..q~(K.p 0 ~ O0 AK .p OVK (14) (15) Each variable AK is the main cause of variation of the state variable VK. this function (p is not differentiable.2 DISSIPATIVE POTENTIAL To define the gK function of the kinetic equations. A K .Lemaitre The associated variables are defined by 00 cr~j . q) .3..AK. the constitutive equations of the phenomenon represented by VK will be primarily a function of its associated variable and eventually from others.e_. ) (16) They also allow us to take as the state potential the Gibbs energy dual of the Helmholtz energy by the LegendreFenchel transform ~* = ~* (_~. .g K ( .. In other words. If F is the criterion function whose the convex F . . .) (17) or any combination of state and associated variables by partial transform. gracl T.. . It can also be a function of the state variables but taken only as parameters.
(.4.o .T. . Vq)? If a phenomenon is known as linear. for example. 1. the corresponding potentials are positive definite quadratic functions.p_ OF/.1 B a c k g r o u n d o n M o d e l i n g the indicatrice function of qo. gij ~ vK =  if F0 and lb0 (23) OF . e_P.0 ~/~_P=/=0 (22) Then. some mathematics prove that . For linear elasticity. . 1 (25) where p is the density and E the Hooke tensor.0 "P0 This is the generalized normality rule of standard materials for which ~.~ ~. T.0.. If two phenomena I and J are known to be coupled.1.A1. f . . is the multiplier calculated by the consistancy condition f .o c if if F<0+kP0 F . Vq) and q0(cr. . the corresponding potentials should verify m 9 a state coupling: 020/OVIc~Vj r 0 9 or an evolution coupling: 02qo/OViOVj ~ 0 If no coupling occurs 02d//c3V~OVj .{ OAK } if F<0 or F<0 (24) gij "r .o.4 IDENTIFICATION The set of constitutive equations is fully defined if the two potentials ~ and ~0 take appropriate close forms: this is the qualitative identification.1. grad Y. Which functions should one choose for J/(~e.O. Aq. V1.. 1.0 and 02qo/OVxOVj .1 QUALITATIVE IDENTIFICATION Assume an interest in several phenomena for which q internal variables have been identified.0. The numerical response of the constitutive equations to any input is obtained if the materials parameters take the appropriate values: this is the quantitative identification. ..1.0 (. V 1 .
Qualitative experiments are used to point out the tendencies of evolution.~pEijkz~ij~l + H2(D) that is..multiplication of functions (27) If such coupling would not have existed. crack length as a function of time. This means that the potentials are identified from an integration of what is observed. often power functions are used. For example. It consists of the calculation of the energy involved in a RVE by a proper integration or an average of the elementary energies corresponding to the micromechanisms considered.(o/K) N is introduced in the dissipative potential as q~ 1 if some multiaxial experiments show that the von Mises criterion is fulfilled (r~r is the yon Mises equivalent stress). c926/c9Dc%~ . . we would have written ~e . Nevertheless. etc. Often this choice is subjective.~pp EijkZg~jg~Z"HI (D) 02~ (26) +. an observation of the secondary creep plastic strain rate as a nonlinear function of the applied stress in creep tests given by the phenomenological Norton law ~ p . micromechanics analysis may yield logical functions with regard to the micromechanisms introduced at microscale. Measurements concern the evolution of variables: strain as a function of stress. exponential functions are preferred.10 Lemaitre Following is an example of elasticity coupled to damage represented by the variable D: ODO~ # 0 1 ~e .0 1 r . but for phenomena which asymptotically saturate.addition of functions (29) 0G For nonlinear phenomena. but they do not concern the potentials in themselves because simple direct measurements of energy is not possible.
.2 Rough Estimation of Parameters From all known data. there is no way to built definite.4. and to proceed as follows: 1. 1.4. But a good correlation with the set of available data does not prove that the model is able to give satisfactory results for cases far away from the tests used for the identification. it is always possible to adjust K in order to have a satisfactory agreement.4. Before any quantitative identification of a model is made.2. The only solution is to perform the structural calculations with the models identified with all known information and to update the calculations each time a new piece of information appears. K. the definitive choice of materials is not achieved. even during the service of the structure. make a first estimation of the parameters using all approximations in the model in order to have the same number of unknowns as the number of pieces of information. even if it is. Since there are thousands of different materials used in engineering and since they change with the technological progress of elaboration processes. etc.) differ for each material and are functions of the temperature. All the parameters introduced in constitutive equations (Young's modulus E and Poisson's ratio v in elasticity. a numerical sensibility analysis on the parameters cry.1. take values of parameters corresponding to materials that are close in their chemical composition. Eventually. M. all material parameters do not have the same importance for the results: a small variation of some of them may change the results by a large amount.2 QUANTITATIVE IDENTIFICATION This is the weakest point of the mechanics of materials. and. Norton's parameters K and N in creep. graph of the simple model of uniaxial plasticity  + K4/ (32) shows that the more sensible parameter is Cry. nobody knows what the precise properties of the materials elaborated some years after will be. K.1. This.1 Sensibility to Parameters When a model is being used. 4 . For example. Another point is that when a structural calculation is performed during a design. cry here for example. and M on the shape of the stressstrain curve.1 Background on Modeling 11 1.2.1.by taking an approximate value of M ( M = 3 . it is advisable to perform a sensibility analysis in order to classify by increasing order of sensibility the parameters. of course. precise databases. necessitates close cooperation between the designers and the users. 5 ) . whereas a large variation of others has a small influence.1.
then taking M = 1 allows one to find K ~ 500 MPa. the model should be applied to the identification cases. 9 etc. 9 tests with gradient of stress or of other variables. an optimization procedure may be performed to minimize the difference between the test data and the prediction of those tests by the full numerical resolution of the model. in the range of nonlinear models. but this is only for checking the identification procedure.2. If the ultimate stress cru is known as 400 MPa for a plastic strain to rupture epu ~ 0.1.4 Validation The process is not finished until the model has been applied and compared to special tests which have not been used for the identification. These approximate values of the parameters may be taken as a starting solution of an optimization process. 9 different time scales. and as far as possible from the identification tests m close or far in the sense of variables. Unfortunately. Of course. the minimization of the error function may have several solutions due to local minima or fiat variations for which the gradient methods converge extremely slowly.3 Optimization Procedure If now more experimental results are available.20. . These validation tests must be as close as possible to the case considered for applications. 1. The comparison between validation tests and prediction gives concrete ideas about the applicability of the models from the point of view of accuracy and robustness. 1. The leastsquare method is advantageously used.2.4.12 Lemaitre Continue with the same example of the preceding plasticity model for a mild steel for which cry is known as 300 MPa. For example: 9 biaxial tests if the tests of identification were uniaxial.1. This is why the starting solution should be as close as possible to the optimized solution and why one should give different weight factors to the parameters in order "to help" the numerical procedure: small weight factors to less sensible parameters.4. 9 nonisothermal tests if the tests of identification were conducted at constant temperature.
it is a logical formulation based on general concepts. First of all. 0 < ~p <0. only after that. this is 0 < a < 400 MPa. /t The choice of the model depends also on the available data to identify the material parameters for the material concerned. A model is something more. . Fortunately. 1. cyclic plasticity needs a kinematic hardening variable. monotonic or cyclic plasticity. In such long periods of time phenomena of aging and changing properties can occur which may be not included in the models. days. and third.1 Background on Modeling 13 1. second. Time extrapolation is the most crucial because the identification procedure deals within a time range of hours. whereas the applications of models deal within a time range of years or decades. the quality being the accuracy and the price the number of materials parameters to identify. In that case. it includes ideas on the physical mechanisms involved. For the preceding model of plasticity. Aging and change of properties by "inservice incidents" are certainly still open problems. often the structural calculations are performed to compare different solutions in order to optimize a design. or months. The domain of validity of a model is the closed domain in the space of variables inside which any resolution of the model gives an acceptable accuracy.1. The bounds are difficult to determine. it is numbers.1.~ 10% on plastic strain for a given stress. First. they are those investigated by the identification tests program. plus "motivated" extrapolations based on wellestablished concepts. Then determine the corresponding variables which should exist in the model: for example.1. investigate all the phenomena which may occur and which have to be checked in the application: for example." I do not agree with this pessimistic view because to interpolate between tests results a "good polynome" is sufficient.5 VALIDITY DOMAIN Sometimes people say that "a good model should only be used to interpolate between good tests.2 for a relative accuracy of about &plop . Check the domain of validity of the possible models in comparison to what is expected in the application and select the simplest that has a good ratio of quality to price.6 CHOICE OF MODELS The best model for a given application must be selected with much care and critical analysis. good qualitative results are easily obtained with rough estimations of the parameters.
(1998). A.14 1. Lemaitre. D. 9 The second step concerns the integration of the constitutive equations to obtain the increments of the state variables and their new values. Implicit scheme in quasistatic conditions or explicit scheme in dynamic conditions are used until the end of the loading history or if a divergence appears as a loss of ellipticity or a strain localization characteristic of softening behavior. 1 and 2. vols. are nonlinear and incremental procedures are used together with iterations. Engineering Materials.7 NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION Lemaitre The last activity in modeling is the numerical use of the models. J. (1995). D. Most of them. Mechanical Behavior of Materials. in mechanics of materials. if violated the iteration process goes to step 1 until a given accuracy is obtained. in plasticity: 9 In a first step the incremental strain field is calculated by means of the kinetic equations from momentum equations. For example. Pineau. 9 The third step consists in checking the momentum balance equation for the actual stresses. M.. Mechanics of Solid Materials. and Chaboche. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.. Oxford: Pergamon Press. and Jones. . Francois.. L.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. J. A. and Zaoui. vols. (1987).1. BIBLIOGRAPHY Ashby. The NewtonRaphson method is often used. 1 and 2.
. . . . . 15 16 19 22 24 26 26 28 1. . . . . .. . .2. . . . . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . France Contents 1.2. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . as well as the complex set of requirements which define the most appropriate material. . . 1. . .SECTION 1. . . 1. .2 Materials and Process Selection Methods YVES BRECHET L. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Databases: The Need for a Hierarchical Approach . ISBN 0124433413. lead to a multicriteria optimization problem which is in no way a trivial one. . . . . . . . . References . . . . . systematic methods for materials and process selection have been developed [14] and Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. . . . . . 38402 St Martin d'Heres Cedex. . . . In recent years. 1. .000). .1 I N T R O D U C T I O N Designing efficiently for structural applications requires both a proper dimensioning of the structure (involving as a basic tool finite element calculations) and an appropriate choice of the materials and the process used to give them the most suitable shape. . . .2. . . . . . Ranking. .3 Comparing Materials: The Performance Index Method . . . . . . The variety of materials available to the engineer (about 80. . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . .7 Conclusions . . and Further Information. . . .6 Process Selection: Structuring the Expertise . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .5 Materials Selection and Materials Development: The Role of Modeling .1 Introduction . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 . .4 The Design Procedure: Screening. the Problem of Multiple Criteria Optimization .T. . .M. Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . BP75. . . . 1. . .P. . . . . .C.
The search for an optimal solution sometimes requires more refined optimization techniques (Section 1. selecting cast alloys). from conceptual design to detail design through embodiment design.2.4 the possible use of micromechanics and optimization methods in the development of materials with the aim of meeting a giving set of requirements. and then some specific applications.2. We will outline in Section 1. In Section 1. yet to be implemented. The coupling with other design tools should at the very least provide finite element codes with constitutive behavior for the materials which appear the most promising.16 Brechet implemented into selection softwares [57] which ideally aim at selecting the best materials early enough in the design procedure so that the best design can be adequately chosen. The idea is always to go from the .3). This selection guide is most crucial at the early stages of design: there would be no hope of efficiently implementing a polymer matrix composite solution on a design initially developed for a metallic solution. In the present paper. 1.5 we will illustrate the need to structure and store the expertise in process selection.2. The methodology for materials selection presented in this paper is a compromise in this dilemma. We will present first the generic approach. These methods require databases of materials and tools to objectively compare materials for a given set of requirements. Selecting the most appropriate materials is a task which should be done at the very beginning of the design procedure and all along the various steps. The modeling involved in the performance index method (Section 1. A more ambitious program. and will outline the need for modeling in this area. we will focus on the tools used to compare materials rather than on their implementation as computer software.2 DATABASES: T H E N E E D F O R A HIERARCHICAL APPROACH Material selection methods are facing a dilemma: the structure of the databases and the selection tools have to be as general as possible to be easily adaptable to a variety of situation.2. The amount of modeling needed in these methods is still quite elementary.2) is standard strength of materials. and which ultimately would help to redesign the component in an iterative manner according to the materials selection. for instance. But this general structure is bound to fail when the selection problem is very specific (such as.2. is to interface these elements with expert systems which would guide the designer toward shapes or processes more suited to a given class of materials.
or its resistance to the environment which can be potentially chemically aggressive. and finally one material and a provider. light alloys. the choice has been to develop a series of databases incorporating each a few hundreds of materials. In the very early stages. Of course. composites. polymers. which is bound to lead to a database loaded with missing information. but also curves (such as creep curves for polymers. fracture stresses. have to be selected: at this level. ceramics. such as creep curves or corrosion rates. at a given temperature under a given strength). and boolean evaluations. Properties more specific to. polymers. information such as the possibility of getting the materials as plates or tubes.2 Materials and Process Selection Methods 17 most generic approach to the most specific one. the materials databases have to be organized in a hierarchical manner so that the selection at a given level orients the designer toward a more specific tool. mechanical properties are important (such as elastic moduli. This progressive increase in specialization motivates a hierarchical approach to databases used in materials selection tools: instead of storing all the possible properties for a huge number of materials. being able to rely on a model with a limited number of parameters (such as Norton's law for creep) considerably increases the efficiency of the storing procedure. When the design procedure proceeds. more and more detailed information is needed on a smaller number of materials classes. These properties can be stored as numerical values. or toughness). Depending on the stages of design at which one considers the question of materials selection. But very often. The generic database comprises metals. composites. More specialized databases coupling the materials and the processes (such as cast alloys. In the last stages of design. polymers (such as the water intake or the flammability) might be referred to in the set of requirements. the properties will be stored as ranges with relatively low precision. qualitative estimates. and natural materials. all possible materials should be considered. The set of requirements for structural applications is very versatile.1. When a continuum set of data has to be stored. but their format is different from the previous databases. More recent tools [6] also allow one to store not only numbers. the possibility of painting or joining it with other materials. are also important. Specialized databases have been developed for steels. For a database to be usable for selection purposes. it should be complete (sometimes needing . yield stresses. a very limited number of materials. or polymer matrix composites) can then be developed. say. very precise properties suitable for dimensioning the structure are needed. Accordingly. In order to do so. All the databases currently developed contain numerical information. and woods. the level of information required will be different [1]. at this level of generality. and therefore a database involving all the materials classes is needed.
Beside the variety of properties (for materials) and attributes (for processes) involved in a selection procedure. requires both micromechanical tools to evaluate the properties of the materials from the properties of its components. On the other hand. assuming this minimal dimension. or boolean. the dimensional accuracy. In the first situation. the ranking of the candidates can be done by simple screening of the database. qualitative. In principle. the set of requirements to be fulfilled has basically always the same format: it can be stored as a "predefined questionnaire" which allows more refined questions to be asked since they are in a limited number. for instance. . depending on the stage of selection. is prone during casting to exhibit hot tearing"). The second case. or should one machine the wing components inside a thick plate of a less quench sensitive alloy the wing together with the stiffeners? The coupling between processes and materials properties is still very poorly taken into account in the current selection procedures. for this alloy. one cannot afford to deal with questions involving interactions that are too complex between various aspects. it should not overemphasize one material with respect to the others.18 Brechet some estimation procedure). The first case is rather simple: provided a correct evaluation function is defined. Steepest gradient methods. when the database lists the resins and the fibers involved in making a composite material. and genetic algorithms are possible solutions for these complex optimization problems. one is either confronted with a very open end set of requirements. one needs a very versatile tool. when the selection becomes very focused (such as selection of joining methods). simulated annealing. Processes are also selected from databases of attributes for the different processes (such as the size of the components. and it should contain data which are meaningful for all the materials in the database. one should try to select materials and processes simultaneously. The databases for process attributes have the same structure as the ones for materials. or they store the elements from which the possible candidates are made. (such as "this shape. and also more subtle numerical methods that are able to deal with a much larger (virtually infinite) set of possible candidates. or with always the same set of questions. The databases used in materials selection are of two types: either they list the materials which are possible candidates. since it is very often in terms of competition between various couples (materials/processes) that the selection problem finally appears: should one make an aiplane wing joining components obtained from mediumthickness plates of aluminum alloys. or the materials accessible to a given process). but because of combinatoric explosion. and information can be numeric. and the same hierarchical organization.
The mass of the component is accordingly at least equal to Therefore. When selection reaches a high degree of specialization. shells. CPS. prescribed . and which should be of minimum weight (objective). one might look for a tie for which the length L is prescribed and the section S is free (free and imposed dimensions).L. bending). Simple modeling allows one to build such a tool. plates.s (2) The constraint not to yield imposes a minimum value for the section S. for simple constraints (do not yield. torsion. and identify the combination of materials properties which measures the efficiency of materials for a couple (constraints/objectives). which has been used in CMS.2. But a database would be of little use without an evaluation tool able to compare the different materials. beams) loading in simple modes (tension. eliminate the free variable.2 Materials and Process Selection Methods 19 1. One has to keep in mind that the aim is to identify the materials for which accurate structural mechanics calculations will have to be performed later on.3 COMPARING MATERIALS: THE PERFORMANCE INDEX METHOD The databases are the hard core of the selection procedure: up to a certain point they can be cast in a standard format. but the price to be paid is that dimensioning of the structure using this method is very crude. more specific formats have to be implemented. Each set of requirements has to be structured in a systematic manner: What are the constraints? What are the free and the imposed variables? What is the objective? For instance. which shouldn't yield under a prescribed load P (constraints). and a questionnaire approach rather than an "openend selection" might be more efficient. the material which will minimize the mass of the component will be the one which maximizes the "performance index" I: I =ay P (4) This very simple derivation illustrates the method for obtaining performance indices: write the constraint and the objectives. The stress which should not exceed the yield stress is P . These performance indices have now been derived for many situations corresponding to simple geometry (bars.< ay (1) SThe mass of the component to be minimized is M = p.1. and CES software.
length and width fixed. w r i t e d o w n the objective. m i n i m u m cost). m a k e e x p l i c i t the c o n s t r a i n t u s i n g s i m p l e m e c h a n i c s . . shape and length fixed. .2. length fixed.e l i m i n a t e the free v a r i a b l e s b e t w e e n the c o n s t r a i n t a n d the objectives. i d e n t i f y the free variables. a n d . length width fixed. T h e y h a v e b e e n e x t e n d e d to t h e r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n s . length fixed. section free Stiffness. height free Stiffness length width fixed. section free Stiffness. section free Strength. ) . thickness free Imposed pressure. thickness of the shell free ae/p a2/3/p ale/2/p Minimize the mass Cylinder Internal pressure ae/p . thickness free Buckling load fixed. width and length fixed. section free Strength. the materials shall not yield. T h e w a y to derive a p e r f o r m a n c e i n d e x for a real s i t u a t i o n is to: s i m p l i f y the g e o m e t r y a n d the l o a d i n g . m i n i m u m v o l u m e . a n d for v a r i o u s objectives ( m i n i m u m w e i g h t . thickness of the shell free Performance index Stiffness design with a minimal mass E/p E1/2/p E1/3/p E1/3/p E1/3/p Minimize the mass Cylinder E/p Strength design with a minimal mass Minimize the mass Minimize the mass Minimize the mass Tie Beam Plate Traction Bending Bending Strength. do n o t b u c k l e . TABLE 1. thickness free Imposed maximum elastic strain. Objective Minimize the mass Minimize the mass Minimize the mass Minimize the mass Minimize the mass Shape Tie Beam Beam Plate Plate Loading Tension Bending Bending Bending Compression Internal pressure Constraint Stiffness and length prescribed.20 Brechet stiffness.1 Classical performance indices for mechanical design for strength or stiffness at minimum weight.
i "/.2. K. the component is made so that it 1000 "Youngs Modulus E (G = 3E/8 .2 Materials and Process Selection Methods 21 Table 1... Figure 1.~ rV I ~ 1.s ~_.0 Elastomers / /r / . both for mechanical and thermomechanical loading [ 1. Many others have been derived.01.2.1..0 t HDPE / Engineedn..) 1.3xlo = / .= E.1: on a logarithmic scale the lines corresponding to equal performances are straight lines whose slopes depend on the exponents entering the performance index.2.1 Selection map for stiff light design [1].3 . ModulusDensity MFA:INH}I t. and materials for stiff plates should maximize E1/3/p. p (Mg/m3) FIGURE 1. Materials for stiff ties should maximize E/p. These performance indices have a drawback. "= Cl 3 ) I I I I I 10 I 80 Density. however: they are concerned with timeindependent design. A simple way to use the performance index is with the socalled selection maps shown in Figure 1.I t.needn~ / f "0 0 / J" 3x10 a 1..1 gives some standard performance indices currently used in mechanical design.4].1 ~/ ./ 0. f J (p'~ 89 tlO "/ Composites 'En~i.1 shows one of these maps used for stiff components at minimum mass. .2.I I I .. materials for stiff beams should maximize E1/2/p. 1 0. Polymers Guide Unes for Minimum m r LDPE 0.
For instance. only part of the requirements can indeed be formated that way. for instance.4 T H E D E S I G N P R O C E D U R E : S C R E E N I N G . a systematic use of performance indices is made: the problem is then. . to find the ones which will do the job most efficiently. The ranking will be made according to a "value function" which encompasses the various aspects of the set of requirements. whereas smallscale boilers are often made in copper. and one often has to design for a finite lifetime. largescale boilers are generally made out of steel.22 Brechet should fulfill its function when it starts being used. or the smallest volume. that is. RANKING." Moreover. finite lifetime design is possible within the framework of performance indices. The performance indices then depend not only on the materials properties. At the screening stage. among admissible materials. but also on operating conditions such as the load. Of course. However. but the data available to effectively apply the method are much more difficult to gather systematically. materials will be eliminated according to their properties: only those that could possibly do the job will remain.2. or the dimensions. AND FURTHER INFORMATION. At the ranking stage. The problem of defining such a value function for multiple criteria optimization will be dealt with in the next paragraph. A typical selection procedure will proceed in three steps: 1. As a consequence. THE PROBLEM OF MULTIPLE" CRITERIA OPTIMIZATION The previous method allows one to compare very different materials for a given set of requirements formulated as a couple (constraint/objective). 2. at the lowest cost.9]. in designing for creep resistance or corrosion resistance. a set of requirements comprises many of these "elementary requirements. a new set of performance indices involving rate equations (for creep or corrosion) has been developed [8. In principle. 1. or the expected lifetime. the maximum operating temperature should be around 800C: many materials won't be able to fulfill this basic requirement. with the lowest mass. and it is assumed it will be so for the rest of its life. for a component in a turbine engine. and can be eliminated even without looking for their other properties. For instance. this is rarely the case. in realistic situations.
The most popular one is the "weight coefficients method. The second step is to deal with the multicriteria nature of the selection process. and efficient wordsearching methods are required to help with this step. The screening stage will rely on attributes such as the size of the component and the materials from which it is made. it is both!). one needs to make use of methods involving judgments. The materials are then compared to an existing solution. In order to do so. These exchange coefficients can be either obtained from a value analysis of the product or from the analysis of existing solutions [4]. involving the batch size and the production rate. Weighting factors are difficult to evaluate. A systematic method called "coupled equations" [10] allows one to deal with this problem. The ranking step will need a rough comparative economic evaluation of the various processes. In a multiobjective problem (such as designing a component at minimum weight and minimum cost). The three steps in the selection procedure are also a way to structure process selection. Both the value analysis and the coupled equation method provide one with an objective treatment of the multiple criteria optimization. It appears from these various aspects of the selection procedure that a key issue is to build a "value function" that is able to provide one with a fair comparison of the different possible solutions." which attributes to each criteria a percentage of importance. The last step will depend on the availability of the tooling and the will to invest.2 Materials and Process Selection Methods 23 3. one needs to identify an "exchange coefficient" [10] between the two objectives. or the availability of the different possible materials. further information is often needed concerning corrosion rates. For the remaining candidates that are able to fulfill the set of requirements efficiently. multiple criteria often lead to no solution at all . This multicriteria aspect can be conveniently classified in two categories: it might be a multiconstraint problem. They allow one to compute a value function. they require extra information compared to the simple performance index method. However. At the same step. or possible surface treatments. further knowledge on the load and the dimensions is needed. the problem is to identify the limiting constraint. which is the tool needed to rank the possible solutions. or a multiobjective problem (in any real situations. will also be a concern. It must be stressed that the value function so constructed depends on the choice of both the weighting factors and the reference material.1. When this information is not available. for instance. how much the user is ready to pay for saving weight. moreover. The performance index method is the first step in building this value function. the local conditions. In a multiconstraint problem (such as designing a component which should neither yield nor fail in fatigue). wear rates. These pieces of information are scattered in the literature.
objectives on the minimization of the weight. the same evaluation as the user. Proposed situations at the margin of full satisfaction will be proposed for evaluation. constraints on the thickness. For single criteria selection. and the selection requires one to compute the properties of a sandwich from the properties of its components and its geometry. The method has been extended to the optimal design of multimaterials components such as sandwich structures [11. since they are then estimated from the evaluationproposed solutions. one above which the satisfaction is complete.2. either by mutation or by crossover between existing individuals. When the database is finite. The only modeling needed at this stage is a simplified estimation of the mechanical behavior of the component. However. Once the value function is available. we were interested in selecting materials and processes to fulfil a set of requirements. 1. In order to find the optimal solution. 12]. For this reason. Multiple optimization also implies the idea of compromise between the various requirements. for the same questions. In such a way. For multiple criteria. one under which the material will be rejected). and the population is kept constant in size by keeping the individuals alive with a greater probability when their efficiency (measured by the value function) is greater. such a method is no longer available. an analytical method was derived [13]. and. or the cost. and to compare all the possible choices. the algorithm converges very rapidly to a very good solution.5 M A T E R I A L S S E L E C T I O N A N D M A T E R I A L S DEVELOPMENT: THE ROLE OF MODELING In the previous sections. algorithms involving fuzzy logic methods [3] have been developed to deal with the intrinsic fuzziness of the requirements (two values will be given. the selection problem becomes an optimization one. The principle is to generate a population of sandwiches whose "genes" are the materials and the geometry. when possible.24 Brechet due to an excessive severity. these methods still involve judgments (though in a controlled manner). This technique bypasses the difficulty in giving a priori value coefficients. the objective methods should be preferred. and the geometry for a set of requirements involving stiffness and strength. the core. The aim is then to simultaneously select the skin. New sandwiches are generated. a genetic algorithm was used. the optimization can be performed by a simple screening of all the available solutions. together with a clear identification of the constraints and the objectives. and the value function will be constructed so that it will give. The value function allowing one to estimate the efficiency .
linearly related to the composition. One could think of introducing this feature in the modeling through interface properties. However. which are lower than the properties of the ideal composite that micromechanics models would provide. Usually. Another recent development in selection methods aims at reverting the problem. either through metallurgical modeling or through empirical correlation. either empirical or based on micromechanics models. within a certain range. and materials selection methods are efficient to design the best treatment to be applied to fit a set of requirements. such as the characteristics of a heat treatment for an alloy.1. the explicit models available for relations between processes and properties are relatively few. Another technique is to identify the performance indices for which the new material seems better than usual materials. 17]. for the architecture of the reinforcement and its volume fraction.15]. that is. for the reinforcement. the properties can be given as a function of this variable.2 Materials and Process Selection Methods 25 of the different solutions is itself a simple linear combination of the performance indices corresponding to the dominant constraints identified by a predimensioning. one has to identify the best choice for the matrix. . Another application of materials selection methods using mechanical modeling is the optimal design of glass compositions for a given set of requirements: since the properties are. but it is generally more convenient to store the information as "knockdown factors" on properties associated with a triplet matrix/reinforcement/process. one can explore a database of applications (defined by a set of requirements and existing solutions) and find the applications for which the new material is better than the existing solutions. In order to design a composite material. 16. However. One needs relations. between the properties of the components of the composite and the properties of the material itself. Several strategies have been identified: for instance. the same method has been applied to identify suitable materials whose development would fulfill the requirements. is available and is provided. optimization techniques such as a simplex algorithm are well adapted to this problem. When a continuous variable. to find out the applications for which these performance indices are relevant criteria. Composite materials are especially suitable for this exercise because their value relies partly on the possibility of tayloring them for application [14. and from there. Recent developments using Neural networks to identify hidden correlation in databases of materials can also be applied and coupled to selection methods in order to design the best transformation processes. finding potential applications for new materials [4. the process itself influences the properties obtained. and for the process to realize the component (which might be limited by the shape to be realized).
The simplest way to store this expertise is build the set of requirements according to a predefined questionnaire corresponding to the expert behavior. such as selection of a definite cast aluminium alloy or a definite extruded wrought alloy. The ability to fill a mold or to cast a component without cracks depends on the alloy. and on the type of casting. . or for a surface treatment one needs to find the best operating temperature. etc. For instance. and moreover. Along these lines. and surface treatments [4. the key issue is not to define the performance index.6 PROCESS SELECTION: THE EXPERTISE STRUCTURING Brechet In addition to selection by attributes of the process.2. speed. to select processes. The use of modeling in these approaches is still in its infancy.2. selection methods for cast alloys [18]. 18] alloys. on the thickness of the component. general methods and software have been developed to select materials. when one is confronted with a more specific problem. In the last ten years. on the geometry of the mold. The second option is to mimic the general tendency identified by the expert by a simple mathematical function (for instance. and to deal with multidesign element conception and with multicriteria set of requirements. In real life. one is faced with the need to store expertise. Mold filling and hot tearing are the central concerns in this problem. capturing the tendency to increased hot tearing with thinner parts of the component) and to tune the coefficients of these functions by comparing the results of selection by a software with the results known from the case studies available to the expert. for joining by laser. or to evaluate the cost of a process (for instance. Clearly. extruded alloys [19]. modeling is still needed to rationalize the empirical rules commonly used (such as the shapes which can be extruded or cast). 1. the properties of the cast alloy are dependent on the solidification conditions.21]. power. Ideally. These dependences are part of what is known as expertise. that is. the key issue is to select the alloy which will be possible to cast without defects.22] have been developed to capture various expertises.7 CONCLUSIONS The selection methods briefly presented in this chapter are recent developments. for selection of cast aluminium [3.). one would wish to have models to deal with this question. hot tearing criteria are not quantitatively reliable.26 1. which is efficient in the first stages of selection. or selection of a secondary process such as joining or surface treatments. moldfilling criteria are totally empirical. joining methods [20.
expert system to guide and analyze the elaboration of requirements Selection of cast aluminium alloys. expertise on casting processes. databases: alloys/processes/geometry Design of polymerbased composites.2. graphical method Materials and process selection. graphical selection using maps. multicriteria and fuzzy logicbased selection algorithm Materials and process selection for multidesign element conceptions.1. generic or specialized Process selection. Objectives of the software Materials selection. development of specialized databases Fuzzymat CAMD Fuzzycast Fuzzycomposites Sandwich selector Fuzzyglass Astek Property of CETIM STS VCE MAPS . databases: resin. genetic algorithm coupled with fuzzy logic Optimization of glass compositions. design rules Comments/status Commercially available CPS CES Commercially available Commercially available. reinforcements. databases for materials.2 Materials and Process Selection Methods TABLE 1. and compatibilities Optimization of sandwich structures. many databases.2 Name of the software CMS 27 Selection softwares developed following the guidelines of the present paper. for processes and links between databases Materials selection. databases: processes and shapes Selection of surface treatments. database: processes/materials/objectives Evaluation of exchange coefficients from existing solutions Investigation of possible applications for a new material Property of SaintGobain Property of Pechiney. constructor facility for development of dedicated databases Commercially available. processes. simplex coupled with fuzzy logic Selection of joining methods.
p. joining. 4. Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble. Int. D... Gibson. L. ICCM7. (1999). Y. P. (1999). R. Materials Selection in Mechanical Design.. (1997). Brechet. D. and Jensrud. 17. (1998).. CES (1999). L. p.. Composite Design for Performance.. Y. Ashby. 11. G. Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble. D. Cellular solids.. Salvo. Ashby.. (1994) PhD thesis.. Y.. Time Dependant Design (to be published). Lovatt.. Software for materials selection. Metal Foams and Porous Metal Structures. and Ashby. 15. the choice has been to rely on empirical knowledge when available.0 (1997). Ashby. D. Landru. Various methods of finding applications for a new material have been put forward. Brechet. MIT Verlag Publishing.. Grenoble. (1996).. Nicholson. Brechet. M. ASTMSTP 1311. S.28 Brechet Table 1... Cambridge Selection softwares: CMS (1995). Heiberg. Lingorski. 2000). P. D. extrusions. 8. Brechet. 14. Yavari. G. P. Methodes de choix des materiaux et des procedes. Shercliff. Pechambert. REFERENCES 1. 88.. These generic methods have been specialized to various classes of materials and processes. O. (1999). and Brechet. 7. M. 18. the selection procedure developed was closer to an expert system. 10. I. Brechet. Pechambert. Heiberg. (1998) PhD thesis. and Brechet Y. A. Bassetti. Bassetti. London IOM. Y. and Fleck. (1998).. 3. Heiberg. P. Colloque Franco espagnol. Y. Ashby. Finding New Applications for a Material (to be published). sandwich structures). N. 41. Lake Louise. P. Y.. and Salvo. L. 6.. (2000) PhD thesis. Butterworth Heinemann editor. and Salvo. Materials and Design (in press. Computerization and Networking of Materials Databases. 9. Landru. Pechambert. Brechet.. (1999). Lemoine. D. and Brechet. L.. The main reason for this paper to be included in a book on models in mechanics is to express the need now to couple more closely modeling to design so that one may go beyond empirical correlation and optimize both the choice of materials and their future development. Brechet. 5... M. Journal Cast Metals Research 12: 211.. Landru. Bassetti. S. In special situations. p. M.. J.. Jantzen... M. For specific processes (casting.. Landru.. D. Y. and Brechet.. 13. and Leriche. Grenoble. D. Bassetti. eds. Y. Y. CAMD. J. 45. G. R. Y. ed. M. and Salvo. (2000)... Roven. D. 19. A. H. Lingorski.. Nishijima.. Cambridge University Press. Materiaux et Techniques 5:31. Up to now. 16.. D. Granta Design. surface treatments). and Salvo. (1999). following a predefined questionnaire.. a coupling with modeling made possible the use of the present methods to develop new materials or new structures (composites. Presses Universitaires de Lausanne. 325. Ashby. (1996). CPS (1997). Landru. 2. Esawi.. 12. Bassetti. Bassetti. Deocon. ed.2 gives a list of selection tools developed along the philosophy described in this chapter.... eds. A. Banhardt. Fuzzymat v3. L.. Cambridge University.. and Iwata.2. . Ashby. I. M.. L. Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble. 283. and to keep the selection procedure as transparent and as objective as possible. H.
Y. and Ashby.. Brechet. C. .2 Materials and Process Selection Methods 29 20. Y. 21. (2000). C.. Lebacq. Esawi.. Selection of joining methods. Selection of surface treatments (to be published).. Jeggy. H.. and Shercliff. D. 22. Landru. T.. Y. Lebacq. Submitted to Materials and Design. L. Salvo. and Salvo. Brechet. L. Materiaux et Techniques 5: 39. Brecht. (1998). M. A... T.1. (2000). Jeggy...
1.3. and its History . . . . . . .SECTION 1. Evanston. . . . 42 1. 6C~OD. . . . . . 703725. . . .3. . . . . Illinois Contents 1. 30 . . . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. 50 1. . . . Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. . . . . 1.6 Size Effect Mechanism: Stress Redistribution 32 34 38 40 1. . . .3. . . . . . . .6. . .6. . .3. . . 50 1. . .. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 and Energy Release . . . .1 Size Effects in Compression F r a c t u r e . . A section on the reverse size effect in buckling of sea ice has been added. . . .2 Scaling for Failures with a Long Crack or Notch . . . . . .6. . .5 Size Effect Method for Measuring Material Constants and RCurve .3. . . . . . . . . . . and Applications . . . . .5 QuasiBrittle Size Effect Bridging Plasticity and LEFM. .7. .3. .3. .6 Critical Cracktip Opening Displacement. . 43 1. Ramifications. . .1 Scaling for Failure at Crack Initiation. . . . and some minor updates have been made. . . . . . . .3 Size Effect on Postpeak Softening and Ductility . . . . . .3. . . . . . The figures are the same. . . . . . ISBN 0124433413. .3 Power Scaling and the Case of No Size Effect. . . . . 1. . 50 49 47 48 44 *Thanks to the permission of Springer Verlag. . . 1. . .2 History of Size Effect up to Weibull . BAZANT Northwestern University. Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . .6. . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . .3.1 Introduction . . . .7 Extensions. . .6. . . .3 Size Effect on Structural Strength ZDENI~K P. . . 1. 1. . . this article is reprinted from Archives of Applied Mechanics (IngenieurArchiv) 69. . . . ..3. .4 Weibull Statistical Size Effect . . . . . 1. .3. Berlin. . .3. . . 1. . .4 Asymptotic Analysis of Size Effect by Equivalent LEFM . . . . .3. .
. . . . elasticity with a strength limit. .8 Other Size Effects . . Acknowledgment . 1. . . .6 Influence of Crack Separation Rate. . .9 Size Effect via Nonlocal. . .3. . .10 Nonlocal Statistical Generalization of the Weibull Theory . . for aircraft or ships. . . . . . . .1 Hypothesis of Fractal Origin of Size Effect . .9 Closing Remarks .3. . . . . .7. . . . which has recently come to the forefront of attention because of its importance for concrete and geotechnical engineering. . . . . . 1. . . . . . .3. . . . .. . . . represents the bridging between the simple powerlaw size effects of plasticity and of LEFM. . . . . . .3. . . . . .5 Reverse Size Effect in Buckling of Floating Ice . . . . Attention is then focused on the deterministic size effect in quasibrittle materials which. . .8 Size Effect for Cohesive Crack Model and Crack Band Model . . . and Viscosity . . . . . . .2 31 51 52 52 54 55 56 56 58 59 60 60 61 62 62 62 The article attempts a broad review of the problem of size effect or scaling of failure. . .3. . .1. . . .3 Kink Bands in Fiber Composites . 1. . . . . . . . . .7.7.3. . .. . . . . . Singularity. . . . .7. . and arctic ice engineering. . . . . . . geomechanics. . . . . . . . . . . 1. as well as in designing large loadbearing parts made of advanced ceramics and composites. . . 1.7 Size Effect in Fatigue Crack Growth. Gradient. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .7. . . . .7. 1. . . . . . 1. . . . and linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). 1. or Discrete Element Models . . . . . . . . . . .3. First the main results of the Weibull statistical theory of r a n d o m strength are briefly s u m m a r i z e d and its applicability and limitations described. . . . .8. . . . . . . .8. . . . 1. . .7.4 Size Effects in Sea Ice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References and Bibliography . 1. . . Creep. . and then a host of . . The energetic theory of quasibrittle size effect in the bridging region is explained. . . . . . . .g. . . 1. . . . . . .3. . . . because of the existence of a nonnegligible material length characterizing the size of the fracture process zone. .3 Size Effect on Structural Strength Fracturing Truss Model for Concrete and Boreholes in Rock . . 1. . . . . . . .3. . . .3.2 Boundary Layer. In this theory as well as plasticity. . . . e. .7. . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . and Diffusion . . . . . the size effect is a simple power law because no characteristic size or length is present. . . . .3. . .
reactor containments. are also made. The historical development of the size effect theories is outlined. extensions. dams. the scale jump from the laboratory spans many orders of magnitude. as well as for large loadbearing fuselage panels. were stimulated by the problems of concrete structures. which is central to every physical theory. in case of maximum load) is defined as crN = cNP/bD or cNP/D2 for two. or the force exerted on an oil platform in the Arctic by a moving milesize ice floe. and geomechanics. and the recent trends of research are emphasized. The size effect in solid mechanics is understood as the effect of the characteristic structure size (dimension) D on the nominal strength c~N of structure when geometrically similar structures are compared. Comments on other types of size effect. it is impossible to acquire a sufficient statistical basis on the full scale). The question of size effect recently became a crucial consideration in the efforts to use advanced fiber composites and sandwiches for large ship hulls.3. stacks. The nominal stress (or strength. though. P = load . on the other hand. however. bulkheads. the theory itself is incorrect. In solid mechanics research. and masts. for which there inevitably is a large gap between the scales of large structures (e. respectively. the modern studies of nonclassical size effect.32 Ba~. the risk of a mountain slide. In most mechanical and aerospace engineering. the attention to scaling had many interruptions and became intense only during the last decade.g. that even in that case the scaling implied by the theory must be correct. the risk of slip of a fault in the earth crust.. decks. arctic engineering.or threedimensional similarity.ant recent refinements. and ramifications are discussed. The scaling problems are even greater in geotechnical engineering. It must be recognized. the problem of scaling continuously played a prominent role for over a hundred years. 1. Scaling is the most fundamental characteristics of any physical theory. In analyzing the safety of an excavation wall or a tunnel. bridges) and the scales of laboratory tests. the problem of scaling has been less pressing because the structural components can usually be tested at full size.1 INTRODUCTION The size effect is a problem of scaling. If the scaling properties of a theory are incorrect. including that which might be associated with the fractal geometry of fracture. In fluid mechanics research. begun in the 1970s. This gap involves in such structures about one order of magnitude (even in the rare cases when a fullscale test is carried out. Not surprisingly.
In effect. In general. wood particle board. various refractories and filled elastomers. the diagonal dimension. The law of the deterministic stable effect provides a way of bridging two different power laws applicable in two adjacent size ranges. The definition of D can be arbitrary (e. analogous to shrinkage microcracking of concrete).1. ice (especially sea ice). The basic scaling laws in physics are power laws in terms of D. they emulate concrete.) because it does not matter for comparing geometrically similar structures. tough fiber composites and particulate composites.3 Size Effect on Structural Strength 33 (or load parameter). b structure thickness. stiff clays. coal. The structure size at which this bridging transition occurs represents a characteristic size. characterizes the typical size of material inhomogeneities or the fracture process zone (FPZ). bone and cartilage. for which no characteristics size (or length) exists. is concrete. Such behavior is desirable because it endows the structure made from a material incapable of plastic yielding with a significant energy absorption capability. During the 1970s it was found that a major deterministic size effect. This length. Keen interest in the size effect and scaling is now emerging for various "hightech" applications of these materials. paper. grouted soils. toughened ceramics. dental cements. cemented sands. can be caused by stress redistributions caused by stable propagation of fracture or damage and the inherent energy release. etc. So crN is not a real stress but a load parameter having the dimension of stress. wood. civil engineers subconsciously but correctly engineered concrete structures to achieve and enhance quasibrittle characteristics. Most modern "hightech" materials achieve quasibrittle characteristics in much the same way by means of inclusions. biological shells. . Aside from concrete. and studied in the greatest depth and with the largest experimental effort by far. cement mortars. and intentional microcracking (as in transformation toughening of ceramics. overwhelming the statistical size effect. Quasibrittle behavior can be attained by creating or enhancing material inhomogeneities. embedded reinforcement. The material for which this new kind of size effect was identified first. the beam depth or halfdepth. consolidated snow.. other quasibrittle materials include rocks. a size effect that bridges the smallscale power law for nonbrittle (plastic. ductile) behavior and the largescale power law for brittle behavior signals the presence of a certain nonnegligible characteristics length of the material. which represents the quintessential property of quasibrittle materials. the beam span. and some special tough metal alloys. and cN arbitrary coefficient chosen for convenience (normally cN1).g. fiberreinforced concretes. The classical Weibull [113] theory of statistical size effect caused by randomness of material strength is of this type. Long ago.
3. and concluded that "the weakness of isotropic solids .000 psi when the diameter decreased from 0.. . argued that Leonardo's size effect cannot be true. the inventor of the concept of stress. The purpose of this article is to present a brief review of the basic results and their history. He showed experimentally that the nominal strength of glass fibers was raised from 42.34 Ba~. an inverse size effect spanning several orders of magnitude must be tackled in passing from normal laboratory tests of material strength to microelectronic components and micromechanisms. he observed that "a long rope and a short one always support the same weight unless that in a long rope there may happen to be some faulty place in which it will break sooner than in a shorter. the relation of dislocation theory to continuum plasticity. He observed that "among cords of equal thickness the longest is the least strong. e." In other words. is due to the presence of discontinuities or flaws . He further discussed the effect of the size of an animal on the shape of its bones. The problem of scale bridging in the micromechanics of materials.ant and Chen [18] may be consulted.00013 in. the greater is the probability of encountering in it an element of low strength. .. until the remarkable work of Griffith [66]. A major idea was spawned by Mariotte [82]. 1. henceforth simply referenced as [BP]. to 0. Based on his extensive experiments.g. The .0042 in. A full exposition of most of the material reviewed here is found in the recent book by Ba~. Galileo Galilei [64]. the founder of fracture mechanics.ant In materials science.300 psi to 491.. not much progress was achieved for two and half centuries." and proposed that "a cord is so much stronger as it is shorter.2 HISTORY OF SIZE EFFECT UP TO WEIBULL Speculations about the size effect can be traced back to Leonardo da Vinci in the 16th century [118]. A material that follows linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) on the scale of laboratory specimens of sizes from 1 to 10cm may exhibit quasibrittle or even ductile (plastic) failure on the micrometer scale. This is the basic idea of the statistical theory of size effect.ant and Planas [32]. A century later.." and proposed the principle of "the inequality of matter whose absolute resistance is less in one place than another. the larger the structure. remarking that bulkiness of bones is the weakness of the giants. Despite no lack of attention." implying inverse proportionality. . For an indepth review with several hundred literature references. the recent article by Ba~. is beyond the scope of this review (it is treated in this volume by Hutchinson).
Until about 1985. and others. it was automatically assumed to be statistical. Wittmann and Zaitsev [121]. The capstone of the statistical theory of strength was laid by Weibull [113] (also [114116]). Applications of Weibull's theory to fatigue embrittled metals and to ceramics have been researched thoroughly [75. plasticity and viscoplasticity. the flaws or cracks at the moment of failure were still only microscopic. evaluation of scatter of fracture toughness data) have continued until today [37. Mihashi and Izumi [85] Carpinteri [41. Refinements and applications to metals and ceramics (fatigue embrittlement. Refinements were made by von Mises [108] and others (see also [62. 76]. 63. The reason probably was that no size effect is exhibited by the classical continuum mechanics in which the failure criterion is written in terms of stresses and strains (elasticity with strength limit. Whenever a size effect was detected in tests. The resulting distribution of minimum strength. The statistical theory of size effect began to emerge after Peirce [92] formulated the weakestlink model for a chain and introduced the extreme value statistics which was originated by Tippett [107] and Fr~chet [57] and completely described by Fischer and Tippett [58]. Griffith discovered the physical basis of Mariotte's statistical idea but not a new kind of size effect.56]. Mihashi [84]. as well as fracture mechanics of bodies containing only microscopic cracks or . 56. which was the same as that derived by Fischer and Tippet [58] in a completely different context. their random distribution controlled the macroscopic strength of the material but did not invalidate the concept of strength. Zech and Wittmann [123].1. he concluded that the tail distribution of low strength values with an extremely small probability could not be adequately represented by any of the previously known distributions and assumed the cumulative probability distribution of the strength of a small material element to be a power function of the strength difference form a finite or zero threshold. Others [62. Thus.3 Size Effect on Structural Strength 35 effective strength of technical materials could be increased 10 or 20 times at least if these flaws could be eliminated. who derived the Weibull distribution and proved that it represents the distribution of the minimum of any set of very many random variables that have a threshold and approach the threshold asymptotically as a power function of any positive exponent.42]. cleavage toughness of steels at a low and brittleductile transition temperatures. 101]. Applications to concrete. and thus its study was supposed to belong to statisticians rather than mechanicians. 77. where the size effect has been of the greatest concern. came to be known as the Weibull distribution. Mihashi and Izumi [88]. have been studied by Zaitsev and Wittmann [122]." In Griffith's view.103] later offered a theoretical justification by means of a statistical distribution of microscopic flaws or microcracks. however.103. On a heuristic and experimental basis. most mechanicians paid almost no attention to the possibility of a deterministic size effect.
however.. \ X ~c/ . c e z 0 e(D ..1 a.1a. In consequence of the wellfunded research in concrete structures for nuclear power plants. The attitude. .. 1. I log CN 4I + . Top left: Geometrically similar structures of different sizes.. ] 1~2 o) Sizeeffectlaw I _o by asymptotic matching . _. for example. .."I" asymptotic .3. The subject was not even mentioned by S. Let us consider geometrically similar systems.. .. .3 POWER SCALING AND THE CASE OF NO SIZE EFFECT It is proper to explain first the simple scaling applicable to all physical systems that involve no characteristic length. .J \<'x. . Bottom. . Timoshenko in 1953 in his m o n u m e n t a l History of the Strength of Materials.~~ asymptotic I " . b.o r log D (structure size) FIGURE 1. the beams shown in Figure 1. .I • a Xk. We will discuss it later.. Yield or strength ':'. .. theories exhibiting a deterministic size effect have developed. .. expansion ~ ~.g. ~ Pexpansl~ Z ' ". ". Top right: Power scaling laws.. Size effect law for quasibrittle failures bridging the power law of plasticity (horizontal asymptote) and the power law of LEFM (inclined asymptote).X~ " . and seek to deduce the response Y (e. P."[: . . .. c...3._. " " " .. "'~~"q~ Smallsize ['. changed drastically in the 1980s. . the m a x i m u m stress or the m a x i m u m deflection) as a function of the characteristic size (dimension) D of the structure... Y = Yof(D) ~P lfi .. .36 Ba~.ant flaws) [8]. Largesize Plasticity ~ /'I / CN = B ft' (1 +~oo)v2 .3.\ Criteria D' J b log D .
i mm). Note that Cl cancels out of Eq. i mm). If we take size 1 as the reference size. For plasticity. elastoplasticity.3.3 Size Effect on Structural Strength 37 where u is the chosen unit of measurement (e.g.1 / 2 (for nominal strength).1b). We imagine three structure sizes 1. cl. This is a functional equation for the unknown scaling law f(D). the maximum stress. the slope of this line is 0. Thus.e. By convention. The power scaling must apply for every physical theory in which there is no characteristic length. This may be generally demonstrated with the help of Rice's Jintegral [8]. this came to be known as the case of no size effect. when. we can also take size D as the reference size. However.. for fluid mechanics [2. D. or the stress at certain homologous points. the power law: f(D) = (D/c1) ~ (2) where s = constant and c1 is a constant which is always implied as a unit of length measurement (e. i.. In solid mechanics such failure theories include elasticity with a strength limit. In LEFM. f ( D ) = log(D/Cl). or elasticity with a strength limit. or plasticity (or elastoplasticity) with a yield surface expressed in terms of stresses or strains. . provided that the geometrically similar structures with geometrically similar cracks or notches are considered. 18]. If log ~N is plotted versus log D.3. Eq. To determine exponent s. or the nominal stress at failure) [8]. for instance. 1 m. does not cancel out. on the other hand. the exponent of the power law vanishes. and D' (Figure 1. the power law is a straight line (Figure 1. s = . and viscoplasticity. one finds that s = 0 when response Y represents the stress or strain (for example. or both. For elasticity with a strength limit (strength theory). 1) is substituted.g. 1 is not satisfied and the unit of measurement. 102]). i m. the equation f(D')/f(D) = f(D'/D) (1) must hold ([8. if there is no characteristic dimension. while for LEFM the slope is 112 [8].. the responses for sizes D and D' are Y = f ( D ) and Y' = f ( D ' ) . 2 when the power function (Eq. all geometrically similar structures of different sizes must fail at the same nominal stress. On the other hand. the logarithmic scaling could be possible only if the system possessed a characteristic length related to Cl. So. the failure criterion of the material must be taken into account. namely. Consequently. An emerging "hot" subject is the quasibrittle materials and structures. for which the size effect bridges these two power laws. since there is no characteristic length.1. as well as LEFM (for which the FPZ is assumed shrunken into a point). It has one and only one solution.1a).
and c ( t r ) .~ ~~iPl(tri)/Vo where oi .V r l X failure probability of material representative volume Vr) [62].3.r). and plates exhibits also no size effect. Right bottom: Structures with many microcracks of different probabilities to become critical.coordinate vector. i. is the same for geometrically similar structures of different sizes. Threedimensional continuous generalization of the weakest link model for the failure of a chain of links of random strength (Fig.38 Ba~.3. this is not true for beams on elastic foundation [ 16]. V .stress tensor field just before failure. t r ..4 WEIBULL STATISTICAL SIZE EFFECT The classical theory of size effect has been statistical. b.function giving the spatial concentration of failure probability of material ( .ant It is interesting to note that the critical stress for elastic buckling of beams.f v c[a(Z). Z . 1. i I  I I ' ii I i l I ". However. c(tr). Right top: Failure probability of a small element.. .2a) leads to the distribution Pf(crs.e. oN)]dV(x)] which represents the probability that a structure fails as soon as macroscopic fracture initiates from a microcrack (or a some flaw) somewhere in the structure..3.principal P1 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) O I i t / t I I .volume of structure. Left: Chain with many links of random strength.2 a./ .exp [ . " ' " \ FIGURE 1. c. frames.1 ~1 I I i 9 i ! t I0 \ I i . 1.1 .
. = 0). usually between 5 and 50. [77]. . For specimens under uniform uniaxial stress (and a. Equation 7.1] 1/2 (Sa) (sb) where F is the gamma function. 5 by an integral. In view of Eq. two.aN(V/Vo) ~/~ for a uniformly stressed specimen can be adopted as a sizeindependent stress measure called the Weibull stress. . Nw) are elements of the plastic zone having maximum principal stress o'ii. . Beremin [37] proposed taking into account the nonuniform stress in a large cracktip plastic zone by the socalled Weibull stress: _ (r) O'W Ii V0 where Vi (i . or 3 for uni. see also Lei et al. Consequently. Eqs. still being negligible compared to structural dimensions. Pl ( a )  a  au SO (4) [113] where m. 2 . the value a w .or threedimensional similarity. which may usually be taken as 0) and V0reference volume understood as the volume of specimens on which c(a) was measured. Ruggieri and Dodds [101] replaced the sum in Eq. 5. 7 is applicable only if the crack at the moment of failure is not yet macroscopic. it is often used for determining m from the observed statistical scatter of strength of identical test specimens.s0r(1 + m~)(Vo/V) 1/m co . however.3) and Pl(cr)= failure probability (cumulative) of the smallest possible test specimen of volume V0 (or representative volume of the material) subject to uniaxial tensile stress a. a~ = strength threshold.1. In general.[F(1 4. 2.1. The expression for ~'N includes the effect of volume V which depends on size D. O"1 = material constants (m = Weibull modulus. for structures with nonuniform multidimensional stress. Eq. Taking this viewpoint. so. 3 and 4 lead to the following simple expressions for the mean and coefficient of variation of the nominal strength: 8"N . considers only the cracktip plastic zone whose size which is almost independent of D.2. the size effect of Weibull theory (for err ~ 0) is of the type aN ~ D nalm (6) where nd= 1. so = scale parameter.2m~)/F2(1 + m ~) . Since co depends only on m.3 Size Effect on Structural Strength 39 stresses (i = 1.
Thus the Weibull theory is valid only if the structure fails as soon as a microscopic crack becomes macroscopic. 6 the size effect is a power law implies the absence of any characteristic length.2). respectively [28]. m = 12 and m = 24. among concrete structures Weibull theory appears applicable to some extremely thick plain (unreinforced) structures. Fig. 1. 6 is fitted to the mean test data on the effect of size or V (of unnotched plain concrete specimens). the flexure of an arch dam acting as a horizontal beam (but not for vertical bending of arch dams or gravity dams because large vertical compressive stresses cause long cracks to grow stably before the maximum load). applications of the classic Weibull theory face a number of serious objections: 1. Most other plain concrete structures are not thick enough to prevent the deterministic size effect from dominating.3. 3. e. (Please see the review [9]). 4.5 QUASIBRITTLE SIZE EFFECT BRIDGING P L A S T I C I T Y A N D LEFM.. namely. In view of these limitations.g. 5 is fitted to the test data on statistical scatter for specimens of one size (V = const. characterized by material strength or yield .g.3. Every structure is mathematically equivalent to a uniaxially stressed bar (or chain.) and when Eq. diagonal shear failure of reinforced concrete beams) show a much stronger size effect than predicted by the Weibull theory ([BP]). But this cannot be true if the size of material inhomogeneities is not negligible compared to the structure size D. 2. The energy release due to stress redistributions caused by macroscopic FPZ or stable crack growth before Pmax gives rise to a deterministic size effect which is ignored. The size effect differences between two. 6. When Eq. If the theory were applicable. The fact that in Eq.and threedimensional similarity (na = 2 or 3) are predicted much too large.40 Ba~.. which means that no information on the structural geometry and failure mechanism is taken into account [36]. 5. Many tests of quasibrittle materials (e. The classical theory neglects the spatial correlations of material failure probabilities of neighboring elements caused by nonlocal properties of damage evolution (while generalizations based on some phenomenological loadsharing hypotheses have been divorced from mechanics). 1.ant As far as quasibrittle structures are concerned. the optimum values of Weibull exponent m are very different. Steel or fiber reinforcement prevents it as well. 7. A N D ITS H I S T O R Y Qausibrittle materials are those that obey on a small scale the theory of plasticity (or strength theory). these values would have to coincide.
and observed that the optimum n was less than 1/2. Like Weibull theory. does. fitted the results by a power law. aN o( D". After LEFM was first applied to concrete [72]. and on a large scale the LEFM. Eqs. 112].1. possesses no characteristic length. the combination of both. they formulated the cohesive (or fictitious) crack model characterized by a softening stressdisplacement law for the crack opening and showed by finite element calculations that the failures of unnotched plain concrete beams in bending exhibit a deterministic size effect. . [68] (also Peterson [93]).111. The power law with a reduced exponent of course fits the test data in the central part of the transitional size range well but does not provide the bridging of the ductile and LEFM size effects. While plasticity alone. characterized by fracture energy Gf. however. Leicester's power law also implied the nonexistence of a characteristic length (see Ba~ant and Chen [18]. in agreement with tests of the modulus of rupture. as well as LEFM alone. In dynamics. Inspired by the softening and plastic FPZ models of Barenblatt [2. 78.3 Size Effect on Structural Strength 41 limit ~r0. 13). which must be considered for the bridging of plasticity and LEFM. which cannot be the case for concrete because of the large size of its inhomogeneities. is objectionable for two reasons: (i) notches of a finite angle cannot propagate (rather. and (ii) the singular stress field of finiteangle notches gives a zero flux of energy into the notch tip. a crack must emanate from the notch tip). Combination of or0 and Gf yields Irwin's (1958) [69a] characteristic length (material length): g0 = EGy ~ (8) which approximately characterizes the size of the FPZ (E = Young's elastic modulus). So the key to the deterministic quasibrittle size effect is a combination of the concept of strength or yield with fracture mechanics. which. More extensive tests of notched geometrically similar concrete beams of different sizes were carried out by Walsh [111. 3] and Dugdale [55].112]. An attempt was made to explain the reduced exponent value by notches of a finite angle. the value required by LEFM. Leicester [78] tested geometrically similar notched beams of different sizes. this further implies the existence of a characteristic time (material time): ~o = g o / v (9) representing the time a wave of velocity v takes to propagate the distance g0. An important advance was made by Hillerborg et al. Although he did not attempt a mathematical formulation. he was first to make the doubly logarithmic plot of nominal strength versus size and observe that it is was transitional between plasticity and LEFM. it was found to disagree with test results [74.
or when at large sizes some plastic mechanism acting in parallel emerges and becomes dominant (as in the Brazilian splitcylinder test). the effective FPZ length. Ba~.Ba0 1 + FaR (11) in which r. Usually constant aR = 0. Ba~. 87. 35. and the (geometry dependent) Rcurve. Subsequently.ant Analyzing distributed (smeared) cracking damage.ant [4] demonstrated that its localization into a crack band engenders a deterministic size effect on the postpeak deflections and energy dissipation of structures.Bao 1 4. and Do and B characterize the structure geometry. except when there is a residual crackbridging stress ar outside the FPZ (as in fiber composites). The salient characteristic of quasibrittle . Beginning in the mid1980s.120]. The effect of the crack band is approximately equivalent to that of a long fracture with a sizable FPZ at the tip. Petersson [93]. which are capable of realistically simulating the localization of strainsoftening damage and avoiding spurious mesh sensitivity. using an approximate energy release analysis.42 Ba~. LEFM applies when the FPZ is negligibly small compared to structural dimension D and can be considered as a point. Measurements of the size effect on Pmax were shown to offer a simple way to determine the fracture characteristics of quasibrittle materials. B = positive dimensionless constants. 1. The size effect has recently become a major theme at conferences on concrete fracture [7. and Carpinteri [41].Doo FaR (10) or more generally" aN .ant [5] derived for the quasibrittle size effect in structures failing after large stable crack growth the following approximate size effect law: aN . the interest in the quasibrittle size effect of concrete structures surged enormously and many researchers made noteworthy contributions. including the fracture energy. including Planas and Elices [9496].3. Do = constant representing the transitional size (at which the power laws of plasticity and LEFM intersect).6 SIZE EFFECT MECHANISM: STRESS REDISTRIBUTION AND ENERGY RELEASE Let us now describe the gist of the deterministic quasibrittle size effect. Thus the LEFM solutions can be obtained by methods of elasticity. 30] as well as for the nonlocal continuum damage models. Equation 10 was shown to be closely followed by the numerical results for the crack band model [4. 86.
The values r = 1 or 2 have been used for concrete [12]. one may replace it by the following asymptotically equivalent size effect formula: (12) aN . but by the stress value 8 roughly at distance cf/2 from the tensile face / (which is at the middle of FPZ). which consists in the bending of a simply supported beam of span L with a rectangular cross section of depth D and width b.1. and (ii) a0 is finite and not negligible compared to D.stress g r a d i e n t .i n t r i n s i c tensile strength of the material. But since the derivation is valid only for small enough cf/D. which means that Pmax o c c u r s after large stable fracture growth.(3L/2D)cf.a0 1+ which happens to be acceptable for the whole range of D (including D ~ 0).Db/D) where D b . two basic cases may now be distinguished: (i) a0 = 0.al . 1. which means that Pmax o c c u r s at the initiation of macroscopic fracture propagation.3.a0/(1 . although approximately equivalent LEFM solutions can be applied unless FPZ reaches near the structure boundaries.6. This expression. is unacceptable for D _< Db.constant. r is any positive constant. subjected to concentrated load P. 29].a .45 is optimum according to Ba~ant and Novfik's latest analysis of test data at Northwestern University [28. however.aN . and also because ~ .a ] c f / 2 where a x .1 SCALING FOR FAILURE AT CRACK INITIATION An example of the first case is the modulus of rupture test. .2 a l / D . the maximum load is not decided by the stress al . while r ~ 1. which is a constant because for geometrically similar beams L / D .a0 yields P/bD . This causes a nonnegligible macroscopic stress redistribution with energy release from the structure. the failure condition F . This makes the problem nonlinear.3 Size Effect on Structural Strength 43 materials is that there exists a sizable FPZ with distributed cracking or other softening damage that is not negligibly small compared to structural dimension D. Because 8 .3PL/2bD 2 at the tensile face. The existence of a large FPZ means that the distance between the tip of the actual (tractionfree) crack and the tip of the equivalent LEFM crack at Pmax is equal to a certain characteristics length cf (roughly one half of the FPZ size) that is not negligible compared to D. With respect to the fracture length a0 (distance from the mouth of notch or crack to the beginning of the FPZ).
3. For the usual ranges of interest.g. 104. due to the effect of vertical compression. 83. 1. from the shaded triangles on the flanks of the crack band shown in Figure 1. This has been verified for many cases by experiments (showing similar failure modes for small and large specimens) and finite element solutions based on crack band. 69. Introduction of a crack of length a with a FPZ of a certain length and width h may be approximately imagined to relieve the stress.3.2x(ka2/2)cr2/2E. The stress drop within the crack band of width h causes further energy release . the length of the crack at maximum load may normally be assumed approximately proportional to the structure size D. 110]) are typical of reinforced concrete structures or fiber composites [119]. while the size h of the FPZ is essentially a constant.3. exhibiting a strong size effect ([BP]. The slope k of the effective boundary of the stress relief zone need not be determined. 21.3.3. or nonlocal models. 3 .1) the energy release Ida.ant Let us now give a simple explanation of the second case of structures failing only after stable formation of large cracks.3 Approximatezones of stress relief due to fracture. 2 SCALING FOR FAILURES WITH A LONG CRACK OR NOTCH Ba~._o2 L_o ~ h ~FIGURE 1. 6 . related to the inhomogeneity size in the material.3) causes (for the case b . [19. and thus release the strain energy. Consider the rectangular panel in Figure 1. or notched fracture specimens. or floating ice plates in the Arctic). Failures of this type. cohesive. which is initially under a uniform stress equal to ~rN.3.. 65.44 1 . what is important is that k is independent of the size D. . dams. The stress reduction in the triangular zones of areas ka2/2 (Fig. and are also exhibited by some unreinforced structures (e.
Energy balance during static failure requires that O(Ua+ Ub)/Oa. calling for the cohesive crack model or the crack band model (which are mutually almost equivalent).1.3. the solution of the last equation for gma. the size effect law in Eq. the structure becomes nonbrittle (plastic.N yields Ba~ant's [5] approximate size effect law in Eq. 10) has the character of asymptotic matching and serves to provide the bridging of scales. The experimental verifications. If the size of a quasibrittle structure becomes sufficiently large compared to material inhomogeneities. For very small sizes (D << Do).ha~2/E. The ratio f i . as in plastic limit analysis. only the global fracture of a large dam is describable by LEFM). and if the size becomes sufficiently small. 1. The meaning of the term quasibrittle is relative.e. in which case there is no size effect. the structure becomes perfectly brittle (for concrete structures. in which case the size effect represents a smooth transition (or interpolation) that bridges the power law size effects for the two asymptotic cases. Fig. plastic). The total energy dissipated by the fracture is W . . have by now become abundant (e.1c. a material property representing the energy dissipated per unit area of the fracture surface.. 10 with ~ R . where Gf is the fracture energy.3. Setting a .1 _< fi <_ 10. while for fl+ 0 the structure is nonbrittle (or ductile. the stress analysis is of course nonlinear. 112] tests of notched concrete beams. applicable to arbitrary structure geometry.0 (Fig.D/Do is called the brittleness number of a structure. 1.D(a/D) where a/D is approximately a constant if the failures for different structure sizes are geometrically similar. follows LEFM).constant. have been given in terms of asymptotic analysis based on equivalent LEFM [10] or on Rice's pathindependent Jintegral [32]. This law has also been verified by nonlocal finite element analysis and by random particle (or discrete element) models.3. More rigorous derivations of this law.4). 10 reduces to the power law ~rN c~ D 1/2. among which the earliest is found in the famous Walsh's [111.. ductile) because the FPZ extends over the whole cross section of the structure (thus a micromachine or a miniature electronic device made of silicone or finegrained ceramic may be quasibrittle or nonbrittle).aGf. in which case the size effect is the strongest possible. Quasibrittle structures are those for which 0. For fl + oo the structure is perfectly brittle (i. In the quasibrittle range. For very large sizes (D >> Do).3 Size Effect on Structural Strength 45 Ub. which corresponds to the horizontal asymptote and means that there is no size effect.1 c).1 / 2 in Figure 1.aw/aa. this law reduces to aN . which represents the size effect of LEFM (for geometrically similar large cracks) and corresponds to the inclined asymptote of slope . The law (Eq. or some of the nonlocal damage models.g.
5 .25 0 0. ~ . . o. .7E FIGURE 1.25 log (D/Do) 0..~_ 0 Z Z E . X \~.. .. ~' \" B~t.1 .5 0. ".5 0 log D (Specimen size) P 40 80 0 .o o .. .4 1.5 Si02 c e r a m i c 0 0 0./I 0. Bottom: Size effect in compression kinkband failures of geometrically similar notched carbonPEEK specimens [ ]..1 0.80 rn Dempsey et al.. % I .0..3  0. '.5 / D = 0.O 0.46 Limestone Plasticity o Ba~.6 0 . I (1995) a 0.3.ant Carbon com )osite '. . 2 1 "Kink band 0..0 McKinney and Rice (1981) o I 1.. BaJant.1 m ""'.4 Top: Comparisons of size effect law with Mode 1 test data obtained by various investigators using notched specimens of different materials.50 0..2 t x (1991).... 1. 9 0 "" I W I i /" ".2 Slanted notch '". o 0.2 0.. Daniel and Li l t \ '~ 0 C 0.2 11996). Gettn and Kozemi ..2 Sea ice 2 0..
3.5. Apart from the size effect on Pmax. the shapes indicated in Figure 1.6.3. The ratio of the deflection at these points to the elastic deflection characterizes the ductility of the structure. for larger structures steeper.3 Size Effect on Structural Strength 1. As is apparent from the figure.5 Loaddeflectioncurves of quasibrittle structures of different sizes. there is also a size effect on the shape of the postpeak descending loaddeflection curve. If a structure is loaded under displacement control through an elastic device with spring constant Cs.5. t t ON Small y ~Large ~ . .3. it loses stability and fails at the point where the loaddeflection diagram first attains the slope Cs (if ever). scaled to the same initial slope. and for sufficiently large structures they may exhibit a snapback. For small structures the postpeak curves descend slowly.1. I "~Larger .5 sizeindependent) have. for small and large structures. a change of slope from negative to positive. = FIGURE 1.deft. that is.3 SIZE EFFECT ON POSTPEAK SOFTENING 47 AND DUCTILITY The plots of nominal stress versus the relative structure deflection (normalized so as to make the initial slope in Figure 1..3.3. I Rel. Figure 1.
2). which assumes that the response of a structure may be at least approximately modeled by the series coupling of the cohesive crack or damage zone with a spring characterizing the elastic unloading of the rest of the structure (Ba~. KI~ = stress intensity factors for load P and for loading by uniform residual crackbridging stress at.ao/D where a0 = length of notch or crack up to the beginning of the FPZ.5 with increasing size and the development of a snapback can be most simply described by the series coupling model.. The size effect on energy absorption capability is important for blast loads and impact.5 characterize the energy absorption.ant small quasibrittle structures have a large ductility. and tensile fracture of composites reinforced by fibers short . but a v r 0 in the case of compression fracture in concrete. whereas large quasibrittle structures have small ductility. KII. 13.. The areas under the loaddeflection curves in Figure 1. 4 ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS OF SIZE EFFECT BY EQUIVALENT LEFM To obtain simple approximate size effect formulae that give a complete prediction of the failure load. In this approach the tip of the equivalent LEFM (sharp) crack is assumed to lie approximately a distance cf ahead of the tip of the tractionfree crack or notch. cf being a constant (representing roughly one half of the length of the FPZ ahead of the tip. as the structure size increases.3. kink band propagation in fiber composites. 6 . The capability of a quasibrittle structure to absorb energy decreases. equivalent LEFM may be used. g(~o) ./cryD are dimensionless energy release functions of LEFM of e ./aND and 7(~0) 2 2 2 2 Ki. The progressive steepening of the postpeak curves in Figure 1. 3 . O'N = and (ii) if Pmax o c c u r s + ~ + '(Czo)D V'g'( o)q + g( o)D + + (13) at fracture initiation from a smooth surface ON v/g'(0)cf + g"(0) (c~/2D) (14) [10. including the effect of geometrical shape of the structure. respectively.3.48 Ba~. 1 . Sec. cry > 0 for tensile fracture.ant and Cedolin [17]. 12] where the primes denote derivatives. Two cases are relatively simple: (i) If a large crack grows stably prior to Pmax o r if there is a long notch. in relative terms.KII.
1. ceramics. The fitting can be done best by using the LevenbergMarquardt nonlinear optimization algorithm. 13 if fir > 0. orthotropic fiberpolymer composites.6. and other quasibrittle materials.Crov/EGf/cfg'(cZo) (15) Therefore. The asymptotic behavior of Eq. and has also been verified and used for various rocks.3 Size Effect on Structural Strength 49 enough to undergo frictional pullout rather than breakage. With regard to the cohesive crack model. sea ice.3). .5 SIZE EFFECT METHOD FOR MEASURING MATERIAL CONSTANTS AND RCURVE Comparison of Eq. wood. The Rcurve. So does Eq. although when they are the evaluation is simpler and the error smaller. requiring only the maximum loads. The size effect method of measuring fracture characteristics has been adopted for an international standard recommendation for concrete ([99]. the values of Gf and cf can be identified [20.3. can be obtained as the envelope of the curves of the energy release rate at P = Pmax (for each size) versus the crack extension for specimens of various sizes. note that the size effect method gives the energy value corresponding to the area under the initial tangent of the softening stressdisplacement curve. by fitting Eq. but it can also be accomplished by a (properly weighted) linear regression of cr~2 versus D. tough metals.cfg'(a0)/g(0~0) B~ro . In general. The lower the scatter of test results.+ oo is of the LEFM type.31]. [BP] Sec. this can easily be done numerically. rather than the total area under the curve. the size range 1:4 is the minimum). 10 yields the relations: Do . The specimens do not have to be geometrically similar. a N . 10 with aR = 0 to the values of aN measured on test specimens of different sizes with a sufficiently broad range of brittleness numbers fl = D/Do. are foolproof and easy to carry out. 1. The size effect method also permits determining the Rcurve (resistance curve) of the quasibrittle material a curve that represents the apparent variation of fracture energy with crack extension for which LEFM becomes approximately equivalent to the actual material with a large FPZ. which (in contrast to the classical Rcurve definition) depends on the specimen geometry. 6. 13 for D . 13 with Eq. the narrower is the minimum necessary range of fl (for concrete and fiber composites. The advantage of the size effect method is that the tests.Cry o( D 1/2 Equation 14 approaches for D + oo a finite asymptotic value.
and the location of the smallsize asymptote depends only on or0 and geometry.50 Ba~. has been shown to give essentially the same results as the Rcurve derived from the size effect law in Eq. called the twoparameter fracture model. The location of the largesize asymptote depends only on Kc and geometry. The fracture model implied by the size effect law in Eq.7.3. R A M I F I C A T I O N S . 13 has one independent characteristic length.6. a parametric analytical expression for the Rcurve exists ([20]. the value of g0 is implied by cf if ~r0 is known. Like the size effect law in Eq. 10 with err = 0. g0 .3.7 E X T E N S I O N S . 16. The value of cf controls the size Do at the center of the bridging region (intersection of the powerlaw asymptotes in Figure 1. and cr0 or Gf controls a vertical shift of the size effect curve at constant Do. can also be simulated by the fracture models characterized by the critical stress intensity factor Kc (fracture toughness) and 6crop.6 CRITICAL CRACKTIP OPENING DISPLACEMENT~ ~CTOD The quasibrittle size effect. 1. representing about one half of the FPZ length. 1. for metals see Wells [117] and Cottrell [50].1c. 10 or Eq. and for concrete Jenq and Shah [70]. 10 with Cra = 0. 10) to the measured Pmaxvalues. 6. bridging plasticity and LEFM. 15.ant and if the size effect law has the form in Eq.V/~ ~CrOD (llrc)v/8GfcflE (16) Using these formulae. cf. The models are in practice equivalent because Kc. the twoparameter model has only one independent characteristic length. Jenq and Shah's model.4). [BP] Sec. then 6crop is not an independent length because cf is implied by g0 and 6crop then follows from Eq. Because of Eq.1 SIZE EFFECTS IN COMPRESSION FRACTURE Loading by high compressive stress without sufficient lateral confining stresses leads to damage in the form of axial splitting microcracks engendered .Kc2/~ 9If cr0 is known. 10 with ~rR = 0. AND APPLICATIONS 1.3. the values of Kc and 6C~ODcan be easily identified by fitting the size effect law (Eq.3.
91.3 Size Effect on Structural Strength 51 by pores. A long diagonal tension crack grows stably under shear loading until the concrete near its tip gets crushed as a result of parallel compression stresses. 1 . which causes an energy release that grows in proportion to D 2. 13 in which err is determined by analysis of the microbuckling in the laterally propagating band of axial splitting cracks. For axial propagation. 109. 98. [48]. eroo = constants. analogous to the size effect associated with tensile fracture. the stress in the zones on the sides of the damage band gets reduced. there is no size effect. while the energy consumed and dissipated in the band grows in proportion to D.1.5. 7 . This damage localizes into a band that propagates either axially or laterally. However. In consequence of the size effect. inclusions. then the size effect gets modified as erN m C D .104. and Nesetova and Lajtai [90]. 3 . The mismatch of energy release rates inevitably engenders a deterministic size effect of the quasibrittle type.21. The size effect can again be approximately described by the equivalent LEFM. 2 FRACTURING TRUSS MODEL FOR CONCRETE AND BOREHOLES IN ROCK Propagation of compression fracture is what appears to control the maximum load in diagonal shear failure of reinforced concrete beams with or without stirrups. For lateral propagation. Carter et al. An approximate analytical solution can be obtained by exploiting Eschelby's theorem for eigenstresses in elliptical inclusions [27].11) where C. 69. the energy release from the band drives the formation of the axial splitting fracture. the approximate values of which have been calculated for the breakout of boreholes in rock.110]. for which a very strong size effect has been demonstrated experimentally [9. The explosive breakout of boreholes (or mining stopes) in rock under very high pressures is known to also exhibit size effect.2 / 5 q_ eroo (17) ([BP] Sec. if the spacing is not dictated and is such that it minimizes erN. 13 assumed to be dictated by material inhomogeneities. . 10. and since this energy is proportional to the length of the band. 71. or inclined slip planes. as revealed by the tests of Carter [47]. This leads to Eq. A simplified formula for the size effect can be obtained by energetic modification of the classical truss model (strutandtie model) [9]. failure by lateral propagation must prevail over the failure by axial propagation if a certain critical size is exceeded. Haimson and Herrick [67]. The spacing s of these cracks is in Eq.
however. which is here denoted as t~y and can be estimated by the classical plasticity approach of Budiansky [39]. however. revealed that the kink band propagates sideway like a crack and the stress on the flanks of the band gets reduced to a certain residual value. governed by material properties. Recent experimental and theoretical studies [40]. Therefore. which was achieved by rotational restraint at the ends). which implies no size effect. Among other things.3.4 SIZE EFFECTS IN SEA ICE Normal laboratory specimens of sea ice exhibit no notch sensitivity. respectively.3 KINK BANDS IN FIBER COMPOSITES Ba~. this is by virtue of a lateral shift of the compression resultant in wide notched prismatic specimens with ends restrained against rotation). The cracklike behavior implies a size effect. is one typical mode of compression failure of composites or laminates with uniaxial fiber reinforcement. approximately describe the size effects for these two basic cases.106]. which is assumed to be approximately constant.3. recordbreaking size range (with square sides ranging from 0. was until recently treated by the theory of plasticity. 1. 89]. in this case Gf now plays the role of fracture energy of the kink band (area below the stresscontraction curve of the kink bank and above the ay value).52 1. whose theory was begun by Rosen [100] and Argon [1]. which is demonstrated (Ba~.ant A kink band. the failure of sea ice has been thought to be well described by plastic limit analysis. 53. in which axial shearsplitting cracks develop between fibers which undergo microbuckling. It is now clear that floating sea ice plates are quasibrittle and their size effect on the scale of 100 m approaches that of LEFM. [22. is possible (in those tests.3. 1.7. and cf the role of the FPZ of the kink band.5 m to 80m!) [52. in which a long kink band grows stably prior to Pm~x. The aforementioned carbonPEEK tests also confirm that case (ii).4). . which exhibits no size effect [73. This failure mode. There are again two types of size effect. Equations 13 and 14.ant et al. 24]) by the latest laboratory tests of notched carbonPEEK specimens (Fig. these tests also demonstrated the possibility of a stable growth of a long kink band. changed drastically after Dempsey carried out in 1993 on the Arctic Ocean size effect tests of floating notched square specimens with an unprecedented.7. This perception. depending on whether Pmax is reached (i) when the FPZ of the kink band is attached to a smooth surface or (ii) or when there exists either a notch or a long segment of kink band in which the stress has been reduced to ay.
Rapid cooling in the Arctic can produce in the floating plate bending moments large enough to cause fracture. Fracture analysis. 10 with aN = 0. indicated a quasibrittle size effect. Because. as well as preexisting thermal cracks. . which is of the type of Eq. its asymptotic form is not ATcr O( Dl/2 but ATcr o( D 3/8 (18) The reason is that D is not a characteristic dimension in the plane of the boundary value problem of plate bending. It seems that Eq. often run through thick ice floes and do not follow the thinly refrozen water leads around the floes. which is proportional t o D 4/3 rather than D. This was determined by a simplified analytical solution (with a uniform crack depth) by Dempsey et al. one must take into account that bending cracks are reached only through part of the thickness. According to plasticity or elasticity with a strength limit.1.fiN OC. etc. it is the flexural wavelength of a plate on elastic foundation. 60. or the maximum force P required for penetration from below). which produces a dome effect. and confirmed by a detailed numerical solution with a variable crack depth profile [23]. this partthrough bending crack (of a variable depth profile) is growing vertically. The value of cf is in the order of meters (which can be explained by inhomogeneities such as brine pockets and channels. agree with these results well. the asymptotic size effect is n o t P / D 2 . permitting the values of Gf and cf of sea ice to be extracted by linear regression of the Pmax data. their ligaments transmitting compressive forces. Information on the size effect in sea ice can also be extracted from acoustic measurements [80]. warm and cold spots due to alternating snow drifts. 18 may explain why long cracks of length 10 to 100 km. The size effect law in Eq.3 Size Effect on Structural Strength 53 Dempsey's major experimental result explains why the measured forces exerted by moving ice on a fixed oil platform are one to two orders of magnitude smaller than the predictions of plastic limit analysis based on the laboratory strength of ice. 13 (with ar = 0). however. This formula was shown to agree with the existing field tests [59. [54]. which suddenly form in the fall in the Arctic ice cover. at maximum load. 10 with aR = 0. 81]. In analyzing the vertical penetration of floating ice plate (load capacity for heavy objects on ice. the critical temperature difference A Tcr across the plate would have to be independent of plate thickness D. Curiously. bottom roughness of the plate. The latter also led to an approximate prediction formula for the entire practical range of D. or in Eq. D 3/8 [105] but aN (x D 1/2. rather.).
p. P~. There are.. This contrasts with the structural buckling problems of columns. Since the lowest critical stress for nonaxisymmetric buckling loads is nearly equal to .d./E'hd. Denoting aNcr = Pcr/hd which represents the nominal buckling strength (or the average critical stress applied on the obstacle by the moving ice plate). The reason for the reverse size effect is that the buckling wavelength (the distance between the inflexion points of the deflection profile). namely. and plates.54 Ba~. with ice thickness h. i.e. which is Lcr. Et. the length and the force. only two independent physical dimensions in the problem. p = specific weight of sea water (or foundation modulus). where Per = force applied on the obstacle. a beam or plate on Winkler foundation. 5 REVERSE SIZE EFFECT IN BUCKLING OF FLOATING ICE An interesting anomalous case is the size effect on the critical stress for elastic buckling of floating ice. decreases with h. P~r/E~hd must be proportional to x/~/E~h and d/h. we conclude that the buckling solution must have the form rrN~. The interesting property of Eq. x/~/E'h. d.. in which Lcr is proportional to the structure size.g(D/P) 1/4 (as follows from dimensional analysis or nondimensionalization of the differential equation of plate buckling).e. and d/h. There are five variables in the problem. according to Buckingham's 1I theorem of dimensional analysis [102].ant 1 . i. v being the Poisson ratio. Although the axisymmetric buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial compression is a problem analogous to the beam on elastic foundation. and the solution must be have the form F(Pcr. rather than decreases. p.. h. 3 . i. the reverse size effect does not exist because the equivalent foundation modulus is not a constant. They may be taken as Po. Therefore. 19 is that aNc~ increases. If the ice is treated as elastic. h = ice plate thickness. So there is a reverse size effect. frames. and E ' = E/(1 . Lo.)=O.K(d/h) X / ~ ~ (19) where K is a dimensionless parameter depending on d/h as well as the boundary conditions. Therefore. where D = Eth3/12 = cylindrical stiffness of the ice plate. Consequently. however. Consider floating ice pushing against an obstacle of size d in the horizontal direction. the buckling of the ice plate can control the force exerted on a stationary structure only when the plate is sufficiently thin. is not proportional to h. rather.e.h. (reflcr) must apply to it as well. 3 dimensionless parameters. Eq. 7 ./hoch 1/4. Lo.v2). Dimensional analysis [102] suffices to determine the form of the buckling formula and the scaling. the solution must be expressible in terms of 5 .2 .Et.
i. 19 must also apply.. the consequence of mechanism 1 (creep) is that a decrease of loading rate. 1 . Mechanism 2 (rate dependence of separation) causes it to happen that an increase of loading rate. So far all our discussions have dealt with statics. causes a decrease of the effective length of the FPZ.~ k g / m s 2 and p . CREEP~ AND VISCOSITY There are two mechanisms in which the loading rate affects fracture growth: (i) creep of the material outside the FPZ. Indeed. but not rocks or ceramics).e. This leads to a dependence of the softening stressseparation relation of the cohesive crack model on the rate of opening displacement.. 6 INFLUENCE OF CRACK SEPARATION RATE. since q = stress/strain rate ~ k g / m s.3 Size Effect on Structural Strength 55 that for the axisymmetric mode. which cannot be explained by creep). the reverse size effect given by Eq. the material length associated with viscosity is given by _. concretes and polymer composites. In an equivalent LEFM approach. leads to an upward vertical shift of the size effect curve for log CrNbut has no effect on Do and thus on brittleness (this mechanism also explains an interesting recently discovered phenomenon .~ k g / m 3. or viscoplasticity) implies a characteristic length. This in turn means an increase of the brittleness number manifested by a leftward rigidbody shift of the size effect curve in the plot of log aN versus log D. or a decrease of sustained load duration. Consequently.. G vp v  (20) where v = w a v e velocity. For slow or longtime loading.g. and (ii) rate dependence of the severance of material bonds in the FPZ.1. or an increase of duration of a sustained load. There . a decrease of effective Do. The latter may be modeled as a rate process controlled by activation energy. quasibrittle structures become more brittle and exhibit a stronger size effect [26]. 3 . any type of viscosity r/of the material (present in models for creep. For quasibrittle materials exhibiting creep (e. with Arrheniustype temperature dependence. any rate dependence in the constitutive law implies a size effect (and a nonlocal behavior as well). and the Young's modulus E and mass density p have dimensions E . viscoelasticity.a reversal of softening to hardening after a sudden increase of the loading rate. the latter is modeled by considering the crack extension rate to be a power function of the ratio of the stress intensity factor to its critical Rcurve value. In dynamic problems. 7 .
but not generally. It varies with the rates of loading and deformation of the structure and vanishes as the rates drop to zero. For this reason.7. however. x . Unlike the size effect associated with g0 or cf. 7 . . 10 ([BP] Sec. searching the size D for which a given relative crack length 0~.a/D. can be solved directly if one inverts the problem. [68] and Petersson [93] the fictitious crack model) is more accurate yet less simple than the equivalent LEFM.coordinate along the crack (Fig. which states that plot of the logarithm of the crack length increment per cycle versus the amplitude of the stress intensity factor is a rising straight line. This is for metals and ceramics described by the Paris (or ParisErdogan) law. an important difference.g(~) relating the crack opening displacement w (separation of crack faces) to the crack bridging stress cr in the FPZ.3.56 Ba~. The size effect plot.x / D . It is based on the hypothesis that there exists a unique decreasing function w .ao/D. however. 8 SIZE EFFECT FOR COHESIVE CRACK MODEL AND CRACK BAND MODEL The cohesive (or fictitious) crack model (called by Hillerborg et al. This leads to the equations [25. the shift being derivable from the size effect law in Eq. 1. 3 .6). The obvious way to determine the size effect is to solve Pmax by numerical integration for stepbystep loading [93]. .a/D corresponds to Pmax. ~ . 79] D P max where  the first represents an eigenvalue problem for a homogeneous Fredholm integral equation.7). with D as the eigenvalue and v({) as the eigenfunction. an artificial viscosity or rate effect can approximate the nonviscous size effect and localization only within a narrow range of time delays and rates. 11. For quasibrittle material it turns out that a size increase causes this straight line to shift to the right. O~o. 1. 1 .7 SIZE EFFECT IN FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH Cracks slowly grow under fatigue (repeated) loading.ant is.3. the viscosityinduced size effect (as well as the width of damage localization zones) is not timeindependent.
cf) is needed. ~ P.1. These results have also been generalized to obtain directly the load and displacement corresponding. but for concrete typically two. for each one of them obtains from Eq. and the displacement at the change of slope.3. Choosing a sequence of avalues. Their values are implied by Gf. on the loaddeflection curve. G> Cro and the stress at the change of slope. C ~P(~) = compliance functions of structure for crack surface force and given load P. and C ~(~. a0 = total crack length and tractionfree crack length (or notch length). .u a . which is equal to GF only if the curve is simplified as linear (typically GF~ 2Gf).EGf/~2 and *fl . Vice versa. . . The bilinear stressdisplacement law used for concrete involves further parameters of the length dimension the opening displacement wf when the stress is reduced to zero. independent characteristic lengths: go .> w D FIGURE 1. 21 the corresponding values of D and Pmax. when only the maximum loads of structures in the bridging region between plasticity and LEFM are of interest.area under the entire softening stressdisplacement curve cr = f(w).6 Cohesive crack and distribution of crackbridging cohesive stresses. The scatter of size effect measurements within a practicable size range (up to 1:30) normally does not permit identifying more than one characteristic length (measurements of postpeak behavior are used for that purpose). and Gf = area under the initial tangent to this curve. to a point with any given tangential stiffness. The cohesive crack model possesses at least one. r J I . hardly more than one characteristic length (namely.3 Size Effect on Structural Strength 57 a.EGF/a02 where GF . including the displacement at the snapback point which characterizes the ductility of the structure. ~'). .
~ represents the effective size of the representative volume of the material. 9 SIZE EFFECT VIA NONLOCAL. which in turn plays the role of the effective size of the averaging domain in nonlocal material models.58 Ba~. ~4 . All that has been said about the cohesive crack model also applies to the crack band model. 3 . represents an additional characteristic length.. of course. Width h. the material length is represented by the statistical average of particle size. . ch. These important subjects will not be discussed here any further because there exists a recent extensive review [18]. The existence of g in these models engenders a quasibrittle size effect that bridges the powerlaw size effects of plasticity and LEFM and follows closely Eq. 13).g. and it governs the spacings of parallel cracks. GRADIENT~ OR DISCRETE ELEMENT MODELS The hypostatic feature of any model capable of bridging the power law size effects of plasticity and LEFM is the presence of some characteristic length. or with the crack opening wf at which the stress in the cohesive crack model (or crack band model) is reduced to zero (for size effect analysis with the cohesive crack model. In the equivalent LEFM associated with the size effect law in Eq. for localized cracking or fracture.ant The crack band model. It matters only when the cracking is not localized but distributed (e. In damage simulation by the discrete element (or random particle) models. prevents spurious excessive localization of softening continuum damage. see [BP] and Ba~. 1 .. 7 . which is easier to implement and is used in commercial codes (e. SBETA) [49]. which may be derived as an approximation of the nonlocal damage models.h. 10. Their minimum spacing cannot be unambiguously captured by the cohesive crack model.g.ant and Li [251). a material length is involved in the relation of the strain to its Laplacian. due to the effect of dense and strong enough reinforcement). cf serves as a characteristic length of the material. and eliminates spurious mesh sensitivity ([BP].. In the integraltype nonlocal continuum damage models. DIANA. [97]). as documented by numerous finite element simulations. g. provided that the effective (average) transverse strain in the crack band is taken as ey = w / h where h is the width of the band. is. nearly equivalent to the cohesive crack model ([BP]. although this length can equivalently be identified with 8CrOD in WellsCottrell or JenqShah models. 10 with ~rN = 0. In the secondgradient nonlocal damage models. It also poses a lower bound on the energy dissipation during failure.
or (b) the front can lie.o'0~"a/m(1 + r~l'~a/m) 1/r where it is assumed that rna< m. Numerical analyses of test data for concrete show that the size ranges in which the statistical influence on the size effect in case (a) as well as (b) would be significant do not lie within the range of practical interest. the existence of a large FPZ calls for a modification of the Weibull concept: The failure probability P1 at a given point of the continuous structure depends not on the local stress at that point. which was obtained for r = 1 by Ba~.+ 0.D/Do ~ .7): Case (a)" Case (b)" aN  Bo'o(fl2maIm +/~r)l/2r f l .7. The nonlocal approach broadens the applicability of the Weibull concept to the case of notches or long cracks. 1. and m . has the property that the statistical influence on the size effect disappears asymptotically for large D. one can show that the proper statistical generalizations of Eq. The latter case occurs when the maximum load is achieved at the initiation of fracture growth.Db/D (22) (23) aN . 22 and . for which the existence of cracktip singularity causes the classical Weibull probability integral to diverge at realistic mvalues (in cleavage fracture of metals. Thus the deterministic size effect dominates and its statistical correction in Eqs. the problem of crack singularity has been circumvented differently m by dividing the cracktip plastic zone into small elements and superposing their Weibull contributions [77]). Using the nonlocal Weibull theory. 12 having the correct asymptotic forms for D+ oo. The former case occurs when a long crack whose path is dictated by fracture mechanics grows before the m a x i m u m load.+ oo are (Fig.1. but on the nonlocal strain.3 Size Effect on Structural Strength 59 1.10 NONLOCAL STATISTICALGENERALIZATION OF THE WEIBULL THEORY Two cases need to be distinguished: (a) The front of the fracture that causes failure can be at only one place in the structure.3. D . for long cracks or notches with stress singularity. The reason is that the FPZ occupies much of the structure volume. which is calculated as the average of the local strains within the neighborhood of the point constituting the representative volume of the material. which is normally the case.3. with different probabilities.ant and Xi [36] and refined for n ~ 1 by Planas. In both cases. 10 (with aR = 0 ) and Eq. The reason is that. The second formula has the property that the statistical influence asymptotically disappears for small sizes. or if a notch is cut in a test specimen. The first formula. a significant contribution to the Weibull probability integral comes only from the FPZ. whose size does not vary much with D. at many different places.
. 23 may be ignored for concrete. which occurs rarely (e. 1.8 OTHER SIZE EFFECTS 1 . except in the rare situations where the deterministic size effect vanishes. Bhat [38] discussed a possible role of fractality in size effects in sea ice. Carpinteri et al.7 Scaling laws according to nonlocal generalization of Weibull theory for failures after long stable crack growth (top) or a crack initiation (right).ant o 0") a D 0 Z log D h. 8 . 3 .3.60 z Ba~. _ m b log D FIGURE 1. for centric tension of an unreinforced bar).g. [45]. Carpinteri [43.3. and Carpinteri and Chiaia [46] proposed the socalled multifractal scaling law (MFSL) for failures occurring at fracture initiation from a smooth . r ~ . 44]. 1 HYPOTHESIS OF FRACTAL ORIGIN OF SIZE EFFECT The partly fractal nature of crack surfaces and of the distribution of microcracks in concrete has recently been advanced as the physical origin of the size effects observed on concrete structures.
EGf /cfg'(O) A2 . SINGULARITY.2 BOUNDARY LAYER. the fact that the surface layer of heterogeneous material such as concrete has a different composition because the aggregates cannot protrude through the surface). 2. This causes the portion of the FPZ near the surface to behave differently from that in the interior.e. .g. disagreeing with experimental observations.1. 12 for r = 2. 24 has the advantage that.. by virtue of these formulae. (iii) The fractal theory does not predict how A1 and A2 should depend on the geometry of the structure. AND DIFFUSION Aside from the statistical and quasibrittle size effects. Sec. the geometry dependence of the size effect coefficients can be determined. 1. the fracture explanation of Eq. in the effect of size on shrinkage and drying creep. and to the Poisson effect (i. which logically follows from fracture mechanics. There are. the fact that a plane strain state on planes parallel to the surface can exist in the core of the test specimen but not at its surface). The existence of a threedimensional stress singularity at the intersection of crack edge with a surface. 24. A2= constants.3). four objections to the fractal theory [11 ]: (i) A mechanical analysis (of either invasive or lacunar fractals) predicts a different size effect trend than Eq. The timedependent size effects caused by diffusion phenomena such as the transport of heat or the transport of moisture and chemical agents in porous solids (this is manifested. which is due to material heterogeneity (i. (iv) The MFSL is a special case of the second formula in Eq.8. which reads GN = v/A1 q(A2/D) (24) where A1.EGfg"(O)/2cf[g'(O)] 3 (25) [12].3.. 1.3 Size Effect on Structural Strength 61 surface. there are three further types of size effect that influence the nominal strength: 1. due to size dependence of the drying halftime) and its effect on shrinkage cracking [96]. which makes the MFSL not too useful for design application. The boundary layer effect. Unlike fractality.e. which is also caused by the Poisson effect ([BP]. 3.. e. however. (ii) The fractality of the final fracture surface should not matter because typically about 99% of energy is dissipated by microcracks and frictional slips on the sides of this surface. A1 .
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.ant.. for Metals Seminar. 103. Los Angeles. E T. Cold Regions Engrg. 94. H. von Mises. 101. Breakthrough loads of floating ice sheets. eds. RILEM Symp.1. in Size Effect in Concrete Structures. Slepyan. Workshop on Fracture Toughness and Fracture Energy. Tippett. J. Div. Experimental study of size effect in concrete structures. 324. (1988). P. M. Int. Mining Sci. and Z. In Cracking and Damage. L. 91. Size effects in short beams loaded in shear. London: E & FN Spon. Similarity and Dimensional Methods in Mechanics. June). Lund. Rock Mech. M.. Workshop held in Sendai. of JCI Intern. 1. Barcelona). Z.. 92. 104.. 10: 265284. V. P. and Z. 106.. American Society for Metals. Int. Japan. and Maekawa. (1965). (1994). eds. J. (1981). of Tech. La distribution de la plus grande de n valeurs. Y. No. (1925). V. New York. L. London: E & FN Spon. (1993). Nesetova. H. Test Methods of Concrete and Rock. Ba~. Massstabseinfluss bei Schubversuchen im Licht der Bruchmechanik. and Akiyama.in probabilistic approach. Ruggieri. (1936). Okamura. Math. (1981). and Elices. of Intern. Carol. 1993). nonlocal models: Closing the gap. (1990).. (1996). J. Ohio. Mihashi. H. and Lehwalter (1994). J.I. of Mech. Am. 462476.. Conceptual and experimental problems in the determination of the fracture energy of concrete. P. Mazars and Z. Mechanics of composite strengthening. Sedov.. Beton and Stahlbetonbau (Berlin). (1959). J. Metals Park. Soc. Ba~. Fracture from compressive stress concentration around elastic flaws. Petersson. W. 102.ant and I. Freudenthal (1981). and Materials Summer Conf.3 Size Effect on Structural Strength 67 90. Biornetrika 17: 364. 357368. W. 5th Int.. Workshop in Sendai. Ba~. Shioya. Elices. D. Planas. Peirce... eds. Cohesive cracks vs. 1921. (1926).. pp. R. Textile Inst. (1983). On the extreme individuals and the range of samples. in Creep and Shrinkage of Concrete (Proc. (1995). Tverd. (1994).ant. in Size Effect in Concrete Structures (Proc. 93. Rev. Mihashi. Transferability model for brittle fracture including constraint and ductile tearing effects . Report TVBM1006. RILEM Recommendation (1990).. Engrs. Chapter 3. Okamura. Reinhardt. 108. Planas. 203212. Soc. 100.. C. J. 3775. Application to design of size effect in reinforced concrete structures. C. ASCE 9 (1): 420. Size effect method for determining fracture energy and process zone of concrete.. Rosen. and Lajtai. M. J. H. K. and Guinea. H. Sweden. Int. L. and Elices. J. pp. Am. of Civil Engrs. I. Materials and Structures 23: 461465. pp. Planas. R. 409416. London: Elsevier. Lund Inst.. H. Tela 25 (2): 151157. 105. B.. pp. . pp. 98. and Elices. 97. Walraven. ACI Structural Journal 91 (5): 585593. H. Mekh. London: E & FN Spon (Proc. P. H. Soc. Fiber Composite Materials. New York: Academic Press. eds. Fracture 63 (2): 173187. H. and Dodds. Planas. J. Drying shrinkage effects on the modulus of rupture. Japan.. 107. Ba~ant. pp. M.. Union Interbalcanique 1: 1. Proc. 95. 1993). pp. Okamura. 99. P. held at University of California. Modeling of fracture of sheet ice. J. Tohoku Univ. Izvestia AN SSSR. S.E. Fracture 79: 309340. Sendai. 96. of Building Materials. Selected Papers by Alfred M. 109. Crack growth and development of fracture zones in plain concrete and similar materials. New York: Am. (1973). E. Int. G. J. (1989).. Sodhi. 17: 355.. AMDMD '95. Z.
Zech. 4th Int. Walsh. on Mechanical Behavior on Materials. 117. E H. A. and Zaitsev. The relationship between tensile and flexural strength of unidirectional composite. 11. Walsh. 118. Roy. Zurich). E. Size effects: their nature and their recognition in building codes. on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology. in Proc. E H. 114. Wells.. Stockholm. and Wittmann. Mech. Conf. No. ASME. Probabilistic approach to describe the behavior of materials.. Colloquium on Fatigue. (1992). H. Int. Weibull.. R. Wittmann. in Proc. Crack initiation in plain concrete. 18. E H. Proc. J1/11. Handl. W. Fracture of plain concrete. held at ETH. Yu. on Fracture (ICF5). P. T. of the 1973 Symp. Syrup. J. Wittmann. and Wittmann.ant 110. Williams. No. W (1939)..V.) 153. pp. 5th. 1: 210230. vol. (1995). 115. Royal Swedish Institute of Engineering Research (Ingenioersvetenskaps Akad. pp.. J Appl. in Trans. The phenomenon of rupture in solids. on Fracture Mech. W. W (1949). 119. Wisnom. Galileo.. on Crack Propagation. E H. A. 121. Basic aspects of fatigue. Zaitsev. Walraven. Mariotte and others relative to size effect. Indian Concrete Journal 46. Weibull. Cranfield. of Techn. (1957). Kyoto. J. Conf.. Part II. Brussels: European Communities. A. A complex study on the reliability assessment of the containment of a PWR. Jaeger and B. Fracture Mechanics of Concrete Structures (Proc.. 114. eds. 112. . Stockholm: SpringerVerlag. 113. in Proc. Studi e Ricerche (Politecnico di Milano) 16: 113134. E (1976). Composite Materials 26: 11731180. 2nd Int. 122. (1981). Magazine of Concrete Research 28: 3741. A. (1961). ed. (1974). A statistical representation of fatigue failures in solids. 116. of Concrete and Concrete Structures [FraMCoS2]). 155.. Weibull.68 Ba~. Crack propagation and fracture of composite materials such as concrete. M. (1977). Some observations of Leonardo. Proc. Inst. (1956). 515534.. Cannes.. Annals of Science 13: 2329. Boley. Unstable crack propagation in metalscleavage and fast fracture. 27. Freiburg: Aedificatio Publishers. (1995). W. B. A statistical distribution function of wide applicability. P. Conf. Japan. 123. 120. A statistical approach to the study of the mechanical behavior of porous materials under multiaxial state of stress. Weibull. E (1972). (1951). J. 111.
CHAPTER 2 Elasticity and Viscoelasticity .
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Then the classical Hooke's law of elasticity applies. wood and polymers. it is convenient to write these conditions in the constitutive equation. 71 .1 Introduction to Elasticity and Viscoelasticity JEAN LEMAITRE Universit~ Paris 6. ISBN0124433413. 9 Plane stress (033  0"13 . ceramics. concrete. 1 ~k* . LMTCachan.SECTION 2. For many materials like metals. When structural calculations are performed under the approximation of plane stress (thin sheets) or plane strain (thick sheets). A great deal of accuracy is needed in the measurement of the longitudinal and transverse strains (6e ~ +106 in absolute value).0"23 .All rightsof reproductionin any formreserved. in a small range of strains.0)" 1 E v E 0 Igll 1 822 g12 Sym 1 0 l+v E i lll ~22 (3) 0"12 Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. depending on two parameters characteristics of each material: the Young's modulus E and the Poisson's ratio v.2pAijkl(E'v)0"ij0"kl 0~t* l+v E v ~ crkka~j (1) e~j . 94235 Cachan Cedex. It can be derived from a quadratic form of the state potential. 61 avenue du Pr&ident Wilson. Copyright 9 2001by AcademicPress. the hypotheses of isotropy and linearity are good enough for many engineering purposes.p 0a ~ ao (2) E and v are identified from tensile tests either in statics or dynamics. France For all solid materials there is a domain in stress space in which strains are reversible due to small relative movements of atoms.
823 .813 .4.72 9 Plane Lemaitre strain (833 . such as are needed in elastoviscoplasticity.. v. three shear moduli G12. For small variations of temperature 0 for which the elasticity parameters may be considered as constant: sO = l+v v E 0. nine independent parameters are needed: three tension moduli El. G23. the . Thermoelasticity takes into account the stresses and strains induced by thermal expansion with dilatation coefficient ~. and three contraction ratios v12. In the frame of orthotropy: 811 1 v12 E1 1 v13 E1 •23 _ 0. for example. In rate formulations. G31..12  i Sym 2 + 2/~ 2# 01i 111 0 822 (4) 812 vE 2 .(1 + v ) ( 1 . with applications for porous materials in Section 2. E2.2(1 + v) For orthotropic materials having three planes of symmetry./j . v31.2v) with E . E.3 and for elastomers in Section 2. E3 in the orthotropic directions.khcS/j+ a06/j (6) For large variations of temperature.22 0..0)" 0.11 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0"22 E1 822 E2 833  E2 1 0"33 (5) E3 ] 823 2G23 0 1 0 0 0"23 Sym 831 i 2G31 1 2G12 O"31 812 0"12 _ Nonlinear elasticity in large deformations is described in Section 2.~ 0.. v23.2. and a will vary.
"c)AO'Pk/ p=l (10) [J(t)] is the creep functions matrix. J ( t ) = g ( t ) / r and K.z are Lame's coefficients at steady state. '?'ij(t) fo' Jijkl(t. from the . These four coefficients may be identified from creep tests in tension and shear.5."C) ~ dcrkl dr + ~~Jijkl(t. It is a fluidlike model: equilibrium at constant stress does not exist. depending upon the partition of stress or strains in a reversible part and in an irreversible part.1 Introduction to Elasticity and Viscoelasticity 73 derivative of E.5 and recalled here in three dimensions. In fact.2.F0 ~ a v + N 0av 0 (7) Viscoelasticity considers in addition a dissipative phenomenon due to "internal friction.02~'kk)(~ij _Jr_2/2(gij _+_Op~. Quadratric functions for the state potential and the dissipative potential lead to either KelvinVoigt or Maxwell's models. 9 KelvinVoigt model: ffij = i~(~. and rl and r2 are two other time parameters. and small strains allow for simple models. They are described in detail for the onedimensional case in Section 2. the creep function in tension. together with its use by the Laplace transform. isotropy.ij ) (8) Here 2 and/. The hereditary integral is described in detail for the onedimensional case. the second function. [J] and two functions: [R] each reduce to 9 either J(t)." such as between molecules in polymers or between cells in wood. v. is identified from a creep test at constant stress. a more general way to write linear viscoelastic constitutive models is through the functional formulation by the convolution product as any linear system. linearity. Here again. and c~ must be considered. 9 Maxwell model: 9 1 + v (rij + giJ = E ~  E (rkk + r2 / aij (9) Here E and v are Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio at steady state.g e ~ a v + ~0av + b0 E ~v .kl dr. and Ao~l are the eventual stress steps. and 0x and 0~ are two time parameters responsible for viscosity. + p=l RijklAgPkkl (11) When isotropy is considered the matrix. The dual formulation introduces the relaxation functions matrix JR(t)] O'ij(t)  /o t Rijkl(t "C) dC. in Section 2.kk +. ~v = E ev .
and interaction with damage is described in Section 2.6.2 M ) / ( 3 M . a function deduced from M and from a relaxation test in tension R(t) = ~r(t)/~.7.L  D( ekk ) 6~j Dr + 2M  ~ D~3ij dr (13) All of this is for linear behavior. . This leads to Lemaitre ~.R) ~0 .ij   ( J + K)  Dcrij _ K (~ij Dz wz (12) where  stands for the convolution product and D for the distribution derivative. L(t) = M ( R . and L(t). A nonlinear model is described in Section 2.74 creep function in shear. 9 or M(t). taking into account the stress steps. the relaxation function in shear.
. . . . . . . . . is identified and 0 ~ r denotes the b o u n d a r y of ~ r . . . . . . denoted by ~r. .1 Validity . .2 DEFORMATION For a continuous body. . . . . . The body is deformed quasistatically from ~ r SO that it occupies a new configuration. . . . .2. . . . . . . . .2 Background on Nonlinear Elasticity R. Points in ~ r are labeled by their position vectors X relative to some origin.SECTION 2. . . .2. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 BoundaryValue Problems . . . . . . with Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. . . . 2. .4 Elasticity . More details of the theory and its applications can be found in Beatty [1] and Ogden [3]. . . . . 2. . .2 Deformation . . . . . .2. . . . . . 2. References . . . . . . . 75 75 76 77 78 80 81 82 2. . .5 Material Symmetry .2. . . . . . . . .3 Stress and Equilibrium . . . . . . denoted ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UK Contents 2. . . . . . . . 2. . . a reference configuration. . . . . . . . . . such as rubberlike solids and certain soft biological tissues. . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. University of Glasgow. . . . .2. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . which are capable of u n d e r g o i n g large elastic deformations.2. .1 VALIDITY The theory of nonlinear elasticity is applicable to materials. . . . 2. . . W. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ISBN 0o124433413. . . . . . . . .2.6 Constrained Materials . . . . . Glasgow G12 8QW. . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . . . . . OGDEN Department of Mathematics. . . 75 . . . . . . .
respectively.2. and the usual summation convention for repeated indices is used. have coordinates X~ and x~. respectively. The deformation gradient tensor. 2i are the principal stretches. to ~ r and ~ . Greek and Roman indices refer. 3 that J =/~1. v (i) those of V (the Eulerian principal axes). They may be put in the spectral forms 3 3 (3) ui=1  ul. are defined by C = FTF = U 2 B = FF ~ = V 2 (6) 2. where ~. denoted E is given by F = Grad x Fia = OXi/OXo~ (2) Grad being the gradient operator in Nr.3 Let STRESS AND EQUILIBRIUM Pr and p be the mass densities in Nr and N. and  denotes the tensor product.vl. U and V are called the right and left stretch tensors. and Z is required to be onetoone and to satisfy appropriate regularity conditions. It follows from Eq. V are positive definite and symmetric tensors. This is the current or deformed configuration of the body. u (i) the unit eigenvectors of U (the Lagrangian principal axes).~2. The mass conservation equation has the form Pr = pJ (7) . respectively. Local invertibility of Z and its inverse requires that 0 < J = det F < oo wherein the notation J is defined.2. SO that x = z(X) XC~r (1) where x is the position vector of the point X in ~ . i C {1. For simplicity. respectively.I  vl.76 Ogden boundary 0~.~3 9 The right and left CauchyGreen deformation tensors. The deformation is represented by the mapping Z::~r ~ ~ .I where v (i) = Ru (i). The mapping X is called the deformation from ~ r tO ~ . i C { 1. The deformation gradient has the (unique) polar decompositions F = RU = VR (4) where R is a proper orthogonal tensor and U. Respectively.3}. so that xizi(X~). 2. denoted C and B.I v Z i=1 . we consider only Cartesian coordinate systems and let X and x. 3}.
therefore.0 OW OF (I) . In components.2.2. The Lagrangian formulation based on the use of S and Eq. with X as the independent variable. then Nr is called a natural configuration.. 11 is generally referred to as a hyperelastic material and W is called a strainenergy function (or storedenergy function).H(F) . 11 has the form S~i = cgW/cgFi~. which provides the convention for ordering of the indices in the partial derivative with respect to E If W and the stress vanish in N'r. the first part of Eq. the stress in ~ at a (material) point X depends only on the deformation gradient at X. is used henceforth.IOrbi = 0 (10) Balance of the moments of the forces acting on the body yields simply a t = ~. 10.~ oqW (F) ( ~ . so that W(I) . 11. A material whose constitutive law has the form of Eq. .G(F) j1FH(F) (11) where H is a tensorvalued function. and the nominal stress tensor. denoted g. For a given ~r. equivalently S TFT= FS.O (12) where I is the identity and O the zero tensor. respectively. In general. the second equation in Eq. and b denotes the body force per unit mass.2 Background on Nonlinear Elasticity 77 The Cauchy stress tensor. denoted S. 9 is OS~i c3X~ t.4 ELASTICITY The constitutive equation of an elastic material is given in the equivalent forms S . defined on the space of deformation gradients E W is a scalar function of F and the symmetric tensorvalued function G is defined by the latter equation in Eq. are related by S = jFlo The equation of equilibrium may be written in the equivalent forms div ~ + pb = 0 Div S + Prb = 0 (9) (8) where div and Div denote the divergence operators in ~ and ~r.. 2. the form of H depends on the choice of reference configuration and it is referred to as the response function of the material relative to Nr associated with S. In components.
The set of tensors P for which Eq.F'P. W depends on F only through the stretch tensor U and may therefore be defined on the class of positive definite symmetric tensors. Thus. Use of the polar decomposition (Eq. 13 shows that W ( F ) = W(U). This group characterizes the physical symmetry properties of the material.78 Ogden Suppose that a rigidbody deformation x* = Qx + c is superimposed on the deformation x = z(X). For specific P we may have W' . F* say.R ~ in Eq. In general. the combination of these two equations yields W(QUQ 1) = W(U) (17) . is given by F* . called the symmetry group of the material relative to Mr. We write for the (symmetric) X = (SR + RTST)/2. the response of the material relative to ~'r differs from that relative to ~r. Mr and ~tr respectively.Then F .2. OW ou Biot stress tensor. 15 holds forms a multiplicative group. The elastic stored energy is required to be independent of superimposed rigid deformations. where Q and c are constants.Grad X' be the deformation gradient of ~'r relative to Mr. Since the Q's appearing in Eqs. and it follows that W(QF) = W(F) (13) for all rotations Q. and then W ( F ' P ) . and we denote by W and W' the strainenergy functions relative to Mr and ~'r. Now let P . Q being a rotation tensor and c a translation vector. A strainenergy function satisfying this requirement is said to be objective.W(F') (15) for all deformation gradients F'.W.. we have W(FQ) = W(F) (16) for all rotations Q.QF. The resulting deformation gradient. For isotropic elastic materials.5 MATERIAL SYMMETRY Let F and F' be the deformation gradients in M relative to two different reference configurations. which T = (14) is related to S by 2. 4) and the choice Q . for which the symmetry group is the proper orthogonal group. 13 and 16 are independent. where X' is the position vector of a point in M'r..
( C 2 M ) (25) where I1.11112. (26) . For an isotropic elastic material. 12. Equation 17 states that W is an isotropic function of U. . 13. connected by ti = ~ J27~ lcri 02i (24) Let the unit vector M be a preferred direction in the reference configuration of the material. 5) that W depends on U only through the principal stretches 21. and I3. and/3 are defined in Eqs. the principal invariants of B defined by I1  tr(B) .+ 213W3F1 + 2W4M  FM + 2Ws(M  FCM + CM  FM) where Wi = cgW/cgli. 3} are the principal Cauchy stresses and ti the principal Blot stresses.j 2 j 2 j 2 "~1"2"'3 Another consequence of isotropy is that S and ~ have the decompositions 3 3 S ~ i=1 tiu (0  v (i) o ~ i=l o'iv(i)  v (i) (23) where r~i. 5.+ 2W2(Ili .212 + 22 + 2~. It follows from the spectral decomposition (Eq. .2223 + 2321 + 2122 I3 . (20) (21) (22) 2 2 2 2 2 2 12 . M  M).e.. and we may write = aoI + or where a0. Such a material can be characterized by a strain energy which depends on F and the tensor M  M [2.2. 22. we write W(F. The resulting nominal stress tensor is given by S = 2WIF ~.4. i c { 1. R1. 2022. and 23 and is symmetric in these stretches. i. (CM) 15 = M . i = 1 . + 0r B2 (18) and a2 are scalar invariants of B (and hence of V) given by 013 0{1 .tr(B2)] . I2. .213 1/20W c912 (19) and W is now regarded as a function of I1.2 Background on Nonlinear Elasticity 79 for all rotations Q.det B .5] Thus. Or  2i~/2 (~W 213 _1/2(0W ~ 1 +. 14 = M. 2. The required symmetry (transverse isotropy) reduces W to dependence on the five invariants I1. ~ is coaxial with V.C)F ~. . a direction for which the material response is indifferent to arbitrary rotations about the direction and to replacement of M by M. I2.I1~2 OW) 0{2 .
C(F) = detF . must be satisfied for all possible deformation gradients E where C is a scalar function. The nominal stress tensor can be calculated in a similar way to Eq. for which. M ~ (which does not depend on the deformation). Since any constraint is unaffected by a superimposed rigid deformation.~ + 2qM  FM OW (30) respectively. 11 only to within an additive contribution parallel to the normal. the stressdeformation relation in Eq. see Spencer [4.. 25.80 Ogden When there are two families of fibers corresponding to two preferred directions in the reference configuration. the strain energy depends on the invariants 16 .1 C(F) = M(F~FM) . 26.5] for details.6 CONSTRAINED MATERIALS An internal constraint. respectively.~ + qF 1 OW S . Two commonly used constraints are incompressibility and inextensibility. For an incompressible material the Blot and Cauchy stresses are given by TOW c3U. in addition to Eq.M ~" (CM ~) 17 = M t" (C2M I) 18 = M.1 (28) where the unit vector M is the direction of inextensibility in ~r. 2. so that C(QF) = C(F) for all rotations Q. The stress is therefore determined by the constitutive law in Eq. Any stress normal to the hypersurface C(F) = 0 in the (ninedimensional) space of deformation gradients does no work in any (virtual) incremental deformation compatible with the constraint. The term in q is referred to as the constraint stress since it arises from the constraint and is not otherwise derivable from the material properties. then. given in the form C ( F ) = 0 .. C must be an objective scalar function.H(F) + q c3F= oF. For incompressibility and inextensibility we have S .2. M and M ~ say. for a constrained material.pU1 detU1 (31) . (CM ~) (27) and also on M.+ q OF where q is an arbitrary (Lagrange) multiplier. Thus. 11 is replaced by OC OW OC (29) S .
. M and M/. 9). . (35) 2. 31 and 32 yield ow ti = o02i p.pI + 2WIB + 2W2 (11B . and I3 = 1 in the remaining terms in Eq. z may depend . and the deformation gradient (Eq.pI + 2WIB + 2 W 2 ( I 1 B . For an incompressible isotropic material the principal components of Eqs. 4 . 18. N is the unit outward normal to 0~r.0 F .7 BOUNDARYVALUE PROBLEMS The equilibrium equation (second part of Eq. subject to 212223 = 1.'~i ~~..P (33) respectively. and 0 ~ and 0 ~ f are complementary parts of 0 ~ .pI F OW det F . For an incompressible transversely isotropic material with preferred direction M.~?X ow O'i . 1 are combined to give Div . 2) coupled with Eq. the Cauchy stress tensor for an incompressible material is o = . . . 18 is absorbed into p. 8.2W4FM  FM + 2Ws(FM  BFM + BFM  FM) (34) For a material with two preferred directions.~ / + Prb .z(F. 2. 11). . The term in ~0 in Eq. In general.2 Background on Nonlinear Elasticity 81 and o  F~. the stressdeformation relation (Eq.. the dependence on 13 is omitted and the Cauchy stress tensor is given by o = .Grad x x z(X) X C Nr (36) Typical boundary conditions in nonlinear elasticity are x = ~(X) on c9~ S ~ N .2.B 2) +.2. which is called an arbitrary hydrostatic pressure.B2) + 2W4FM  FM + 2Ws(FM Q BFM + BFM  FM) + 2W6FM'  FM' + 2W7(FM'  BFM' + BFM'  FM') + W8(FM  FM' + FM'  FM) where the notation Wi = OW/OIi now applies for i = 1.1 (32) where q has been replaced by p.X) on O~f (37) (38) where r and z are specified functions.
41 forms a system of quasilinear partial differential equations for xi = zi(X~). 38 has the form JPFrN on c9~'~ (39) Equations 3638 constitute the basic boundaryvalue problem in nonlinear elasticity.OFi~OFj~ (41) When coupled with suitable boundary conditions. (FrN) = 0 on m and N. Eq.1 (42) where the coefficients are again given by Eq. the strong ellipticity condition associated with Eq. The form of W chosen will depend on the particular material considered and on mathematical requirements relating to the properties of the equations. 2. (2000). In components. Appl. 41. 9 to give d~j 02xj Op + Prbi _ 0 Ox~Ox~ . Chichester: Wiley. elastomers and biological tissues n with examples. In order to solve a boundaryvalue problem. 40. For an incompressible material. the equilibrium equation in Eq. nonlinear functions of the components of the deformation gradient. Nonlinear Solid Mechanics. 30 into the second part of Eq. Note that Eq. 43. G. REFERENCES 1. . Equations 40 are said to be strongly elliptic if the inequality d~i~jmimjN~N~ > 0 (43) holds for all nonzero vectors m and N. 3}.0 for i c { 1.bi .. Rev. a specific form of W needs to be given. 2.d~j~i . Topics in finite elasticity: Hyperelasticity of rubber. The coefficients ~ffoci~j are. Beatty. E (1987).l~i~j cgX~B+ p.. Mech.Ox~ det(OxiOX~) . 42 again has the form of Eq. Eq.82 Ogden on the deformation through E For a deadload traction "c is independent of E For a hydrostatic pressure boundary condition. but the incompressibility constraint now imposes the restriction m . 43 is independent of any boundary conditions. Holzapfel. A. where the coefficients d~i~j are defined by (40) 02W d~i~j . 36 is written 02xj . an example of which is the strong ellipticity condition. in general. 16991734. M. For incompressible materials the corresponding equations are obtained by substituting the first part of Eq.
Spencer. Spencer. 5. R. J. J. ed. In Continuum Theory of the Mechanics of FibreReinforced Composites. W. M. Nonlinear Elastic Deformations. Deformations of FibreReinforced Materials. Oxford: Oxford University Press. A. Wien: SpringerVerlag. M.2. A. New York: Dover Publications. 132. Spencer. 4. (1997). M. (1984). pp. CISM Courses and Lectures No. J.2 Background on Nonlinear Elasticity 83 3. Ogden.. . 282. A.. Constitutive theory for strongly anisotropic solids. (1972).
. . say. .3. .1 Validity . . . . . . . . since significant hysteresis loops are generally present. . . . . . . . . . .3 Elasticity of Porous Materials N. References . .2 Formulation . . . 2. . . . . 9 from the unloading slopes. . Also. . . . . . . . . . . . . obviously. University of Florida. . . . . . 84 Handbook of Materials BehaviorModels. .1 for schist. . . . . .SECTION 2. . . . . For various stress states these may either open or close. . . . and creep (generally any timedependent phenomena) is exhibited from the smallest applied stresses (see Fig. . .3. . . . . . . Thus information concerning the magnitude of the elastic parameters cannot be obtained: 9 from the initial slope of the stressstrain curves. Florida Contents 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Identification of the Parameters . . . . . . The reason is that such materials possess pores and/or microcracks. ISBN 0124433413. . . . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . . thus influencing the values of the elastic parameters. . CRISTESCU 231 Aerospace Building. . . the stressstrain curves for such materials are strongly loadingratedependent. . . D. . . . . Gainesville. . . . .1 VALIDITY The methods used to determine the elasticity of porous materials a n d / o r particulate materials as geomaterials or powderlike materials are distinct from those used with. . 2. 84 85 85 88 90 2. .3. starting from the smallest applied stresses. . .3. since these are loadingratedependent. . . 2. . . metals. . . showing three uniaxial stressstrain curves for three loading rates and a creep curve [1]). . . . . . . . . . . .4 Examples . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . 9 by the often used "chord" procedure.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. 2. . . . .
. tr( ) 2. since during loading some pores and microcracks may close or open.. D is the strain rate tensor. For isotropic geomaterials the elastic parameters are expected to depend on stress invariants and.3 0.. showing time influence on the entire stressstrain curves and failure (stars mark the failure points).3.3 IDENTIFICATION OF THE PARAMETERS The elastic parameters can be determined experimentally by two procedures." 0.It" / .n.3. 12 days __ . T is the stress tensor.2~ + (1 3~< 20 lll(tr:f)l (1) where G and K are the elastic parameters that are not constant.2 FORMULATION The elasticity of such response" by materials can be expressed as "instantaneous D .. 1.2 r~ [%] 0.1 Uniaxial stressstrain curves for schist for various loading rates. / 0=0. / / . " ~ ' " "" ".. 3 Elasticity of Porous Materials 85 i i i i I 60 [MPa] 50  ot i i E ~I / j / 0.7 2./r" . and 1 is the unit tensor. Besides the elastic properties described by Eq.2 .3. SCmST I I I I .." 11 /i / p ~.6 0 FIGURE 0.'. perhaps...1 ./ ~" .=" / / IV"  . some other mechanical properties can be described by additional terms to be added to Eq.4 0. 1. on some damage parameters.'. thus influencing the elastic parameters.065 ." . 2.= '<  40 / / / f / .002 IV[Pa S "l .5 0. I // 0.49 0. is the trace operator."" ~  /. With the one is determining the travel time of the two dynamic procedure. / 20 / u / // / . 3~f 0 6 I "I .
86 Cristescu elastic (seismic) extended body/longitudinal and transverse waves. 2. one is keeping the stress constant for a certain time period tc [2. then the instantaneous response is of the form of Eq. obtained in a triaxial test with five unloadingreloading cycles. From the slopes (1 1 ) . y t ~ 0 st ~t 9K 6G v/Z__ Transvcrs~ strain ~2 0 Axial Strain E1 FIGURE 2. in triaxial tests performed under constant confining pressure ~r. During this time period the rock is creeping.1 ( 1 1 ) 1 (3) of these unloadingreloading curves one can determine the elastic parameters. one is performing an unloadingreloading cycle (see Fig. The elastic parameters are obtained from Kp Vp~ where vs is the velocity of propagation of the shearing waves. which are traveling in the body.2 Static procedures to determine the elastic parameters from partial unloading processes preceded by shortterm creep. if the time tc is chosen so that the subsequent unloading is performed in a comparatively much shorter time interval. When the strain rates recorded during creep become small enough. 3].2). and p the density.3.3. An example for schist is shown in Figure 2.3. after loading up to a desired stress state 1: (octahedral shearing stress). no significant interference between creep and unloading phenomena will take place. For each geomaterial. 1. If both these waves are recorded. . vv the velocity of the longitudinal waves. Thus. The static procedure takes into account that the constitutive equations for geomaterials are strongly timedependent.3.
it means that the time tc was chosen too short. The same method is used to determine the bulk modulus K in hydrostatic tests when the formula to be used is K = Aa At. etc. and sometimes even less). If a hysteresis loop is still recorded. Afterwards.g. Similar results can be obtained if. K is increasing with ~ and reaching an asymptotic constant value when ~ is increasing very much and all pores and microcracks are closed .001 0 aB=22.001 0.002 ! 0. The reason for performing only a partial unloading is that the specimen is quite "thick" and as such the stress state in the specimen is not really uniaxial. one is keeping the axial strain constant for some time period during which the axial stress is relaxing. instead of keeping the stress constant.) when standard (Karman) threeaxial testing devices are used and the elastic parameters follow from K= 3 Ael + 2Ae2 1 Az C = 2 Ael . This procedure is easy to apply mainly for particulate materials (sand. when the stress rate becomes relatively small.3 Elasticity of Porous Materials 40 o I  87 I'' I i l i [MPal (3' 3 30 2o Io y 0 #i 0. kinematic hardening in the opposite direction. e. During complete unloading.3.. the unloadings follow a period of creep of several minutes. soils.2.5 M P a ! 0. If only a partial unloading is performed (one third or even one quarter of the total stress.Ae2 1 Az (4) where A is the variation of stress and elastic strains during the unloadingreloading cycle. Generally.3 Stressstrain curves obtained in triaxial tests on shale. etc.v (5) with ~ the mean stress and ev the volumetric strain. additional phenomena due to the "thickness" of the specimen will be involved. including.003 I FIGURE 2. the unloading and reloading follow quite closely straight lines that practically coincide. an unloadingreloading is applied to determine of the elastic parameters.
If stress is kept constant and strain is varying by creep.3. in turn. That is why the compressibility/dilatancy boundary plays the role of reference configuration for the values of the elastic parameters.3. For higher values. Thus their variation is related to the variation of irreversible volumetric strain. above this boundary. Thus.4 EXAMPLES As an example. 2. the elastic parameters are increasing. The variation of G and K is very similar to that of the irreversible volumetric ~k.4 Variationof the elastic parameters K and G and of irreversible volumetric strain in monotonic uniaxial tests.3.4 [4]. The variation of the elastic parameters with z is more involved: when z increases but is still under the compressibility/ dilatancy boundary. which. the elastic parameters are decreasing. . whereas if the loading path is in the dilatancy domain (increasing z under constant a). in the compressibility domain volumetric creep produces a closing of pores and microcracks and thus the elastic parameters increase.a. is describing the evolution of the pores and microcracks existing in the geomaterial. (MPa) o" (MPa) l 20 18 (OD (K) 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 m 16 14 12 I0 8 6  2 } 1 4 2 i A "31 2 3 4 5 6 7 $ (MPa) 2 4 6 $ I0 % FIGURE 2. so long as the loading path (increasing a and/or z) is in the compressibility domain.88 Cristescu under this high pressure. for each value of a the maximum values of the elastic parameters are reached on the compressibility/dilatancy boundary. the variation of the elastic moduli G and K with the axial stress O"1 is s h o w n in Figure 2. for rock salt in uniaxial stress tests. the elastic parameters are decreasing. and vice versa in the dilatancy domain. the elastic parameters are increasing.
A=0~2_~ 10 8 4 f 4 2 o 1 2 3 _o. the values of E and G for the five unloadingreloading cycles shown are: E = 9. .7.68 ~.G x 10. For shale. strain e~/. reach their maxima on the compressibility/dilatancy boundary.66 2422 " 20 16 k.59 GPa. and if after each increase the stress in kept constant for two days. while G = 4.88 MPa. 26.3GPa. and then decrease in the dilatancy domain. the limit pressure when all pores are expected to be closed. the variation of K with a is given as [2] / (:o) KoKI 1 .3.0. 29. 12. if a _~ ao with K0 .5 Variation in time of the elastic parameters and of irreversible volumetric strain in uniaxial creep tests.12 A=0.3 Elasticity of Porous Materials 89 ~d ~days 20 18 24 22 (G') (K) ~. K1 . and Kern [5])._ 4 5 6 7 8(MPa) 2 4 6 8 10 12%" FIGURE 2. 24. If stress is increased in steps.3.17 K. 5 ~ 8 A =0. and 8. respectively.3 I I I I o / ] ! ! f r x 104 ~ t ~. 10.~ 10"61 18 14 12 16 14 12 10 A = 0.3. Again.4.5 GPa. these velocities increase in the compressibility domain. if a < a0 (6) Ko. and a0 . as shown in Figure 2.3. Schuhze.48 GPa.1.3. and the conventional (Karman) triaxial tests shown in Figure 2.3.5. 10.344 GPa.9. the elastic parameters are varying during volumetric creep.2. Again.7. a similarity with the variation of e~ is quite evident.27 . For granite. Here A is the ratio of the applied stress and the strength in uniaxial compression ac = 17. and 22.0.4.0 .6 shows for a different kind of rock salt the variation of the elastic velocities ve and vs in true triaxial tests under confining pressure pc = 5MPa (data by Popp. Figure 2.
ch. 10.s FIGURE 2.002. N..Pail e x p ( . U... Wiley. showing that the maxima are at the onset of dilatancy. Permeation and development of dilatancy and permeability in rock salt. D. Hardy. Mecasalt V.. (2000). and Hunsche. Cristescu..369 (9) REFERENCES 1. 2..I kPa.. Permeation and development of dilatancy and permeability in rock salt. Publ. Jr.lg '1 a i 2o lo 9 98 ~ .. D. in N.. . the variation of K with a for 0 < a < 45 MPa is K(r~) ".. The effect of volumetric strain on elastic parameters for rock salt. and Cristescu N. 4. Rock Rheology..4.90 90 . ' . H... and Hardy. 3. T = 30 ~ C). M. For the shale s h o w n in Figure 2. eds. N. D..1 . (2001). Kern..:. (Reprinted with permission from Popp.) The same formula for a l u m i n a p o w d e r is / \ (7) w i t h K c~ = 1 x 10 7 kPa the constant value toward w h i c h the b u l k m o d u l u s tends at high pressures.. Time Effects in Rock Mechanics. a n d Pa . . ..3. in press.d a ) (8) with E ~ = 7 x 105 kPa. Int. eds. Cristescu. Reginald... T.1 0 5 s I... T.. Schultze.5 Mpa.. .. Bucharest. Damage and failure of viscoplastic rocklike materials.32rr . b .~ 4 1 ~ i ~ .. a n d d = 0. Also for a l u m i n a p o w d e r we have E ( a ) := E ~ .. and Kern. O.. 5. (1986). ..s Axial stratn 1%) 1 .. ~ = 10 7.. Popp. and Schultze.3. August 1999. 911.... Trans Tech. fl = 6. Cristescu and H.:. Cristescu.. D. Cristescu. Mechanics of CohesiveFrictional Materials 5 (2): 113124. Plasticity 2 (2): 189204.95 x 105. Proceedings of the 5th Conference on Mechanical Behavior of Salt.. Jr. 30 Cristescu lol 100 ~" 50] / ~" 30. in The Mechanical Behavior of Salt (5th Conference on Mechanical Behavior of Salt).3.~~ I' ~Jn'~"'i~i oca '~ A u. H. Pc . N. 7 8 r 2 + 65. H.0 . 2 x 10 4. R. Kluver Academic Publishing.6 The maximum of Vs takes place at the compressibility/dilatancy boundary (figures and hachured strip)." 0 5 10 15 Pc (MPa) 20 25 30 35 40 o o. Clausthal... (1998). Ani.97 1.. changes of vp and Vs as a function of strain ( ~ . O. J.... (1989).. N. Balkema.
denoted by 21. Glasgow G12 8QW. .4. . 2. . . University of Glasgow. . . 91 91 93 93 94 94 94 2. . . . . 22. . . . . . .2 BACKGROUND Locally.1 Validity . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . .4. . Here the mechanical properties of such solids are described through the use of an isotropic elastic strainenergy function in the context of finite deformations. . . . . . and 23. . OGDEN Department of Mathematics. . For an incompressible material these satisfy the constraint /~1/~2/~3o 1 (1) The material is isotropic relative to an unstressed u n d e f o r m e d (natural) configuration. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . and its elastic properties are characterized in terms of a Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. ISBN 01244334131 Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . . . . . . 2. . References . . . . . .4. . For general background on finite elasticity. . . . . .4 Elastomer Models R. . . . . .4 Identification of Parameters . . . . . . 91 . .5 How to Use It . . . . .6 Table of Parameters . UK Contents 2.4.4. . . . .1 VALIDITY Many rubberlike solids can be treated as isotropic and incompressible elastic materials to a high degree of approximation. . 2. .2 Background . . . . . . . the finite deformation of a material can be described in terms of the three principal stretches. . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SECTION 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . we refer to Ogden [5]. . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Description of the Model . . . . . . . W.4. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .
The equations in Eq.22. with F the axial force on the membrane (note that the pressure contributes to the total load on the ends of the tube). where W depends symmetrically on the stretches subject to Eq.~.. 1) 02* cgW(1 1) . 021022 (1. ~ .~1. Here 21 is the axial stretch and 22 the azimuthal stretch in the membrane.21 0~1 oW cr2.~3) per unit volume. it suffices to set 0"3 = 0 in Eq.211221 c9~Yr 022 __cgW_ _1 oq* F* . i C { 1. we must have !/r 1) . The principal Cauchy stresses associated with this deformation are given by 0"i .2#. 1. in determining the characteristics of lye.2i o. while F* = F/2rrRH. 2 2 ) . 3.4/.0. .92 Ogden strainenergy function W(. By regarding two of the stretches as independent and treating the strain energy as a function of these through the definition W ( 2 1 . we obtain crl cr3 .W(21. 022 (1. and R the corresponding radius of the tube. 2. 3 are unaffected by superposition of an arbitrary hydrostatic stress.~20~T oW (3) For consistency with the classical theory. so that o~ o~ (5) Biaxial experiments in which 21.0 2 1 2 22211 (~'~2 (6) where P* = PR/H.r cgW p.cr3 . H the undeformed membrane thickness.0"2 are measured then provide data for the determination of ~fr Biaxial deformation of a thin sheet where the deformation corresponds effectively to a state of plane stress. 0~ E {1.2} (4) where # is the shear modulus in the natural configuration. 1) . or the combined extension and inflation of a thinwalled (membranelike) tube with closed ends provide suitable tests. P is the inflating pressure.. . and hence those of W. 3} (2) where p is an arbitrary hydrostatic pressure (Lagrange multiplier).211221).0 0 2 * . Thus.2.22 and o1. In the latter case the governing equations are written P* .
4. > 0 for each n In respect of Eq.3 .4. (8) and in practice it is usual to take/.t. which for many practical purposes may be taken as 2 or 3 [3]. Data from the extension and inflation of a tube can be studied on this basis by considering the combination of equations in Eq.& ~ . 4 we must have N Z n=l 1 .~1 ~ .Z n=l #"(21" + 22" + 2~" .2.~") (9) 2.ZlP ~ (12) .~ " ) n=l 0"2 .or2 plotted against /~1 a r e essentially independent of 22 for many rubbers. as described in detail in References [3] or [4]..~ ~/n(~" n=l . s o t h a t N N al a2 Z n=l #n(21" . 23 _< 1. For consistency with Eq. 6 in the form cgW cgW 1 2 . and an are material constants and N is a positive integer.3 .~ fin(/~l" .3 DESCRIPTION A specific model which fits very well the available data on various rubbers is that defined by N W . 10 when 22 differs from 1 is N ~~ #..1) a2 ~ n=l ~. 7.N. Thus the shape may be determined by the pure shear test with 2 2 = 1. . .1) (10) for 21 >_ 1. the equations in Eq.(23 n .3)/~.a2 .4 E l a s t o m e r M o d e l s 93 OF THE MODEL 2..~ ~2..(1 .0. The shift factor to be added to the first equation in Eq.0~.. . 3 become N N O1 .22" ) n=l (11) Information on both the shape and shift obtained from experiments at fixed 22 then suffice to determine the material parameters.4 IDENTIFICATION OF PARAMETERS Biaxial experiments with a3 = 0 indicate that the shapes of the curves of a l .rl .0. (7) where #. .~1/~ .
. G.1 . J.5 HOW T O U S E T H E S T R A I N .0 . A nonGaussian theory for rubber in biaxial strain. D: Appl. I. R. R. H. #2 . Recent advances in the phenomenological theory of rubber elasticity. 59: 361383..9. Elastic deformations of rubberlike solids. R..0.0. Ogden. Polym.2 . and Treloar. #3 .4. 0 .0 . R. W..0 .69. 7 are n o w given in respect of two different but representative vulcanized natural rubbers. 7 0 7 . .0. Appl. REFERENCES 1.941. ]A1   0. the material constants having been obtained by Treloar and Riding [6]: 0~1 . Phys. reference should be m a d e to these papers. R. The properties of rubber in pure homogeneous strain. 3. ~3 = . A. D. (1997).01. (1979). ]A1 . 6.. J. 6 2 .. R.. and can be used in terms of principal stretches and principal stresses in the FE solution of boundaryvalue problems. L. Phys. NonLinear Elastic Deformations. M.94 Ogden 2. 499537. 4.. and Riding. in Mechanics of Solids (Rodney Hill 60th Anniversary Volume) pp. 3 . (1975). eds. W. ~3 = . Hopkins.. and Simpson. Ogden.6 TABLE OF PARAMETERS Values of the parameters corresponding to a threeterm form of Eq. and Sevell. Pergamon Press. Proc. L. G. Characterization of gum vulcanizates. I. ~2 = 2.E N E R G Y FUNCTION The strainenergy function is incorporated in m a n y commercial Finite E l e m e n t (FE) software packages. 5. 2. G. Strain energy functions of rubber.0. J. Technol. Soc. Jones. (1975).. A. W. G. Rubber Chem. G. (1986). M. 2. Ogden. #3 . 0 0 2 9 N m m 2 For detailed descriptions of the rubbers concerned. 19: 20332058. ~2 = 4. The first is the material used by Jones and Treloar [2]: (Z1 . such as ABAQUS and MARC. 8: 12851304. #2 . 0 1 2 2 N m m 2 The second is the material used by James et al.2 . Treloar. Mechanical properties.. Dover Publications. James. A369: 261280. G.093. [1]. Lond.4. Sci. Green. (1982). E.
d e p e n d e n t properties even at r o o m temperature. .5 Hereditary Integral . .2 MECHANICAL MODELS Spring and dashpot elements as s h o w n in Figure 2. . . .1 are used to represent elastic and viscous deformation. 106 2. . . . 95 2. . 104 References . 95 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chiyodaku.5. .5. .5.5. 2. . . . . . . . This paper offers an outline of the linear theory of viscoelasticity. . . . . . . . . . . . 102 2. .5. . . . . . . .ISBN 0124433413. . 95 2.1 VALIDITY F u n d a m e n t a l deformation of materials is classified into three types: elastic. . . . .7 Correspondence Principle . .d e p e n d e n t at high temperature.5 Background on Viscoelasticity Kozo IKEGAMI Tokyo Denki University. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The theory of viscoelasticity can be applied to represent elastic and viscous deformations exhibiting timed e p e n d e n t properties. . . . . .2 Mechanical Models . . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . . . .5. within the framework of the Handbookof MaterialsBehaviorModels. . respectively. . . .5. Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. Deformation of metallic materials is also t i m e . . . . . .4 Dynamic Viscoelastic Deformation . . 103 2. . . .SECTION 2. . Japan Contents 2. . . . Polymetric material shows t i m e . . . . . . KandaNishikicho 22. . . .3 Static Viscoelastic Deformation . . 98 2. .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 2. . . . . . . .6 Viscoelastic Constitutive Equation by the Laplace Transformation . . . . . . . plastic. and viscous deformations. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Validity . . Tokyo 1018457. . . .5. . . .5. . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 is as follows: r/d~ de (2) This is called the Maxwell model. Linear viscoelastic deformation is represented by the constitutive equations combining spring and dashpot elements. The constitutive equations between stress a and stress e of the spring and dashpot are.96 O" Ikegami k 1 a a (a) Spring element (b) Dashpot element FIGURE2.3 is as follows: de cr .ke + t / ~ This is called the Voigt or Kelvin model. Stress of spring elements is linearly related with strain. (3) . The constitutive equation of the parallel model of spring and dashpot elements shown in Figure 2. the constitutive equations of the series model of spring and dashpot elements shown in Figure 2.5. as follows: o" .r/~~ (1) where the notations k and r/are elastic and viscous constants. respectively. linear theory of viscoelasticity. and the constitutive relation is timedependent. respectively.ke de o" .1 Mechanicalmodel of viscoelasticity.5. Stress of dashpot elements is related with strain differentiated by time t. For example.
Their constitutive equations are generally represented by the following ordinary differential equation: dr d2 cr dn cr poor + Pl ~ q. dt" The coefficients p and q of Eq. I FIGURE2. + q. ..~ + ..5 Backgroundon Viscoelasticity 97 k C. 4 give the characteristic properties of linear viscoelastic deformation and take different values according to the number of spring and dashpot elements of the viscoelastic mechanical model. .~ + .2 Maxwellmodel.5.P2 . . . There are many variations of constitutive equations giving linear viscoelastic deformation by using different numbers of spring and dashpot elements. if. dt n & d2~ d"~ (4) = qo~ + q l .2.P.~ + q 2 . .
This is obtained by solving Eqs. the creep compliance is ~kI1exp(~)1k[1exp (.+ + 1 ) (5) where zM = JT/k. and this is denoted as retardation time.4 and 2. and this is denoted as relaxation time.5. 2. respectively. For the Voigt model.3 STATIC VISCOELASTIC DEFORMATION There are two functions representing static viscoelastic deformation. For the Maxwell model and the Voigt model.5.5. their creep compliances are represented. and another is the relaxation modulus.98 Ikegami t E k FIGURE 2. For the Maxwell model.~) (6) where ZK q/k. Creep strain of the Maxwell model . the creep compliance is g.5. one is creep compliance. by the following expressions. respectively. Creep deformations of the Maxwell and Voigt models are illustrated in Figures 2. Creep compliance is defined by strain variations under constant unit stress.3 Voigt (Kelvin) model.5. 2 or 3 for step input of unit stress.
5 Background on Viscoelasticity 99 1/k 0 FIGURE 2.2.5 t Creep compliance of the Voigt model.5.5. . 0 1/k 0 FIGURE 2.4 t Creep compliance of the Maxwell model.
5.4 DYNAMIC VISCOELASTIC DEFORMATION The characteristic properties of dynamic viscoelastic deformation are represented by the dynamic response for cyclically changing stress or strain. their relaxation moduli are represented by the following expressions. 2 or 3 for step input of unit strain. Applied stress is relaxed by Maxwell model.5. For the Maxwell model. o ~ k /8/ Relaxation behaviors of the Maxwell and Voigt models are illustrated in Figures 2.5.7.5. 2. .6 t Relaxation modulus of the Maxwell model. respectively. For the Maxwell and Voigt models. but stress relaxation dose not appear in Voigt model. The relaxation modulus is defined by stress variations under constant unit strain.6 and 2. The Voigt model exhibits saturated creep strain for a long time. This is obtained by solving Eqs. respectively. p I k 0 FIGURE 2. ) For the Voigt model.100 Ikegami increases linearly with respect to time duration.
Substituting changing complex stress ~ . J* . complex compliance J . of the Maxwell model is obtained by calculating changing strain for cyclically changing stress with unit amplitude. is obtained as follows: .iJ" i (9) where the real part J ' = 1 / k is denoted as storage compliance.exp(icot).ikcOl:M J' .k 1 . The dynamic viscoelastic responses are represented by a complex function due to the phase difference between input and output. respectively.7 t Relaxation modulus of the Voigt model. into Eq. The complex modulus Y. of the Maxwell model is similarly obtained by calculating the complex changing stress for the complex changing strain .5. i cot/ 1 i . Complex compliance J. Viscoelastic responses for changing stress or strain are defined by complex compliance or modulus.5 Background on Viscoelasticity 101 I 0 0 FIGURE 2. and the imaginary part J" = 1/kco'cM is denoted as loss compliance. 2. The viscoelastic effect causes delayed phase phenomena between input and output responses. k . where i is an imaginary unit and co is the frequency of changing stress.2.
k + ] (13) iCOZK = Y~ + iY" where Y ' .. the complex compliance and the modulus of the Voigt model are able to be obtained.tToJ(t) + ~0tJ ( t  t' ) .k 1 + (COZK) and 2 The complex modulus is Y . In Figure 2..8.5. The complex compliance is J* .y1 1 (_DT M (11) This is called mechanical loss. respectively.kcozi....' 1 I J" 11 1[ .. The method of calculating strain for stress history is explained by using creep compliance as illustrated in Figure 2.i ~ 1 + (COZK) 2 2 I xE ] .5. 2.:.k 1[ 1 + (COZK) .. An arbitrary stress history is divided into incremental constant stress history dcr~ Strain variation induced by each incremental stress history is obtained by creep compliance with the constant stress values.k and Y " .5. The phase difference ~ between input strain and output stress is given by Y" tan6 .~ dt' dtTl (14) .exp(icot) as follows: + ik .102 e . Similarly.5 HEREDITARY INTEGRAL The hereditary integral offers a method of calculating strain or stress variation for arbitrary input of stress or strain.Y' ttY" Ikegami 1 + (cozu) 2 1 + (cozu) 2 (10) where Y'k((cozM)2/(1 + (cozu)2))and Y " . ..(t) .k ( c o z u / ( 1 + (cozu)2)).k 1 + (coz/()2 (12) where.8 the strain induced by stress history for t~< t is represented by the following integral: e. The notations Y~ and Y" are denoted as dynamic modulus and dynamic loss.
5. 16 gives the following equation: t') ~(t) .8 This equation is transformed by partially integrating as follows: e(t) . That is.t't') dt' d ( t . FIGURE 2.~ k=O m dke. 14 to 17 are called hereditary integrals.5. 4.t') dt' Integrals in Eqs.g(t)Y(O) Jrfoot ~(t' ) ddY((t t. dktr Pk ~ . (17) 2.5 Background on Viscoelasticity 103 or(t) / o"0 d cr ' 0 t' t'+dt' Hereditary integral.t' ) d7 dt' (15) fO (16) Partial integration of Eq.Y(t . stress variation for arbitrary strain history becomes t d~ o'(t) .g0Y(t) Jr.6 VISCOELASTIC CONSTITUTIVE E Q U A T I O N BY T H E L A P L A C E TRANSFORMATION The constitutive equation of viscoelastic deformation is the ordinary differential equation as given by Eq.~~ Similarly.2. qk dt k (18) k=O .~r(t)J(O) +fo t ~(t' ) dJ(t.
k=0 k=0 (20) where 5 and ~ are transformed stress and strain.ii m dk dk (231 where P " . This can apply to threedimensional viscoelastic deformation.5. and between deviatoric stress and strain. The relation between hydrostatic pressure and dilatation is represented by m k=0 d % k ! n k=0 " dhe// (22) ptt(Tii .2 Pk sk and Q . k=0 k=0 Comparing Eq. . viscoelastic deformation in the onedimensional state was able to be represented by elastic deformation through the Laplace transformation. 21 with Hooke's law in one dimension.~~ qkskF.~ and Q " = k=0 q~ ~i.~ qkS k. PaQe Ikegami (19) where P  /=o dk pkd~ and Q  m dk ~ qk 9 k=0 dtk Equation (18) is represented by the Laplace transformation as follows. This fact implies that linear viscoelastic deformation is transformed into elastic deformation in the Laplace transformed state.In Eq. the coefficient ~//5 corresponds to Young's modulus of linear elastic deformation.k=0p ~ . and s is the variable of the Laplace transformation. The constitutive relations of linear viscoelastic deformation are divided into the relations between hydrostatic pressure and dilatation.104 This equation is written by using differential operators P and Q. 2.7 CORRESPONDENCE PRINCIPLE In the previous section.Qtt c. 22 hydrostatic pressure is ~ ~ ~. Equation 20 is written by using the Laplace transformed operators of time derivatives 15 and Q as follows: Q_ cr = =~ P _ (21) n m where 15 . ~_~ pksk~ . (1/3) crii and dilatation is eii.
For isotropic elastic deformation. 19.p! (31) where K and G are volumetric coefficient and shear modulus. respectively.f'"(s) and Q ! ! .5 m dk ~ (25) where P '  ~ p!~ ~ k0 and Q '  dk )_2 q~kd~" In Eq. volumetric coefficient K and shear modulus G are connected with Young's modulus E and Poisson's ratio v as follows: G2(1+v) (32) E K . 20. and P (Yij .Q' . where P " ..3(1 .ryii . 18 with Eq. and Eq.QEij I !  (26) lI (27) where 1B. as follows: /3.1B!(s) and Q ! .3K~ii cr/j . 24 deviatoric stress and strain k=0 ! are rrij and r ~ respectively.Q"cr(s).Q"~/. respectively. 17 with Eq. U k=0 qk (24) .2.5 Background on Viscoelasticity 105 The relation between deviatoric stress and strain is represented by m ! dkrriJ s ! ~'2Pk dt k k=o _1" dk~!. The linear elastic constitutive relations between hydrostatic pressure and dilatation and between deviatoric stress and strain are represented as follows: r r i i .2G~/j ! ! (28) (29) Comparing Eq.. 22 and 24 are written.2v) (33) .Q'(s). The Laplace transformations of Eqs. the transformed viscoelastic operators correspond to elastic constants as follows: @ 3K _ p!! (30) 2G = .
(1960). 3435 by using the correspondence principle. This is called the correspondence principle between linear viscoelastic deformation and linear elastic deformation. Fll~ge. 3033. D. _ p. Q. Deformation. 5. M. The linear viscoelastic problem is the transformed linear elastic problem in the Laplace transformed state. John Wiley & Sons. REFERENCES 1. 4. Bland. . D. Blaisdell Publishing Company. Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers.. Christensen. (1960). Pergamon Press. (1960). Theory of Viscoelasticity: An Introduction. W. (34) v  + (35) Linear viscoelastic deformation corresponds to linear elastic deformation through Eqs. Lewis & Co. (1998). D. R. 3. Reiner. K. the linear viscoelastic problem is able to be solved as a linear elastic problem in the Laplace transformed state. J. Ferry. (1967). Young's modulus E and Poisson's ratio are connected with the Laplace transformed coefficient of linear viscoelastic deformation as follows: 3QtQ II E 2/St~tl + / 5 I ~ p. 6. 3435. (1971). and then the elastic constants of solved solutions are replaced with the Laplace transformed operator of Eqs. Academic Press. A. Therefore.106 lkegami Using Eqs. M. Mechanics of Viscoelastic Solids. Viscoelasticity. John Wiley & Sons. Q. Drozdov. 3031 and Eqs. H. Strain and Flow. 2.. The solutions replaced the elastic constants become the solution of the linear viscoelastic problem by inversing the Laplace transformation. Theory of Linear Viscoelasticity. 3031 and Eqs. R.
. . .6. . . . . . .2 Background of the DNLR . 54500 Vandoeuvrel~sNancy. Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. .5 How to Use It . . .6. . ENSEM INPL 2. . 107 . . . . .3 Constitutive Equations of the DNLR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Identification of the Parameters . . . . . . . . .2. . avenue de la For~tdeHaye. . . . . . . . . France Contents 2. . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . .SECTION 2.6. . UMR CNRS 7563. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . .2 Kinetics and Complementary Laws . . . 107 108 108 110 112 113 113 115 115 116 2. . . ISBN 0124433413. References . . . 2. . . . a n d leads to a f o r m u l a t i o n of c o n s t i t u t i v e laws i n v o l v i n g c o n t r o l a n d i n t e r n a l t h e r m o d y n a m i c variables.1 VALIDITY We will f o r m u l a t e a viscoelastic m o d e l i n g for p o l y m e r s in the t e m p e r a t u r e r a n g e of glass transition.2. 2. . .6. . .6. . .6. 2. . 2.6. T h e latter m u s t t r a d u c e Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 A Nonlinear Viscoelastic Model Based on Fluctuating Modes RACHID RAHOUADJ AND CHRISTIAN CUNAT LEMTA. This physical m o d e l i n g m a y be a p p l i e d u s i n g integral or differential forms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..3 Description of the Model in the Case of Mechanical Solicitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Validity . . . 2. . . . .6 Table of Parameters . . . .. . . .1 Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes and Constitutive Laws. Its f u n d a m e n t a l basis c o m e s from a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of the Gibbs relation. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . .6.2.
1 THERMODYNAMICSOF IRREVERSIBLE PROCESSES AND CONSTITUTIVE LAWS As mentioned. we will now consider the behavior of a uniform representative volume element (RVE without any . In practice. or ratetype variables.. n.e. and the gradient of generalized chemical potential V/~h. fluxes. V ~ . V ~ h + k=l n. such as the gradient of temperature ~TT.6. . To clarify the present modeling. or affinities as defined by De Donder [2] for chemical reactions. i.. and ~ correspond to the dual. At first.. including the specific entropy. with the positivity of the entropy production being always respected.2 B A C K G R O U N D OF THE DNLR 2. which characterize the nonequilibrium state of a uniform medium. a set of internal variables (generalized vector denoted z) is introduced to describe the microstructural state. the internal energy potential: e = e(s. ~. Such a general formulation also permits us to consider various nonlinearities as functions of material specificities and applied perturbations. both modal analysis and fluctuation theory are well adapted to the study of the irreversible transformations. we will focus our attention upon the nonlinearities induced by temperature and frequency perturbations. s. The vectors js. The generalized Gibbs relation combines the two laws of thermodynamics into a single one. Note that Coleman and Gurtin [1]. we will consider the viscoelastic behavior in the simple case of small applied perturbations near the thermodynamic equilibrium.~~jk . jh..2.108 Rahouadj and Cunat different microstructural rearrangements. To simplify the formulation of the constitutive laws. one obtains for open systems: 7a7 dAis T~  _js .~ > 0 (2) where the nonequilibrium thermodynamic forces may be separated into two groups: (i) the gradient ones. 2.~) (1) which depends on overall state variables. In addition. have also applied this postulate in the framework of rational thermodynamics. called "the distribution of nonlinear relaxations" (DNLR). and (ii) The generalized forces A.6. Furthermore. the present irreversible thermodynamics is based on a generalization of the fundamental Gibbs equation to systems evolving outside equilibrium.
9 .g. 1 with respect to the control or state variable (7).~: A .c92g.c32g. this description is consistent with the principle of equipresence. even for systems outside equilibrium: g.tb. The symmetrical matrix a u . and the symmetrical matrix g .A(7. In fact. z).g. The rectangular matrix b. fl . .. as postulated in rational thermodynamics. 9 + b. the thermodynamic potential becomes in a differential form: q m=l j=l Thus the time evolution of the global response. obeys a nonlinear differential equation involving both the applied perturbation 7 and the internal variable z (generalized vector)" /} .e..t b .fl(7. z) and A .6 A Nonlinear Viscoelastic Model Based on Fluctuating Modes 109 gradient).s (7a) (7b) This differential system resumes in a general and condensed form the announced constitutive relationships.. i.e. we assume that the constitutive equations may be obtained as functions of the first partial derivatives of this potential with respect to the dual variables.2. A ./&c3z traduces the interaction between the dissipation processes [3]. only as a function of 7 and z. and depend consequently on both control and internal variables.0 and A . ~ (8) . 7b we find.~ > 0 (3) The equilibrium or relaxed state (denoted by the index r) is currently described by a suitable thermodynamic potential ( ~ ) obtained via the Legendre transformation of Eq.In this particular state.c92g.aU. for any equilibrium state.0. z) (5) Then. From Eq. the equilibrium state classically imposes the thermodynamic forces and their rate to be zero. fl. thus: ~ A. i. the set of internal variables is completely governed by (7): Our first hypothesis [3] states that it is always possible to define a thermodynamic potential g. that the internal variables' evolution results directly from the variation of the control variables: :~r _ _g1 ./cqzc97 expresses the coupling effect between the state variables and the dissipation variables. In other respects. Therefore./c97c37 is the matrix of Tisza.(~.
12 but with variable relaxation times. and Mazur.110 Rahouadj and Cunat According to Eqs.2.2 KINETICS AND COMPLEMENTARY LAWS (10) To solve the preceding three equations (7ab. 10: = L.Zr) (12) (11) According to this nonlinear kinetics. 7b and 8. v.1 FirstOrder Nonlinear Kinetics and Relaxation Times We know that the kinetic relations are not submitted to the same thermodynamic constraints as the constitutive ones. z. Note that this wellknown modeling. ( z . and to the probability pj = exp(AF~'r/RT) of overcoming a free energy barrier. Meixner.1Iv exp(AF~'r/RT) (13) where the symbol (+) denotes the activated state. It follows that the relaxation time of the process j may be written: z~ . Thus we shall consider for simplicity an affine relation between fluxes and forces.2.6. de Donder. To extend this kinetic modeling to nonequilibrium transformations. we also suggest referring to Eq.(zz r) = T 1 .g . the relaxation spectrum will be explicitly defined on this normal base. with the unknown variables being fl. we consider this base. each relaxation time is inversely proportional to the jump frequency.A and hence. .g. Meixner [4] has judiciously suggested a base change in which the relaxation time operator z is diagonal. which is the object of the nonlinear Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes (TIP). Indeed. 10). and the index (r) refers to the activation barrier of the Representative Elementary Volume (REV) near the equilibrium. one has to get further information about the kinetic relations between the nonequilibrium driving forces A and their fluxes ~.z r) where g is assumed to be constant. ( ~ .2. 2.g ( z . Here.~') (9) and its time integration for transformation near equilibrium leads to the simple linear relationship A = . is only valid in the vicinity of equilibrium: ~L. z r. the evolution of the generalized force becomes A = . AF+'r.6. De Groot. early established by Onsager. 2. with Eq. Casimir. In what follows. which also represents a normal base for the dissipation modes. and A.
Landel. It seems natural to assume that the frequency of the microscopic rearrangements is mainly governed by the applied perturbation rate. In fact. which accounts for the effect of temperature. this variation of the free energy becomes negligible. these fluctuations obey the equipartition of the entropy production. Boltzmann. which considers elementary movements of translation at the atomic level. and r represent the constants of Plank. the relaxation times can be generally expressed as Tj(T) = T. The parameters h. ( Z . Zr) becomes negligible in viscoelasticity. and Ferry [5]: ln(a. z r) (18) (19) and the shift function a(z.2.2. and T is the absolute temperature. this applied solicitation.2.AE +'r . has been estimated from Guggenheim's theory. ~). noted a(T).) = C l ( T . The temperature dependence obviously intervenes into the basic definition of the activation energy as AF/'r . we can deduce the expected distribution in .(Tref)a(T . through a shift function a(~): v = uo/a('~) (14) Assuming now that the variation of the activation energy for each process is governed by the evolution of the overall set of internal variables leads us to the following approximation of first order: AF+  AF/'r + K z .Tref)/[c2 + ( T .2 Form of the Relaxation Spectrum near the Equilibrium We now examine the distribution of the relaxation modes evolving during the solicitation. According to Prigogine [6]. induces a state of fluctuations which may be approximately compared to the corresponding equilibrium one. For many polymers near the glass transition.Tref)] In summary. Tref) . It follows that we may define another important shift function. this last shift function obeys the WLF empiric law developed by William. ks.6. Therefore. 2. Tref) a(~) a(z.6 A Nonlinear Viscoelastic Model Based on Fluctuating Modes 111 The reference jump frequency. respectively. v0 = kBT/h. According to the Arrhenius approximation.AE+'r(1/T 1/Tref) (17) where T r e f is a reference temperature.) a(T. AE +'r being quasiconstant.T AS/'r (16) where the internal energy AE +'r is supposed to be the same for all processes. and of the perfect gas.z r) (15) In the particular case of a viscoelastic behavior.. 7. this shift function verifies the following relation: In(a.
whatever the chosen kinetics. In a similar form and after introducing each process contribution in the base defined above. .~ (]~ /t~). the main problem encountered in the numerical integration consists in using a time step that must be consistent with the applied frequency and the shortest time of relaxation. 2. i. Now we shall examine the dynamic response due to sinusoidally varying perturbations 7n = 7~ where co is the applied frequency. one has p1 j1 Tj where the indices u and r denote the instantaneous and the relaxed values. and the relaxation times. z~ will be denoted z.icoT. 30.112 the vicinity of equilibrium as and j=l Rahouadj and Cunat B1/)jl/z[ / .1 . Note that a regular numerical discretization of the relaxation time scale using a sufficiently high number n of dissipation modes. l:j. As a first approximation. Evidently.. In fact. pO its relative weight in the overall spectrum.~ b. e.. Furthermore.e.3 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS OF THE D N L R Combining Eqs. 7a and 12 gives. . and n the number of dissipation processes [3]. ) .' " j = l V " (20) where z. and the spectrum width. may be dependent on temperature and/or frequency. the continuous spectrum defined by Eq.g. respectively. a convenient possibility for very small perturbations is to assume that the corresponding response is periodic and out of phase: fin ..6. ]~aU. such relations are representative of various physical properties as shown by Kramers [7] and Kronig [8]. gives a sufficient accuracy.(z zr).2. a" and a r. is the relaxation time of the process j.z~ 1 a u . 20 may be described with only two parameters: the longest relaxation time corresponding to the fundamental mode. In uniaxial . The response is obtained by integrating the above differential relationship.flOexp(icot + ~) and fin  icofln (22) where ~0is the phase angle. z~ 1 _ _ _ _ _ (21a) To simplify the notation. The coefficients of the matrices of Tisza. and i 2 = .
s" . 8r) a(T.~ ~ O'j 12 . A detailed analysis of the literature has brought us to a narrow comparison of the empirical model of Havriliak and .6. for a pure shear stress this becomes n 6612 . the complex modulus is given by j1 1 + icozo (25) It follows that its real and imaginary components are. rrer)zj(rref) (23) As an example.o u + ~. er) a(r. to avoid this difficulty one has recourse to the appropriate principle of equivalence between temperature and frequency. these Tisza's coefficients correspond to the storage and loss modulus E t (or G t) and E" (or G').6.(D2(TG)2 (27) 2. the stress rate response.= a(~) a(e. may be finally written ~j=l d ~ .o ~) ~ po 1 j=l 1 t. respectively.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL IN THE SOLICITATIONS CASE OF MECHANICAL We consider a mechanical solicitation under an imposed strain e. 66. respectively.12 .j=l a@) a(8. Generally.4 IDENTIFICATION OF THE PARAMETERS The crucial problem in vibration experiments concerns the accurate determination of the viscoelastic parameters over a broad range of frequency. ~_ ~Jp~ a~'~ . According to Eqs. the perturbation 7 and the response fl are respectively denoted e and a. 19 and 21b. o ' ( ~ ) . 2. assuming implicitly identical microstructural states.2.POGr 812 p0GU~.6 A Nonlinear Viscoelastic Model Based on Fluctuating Modes 113 tests of mechanical damping.co2(z'~) 2 (26) j=l 1 4. Tref)'cG(Tref) (24) In the case of sinusoidally varying deformation. Here.
respectively.tani (1 c~~tSN ~ ) / 2 sin(~ ~ + CO~ COS(0r / 2).0 (32) where  A. Gt _ r _ G~N) G~_tNJr(GHN COS(riO) [1 + 2CO"V~tNCOS(0OZ/2)+ (D2a152~ (29) Gt' __ (GHN _ _ GHN) u r sin(riO) [1 + 2CO~r~tNCOS(0CTr/2)+ (D2~'~2~]/J/2 (30) The function 0 is defined by 0 .a(co)r~ ~ .] I:~iN (31) Eqs.cos(riO)[1 + 2co~rhNCOS(0CTr/2)+ co2~z2~1/3/2 (353 . For pure shear stress the response given by this HN approach is 1 G* . The HN approach appears to be successful for a wide variety of polymers.114 Rahouadj and Cunat Negami (HN) [9] with the DNLR. ~. and /3 are empirical parameters.a(~)r~ r . and n are a scale parameter.G~N)[1 + (ic0"CHN)e]// (28) where G~IN. Thus the real and imaginary components are.(tan(/30)~v~r \ (D'~HN . A precise empirical connection is obtained by identifying the shift function for the time scale with the relation v ~ . 28 to 30 are respectively compared to Eqs. it combines the advantages of the previous modeling of Cole and Cole [10] and of Davidson and Cole [11]. G~IN.1og('rHN) qjA/n }. respectively. the number of decades of the spectrum. and the number of processes.] (33) This involves a progressive evolution of the difference of modulus as a function of the applied frequency: (G r G u)  (OhN  GhN)f G (34) The function f6 is given by (1 + tan2(/30)) fo . 25 to 27 in order to establish a correspondence between the relaxation times of the two models: log('cOr) .G~N + (G~tN .
.6.10l i08 I0~ 107 lift 106 0 FIGURE 2. . .6.. . m(nz) I I I 1 t I 102 10 20 Theoretical simulation of the moduli for PTMG (J).6 A Nonlinear Viscoelastic Model Based on Fluctuating Modes 115 2. .. . . . ~ .2. .. . . [12]. . . 2. . . .. to account for a large variety of loading histories. . and glass transition Tg = 40~ .1. 3propanediol with a density of 1. . . . . The master curve is plotted at 298 K in Figure 2. DMPD: 2. . . . . . .. . 0 10 20 FIGURE 2.2dimethyl1.6 TABLE OF PARAMETERS As a typical example given by Hartmann et al.5 HOW TO USE IT In practice..1 10 ' " . . . . . . . . .2 Theoretical simulations of the shift function a(co) and offo for PTMG.  j .4'diphenylmethane diisocyanate. we consider the case of a polymer whose chemical composition is 1PTMG2000/3MIDI/2DMPD*. $ Log 03(Hz) 40 .. . . . .6.6.. . . .* * PTMG: poly (tetramethylene ether) glycol.* . .074g/cm 3. . . ... . ... MIDI: 4. . .6. knowledge of the only empirical parameters of HN's modeling (and/or Cole and Cole's and Davidson and Cole's) permits us. .. .. 'i ~ .. .. . The spectrum is discretized 109 . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . in the framework of the DNLR.
(1927).. (1926). ~I~N 1. Therm. R. Congr. and Lee.6. REFERENCES 1.. E. Phys. Hartmann.2. J. S. Part C. 8. Cole. and Gurtin. Gcn. R. H.1859 MPa. 14. Prigogine. Introduction h la thermodynamique des processus irr~versibles. Figure 2. 504. Kronig. J. The temperature dependence of relaxation mechanisms in amorphous polymers and other glassforming liquids. and Cole. Z. Phys. William. . 2. Paris: Dunod. 6 . 47 (2): 597. Lee. R. Havriliak. (1966). Kramers. ed. (1968). Polym. B. M. Meixner. S. De Donder. Como. 4a. 3. J. Atti. D. Paris: GauthiersVillars. dei Fisici. J. Chem. A. Lecon de thermodynamique et de chimie physique. which is superposed to HN's one. taking into account the experimental conditions. B. and 50 relaxation times. Davidson.2). 11.649 • 10 .5 . E Boyer. Landel. Chem.. Soc. (1950). and Ferry. No. M. Amer. 12. 12: 547. H.. 95 (1). Acoust.. D.0363 allow us to calculate the shift function a(co) and the function fo which is necessary to estimate the difference between the relaxed and nonrelaxed modulus. J.0. L. 2. 35: 680685. (1967). Coleman. 99. (1920). 7. (1994). 545. Cunat. Vol. Opt. 18: 1417. and Negami.116 Rahouadj and Cunat with A = 6. W. and Cole. (1941). Amer. D. K. (1996). c z . p. a scale parameter  equal to . R.0. G. E.Gu . D.5709 and f l . Chem. 9: 341. H. Naturforsch. I.. 5. J. Soc.. R. J. J.7 s . T. 10. Phys. S. (1949). Chem. The parameters G~N . The function fo and the shift function a(co) illustrate the nonlinearities introduced in the DNLR modeling (Fig. Amer.1 illustrates the calculated viscoelastic response. 9. G~N . J. 77: 3701. 4.6. Soc. C. Sci. 6. Rev. J.. (1955).14 MPa.
. . . . . .7. . .7. 2. . . . . . . . . . . . Included are threedimensional constitutive equations and equations of evolution for damage parameters (internal state variables. . the specific model covered here is that for a linearly viscoelastic. . . . . . . 117 . . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . . . . . . . . . . .SECTION 2. . . . . .1 VALIDITY This paper describes a homogenized constitutive model for viscoelastic materials with constant or growing distributed damage. . . . . .7. ISBN 0124433413. . Anisotropy may exist without damage or may develop as a result of damage. . . ISVs) which are measures of damage. . . . For timeindependent damage.7. . 2. . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . 117 118 119 121 123 123 2. . . . . . . .5 How to Use the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nonlinear effects of transient crack face contact and friction are excluded. . . The University of Texas. .4 Identification of the Material Functions and Parameters . . . A. . . Texas Contents 2. . . . . . . . . . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . thermorheologically simple material in which all hereditary effects are expressed through a convolution integral with one creep or relaxation function of reduced time. . . . . . . More general cases that account for intrinsic nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic effects as well as thermorheologically complex behavior and multiple relaxation functions are published elsewhere [ 10]. . . . . Austin. . .7. . . . . . . . . . .3 Description of the Model . . . . . .1 Validity . 2. .7 Linear Viscoelasticity with Damage R. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Background . . . .7. . . . . . . . Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. References . . . SCHAPERY Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics. . . .
in this case the stress and strain tensors in Eq. Isotropic materials with a constant Poisson's ratio satisfy Eq. respectively. The effect of plasticizers.~ dt'  /ol f (~ . fourth order creep compliance tensor and el. When Eq.~') . The braces are abbreviated notation for a linear hereditary integral. 3. may also be included in at. it is easily shown by dimensional analysis that its homogenized constitutive equation satisfies Eq. such as moisture.. = {Sdcr} + ~r (1) where S is a fully symmetric. except at time or rate extremes.e. in which e and rr represent the strain and stress tensors.~') ~ d~' (2) where it is assumed f = g = o for t < o and ~ /o dt"/ar[~r(t")] ~'.350. i.is the strain tensor due to temperature and moisture (and other absorbed substances which affect the strains). 4. the creep compliance components are proportional to one function of time. then ~ .7.t')/ar. f and g are components of the creep compliance and stress tensors.2 BACKGROUND Schapery As background to the model with timedependent damage. use ar = a t ( T .118 2. is nearly constant. { fdg} f (~ . The Poisson's ratio for polymers at temperatures which are not close to their glasstransition temperature. Although the most general form could be used. Physical aging [12] may be taken into account by introducing explicit time dependence in at. t") in Eq. allowing for general aging effects. somewhat above Tg Poisson's ratio is essentially one half. If the temperature is constant in time. 1.~' = ( t . 1 should be interpreted as volumeaveraged quantities [2]. 2 is used with Eq. In certain important cases. If such a material has mechanically rigid reinforcements and/or holes (of any shape). respectively. while below Tg it is commonly in the range 0.40 [5]. at(T) is the temperaturedependent shift factor. 4. consider first the constitutive equation with constant damage. . Tg. dimensionless tensor and D = D(~) is a creep compliance (taken here to be that obtained under a uniaxial stress state).~(t') (3) Also. for notational simplicity we shall use the familiar form for thermorheologically simple materials. S = kD (4) where k is a constant.
8]). the strain ~r may also depend on damage. called the reference modulus.ki{Ede. just as shown. and for later use with growing damage. and S are timedependent because they are functions of one or more damagerelated ISVs. However.{Ed8} .7 Linear Viscoelasticity with Damage 119 Equations 1 and 4 give e = {Dd(ka)} + er The inverse is (5) = k. 110 remain valid. also. Equation 6 becomes o Ce R Ce~ (9) where C =_ ERkI is like an elastic modulus tensor.2. {DdE} = {EdD} = 1 (7) In relating solutions of elastic and viscoelastic boundary value problems.+ er (10) where S . The fourthorder tensor k must remain inside the convolution integral in Eq. under assumption Eq. with healing . With growing damage k. This position is required by the correspondence principle. R eR _ So. 9 and 10 come from Eq. 5. it is helpful to introduce the dimensionless quantities _ 1E{ Ea } 4 .k/ER. Equation 9 reduces to the equation for an elastic material by taking E = ER.7. r} (6) where k1 = k 1 and E = E(~) is the uniaxial relaxation modulus in which. C. 5. ee and e~ are socalled pseudostrains and u R is the pseudodisplacement. The elasticlike Eqs. The inverse of Eq.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL The correspondence principle (CPII in Schapery [6. fort>o. which relates elastic and viscoelastic solutions shows that Eqs. with damage growth when the damage consists of cracks whose faces are either unloaded or have loading that is proportional to the external loads. The physical strain is given in Eq. 5. its elements are called pseudomoduli.C 1 .~~{Eder } u R .~~{Edu} (8) where ER is an arbitrary constant with dimensions of modulus. and thus have the appropriate form with growing damage. 2. 4. 9 gives the pseudostrain eR in terms of stress. it reduces to the constitutive equation for a viscous material if E is proportional to a Dirac delta function of ~.
fP or cgWa OSp (15) fp cgW~ cgSe (16) where the equality of these derivatives follows directly from the total differential of Eq. The damage evolution equations are based on viscoelastic crack growth equations or. pseudostresses replace pseudostrains because k must appear outside the convolution integral in Eq.7. assume the damage is fully defined by a set of scalar ISVs.l~oo + ~ a + v so that W~ = .. The simplification in Eq. wR 1 . P) instead of tensor ISVs.e R ) . 13. are introduced. Although more general forms could be used.~C(F_... the evolution equations for . which are like energy release rates. let W R and W~ denote pseudostrain energy density and pseudocomplementary strain energy density. respectively..W R + ae R and (12) (13) cgWR OeR eR = cgW~ Oo (14) The function F is a function of damage and physical variables that cause residual stresses such as temperature and moisture. fp) (17) . 4 is not needed when damage and crackface contact (if any) are independent of time. Sp (p =1.e R ) ( e R . In this case.. the standard correspondence principle and relatively simple methods of analysis [5] may be used to predict effects of damage on local and global mechanical states. on nonequilibrium thermodynamic equations.Sp .Sp(Sq. F (11) W~ .dSp/d~ are assumed in the form Sp . For later use in Section 2. Specifically. 2.4. R . Thermodynamic forces.12 0 Schapery of cracks. regardless of the number of different timedependent components of the compliance tensor. in a more general context. 5 [8]..
whereas for asphalt one ISV. P). complete thermorheological simplicity is assumed. In studies of particlereinforced rubber [4]. Sp . then explicit dependence may be introduced in the rate (Eq. including damage evolution (Eq. with C~1 . but it does not really generalize the equation because a simple change of the variable Sp may be used to eliminate the coefficient.cgSpp ~a which does not vanish when ~ .~p ~ 4. If the damage growth is affected differently by temperature (and plasticizers). there may be damage growth due to F.5.) A coefficient depending on Sp may be included in Eq.7 Linear Viscoelasticity with Damage 121 in which Sp may depend on one or more Sq ( q . this simplicity was found. The equations in this section are equally valid for tensor and scalar ISVs. The behavior of particlereinforced rubber [1.. 20.4.( f p ) % (20) where 0~p is a positive constant.2. The use of tensor ISVs is discussed and compared with scalar ISVs by Schapery [10]. cgW~ 1 c9S c9~ 0F (19) fP . Observe that even when the stress vanishes. were used for uniaxial and multiaxial behavior. 12 and 16.o.O. It is assumed that when ]fp] is less than some threshold value. unless cgF/cgSp .c9S~. According to Eqs. was used for uniaxial behavior.4 IDENTIFICATION FUNCTIONS OF THE MATERIAL AND PARAMETERS The model outlined above is based on thermorheologically simple behavior in that reduced time is used throughout. 17).. In the discussion that follows. 2.7. with 0~= 2.O. The entropy production rate due to damage is nonnegative if ~_. implying that even the microcrack growth rate behavior was affected by temperature only through viscoelastic behavior of the rubber.5 and 0~2 = 6.fpSp ~ 0 p (18) thus satisfying the Second Law of Thermodynamics. 17).4] and asphalt concrete [3] has been characterized using a power law when fp > o..1. but on only one force fp. . then Sp . (For the rubber composite two ISVs.2 cgSpp 4.
One should. depending on the complexity of the material and intended use of the model. constant strain rate. both types of tests may be needed in practice for/~ to cover a sufficiently broad range. This removes intrinsic viscoelastic effects. such as uniaxial constant strain rate tests at a series of rates and temperatures. such as constant strain rate tests of specimens in a test chamber at a series of specified pressures [4]. uniaxial creep tests may be used to find D(~). After this. thus enabling all subsequent identification steps to be those for a linear elastic material with ratedependent damage. however./ ~ . If controlled strain (stress) tests are used. 8. the . then one would employ wR(w R) in the identification. conduct at least a small number of both types of tests to check the thermorheologically simple assumption. Alternatively.t / a ~ . In this case it is convenient to use mixed pseudoenergy functions in terms of strain and stress variables.) Constant strain rate tests often are preferred over constant stress rate tests because meaningful post stresspeak behavior (prior to significant strain localization) may be found from the former tests. (c) Convert all experimental values of displacements and strains from step (b) tests to pseudoquantities using Eq. the input is R t . The effects of ~r and F are neglected here. [3] for uniaxial behavior and by Park and Schapery [4] and Ha and Schapery [1] for multiaxial behavior. unloading and reloading tests may be needed [7].122 Schapery Only an outline of the identification process is given here. mixed variables may be input test parameters. but details are provided by Park et al. one may obtain a complete identification of the model from a series of tests over a range of/~ using one temperature and different rates or one rate and different temperatures. [3]. tests. Appropriate energy functions may be easily constructed using methods based on linear elasticity theory. reduced time response curves depend on only one input parameter /~ regardless of temperature. R. This may be done using any standard method. (a) The first step is to obtain the linear viscoelastic relaxation modulus E(~) and shift factor a~. (However. all stress vs. after which E(~) is derived from Eq. (d) The procedure for finding the exponent a and pseudo Young's modulus in terms of one damage parameter is given by Park et al. For isothermal. Schapery and Sicking [11] and Schapery [9] discuss the model's use for fiber composites. Thus.for the undamaged state. Inasmuch as the model does not depend on temperature when reduced time is used. for example. (b) Constant strain rate (or stress rate) tests of specimens taken to failure at a series of rates or temperatures may be conveniently used to obtain the additional data needed for identification of the model. where RRa~ and ~ . However. 7.
and Schapery. R. A.S. Ha. pp. Park. eds. R. 2. is detailed by Ha and Schapery [1]. Models for damage growth and fracture in nonlinear viscoelastic particulate composites. 237245. Schapery. (1982). New York: Academic. G. AD01. A. S. Mechanics of Materials 24: 241255. R. S. W. . Park. A. in 1981 Advances in Aerospace Structures and Materials. R. 2. On viscoelastic deformation and failure behavior of composite materials with distributed flaws. W. R. 85168. P. H. Journal of Applied Mechanics 105: 481505. ed. Wang. Schapery. A viscoelastic constitutive model for particulate composites with growing damage. A. REFERENCES 1. R. (1996). Pao. Schapery. S. (1983). Identification of the full set of five pseudomoduli and the pseudostrain energy function. pp. (1981)... ed. as functions of two ISVs. pp. vol.2.. Y. New York: ASME. K. H00228. 5. 3. Y.. R. Sendeckyi. ASME. (1974). Kim. W.. (1998). in Mechanics of Composite Materials. Book No. S. Hashin. in: Proc.. (1997).. and Schapery. 4. A viscoelastic continuum damage model and its application to uniaxial behavior of asphalt concrete. Analysis of composite materials . Included are comparisons between theory and experiment for overall loaddisplacement behavior and for local strain distributions. and Schapery. International Journal of Solids and Structures 35: 34973517. 520. as described by Park and Schapery [4] using constant strain rate tests of bar specimens under several confining pressures. A threedimensional viscoelastic constitutive model for particulate composites with growing damage and its experimental validation.. A procedure is proposed by Schapery [10] that enables use of the same model when transverse isotropy is lost due to rotation of the local maximum principal stress direction. and Renton. J. A. The model employed assumes the material is locally transversely isotropic with the current axis of isotropy assumed parallel to the current local maximum principal stress direction. Ninth U. National Congress of Applied Mechanics.. but it became transversely isotropic as a result of damage. 2. International Journal of Solids and Structures 34: 931947. A.. Z.7 Linear Viscoelasticity with Damage 123 remaining pseudomoduli or compliances may be found in terms of one or more ISVs. 7. The material employed by them was initially isotropic.5 HOW TO USE THE MODEL Implementation of userdefined constitutive relations based on this model in a finite element analysis is described by Ha and Schapery [1].. Viscoelastic behavior and analysis of composite materials.a survey. 6.7..
L. R.. in Advances in Fracture Research. 10. On nonlinear constitutive equations for elastic and viscoelastic composites with growing damage. in: International Journal of Fracture 25: 195223. 4576.. A. 11. E. Karihaloo. (1997). Struik. R. pp. Constitutive equations for special linear viscoelastic composites with growing damage. Delft: Delft University Press. pp. M.. Schapery. and Ritchie. R. R. O. C.. eds. (1984). I.W. 30193027. Schapery. and Sicking. ed. Physical Aging in Amorphous Polymers and Other Materials. A. Mai.124 Schapery 8. 9. Pergamon. International Journal of Fracture 97: 3366. Nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic constitutive equations with growing damage.. (1995). Amsterdam: Elsevier. (1978). Correspondence principles and a generalized J integral for large deformation and fracture analysis of viscoelastic media. L. Ripley.. D. R. B. Y. L. Bakker. 12. Schapery. in Mechanical Behavior of Materials. . A... Schapery. (1999). A. A.
SECTION 3 Yield Limit .
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61 avenue du Pr&ident Wilson. Many yield criteria have been proposed. 127 . The limit above which permanent or irreversible strains exist is most often related to stress and is called yield stress. Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. for example. A fraction of the elastic strain is a better definition.2 is usually taken to define the yield stress cry(0. The corresponding scalar function of the stress components is called a yield criterion.2. 94235 Cachan Cedex. LMTCachan. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.). depending upon the properties of the materials and the purpose. This is acceptable for comparing materials or for the perfect plasticity scheme. the problem is often to compare it with a two or threedimensional state of stress to know if a part of a structure is loaded in its elastic range or not. This means that at this level of stress the permanent strain is of the order of magnitude of the elastic strain.2. 9 But in modeling plasticity or viscoplasticity this definition is generally not acceptable. France Almost all materials have a range of loading below which the only mechanism of strain is reversible movements of atoms giving rise to the mesoscopic phenomenon of elasticity. a value of ep = 0. Handbook of Materials BehaviorModels. A much smaller value must be taken to predict the small values of plastic strains which may occur in structure analysis.1 Introduction to Yield Limits J E A N LEMAITRE Universit~ Paris 6.1~0. When "the" value of the yield stress from a tension test is known. ISBN0124433413.SECTION 3. The point is that different models of plasticity may use different values of the yield stress for the same material! More details are given in Section 3. It is not easy to measure the yield stress of a material because it depends upon the value of the offset of permanent strain allowed to detect that this irreversible strain ~p begins to exist: 9 In engineering. Cry = ~r%=o.2 x 1 0 .
Because of previous forming. as shown in Section 3.4). often involving distortion of the yield surface (Section 3. the material is anisotropic. which can be characterized by pole figures (see Section 3. with the von Mises criterion being widely used in structures calculation through its equivalent stress aeq.7.6).5).3). many metals have a preferred orientation or texture.128 Lemaitre Isotropic criteria are described in Section 3. O'eq _ _ a Da D ij ij 0 "D is the stress deviator aDo  aij  aHbij. plates or shells.~ akk. it is possible to write down a general framework for them (Section 3. so that anisotropic yield criteria are needed (see Section 3. Because of this. 1 . aHiS the hydrostatic stress aH . Since all criteria have a common mathematical structure. For engineering purposes it is also possible to extend the local concept of yield criteria to structures like beams.2.
ISBN 0124433413. Gainesville. give the same value.perfectly plastic stressstrain curve in simple tension or in simple shear is the simplest picture of material behavior from which to begin this discussion of yield limit criteria. University of Florida. which appears to match the appreciable plastic deformation at the lower yield point observed in tests on standard tension specimens of mild steel. This idealized response is linear elastic up to a yield limit at which large plastic deformation occurs at constant stress. Mechanics & Engineering Service. The actual abrupt jump in strain at the much higher upper yield point. Much of early and present plasticity theory and its use in analysis and design springs from this picture. 129 . A macroscopic stable quasistatic perfectly plastic response at the lower yield point may be appropriately assumed for mild steel in limit analysis and design and other aspects of structural engineering practice because the unstable dynamic response. Upon full or partial unloading from any state of stress and subsequent reloading. such as the initial departure from linearity or a very small or a moderate or a fairly large plastic strain offset. is hidden by inhomogeneity. which can be exhibited in a carefully performed test on a wellprepared annealed and homogeneous specimen. 231 Aerospace Building. the initial stressstrain curve for most workhardening structural metals or alloys in simple tension or simple shear also plots as an elastic straight line in the beginning stage but then deviates only gradually from linear elastic.2 Background on Isotropic Criteria DANIEL C. is almost completely masked.2. (Fig. Florida 32611 An elastic. and the stressstrain curve then follows the curve that would have been followed in the absence of unloading. and not quite central loading of the usual specimen.1). In contrast.SECTION 3. DRUCKER Department of Aerospace Engineering. slowly getting flatter as the plastic response grows with increasing stress. the behavior is essentially linear elastic until plastic deformation resumes. Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. the highly local jump from the upper yield point to appreciable plastic deformation at the lower yield point. 3. appreciable residual stress. All reasonable definitions of yield limit. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. Handbookof MaterialsBehaviorModels.
However. or large offset or as by Taylor and Quinney. Strain FIGURE 3. The macroscopic strain produced by this dislocation motion on the atomic scale is small. but is likely to be considered much too large by a factor of 100 or more by those members of the experimental plasticity community interested in many of the interesting and important details of macroscopic elasticplastic behavior. Idealizing the response by ignoring these and otherwise produced very small inelastic strains is almost always permissible.2. with its reproducibility and agreement among laboratories in the test community. At room . Idealization of materials of construction as timeindependent in the vicinity of room temperature and below likewise ignores the small inelastic strain changes over time that do occur but that are not significant over the times of interest for the materials employed. but it is measurable with the advanced instrumentation now available. we know that large numbers of mobile dislocations will be present. The use of the familiar 0. A key element of the idealization is that the response of the material to stress levels below the current yield limit is purely elastic on loading. The most convenient definition of an initial or subsequent yield limit normally follows from the choice of a value of plastic deformation that is meaningful for the applications in mind and that is consistently measurable. Yield limit defined by small.002 offset for the initial yield limit in tension certainly satisfies the need for material quality control. moderate. as it is to at least moderate unloading and subsequent reloading up to the current yield limit. both in engineering practice for elastic or elasticplastic structural analysis and design and in the usual description of the macroscopic behavior of the material in the laboratory.130 Largeoffset% Moderateoffset% Small offset % ! / / / Dmc~r % / / / / / / / . some of which will move under the smallest increase or decrease of stress in the nominally elastic range.1 Perfectplasticity and workhardening. The concept of an initial or a subsequently established yield limit for the typical workhardening response involves both idealization and definition.
but ignores possibly significant behavior.3. Experiment alone can provide answers. and even experiments cannot cover all the possibilities. In view of the essentially infinite complexity of the inelastic behavior of real materials and their permissible idealizations. the more so the fuller the prior unloading. only one point on the yield surface is given by the current yield point in simple tension or in simple shear. Plastic strain in addition to elastic occurs only when the stress point moves out beyond the current yield surface. The appropriate generalization from one dimension or two to the nine dimensions of stress (six are independent) is far from unique. Subsequent changes of stress represented by motion of the stress point within the current yield surface cause purely elastic changes in strain and do not affect the current yield surface at all in the idealized material. each of which may be represented by a surface in stress space. The straight line elastic range generalizes to the region of stress space enclosed by the current yield surface. isotropy (independence of material orientation) provides a simple and appealing hypothesis from which to start. Broadening the picture from the simple tension or simple shear curve to general states of stress and strain is straightforward. The initial yield limit and subsequent or current yield limits are replaced by an initial yield limit function of stress and subsequent or current yield functions. Tresca had shown experimentally that plastic deformation took place when a limiting shear stress was exceeded.2 Background on Isotropic Criteria 131 temperature and below. However. Each material is different and will have different carryovers from one or two dimensions. loading into the plastic range and then moderate unloading leaves most structural metals in a workhardened state with stressstrain plots for reloading usually showing a close to sharp departure from linearity when the new yield limit is reached. because there will be no favored orientation. A small offset definition of yield then will give reproducible results. despite the often strongly anisotropic response of their individual crystals or grains. The idealization of an isotropic material does serve as an excellent representation for the purely elastic macroscopic behavior of many polycrystalline metals and alloys. Assumptions are also needed whose validity can be tested only partially by comparing the actual behavior observed with the consequences predicted by the assumed generalization. A maximum shear stress limit criterion . It was natural to carry over the simplicity of isotropy to yield limit criteria when the mathematical theory of plasticity was being developed. in contrast to the difficulty of its use for the initial curve in the unhardened state. A moderate offset definition of yield then avoids disagreement. Some materials do exhibit visible rounding of the stressstrain curve for reloading. A sufficiently large assemblage of such anisotropic grains with sufficiently varied orientations of the crystalline planes will exhibit an isotropic elastic response on the macroscale of many grain diameters.
Mises. Mises proposed a normality rule. that is determined by the increment in stress. a2.13 2 a2 Drucker FIGURE 3. Mises or J2 ellipse. such as the . as an applied mathematician. the plastic strain rate or increment is given by a scalar multiple of the derivative of the yield function with respect to stress (the strain rate or increment vector in the strain space superposed on the stress space is normal to the yield surface at the stress point). did not take issue with this consensus but for analytic convenience preferred that a smooth surface be employed instead (Fig. 3.2 Tresca hexagon. For an isotropic material. or rate of strain. a3 and their orientation in the material provide a complete description of the state of stress. At each stage of plastic deformation. and intermediate curve for plane stress. It is a good first approximation to physical reality and became accepted as the best simple representation of the yield limit for metals and alloys. Each combination of them.2. At each value of stress at yield (in pictorial terms. for a given state of stress at yield. In the purely elastic range. stress determines strain and vice versa. independent of orientation is an isotropic criterion that plots as the familiar hexagon in the twodimensional principal stress space of plane stress and as a hexagonal prism in threedimensional principal stress space with its axis equally inclined to the three principal stress axes. the stress point lies on the yield surface in stress space). the yield limit surface is determined by the values of the principal stresses without regard to their orientation.2. The three principal stresses al.2). or rate of stress. In an analogy to potential functions that governed many other types of physical behavior. it is the increment in strain. the yield function expressed in terms of stress serving as a potential function for the increment or rate of plastic strain.
when the coefficient of the cubic term in the equation is set as unity. the second invariant of the stress deviation tensor. Therefore. J3 that appear in the cubic equation for the determination of the three principal stress deviators from the nine components of the stress deviation si) = ai) . With the knowledge that shear stress is the primary driver of plastic deformation. the remaining coefficients and the remaining term are invariants.( 6 k k / 3 ) 6 i j . J2 is the simplest isotropic smooth function of shear stress. and J3.a l ) 2 1 / 6 (s21 + s 2 + s32)/2 or s~jsj~/2 and the third invariant of the stress deviation tensor.~2) 2 + (~2 . This choice is known now as the Mises criterion of yield. Appealing and useful as any such interpretation may be. which is cubic in stress. s3). is zero for the deviator. it plots as an ellipse for plane stress and as a circular cylinder in threedimensional principal stress space. It also has a number of physical interpretations that appeal strongly to many who are not enamored of purely mathematical arguments. s2. although Mises himself recognized that far more . just like the principal stresses themselves. is also an invariant of the stress field. When J2 is set equal to a constant to match the yield point in a onedimensional test. J2. to consider any state of stress at a material point as a hydrostatic tension equal to the mean normal stress plus the stress deviator. the same for all choices of axes. or the equivalent of J1 in the cubic for principal stress.0 " 2 + 0"3 or O'kk and the two additional invariants J2. which is a general representation of shear stress.2 Background on Isotropic Criteria 133 m a x i m u m shear stress. the sum of the principal values. The principal stress deviators (Sl. Among these are the mean of the squares of the principal shears and the square of the octahedral shear stress. it should be kept in mind that none are based firmly on physical laws.3. J3 [(2o1 02 03)(202 03 o1)(203 or s~jsjkSk~/3  o1  a2)]/27  (s 3 + s 3 + s 3 ) / 3 The coefficient of the quadratic term. Probably the most compelling of all is that postulating a limiting value of J2 for the purely elastic range is the same as postulating that plastic deformation will ensue when the elastic energy of distortion or shear strain energy exceeds a critical value. the shear stress on the planes whose normals make equal angles with the three principal directions of stress. Any other invariant of stress can be shown to be a combination of J1. are independent of the arbitrary choice of the rectangular Cartesian axes for the stress components.+ . These invariants are the quadratic coefficient of the linear term.~3) 2 + a3 . J2 [ ( a l . This leads naturally to the choice of the three independent invariants of stress as the sum of the principal stresses J1 = o ' 1 . it is reasonable to do what is always permissible.
. he showed good correlation of the data with both the maximum shear stress criterion of Tresca and the second invariant of the stress deviation tensor of Mises. subsequent yield surfaces. is unreal despite its ability to correlate the results of radial loading tests on initially isotropic material.3 Radial loading and isotropic hardening.25J~. 3.3). neither provided the most appropriate match for the data. the more important point is that initial isotropy is lost once significant plastic deformation occurs.2. it does not usually represent physical reality when any of the customary definitions of the onset of initial or of additional plastic strain are employed. The experiments were performed with great care so that it was possible for me at a little later time to show that although each fit the experiments within 10%. J23 .2.2. It takes considerable effort to produce a structural metal or alloy that is initially isotropic in its inelastic response. A simple combination of the second and the third invariant of the stress deviation tensor. Osgood obtained such a structural aluminum alloy from ALCOA. Although the assumption of isotropy of the initial and subsequent yield limits is mathematically convenient. being simply enlarged versions of the initial yield surface. Structural metals and alloys are quite anisotropic in their initial and subsequent plastic response a2 L i I  ~ I lli Ii FIGURE 3. The picture of isotropic hardening. The actual isotropic shear stress criterion lay about halfway between these two basic forms. did correlate all the data remarkably well. In a very interesting set of experiments on thinwalled tubes under proportional or radial loading obtained by increasing tension and interior pressure in constant ratio. Interesting and significant as this result is.134 Drucker general isotropic forms existed and did not restrict his normality rule to the second invariant form alone (Fig.
initial isotropy and isotropic hardening obeying the Mises criterion provide a crude but not unreasonable approximation. With 1000 times greater sensitivity. structural metals and alloys generally come with appreciable initial or residual stresses because of their prior thermal or mechanical treatment. but not very significant for the theory of plasticity. almost disappear from view along with the plastic strains that occur as the stress point moves about inside the current Mises ellipse.2% or 0. the ratio of shear stress to normal stress on the plane of slip is well known to be the . or normal stress on shear planes.002 are taken to define the onset of plastic deformation. when interest is focused on large plastic deformations of 1% (0.2 Background on lsotropic Criteria 135 as defined by any of the usual definitions of yielding. Bauschinger and allied crosseffects. the changes of shape of successive yield surfaces and the motion of their centers. On the other hand. at extremely high hydrostatic pressure. the diameter of any yield surface so defined shrinks to zero. The mechanical treatment given prior to use often involves appreciable plastic deformation.01) or more. The shear stress needed for the common ductile structural metals is in fact independent of the normal stress on the planes of slip under most circumstances with the normal stress of the order of the yield stress. A workhardening metal subjected to shear in one sense will have a raised yield stress for that sense and a lowered yield stress for reverse shear. both cold and hot. At the other extreme. However. as would be expected from their much more open molecular arrangements. Bridgman did find a 10% increase in the shear stress needed. Furthermore. Schmid's "law" for single crystals states that the shear stress on the plane of slip governs. Such plastically deformed metal is highly likely to have directional properties to start as well as the related difference in the stressstrain curves in tension and compression exhibited by Bauschinger over 100 years ago. Plastic deformation of single crystals and polycrystalline metals and alloys is caused primarily by shear stress that exceeds the purely elastic carrying capacity. The diameter of each current yield surface so defined is a small fraction of the current yield value in simple shear. The degree of anisotropy induced by plastic deformation is very large when very much smaller deviations from elastic response than 0. and the shape of each current yield surface is far from the Tresca or Mises or any other isotropic criterion.002 plastic strain offset.3. hydrostatic pressure. some reverse plastic deformation often will be picked up upon unloading a plastically deformed material to zero stress. including the moderately large 0. does have an appreciable effect on polymeric materials. so prominent when small offset definitions are employed. Furthermore. much as loading in tension will produce a raised yield stress in tension and a lowered one in compression. an increase he thought was expected from the compaction of the atomic structure. At 100 times greater sensitivity still.
E Chen and E. These and other related topics are discussed clearly in "Soil Plasticity Theory and Implementation" by W. f . The simplest of these forms. an isotropic criterion of yield must include the hydrostatic pressure in addition to measures of shear stress. good agreement in detail with what will actually happen when a structure or a specimen deforms in the plastic range requires much more realistic yield limits. It plots as a regular sixsided pyramid in principal stress space. Mizuno (Elsevier. When it is permissible and useful to carry over expressions for plastic deformation to such materials. It also is represented by a sixsided pyramid in principal stress space. The Tresca. It is represented by a right circular cone in principal stress space. The simplicity of isotropic initial yield limits and subsequent yield limits (isotropic hardening) is a great help in computation and in obtaining a crude but very useful picture of the plastic response. 1985) and in the followup volume. It also can be employed to reduce the undesirably high volumetric expansion otherwise produced in each of the openended models of behavior by normality of the plastic strain increment to the current yield limit surface. as described in the other sections of this chapter and in subsequent chapters. E Chen and G. is frequently used as a model for granular material. The apex of the cone is at the origin (zero stress) for a cohesionless material and lies on the triaxial tension line for a material with cohesion. Nonlinear instead of linear variation of shear stress with normal stress or pressure can be accommodated simply.136 Drucker controlling variable for simple frictional materials and not surprisingly plays a strong role in soils and other granular media. . Y. However. "Nonlinear Analysis in Soil Mechanics" by W. The cap permits matching of consolidation under hydrostatic pressure and under pressure plus moderate shear. which postulates the frictional criterion of a limiting shear stress on the plane of slip proportional to the normal stress on that plane.~J1 q_j~/2. 1990). A MohrCoulomb material. or maximum shear stress criterion. gives a linear increase of the required (mean) shear with added hydrostatic pressure. but its crosssection by a plane perpendicular to the axis is not a regular hexagon. Greater realism within the idealization of isotropy can be provided by a moving yield limit cap over the open end of the yield limit cone or pyramid in principal stress space. now termed the DruckerPrager criterion with ~ constant. The most general isotropic criterion then will be a function of the first invariant of the stress tensor (the sum of the principal stresses) along with the second invariant of the stress deviation tensor (the Mises criterion) and its third invariant. Baladi (Elsevier. may be modified similarly to give a linear variation of the maximum shear stress with hydrostatic pressure.
. . . . VAN HOUTTE Department MTM. . 137 . .1 Desired Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.2. w i t h e q u i a x e d grains sufficiently small as to n e g l e c t m a t e r i a l h e t e r o g e n e i t y at the scale at w h i c h one w a n t s to use the yield locus. . . . 3. . 3. . . . . . 3.2. . . . . . . . 3. . .3. . . . .3. . . . . .1 Plastic Potentials . 3.4 Sample Homogeneity . . . . .2. .3 Yield Loci Based on Crystallographic Texture P. Belgium Contents 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Calculation of ODF from Pole Figures . .1 Background . . . . . . .3. ISBN 0124433413. . . .3. . . . . . .. . . .3 Determination of ODF by Single Grain Orientation Measurements .2. . .p h a s e m a t e r i a l s in a n n e a l e d c o n d i t i o n .2. . . . . . . . . . . . In principle.3. . . . . 3. .2 Quantitative measurement of the texture. . 3. .3. . . .3 Exploitation of the Constitutive Model . . . . B3000 Leuven. . . .3. . .3. . .3. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. . . . . .3. .3. .3. . . . . 137 139 139 140 141 142 143 144 144 145 150 153 3. . . . . . . . . . these m e t h o d s are l i m i t e d to s i n g l e . . . . . . . . .5 Discretization of the ODF . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 BACKGROUND This s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s m e t h o d s that are suitable for d e r i v i n g the yield locus of a p o l y c r y s t a l l i n e m a t e r i a l from a physical m e a s u r e m e n t of its c r y s t a l l o g r a p h i c texture. . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . .2 Crystal Plasticity Model . References . . . Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . . . .3 Cconstitutive model for polycrystals with texture . . .3. . .3. 3. . . . . .SECTION 3. .3.
For materials like steel and aluminium and their alloys. springback and/or residual stress. strictly speaking. final texture and final grain size. . Typical applications are anisotropic finite element (FE)based simulations of metalforming processes.often confidential m files of industrial companies and research institutions. The results must then be judged with care but may still be valid. Sometimes the yield locus models are applied to cases for which.05 and +0. These experimental values are rarely published but can be found in the . Methods as described in the present chapter have almost exclusively been applied to fcc.05.. forming limits (failure). can stock. Often references will not be made to the earliest original papers on the topic. etc. they have not been intended.) but also rolling and wire drawing. the induced error being smaller than errors resulting from other sources. although in principle they could be used with any type of ductile polycrystalline material. why bother about deriving a yield locus from a crystallographic texture the hard way. depending on alloy content. I will explain which types of software or other tools are needed. instead of determining the coefficients of a Hilltype anisotropic yield locus (or another type of simple analytical yield locus expression) by fitting them to some tensile test data? The answer consists of two parts: 9 simple analytical yield locus expressions are never versatile enough to describe the true yield loci of engineering materials. 9 during routine FE simulations of a forming problem. which cannot possibly have been explored beforehand by mechanical tests. The purpose of such FE simulations is to predict the final shape and dimensions of the product. mainly sheet metal forming (car body parts.138 Van Houtte Strain rate sensitivity is supposed to be positive or negative but small enough in absolute value so that the exponent ktc3 log ~r/~ log ~ (with cr the flow stress and ~ the strain rate) can be sufficiently well approximated by the value zero. the FE code may submit very unexpected multiaxial loading cases to the constitutive material model. and strain rate. but rather to comprehensive books such as Reference [1] or to review papers. This has intentionally been done to make it easier for students and practiceoriented readers to collect the necessary papers. such as materials which already have been deformed before. The topic of the present section is too complicated to be described in a few pages of equations and a few tables. One may wonder. this holds from room temperature up to about 200~ in which range experimental measurements of # yield values between 0. and to which important aspects attention should be paid. bcc. and hcp metals. temperature. Instead.
Let g be the crystallite orientation. so at the very least. This can only be achieved if the greatest possible care is given to the quantitative measurement of the initial texture. ~. In that case. or as a Fourier series [23]: L e=O M(O N(O Z E E #=1 v=l v L is the maximum degree of the series expansion. the texture must be known under the form of an ODF f(g) The ODF itself may be known as a discrete function in Euler space.2. which is the topic of the next section.3.1 DESIRED FORM Yield locus calculation is a special case of the calculation of physical properties from a material with crystallographic texture [1]. In principle. The crystallite orientation g may be conceived as a tensorial quantity [4].3 Yield Loci Based on Crystallographic Texture 139 For the industrial applications mentioned previously. the ultimate quality criterion is quantitative agreement between FE predictions and the actual behavior of the material studied. the average . and (02 in Bunge's notation) are then denoted by the single symbol g. The averaging formula above is the simplest possible micromacro transition.3. The simplest possible micromacro transition is one for which the macroscopic value qm of the property is given by a weighted average: qm/f(g)q(g)dg (1) in which the weighing factor f(g) is the "orientation distribution function" (ODF) which describes the texture of the polycrystal [23]. C~~ is a Fourier coefficient.3. the property q(g) can also be described as #v a Fourier series expansion with coefficients qe [2]. The angular resolution that :.2 QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT OF THE TEXTURE 3. and q(g) some property which depends on it. but it is most often expressed as a set of three Euler angles representing the rotation from an external reference system ("sample reference system") to a crystal reference system (the ( 1 0 0 ) axes in the case of fcc or bcc metals) [23]. 3.//V can be achieved by this series expansion is roughly 160~ Tr (g)is a harmonic function of degree ( of the three Euler angles. The three Euler angles (991.
140 is given by 1 qm. Inel. it is sometimes not good enough. which sets the desired angular resolution for the ODF (see above) but also strongly limits the number of multiplications and additions required to evaluate the expression. These are: a. and others sell xray equipment for the measurement of "pole figures" which characterise the crystallographic texture of the material. In the latter case. it is necessary to measure several pole figures for each material and then combine them by means of appropriate software in order to obtain the ODF [23]. combined with subsequent data processing to generate an ODE amounts to effectively redistributing . Other important points are as follows: 1. For problems related to yield loci of fcc or bcc pv metals. as long as no intense pole figure peaks are completely "missed. the qe taking very low values for f > 12. However. the texture goniometer and its control unit must be capable of exporting pole figure files in a format that can be read by the user. A high angular resolution is NOT required (5 ~ is sufficient).2 CALCULATION OF O D F FROM POLE FIGURES Companies like Bruker. For elastic problems.~v f=O 2~. or it can be obtained from university laboratories that have developed their own. Background subtraction.+1 ~ Zqe v=l pv C~v (3) in which qe is the complex conjugated of qe [2]." If this is a problem.3. L need not be chosen higher than 12. Seifert. This means that part of the intensity measured in each direction is ascribed to "background radiation" and is removed from the signal for further processing. 1. a sufficiently wide xray beam should be used. Such software can also be purchased from these companies. All commercial pole figure measuring systems contain some procedure for background subtraction.) A pole figure is not an ODF. pv Van Houtte M(e) N(e) #=I . Great care must be given to various "corrections" to be applied to pole figure data. Philips. 2. This expression is helpful for the study of the angular resolution required for the ODE Suppose that the Fourier coefficients of the property q(g) are all zero for f _> Lq. As a result. In that case. The effect of subtracting too much or too less background. (They can also be measured using neutron diffraction. L in the above equation can be reduced to Lq. Eq.2. 3. 3 allows for an incredible gain in calculation time when evaluating integrals such as Eq. Lq is as low as 4.
and the value of all texturerelated properties will be wrongly estimated. For fcc metals. (2)) should not be lower than 12 if plastic properties are to be calculated. {2 0 0 }. {200}. the standard procedure provided with a commercial system should be evaluated with care. including those of low rank ~e. so that Eq. In that case. namely. {1 1 2}. All Ccoefficients of the ODF will be erroneous. it is advantageous to convert it into a Ccoefficient representation. and if it is not good enough. these are {1 1 0}. four pole figures are recommended if quantitative applications are aimed at. 3. qe coefficients) which are encountered in Eq.3. 3 can be used. for that matter. Here. but at least. Defocusing correction.2. {2 2 0}. replace it with a sound procedure. irrespective of the angular resolution that is needed for the property considered. It is possible to work with three pole figures only if they are completely measured (inclination range from 0 ~ to 90~ which is rarely the case.3 Yield Loci Based on Crystallographic Texture 141 intensity of the strong texture components into the random component or vice versa. A good method is the one based on a pole figure measurement of a good powder sample with random texture. The software used to convert the pole figures into an ODF should have a ghost correction procedure [3] if plastic properties are to be calculated. By far the most convenient of these makes use of an automated system of orientation determination using . for cubic materials. This can be done by various methods. So one should thoroughly study the procedure for background correction contained in the standard software. and {3 1 1 }. Now in cubic materials. Normally they are measured using the Schulz reflection method (0 ~ to 80 ~ range) [67]. and {103}. 3 appear at ~e= 9. b. once the ODF is obtained.3 DETERMINATION OF O D F BY SINGLE GRAIN ORIENTATION MEASUREMENTS An alternative method of texture determination consists of directly measuring the orientation of a large number of single grains of the polycrystalline material. the first nonzero odd /zv Ccoefficients (or. Number of pole figures. {1 1 1 }. 3. It has been said in the preceding that. also. for example a set of Soller slits combined with a monochromator in the diffracted beam [5]. Even better is to physically remove background radiation by. If that is not done. it is highly recommended that one measure four pole figures. so they cannot be neglected. the series expansion degree L (see Eq. using. For bcc metals.3. The pole figure to ODF conversion method may be based on the harmonic method or not [3]. no information can be obtained about Ccoefficients of odd rank 2.
The electron beam of the microscope is automatically positioned on a series of points at the surface of a sample. the method has some drawbacks: 9 The grain size should be at least 0. it is recommended to do several measurements and construct an average.000 or more single grain orientations.000 sets of Euler angles is obtained.142 Van Houtte "electron back scattering diffraction" (EBSD) in a scanning electron microscope ([6] pp. no ghost correction is needed. Since the ODF is directly measured. both the even and the odd part of the ODF are directly obtained. At each point.2. an angular resolution in Euler space better than 1~ and the time to measure one orientation is about i sec. [8]). Also. So with present technology. an EBSD pattern is generated.4 SAMPLE HOMOGENEITY It is frequently observed that the texture of the sample is not homogeneous. however. in most cases.3. A list of 10. The method has several advantages compared to pole figure measurements. The determination of an ODF is only one of the many possible applications of these instruments. At the present date.5 gm. these systems offer a spatial resolution of about 0. after which the measured texture must of course . In the case of sheet material. recorded. 3. it takes 3 to 12 hours (depending on the number on measurements desired) to measure an ODE an automated job that can be done during the night. pole figure to ODF conversion is not necessary. It requires the acquisition of 10. leading to a set of Euler angles describing the local crystallite orientation.5 gm. although in the foreseeable future this may go down to 0. 9 The purchase and maintenance of the equipment (including a dedicated scanning electron microscope) are more expensive than those of a texture goniometer using xray diffraction. the problem can be solved by giving the material a prudent recovery treatment. The various pole figure corrections discussed in the previous section are not needed either. though not that much. It is wise to check for this phenomenon by doing texture measurements at various depths (after removal of part of the surface). It is expected that in the near future this time will go down by a factor of 5 or more.1 gm. and analyzed by a computer. which can be converted into a continuous ODF described by Ccoefficients. 9 Material with a high dislocation density (after plastic straining) cannot be studied.000 to 50. Several commercial companies offer systems like this. the texture may vary with distance from the surface. If a texture gradient indeed exists. However. 171176. as a result. or to perform texture measurements on crosssections or oblique sections.
3. Universitydeveloped texture software packages often contain routines for performing these operations (averaging several textures.When both are known. in the opposite case. for the "statistical method. and will lead to systematic errors on any ~lm value. and give them a weighting factor f(gi)sin ~i ((I)i is one of the Euler angles used by Bunge [2]). its most probable a priori value) is equal to q=. using Eq. such a procedure will be required. for only one discretization method has such proof ever been published. . 1 by means of Ccoefficients. Such ~lm values are unsuited for predictions of plastic properties. it is said that elm is "unbiased" (using terminology from statistics) when its "expected value" (i. However. In addition.3 Yield Loci Based on Crystallographic Texture 143 be rotated. a being some threshold value between 0 and 1. Suppose that one wants to compute an average value of a texturerelated property by means of Eq.e. rotating of textures). To the knowledge of the author. a commonly used discretization method consists in retaining only those grid orientations in the discrete set for which f(gi) > a. Let qm be the "true value" obtained by using a nondiscretized ODE and ~lm the value obtained from the discretised ODE Normally ~lm will be different from qm. Whether that will be the case or not depends on the discretization procedure and on the formula to calculate elm. The procedure used for the discretization must then satisfy a few important conditions: Sample symmetry should NOT be used to reduce the number of orientations in the set. 3. This latter method is biased.3. 1.2. the theorem also holds for a discretization method in which one would look at the intensity of the ODF f(g) for all points gi in Euler space on a 5 ~ grid." one of the two discretization methods explained in Reference [9]. The method should be "unbiased. namely.. unless one is sufficiently experienced to avoid mistakes when calculating the plastic properties.3. The set of discrete orientations can then be used by some software that models the plastic response of the material. one can formulate a "statistical theorem" stating that ~lm is unbiased. However.5 DISCRETIZATION OF THE O D F It is possible that in the applications that will follow (see next section). in that case." This requires some explaining. it is not necessary to convert the measured ODF into a set of weighted discrete orientations. and try to demonstrate it. retain all these points in the discretization. one intends to implement Eq. However.
144 3. [ 12] p. which could. D is the plastic strain rate. be a FE model for a forming process. 371) provides a very convenient means computing tIJm(D) for a polycrystal with texture. then Eq.3 CONSTITUTIVE MODEL FOR POLYCRYSTALS WITH TEXTURE 3. since qJm is equal to the rate of plastic work per unit volume. d being the local strain rate. The Cauchy stress S which corrresponds to D is given by [101: 0qJm S/j v aDij (4) with ltIJ m v = 01ffflm/c3Dij (5) D ij v = 1 in the case of rateindependent plasticity.3. Reference [10]). The latter .1. It would be denoted as W(d).3. Its numerical value is equal to ~rm. for example. Let tIJm(D) be such plastic potential. Plastic potentials have been developed both for stress space and for strain rate space (see. 4 can in principle be used to construct a constitutive model for the plastic behavior of the material. because it makes a simple micromacro transition possible. whereas for simple power lawbased viscoplastic material models: v = 1 1+# (6) in which # = 0 log a / 0 log ~ as in Section 3. The Taylor theory ([ 11]. This theory assumes that the local plastic strain rate d is uniform in each crystallite and equal to the macroscopic plastic strain rate D. or a model for predicting the forming limit of a sheet material.3. It is known that in that case.1 PLASTIC POTENTIALS Van Houtte The concept of a "plastic potential" seems most suitable to performing the micromacro transition and to carrying the information about the plastic anisotropy of the material from the micromechanical model (based on crystal plasticity and on texture data) to the application. A similar plastic potential can also be defined for individual crystallites. The discussion here will be limited to the latter case. If a means is available for computing Wm(D) for a polycrystal with texture. the macroscopic rate of plastic work per unit volume Wm simply is the weighted average of the local rates of plastic work of all crystallites. Elastic strains are neglected in this formulation.3. the macroscopic rate of plastic work per unit volume. for example.
such as the set of assumptions used in selfconsistent models [13]. 3.2 CRYSTAL PLASTICITY MODEL In this text. but they do depend on D.1 The BishopHill Theory The problem that must be solved is to calculate the local rate of plastic work for a crystallite with a given orientation g and for a given local strain rate d. normally one would now express D with respect to the reference system x c of the crystal lattice of the given crystallite ((1 0 0) axes in the case of a cubic metal). the discussion in Reference [14]). reliable. can no longer be applied.. not in the least because a truly general. we will discuss how X/C(g) can be obtained from D using a crystal plasticity model. it is assumed that one wants to obtain a yield locus. leading to a matrix D~. for example. 3. The use of such models may lead to a somewhat more precise prediction of the yield locus.1 are not scrupulously followed. this advantage will be completely lost if the recommendations in Section 3. It is seen that W(g) takes the role of q(g) in Eq. d . 1 or Eq.3. 1 and X/Cmthat of q. 9 Certain techniques which in the case of the Taylor assumption can greatly reduce the computing time. The latter case deserves a long discussion of its own. Note that the simple micromacro transition that is presented here cannot be applied when the Taylor assumption is replaced by a more complex one. For each value of D.3. The following formula is used for the transformation from the sample frame to the crystal lattice frame (note: a superscript c indicates that a tensor is described in the crystal lattice frame): D~ tiktjlDkz (7) .. 9 However. they depend on the macroscopic strain rate D (as is the case with Wm) and on the crystal orientation g. and quantitative model for deformation texture prediction does not yet exist (see. especially in the case of noncubic materials.3 Yield Loci Based on Crystallographic Texture 145 are denoted by W. 3. not that one wants to simulate deformation textures.3.2.3. provided that W(g) is known. Both are simple scalars. Because of the Taylor assumption. In the next section. such as the use of Fourier coefficients.3.D.3. X/Cmcan be calculated from the texture using Eq. in the Taylor theory. This is particularly unpleasant in industrial applications involving largescale FE modeling.
as well as on the ratios between the critical resolved shear stresses on these slip systems (CRSS ratios).j]  Van Houtte COS ~1 COS ~02 cos sin (~1 sin ~o2 cos (I) sin tpl cos cp2 cos (I) sin (~1 cos ~2 ~. Since there is only a finite number of facets. For deviatoric stress states which are at the intersection of two facets. Again.. D~j in general represents a strain rate vector without special properties (i. the probability that D~j would have such direction is not infinitesimal.). The strain rate vector that corresponds to a stress that is somewhere on a facet of this hyperpolyhedron (not on one of the edges of the facet) is normal to the facet.146 in which [. called "vertices" [11. except in some special cases.. These vertices depend on the nature of the slip systems available in the material.e.3. So. According to the BishopHill theory. except when the intersection is a single point. The probability that such a special case occurs is infinitesimal. for each such intersection. It would not . whereas there are oo4directions possible in deviatoric stressstrain space. All this can be summarized as follows.1). This argument can be adapted for all higherorder intersections between facet planes. it is not parallel with one of the stress axes. i.12]. In the stressstrain space associated with the x c frame. the deviatoric stress state which corresponds to a prescribed D~j normally is one of a finite number of vertex stresses. there is only a finite number of such directions. based on the generalized Schmid law. (I). Hence the probability that D~j would have such direction is infinitesimal. Only in that case. whereas there are oo4directions possible for D~j. i. the yield locus of the crystallite has the shape of a hyperpolyhedron defined by the previously mentioned vertices (Fig.cos (ill s i n q~2 cos (I) sin q~l sin~~ + cos q91 costP2 cos (I) tpl s i n (I) sin ~o2 sin(I) 1 cosq9 2 sin (/) cos (I) q91 sin q92  sin q91 sin (I) cos (8) l q)l. the classical rateindependent BishopHill theory for the plastic deformation of crystallites states that the deviatoric stress a~j needed to achieve this plastic strain rate will be one of a finite number of deviatoric stress states. a vertex stress. and r are the Euler angles that describe the orientation of the crystal lattice [2].e.. 3. In such case. the strain rate vector must be normal to that line. in the sense that the unit vector which defines its direction must be a positive linear combination of the unit vectors normal to the two facets. In deviatoric stress space. etc. there a r e c o 1 such directions. or perpendicular to it.e. the use of a single crystal yield locus to solve the Taylor theory.. the probability that D~j would have such direction is infinitesimal. (This conclusion is true in the present context.
and the rate of plastic work per unit volume in the crystallite is given by "D (10) in which the stress tensor ~ is a parameter which does not change when D undergoes infinitesimal variations.1 Closed yield locus of a "faceteye" type as it would appear in a threedimensional stress space.c cV list of vertex stresses the crij which maximizes oij *'ij It is an easy and an cV extremely fast operation for a computer. Its value is known in the crystal lattice . there are 216 vertex stresses. V is an index between 1 and 56).) Bishop and Hill [15] and Kocks [16] have published the list of the 56 vertex stresses which exist for fcc metals that deform by {1 1 1} (1 1 0) slip with the same critical resolved shear stress on all slip systems. cV Let ~7ij represent such a vertex (for fcc metals. which can be obtained from the present author. who has developed software that can automatically generate all vertices for any set of slip systems and any set of critical resolved shear stresses. but in fivedimensional deviatoric stress space.3. A BishopHill yield locus of a crystallite is of this type. Finding the right value of V then comes down to selecting from the _cv. such as the use of a single crystal yield locus to solve the interaction equation of a selfconsistent model. necessarily be true in other applications.3 Yield Loci Based on Crystallographic Texture 147 o3 FIGURE 3.3. Using Hill's Maximum Work Principle. The value found for aij is now called ~r~.. For bcc metals with {1 1 0 }{112 }( 1 1 0 ~ slip systems. and it is such that {7 ij D ij ~ o ij IJ ij (9) for all V. it can now be stated that the c c deviatoric stress aij which corresponds to a given plastic strain rate Dij i s a vertex stress.
but it can easily be shown (by elaborating the equation) that the macroscopic stress is simply given by Sij = (aij)m (12) in which (aij)m is the weighted average of aij for all crystallites. the macroscopic plastic potential kI'/m then is the weighted average of ~z for all crystallites. especially for materials with strong texture. 3. but it can be transformed to the sample frame: a'i)  Van Houtte thitlja~! (11) Since a is a constant with respect to D.3.148 frame.1 (13) In this equation. [12] p. This can be achieved by using the following yield locus for an individual crystallite [ 17]: /~+1 #'+ 1 as . ~s is the resolved shear stress acting on slip system s and as such a function of the macroscopic stress S ([11]. but in the meantime. 333). 4 with v1 (rateindependent case). W can indeed be regarded as a plastic potential for individual crystallite. This may become a source of numerical instability in certain applications. since the equation is still intended for a rateindependent material. The plastic strain rates are related to the S in the usual way through the normality rule. such as FE codes which are notorious for becoming unstable when a somewhat exotic constitutive material law is used. However.3.1. As explained in Section 3. #~ does not stand for the strain rate sensitivity. we may have to try to substitute the sharpedged single crystal yield locus by a more rounded one. This finally makes it possible to calculate the macroscopic stress from the plastic strain rate. which may feature regions with very strong curvature and other regions with very low curvature. which in principle is sufficient to obtain the yield locus.2.3.3. The macroscopic stress is then in principle given by Eq.2 Rounding the Yield Locus The crystallite yield locus described in the previous section may be as correct as can be obtained from present theoretical knowledge combined with the usual lack of knowledge of material data such as current values of the critical resolved shear stresses on the individual slip systems. ~0 is a constant (with a value close to . it has sharp corners and edges and fiat surfaces. and this is sometimes reflected in the macroscopic yield locus as well. using the ODF f(g) as weighting function. The fundamental solution to this problem is of course to improve the stability of FE codes so that they can digest true material behavior.
1 1:0 and as have the same meaning as in Eq. It then becomes clear that the value of/2 will control . 358). Eq. we must find the stress from the plastic strain rate. The larger 12' is. The required calculation time is one or several orders of magnitude larger than for the BishopHill method. 358 and pp.3. only the interpretation is different. It is seen that Eq. especially for low values of 12'. For the rest. 12is the strain rate sensitivity exponent as explained in Section 3. 14 is almost the same as Eq. it allows for a straightforward calculation of the plastic strain rate from the stress. This can only be done by an iterative procedure.3. Strictly speaking. The local strain rates are obtained as follows [10]: d~j  ~ 04. for the application at hand. a yield locus does not exist in this case (see following). 14 has the value of ~/. This method. It can be shown that for 12' ~ 0 this yield locus tends toward the edgy BishopHill yield locus. 12 + 1 c~r (15) This leads to the usual formulae of the viscoplastic model ([12] p. and ~:s is the resolved shear stress acting on slip system s and as such a function of the local stress or.3. 363365) for crystallites is also frequently used to obtain a rounded yield locus. the rate of plastic work per unit volume in the crystallite. It is difficult to make software for this that is completely stable. This model can be developed from a plastic potential (for an individual crystallite) in stress space: s ~s'~01 I (~+i) ~b(cr) in Eq. ?0 is a constant with the nature of a slip rate. 13. However. for low values of 12' such as 0. Whereas Eq. p.3.3 The Viscoplastic Model The viscoplastic model ([12]. the yield locus is still a good approximation of the BishopHill yield locus. and the more it will differ from the BishopHill yield locus. has some serious drawbacks. the equation ~b(cr)=constant defines an equipotential surface in stress space which tends to the BishopHill yield locus when/2 ~ 0. 3. 12 can still be used to perform the micromacro transition. the more rounded the yield locus becomes. but the corners and edges are rounded with a short radius of curvature. however.02. 13. For a given crystallite. 13 leads to a rounded yield locus that approaches the BishopHill yield locus when 12'~ 0.3 Yield Loci Based on Crystallographic Texture 149 the critical resolved shear stress) and the as are the CRSS ratios.2.
12 can be used in direct combination with one of the three models for crystal plasticity. 14. From a computational point of view.3. 3. 13 instead of Eq. A user of FE software would want to have some control on this radius of curvature. and it uses similar algorithms for solution. it should be experimentally determined.2. although this makes it more difficult to simulate texture evolution. a negative value would make the use of the viscoplastic model totally impossible.1 Direct Exploitation Quite often. 3.3.2 Using a Precalculated Database This discussion will be limited to the rateindependent case. if needed. But one does not have the right to finetune # if one takes it seriously that it is the strain rate sensitivity exponent: in that case.3.3.3. 12 is then used for the micromacro transition. Therefore. This would be the case for certain temperature and strain rate ranges of several important aluminium alloys (with Mg atoms in solid solutions) and steel alloys (mainly IF steels). The local stresses cr are calculated from D by an iterative procedure (after identification of D with d in Eq. in order to keep the FE algorithms stable. Therefore. this method features the same problems as the previous one (Section 3. and whichever value comes out should be used. when the plastic strain rate D is given ?" In that case. 15).150 Van H o u t t e the radius of curvature of the vertices of the yield locusequipotential surface.2). and. it would be scientifically more honest to use Eq.3. this number is much higher. when for practical reasons one decided to abandon the idea that # should be equal to an experimentally determined strain rate sensitivity exponent. FE or other applications can be organized so that the constitutive model for the polycrystalline material with texture has only to provide answers to one type of question: "What is the stress S. It will first be explained how the macroscopic plastic potential I'IJ m c a n be precalculated for . this may be too costly in computing time.3.3. Eq. since one needs for cubic metals about 2000 crystallite orientations in the set to obtain an acceptable accuracy.3. devise a different means incorporate strain rate sensitivity into the model.3 EXPLOITATION OF THE CONSTITUTIVE MODEL 3. Note that for numerical reasons. operating on a set of discrete weighted crystallite orientations which represent the texture of the material. it may be advantageous to use a precalculated database. for lower lattice symmetries. However. Eq.3.
3 is used to calculate Hm for all directions a of the discrete set. d = D and the macroscopic plastic potential kl/m is equal to (qJ)m.3. d) = [[d[[ H(g. So the function Hm(a) in Eq. 3. a crystal plasticity model should be used to produce a H(g. without using the texture of the polycrystal. In principle the . using the ODF as weighting function. Convert each H(g. For a given type of material. Eq.2. a) function for each direction a taken from a set which represents all directions in stressstrain space with a given angular resolution. Eq. not on its length.3. a) then simply is equal to the values found for X/(. A certain number of calculations should now be done once and for all.3. This makes it possible to use Eq. This then leads to H~(a) = (H(g. these Fouriercoefficients establish the database. in the future. 3 can be used instead of Eq. It is exploited as follows: Once the Ccoefficients of the texture are known. a) (19) Since we use the Taylor assumption. Hm(a) is a [unction which only depends on the direction of D. a plastic potential W can be constructed for a crystallite with an orientation g: ~g(g. Then it will be explained how an analytical expression can be constructed that fits these data. the average over all crystallite orientations of qJ. and calculate X/r (Eq. To do so. 10) for every crystallite orientation on a grid in Euler space.1 Calculation of ~'1 m for Directions in Strain Rate Space In Section 3. In a similar way. 16 is known in a numerical form for a large number of directions a. 1. In principle.3 Yield Loci Based on Crystallographic Texture 151 a large number of directions in strain rate space.3.3. 4 for frequent (and fast) calculations of S from D in a FE or other application. a))~ (20) This equation is of the same type as Eq. it is in principle possible to use the model for d = a.3. it was said that kI/m is equal to the macroscopic rate of plastic work. It can always be written in the following form [10]: ~Pm(D) = [[D][ Hm(a) in which [IDII and D a = (16) v/DijDi) (17) IIDII (18) a represents a direction in strain rate space. a) function into Fouriercoefficients HfV(a) [2] so that. H(g.1. 1.
it represents the textured e p e n d e n t m o d e l for the plastic a n i s o t r o p y of the material.. using a precalculated database describing the plastic anisotropy of fcc metals.2 Yieldlocus of an A13004 alloy that has been coldrolled. This is quite u n p l e a s a n t in view of Eq. This can be achieved as follows: 9 Let lap] be a vector r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the m a t r i x indices ij are c o n t r a c t e d into a single one p [10].2. the two 4 I I I  3 4 (~'1/~cl FIGURE 3. w h i c h leads to surprisingly s h o r t calculation times [4].s t r a i n space using an angular r e s o l u t i o n of 10 ~ However. 4: It will be necessary to m a k e partial derivatives of tIJ m (see Reference [10] for m o r e details).2 Analytical Model for Hm(a) As e x p l a i n e d in the p r e v i o u s section. 0"33= 0 for this section.3. [aij].3. The w o r k described in this section seems a formidable task. The stresses and strain rates are expressed with respect to coordinate axes which make angles of 45 ~ and 135~ to the rolling direction. a n d it t h e n b e c o m e s desirable to have Hm(a) in an analytical form.e. . since there are a b o u t 50. The yield locus is calculated from the texture.3. i. 3.000 directions a in deviatoric s t r e s s . as well as the shear stresses. 0110"22section of the yield locus in nondeviatoric stress space.15 2 Van Houtte m a c r o s c o p i c plastic potential kI'/m is n o w k n o w n . Hm(a) is o b t a i n e d as n u m e r i c a l values on a discrete set of directions a.3. the w o r k can be o p t i m i z e d to a very large extent.
Textures and Microstructures 30. The results are quite encouraging. P.R. I. International Journal of Plasticity. Textures and Microstructures 19. are zero for materials which have a centralsymmetric yield locus. 3. N. 18): Hm(a) . Cahn. J. Tom~. and Van Houtte. A review of automated orientation imaging microscopy (OIM). Van Houtte. (1993).R. (1992). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. and Van Houtte.. 6. Application of plastic potentials to strain rate sensitive and insensitive anisotropic materials. 11.. U. Figure 3.. Van Acker. Fast calculation of average Taylor factors and Mandel spins for all possible strain modes. Int. London: The Institution of Metallurgists. J. J. W. Pole Figure measurements with diffraction techniques. Plasticity 10. in [ 1]. 126177. (2001).. Haasen. An Introduction to Textures in Materials. J. Equation 16 combined with Eq. ed. pp. because all atensors are normalized (Eq. in [1]. pp. 14. (1998). 207221. ComputerAssisted Microscopy 5. Note that the fifthorder coefficients Fpqr~. S. T. Monograph Nr.Fvqrsuapaqarasau +Gvqrsuvapaqarasauav (21) The coefficients Fvqr~. 6 of Materials Science and Technology: A Comprehensive Treatment. M. C. B. 807818. (1998). Wenk. (1982). H. Kinematics and kinetics of plasticity.. 466511. The effect of Soller slit and monochromator used for background reduction in texture measurements. 89136. Bunge. REFERENCES 1.3. 102125. N.2 shows an example of a yield locus obtained by this method. pp. Mughrabi.. Hatherly. and Gpqrsuv have to be found by leastsquaresfitting [18]. H. Kramer. 229244. P. Weinheim: VCH. Texture Analysis in Materials Science London: Butterworth. in: Plastic Deformation and Fracture of Materials pp. 9. L. 12. K. 21 has been used to implement texturebased plastic anisotropy in FE simulations of sheet metal forming. 17. (1993). U. P. (1994). 13. I. P. Determination of the orientation distribution from pole figure data. Kocks. Texture and Anisotropy: Preferred Orientations in Polycrystals and Their Effect on Material Properties. only the fifth. H. E. Selfconsistent modeling of heterogeneous plasticity. E. (1998). Van Houtte. and Leffers. and Samajdar. in [1]. Toth.. 133143. Kocks. Discretization techniques for orientation distribution functions.and the sixthorder terms are necessary. 109149.3 Yield Loci Based on Crystallographic Texture 153 9 Hm(a) can then be written as a polynomial of the nth order. in [1]. S. Kallend.. 2. E (1998). Textures and Microstructures 31. S. It is recommended to set n=6. Van Houtte. and E. W. 4. (1998). R. and Canova. J. vol. L. Delannay. (1979). P. 8. (1999). 719748. or they can be found by more clever methods [19]. Wright. H. Deformation and textures of metals at large strains. eds. Tom~. . and Wenk. Van Houtte. C. and Hutchinson. 7. Quantitative prediction of cold rolling textures in lowcarbon steel by means of the LAMEL model. 5. pp. 5. P. although there are some drawbacks [1820]. 10. In practice. Aernoudt. G. (R. (1998).. P.3. 326389.
. Bishop. Van Bael.. Bacroix. 12981307.. 16. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. 14831494. Imbault. P. Mat~riaux 94.. (1951).. B. Ph. Dept. Textures and Microstructures 24. 19. and Winters. and Rabet. 107. Metall. MTM. D. L. Van Houtte. Anisotropic Yield Loci Derived from Crystallographic Data and their Application in FiniteElement Simulations of Plastic Forming Processes. . 20. Kocks. Revue de M~tallurgieCIT/Science et G~ie des. Thesis. (1994). 18. A fourthorder plastic potential for anisotropic metals and its analytical calculation from the texture function. Generalisation of the relaxed constraints models for the prediction of deformation textures. Van Bael.D. and Hill. J. (1994). Belgium. J. 3351. P. The incorporation of texturebased yield loci into elastoplastic finite element programs. Arminjon. 11211143. J. Acta Mech.154 Van Houtte 15. Philos. A theoretical derivation of the plastic properties of a polycrystalline facecentred metal. 255272. 17. Mag. Van Houtte. M. E W. 42. (1995). A. L. A. (1997). E (1970). and Raphanel. U.. 1. R. The relation between polycrystal deformation and single crystal deformation. Trans..
.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . .4 Generalizations of the Burzyfiski Yield Condition . . . . . . . . . . Conditions of perfect plasticity. . .. . . . . . . . .4.1 T H R E E A P P R O A C H E S T O F O R M U L A T I O N OF ANISOTROPIC YIELD CONDITIONS In uniaxial tension perfect plasticity is defined by the equation crx/cr0 = 1 during the process. .2 Generalizations of the HuberMisesHencky Yield Condition . . . . . ..5 Generalizations of the Hershey "Power Yield Condition". . . ~r0 denotes here the yieldpoint stress in the direction x.. or briefly yield conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PL31155 Krakfw. . ... . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . ISBN 0124433413. . . . 3. ... Crx is replaced by certain functions of stress invariants. . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. ... . . 160 162 163 164 159 158 157 155 3. . . . . . .7 Final Remarks . . .4. . . .4..SECTION 3.4. Poland Contents 3. . . . namely. . . . .6 Polynomial Yield Conditions for Planar Orthotropy . . . 3. . . ... . .. . . . .. for isotropic materials in the general threedimensional case can be written as a simple generalization of the preceding equation. . . .. . .3 Generalizations of the Tresca Yield Condition .4 Anisotropic Yield Conditions MICHAL ZYCZKOWSKI Cracow University of Technology. . . . . ul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . Warszawska 24. . Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. 3. . 155 . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . 3. . . 3. . 3. . ... .. .. .. . . . ..1 Three Approaches to Formulation of Anisotropic Yield Conditions .4. . . . . . . .. . . . . References .. ..
but it is less general than Eq. Sobotka [31 and Boehler and Sawczuk [41 proposed independently to introduce the tensor ~ij  AijklCrhl with Ajihl ~ Ajikl . less important for construction of yield conditions) [1]..156 ZYcz~ows~ At least three approaches are used to generalize isotropic yield conditions to the materials showing innate (for example. and postulated the wellknown isotropic yield conditions to hold for anisotropic materials as well if aij are replaced by Fi). . 1I@zm. whereas in Eq. H~jajkcrhl. and only the first of them is shown in Eq. In many cases this approach proves useful. straininduced) anisotropy. For example. is to postulate a certain physical quantity in an anisotropic material to be constant when reaching the yieldpoint stress (for example. f (Hijcrij . the elastic energy). 1. and H~jHjkahzal~.Aijlk . with the strongest physical background. . It should be noted that the invariants shown in Eq. 1I~jHjkcrkl. 1 they are independent. HijklaijahZ. 1 are the simplest.Aklij (2) where Aijkl is also a certain tensor of anisotropy. . 1" for example. the stress invariants are replaced by simultaneous (common) invariants of the stress tensor and of the material (or structural) tensors of plastic anisotropy. A detailed discussion on invariant formulation of anisotropic yield conditions is given by Rogers [21.~.. Mean transformed stress equals 4. two tensors of the second order have 10 irreducible polynomial invariants. 1I~jkl. in monocrystals) or acquired (for example. there exist 4 simultaneous invariants H~jcr~j. For example. but by no means general. = ~pp . First. Second.~AppkZ. The number of irreducible invariants of H@I and ~r~jamounts to 28 (plus the invariants of H@I itself. )  1 (1) where H~j.hl and deviatoric transformed stress 1 1 (3) (4) Another approach resulting in a nonlinear transformation of various anisotropic yield surfaces into a hypershere in fivedimensional Ilyushin's space was proposed by Zyczkowski and Kurtyka [5]. . secondorder material tensors may be obtained here from Ai)kl just by contraction. denote tensors of plastic anisotropy and Einstein's summation convention holds.. besides 3 invariants of aij and 3 of H~j. H@lmn ~rijcrklCrm. and then to express strains in terms of stresses and assume this function to be constant . a certain transformed or modified stress tensor may be introduced. for example. The third way.
remain. who considered this condition in detail. 6 corresponds at the beginning of yielding to constant distortion energy. hence the materials described by these equations are isosensitive [7]. 2. 5 or 6 does not change the expression as a whole. Equation 7 will be called here "the first Hill's yield condition. Change of signs of all stresses in Eqs. y.@)2 + G(az _ ax)2 + H(ax ." The moduli F. Then there exist three mutually perpendicular principal directions of the tensor Flijhl. Further. we can write Eq. is rather seldom used in the case of anisotropy. 5 only nine terms z. making use of the transformation Eq. and Eq. 3. 5 on the mean stress am reduces the number of moduli to 15. L.3. they will be classified here according to the types of isotropic conditions that are subject to generalization. 7 is due to Hill [9]. In this case. Yield conditions for anisotropic materials are usually formulated as certain generalizations of the relevant conditions for isotropic materials.4 Anisotropic Yield Conditions 157 during a perfectly plastic process. 5 in the form SijSij  2k 2 (6) Mises [6] also gives some energy considerations: Eq. typical for isotropic materials. Equation 5 takes a much simpler form in the case of orthogonal anisotropy. M. G.xy (in engineering notation) and three terms of the type "Cxy'Cy and in Eq. z. Further. the additional requirement of independence of Eq. though in the general anisotropic case energy cannot be decomposed into pure distortion energy and pure volumetric energy. we eliminate nine terms of the type axr. N can be expressed in terms of the yieldpoint stresses in uniaxial tension (or compression) in the directions x.1 (7) The notation in Eq. or without strengthdifferential effect [8]. called briefly orthotropy. H.1 with IIijkl = IIjikl = 1Iijlk = IIklij (5) These symmetry conditions reduce the number of moduli to 21. denoted . 5 takes the form F(ay . Choosing the reference frame x y z in such a way as to obtain its coincidence with the principal axes of orthotropy. This way.2 GENERALIZATIONS OF THE HUBERMISESHENCKY Y I E L D C O N D I T I O N The first anisotropic yield condition was proposed in 1928 by Mises [6]: 1Iijkl~Tij~Tkl.4.ay) 2 + 2LZ2z + 2MZ2zx+ 2Nz 2 . Therefore. then three additional conditions must be satisfied. if we require the independence of the yield condition on the mean stress am.
= 1 ooi+ rr030"1 .~ ~o~y G N2% In the particular case of plane stress.~ ~ ~ox 1) G 1 M .~xy 1 (9) Experimental data for rolled pure aluminum sheets obtained by Klepaczko [10] are gathered in Table 3.0"oz. 0"03+ .0"3 (10) ~ 1 0"2 .T.1 C o n s t a n t s in Hill's Yield C o n d i t i o n Eq."Cyz. which is very important for engineering applications (e.090 x 10 4 G (MPa 2) 1. in rolled sheets).3 GENERALIZATIONS YIELD CONDITION OF THE TRESCA The generalizations of the Tresca (principal shear) yield condition to anisotropic materials are very simple but only in a particular case: if general anisotropy is restricted to orthotropy and the principal directions of the stress state and of the orthotropy coincide.."COyz..0 and we obtain a fourparameter equation 2 0"y 1 1 . and the yieldpoint stresses in shear ZOxy...530 • 10 4 ZYCZKOWSKI N (MPa 2) 6.0"2 . was first derived in 1958 by Hu [11 ].4. 0"1 .0"2 0"2 ._} 0"27 0___."Czx.158 TABLE 3. units are converted from mm4/kG 2 to MPa2)... L and M were not measured. 0"~y 02x~x_~_ __ __ 1 ~z l:xy 0x0y "}.4.2~2 (8) . in the planar case under consideration.457 • 10 4 H (MPa 2) 1. .1 (x is rolling direction.876 x 10 4 by 0"Ox. y is transverse direction.2"C2yz 1 c .4. The corresponding system of six linear equations. taking into account the possible anisosensitivity of the material (strengthdifferential effect)..0"3 0"01 . 7 F (MPa 2) Pure a l u m i n u m sheets 1. 0"Oy..g.~ q 0"2 Oz r~ x L . . 0"z..Zozx: F . and then independently by Ivlev and Capurso (see [7])" ~ + . 3.
001denote here positive yieldpoint stresses in tension and in compression along the axis "1". The symbol ae denotes here the HuberMisesHencky effective stress. by using transformed stresses #ij (2. was proposed by Berman and Hodge [12]" 01 m 03 a 03 . respectively. . we obtain 001+=f. 4) with just one anisotropy t e n s o r Aijkl 3 ~a Aokt  ~AppklC~ij Aijqr  ttqrt~ij aklaqr (14) + (AppkZ~kl) 2 + 5App~lGkl .. and the moduli 001+. Equation 13 describes in the space of principal stresses an ellipsoid.by many authors more or less independently as a yield condition. Another generalization of the Tresca yield condition. .1 (13) which was later u s e d . .002. if a > b > c > d > e > f . . =1. .4. For example. also allowing for anisosensitivity.3. The symbols 001+. who used two independent material tensors. or a cylinder. 001. 3. depends on algebraic ordering of the first set. 001=d.01 =1. and so on. 3. Direct generalization of Eq.4 A n i s o t r o p i c Yield C o n d i t i o n s 159 and the remaining four equations are obtained by cyclic permutation of the indices both for stresses and for plastic moduli.is imposed. 13 to anisotropic materials may be written. and the constant a cannot be determined from uniaxial tests in principal directions.in its general form or in confined f o r m s . . 0"2   03 b 03 . a paraboloid.02 ~ = 1 f 02   01 (11) The relation between the positive moduli a. for example. 002+=c.. b .1 A more general yield condition of this type was derived by Betten [1].02 =1 =1 a e ~ = 1 c 01 . Historical notes are given by Zyczkowski [7]. f. 002=f. 003+=e. a cone. 003=b (12) It means that an additional constraint a 0 1 + .4 GENERALIZATIONS OF THE BURZYlqSKI YIELD CONDITION Burzyfiski [13] proposed in 1929 a threeparameter failure hypothesis for isotropic materials aa 2 + ba 2 + Cam .
in general.1 t (15) where ~... was proposed by Goldenblat and Kopnov [14. restriction to orthotropy reduces the number of constants to 3 + 9 . . we obtain a material characterized.2 7 material constants (in view of symmetry requirements imposed on II ).to rolled sheet metals. Additional restriction of independence from the mean stress Crm reduces the number of constants to 5+ 1520. and its particular form restricted to planar a n i s o t r o p y .2z + 2Mz.0"1[ m ..0"x) 2 q  H(o" x .O'z)2[ ..15]: (l'[ij(Tij) ~ "n (1'Iijkl(Tij~kl) f3 AV (l[ijklmn~ij(Tkl(Tmn) 7 ~. 7. . 2o'~" .. .5 GENERALIZATIONS OF THE HERSHEY "POWER YIELD CONDITION" Hershey [19] proposed in 1954 the following "power yield condition" for isotropic materials. Making use of the extended Hill's notation Eq.0"2[m~[0"2 . using several anisotropy tensors. Assuming in Eq.12.. The monograph [15] gives the method of experimental evaluation of the moduli ri O and 1Iijkl and many working formulae for particular cases. They discussed in detail the case rli)~ri) + v/rlijhl~ri)akl = 1 (16) which may be regarded as a certain generalization of the PragerDrucker cone. . we obtain. 2 + 2N1:2 + Pax + QCry . by 6 + 2 1 .. In the latter case the anisotropy is acquired because of previous deformation. expressed in terms of principal stresses: ]0" 1 ./3 = 1/2.4. On the other hand..(P + Q)cr z = 1 (17) This condition is particularly useful for describing the properties of composites. If we impose both restrictions simultaneously. in this case [ 18]. [ 17]. . F(O'y .8.Cry) 2 + 2LZ. (then the homogeneity of the function on the lefthand side is assured).0"3[mnt[0"3 . . 7 = 1 / 3 . 3. this case was considered in detail by Szczepifiski [16]. but the authors proposed to assume ~ = 1..2o'~" (18) . ]3. the number of constants amounts 2 + 6 . 7.. 15 ~ = ]~ = 1. and anisosensitivity is mainly due to the Bauschinger effect.G ( o " z .160 Z~cz~ows~ Another generalization. are arbitrary exponents.
18 for planar orthotropy: gl0"11m_+_fl0zlm_+_hl01 _ _ 021m_+_C/1201__ 02[m_+_b[202 _ _ 01]m. p = 1. When m .rxy2 (22) (21) with four dimensionless material constants m. 18 to the general case of triaxial stress state in an orthotropic material. 18. more complicated generalization of Eq. 18 for m = 2 and m = 4 turns into the HuberMisesHencky cylinder. they obtained m .02.1 and m ~ oo into the Tresca hexagonal prism. a. and 0. Earlier. 7 in different notation. y. a. proposed by Hill [21] for planar orthotropy. h . In this case all six stress components appear. 20 turns into the first Hill's yield condition Eq. in turn. for the description of yielding of rolled sheets. z denote. h. and m ~> 1 is not necessarily an integer. a . is of the form 1(~1 Jr. under the assumption that x. Equation 19 has six free material constants.. g. 18 to anisotropy. and for m .8. k. 0.K2lm+[K1 q. In the previously mentioned paper [23].0"2) qhlO'l  02lmq(012 02)(m2)/2(01 t'  02)(k01 lo2) . [23] for a rolled aluminum alloy sheet 2008T4 with the thickness 1. b. also proposed a generalization of Hershey's yield condition Eq. for example. and the final yield condition takes the following compound form (via . one has to solve a cubic equation to find the principal stresses. Hosford had discussed a particular case of this condition.15.3.a)]2K2[m= 20~" where K1 = 2 ' K2 0x 2 h0y. mostly to planar orthotropy.0~ (19) where f + g + a + b + 2mc = 1 (second Hill's yield condition).60 Si.4 Anisotropic Yield Conditions 161 where ab denotes the yieldpoint stress in equibiaxial tension.06 Mn. transverse.(2 . f. 0.24. Hill [20] suggested the following generalization of Eq..1.13 Fe. h. the rolling. l (third Hill's yield condition).+_CI01 _1_ 021m. The cylindrical surface Eq..K2[m] q.40 Mg. Barlat and Lian [22] considered the case of different axes of orthotropy and of the stress state. which is important.2 . m.1.24 mm and composition (in weight %) 0. a = b = c = 0. +p2. Eq. Numerous papers generalize Eq. 0. if the principal directions of the stress state and of orthotropy do not coincide.93 Cu. namely.0bin (20)  with four material constants m. h. p. and normal directions. Another. Barlat et al. Numerical values of these constants are given by Barlat et al. They proposed the following yield condition: a[[K1 .
b ( a z .ay)] 2 + [C(ax . c. f. Table 3.013 1.0 Z C K WV YZO Sa h 1.0 1.378 b 1.50 Mg [231.~~[C(ax .az)] 2} + ~( f 2 z 2 z + g 2Zzx + h 2 z 2 ) 1 13 . < 0.a(ay .az) ] v o~) _ +fghzyzZvcz + [a(~y  1 ~{[C(ax C(~x  _ rry)b(az _ ax)] f 2 Z . b.ax) . 3.ax) .ay)] x[b(az . 4.4.985 0.210 Cardano's formulae): (312) m/2 2 cos~ + 2 cos 20 I 3re 6 )m( + 2 c o s ~ 6 2og' (23) where 1 12 .Cry) .C(ax . and for 2024T3 with the thickness 0. 2325 m 11 8 a 1. for 2008T4 defined previously.30mm and composition (in weight %) < 0. ~ + [b(o~ .a z ) .a(o~ .50 Fe.2 Material 2008T4 2024T3 Coefficients of the functions in Eqs.b(o" z .60 Mn.4.Cry) . g.~x) .6 POLYNOMIAL YIELD CONDITIONS PLANAR ORTHOTROPY FOR Some authors propose anisotropic yield conditions in the form of a polynomial. . h.162 TABLE 3.a z ) .0 1.955 f 1.ax)][a(ay .c(rrx .. namely. 0.40 Cu.50 Si. a.4.2z .044 c 0.arccos (25) with seven dimensionless constants m. 1. usually of the third or fourth degree.0 1.a ( a y .0 g 1.~)]h~ G } (24) 0 .222 1.2 gives their numerical values for rolled aluminum alloy sheets.ax)] 2 1 2 + [ b ( a z .~4{[a(ay .
A30"x0"y + A4 o"x@ + A50y (26) 2 2 + A9r~y 1 + (A60"x + A70"x0"y + A80". Numerical values of these constants were found experimentally by the author for commercial Alkilled steel and Cu(1/4)H rolled sheets.79 2.4.3 Material Alkilled steel Cu(1/4)H Coefficients of the Function Eq. They are quoted in Table 3. two typical approaches may be distinguished: either a purely formal.0 A2 2. in turn. perforated) often show an even more significant dependence on the direction than naturally anisotropic ones.20 A5 0. with the notation of axes as given previously. . or a more detailed analysis of the structure combined with a homogenization process. .68 A4 2. ao2. It was called by the author "a userfriendly theory of orthotropic plasticity" (fourth Hill's yield condition): F~+ G (p+q) ~ = 1 (27) where 0Ol. . whereas c must satisfy the equation c 1 1 1 = 4 (28) 2 O010"02 0"~1 0"22 0"b 3. phenomenological application of the general anisotropic yield conditions. Hill [25] proposed a planar yield condition for orthotropic sheets in the form of a thirddegree polynomial expressed in terms of principal stresses acting along the inplane axes of orthotropy. Detailed comparisons with quadratic yield condition were also provided.96 11. discussed in the previous sections.3.0 1. A2. and 0b denote.7 FINAL REMARKS Averaged (homogenized) properties of structurally anisotropic materials (reinforced.48 Gotoh [24] proposed for orthotropic materials the following fourthdegree yield condition: 3 2 2 4 A10"x++A20x0"y if.4.4.80 A3 3.203 A6 6. 26 Divided by A1 A1 1. .33 6. In the case of structural plastic anisotropy.51 A8 6.8 mm in thickness.)rxy 2 with nine material constants A1. 0. A9.29 6.991 1.71 163 A9 8.58 A7 7. yieldpoint stresses in uniaxial tension in directions "1" and "2" and in equibiaxial tension.75 2. . ribbed.72 5. Dimensionless constants p and q are free (to be determined from experiments).4 Anisotropic Yield Conditions TABLE 3.60 1.3.
265: 187204. po Stroitelstvu. (1966). Mises. A generalized theory of plastic flow of anisotropic media (in Russian). Hu. pp. and hardening in anisotropic plasticity. I. Mater. (1970). Royal Soc. and Kopnov. J. T. E. (1988). M. A. 307319. P. Theory of yielding and plastic flow of anisotropic metals. Shindo. Mechanika Teoretyczna i Stosowana 7: 155163. Schweiz. (1971). O pewnym przypadku anizotropii. and Sawczuk. Berman. Moskva: Mashinostroyenye. Appl. and Failure of Anisotropic Solids.. Metall. A. Damage. 17. Z. Betten. 15. L i t e r a t u r e d e v o t e d to a n i s o t r o p i c yield c o n d i t i o n s is v e r y a m p l e . Boehler. 97111. I. W. (1959). 9th Jap. Streletsky. Hill.. (1959). 7. and Wu. W.. . Goldenblat. A general theory of piecewise linear plasticity for initially anisotropic materials. V. 3. Franklin Inst. V. Int. (1948).. J.. L. On deformationinduced plastic anisotropy of sheet metals.. Goldenblat. (1990)..164 Z~z~ow~. 2. REFERENCES 1. A description of distortional plastic hardening of anisotropic materials. Theorie des plastischen Fliessens von anisotropen K6rpern. Alphen aan den Rijn: m Warszawa. N. Sobotka.. 4. Angew. Plasticity 4: 2946. (1958). 10. (1981). 2. in Yielding. G. W. 5: 5880. Angew. J. Trans. n u m e r o u s a d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e s are g i v e n in R e f e r e n c e [7]. J. R. (1928). Z. 11. Mechanik 8: 161185. G. in Yielding. Congr. M o r e o v e r . in Stroitelnaya Mekhanika (Rabinovich Anniversary Volume). (1990). Damage. I. Bauz. D. and Kopnov. Mechanik 49: 2532. I. P. Klepaczko. 4: 667673. London: Mechanical Engineering Publications.. Math. and Kurtyka. Jr. Yield and Strength Criteria for Structural Materials (in Russian). (1969). Mechanik der plastischen Form~inderung von Kristallen. and volume expansion in metals and plastics. Plasticity theory. J. P. 117120... et al. P. A general theory of strength for anisotropic materials. M. ed. Tsai. flow rules. Moskva Izdat: Lit. J. C. Z. J. 0ber die Anstrengungshypothesen. 94: 259263.. Yield criteria. Mech. pp. de M&anique 9: 533. A. (1973). Boehler. (1929). and Failure of Anisotropic Solids. Drucker. 14. 5. T. 6. Combined Loadings in the Theory of Plasticity. Modified Tresca's yield condition and associated flow rules for anisotropic materials and its applications. Boehler. pp. 9. (1992). Nat. Math. S o m e e x a m p l e s of the latter a p p r o a c h will be g i v e n in the c h a p t e r d e v o t e d to heterogeneous media. 5379. (1969). Equilibre limite des sols anisotropes. R. (1968). Compos.. ed. Nijhoff m PWN.yczkowski. 16. Archiwum Mechaniki Stosowanej 44: 663698. A consideration on anisotropic yield criterion. A. W. 13. J. 18.. and Hodge. and Fukuoka. M. Rogers. London: Mechanical Engineering Publications. T.. Zyczkowski. J. Archiwum Mechaniki Stosowanej 11: 513540. strengthdifferential (SD) phenomenon. Burzyfiski. m a n y e x p e r i m e n t a l data are p r e s e n t e d b y I k e g a m i [26]. Proc.. in Proc. Szczepifiski. S. S. pp. 12.. 8. H. A193: 281297. Ota. ed. Applications of tensor functions to the formulation of yield criteria for anisotropic materials. I.
Mech. Experimental plasticity on the anisotropy of metals. 21: 241249. J. J. Hill. R. D. Soc. C. Sci. (1990). Ikegami. Alphen aan den Rijn: Nijhoff. The plasticity of an isotropic aggregate of anisotropic facecentered cubic crystals. Proc. 26. Math. Lege. 19: 505520. 23. R. A sixcomponent yield function for anisotropic materials. 22. M.. Mech. P. Barlat. J. E. Plasticity 5: 5166. Camb. Hershey. (1993). A. J. in Mechanical Behaviour of Anisotropic Solids. (1982). (1979). (1991). Mech.. Int.3. Plastic behavior and stretchability of sheet metals. Boehler. Int. Plasticity 7: 693712. Gotoh. (1954). Hill. Int. Int. Sci. Appl. 35: 1925. ed. J. Theoretical plasticity of textured aggregates. pp. 85: 179. J. V. 201242. 25. Phil. . J. 21. A userfriendly theory of orthotropic plasticity in sheet metals. J. R. J. (1989). 24. and Lian. Phys.4 Anisotropic Yield Conditions 165 19. Mech. Hill. J. Constitutive modelling of orthotropic plasticity in sheet metals. 20. Barlat. (1977). and Brem. E. Solids 38: 405. A theory of plastic anisotropy based on a yield function of fourth order. K.
. . . and (5) distortion. . . CH1211 Geneve 23. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . . 3. . . . . .5. . .SECTION 3. . . . . . . .1 Background and Validity of the Model .1 Use of the model as a Yield Condition . . . . and neglect the 166 Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . . . . . ISBN 0124433413. (2) proportional expansion (isotropic component). . . . . . . (4) rotation. References . .4. . . . 166 167 170 171 171 171 173 3. . . . . . .2 Use of the Model as a Hardening Rule . . . .5. . . . . . . . . .4. . .2 Formulation of the Model . . . . . .5. . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . Most practically used models of plastic hardening are confined to the kinematicisotropic components of these transformations. . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 BACKGROUND AND VALIDITY OF THE MODEL Experiments in metal plasticity show that during plastic loading the development of acquired plastic anisotropy is reflected by complex transformations of the initial yield surface. . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Description of the Model .5. . . exceeding affine deformation. . 3. . . . .5 Distortional Model of Plastic Hardening TADEUSZ KURTYKA CERN. . . . . . . . . . . . These transformations usually consist of the following five elements: (1) translation (kinematic component). . . .European Organizationfor Nuclear Research. . . . . . . . .4 How to use the Model . Switzerland Contents 3. (3) affine (elliptic) deformation. . . . . . . .5.
.2a2/3 (where a0 stands for the yield stress in uniaxial tension) is described by a hypersphere with the radius R0 = a0. which has the advantage of providing a quite general description and a simple geometrical interpretation of the distortional effects.. The model is formulated for initially isotropic J2 materials [7] but may be generalized to a wider class of pressureinsensitive "deviatoric materials" [8.. . 3).5. 2 . such as for a correct modeling of the multiaxial ratcheting under nonproportional loadings. . the model follows classical relations of rateindependent elastoplasticity for small plastic strains. These effects are. 3. index notation will be used. however.2 FORMULATION OF THE MODEL The primary idea of the present model is to have the initial yield condition described by a hypersphere and to consider various transformations of such a hypersphere. For the sake of clarity. In these spaces the stress deviator S = {sij} will be represented as a stress vector a = {a~} with the components a~ defined here as: (1) ' \2 ' In such a space the Hubervon Mises yield condition sijsij . the model is mainly presented as a distortional yield condition and is only outlined as a hardening rule. = 1. systematically observed in experiments and may be essential for some important applications. Several distortional models have therefore been proposed [16] to describe the yield surface distortions and to introduce the corresponding distortional hardening rules. .3. This is also the case of the distortional model presented in this paper. = 1. Such models are thus addressed mainly to experimentalists and need further investigations. fi. As a hardening rule [ 10. . In what follows. where it needs further experimental specification. Here. and Greek indices will be reserved for the coordinates of Ilyushin's vector spaces (o~.5 Distortional Model of Plastic Hardening 167 yield surface distortions.o (2) . . The model is therefore conveniently formulated using vectorial representations of stress and straintype deviators in the auxiliary fivedimensional Ilyushin's vector spaces [12]. . 11]. there is as yet no widely accepted theory of this type applicable to engineering problems. 5). j . however. 2. 9 ]. . ... Latin indices will refer to physical coordinates (i.
168 Kurtyka The strain vector ~ = {8~} of the strain deviator E = {eij} is defined as 2 81 . with their centers translated with respect to the origin of the moving reference frame F~.~ g 2 3 . being also directions of the elliptic deformation of the yield surface. 83 . . their directions may be arbitrary. 2 85 .e l l ~ 8 2 .a~) .5..e.1.the nonzero components of the five vectors d(~) in the moving reference frame F~. 3.~ \ 2 g22 . The present distortional model may be treated as a generalization of the kinematicanisotropic hardening models described by the quadratic yield condition v  =0 (4) where C@1 is a fourthorder tensor of plastic anisotropy and aij is a deviatoric translation tensor (or back stress).. experimental distortions of subsequent yield surfaces are sufficiently well described by a special. This reduces the distortional parameters to five scalar parameters denoted d~ . The present model is based on a simple geometrical generalization of the hyperellipsoidal surface. In the vector stress space (Eq.. ~ = ~e + ~p.ao~)(a~ .1a.1 = 0 (5) with the symmetric matrix C . described by the quadratic form F = C~.~ { 3 3 1 2 (3) and may be decomposed into its elastic and plastic part. In the general case of such a surface. having the same index a ) axes ~ .{ C~/~} corresponding to the tensor C = {Cijhz} (its components divided by the common factor 2a02/3) and the translation vector a = {a~} representing the translation deviator. illustrated for a twodimensional case in Figure 3. simplified case in which the distortional vectors are coaxial with the corresponding (i. 1) this condition is mapped (under usual symmetry conditions imposed on the anisotropy tensor) by a hyperellipsoidal surface. as shown in Reference [13]. The hyperellipsoid is treated here as a surface resulting from a projective mapping of five concentric hyperspheres with five (generally distinct) radii R~.5. These translations are described by five stresstype parameters m distortional vectors d(~). 2 84 . and with five orthogonal projective directions coinciding with the directions of the eigenvectors of the matrix C. However.1b).5.8(a~ .~ e 1 2 . Figure 3. A nonelliptic distortion of the surface is obtained by allowing the hyperspheres to be nonconcentric (Fig.
5.1 Distortional model of subsequent yield surfaces (b) as a generalization of quadratic surfaces (a). .FIGURE 3.
3. should be rotationally symmetric with respect to the loading direction (Ilyushin's postulate of isotropy). . d~./~ . 5).3 DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL Kurtyka For this simplified case of distortion the yield surface equation.Q~/~D(~). a. R1. (6) where indices in brackets are labels. Invariant aspects of the model and the equivalence between tensorial and vectorial formulations are treated in Reference [14]. 4. the matrix C is now a functional matrix. R~ = R0 for 0~= 2. The surface of this type is defined if R2 ___d2. In this coordinate system the equation of the distortional yield surface may be presented in the following "canonical" form: 5 "2 a~ 0r 10.~(a. dl. e.R~ + 2d(~. Its convexity has been proven at least in a twodimensional case [7]. This implies d~ = 0. 5. The preceeding yield surface model is characterized by the following set of geometrical parameters: Q. the yield surface equation is largely simplified. R0. and the matrix C may be expressed as: + + (8) where 6~ is a unit matrix.a~) .. R~. . with c~Q~(a~a~) (7) where F~ denote the components of the "active stress vector" ( a . however. In these formulae Q = {Qy~} is an orthogonal matrix describing rotation of the moving frame F~. which are not subject to summation.g. the model accounts for quite general asymmetric distortions observed for nonproportional loading paths.d~. one vector parameter m the back stress a (with 5 components). This expression may be treated as a generalization of the BaltovSawczuk tensor of plastic anisotropy for the case of the distortional model.5.a) in the moving frame. expressed in terms of its geometrical parameters. ( 7 ) = 7. . with the diagonal matrix of "eigenvalues" D = diag(Dy~) depending on stress components: C. . .)Q(y). In this case the rotation matrix Q is fully defined by any unit vector collinear with the loading direction. containing the rotation matrix Q (with 10 independent components). since in this case the yield surface. by e = a/]a] = ~P/]~P] . d~. In the case of proportional loads. In its most general form. which is defined here by only four parameters: ]a[. and 10 scalar parameters R~.17 0 3. at least for the initial Hubervon Mises material. is formally identical to that of the quadratic surface (Eq. with all R~ distinct and all d~ different from zero. with 2 D(~) . and smooth if R2 > d2.~ .Q~.
The matrix C itself is not convenient for this purpose. nonproportional loads is defined by seven parameters.4. d3. corresponding to two experimental methods of yield surface determination. Most frequently this will be done for the yield surfaces investigated in twodimensional subspaces of the stress space (Eq. 3. A sufficient number of experimental points of the yield surface. still to be explored.5. First. The model may also be used as an anisotropic yield condition for the materials with previous plastic working (e. In this case the distortional model corresponding to general. e. the model describes with good accuracy the experimental yield loci obtained for various materials and for different experimental definitions of yielding. discussed previously.5. 1).5. dl. with N ~ . C~/~ . we may choose as hardening variables the geometrical parameters of the yield surface. first of all.g. General and some specified forms of such evolution equations. investigated either during the loading process (method of partial unloading. as well as the corresponding stressstrain relations for this case.5. 3. may be termed "tensorial" and consists in looking for a global evolution equation defining the parameters contained in the matrix C in the distortional yield condition. As shown in [13].1 USE OF THE MODEL AS A YIELD CONDITION The model may. 5 . The second approach.2. be used to approximate experimental yield surfaces. R1.2b). Figure 3. have been presented in Reference [10] and applied in Reference [11] to the simulation of Bui's experimental results shown in Figure 3.Q~Q~D(~) (9) . a3.5 Distortional Model of Plastic Hardening 171 3 . for the al. a3 tensiontorsion plane these are al. These parameters may be identified using the numerical method of leastsquares approximation described in Reference [13].g. after rolling [9]). Two examples are shown in Figure 3..5. size changes. q~. rotation. where q) is the angle of rotation of the moving reference frame.. both for proportional and nonproportional loading paths. but may be presented as an inverse of a certain matrix N. obtained in multiaxial tests.2b.3.2 USE OF THE MODEL AS A HARDENING RULE Two approaches may be outlined here.N~~ 1. is necessary to perform the identification.2a) or after complete unloading (Fig. and distortions of the yield surface. R3. defining the rotation matrix.5. and specify separate evolution equations describing translation.4. 4 H O W T O USE T H E M O D E L 3.
load path OAA'BC.2 The distortional model as bestfit to experimental yield surfaces of pure aluminum for nonproportional tensiontorsion load paths.5.torsion under constant compression. load path tangent to the initial yield surface.FIGURE 3. . Experimental points according to (a) Phillips and Tang [15] . (b) Bui [161 .
Acta Mechanica. further investigations should be directed toward a differential or integral generalization of this expression that is valid for general nonproportional loading paths and is combined with a relevant translation rule for the back stress. 2. Analysis of stressstrain relations by use of an anisotropic hardening plastic potential. k2.R ~ . ASCE. A geometric description of distortional plastic hardening of deviatoric materials. Generalized Ilyushin's spaces for a more adequate description of plastic hardening. T. 113. Distortional hardening rules for metal plasticity. 6]). The incorporation of yield surface distortion into a unified constitutive model. Meccanica 6(2): 104114. (1971). ( 1 O) where the secondorder tensor A~fl (fourthorder tensor in physical coordinates) contains isotropic and affine anisotropic effects. 57: 537547.) B~fl~. where it can be derived from Eq..a~. Watanabe. affine. Mech. P. and Popov. Solids 27: 213229. Voyiadjis. one may take the expression for the tensor N corresponding to the case of proportional loading. Arch.. and Zyczkowski. A rationally based yield criterion for work hardening materials. Part II 72:3953 (1988). In this approach. Kurtyka. E. (sixthorder tensor in physical coordinates) is responsible for the distortional effects. Acta Mechanica 52. and Foroozesh. and Miller A.. Williams. Trans. J. 6. Anisotropic hardening law of plasticity using an internal time concept (deformations of yield surfaces). Appl. and should be specified from experiz z. 37(4): 383395. As a hint and "prototype" for these evolution equations.L. Ikegami. M. (1990). (1985). Part I 69: 923. [5. In this second approach to the formulation of the distortional hardening rule.)e~efle~. formulated for other distortional models (c. G. ments. and Zyczkowski. (1987). could be reexamined in the context of the present model.3. D. Mech. Mech. Int. Mech.R1 . .f. J.a~. M. E. Mech. T. the evolution equations must be specified for these two tensors. O. Shiratori. 30(264): 912920. 109: 10421057.2dl. J. This tensor may be presented in the general form N~fl = a~fl + ( o~. J. 5. Helling. Anisotropic distortional yield model. Soc.. Some proposals of such generalizations.. (1983). k l . Eng.R~.. E (1979). N. k 2 . E. M. Phys. Kurtyka. 8. (1987). J.. and the thirdorder tensor B~fl~. REFERENCES 1. and Yoshida. 3. Eng. M. and distortional effects are related to the geometrical parameters. K. Jap. k3 ~ three scalar functions describing isotropic.dl k 3 . and Svensson. (1984). Z. 4. Ortiz. 8 in the following finite form: N~fl = k16~fl + k2e~efl + k3(a~ .5 Distortional Model of Plastic Hardening 173 representing a secondorder tensor in the stress vector space (corresponding to a fourthorder tensor in physical coordinates) and linear in stress components. 7. . E. K. (11) where kl.
P. A. 40(4): 433454. Zyczkowski. Bui. T. Damage and Failure of Anisotropic Solids. T. 16. Modelling and Scientific Computing 5(24): 257. Int.. K.. L. Sc. T. 10. and Wasik. 28: 115131. Integration of evolution equations for distortional plastic hardening. Evolution equations for distortional plastic hardening. Moskva: Izd. Mech. Mech. Plasticity (in Russian). Stos. (1995). 12.174 Kurtyka 9. The effect of loading path on the yield surface at elevated temperatures. and Tang. 8: 463474. in Yielding. J. (1963). Ilyushin. (1966). 15. Arch. Teor. . Invariant formulation of a distortional model of plastic hardening. 13. Paris 262: 401404. M. pp. A. Boehler. (1988). A description of distortional plastic hardening of anisotropic materials.. Ecrouissage des M&aux. Kurtyka. Kurtyka. J. 14. AN SSSR. Plasticity 12(2): 191213. ed. H. C. M. Zyczkowski. J. Phillips.. J. T. (1996). (1990). London: MEP. Acad. A. (1990). Kurtyka. 11. M. Kurtyka. D. and Kurtyka. and Zyczkowski. R. Int.. (1972). Parameter identification of a distortional model of subsequent yield surfaces.. Math. 97111. Solids Struct.. T.
D06099 Halle (Saale). . 3. . . . . . loss of strength or damage in structural elements.6.6 A Generalized Limit Criterion with Application to Strength. . . . . . . . . .1 Validity . . . . .6. . . . MartinLutherUniversitdt HalleWittenberg. .1 VALIDITY This is generalized equivalent stress criterion that is valid for materials in the brittle or ductile state and that can be used to describe the beginning of yielding. . . . . . . . . . . In addition. . . . . . . . . granular materials. . . . . .2 Background . . . . . The criterion is presented for isotropic materials and the case of m o n o t o n i c loading conditions at constant temperatures. . . . 3. . .6. . . 3. 3. . . . the t i m e . . . .6. . . . . .6 Parameters . . . . . . . Yielding. . . . that a r e subjected to multiaxial stress states.4 Identification of the parameters . .i n d e p e n d e n t behavior is presumed. . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . . from the presented generalized criterion various special cases can be d e d u c e d and the limits of their applicability can be defined. . . . . . . . . . . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Damage of Isotropic Materials HOLM ALTENBACH Fachbereich Ingenieurwissenschaften. . . . Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. . . ISBN 0124433413. . . . . . . . . Germany Contents 3. . . . .6. . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . and so forth. . . . 175 176 177 177 179 186 186 3. . . .6. .3 Description of the model . . . . . . . .5 How to use the model . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . 175 . . .SECTION 3. . . Finally. . .6. . . . .
In multiaxial (combined) stress states. e. and torsion (main tests in mechanical testing materials). Experimental data demonstrating such behavior are reported.Ch) =0 (1) The function f is a scalarvalued. n) for fitting available data from tests. are characteristics which allow one to obtain. cry. j = 1. In general. compression.. On the other hand. under hydrostatic pressure conditions or if the level and the kind of stress state have a significant influence on the material behavior.g.g. working.g. II.. etc. There is no unique answer to the question of what kind of invariants must be introduced: the principal stresses of the HaighWestergaard coordinates. in References [1. 6]. in Reference [1]. are scalars for the comparison certain criterion must be introduced mathematically. nonnegative. the material properties. Both can be obtained from the stressstrain curve (mostly the engineering stresses and the engineering strains). we have to define an equivalent stress criterion. 3) and several material constants Ck (k = 1. Equivalent stress expressions for isotropic materials are introduced by various authors.. This is the reason for the great number of engineering proposals which are established in the literature.g.2 BACKGROUND Ahenbach The use of traditional engineering materials at elevated exploitation conditions as well as the use of new materials (e. e.6. The criterion can be generally expressed as f(crij. a general expression based on some physical principles. Considering that both the material properties characterizing the limit state cry.. ... The main experimental information is based on data derived from simple tests under the condition of atmospheric pressure and loaded in tension. etc.17 6 3. . On the basis of these tests. 3. . cannot be found. homogeneous function. With the help of the equivalent stress. 2. etc. In uniaxial stress states. the beginning of yielding or the loss of strength. one can compare critical multiaxial stress states in structural elements with the results of mostly uniaxial materials tests. Examples of such invariants are presented. composites or special alloys) requires the reformulation of the traditional limit criteria based on the equivalent stress formulations. e. III) are three independent invariants of the stress tensor. . they have the following form: f (r r r G) = 0 (2) where cri (i = I. such as the yield stress point cry or the ultimative strength cry. Note that the function f is a function of the stress tensor crij (i. . it is impossible to give recommendations about the equivalent stress value if the materials are. for instance.
.~3 = 1 and all other . we consider the following invariants (HaighWestergaard coordinates): 9 the first invariant of the stress tensor I1 ~ r 9 the von Mises stress arm = V/3/2sijsij with sij the stress deviator..6. Taking into account the various possibilities for defining the stress tensor invariants below. to the influence of the hydrostatic pressure and the stress state (for instance. . we describe the equivalence between the uniaxial and the complex material behavior. Assuming the parameters to be constant. . If aeq < or7 the structural element works. the first yielding (in the case of plastic behavior of ductile materials) or the ultimative strength. the equivalent stress expression can be suggested [2]: following generalized (4) r . hardening behavior cannot be modeled.3. and 9 the angle of the stress state ~ with sin 3~ .. e.. .4 IDENTIFICATION OF THE PARAMETERS The six unknown parameters in the equivalent stress expression can be identified with the help of the following basic tests in which homogeneous stress states can be assumed. in addition..g. . tension or compression). With respect to the introduced invariants. If r . or damage starts. e.g.6. In this case we can estimate the parameters as functions of the material properties obtained in tests. The classical equivalent stress the von Mises stress can be deduced if . ]~] ~ n/6. 6) are scalar parameters which should be determined experimentally. With the help of the introduced inequality.( 9 / 2 ) Sij Sjk Ski/CTv3M.~m are vanishing. loss of stiffness. Such material properties are. Then the following criterion can be introduced: ~q ___~ (3) where aeq is the equivalent stress and a7 denotes a critical material properties (limit value) estimated in the tension test. 3. the equivalent stress depends on the stress tensor invariants only. Note that the generalized equivalent stress is sensitive.'~1 CYvM sin~ + 22CrvMCOS~ + 23 arm +/~411 ~ 2511 sin~ + 2611 COS~ The 2m (m = 1. in the elastic range (no plasticity) or we cannot obtain any failure.6 A Generalized Limit Criterion 177 3. the proposed model is restricted by monotonic loading.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL Consider that the limit (failure) state occurs if plastic behavior. Assuming isotropic behavior. for example.O"T we assume the limit state for the given material.
0R is the limit of the circumferential stress which can be calculated from 0R . Finally.1 .3q (q denotes the hydrostatic pressure).+ ~26 . we put these values in the expression of the equivalent stress.0 " 3 3 .0 . In this test a special combination of the uniaxial force and the pressure must be fulfilled: 0 .C . The solution of this . 1 1 . and R. and A denotes the cross section area of the thinwalled tubular specimen. ~ = re/6. and 9 uniaxial tension superposed by hydrostatic pressure with the stresses 0"11 = F / A . * * with 0 . Ahenbach Here 0c and zr are the limit values of the material in the case of compression or torsion.0 .* * ..~. we get six equations (algebraic with respect to the unknown parameters 2m) containing six known material properties identified by independent tests. p is the inside limit pressure. The last condition guarantees that the first invariant vanishes.1 / 3 0 . 0"vM. with 0.p R / h .. 0 " v M . For comparison we calculate for each test the invariants I1. and ~. In addition. and 9 torsion O"12 D "~T.~. 9 biaxial tension (thinwalled tubular specimen loaded by inside pressure and uniaxial tensile force) with the stresses 011 = F / A + 0. 0"22 = 0"33 = . Here we consider the following tests: 9 thinwalled tubular specimen under inside pressure with the stresses 20"11 .~ . in the case of uniaxial tension we obtain I1 0"T. 0 " 2 2 .~5 V5 (5) Providing the same calculations for all other tests. In the next test.0"22 ~ 0"R.~1 v/3 .p R / h . .. we can introduce tests reflecting the complex behavior. and . F is the tensile force.q .178 Let us introduce three basic tests of the material testing: 9 uniaxial tension o11 .1 1 . 022 = 0.+ ~22 + 23 + 24 . The introduction of such tests is not unique and depends on the experimental facilities.0 " 2 2 . 0c is the limit of the circumferential stress.0"T. For example.0.q..* * .~/2.. 9 uniaxial compression 0"11 . For the third test the following condition must be valid: 0 .2 / 3 0 ... T . h are the radius of the middle surface and the thickness of the thinwalled tubular specimen.
2 a r . we obtain values of the unknown 2m that are different from the presented solution. The expression contains six parameters.2 (  rr 0"** 1+ (7 y 24+v/3 2 (6) 21 .6 A Generalized Limit C r i t e r i o n 179 system of equations can be presented as / 26 __ 1 [ 4 ar . which means that we need for identification purposes six independent tests. we obtain the special criterion from the general form if we take into account that a . aT TT Note that. and we can classify the equivalent stress as a sixparameter criterion.5 H O W TO USE THE MODEL The generalized criterion can be used for the description of the limit state (beginning of plastic behavior.. The proposed equivalent stress expression generalizes various wellknown classical criteria.3 + 3 aSr a r 63v/3\ aR rr a** a.6. From the solution of our system of equations we can now calculate with respect to the given . Examples are different behavior in tension and in compression or if the hydrostatic stress state influence cannot be ignored. 24 \ aR 25 .. 3. damage or loss of stiffness) for materials with a behavior depending on the stress state. = ay.3. The Hubervon MisesHencky equivalent stress mostly used in plasticity is based on one test that means aeq = arm <_ ay (7) At the same setting 23 = 1 and all other 2m = 0.1 + m + 224 + v/326 OC /~3 = 1 2 ( aT v ~ \ 2O'. Let us discuss the special cases from the point of view of criteria with fewer parameters or based on fewer independent tests. in the case of other tests for complex stress states.
~ ) bl 3 Fourparameter criteria B ~ b2 (.tl 22 23 24 . ~ oR = v~ . o.i.1 .1 various criteria are TABLE 3. we can conclude that the Hubervon MisesHencky equivalent stress is valid.c3) 4(C1C3) C4 1 (cl + c2 + c3) d2 0 d3 0 d4 Ta o dl 0 .~3) o b3 1 (al 4.a3) 0 a4~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 (2c2 . O'T ~ 1. . In other words.~5 26 HMH CTV Ma GL Sd VB 0 0 OneParameter criteria 0 1 2v~ 0 3 1 2 v~ 2 v~ 3 v/3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 . the use of the Hubervon MisesHencky equivalent stress can be recommended. i = 1 . if we obtain these combinations of limit values in tests.6.180 Ahenbach values of . otherwise we have to consider another expression for the equivalent stress.~1 .O'T .o"C o.Cl .~ . .~m in the case of HMH some relations for the material properties O ' T . . 2 ~ .1 Values of the Parameters ~.v) 0 12~ 3 0 0 Twoparameter criteria Mo BM _lx 3 0 v~(z+l) 3 0 0 l+z 2 1z 0 0 ~2 a~/ 1z 3 2 o 0 0 o 0 0 CP PL Sa 0 z1 3 0 o v~(1Z) v~ 3 g 0 x/~(I+z) 3 o 0 0 0 K 0 2f(1 r q 0 Threeparameter criteria P Ts H (2.. .51 g 1 6 1+~ 3 4 (1 4. . In Table 3. 6 in the Generalized Criterion in the Case of Particular Criteia Criterion .6.~ "~T (8) If these relations are fulfilled.a2 4.
03) 9 Ma for the Mariotte criterion 1 0eq . 01 ..O"1 .T r e s c a .v o n MisesHencky criterion 0eq ~ 0vM 9 CTV for the C o u l o m b . In both tables the following abbreviations are used: 9 HMH for the H u b e r .eq __ 1 (0vM 4. From the Table 3.2.6.~/111 with r/ _ ..03) 9 Mo for the Mohr criterion 0. SijSij Jr 0~I1 or 0eq .01 9 Sd for the Sdobyrev criterion 0. Z m O'T 7cc 9 BM for the BotkinMirolyubov criterion 0eq .X)I1] 9 DP for the DruckerPrager criterion (r/ ~r for recalculation of the criterion) ~/~ v5 v5~+1 Tmax .01) 9 VB for the de Saint VenantBach criterion 0eq = 01 .V(O'2 4.03) or 0eq .1[(1 4.eq ..1(01 .03 9 GL for the GalileiLeibniz criterion 0eq .3.6 A Generalized Limit Criterion 181 presented as special cases of the sixparameterequivalent stress given here..Z)0vM 4.~30vM 4.Z03.01 ~(02 4.d e Saint Venant criterion Tmax . one can get other information: the combinations of the material's limit values for which the special expressions of the equivalent stress can be recommended..(1 .
2 Restrictions for the Material Characteristics in the Case of Particular Criteia Criterion 9 OC E I TT E I UR E L O.6.s Oneparameter criteria HMH CTV Ma 1 1 1 2 V ' 3 2 3 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 a 1 GL 0 1 2 1 1 4 Sd VB & 2 & 2v 2 1 1v 5 6 v 1+v 5 ( 1 + v) Twoparameter criteria Mo 1 v%l+x)+3(1x) 4 1 % BM CP PL Sa K . L L a.TABLE 3.
Criterion vc Q OR EL 0.TABLE 3. .6.2 (continued)  > or ZT K . . 6 C Threeparameter criteria Fourparameter criteria i. LX 0 .
4 0.4 0.a303 with al 1 9 Ts for the Tsvelodub criterion ~eq .184 Altenbach 9 PL for the PisarenkoLebedev criterion Creq .3 Relation between Limit Values in Tension and Compression [5] High=strength cast iron Wrought iron Grey cast iron High=strength steel Metal ceramics (tungsten carbide based) Graphite Glass Note that in the case of HMH or the CTV criterion cr~/crc must be 1.~0"1 with c~+fl+71 9 B for the Birger cirterion O'eq ~ C101 + C20"2 + C30"3 + C40"vM with C1 A t .0 0..20"3 9 K for the Koval'chuk criterion ff eq . t'] ~ o'r 9 P for the Paul criterion ffeq .q ) ( o " 1 .10.20.bl 4. q 2r/ 2_v/~.0"3) .ZCrvM + (1 Z)0"I 9 Sa for the Sandel criterion O'eq O" I 41(1 .C 4 .070.95 0.qo'vM + (1 .20.91.70..6.2 .v ~ b 2 + 2b3 = 2 9 H for the Hayhurst criterion (Teq .a l O l Jra202 k.20.b l ~ v M sin~ + b2~rvMCOS~+ b3~rvM with .~ffvM Jr.2)0"2 ..0~I1 q.3 0.6 0. 0.1 TABLE Material 3.
Ferritdperlite Perlite 150250 200300 600 720 170 230 9 0.250.6. Structure Ultimative strength (tension).47 0.880.4 Ultimative Strength in Tension. Compression. TABLE Material 3.871. N/mm2 Ultimative strength (compression). Nlmm2 Ultimative strength (torsion).871.42 UT ac 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.881.16 GG35 350450 1080 400 0.310. and Torsion for Grey Cast Iron 141 GG15 GG20 GG25 250350 840 290 0.300.42 0.30 7T Note that in the case of the HMH or the CTV criterion g T / z T .861.320.73 or 2. ~ / m m ~ .21 GG30 300400 960 345 0.& = 1.013 6 3.4 .280.
.6. and Han. J..dl0vMCOS~ + d211 4. Chen. Kiev: Naukova Dumka.. H.2d2 . (1995).6. 3. Mechanical Properties of Engineering Materials at Complex Stress States. A. Plasticity for Structural Engineers.6 PARAMETERS Tables 3. Altenbach. W.6. A generalized failure criterion for threedimensional behavior of isotropic materials. Engineering Fracture Mechanics 54(1): 7590. Koval'chuk. V. Erweiterte Deformationsmodelle und Versagenskriterien der Werkstoffmechanik. Altenbach. M. New York et al.186 9 Ta for the T a r a s e n k o c r i t e r i o n Altenbach 0eq .d4IlCOS~ v ~ d l 4. NormenausschuB GieBereiwesen: DIN 1691GuBeisen mit Lamellengraphit (Graugu~) (Mai 1985). 3. Giginyak. 2. 2. 6.4 present experimental data for some materials for which the generalized limit state criterion can be used. A. REFERENCES 1. Zyczkowski.2d3 + x/3d4 . Warszawa: PWNnPolish scientific publisher. (1996). . 4. Combined Loadings in the Theory of Plasticity. (1983). and Lamashevsky.2 with Here 0i. and Zolochevsky. i . (1981). 5. Stuttgart: Deutscher Verlag ffir Grundstoffindustrie. B.: Springer.3 and 3. D. A. 3 denote the principal stresses (01 ~ 02 ~ 03) which can be expressed by the introduced invariants as follows" 01 ~ 20vMsin(~ + ~ ) + I1 3 ~ 02 m 20vMsin~ I1 + 20vMsin(~ + ~ ) + ~ 03 m 3 3 I1 (9) Note the restrictions of introduced parameters are included with respect to the experimental facilities (here with respect to the proposed tests). H. E... Deutsches Institut fiir Normung..1.d 3 I l s i n ~ 4. Lebedev. (1988). and Zolochevsky. Altenbach.
or by an alternative definition that gives a similar result. It appropriately ignores not only the contained plastic action on the microscale but also the early stages of the macroscopic plastic response in one or more regions. University of Florida. Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. The yield limit. Florida 32611 As discussed briefly in the section on isotropic yield criteria. ISBN 0124433413. a n d S h e l l s DANIEL C.SECTION3  7 Yield Conditions in Beams. the yield condition of a ductile metal or alloy is a matter of definition and then idealization as well. When the offset chosen is of the size of the elastic strain. a useful yield load condition at the structural level is defined by a deflection or deformation offset for the plastically deforming regions of the size of the elastic response. what is labeled as pointwise behavior actually is the loaddeformation behavior of a small unit block of material containing a sufficient number of grains to average out their quite different elastic and plastic responses along with the many disturbances on the microscale. The yield limit so defined is reached when enough regions deforming plastically are no longer so Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. a plastic response that initially is strongly constrained by the almost purely elastic response of neighboring material. In this conventional and useful approach to stressstrain relations. is then determined by an offset of strain or deformation per unit length. DRUCKER Department of Aerospace Engineering. 231 Aerospace Building. stress concentrations produced by inclusions and other discontinuities on the microscale. The large initial and fabrication stresses present in most ductile structures similarly induce some highly contained but observable local plastic deformation on the macroscale well within what is nominally the purely elastic range of response. Inhomogeneity of test specimens at the grain level. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. Mechanics & Engineering Service. As at the specimen level. and the presence of large numbers of mobile dislocations all combine to produce small but detectable plastic strain at an early stage of loading. 187 . expressed as a yield stress for uniaxial or shear loading or as a yield function in stress space for more general loading. the yield limit is a stress level beyond which the macroscopic plastic deformation that occurs is widespread and at most weakly constrained by the elastic response of neighboring or distant regions. Plates. Gainesville.
188 Drucker constrained by the remaining elastic regions nearby or far away that a plastic (really elasticplastic) deformation mechanism can operate. Any appreciable initial stress present will produce yield much earlier at one extreme fiber or the other. which in turn is greater than the moment producing yield in a beam with initial stress. and (as is customary and almost always permissible) the equations of equilibrium are satisfied in a fixed configuration. Under a general transverse loading. the elastic strains go to zero (infinite modulus) and the material does not workharden in the plastic range. Just as the stressstrain curve in tension may be idealized as elastic or perfectly plastic at a limit stress equal to the offset yield stress a0 > ay. the same limit values and purely plastic collapse mechanism apply because the stress everywhere remains unchanged during collapse. Mo = aobh2/4 will be a fair approximation. A very useful picture for placing such a yield condition in proper perspective is provided by plastic limit analysis. More and more of the beam goes plastic as the moment is increased beyond the yield value. Full plasticity with only an asymptotic vestige of purely elastic constraint requires that M reach its limit of M0 = aobh2/4. This limit moment is 50% greater than My. For an elasticworkhardening material. Like the plot of moment vs. a loaddeflection curve for a statically .7. 3. curvature. The yield limit stress Oy(= a0)will be reached at the extreme fiber when the moment M reaches My = aobh2/6. The momentcurvature plot for the elasticperfectly plastic material idealization only asymptotically flattens to zero slope at the limit moment as shown (Fig. A further increase of the bending moment to 11aobh2/48 will still leave an elastic restraining core of half the depth of the beam. When the material is idealized as rigidperfectly plastic. As the moment is increased from zero within the purely elastic range. the moment at first yield in the absence of initial stress. With the more realistic idealization of the material as elasticperfectly plastic. the momentcurvature plot in the plastic range continues upward and looks like the stressstrain curve but with a much earlier and more rounded transition from the initial high elastic slope below initial yield ay at My = aybh2/6 to the very much flatter elasticplastic at larger M. The early plastic response is strongly constrained by the elastic response of the remaining fibers. No deformation at all then takes place until the loads applied to the structure reach the limit condition and excessive deformation or collapse occurs.1). the moment will vary along the beam. the momentcurvature picture also can be so idealized at a limit moment M0 defined by an appropriate curvature offset of the size of the elastic curvature. An initially stressfree elasticperfectly plastic homogeneous straight beam of rectangular cross section b x h under pure moment M serves as illustration. the bending stress induced is linear with the distance from the neutral axis.
Not until the center section also reaches M0 and can operate as a (workhardening) plastic hinge is a fully plastic mechanism possible. In the perfectly plastic limit of no workhardening. but somewhat exceeds crobh2/4. when the limit moment M0 is reached at the center and both ends.7. When the end cross sections are fully plastic. indeterminate beam also looks like a stressstrain curve but with a still earlier and more gradual transition from the high slope elastic response to the relatively fiat plastic response. defined by a deflection offset of the size of the elastic response. For example.1 Moment vs. qL2/12. is twice the load calculated to produce first yield. and Shells 189 Mo Curvature FIGURE 3. curvature for an elastic or perfectly plastic material and a workhardening material. The first reaching of the yield stress cry at the extreme fiber at the most highly stressed cross section will be even less visible.3. at a bending moment of M0. the response away from the ends will still be primarily elastic. As the load is increased further. With workhardening. As the load is increased. the loaddeflection curve for the beam goes fiat. The yield load. The limit load q0. the limit moment M0 for plastic yielding across the full depth of the beam not only is well above crybh2/4. under a uniformly distributed load q per unit length.7 Yield Conditions in Beams. the end moments . a fixedended initially stressfree beam of length L and uniform cross section b • h will reach the initial yield stress Cry for the material at the extreme fibers at the fixed end when the bending moment there. given exactly by qoL2/16 = M0 = crobh2/4 for the perfectly plastic idealization. the bending moments everywhere along the beam increase and more and more of the cross sections at and near the ends go plastic. will not be reached until enough cross sections are sufficiently close to fully plastic that the response of the beam would be almost that of a mechanism with plastic hinges. reaches crybh2/6. Plates.
( V / V o ) 4 is not a bad approximation for all. it becomes easier and easier to calculate the stress produced at each point by the application of loads to a perfectly elastic threedimensional body of complex geometry. approximations that employ . When detailed loaddeflection calculations are required. The effect of shear force V on the limit condition can become important when beams are very short or are loaded in some unusual way. Fortunately. where Vo . they do reduce the limit moment and have an effect on the momentcurvature relation in the plastic range. the onset of yield can be determined for any yield criterion that is chosen. our knowledge of the stressstrain behavior of any material rarely if ever is complete enough to place much credence in the details of the results of such computations with the most elaborate of criteria chosen to match the data available.M0 with a single limiting curve in combined moment and shear force space. It is not strictly correct to replace the simple limit moment condition of M .~robh/2 when the Tresca criterion of yield is chosen. For a rectangular cross section. However. On rare occasions it may be desirable to obtain the history of stress and strain at some critical point in a structure rather than dealing with generalized stresses and strains such as moment and curvature. For Ibeams and WFbeams it is easiest to use the simplification that the flanges take the bending and the web carries the shear and so that they bypass the interaction. accurate computation of the subsequent history of the state of stress and strain under increasing load in the plastic range is difficult and timeconsuming with even the simplest yield criterion and flow rule. With knowledge of the initial stress and the state of the material everywhere (or the assumption of zero initial stress everywhere at zero load). When shear forces are significant. Furthermore. the one relation M / M o 1 . As computers and programs for their use become more and more powerful. although the interaction curves do change somewhat with the loading and support conditions. Despite all this complexity. the limit load calculated for perfectly plastic response with M0 = ~robh2/4 is a crude but not unreasonable measure of the yield load for the workhardening beam as defined by an offset in the loaddeflection plot of the size of the elastic deflection. they can be obtained by computation with momentcurvature relations determined directly by experiment or by full calculation from appropriate uniaxial stressstrain curves and knowledge of the initial state of stress. The interaction of shear and moment for each beam is different for different loading and support conditions as well as for different yield limit criteria.190 Drucker increase above their limit value for full plasticity on the cross section so that the effective limit condition for the beam is not reached until this increase in moment resistance due to workhardening also is overcome. and completely specified geometry of structure and loading. Most often the effect of the shear is small enough to be ignored.
yield at the top and bottom of the plate and the much later condition of full plasticity throughout the depth of the plate therefore are . and imperfect geometry of structure and loading are taken into account. It is far less demanding computationally than the simplest of genuine plasticity approaches when calculations are made of local stresses.3. For plates and shells. and shells. Also. Plates.7 Yield Conditions in Beams. The usual linear elastic calculations have many valuable uses. as for the rectangular beam. There usually is so much constraint in the elasticplastic regime that deviation from linear elastic response remains small at the considerably higher load when a yield moment is first reached at one or more cross sections located at some point or along some line in the middle surface. the analysis is in terms of generalized stresses such as bending moments. This pseudoplastic assumption goes under the name of deformation or total theory of plasticity and can give useful results when the significant stresses everywhere continue to increase as the load on the structure or element increases. plates. twist. and shell theory makes for great simplification over a true threedimensional approach and provides a very good assessment of first yield and of yield limit conditions. strains. and membrane normal and shear forces per unit length of middle surface. plate theory. An alternative approach is to replace the elasticplastic behavior with a nonlinear elastic behavior that matches the stressstrain curve for increasing loading in simple tension or shear. Transverse shear does not appear in elementary plate analysis or in the traditional limit condition. the use of beam theory. The moments produce a state of plane stress parallel to the middle surface at each point of the plate. the initial yield they predict is unrealistic unless initial stress. twisting moments. little of importance happens when a point on the surface of a ductile plates or shell yields. Corresponding kinematic quantities or generalized strains are curvature. highly constrained. with inplane or membrane forces taken as zero. and membrane extensional and shear strains. and displacements. Initial. elastic stress concentrations at connections and changes of section. The usual plate analysis considers bending moments Mx and My and twisting moments MxyMyx per unit length of middle surface. and Shells 191 such concepts as offset yield criteria and plastic limit loads are satisfactory for analysis and design under most circumstances. Again the replacement of workhardening by perfect plasticity at an appropriate offset yield level and of elasticplastic calculations by plastic limit theory permits a reasonable estimate of yield limit loads to be obtained fairly easily. or their curvilinear coordinate counterparts. However. along with a clear picture of the essence of the response. An alternative analysis based upon the substitution of nonlinear elasticity (deformation theory) for plasticity (flow theory) also is computationally tractable and may provide some useful insight. When the body is a structure composed of such elements as beams.
The extension of the calculation of M0 = aobh2/4 for a beam is a far more attractive option. the plastic as well as the elastic analysis and design of shells requires consideration of six components of generalized stress. On the assumption of initially isotropic material with isotropic hardening. and similar replacement of My for ay. the desired perfectly plastic yield limit surface in generalized stress space is determined by the perfectly plastic yield limit stress surface in conventional stress space that is selected. a far from trivial extension of the previously described determination of M0 from a momentcurvature experiment. one or more will be among the primary quantities for shells under load. In the threedimensional space (Mx. even with the assumption of zero initial stress and initial isotropy along with isotropic workhardening. Adding membrane forces to the bending and twisting moment components adds greatly to the complexity of the yield condition. In principle. Its section by the plane My = 0 or by Mx = 0 is a concentric set of ellipses with major to minor axes in a 2 to 1 ratio for the Tresca and a square root of 3 ratio for the Mises. My. However. M2 is just like the picture in twodimensional principal stress space. unless the plates are subject to special inplane loading or undergo large deflections. Each combination of generalized plastic strains gives a linear variation of plastic strains through the thickness of the plate or shell element. The resulting yield limit surface in six dimensions and its two. For a plate or shell element (the beam is a special case). the three membrane force components along with the three moment components whose principal axes need not coincide with those of the membrane forces. shear stress axy. Mxy) it becomes a set of concentric surfaces. a reasonable estimate of a yield load condition (corresponding to a deflection offset of the size of the elastic deflection) may be obtained from limit analysis with a perfectly plastic yield limit surface for the six components of generalized stress. In general.and three . As discussed for the beam. concentric Mises ellipses or Tresca hexagons or something between them.19 2 Drucker governed by the same criteria as for plane stress with 6Mx/h 2 or 4Mx/h 2 replacing ax. precise stepbystep computation of the generalized strains (curvatures and inplane strains) and displacements under changing load in the plastic range is very timeconsuming. such a yield limit surface may be determined by experiment with appropriate offset of elastic magnitude for the generalized strains. and Mxy for axy. the picture of yield limit curves in the twodimensional principal bending moment space M1 vs. just as for the plot of one normal stress ax or ay vs. Membrane forces do occur in plates but can usually be ignored as secondary quantities. Except for a few important simple geometries and loadings. These local plastic strains determine the local states of limit stress from which the generalized stresses corresponding to each choice of generalized plastic strains can be computed directly.
replacement of the elasticplastic response by a nonlinear elastic relation between generalized stresses and generalized strains may provide a useful alternative means of computation of loaddeflection relations. The resulting onedimensional equilibrium equation in the circumferential moment may be integrated (numerically if necessary) outwards from the plastically isotropic center of the plate where the bending moment per unit length is M0 on all transverse planes. These "statically determinate" examples are of direct use and may be of help in estimating limit loads for more complicated problems. The differential equation of equilibrium relating the radial and the circumferential bending moments per unit length (the generalized stresses) to the loads is an ordinary differential equation in the radius r. the yield condition that is chosen gives the radial moment in terms of the circumferential moment. Plates. the yield limit pressure P0 ranges from 6Mo/a2 for R/a = 1 (simply supported at r . Unless the geometry and the loading are very simple.88 times as much for a fixed support when R/a is equal to or greater than the natural log base e(=2. A plate of radius R and uniform thickness h supported by a concentric circular ring of radius a and subjected to a radially symmetric transverse load provides a simple instructive example. With the offset yield strength in simple tension a0 taken as the yield limit for the perfectly plastic idealization. When the path of loading leads to continually increasing (generalized) stresses in the most important regions.a) to 1. A number of limit load solutions for rotationally symmetric plates and shells under axially symmetric loading can be obtained directly from substitution of the yield limit condition in the equations of equilibrium without explicit consideration of the geometry of the deformation. computation of the details of the loaddeflection behavior of workhardening plates and shells is a very long and tedious incremental process with the most tractable of elasticplastic relations between generalized stress and strain." The yield limit curve in the twodimensional generalized stress space of circumferential force per unit axial length (in general not acting at the middle surface) and axial . The overhang region deforms plastically in the intermediate range but remains rigid during collapse when R/a exceeds e. A long thin cylindrical shell of radius R and wall thickness h deforming plastically under axisymmetric outward radial loading was the first plastic shell problem studied. When the transverse loading is a uniform pressure p over the radius a and the Tresca (maximum shear stress) criterion is chosen.7 Yield Conditions in Beams. It is similarly "statically determinate. Upper and lower bounding surfaces (circumscribed or inscribed figures) or some reasonable approximation to simplify the computations often are employed instead.aoh2/4.3. M0 .718). When the region of the plate within the supporting ring is fully plastic. and Shells 193 dimensional sections as well are likely to be of quite complicated geometry and not well suited for computation.
but they too are generally too difficult. yield load limits for shells cannot be determined exactly even when highly simplified yield limit surfaces in generalized stress space are chosen and powerful techniques of computation are employed. . the limit surface exists in a higher dimensional space. Limit loads based upon perfect plasticity do provide reasonable approximations to the desired yield loads. With a very few exceptions. A thin cylindrical vessel with a thin torispherical head subject to interior pressure was analyzed by Shield and Drucker. For a band of uniform outward pressure p per unit of area over a length 2c that is large compared with the characteristic length of the shell. The smoother but more complex yield limit surface in three dimensions for a perfectly plastic material obeying the Mises yield condition was given by Onat and Prager. They in turn can be approximated using either or both the upper (kinematic) and lower bound (equilibrium) theorems. The next level of complexity involves the threedimensional picture of yield limit surfaces and plastic limit loads for an axisymmetric pressureloaded shell with two components of membrane force and one active moment. For a narrow band of uniform pressure.p(2c) is increased over the plastic limit for a concentrated ring loading by only one fourth of 2c(croh/R). Substitution for the circumferential force in the equation of equilibrium gives an ordinary differential equation for the axial moment which can be solved analytically or integrated numerically. I chose the Tresca yield condition for convenience and determined the plastic yield limit for an outward ring loading of P per unit length of circumference to be 1. Plates are far simpler than shells. the plastic yield limit P . who employed a hexagonal prism approximation for the yield limit surface for simplicity. based on a Tresca yield condition. Socalled brittle fracture is all too likely in structures of ordinary steel at or below near freezing temperatures when limit loads are exceeded. For still more complicated loadings and shell geometries. (Rh)1/2.194 Drucker bending moment per unit of circumference is obtained easily from any isotropic yield limit in twodimensional stress space. We explained the very worrisome catastrophic fractures that occurred in large storage tanks by showing that plastic limit loads were exceeded when thin vessels were designed according to rules that are entirely satisfactory for boilers and other thick pressure vessels. 2c much less than (R/h) 1/2.82 Cro(h/R)(Rh) 1/2. the plastic limit pressure is reached when the hoop stress pR/h over the central portion of the loaded region reaches cr0.
CHAPTER 4 Plasticity .
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The corresponding plastic or permanent strains may be very large in comparison to elastic strains: up to several hundred times in metal forming. 94235 Cachan Cedex. 61 avenue du PrEsident Wilson.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n to Plasticity JEAN LEMAITRE Universit~ Paris 6. However. Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. P 9 Plastic incompressibility.   (2) 9 In three dimensions the yield function which represents the yield phenomenon plays a major role because it is used as a potential. to derive the plastic strain rate ~/~ through the normality rule .SECTION q. The main features of plastic deformations are as follows: 9 The existence of a yield stress (~y in pure tension) below which a variation of stresses induces only elastic deformations (see Chapter 3). (3) 197 . gkk v 0 (1) Furthermore. In metals it is due to irreversible movements of dislocations inducing slips. they are not sensitive to pressure or hydrostatic stress: a~ = akk/3. they do not modify the phenomenon of elasticity related only to relative movements of atoms. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. France Plasticity is the process by which solids change their shape in equilibrium with loading and permanently after unloading.Of(aD'J)2Oaij ff O if{ 0 ~3ij'v. This behavior is not explicitly related to time. the loading function f. LMTCachan. This allows one to write the constitutive equations of plasticity as a function of the stress deviator. The plastic strains eij do not involve any volume change (which is not the case for the elastic strains).0 iff < 0 orf < 0 Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. to a large extent. ISBN 012o443341o3.
The phenomenological method based directly on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes introduces a scalar variable of isotropic hardening and a tensorial variable of kinematic hardening (Section 4.4) or more through multisurface theory (Section 4. Large deformations needed for metal forming are described in Section 4.0 means that the state of stress increases and induces the same increase of the yield stress. it is not enough when modeling additional phenomena such as recovery and racheting. plasticity models differ by the choice of hardening variables. the actual yield stress as.2) or the finite element method (Section 4. as in car crashes or highspeed perforations.12). the strain rate plays little role..5). Then the stress is an increasing function of the strain rate in some way similar to viscoplasticity (see Section 4. the special case of the plasticity of polymers may be found in Section 4.3). f . The width of the resulting shear bands and some effects of the microstructure may be captured by the introduction of strain gradients (see Section 4. as in the large strain range or by coupling with damage. the phenomenon of localization may occur (Section 4.e.11). The existence of hardening. i.198 Lemaitre being the plastic multiplier determined by the consistency condition f=0. is always associated with the highest level of stress which has been applied. f = 0 means that the state of stress has reached the largest previous value.6 and 4. but this is not the case in dynamic plasticity if the strain rate is above 10 or 100 SI.10). Cry being the initial yield stress. In usual plasticity. Often. .9. Nevertheless. Examples of such homogenization procedures are the selfconsistent model (Section 4. which need more complex kinematic hardening rules (see Sections 4. When softening occurs.8.7). A simple hardening law for slip at the level of single crystals can describe realistic hardening of polycrystalline materials after appropriate homogenization over many differently oriented crystals. All previous sections are more or less devoted to metals.
. 4. . . . . intragranular hardening. . .2. . ISBN 0124433413. . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press.2. . . . .2. 4. . .3 SelfConsistent Approximation . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . selfconsistent modeling allows one to take into account texture transformations. . . . 4. . . . . 57045 Metz Cedex. . BERVEILLER Laboratoire de Physique et M~canique des Mat~riaux. . . . . . . . . 4. .2 B A C K G R O U N D 4.2. . . 4. development of secondorder internal stresses. .2. .1 Validity . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. .2.SECTION 4. .2 Integral Equation for ~(r) and v~(r) .2. . 199 199 199 201 201 202 202 4. . . . lie du Saulcy. .. . .2. . for which it may be considered a "good" approximation. References . . . . . . .1 SINGLECRYSTAL BEHAVIOR The single crystal behavior is specified for mechanisms like crystallographic slip on slip systems (g) with n g and m g the unit slip plane and slip Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. 4. . . All these p h e n o m e n a are strongly pathdependent. . . . . . . . . . .2. . .2. . . .. . . . and so forth. . . .1 SingleCrystal Behavior . . . . . . .2. In the case of elastoplasticity. . . . . 199 . . . . .2 Elastoplasticity of Metallic Polycrystals by the SelfConsistent Model M.2 Background . . . . . . . . . .. .1 VALIDITY The selfconsistent model constitutes a simple way of predicting the effective behavior of inhomogeneous media. . France Contents 4. . . . . . .3 How to Use a SelfConsistent Model . especially for metallic polycrystals. . . . . . . ..2.
pg .~/~gh~h CmnhZ "~Jev >q . which defines a critical shear stress rg as depending on the amount of slip ~h on all the systems.0 ~g>o ifzg<z g if l:g .. If ~g denotes the slip rate on system g.l (m~n~" " . One arrives at the following flow rules" ~go ~g . ~n.. g The apparently simple tensor 1 is.sR.l ( r ) ' ~ . The dynamics of slip are assumed to follow the Schmid law. the corresponding plastic strain rate in the case of multislip is given by gq/g with g g l(mgin~4m~nig ) and the plastic spin is w..jg .i g (3) The change of z~g with 7h defines the hardening matrix: if  Iqghgh (4) The elastoplastic tangent moduli 1 defined by 6 ( r ) . respectively. .hs.RpqCpq.j" g with s. (6) where M gh is the inverse of pgh _ Hgh 4. 1 depends on the orientation of the local lattices.~ g. complicated since it depends on the active slip systems.200 Berveiller direction vectors. the resolved shear stress rg = aijR~ on a slip system appears as the driving force for the flux ~g.Cijhz . ( r ) is obtained from the following additional equations where C are the elastic moduli: (5) ~p  ~~R9 One obtains lijhl . on the stress state as well as the loading path. For polycrystals or polyphased materials.Pij. .h c'. .m _ n i g) ~ _ (2) From the definition of the intrinsic dissipation d = aij~.~:c and ig < ig g if~:gl: g a n d i g . in fact.
~ (bli 0 4.L~ Equilibrium and constitutive Eqs. Eq. 12 is not easy to get in the general case.~(Gikol .i.j .). 13 allows one to calculate the local total and elastic spin (v~ and w~) needed for the evolution of the lattices orientation.W are uniform.4.Rj. defined from the usual Green function G o by Fijk' = s 2 (Gi~ 1 4. 12 allows one to calculate the strain rate concentration tensor A(r) and then the effective tangent moduli of the VER by Le= l: A.Gjh.2.2.r') 9al(r') 9~(r')dV' (12) #(r) = w + s r (r. az(r') 9 (13) where F s and F A are the symmetrical and antisymmetrical parts of the modified Green functions.2 INTEGRAL EQUATION FOR ~(F) AND 1~r The polycrystal is submitted at its external boundary to a velocity fi(r) = (/~ 4 .2. 79 yield to a Naviertype equation: 0 9 LijkzUk. leading to fluctuations al satisfying 81(r) = l(r) . 4.0 (10) (11) which is transformed into an integral equation thanks to the Green tensor G O of the homogeneous medium: ~(r) = E + ~ r ~ ( r . which have to satisfy equilibrium condtions compatibility relations constitutive equations (rijj = 0 1 (7) (8) gij . A given/~ 4.( cSlijkZkkl).lj 4.2 Elastoplasticity of Metallic Polycrystals by the SelfConsistent Model 201 4. A 1 0 0 The solution of the integral Eq.Gj~ and Fijkl . .~ / ) : x so that the overall strain and spin rates /~ 4. and various approximations are introduced.i) d(r) = l(r): ~(r) (9) A fictitious homogeneous medium with tangent moduli L~ is introduced.~ / i s responsible for local fields +(r) and 6(r).3 SELFCONSISTENT APPROXIMATION The exact solution of Eq.r')..2.
(1984). .2. REFERENCES 1. Solids 26: 325344.. Mech. size. Some of these values are well established from metallographic experiments on single crystals. Berveiller. ~ Jv i (14) It is well known from Eshelby [3] that ~ is uniform inside an ellipsoidal inclusion. Engng. and the parameters describing the inelastic behavior: initial critical shear stress. orientation of the lattices (initial texture). In order to build the selfconsistent model. Mat.W so that L e = l.J. so that the solution of Eq. Technology 106: 295298.3 HOW TO USE A SELFCONSISTENT MODEL In the case of metallic polycrystals. the elementary problem of an inhomogeneous and ellipsoidal inclusion with volume Vi and tangent moduli li within a homogeneous matrix with moduli L~ has to be solved..Le is satisfied. Phys. associated Burgers vector. 4. From Eq.J.E+ f . 12. and orientation of the grains (represented by ellipsoidal inclusions). elements of the hardening matrix. and Zaoui A.202 BerveiUer The TaylorLin model assumes that ~ =/~ and v~ . 12 is obtained with a tangent moduli L~ of the reference medium that is chosen equal to the effective medium L e so that the consistency condition c5l : ~ . one gets . A. 2. 14 is given by ~i E ~ Tii : (l i .0 or L~ . M. Berveiller. 9 the definition of the mechanisms: number and orientation of the slip systems. and Zaoui.L0): ~i (15) where the interaction tensor T ii depends only on the shape of the inclusion and the tangent moduli L~ The selfconsistent approximation of Eq. the development or use of a selfconsistent model requires the following: 9 the characterization of the microstructure: shape. 9 the definition of (isotropic or anisotropic) elastic moduli of the single crystal. M. Other material parameters can be measured on single crystals or identified by inverse methods using experimental results on a polycrystal.  l  I. (1979).
R. .. E. Proc.. 5. Lipinski. Appl. P. Applied Mech. Solids. and Morreale. 203 Eshelby. (1965).. 4.4. 13: 89101. Krier. J. Soc. Phys. R. Reubrez. J. Rev.. (1995). P. Arch. (London) 241: 376396. Lipinski. Berveiller. Phys. and Berveiller. J. M. Hill. (1957). M. J. (1990).2 Elastoplasticity of Metallic Polycrystals by the SelfConsistent Model 3. 6. 25: 361388. 65: 231311.D. Mech.
Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . . . .3. 4.3. ISBN 0124433413. . . . .3 Implementation of the Texture Updating . 4. . . 4. . . .3. . .4 Identification of the Material Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Description of the model . . . . . . . .3.2 Stress Integration Scheme . . . 4. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . . . . . . .3 Anisotropic Elastoplastic Model Based on Texture ANNE MARIE HABRAKEN D~partement MSM. . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .3. 4000 Liege. . . . . 4. . Acknowledgements . . . . Universit~ de Liege. . 4. . . .1 VALIDITY This model predicts the anisotropic plastic behavior of metals on the basis of their crystallographic texture. . . . . .3. . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .c. .c. .B52/3. . . . a powertype isotropic hardening law and an isotropic elastic behavior are implemented. At this stage. . . . . Handbook of Materials Behavior Models.2 Formulation . . . the model is available for facecentered (f. . . . . . .5 How to Use the Model . . . . . . . . 204 . . . .3. . . . chemin des chevreuils bfit. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .1 Validity . . Beneath this plastic model. . . . . . .1 StressStrain Interpolation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .) metals but can be adapted to hexagonal compact lattices. References . . . . . . .c.3. . . . . 204 205 206 206 208 208 209 210 212 212 4.SECTION 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . the model computes the texture updating due to plastic strain and takes it into account to define plastic behavior during the whole finite element simulation. . . .) and bodycentred cubic (b. . . . . Belgium Contents 4. . . . Starting from the initial texture of the material.c.3. It is dedicated to polycrystalline materials. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The resolved shear stress acting on a slip system can be derived by projecting the microscopic stress on the corresponding As matrix: zs . and 9s is the associated slip rate. Taylor's principle states that only the one which minimizes the frictional power dissipation in the slip systems is chosen: Pz . 2. Equal signs hold for plastic deformation.3 Anisotropic Elastoplastic Model Based on Texture 205 4.4. Einstein summation is applied on s.~ ~ +~_L (DP (3) with A~ . while the inequalities delimit the elastic domain.~ " I f s l .sym(L) .~kw(K~).As" ~ The yield locus of a single crystal is then defined by the Schmid law: 'rLs < ~s < ~ ~+s ~  (4) ~Ls < A=s ' ~ < ~ + s (5) C where ~:___sare the socalled critical resolved shear stresses. 2.As. fs (2) ~_ . The velocity gradient may be split into a deviatoric strain rate and a rate of rigid body rotation: { ~ . which is summarized in text following. 6 with the constraint of Eq.2 FORMULATION In order to take the texture of the material into account during a finite element simulation. .shw(I_) .min (6) In order to solve the minimization defined in Eq.3. we use the full constraint (FC) Taylor model.~ym(~) and Z~ . Several different combinations of slip rates may achieve the prescribed strain rate according to Eq. (1) where Ks are matrices constructed from the slip plane and the slip direction of each slip system.K s 9Ys + ~x. The velocity gradient L defined into a single crystal (which is assumed to be the same as the macroscopic one in an FC model) can be decomposed in a slipinduced part and in a rate of crystal lattice rotation coL" __k . we use a linear programming algorithm which computes the slip rates Ys and gives the microscopic stress [5]. representing one slip system.
Where the strength .3. no yield locus is defined and a direct stressstrain interpolation between Taylor points is achieved. described by Eq. To use it in a finite element code. but. the Taylor model also allows for the texture updating. 4.206 Habraken The macroscopic stress of the polycrystal is computed by averaging the microscopic stress on each crystal. So. the yield locus discontinuities bred by this very simple interpolation method result in convergence problems in the finite element code.1 STRESSSTRAIN INTERPOLATION MODEL This model is particular in the sense that it does not use a yield locus formulation. That is the reason why a second method has been developed. our model does not know the whole yield locus. 8. C . In the first stage. In this case. a particular stress integration scheme has to be used. We use a linear stressstrain interpolation.3.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL The method based on the Taylor assumptions described in the previous paragraph is able to compute the elastic limit in the deviatoric stress space for a particular prescribed strain rate. In addition to providing the crystal lattice rotation for each crystal. neither for the interpolation nor in the stress integration scheme. 7. this is in fact one point of the yield locus. For that second approach. 4. only this small part will be updated during texture evolution. the interesting part of the yield locus was represented by a set of hyperplanes. u (7) In this equation. The ~ is a scalar describing the workhardening according to the exponential relationship of Eq. only the interesting part of it is computed. it is a unit vector. In order to reduce the amount of computation. The fivedimensional vector u is the deviatoric plastic strain rate direction. we have developed an approach where the yield locus is obtained by interpolation between points computed by the Taylor model. the stress and the plastic strain rate continuity conditions are fulfilled.3. o" 1: . As has been shown [1]. the hydrostatic part is elastically computed according to Hooke's law. _~ is a fivedimensional vector containing the deviatoric part of the stress. each one being a plane defined in the fivedimensional deviatoric stress space. since there is no yield locus formulation.
.3 A n i s o t r o p i c E l a s t o p l a s t i c M o d e l Based on T e x t u r e 207 coefficient K. The z is used as the common critical resolved shear stress for all the slip systems in the Taylor model. Additionally. The size of the interpolation domain is characterized by the angle between the stress nodes and is a very important parameter for the model.~ i ~/i" u/ (14) Putting together Eqs. 9 and 10.~ i r/i 9 / cr (13) u . These points will define the interpolation domain and will be called stress nodes.. advisedly chosen in the deviatoric strain rate space and the associated deviatoric stresses r (i=1. we can compute the stress associated with a plastic strain rate direction and get the expression of the interpolation matrix C: T.aij (10) With the use of those contravariant vectors we define intrinsic coordinates in the interpolation domain for any stress vector or* by projection according to Eq.. We assume five directions: _ui (i=1.or* 9 ssi rli u* 9 uui (11) (12) The most important property of our stressstrain interpolation states that if the stress if* and the plastic strain rate direction u* physically correspond to the same point. " ~ ~7i 9 U l l i 9 ~_ i =C ~ (15) . . The interpolation is achieved with the use of those intrinsic coordinates to compute the stress or the strain rate with a common formulation: o..4. 7 and is based on the following method.K.. 11) or for u* (Eq.. the offset F ~ and the hardening exponent n are material parameters fitted to experimental data and F is the polycrystal induced slip. ss~o c~j  a~j (9) u u i e uj . we compute the contravariant vectors ssi and u u i defined by Eqs. 12 and 13 and the workhardening coefficient. 11 and for any plastic strain rate direction u* with Eq. 5).. 5) lying on the yield surface according to the Taylor model... then the intrinsic coordinates/']i computed for or* (Eq. rli . 12. 12) are equal. (r ~ + r)" (8) The interpolation is included in the matrix C of Eq..
3.1. The main ideas of the implementation are summarized in Figure 4. A drawback is that it can only be used when the adjacent domain contains the current stress and then gives rise to positive intrinsic coordinates.3. These orientations are represented with the help of the Euler angles ranging from 0 to 360 ~ for (o1 and from 0 to 90 ~ for (o and (o2 so as to take crystal cubic symmetry into account but not the sample symmetry.3 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE TEXTURE UPDATING In this model. but the strain history of each integration point is taken into account in order to update the texture.3. it means that the current stress is out of the domain and an updating of the stress nodes must take place. not only is the texture used to predict the plastic behavior of the material. A second loop on the elements and on the integration points has been added to achieve texture updating only on converged time steps. 4. . The first applied updating method consists in finding five new stress nodes defining a new domain that contains the current stress direction.3. obviously. The improved updating method makes use of the adjacent domain. The main advantages of this method are that it requires only one (instead of five) Taylor model call for an updating and it improves the continuity of the resulting yield locus and the continuity of its normal. Therefore. which is often the case during a finite element simulation. the stress integration scheme implemented with the stressstrain interpolation method is completely different from the classical radial return with elastic predictor. the main ideas are summarized in Figure 4. When one of the five /]i becomes negative. all the five t]i must remain between 0 and 1.2. and four of the five old stress nodes are kept for the interpolation. 4. this stress integration scheme is well adapted for a local yield locus description and induces a reasonable number updating processes of the interpolation domain. only one new stress node is computed with the Taylor model. It should be noticed that the constitutive law is based on the interpolation method described earlier and on the Taylor model applied on the actual set of crystallographic orientations. where. As has been observed during several finite element simulations.3. This condition is satisfied when the stress evolves smoothly.3.2 STRESS INTEGRATION SCHEME As already mentioned.208 Habraken As long as the interpolation is achieved in the domain delimited by the five stress nodes. no yield locus formulation is used.
_ lEnd FIGURE UB is the new approximation I I 4. That is why an updating criterion must be used to reduce computation time. During a large finite element simulation. 3). at this stage.3 Anisotropic Elastoplastic Model Based on Texture Initial stress state: gA Prescribed total strain rate" ~V 209 _ Compute a 1st approximation of the plastic strain rate direction: u.U_approx I. the hardening behavior. Since the elastic and the hardening behavior are supposed to be isotropic. . Compute the final stress state: (~B according to Uapprox and the input data ~v Use the stressstrain interpolation method to find UB associated to ( ~ B ). an updating occurs after a predefined number of time steps. it is not reasonable to achieve a texture updating for each integration point and at the end of each time step..3.1 Stressstrain interpolation method: stress integration scheme.4. This can be directly deduced from the Taylor rotation composition equation (Eq. they can be obtained from classical tensile tests. A criterion based on a maximum cumulated plastic strain will also be examined. and the structure of the crystal lattice.. This is still under investigation. The lattice rotation of each crystal coL is computed with the Taylor model by subtracting the slipinduced spin coP from the rigid body rotation co included in the strain history. 4.4 IDENTIFICATION OF THE MATERIAL PARAMETERS This model makes use of different aspects of the material properties: the elastic properties.3. the crystallographic texture.
the permitted slip systems of the crystal lattice must be introduced in the Taylor model data.3.210 Initial Texture Data Habraken "13 "o ? o o o tD ta ta Orientation Distribution Function Set of Crystallographic Orientations Loop on the Steps Loop on the Iterations Loop on the Elements Loop on the Integration Points [~ Constitutive Law m m "!1 m . the 12 {1 1 1} ~1 1 0) permitted slip systems are imposed. 4. It is characterized by the Ccoefficients of the orientation distribution function. we use the 24 {1 1 0} (1 1 1) and {1 1 2} (1 1 1) slip systems.c.c. it requires some particularities in its implementation in a finite element code. metals. metals.5 H O W TO USE THE MODEL Since this method uses a refined representation of the plastic behavior. For b. The initial texture of the material can be measured with a xray method.3. for f. Finally.c.c. tD 3 o o 2nd Loop on the Elements and Integration Points IE~ Test if texture updating is necessary N ~> Updating process of the Set of Crystallographic Orientations according the strain history F I G U R E 4. and a representative set of crystallographic orientations must be computed from the measured texture [4].2 Flowchart of the finite e l e m e n t code. .
...... '~....~. .~ ...... ~ .... ""~"~................:.... .........::. and the number of integration points can also be very high..........:"~" .......... ~ 6 different cases :~:........... ~..... ......~= 9 ".............. ~.. a subroutine devoted to texture updating has been added in the finite element code. gradients .....~. %: :~i~ .....:::::::::....... ~i~. ..... since the texture evolution can be different from one point to another.. The last particular point of this model is that a second loop on the elements and integration points (see Fig.. .... ~ ! . . ...000 orientations)....... the Taylor model is called for each crystallographic orientation of the representative set and this can occur at each integration point of the finite element mesh..~:~ ........... .... .. the five points (7i ...... 211 I ....'~'~"...... .....:... i:~ "" ................t............... ...... .... .. ... So. In order to achieve the texture updating............ ~.... ~ / for 2 steels) iiii...... .:~_ ~"......... .... 5) computed by the Taylor model must also be stored in internal variable between the updating processes of the domain...... . . Figure 4. it needs a large computation time....3... ................ ..................... .... First.._[/i (i=1.. furthermore.... .......I..'.. I l ......o..... . ... 10 100 1000 10000 Number of crystallographic orientations FIGURE 4..i ~ ~ " M " a 0 error value e n " = . Indeed..........3.. ~ "'~...... .2<:.............3 Influence of the number of crystal orientations on accuracy (the reference result is taken as the one computed with 40...... ...3 Anisotropic Elastoplastic Model Based on Texture 12 11 10 . ~......:.... It should also be noted that this model needs a lot of disk space because one must store the three Euler angles of each crystallographic orientation.......~ ..... the strain history of each integration point must also be stored...................4..... ~'..... ..~.'.............. when a new interpolation domain must be computed or when texture updating takes place...~'~ ............. ....3....~::::~........3 shows that the number of those orientations should not be smaller than 2000 in order to be accurate (mean error smaller than 1%).... :::':':=/~!!~:=~..........il .S.......... . 4.....~. depending on the structure to model. ......2) is required when the time step is converged to perform texture updating.. For the interpolation method... ..~ ~ . .. one must store those orientations for each integration point..~ .....:~..........
(1999). Leuven.: ICOTOM'12. Godinas. 112119. and Habraken. Thesis. L. and Winters. Proc. P. 3 ra Int. Van Houtte. Conf. Godinas. Toth. and Van Houtte.: NUMISHEET'96. L. M. Conf.. Texture Effects on Steel Sheet Behaviour Under Large Strain Simulations. A. J. Metal Plastic Behaviour Linked to Texture Analysis and FEM Method. Textures and Microstructures 19: 229244. J.. (1999). 5. 4. D. A. Discretization techniques for orientation distribution function. Duch~ne. M. Conf. P. and Habraken. (1988). Anisotropic Finite Element Analysis Based on Texture.212 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h e r e s e a r c h t e a m of P r o f e s s o r P a u l Van H o u t t e providing us with the texture analysis modules. L.. (1996). Textures and Microstructures 8. Ph. A comprehensive mathematical formulation of an extended TaylorBishopHill model featuring relaxed constraints. (1996).: NUMISHEET'99. A. 9: 313350... 4 th Int.. Proc. 2. S. Munhoven. M. Kathoulieke Universiteit Leuven. A. Habraken is a c k n o w l e d g e d for REFERENCES 1. (1992). 12 th Int. . Duch~ne. 6. Habraken. Winters. Proc. S. Van Bael.. A. the RenouardWintenberger theory and a strain rate sensitivity model. 3. A.. pp.
. . .4 Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening Rule (NoKH Rule) . .4. . . .4. . 94230 Cachan. . . . . . . . . .4 nonlinear kinematic hardening Rule (NoKH Rule) . . . 4. . . . . . . .2 Elastic d o m a i n . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 Strain Partition . . . . . .3 Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening Rule (NoIH Rule) . 4. . . 4. . . 4. . .3 Identification of the Material Constant 221 Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. . .5 Flow Rule . 4. . .D i m e n s i o n a l Loading .2. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .4. . .4. . .sident Wilson. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .3 Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening Rule (NoIH Rule) . . . . . France Contents 4. . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ISBN 0124433413. .4. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . Ecole Normale Sup~rieure de Cachan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . .SECTION 4. . .3. .4. . . . .4. .4.2 O n e . . 4. . . . . .1 Identification from the Steady State Cycle . . .1 Strain Partition . . .2. . .4. . .2 Identification of the Material Constant b . .2. . . . . . . .4. . . 4. . 4. . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .4. . . . 221 4. . . . . . . .D i m e n s i o n a l Loading . . . 214 214 214 215 215 216 217 217 218 218 218 219 219 220 220 213 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . .4. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 avenue du Pr~. .5 Flow Rule . .4 Cyclic Plasticity Model with Nonlinear Isotropic and Kinematic Hardenings: NoLIKH Model DIDIER MARQUIS Laboratoire de M~canique et Technologie.4. . . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 4. . . . . . . . . 4. . .4 P r o c e d u r e of Material C o n s t a n t s Identification . .3. . .3.3 T h r e e . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press.2 Elastic D o m a i n . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
the presentation of the model is restricted to a oneDimensional loading in tension.1).4.1 INTRODUCTION This model was developed at the end of the 1970s to take into account the elasticity and cyclic plasticity of metals.1 Stressstraincurve predicted by the NoLIKHmodel. This rule was introduced in a simple form by Armstrong and Frederick in 1966 and has been used extensively by Chaboche since 1976 to build different models to describe cyclic viscoplasticity and cyclic plasticity. and R being the isotropic hardening stress. Its size is governed by a socalled nonlinear isotropic hardening rule. The tension curve predicted by this model describes the nonlinear behavior in tension and the Bauschinger effect along a reverse loading (see Figure 4.4.2 ONEDIMENSIONAL LOADING In this section. A purely elastic behavior domain is assumed. 4 . Crybeing the yield stress. X being the kinematic hardening stress . 4.4. The evolutions of this domain are driven by the plastic flow.4. Its position is governed by a socalled nonlinear kinematic hardening rule. ~ = ~e+ ~p.214 Marquis 4. 4 . ~ being the total % %+R ay+R FIGURE 4. 2 . . 1 STRAIN PARTITION The total strain is split in two parts: the elastic strain related to the stress through the elastic law and the plastic strain.
4 . 2 .b(Q . 2 .4.2).2 Geometric interpretation of the elastic domain. 4 . This variable p is defined through its rate. 3 NONLINEAR ISOTROPIC HARDENING RULE ( N o I H RULE) The driving force for the evolution of the size of the elastic domain is the plastic strain. a being the stress and E being the Young's modulus. The evolution rate of R depends on b. b being a material constant and Q being a material constant. 4 . f < 0 Elastic domain T 1 0 X O FIGURE 4. and/~ .4.R)p. This function depends on the stress. f lax ayR The elastic domain is defined by the stress domain so that the yield function is negative (Fig. The elastic strain is related to the stress through the elastic law: a . More specifically. and the isotropic stress R. The nonlinear isotropic hardening rule is given in a differential (or incremental) form:/~ = ]~P[. Q is the isotropic stress limit.4.Ee.4 NoLIKH model 215 strain. . 4. ee being the elastic strain. 2 ELASTIC DOMAIN The elastic domain is defined through a yield function f. notation: ~ = dx/dt total derivative with respect to time. and eP being the plastic strain. the kinematic hardening stress X. it has been shown that the accumulated plastic strain p is the right variable to be used to describe the cyclic plastic behavior. The asymptotic level of R for large values of p is given by Q. 4 .
p ) ) with the initial condition R(0) ..... Marquis 4....3). .. The nonlinear kinematic hardening rule of the NoLIKH model is given by a differential equation: 2 c~p  ~(p)Xp where C is a material constant and V(p) is a material function depending on p... ...oo V(p).4.216 The integrated form of the isotropic rule is R . Vo~ is a material constant: Vo~ = limp__.Q(1 ... co is a material constant....7o)exp(coP) The constant co gives the rate of evolution of the function 7.e x p ( .4..r / FIGURE 4.. 4... ?(P) .b ......0 ......4 (NoKH NONLINEAR KINEMATIC HARDENING RULE RULE) The driving force for the evolution of the position of the elastic domain is the plastic strain...(~'~ .......3 XeP curve...... . 9 ... X / / / i / ~'/ 1 v ~P ... The initial value of X before any plastic flow is 0..2.)'o~ . The plastic strain increases up to ~1 and then decreases.4.:~Tf// . ..... The NoKH rule leads to a hysteretic behavior between the kinematic stress X and the plastic strain (see Fig. The study of the NoKH rule shows that the value of the kinematic stress is b o u n d e d between two opposite limits.
(p).6 < 0.3 THREEDIMENSIONAL LOADING In this section.? 0 ) e x p (cop) Initial conditions If gP = 0 then X = 0 and p = 0 . This flow rule is deduced from the condition called the consistency condition: f .sign(a . the behavior is purely elastic.~. after a plastic strain increment. = f e nt .1 summarizes the onedimensional model.F. the stress remains at the yield limit.X.4 NoLIKH m o d e l 217 4 .4.F. 5 FLOW RULE The flow rule gives the evolution of the plastic strain. then the plastic strain rate is given by ~pC . p ) ) w i t h p = ]~P] 2 = c~p  ~(p)Xp with y(p) = Yoo . d _> 0 Note that the preceding flow rule is such that. Note that the NoIH rule and the NoKH rule lead to ~P=O=~/5=Oandl~=Oand)(=O. The plastic strain does not change if the stress is within the elastic domain or if the stress is at the yield limit (f = 0) and the loading is reversed (unloading condition): kP = 0 iff < 0 or iff = 0 and ]a .p f= aXayR C .sign(a .0. Strain partition Yield function Flow rule ~P . Then. Table 4.7(p). 2 .4. the NoLIKH model equations are given for a general loading.X) + b(Q .6< O.X .D i m e n s i o n a l NoLIKH Model.e x p ( .R) N o l H rule NoKH rule iff=0and aX.X .X].b .X].1 S u m m a r y of the O n e . The driving force is the stress. 4.4.6" < 0 R = Q(1 .()'oo . TABLE 4.X.R) if f  0and ] a . if f < O or if f = O and ] a .X) + b(Q . If the stress is at the yield limit and for a loading condition.4.6_>0 ~P = 0 if f > 0 or if f = 0 and ]a . 4 .
3o k.4..R.4.p V 3 ~ij~iJ  With this new definition of p.p .R)/~.2 ELASTIC DOMAIN The elastic domain is given by a von Misestype equation. The yield function is given b y f .X)e q . 4. and the elastic domain is defined by f < 0.. with b.Cry .3./~ = b(Q .3. . . Q being material constants..3 (NoIH NONLINEAR ISOTROPIC HARDENING RULE RULE) The driving force is the accumulated plastic strain p.I if i = j and 5 0 = 0 if i fi j.1 STRAIN PARTITION Marquis The total strain tensor is split in two parts: the elastic strain tensor and the plastic strain tensor. This strain is defined through its rate: . 4. Xij is the kinematic stress tensor.(or . A v o n Mises equivalent effective stress is defined as The deviatoric stress tensor is defined by  . the nonlinear isotropic rule (NoIH rule) is unchanged.4.218 4.j with c~ij the Kronecker symbol: bij .j ./.3.
4.4.3. the plastic rate is given by .4.4.4.dkl Bij 7 "r'C 2~/(p). The scalar product given by the condition is positive on one side of the tangent line to the yield limit and negative on the other side.4 Geometric interpretation of the loadingunloading condition in the deviatoric stress plane.dij < 0 A geometric interpretation of the loadingunloading condition is given in Figure 4.R)  rr~ .Xijl. . ading f xi.4 NONLINEARKINEMATICHARDENINGRULE (NoKH RULE) The kinematic stress is a tensor Xij.Xij + R) 2 i f f .2 summarizes the threedimensional model. The plastic strain does not change if the stress is within the elastic domain or if the stress is at the yield limit (f = 0) and the loading is reversed (unloading). Table 4.0 iff < 0 or iff . The preceding flow rule is deduced from the consistency condition: f = 0.3.0 and laij .4 NoLIKH model 219 4.p _ 9 (rrk~ .Xkl).4.Xmn 9(O'mn Xmn)/(O'y + R) + b(Q .0 and (akDt . The NoKH rule writes: 4.~kl ~ O.5 F L O W RULE The driving force of this rule is the effective stress tensor. . ~ i ~ U~adin~~ FIGURE 4.4.Xkl). If the stress is at the yield limit and for a loading condition.
).5b.(Yoo.dij < 0 NoIH rule NoKH rule with y(p) = Yor . the value of the Young's m o d u l u s is defined and the stressplastic strain loop is deduced in Figure 4..8 Z 0 = 0 if f < 0 or if f = 0 and laij .Vo)exp (top) Initial conditions If ~P .exp(b. then the value of Q is given. . it is possible to deduce 700.5a.2 Summary of the Threedimensional NoLIKH Model. .Xijl.xk.4. the size of the elastic domain is deduced.y + R) + b(Q .220 TABLE 4. ~ Z .X)e q ~y R Marquis Yield function With and Flow rule 9 ~=~ ( ~ .0 R = Q(1 .Xkz).4.4.1 CYCLE IDENTIFICATION FROM THE STEADY STATE The first step of the material constant identification uses a steady state cycle after a strain cycling.4. this size is 2 ( Q + Cry). 4. Through an estimation of the asymptotic value of X. The strain amplitude has to be chosen close to the strain amplitude encountered by the material under the actual loading (see Fig.4.p))with/~ = V 3 " ~ 4. x~. the material constant C is given by the tangent shape to the curve at X = 0.4 PROCEDURE OF MATERIAL CONSTANT IDENTIFICATION 4.xv(p).)/(.0 then X = 0 and p .4. If from a standard tension test the value of Cry is deduced. Strain partition f . From this loop.4.x. Figure 4.5).(a .4. (am. F r o m the stress strain loop given in Figure 4.~ .j 3 c .X~. The Xep loop is deduced by a simple translation rule. From this loop.R) '~~+ R) ~' i f f = 0 and (tTkt~.5 defines a procedure to determine some material constant. As the value of p is very high at the steady state.
................4. i~..4.... ......... .. Steady state cycle in the X~p plane.. At this point. [. Steady state cycle in the cr~ plane. and then b can be deduced.... . a.... ............ .5 Identification steps..... Figure 4.... c. .. . .......... 4 . 4 . .... 4 ... Q....4 NoLIKH model 221 i li ~+ .. the value of the slope is bQ..... :: (c) FIGURE 4.. ....... . F i... ...7...... From this first step..p curve for p = 0...... 3 IDENTIFICATION OF THE MATERIAL CONSTANT ~Y0 A first estimation of the constant 70 can be given through the examination of the successive loops along the cycling of the strain.2 IDENTIFICATION OF THE MATERIAL CONSTANT b The material constant b gives the evolution of the elastic domain along the cycling........ b.. . ........ it is possible to get E............4. .. .... assuming that C~yis known...... Some typical configurations are given at Figure 4. C and 7oo 4....6 gives the steps for deducing the material constant b...4.4..4.. . .. Steady state cycle in the cr~p plane. ....+ ~ _~ . The value of b is deduced from the slope of the tangent at the R .. ... ......... .. .
./N=50 ~N=20 > N=IO L y Ep J (a) I. a.. the different hardening curves are not parallel.. Then Y0 = Yo~. and 50). the different loops are deduced through a translation along the rr axis.222 R~ o" Marquis 2(R(p)~(~y) Ep 1 . o" /.7 Typical cyclic curves. 10. b.4. a.6 Identification steps of b. b. This is an indication of a significant contribution of the kinematic hardening to the cyclic hardening. .. A first try for the value of co can be around 10.. Rp curve. 20. In this case the material constant Y0 has to be taken as greater than 7oo. In this case the kinematic hardening does not change along the cycling.4.. p (a) (b) FIGURE 4. In this case. It is typical Of a cyclic isotropic hardening.t~) FIGURE 4. Determination of R (p) through the determination of the elastic domain of different cycles (possible choices N=5. In this case.
. . . ISBN 0124433413. . 223 . . 231 References . .5. . . . . should be incorporated into the model. . . etc. . . A set of nested surfaces is assumed to represent the field of hardening moduli.5. 228 4. .5. .3 Concluding remarks . . . . . . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . . . In particular. . . . . . Poland Contents 4. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .1 Discrete Set of Loading Surfaces. .2. . . . . . . . The extensive experimental data provide an input toward more accurate model formulations aimed at the quantitative simulation of deformational response for complex loading histories.5. .5. . .2] for metals and was next extended to soils [3].5 Multisurface Hardening Model for Monotonic and Cyclic Response of Metals Z. . 224 4. . . such effects as strain amplitudedependent hardening. . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .SECTION 4. . 224 4. . . . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . .2 Multisurface Hardening Model Formulation . ratcheting for nonsymmetric cycles. . .2 Continuous Description of Field of Hardening Moduli . . . . nonproportional hardening. Warsaw. . . .1 INTRODUCTION The quantitative description of inelastic material response under a variety of loading conditions poses a challenging task in formulating constitutive models. . . . The multisurface hardening model was originally proposed by Mr6z [1. . .. and the evolution of Handbook of Materials Behavior Models.5. . 223 4. . . . 231 4. . . . . MRoz Institute of Fundamental Technological Research. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .
The yield surface specifies the interior elastic domain and incremental loadingunloading conditions. both surfaces are tangential and the contacted surface becomes the active surface.2.2 MULTISURFACE HARDENING FORMULATION 4. such as accumulated plastic strain.5. 4.1 MODEL DISCRETE SET OF LOADING SURFACES The multisurface formulation is based on the concept of nested surfaces corresponding to different hardening moduli.o~ . The active loading surface is assumed to translate toward the consecutive external surface. thus providing continuous variation of hardening moduli [47]. The memory of specific loading events is then naturally incorporated into the model through the position of centers of consecutive surfaces. The subsequent developments used either two or an infinite number of surfaces. In classical theory of plasticity.. Extensive review of models of this kind can be found in the articles by Mr6z [8] and Ohno [9]. or hardening moduli. The . plastic work. its specification is most convenient.ior o F(o _ ..224 Mr6z surfaces occurring in the course of plastic straining represents the material stiffness variation. Assume the yield condition in the form F (~ = f(a" . the concept of the yield surface is widely used.5._lOS(OS ) N. For elastoplastic deformation processes we can also introduce the response surfaces representing the measures of developed plastic deformation. so when the stress point reaches this surface. n > O where n denotes the unit normal vector to the yield surface at the stress point and Ctn = 8" n denotes the projection of the stress rate vector on n.8 ..0 ~rn . Since the hardening modulus occurs explicitly in the constitutive equation.a (~ = 0 (~ and the associated flow rule (1) . >o (3) /~p _ ~n~rn 1 F(O) .
1a).. F (~ 1  F (1) = . do not intersect but consecutively contact and push each .. F (2) .~ n6. where K0 denotes the hardening modulus on the yield surface and Ki a r e referred to particular surfaces F (i) .0 move together until a point 3 is reached. and instead of Eq. more meaningful information can be produced by specifying the field of hardening moduli. Once the stress state along the evolution path reaches the respective nesting surface.0 .5. 4. the yield surface starts to translate with the stress point toward a point 2.. 3. Consider first the case of proportional loading. K.. F (1) . F (1) 0.. .1b presents the field of hardening moduli after reaching the point 3.0 .5 Multisurface Hardening Model 225 hardening moduli K and H are interrelated.0 and F (1) . the hardening modulus changes discontinuously..0 (5) where ~(i) denotes the back stress associated with the i . specify the internal irreversibility domains and together with the yield condition constitute a field of hardening moduli in the stress space. During unloading and reverse loading the surfaces translate backwards.K2.0. . 34. 23. .O.or(i))  a (i)2 .0 defining the regions of constant hardening moduli in the stress space. and from 2 the two surfaces F (~ .F (i) . 5. . Fig..5. the Masing hardening rule is obtained. along which the tangent modulus is constant (Figure 4. we have /~P . For nonproportional loading it is assumed that the surfaces F (~ . thus K .5.. .f ( a . In fact. The set of equations in Eq. . .4. F (i) . for instance. 12. In the stress space this approximation can be visualized by introducing surfaces F (~ .n N~ I~Pl (/~p. Approximate the stressstrain curve by linear segments 01. ~" n (i) > 0 (6) From proportional loading and unloading tests the hardening field can be identified..O .0 at 1. ..t h surface and a (i) specifies the size of the surface. defined by Eq. and at 3 / the symmetric configuration with respect to 3 is obtained (Figure 4. The back stress is denoted by ~(0) and the yield limit by a (~ Assume further that the state of hardening is specified not only by the yield condition but also by a set of nesting surfaces of constant hardening moduli K0.~ . /~p) 89 (4) so in the uniaxial case the modulus K is proportional to the tangent modulus of the stressplastic strain curve.. tension and compression. When the stress point moving from 0 reaches the surface F (~ . 4. since this field indicates the stiffness anisotropy of the material and its variation. . . instead of plotting conventional yield surfaces defined by the assumed value of plastic strain. It is seen that when surfaces do not expand but only translate. K1.1c).
The position of the associated point R is determined from the proportionality relation for any two similar surfaces F 0) = 0 and F (l+1) .1 Piecewise linear approximation of the stressstrain curve and the respective loading surfaces. when F (~ = 0 and F (1) .5.0. b.(l+ 1) _ ~(l+ 1) __ 0"(l+ 1) R aO) t a p (1)  0~(l)) (7) . Similarly. Nested surfaces at the loading point 3. other. For convex. c. Loadingunloading curve. thus 0.. similar surfaces this is achieved by postulating that the instantaneous motion of the stress point P corresponding to F 0) = 0 is directed to the point R on F (1+1) ~ 0 with the same normal as that at P.0 are tangential to each other at P.. Nested surfaces at the unloading point 3'. a. the translation of P occurs along PR where R is an associated point on F (2) = 0 corresponding to the same normal.226 Mr6z 3 G 3' (a) 1 1 (b) (c) FIGURE 4.
(0(a~).0 are in contact with the surface F (l) . is expressed as (cf.2a) PR ~ .5.1 ~(Z)0.0 . their .a 0 ) l [ (~ .5 Muhisurface Hardening Model 227 (a) FIGURE 4.O. . (9) we obtain ~.2 Translation path KL. Figure 4. ) (9) where fi is a scalar factor 9 Since 9 (z) d(z) tre . (b) rule of loading surfaces.(l) o. . b.(l+1) _ otO+1))d(a~l)l) (11) 9 ~(z) _ ~(z+]) + ~p + o.0 and move with the stress point P.4. connecting P and R.~(z)) (12) and the scalar fi can be determined from the consistency condition F 0 ) . a. .dr(z) + (a (z) _ a(z))~O~ and (10) o.1 ) .5. that is.(I)0c(I+I)1 (8) The relative motion of P with respect to R is assumed to occur along PR.(1+1) _ (x(l+l) 1) R + (a~ + then from Eq. F 0 .O. When all surfaces F ( ~ F ( 1 ) . and the cyclic loading program along and the vector fl.(I+I)0c(I) .O.(I))O'(R/+I) .
0. Referring to Figure 3. In the stress space. 1. 1.228 translation is governed by the motion of P and we have Mr6z a(pk) _ or(k) O'(z) p _ 0~(z)  a(k) a(z). a.. k = 0. m . 2 . . m . .r ol ok/ 2' pv (a) (b) FIGURE 4. 4 . . the yield and subsequent nesting surfaces will translate with the stress point between K and L. . .5. Therefore all surfaces F (h) = 0. . At A all surfaces F (k) = 0. b. k 0. 1 (13) Figure 2b presents the case when the stress component al oscillates between the values at K and L with fixed component a2. 2 CONTINUOUS DESCRIPTION OF FIELD OF HARDENING MODULI Let us now discuss a limit case of the muhisurface hardening rule by assuming that there is an infinite number of nesting surfaces specifying the field of hardening moduli.. Loadingunloading curve.1 will be passive and do not 0"2 2 Fm=0 EI.. 1. so the steady cyclic state corresponds to progressing accumulation of the plastic strain component ~2 after each stress cycle.1 are tangential to the surface Fm = 0 . the subsequent incremental response loading surface will be specified by the active surface Fm = 0 and the hardening modulus ascribed to this surface. assume that in the loading process OA the stress point has moved into the elasticplastic region and reached the exterior surface Fm ~O. 2 . Now. 5 . k . If the loading process continues. .3 Continuous description of field of hardening moduli.
the loading path ABE is erased from the material memory and the state of material is represented by the maximal loading surface Fm . During the subsequent loading event. A t B the surface FI1 tangential to Fm = 0 at A is the active loading surface. the center and the diameter of the active loading surface Fll = 0 are specified.0. and the second loading surface F12 . Considering the first loading event and assuming the equations of F~ = 0 and Fll = 0 in the form Fm = f (a .B .4. after the loading history OABD.a (m)2 = 0 (14) and FII f(cl o[ (I)) 0 "(I)2 . the first loading surface Fll = 0. a new loading event commences for which the active loading surface F12 = 0 is tangential at B to Ell .oc(m)) . the surface Fl2 = 0 coincides with the surface Fll = 0 and the second loading event is erased from the material memory.. The variation of K can be described by the relation KKm+A (18) .5 Multisurface Hardening Model 229 enter the material description. Similarly. for the second loading event.O.0 .D reaches D. for which the stress path is directed into the interior of the domain enclosed by Fm ~ 0. the active loading surface F12 = 0 is specified from similar relations.0 with its center on OIB. Consider now the unloading process A . thus K . Assume that the hardening modulus on the active loading surface FI = 0 depends on the ratio of semidiameters of maximal loading and active surfaces with respect to the diameter of the yield surface. knowing the position B. Thus at D. When the stress point on B .A_ 0c(m))a ~ from which 0c and a d) are determined once the position of the stress point B d) on Fll = 0 is specified. When the loading path at B changes its orientation and follows BCD. only the active loading surface passing through B should be determined. Similarly. Let us note that. the following relations occur: a(z) aA _~(1) _ (a. only three surfaces characterize the previous history and are stored in the material memory: the maximal loading surface F m .B .C . a(z) r/a(m)_ a(~ a(o) (17) It is seen that 1/= 0 when a d) = a (~ and 1/= 1 when ad) = a(m). when the stress point reaches E. there is no need to trace the positions of all surfaces.K(r/). such as A .0 (15) (16) for the loading path AB.
Assume that the hardening modulus K takes an infinite or very large value for c~.~m and K .5.0. and reloading curves generated by this description.o'(~ for subsequent unloading from the surface Fz . whereas the minimal value equals (~min .0..4 Twosurface description of field of hardening moduli. the surface F z .0. When the stress point reaches the surface Fz = 0. 4 shows the loading. The variation of K can be . Configuration of surfaces. the subsequent response is described by the hardening modulus Kz.4). The nonlinear variation of the hardening moduli for the twosurface model was discussed by Dafalias and Popow [4] and independently by Krieg [7]. unloading. . where A and p are the material parameters and Km denotes the value of K on the maximal loading surface. Stressstrain curve.5. a linear hardening curve is obtained. b. expressed by the relation KKz+a ~m_~ (19) where a and m are material parameters and ~m is the maximal value of c~ from the previous deformation history.0 is a limit surface.a (~ for the first loading and (~m . When Kz is constant.230 Mr6z 3 ~1 0 F. when Kz = 0.Kz for f i . Consider now the other particular case when there are only two surfaces F 0 .. Assume that this distance is measured by the length P R (Figure 4.0 and Fz = 0 and the hardening modulus varies with the distance c~ between the surfaces F0 = 0 and F z . Fig. The maximal value of ~ is ~m = a (z) .2(0"(l) . a.0 that is at the contact between two surfaces.=O (a) (b) FIGURE 4. for instance.
5. P. V. (1996). C. Mech. and Popov. 3. additional parameters are to be introduced when transient states and nonproportional hardening effects are quantitatively simulated. memory of maximal prestress.. 5. and Mrdz.. Elsevier Science Publishing. and Zienkiewicz. in Modeling of Small Deformation of Metals. J. Mech. (1992). (1975). A practical twosurface plasticity theory. REFERENCES 1. An attempt to describe the behaviour of metals under cyclic loads using a more general workhardening model.4. Z. 42: 641646. 43: 283295. ASME Appl. Mrdz.5 Multisurface Hardening Model 231 4. O. 9. D. A/Solids 15: 128. Plasticity 8: 925946. Z. Z. J. Int.. P. Mrdz. 4. Z. Num. Meth. Dafalias. and Rodzik. [8]. Appl. Mech. Plastic internal variable formalism of cyclic plasticity. On generalized kinematic hardening rule with memory of maximal prestress. J. Appl. J.. Eur. Appl. eds. Z. Z. J. Phenomenological constitutive models for metals. A. Mrdz. 2. Geomech. E.. 7. (1967).. . However. Int. On the description of anisotropic workhardening. (1969). 8. N. [10]. ratcheting. Recent topics in constitutive modeling of cyclic plasticity and viscoplasticity. 5: 241259. Trampczynski. 6. J. (1986). Zarka. (1990).. The fundamental model parameters are generated from uniaxial cyclic loading tests. Krieg. J. accounting for such effects as transient and steady state cyclic response. Solids 15: 163175. cf. etc.. 10. An anisotropic hardening model for soils and its application to cyclic loading. Phys. On multisurface and integral description of anisotropic hardening evolution of metals. and Gittus. Rev. Acta Mechanica 7: 199212. Mech. nonproportional hardening. Z. (1976). Mech.. Mr6z. Norris. 98: 645651. J. Y. Anisotropic hardening model and its application to cyclic loading. R. Ohno. (1978). 2: 202221. W. Mrdz. Mr6z.3 C O N C L U D I N G REMARKS The present brief exposition provides the foundation for more refined formulations of multisurface constitutive models aimed at describing the cyclic response of metals. (1981). Mech. J. Arch.
.2 Implementation in FEM . This rule. . . . .5 How to Use the Model . as well as nonlinear. . . . . . . . . .6. 232 . . . . . .6. .SECTION 4. . . . . .2 Formulation . . . . . . A rateindependent constitutive model of plasticity based on this kinematic hardening rule is implemented in a commercially available FEM software by utilizing the implicit integration equation and consistent tangent modulus derived for the model. . . . . . the rule has the advantage of allowing us to determine very easily the material parameters. . . . . . .6. 4. .. 4.6 Kinematic Hardening Rule with Critical State of Dynamic Recovery NOBUTADA OHNO Department of Mechanical Engineering. . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . Chikusaku. . . . . References . . Nagoya 4648603. . . . .4 Identification of the Material Parameters . . 4. . . though the rule itself is valid for both rateindependent and ratedependent materials. . .. . . . . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . . Handbook of Materials Behavior Models.6. 4.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 VALIDITY This is a kinematic hardening rule that enables us to represent multilinear.6. All fights of reproduction in any form reserved.6. . . . .3 Description of the Rule . . . . . . . . .. . .6. . 4. . . . . . . . Moreover.. . . . . . . .1 Validity . . which is formulated by introducing a critical state in dynamic recovery. . . . Nagoya University. . .1 Installation in Constitutive Models.6. .. is capable of simulating well ratcheting and cyclic stress relaxation. . ISBN 0124433413. stressstrain relations under cyclic loading. . 232 233 234 236 237 237 238 238 239 4. . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . .6 Table of Material Parameters . . . . . . . . Japan Contents 4. . . .
4. ~i and #i are material parameters. The second term H ( f i ) { J .O: 2 i .0 and 2i > 0. 2 is reduced to the first version of the Ohno and Wang rule [3].~P" ai_ #iP ri (4) The first term in the righthand side in Eq. p denotes accumulating plastic strain rate and )~i is determined to have the following form using the conditions fi = 0 and f i .. in which the dynamic recovery of ai is activated so fully that ai cannot develop beyond the surface fi = 0 [3]. Let us assume that the dynamic recovery of ai has a critical state j~ .0 that Eq. is defined to be a hypersphere of radius ri in the space of ai as fi . ~ .6 Kinetic Hardening Rule with Critical State of Dynamic Recovery 4. 3 (1) Then. we may consider an evolution equation of ai which has two kinds of dynamic recovery terms. and we suppose that ~ consists of several parts.0. By using of Heaviside's step function H and Macauley's bracket ( ). such an evolution equation of ai can be expressed as [4] where (') indicates the differentiation with respect to time. the term becoming active in the critical state and the term operating irrespective of this state. Eq. This surface. Let ai be the deviatoric part of ~i. operates simply at all times in proportion to ai and p. whereas the second and third terms deal with the dynamic recovery of ai.O.r2i . 2 expresses strain hardening. which is similar to the yield surface of perfectly plastic materials. . i.0 when j~ . If #i = 0.~ ai " ai . The third term #iaip. 2 can satisfy f i .2 FORMULATION 233 We consider strain hardening and dynamic recovery for formulating the evolution equation of back stress ~ [1]. i ) a i allows the dynamic recovery of ai to be activated so fully in the critical state j] . on the other hand. Equation 2 has two special cases.~ ~Zi [ 2 ] .6. #i = 0 and #i = 1.e.
which satisfies fi . O~i ~ ri ~ (9) I which has the solution O~ oq=ri[1(1 1 . ai never reaches the critical state j~ = 0 (Fig. A uniaxial form of Eq. 2.0 when Ji .Paip) (6) If ri is not constant.234 Ohno ~T ::. t i i = (i(3ri~. Eq. On the other hand.r/2 and J~i.~.exp(lai(ie.1). 2 can be extended to the following form. / . 8 is reduced to ~i = ~ (i(ri . if /2i = 1. 0 <_ ~i < ri.I~Pl.0 and .6.~i > 0 [4]" hi = (i rii~p . 4. p.6." Z s iLL . 2 For monotonic tensile loading. so that Eq.' 0 i O < ~ i <1 fli = 1 0 FIGURE 4. 2 becomes the Armstrong and Frederick rule [1].1 1/~i ~P Evolution of ~i under uniaxial tensile loading.i~Po~i/ri . 2 is where j] . Eq. P) \ lai / (10) .lai~i)e.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE RULE To describe some fundamental features of Eq.cti .H(j~)()~i)ai/~iaip +ai Fi (7) 4. we now consider uniaxial loading.6.
0. a = ~.: .. ~ reaches the critical state only asymptotically..... i. ~.. 9 represents the bilinear change of ~i. therefore.... Eq.. as shown by the dotted line in Figure 4. ...0 and 0qo) .. . Thus [i and ri are related with the coordinates of corners of the multilinear ~ versus eP relation as follows [5]: 1 ~(i) 0~(i) ... As illustrated in the figure.e.. Eq.......6. the critical state does not become active at all.. Two special cases of//i = 0 and //i..... Figure 4.6...0~(i. the term becoming active a(3) 0~(2) ~ I.. such as oq = r i [ 1 (1~i~3P}] (11) On the other hand. I ..0~(i) 1) (i+1) (13) where ~(o) . Let us remember that Eq. which has a corner at o~i Fi..3 illustrates the effect of #~ on the shape of ~ versus ~P hysteresis loops as well as on ratcheting under cyclic loading. When//i = 0 .6 Kinetic Hardening Rule with Critical State of Dynamic Recovery 235 This tensile change of 0~i. 9 gives 0q = ri[1 .6..2.. the ~ versus eP relation has corners.. /4=0 O < P i <1 a(l) ___o: " ~ ~176176176176 I ~ ~3 FIGURE 4.~a i .:..6.. if 0 < #i < 1." .. in other words. when #i = 1.1 are dealt with in the figure as well.1..exp(~ieP)] (12) In this case..... is illustrated in Figure 4.~..4..1) (il) eli) 0~(i+ . since each ~ versus eP relation has a corner under tensile loading.. ..6... Especially if #i = 0....2 shows the monotonic tensile change of back stress 0~obtained by superposing ~1 to ~M. Figure 4. .2 Evolution of ~ and its parts under uniaxial tensile loading. 2 has two kinds of dynamic recovery terms. the ~ versus eP relation is multilinear..
in the critical state j~ = 0 and that operating at all times in proportion to ai and p. the latter makes the 0~versus eP hysteresis loops open to induce ratcheting. Thus the smaller ]/i is set.6. the less opening Eq. 0 < ]/i ~ 1.236 Ohno O[max amin (a) ~. resulting in smaller ratcheting. 4.6.3 Hysteresis loops of back stress 0~ and plastic strain ep u n d e r uniaxial cycling b e t w e e n 0~ma a n d 0~mi a. Especially if both isotropic hardening and rate dependence are negligible. as shown in Figure 4.0. The former causes the 0~ versus ep hysteresis loops to be closed multilinearly under uniaxial cyclic loading.3a. b. x n. ]/i . 2 gives to the hysteresis loops. On the other hand.li .4 IDENTIFICATION PARAMETERS OF THE MATERIAL Equations 13 and 14 help us to determine the material parameters ~i and ri.0 ~[~mflx v O[min (b) 0 < / 1 i < 1 F I G U R E 4.6. they .
5 HOW TO USE THE MODEL 4. . M) are determined so as to simulate well uniaxial and/or multiaxial ratcheting experiments. For rateindependent materials. 4. i. Even if rate dependence must be taken into account under negligible isotropic hardening. In this case.6. If isotropic hardening is not negligible.6 Kinetic Hardening Rule with Critical State of Dynamic Recovery 237 O'(1)~ 0"(o) FIGURE 4. The material parameters #i (i = 1.1 INSTALLATION IN CONSTITUTIVE MODELS The present kinematic hardening model can be used as a translation rule of yield surfaces and viscoplastic potentials.4) and using Eqs. 13 and 14.6.6. we . the material parameter ri may change with plastic deformation. it is necessary to assume an appropriate function for each ri to simulate experiments.6. 4.. the ~ versus ~P relation is estimated from monotonic tensile experiments done at several strain rates. . by which (i and ri are determined. ~i and ri can be determined easily as follows: By assuming an appropriate viscoplastic equation kP = G ( a . If it is not necessary to consider ratcheting and cyclic stress relaxation. . 13 and where or(0) indicates initial yield stress. 13 and 14 with g(i) replaced by cr(i). . we can take either #i = 0 or ~i = 1.~).e.5. Eq. though a constant can be assigned to all ~i.4. 2 .4 Uniaxial tensile stressstrain curve approximated multilinearly. can be determined immediately by multilinearly approximating a monotonic tensile curve (Fig. and then the ~ versus ~P relation identified is multilinearly approximated to use Eqs.
The consistent tangent modulus. which translates and expands: 3 (s . 4. As seen from the table. an implicit integration equation and a consistent tangent modulus are available. we may assume 2 where cr ef f . + H(~) ri #. The integration equation. affords the parabolic convergence in solving the nonlinear equilibrium equation in FEM.6. on the basis of the normality rule.6.5.1 shows the values of ~i obtained by applying the present kinematic hardening rule to ratcheting experiments of some materials.y2 _ 0 Ohno (16) where s denotes the deviatoric part of stress ~r. ~ i tends to take small values close to zero.[ ( 3 / 2 ) ( s .6 TABLE OF MATERIAL PARAMETERS Table 4.5. G is a viscoplastic function. and D 4. This means that ratcheting . i which is derived for a general form of strain hardening and dynamic recovery of back stress. especially if ]A is equal or close to zero. allows us to take large strain increments without sacrificing accuracy. and EP is the plastic tangent modulus derived to + ~ i= 1 ~. on the other hand.a ) / Y . which is based on return mapping.2 IMPLEMENTATIONIN FEM For the rateindependent constitutive model mentioned in Section 4.r. and Y indicates the size of the yield surface.a ) ' ( s indicates drag stress. not only for isothermal but also for non isothermal problems. D a)] 1/2.238 may employ the following yield surface.1. the plastic strain rate can be expressed as /:p where n be E'  3(~'n> n 2 EP (17) ~ / . /1/ (18) For ratedependent materials.6. These provide high efficiency and stability in computation in FEM.a ) ' ( s .3 / 2 ( s . 1 Fi / tt.6. so that the constitutive model is implemented using a user subroutine UMAT in ABAQUS [6]. Then.a) .
Chaboche. and Kurath. . REFERENCES 1. Kinematic hardening rules with critical state of dynamic recovery. Mater.D. Technol. 239 ~i 0. 4. Conf. (1999).4. Vol. A mathematical representation of the multiaxial Bauschinger effect.03 0. Y. O. (2000). Pressure Vessel Technol.1 Values of Material Parameter ~i. Int. L. and Ohno.T. 165176. Ohno. Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories.T. Plasticity 9: 375403. UK. and Rousselier. Int. 122: 3541. and Frederick. (1966). M. CEGB Report RD/B/N731. Mech.6. N. G. A return mapping algorithm for the strain hardening/ dynamic recovery type of kinematic hardening models in Trans. P. C. 2. on Struct.. 15th Int.4). J. Characteristics of the ArmstrongFrederick type plasticity models. Uniaxial ratchetting of 316FR steel at room temperature. Armstrong. Eng. since they can be determined very easily from experiments (Section 4. 3. Plasticity 12: 387415. no example is given here.. Jiang. 105: 153164.. 6. P. (1993). J. (1983).12 0. (1996). ASME J. N. On the plastic and viscoplastic constitutive equations. and Wang..6 Kinetic Hardening Rule with Critical State of Dynamic Recovery TABLE 4. II. Ohno. J. Korean Nuclear Society. 5. in Reactor Technol. N. J. Berkeley. and AbdelKarim. For the material parameters ~i and ri. ASME J.02 0.35 and cyclic stress relaxation usually occur but much more slowly than the predictions based on the Armstrong and Frederick rule. J.. Part II: constitutive modeling and simulation. 550~ 850~ R. M. pp.. Kobayashi. Material 316 stainless steel Modified 9CrlMo steel IN738LC 1018 and 1026 carbon steels Temperature R..6.
. . R is the flow stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . W8. . . . . . . .6 Table of Parameters .7. . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. Sapporo. . .1 Validity . 4. . . . . . . . .~ ) 1 . . . . . .7. . .4 Identification of the Material Parameter . References . . . . . . . . and ~c is the hardening or softening 240 Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. . . . 240 240 242 243 244 245 246 4. . The hardening rule employs memory effects of back stress. . . .~ c~j~ (~j . . 4. . . . . . .7. . .7. 0608628 Japan Contents 4. . . . . . . . .5 How to Use the Model . . 4. . . . N13. . 4.2 Formulation . ISBN 0124433413. Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. .~ j ) ( o ~ . . . . 4. . . . and it controls the biaxial ratcheting strain. . . . . . . . . . . .SECTION 4. .7. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 FORMULATION Combining the von Mises stress hardening form with the kinematic hardening. . . .7. . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . T) 0  (1) where Cokl is the plasticdeformationinduced anisotropic coefficient tensor of fourth rank. . . . .1 VALIDITY A kinematic hardening rule introduced here is valid for biaxial ratcheting deformation of metals. . . . . . . . .7 Kinematic Hardening Rule for Biaxial Ratcheting HIROMASA ISHIKAWA. . . . . . the following yield function is chosen for cyclically stable material at temperature T: 1 f .7. .~ R2 (~ .7. . . . . Kitaku. . . . . . . . . . .3 Description of the Model . . . or back stress. KATSUHIKO SASAKI Hokkaido University. . . . aij and a/j are stress and the center of the yield surface.
~kz) ~'J .~0 { 1 . 3 denotes the unit normal vector to the yield surface expressed by C~jkl(~kz .j)a 4 (8) To represent the roundness of the stressstrain curve and to drive the nonlinear plastic modulus simply. a4  3d gp 2 e C.j g~ C~m~(am~ .~. the following power law is .~mn)(da~ . 4 is assumed to be expressed by ~0 . a ~ .c ~ ) ) and ~0 in Eq.(~. The hardening and softening parameter is reasonably assumed to be a scalar proportional to the modified plastic work.Ra~ . and nij in Eq.7 Kinematic Hardening Rule for Biaxial Ratcheting 241 parameter. and g(pc) is the function of the accumulated plastic strain Pc until the previous inversion of loading. 4 and 5. Associated with Eq.~k. the modified LevyMises equation of cyclic plasticity is obtained from the normality of plastic strain increment to yield surface.) (2) where d~ and d ~P are the plastic strain increment and the equivalent plastic increment.(Xop)(O'qr .j ~.jh~(okz . The Ziegler type of assumption.~ / 2 ~hz~z (4) (5) vJ In Eqs.j)} dR (7) where dWP is the modified plastic work increment./ 3 CmnopCmnqr(O'op .4. 1.O~qr) (6) Using the consistency condition df . ~. the evolution of the back stress increment is represented by 2R2 d~. respectively.a w . is modified by employing the memorization of the back stress. The modified Ziegler type of assumption is expressed by d~ij .~. r and ( are material constants.j)d/z + n.0 from Eq. 1.(aij .jg(p~) (3) where nijg(pc) denotes the memorization of the back stress induced during preloading. g(pc) is assumed to be expressed by g(pc) . which is used as the evolution equation of the back stress.n~g(p~)) (a.~exp ( .j . .
Pa in Eq. 1012.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL For combined cyclic tensioncompression and shear straining.~ exp ( . R can be assumed to be expressed by R(. fl.c ~ ) } and (10) mOO : m ( o o ) { 1 . Pc is the accumulated plastic strain until the previous inversion of loading. Co.) = R(oo) 1 .). _ + 2c~{& . m(oo). 9 are th4 reference stress at the proof strain ~0 . R(oo).n~g(p~)} + 4 G s { & . 12 is the accumulated plastic strain at the current stage. (aij .f l e x p ( .Cro(oo){ 1 .nsg(p~)}]~ ..ak. In Eqs. These material constants are determined from some basic experiments.aij)(ak.P ~ ) } In addition.. They are expressed by Cro(.) in Eq.. The quantities of ao(.242 employed: ~p O" lshikawa and Sasaki K~ (v) ~ m(n) (9) where E is Young's modulus and K is a material constant.) and m(. d~t I B~ k ~ ~m(n. ~ro(oo). 9 is the equivalent stress measured from the current center of the yield surface and expressed by ~ = ~/(2/3)Cijh. 3 (Ctcrdcr+ 2Ctss&r + 2Cts~ds + 4Cssds)(Cto + 2Ctss) 2R2 . ~ in Eq. ~. 2.. Cl. and c2 are material constants prescribed by the history of loading or effected by a strain path memory.). the following relation can be reduced. 11 and 12.500 I~m/m and the exponent of hardening in the uniaxial stress state.2exp 77z (11) (12) In Eqs. 4.7.
d7t'.[ C t o { d o t . The anisotropy coefficients are determined by the following equations referring to a yield surface during the biaxial ratcheting.n~g(w)}]s R(~176 ~ }m~"' R c2 cro(oo) • (Ctcrdcr+ 2Ct~sdcr+ 2Ct~crds+ 4C~sds)s + nsg(pc) (13) where B = (3e. ct + ...Pt. the axial back stress increment.1. the yield surface in the case of the biaxial ratcheting due to cyclic shear straining with a strain amplitude of AT/x/3 = 0.ntg(p~)} + 2Ct~s{dot . which is shown in Fig.7 Kinematic H a r d e n i n g Rule for Biaxial Ratcheting 243 _R(~176 R c2 x (Godo" + 2R 2 . 4. cr = crt. 1( 3r2 2 '~ C s . O is the angle of rotation of the subsequent yield surface. Ct.4.ntg(pc)} + 2 C t ~ { & . and the value of the angle is 0 ~ The yield stresses can be determined from the yield surface shown in Figure 4. de. and do~s are the axial plastic strain increment..4 IDENTIFICATION OF THE MATERIAL PARAMETERS To obtain the material parameters. for example. and the shear back stress increment. 4. Cts.))(m(.1 which shows.7/ inOco O. the shear plastic strain increment.5 .~ ~cos20 + ~ s i n O (14) / where cry and l:y are axial and shear yield stresses determined as the stress at 50/. The deformation of the yield surface during the biaxial ratcheting can be assumed to be .o/2cro(. a biaxial ratcheting test is required.7.7. respectively. 2Ct~sd~ + _ F }m~") cro(oo) 2Ct~ods + 4Cssds)cr + ntg(pc) do~ .0q with kinematic back stresses at and ~xs.at a n d s = r . do~t..n~g(p~)} + 4 G s { & .7. and Cs are anisotropic coefficients. ..)+ 1).5% superimposed on an axial stress of 100 MPa.tm/m proof strain.
.5 HOW TO USE THE MODEL Biaxial ratcheting deformation is ordinarily observed in reallife structures. the shear yield stress decreases with an increase in the number of cycles../// / "~""" O . 4.105 1 + 0. From proportional loading . . The model can be incorporated into a generalpurpose code such as FEM for structure analysis.I s ~ + A?~23 and where et.244 lshikawa and Sasaki . .7. The simulation agrees well with the experiment.7. the yield surface does not rotate.. .. MPa .7.1 Yield'surface during biaxial ratcheting..2 shows the axial strain (biaxial ratcheting strain) due to cyclic shear straining with a strain amplitude of A~/v/3 . \ "\ .0. ~. .~.+I i. . x/~Zy ."" ~ 150 "" . I n i t i a l y i e l d surface FIGURE4. the shear yield stress during the biaxial ratcheting can be calculated by the following equations: ay = 165 MPa./ I / ~/d ~.. / / ~... 3. "" ~" \ ~ "..~ 9 /" 9 .. 150 I 100 I 50 I 0 50 I 100 I 150 I . such that: 1.57exp (15) where A~ .. . Figure 4. 9 _ . while the axial yield stress remains the initial yield stress. 2.  150 ." . a. .~.. . ./" ..so / j.5% superimposed on an axial stress of 100 MPa. is the biaxial ratcheting strain at the previous cycle during the biaxial ratcheting.~.
..1).25 Shear strain 0 0...133.5 .5 ~ m I .2 Biaxial ratcheting strain vs.5 .7.5  0. shear strain.5 =...0. .0..4.25 q.25 Shear 0 strain 025 "l(/.0._ 2 < 0.6 TABLE OF PARAMETERS The material parameters were identified for Type 304 stainless steel (see Table 4..7.7 Kinematic Hardening Rule for Biaxial Ratcheting 245 ...J oJ 1 "2 < 0. % 0./d3.5 (a) experiment 1...7..5 (b) simulation FIGURE 4.__. % 0.___. 4..
5 0"0(1) 0"0(2) O'0(oo 0t ) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) 206 142 147 C1 ~ ~ C3 0..07 0 . 0 8 . and Sasaki.07 0.2 e 5 50 1 REFERENCES 1. Temperature 20~ CO R(oo) ~ (MPa) C2 m(1) m(2) m(oo) 13 3. Ishikawa. 2. Ishikawa. (1998). T.1 245 0. . Sasaki. Series A 37(4): 347354. K. JSME Int.. H.1 Ishikawa and Sasaki Material Parameters for Type 304 Stainless Steel. H. (1994).7. J. Plasticity 14(7): 627646.. Int. J.5 3.246 TABLE 4.1 9 0.07 0. K. and Nakagawa.
. .8 Plasticity in Large Deformations YANNIS E DAFALIAS Department of Mechanics. . .30rthotropic. . . . . . . 247 247 248 249 250 250 251 253 4. . . .2 Model Constants . . . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . .1 Basic Theory . . . Davis. . . which are common to sheet metals. . . . 4. . . . . respectively. and Isotropic Hardening Model . .8. . . .1. 1 KINEMATICS The multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient F into elastic and plastic parts is expressed by Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. University of California. . . . . . 4. . . . . . . 4.8. .1 BASIC THEORY The following constitutive framework applies to large elastic and plastic deformations of materials which acquire initial and/or evolving anisotropic properties of different kinds. . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Numerical Implementation . References . . . .8. .3. . . . . . . . .8. . National Technical University of Athens 15773. . . . . . . . Greece. . . . . . . ISBN 0124433413.8. . . . . . . .1. . . .3. Kinematic. . . 8 . . . .2 Constitutive Relations . .8. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 247 . . . . . . . 95616 Contents 4. . . and Civil and Environmental Engineering.8. . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . The particular model presented at the end addresses mainly orthotropic symmetries.1 Analytical Description . . . . . . . . . . CA. . . . . .8. 4. . . The internal material state is described macroscopically by scalar and tensorial internal variables ki and Ai. . . . . . . . . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. .1 Kinematics . . 4. . . . . . . .SECTION 4.
associated with a tensorial internal variable Ai.~ (5) where ~ is the Cauchy stress at the current configuration. hyperelasticity is obtained by II[FeIFr eT . and Po the density at the spinless intermediate configuration.248 F=FeF p Dahlias (1) The velocity gradient at the intermediate plastically deformed configuration is given by ~pFp.W/p (4) 4. The s i is the spin with respect to which the constitutive corotational rate of Ai will be expressed in the sequel.Po .1)a . which is defined by (see Eq.r e.8.2. and Ai is plastic if it satisfies the analytical expression f (H.D~ + (FPFp1 )a (2) where subscripts s and a mean symmetric and antisymmetric. respectively.2 Plastic A state H.2. 4.1)s + (~:pFp.1. ki and Ai. 3) (FPFp1)a = 0 =~ o i .I). Ai. The DP is the plastic rate of deformation.1 _ (~pFp. In .s176 Wp +(3) where (2) i and W/p are the pair of constitutive and plastic spins. which is function of the elastic Green strain tensor E e .1. A particularly useful choice employed in the sequel is that of the spinless configuration [1]. ki. there are as many pairs of constitutive and plastic spins as there are Ails. ki) = 0 (6) of a static (rateindependent) or dynamic (ratedependent) yield surface. The plastic material spin (FPFp1)a o can be decomposed in two parts as (~:vFp1)a .8.1 Elastic If ~ / . In general. respectively.8.1. rl the second PiolaKirchhoff stress. ki) is the elastic strain energy per unit mass. Ai..(1/2)(FeTF e .2 C ONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS 4. The intermediate configuration is determined within an arbitrary rigid body rotation without loss of generality.
[:PF p1 o . Ai.8 Plasticity in Large Deformations 249 the case of rate dependence. 6 depends also on a scalarvalued measure of the rate of deformation. and with (NPo).+I ). 9 follows from the constitutive corotational rate Ai c . (5. For a given F..t. and F{.X.10): Fe+l .8.9. k/.oiAi + Aioi = 2Ai(II. for simplicity of notation..INPo(H. The 2 is the plastic multiplier (loading index.~/p(n) _ ) __[_ ) . The following rate equations are now postulated at the spinless configuration (recall Eqs. respectively. k. 8.6. + l . ki) (no sum on 0. k(n+l) . . ~.~((n)Ai ~~/p(n)Aln Aln)~. f. k (n).2 NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION By a straightforward adaptation of an incremental solution scheme developed by Aravas [2] for an isoclinic configuration to the present choice of the spinless configuration.4. Ai. A i(n+l) .Fn+IF p1 Ia/~Xn + FP+l Ee+l r Fn+lFn+ 1 I) (~52) Xn (11a) (11b) (llc) (lld) (11e) e~ e 1 (1/2)(Fn+lFn+ _ ir. (8) (9) (10) 2 ( A .) A. 4. k~) (7) xaf(n. is known.A i . ~/P. At a material point the solution 11(n) AIn).7.+I Ai(n+l)__ Ai(n)_~.+l po(O~///OEz). the following algorithm can be stated based only on the five Eqs. and 2~ki isotropic in their tensorial arguments 11 and A i . With the "directions" NP and ~/P of DP and W/p. Invariance requirements under superposed rigid body rotation render all constitutive functions ~. assumed o o constant over the time step At. . for plasticity. one must determine II (n+l) . Dafalias [1] proposed the following. ki) where Eq.~ A . and overstress function.+I at time t . A. the dynamic yield surface expression of Eq. A. + At. at time t. FP.W i p) and Eq. + Ai~2f) (no sum on i) /~i = 2/7ei(11. 2 and 4) DP . the choice of the spinless configuration (toi = . for viscoplasticity). and F. NPo.
2L)tr2(SA2) + 2(2F + 2G . iA("+l). KINEMATIC. This is because the choice of a stress rate is not a fundamental constitutive ingredient in hyperelastoplasticity [ 1]. ki('+1)) = 0 (11g) where/~. A for a deviatoric backstress tensor. such as sheet metals. The tensorvalued internal variables are the A. and Ai .A for the effective deviatoric stress. Hill's quadratic yield criterion can be written in terms of invariants [3] as f(L + M .0 where F. 13d).I n). and A2. (12) .M)tr(S2A2) + (4G + F + H . It will be most appropriate for the large inelastic deformation of materials which already exhibit a strong orthotropic texture because of previous manufacturing processes.H + N . k/ .8.8. is left upon the user. L.S .N)trS 2 + 2 ( N . 11g. no need for a specific corotational or convected stress rate arises. The NP is defined by o the normality rule. S . and according to Pereda et al. 5).3 ORTHOTROPIC. [5] takes the form (compared to [5] notice a small correction in Eq. H. G.m . (") (') and the 62 is chosen as the primary unknown to be determined from Eq.k 2 .t)tr(gal)tr(gA2) . 2. With the notation S for the deviatoric part of If.2M)tr2(gA1) + (4F + G + H . A1. AI"). The elastic response (Eq.250 Dafalias (llf) f(II('+l).3. 4. MODEL AND ISOTROPIC 4. M. Observe that throughout the development of theory and numerical implementation.Ni @ Ni ( i .L)tr(S2A1) + 2 ( N . no sum) with Ni unit vectors along two of the three orthotropic directions at the spinless configuration. N are the orthotropic parameters of Hill [4]. and n7 9 are functions of n(') .1.1 HARDENING ANALYTICALDESCRIPTION A specific constitutive model will be presented within the foregoing framework of theory and implementation. The scalarvalued internal variable k is a measure of the size of the yield surface. and kl") of the nth step. A linear elastic orthotropic or even isotropic relation can be a good approximation if plastic strains are very large compared to elastic.
2 f ~ and We .L + N)tr(SA2) (13c) ~b = 2(G + 4F + H . = 2(L + M .hNP .2L)tr(SA2) + 2(2G + 2F . the isotropic hardening part. 2) are purely orientational internal variables. one must be able to define their evolution equations from experiments.2 M ) t r ( S a l ) + 2(2G + 2F . one can propose to render Wp a function of the non coaxiality between .N) (13b) 4)3 = 2 ( F + 4 G + H . in terms of two constants h and c.2~t.(4)1  (1/3)((/)3 + 4)4))I + 4)2S + q~3A1+ ~b4A2 + (/)5(gA1 + AIS) q. Dafalias [6. respectively.M .4. 7. 4)6 = 2 ( N . It can be described by a scalarvalued evanescent memory rule such.2f~P for the backstress A and orientational tensors A1 and A2. From k = 2k and Eq. it remains only to determine the variation of k.as k _ ( H .NPoA) (17) where NP is obtained from Eq. in terms of two constants H and C.L + N)tr(SA1) 4 (134) 4)5=2(NL).SA1) + ( N .7] and Loret [8] proposed the expression W~ = r/A(ADP DPoA ). which in o conjunction with Eqs. 7 and 8 yields ~"~P  /']A(ANPo .M .H .M)tr(SA2)]. Zbib and Aifantis [12].hDP c[(2/3)(trDeo2)]l/2A.A2S) ~1  (13a) (4/3)[(N L)tr(. that is.~6(SA2 [. it follows that A c = 0. therefore. Combining the conclusions reached in the o works of Dafalias [911]. If for simplicity one assumes that they maintain their initial value. o Based on Eq.N vary independently.C k ) [ ( 2 / 3 ) t r ( D P o 2 ) ] l / 2 . for which the constitutive corotational rate reads A c .H . Kuroda [13]. 7 it follows that ( H . 13. which yields A1 = ~t2 = 0 (15) If the anisotropic parameters F . and Levitas [14].Ck)[(2/3)tr(NPoo2)] 1/2 (16) It remains to specify the plastic spins W~ . it follows that .8 Hasticity in Large Deformations 251 N~  ~H .M ) (13e) For the evolution of the backstress A the ArmstrongFrederick evanescent memory rule will be used.c[(2/3)(trNpo2)]t/2A ~ (14) The Ai (i = 1.
S .2M)tr(SA1) + 2(2F + 2G .$2A2 4. In general.A2)).3).1 Elastic Constants The choice of ~ will imply a set of elastic constants.252 Dafalias g .e.2.8. [11]. it follows o.2.8. Since A1A2 = A2A1 = 0 it follows from Eq..A2S) 4.M)tr(gAz))(SA1 .A2S2)] If S is co axial with theorthotropicdirections Ni ( i .M)tr(gA1)) (SA2 . Their interpretation in regards to yield stresses in different directions can be found in Hill [4].(A1 4.Alg) + (2(6 + 4F + H . The model constants associated with the use of the model are for the large part conventional. there may be other stress directions besides the orthotropic ones for which f~P = 0. This can be used to determine their values experimentally.C . 7 and 13.L)(S2A1 . From Eqs.SIAl 4. 12 depend on the degree of orthotropic intensity and its evolution for a given material. To be more specific.A and DP i. 17 that f~P .DPog).3. WP = t/(gDPo . one needs only an elastic modulus and a Poisson's ratio. 2. 4. (18) 4. after some algebra that [ 11] ~"~P M(SNPo .3.0 in this case.H + N .2.t/[(Z(F 4. one has the following groups of such constants. which is left up to the reader. For the simplifying assumption of linear isotropic elasticity.3) are the principal values of S. with the only exception the specification of ~ for the hyperelastic relation.2 Anisotropic Coefficients The values of FN entering Eq. one has the spectral representation S .AIS 2) 4. 4.1.$3 ( I .4G + H .2 ( N . .L . 11.NoPS) .3.M)(S2A2 .2L)tr(gA2) + 2(2F + 2G .2 MODEL CONSTANTS Equations 1218 provide all necessary information in closed form for the numerical implementation of Eqs.2 ( N .H + N .8. where Si (1 = 1.
. Mater.3. Oxford University Press. In a recent work [11]. The ratio H/C is the saturation value of the isotropic hardening variable k. Int.3. Plasticity 14: 909931. J. Finitestrain anisotropic plasticity and the plastic spin. 2.3.4. (1994). REFERENCES 1. E. L. (1993).2. J.3 0 0 can simulate successfully the orthotropic reorientation measured experimentally when orthotropic sheet metal samples are stretched in different directions. Modelling Simul. the value of 1/ in Eq. J.. . Plasticity 5: 227246.2. 4. Aravas. 16. R. one needs the values of h and c by a procedure which is standard in evanescent memory models. Eng. Dafalias.2. Finite deformations of anisotropic polymers. The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity. Sci. 2: 483504.3. J. Notice that h/c represents a saturation measure for the back stress. and the reader is referred to Dafalias [7] for further details.5. M.8.5 Plastic Spin Coefficients 4.8 Plasticity in Large Deformations 253 4. E (1998).2 For orthotropic reorientation Finally. N. in reference to Eq. Pereda. J. Aravas. 14. N. 4. 5. . Its determination is not straightforward.3 Kinematic Hardening In reference to Eq.2. (1989). 3. The effect of plastic spin on anisotropic material behavior.8. it was found that when setting r/rl'/[(2/3)trS2] 1/2 at the absence of kinematic hardening.3. (1950). 4. 4. Mechanics of Materials 15: 320.8. [15]. 18 will be of cardinal importance when orthotropic reorientation takes place. Dafalias. .. and Bassani. The plastic spin: Necessity or redundancy? Int.2 0 0 .2.8. and Rashid. values of r / ' . Y. one needs the values of H and C. Y. Hill. M.5. 17 influences the saturation level of the shear stress in simple shear loading.8.4 Isotropic Hardening Similarly.1 For Kinematic Hardening The value of r/a in Eq.1 0 0 .
A new look at the problem of plastic spin based on stability analysis. I and II. Willam. Dafalias. CNRS Intern. Solids 45. 8.. and Yin. J. ed. Y. Phys. J. Mech.J. Corotational rates for kinematic hardening at large plastic deformations. and Aifantis. Mechanics of Materials 2: 287304. Y. pp. C. Mech. K. 52: 865871. Solids. Dafalias. Balkema. J. H. Kuroda. in ASME Special Publication. ASME J.. Acta Mechanica 75: 1533. Zbib. On the evolution of structure variables in anisotropic yield criteria at large plastic transformations. (1998). Dafalias. (1983). E (1983). E (1984). K. in Proc.254 Dahlias 6. Int. 48: 22312255. H. VillarddeLans. Rotterdam: A. 10. 9. Colloquium No. 7. Y. I. 2540. E (1993). Appl. Solids 46: 557590. The plastic spin. Interpretation of the behavior of metals under large plastic shear deformations: A macroscopic approach.. Levitas.A. On the concept of relative and plastic spins and its implications to large deformation theories. M. . 3556. in Failure Criteria of Structured Media. E. 351. On the effect of plastic rotation on the finite deformation of anisotropic elastoplastic materials. 15. Evolution of anisotropy under plane stress. 50: 561565. A missing link in the formulation and numerical implementation of finite transformation elastoplasticity. J. 14. June 1983. (1988). 12. Phys. V. (1997). (1997). Plasticity 13: 359383. J. E (1985). Phys. Mech. J.P. M. Boehler. Orientational evolution of plastic orthotropy in sheet metals. Dafalias. in Constitutive Equations: Macro and Computational Aspects. J. Y. Mech. Kim. Appl. 841851.. 11. ed. Y. 13. Loret B. ASME J. Dafalias.. Mech. E (2000).
. . . . . .3 Extension to Complex Loading and High Strain Rates . . . the mechanical behavior can be. . . . . . . the initial section. . . . . . . . the elongation. . . . . .1 Validity . . . eN = A L / L o . . . . . . respectively.2 Overall Constitutive Equations . . . . and the initial length of the specimen.4. . characterized by a n o m i n a l stressstrain curve. . .9.SECTION 4. . . . . .9. Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . . . in which the deformation is h o m o g e n e o u s and essentially reversible. . . . 261 4. . . . . After an elastic and viscoelastic range I. . .4 Identification of Rheological Parameters . . 264 4. . . .2 Generalization to Three Dimensions . . . 261 4. . .1): ~N = F/So.5 Results . . . . . . . . 06904 Sophia Antipolis.1 VALIDITY Plasticity of polymers refers to large deformations of a m o r p h o u s polymers in a temperature range below and near the glass transition temperature Tg.. . . .3 Discussion and Further Developments . .9. . BERNARDMONASSE CEMEF . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . .9. .9. .3. So. . . . . . . . . . .BP 207. . necking occurs and ON Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. . . . and of semicrystalline polymers below their melting temperature Tin. . the n o m i n a l stress reaches a m a x i m u m (yield point). .9. 262 4. . . . . . In such conditions.9. . . . . .9. . . . . . as obtained in a classical tensile test (Figure 4. . . . . . 255 4. . . . . . . 255 . . . where E AL. . . . . . 256 4.9. . . . . . France Contents 4. in a first step. . . . . . 258 4. . . . . . . .3 Description of the Models . . . 263 References . 262 4. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . ISBN 0124433413.4. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Lo are the load.1 OneDimensional Laws . . 257 4. . 257 4.2 Background . Beyond this m a x i m u m . .1 Yield Behavior . . . . .3.9. . .9.4. . . . .9 Plasticity of Polymers JEANMARC HAUDIN. . .9. . . . . . . 260 4. . . . . . . . . . .
In the case of amorphous polymers. in which a permanent deformation is observed after unloading and remains at the time scale of the experiments.9. the existing models are based on two or three of the following ingredients: defects or sheared microdomains. Therefore.9. decreases (stage II). thermal activation helped by applied stress. deformation path (induced anisotropy).. Then. Finally. . Plasticity of polymers exhibits a number of specific features. deformation is generally heterogeneous because of the occurrence of necking or shearbands. the nominal curve of Figure 4. the mechanical behavior is very sensitive to previous thermomechanical history (e.2 BACKGROUND In crystalline materials.1. deformation is largely reversible.256 Haudin and Monasse III IV FIGURE.1 does not reflect the "true" mechanical behavior. it can be completely recovered by annealing above Tg. First. which generally exhibit several mechanical relaxations. plasticity is interpreted in terms of the motion of linear defects or dislocations. and hydrostatic pressure. In comparison with metals. Nominalstressstrain curve of a ductile polymer.g. polymers are viscoelastic materials. Furthermore. Therefore. annealing prior to deformation). Taking into account some similarities in the relationships between shear yield stress and modulus. the neck stabilizes and its shoulders propagate until they reach the specimen heads (stage III). the term plastic behavior concerns stages II to IV. the deformation is homogeneous again till rupture occurs (zone IV). Afterwards. many researchers have identified the elementary mechanism of plasticity in glassy polymers as the thermal activation of structural defects analogous to dislocations. Then.9. 4.4. and viscoelastic transitions [6].
The ultimate step is the extension of the amorphous network. the deformation of the crystalline phase can be modeled using micromacro approaches based on slip mechanisms.oyV) kW (1) which corresponds to an Eyring equation with two adjustable parameters: the activation energy Q and the activation volume V. 4. This lamellartomicrofibrillar transformation occurs in the macroscopic neck.9. and to give access to the stressstrain curves as a function of temperature and strain rate.3. In a temperature range where a single molecular process is involved. since these molecular movements are confined in sheared microdomains. Consequently. .V + ] or k . This mobility of the amorphous component allows.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE MODELS 4.2. deformation combines the specific mechanisms of the amorphous and crystalline phases described previously. many authors have focused their analysis on the yield behavior of glassy polymers. whereas strainhardening at high strain can be treated with a rubber elasticity formalism.ko exp ( Q . essentially by crystallographic slip. The work of BauwensCrowet is not based on the concept of dislocations but on the thermal activation of viscoelastic transitions. The interpretation of yield stress in terms of elementary relaxations has been developed by Perez [8] in a sophisticated model involving the stressassisted activation of collective molecular movements related to fl transition.4. plastic deformation of polymer crystals takes place. Only two examples will be considered here. the lamellar crystals are broken into smaller crystalline blocks connected by amorphous fragments of molecules. Then. When the amorphous phase is in the glassy state. The model is able to predict the complex modulus in the whole temperature range of e and fl transitions.9. to describe the yield behavior. interlamella separation). At large strains.1 YIELD BEHAVIOR From the physical ingredients listed in Section 4. k is the Boltzmann constant.9 Plasticiy of Polymers 257 Semicrystalline polymers are very often deformed when the amorphous phase is in the rubberlike state. the yield stress O'y as a function of temperature T and strain rate + is represented by O'y k [ l n ( ~ ) ~ T g . This analysis is consistent with the dislocation approach. relative displacements of the crystalline lamellae (interlamellar slip.9. at the beginning of deformation.
etc.fo 8(u) du the accumulated strain. Some of them consider only the plastic behavior. This equation is well adapted for tension. true strain curve.exp(we)][1 + c e x p ( . which is purely phenomenological.1 + h~ H(e) = 1 + hlg+h2 ~2 (3) (4) (5) . 9 C(e)= [l+c exp(be)] to account for the stress peak observed at the yield when the amorphous phase is glassy. 4. Kp is a scale factor. 8 the strain rate. and e .) the following expressions are preferred for H(e): simple shear simple shear multiaxial impact H(e) = exp(he) H(~) . F(e) consists of three terms: 9 V(e)= [1exp(we)].258 4.9. which describes the initial elasticviscoelastic part of the curve.9. The strainrate sensitivity G(8) is represented by a power law. 8) = K v F(e) G(8) 9 Additive laws: or(e. multiaxial impact. n is generally close to 2. it is written as rr = K~ e x p ( a / T ) [ 1 . 8) = F(e) + G(8) 9 Differential laws: do/de = D(e.2. They can be classified into three categories: 9 Multiplicative laws: or(e. the value proposed in the initial version of the theory.2 OVERALL CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS Haudin and Monasse These equations are generally onedimensional and intend to represent the whole true stress vs.9. compression. k) The o denotes the stress. 9 H(e)= exp(he") for the hardening at high strain.2. In its most complete form [5]. or more or less based on physical models presented in Section 4. For other types of loading (simple shear. originates from the work of G'Sell and Jonas. whereas in many cases all the strain components are integrated into the same formalism.3.3.b e ) ] e x p ( h e n ) 8 m (2) where the temperature dependence of Kp is described by an Arrhenius law: Kp = K e x p ( a / T ) .1 Multiplicative Laws The most popular multiplicative law. They are either fully phenomenological.
G'Sell and oi(~) + o* (/.9.4. one can mention: 9 the BelcadiParisot law. modified to take into account the strainrate sensitivity = as + a o ( e x p ( e / e c ) .m In ~o where the expression of the internal stress ai(e) derives from the rubber elasticity theory.2. rubber elasticity element).c l e) 4kT (93 .3. proposed for amorphous polymers like PC. For polycarbonate (PC).e ) ] . Other additive laws can be found in the literature. Following Jonas [4] have proposed this equation: ~r = 259 as based on the decomposition (activation of the elementary stress ai(g) (strainhardening Andrews and Ward.3. is based on a rheological model consisting of a Hookean spring (modulus E) in series with three parallel elements (yield element.exp(~) } e x p ( .2. 4.) = Kl[exp(2e) .K1 { exp(2~) .2 Additive Laws These can be considered either as empirical or of the stress into an "effective" stress o* (8) mechanisms of plasticity) and an "internal" effects related to chain orientation).1) + fl In (7) 9 the 0 law = erez+ Ks[1 + 0e exp(we2)] + K e x p ( a / T ) exp(he2)~ m (8) where the elastic component Crel obeys Hooke's law and the second term describes the stress maximum at the yield.e x p ( .9 Plasticiy of Polymers 4.3 Differential Laws The VestAmoedoLee law.9. This leads to the differential equation d__~ &=E 1 K sinh 1+ V (') ~o ~b~ . Eyring dashpot.
at given strain rate and temperature.3 DISCUSSION AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS The principal merit of the analytical multiplicative and additive laws is their ability to describe. . the strain is decomposed into an elastic part related to the stress through the modulus E and into a plastic component. the plastic behavior of the crystalline phase can be predicted using models developed for metals (e.260 Haudin and Monasse where ~bo and Cl characterize the stress distribution in the parallel elements. Once more. the stressstrain curve in a simple mathematical formalism. Perez's model [8].and strain rateindependent.E 1 . the model is temperature. Concerning semicrystalline polymers. modified Sachs model or selfconsistent model). They can be easily implemented in computer codes. In the same way. the G'SellJonas differential model can be considered as a first attempt. In the differential G'SellJonas model [4]. They must be combined with approaches based on rubber elasticity to account for the extension of amorphous chains at high strain.3. the prediction of the macroscopic mechanical behavior from microscopic processes becomes possible in simple cases. and Kl[exp(2e)exp(e)] is the rubber elasticity term. they suffer from their empirical or semiempirical character.g. In its original version. but the stress determination requires a numerical integration and this law is not easily usable in computer simulations.7 exp ee (10) kT where the internal stress oi(8 ) is described by the complete equation derived from rubber elasticity models: cri(e) = K1 [exp(2e)exp(e)] + K2 [exp(e)exp(2~)] (11) and o~ is the constant effective stress after the transient yield behavior. Thanks to these models. especially in the multiplicative case. there is an increasing demand for physically based models. would be fully operational if it were completed by an entropic strainhardening law..9.. the stressstrain curve is calculated numerically. Therefore. The constitutive equation is written d7. Nevertheless. which correctly predicts the yield behavior and the beginning of plastic deformation. 4. Plastic deformation is due to the creation and propagation of dislocationtype defects. K and V are related to the Eyring dashpot. but these dependences can be introduced. For amorphous polymers.
inverse methods combining a direct model for the simulation of the test by the finite element method and an optimization module for minimizing the differences between predicted and measured physical data have been employed [10]. the tests should be performed at constant strain rate g. This is possible in videocontrolled tensile tests by monitoring the crosshead velocity from diameter measurements.4. simple shear). in videocontrolled tensile tests.1). Nevertheless.g. More recently. and strain rate are then  4F O" /1:D2 1 +  ( 1 In 1 + e 21n (__~) 8 2 dD D dt (12) The stress 4F/rcD 2 is corrected for triaxiality effects using the Bridgman factor. and shear. the deformation of hourglassshaped specimens is followed by a video camera.9. and the load E The true stress. strain. and the system measures in real time the minimum diameter D. compression of cylinders with appropriate dimensions) conditions or to consider a mesoscopic scale where the deformation is assumed to be locally uniform (uniaxial tension. compression.. or as a whole using optimization programs based on the leastsquare method.1 ONE DIMENSIONAL lAWS The identification of the rheological parameters of the overall constitutive equations presented in Section 4.9 Plasticiy of Polymers 261 OF RHEOLOGICAL 4.9.4. A major problem is the inhomogeneity of the deformation observed in many tests (see introduction). the local radius of curvature Rc. A solution is either to find homogeneous (e. Necking occurs in the minimum section.4 IDENTIFICATION PARAMETERS 4.2 is generally performed in mechanical tests corresponding in principle to a simple loading: tension. . The first one is to prevent selfheating. planestrain compression of thin films) or quasihomogeneous (e. For instance.g. Finally.3..9. a number of problems have to be overcome. The numerical values of the rheological coefficients can be determined from true stressstrain curves either "by hand" from a careful analysis of the different regions of the curves. which imposes one to work at a low strain rate (typically g _< 10 3 s.
3 EXTENSION TO COMPLEX LOADING AND HIGH STRAIN RATES In many practical cases. but this raises two categories of problems: 9 The mechanical behavior of solid polymers is very pressuredependent. Conversely. . 9 . the rheological coefficients can be identified thanks to an inverse method [10]. nonsymmetrical criteria such as MohrCoulomb or pressuremodified von Mises criteria seem to be able to describe the stress at yield. von Mises) have been used in the literature. Inverse methods provide an alternative solution. Therefore.. in impact tests or during the thermoforming process.4.262 4. Whatever the polymer. Micromacro approaches are able to predict this anisotropic behavior. but they are not yet available for engineering applications. 9 The induced anisotropy is strongly dependent on the deformation path. the yield stress strongly increases with hydrostatic pressure. strongly depending on the deformation path: it is higher in tension than under compression or shear. strain and strain rate) associated with yield criteria. but only in limited cases and with important calculations. It implies that symmetrical criteria in the stress space cannot predict the yield stress under different deformation paths. 4 . From experiments performed using this test and for a given mathematical form of the constitutive equation. Incompressible and isotropic criteria (Tresca. 4 . Micromacro approaches are able to interpret these phenomena in simple cases.g. the material experiences both complex loading and high strain rates.9. e.2 GENERALIZATION TO THREE DIMENSIONS Haudin and Monasse The generalization of onedimensional laws to threedimensional situations requires the definition of equivalent quantities (stress. It has been shown previously that 9 Constitutive equations are determined in laboratory experiments in simple loading conditions and at low strain rates. 9 An important anisotropy is developed at high strain. which has been checked on a limited number of polymers. the idea is to select a test in which matter is supposed to be strained in conditions close to those encountered in the actual application.
9.36 0. 10 were able to describe the stressstrain curve u n d e r uniaxial tension.021 0. 1 o Kp[1  e x p ( .41 0.1 Rheological Coefficients for Different Types of Loading and Various Polymers.52 0. TABLE 4. polypropylene (PP) [3].05 0. The numerical values of the coefficients of these laws at 20~ are given in Tables 4.10 m 0.10 0.05 0.06 0.10 0.4. poly(oxymethylene) (POM) [7].9.9.9 Plasticiy of Polymers 263 4.2 and 4.029 0.10 0.9.5 4. Tillier and Billon [9] have used the modified G'SellJonas multiplicative equation cr . including the stress peak at the yield transition.3. 1' Polymer PE Test Tension 22 60 20 80 110 130 150 115 165 25 100 230 46 25 63.047 0.3 10.09 0.6 17.03 0. m (i') for different types of loading (uniaxial tension.39 0.021 PP Tension POM PA 66 Compression Compression 45 68 22 50 20 30 31 32 33 26 23 34 45 22 7 15 .056 0. For other polymers.9. G'SellJonas Muhiplicative Law Eq.021 0.3 122 70 23 Temperature (~ 20 Kp (MPa Sm) 65 W h 0.5 70.5 RESULTS Table 4.48 0.10 0. Bisilliat and Billon [2] have s h o w n that for PC b o t h the phenomenological 0 law Eq.w e ) ] exp(he2)/.1 gives the values of the coefficients of the simplified Eq. polyamide 66 (PA 66). 8 and the physicallybased G'SellJonas differential law Eq. the values given for m take into account its variations with e. For multiaxial impact.4).110 0.9.40 0.034 0.4 9.43 0.05 0.040 0. For PE.Kv[1  exp(we)](1 + hie ~ h2~2) exp(he 2) ~m (13) and identified the numerical values of the coefficients using an inverse m e t h o d (Table 4.1 7. uniaxial compression) and various polymers: polyethylene (PE) [1]. and for w its variations as a function of ~. these values have been averaged.45 0.082 0.
A. . (1981). Tillier. M.. E (MPa) G'SellJonas Differential Constitutive Equation for PC at 20~ Uniaxial W/h 38. (1995). in Computational Mechanics. (1988). Ecole des Mines de Paris 10. C. 4. 8. 7. and Haudin. Introduction h la m~canique des polym~res. 6.80 2300 TABLE 4. J. Identification par analyse inverse du comportement m4canique des polym~res solides.. Process. Sci. A. Etude et simulation du d4veloppement de la striction dans le poly4thyl~ne ~ haute densit4.. and Jonas. th~se. Mater.264 TABLE 4. Monasse. C. 3. G'Sell.4 Sm) TillierBillon Constitutive Equation for PP.8 REFERENCES 1. Ecole des Mines de Paris.9. Bisilliat.4 20~ Ke (MPa 17. (1998). (1992).2 K (MPas m) 5. J. h 1. Vandoeuvre l~s Nancy. 5. Test Temperature W hi 1. BuenosAires. C. (1982). B. J.9 TABLE 4. Etude exp4rimentale et simulation.7 r (MPa) 65 a2 0. Phys. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine. 2. Y. Physique et m4canique des polym~res amorphes. Numerical simulation of polymer forging: How to determine the rheological coefficients. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine. and Glommeau. Haudin. E. 16: 19561974. N. M. 10: 179185. S. P. M. Applications aux sollicitations multiaxiales et rapides. (1995).05 K1 (MPa) 60 K2 (MPa) . Inverse method for the characterization of mechanical behavior of polymers under biaxial high velocity loading. Appl. (1997). Instabilit4s de d4formation pendant l'4tirage des polym~res solides. th~se. Lavoisier Tec et Doc. G'Sell C.9.33 0 Constitutive Equation for PC at 20~ a (K 1) 749 0 270 Haudin and Monasse Uniaxial Tension. New Trends and Applications. and Dahoun. Haudin.325 m 0.3 Tension. Intern. L. Yield and transient effects during the plastic deformation of solid polymers.041 Ks (MPa) 0. J. 9. (1995). J. Valla. J. Rev. J. M. Comportement m4canique d'un polycarbonate ~ grande vitesse de sollicitation. Perez. G'Sell. 30: 701711. and Billon. th~se.8 m 0. Y. Monasse.9.. (1998). J. AlyHelal. Massoni. Paris. Tillier. 4 th World Congress on Computational Mechanics. B. Nancy. Multiaxial Impact. Proc. T. G'Sell.. N..045 106. Duffo. Rheology of polypropylene in the solid state.04 h2 0. Sci. Polym. 23: 10851101. Mater.
1 0 . . .. . .. . . . .10 Rational Phenomenology in Dynamic Plasticity JANUSZR.10.. one possibility is to use the concept of internal state variables (one or more than one) [ 1]. . .1 Range of Strain Rates a n d F u n d a m e n t a l s . . .. . 4. 1 0 .. .. .1 RANGE OF STRAIN RATES AND FUNDAMENTALS Dynamic plasticity in its general definition covers several decimal orders in strain rate.. . .. . . . in general. . Since plastic flow is a kinetic process. . . . France Contents 4... . 4 .. 6 Recent A p p l i c a t i o n s . . . . the level of stress at constant microstructure depends on both strain rate and temperature. 3 The F o r m a l i s m in M o d e r n C o n s t i t u t i v e Modeling .. .. . . KLEPACZKO Metz University. . . 2 71 272 273 268 270 266 4. . . 2 I n s t a n t a n e o u s Rate Sensitivity a n d Rate Sensitivity of Strain H a r d e n i n g . .. .. . .. Laboratory of Physics and Mechanics of Materials. .. . . . . . ISBN 0124433413. ...10. 1 0 . 1 0 . Ile du Saulcy. . .. . .. . . . . 4 . . . ... . .. . . . . 57045 Metz. . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . . .5 O n e . . . . . The lowtemperature micromechanisms involved in dynamic plasticity operate typically from OK up to about 0. . . .10. . .. . . 4 Identification of M i c r o s t r u c t u r e . References . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. 265 4 .. . 4 .. . . . . . 265 . . . . . . . . .5 of the melting point. The microstrucuture can be defined in many ways... .. . . ..p a r a m e t e r M o d e l of M i c r o s t r u c t u r a l Evolution . . . .. . . which take into account a microstructural evolution. Since the density of moving defects per Handbook of Materials Behavior Models.. . . . .SECTION 4. . typically from 10E4 1/S (quasistatic case) to 10E6 1/S (highvelocity impact). .
and consequently Al:h is the result of deformation history. The total increment of stress AI: = A~s 4. is shown in Figure 4.effects [13]. In this paper notation of the shear strain will be as follows: F = tan 7. an instantaneous elastic response is observed as an increment of shear stress A~:s.2 INSTANTANEOUS RATE SENSITIVITY OF STRAIN AND RATE SENSITIVITY HARDENING Over the years numerous experimental data have been accumulated. too many to mention.and temperaturedependent constitutive models. The entire stress difference Avs 4. the result is similar. .1 [5]. whether a metal is deformed with a jump of strain rate or 1"is changed with a temporary unloading.10.1a. represented in this paper.10.10.1a i. which clearly demonstrate the existence of socalled strain rate history and temperature history .Al:h can be determined from the tests with two constant strain rates or temperatures. Decrease of from l'i to l~r or increase of T from Ti to Tr produces responses shown in Figure 4.266 Klepaczko unit volume that take part in plastic deformation is very large. According to the schematized responses to strain rate or temperature changes from 1'i to l~r or from Ti to Tr. however.10. The typical behavior in two common lattice structures. this is the path ABCD in Figure 4. A~s (path BC in Fig.. In conclusion. as is shown in the lower part of Figure 4. It is evident that the strain rate or temperature history effects are due to a somewhat different physics of strain hardening at different strain rates or temperatures. The architecture of physical laws used is called the formalism. for temperatures less than about half of the melting temperature.1) is the measure of instantaneous rate sensitivity at constant microstructure. The significance of the incremental tests lies in the fact that they provide values of flow stress at two different strain rates with virtually the same microstructure.1b. as is shown in Figure 4. The same happens when temperature is abruptly decreased. It is obvious that A~h can be associated with rate sensitivity of strain hardening.d F / d t . they are not precisely defined by statistical means.10.10. where 7 is the shear angle. FCC and HCP. the path ABCD. Those effects have been observed for both metals and alloys as well as for single crystals [4]. it is convenient to operate by mean quantities. and the time derivative: . 4.1.Avh refers to the same initial strain 1'i but to two slightly different microstructures.e. The constitutive formalisms are a powerful tools for formulating physically based rate.10. Such an approach is called rational phenomenology. Independently. 4.
they are also valid in case of tension or compression.1. r/~ . The total rate sensitivities can be determined at two constant strain rates and the instantaneous values from jump tests [1]. m.SfR (1) where fi is the rate sensitivity. as is shown in Table 4.10 Rational Phenomenology in Dynamic Plasticity a 267 ?i<'i'. m+. All those quantities are interrelated.'i I  ~L'. The definitions are referred to shear deformation.1 Yp This rather loose term emphasizes the dependence of strain hardening on strain rate.(a'C/af")f. .10. iBt'~T:? ~Yp ~ ). r/+ and fi~.STR.(c~r/a log f')r. All rate sensitivities are defined as instantaneous quantities determined with jump tests [1]: fl+ . however. r/r can be determined. rn~ . The complete set of the rate sensitivities is fl.(a log "c/a log 1')T. and r/is the viscosity. T:T r b ' ~ ~>'Pr . Ti~rr T:Ti = YY'. r/. The following three general definitions for strain rate sensitivity of flow stress can be introduced (Eq.SfR.4.10. m is the logarithmic rate sensitivity. fl~. For both cases. m~.Yr Yp FIGURE 4. 1). ri>T. .. respectively. for shear and tension/compression.
the effect of grain diameter.1 Rate sensitivity m~ ~ ~ ~ Klepaczko *m 1 T T *[3. The model takes into account the evolution of the mean dislocation density. Since the defects are multiplied during plastic deformation. Such an approach leads to a specific constitutive modeling. the strain hardening develops. On the other side the plastic flow is a kinetic process. 7. In view of the complexity and diversity of dislocation behavior. the formalism. Three main factors contribute to the actual level of flow stress: strain. and further developments have been reported later [1. 6. mobile dislocation density. 1 T F/~ T T 1/[" Rate sensitivity ma = *m 1 *fla 1/ rr T 1 t/ty T ~ tic ~ a/~ T T 1 1/~ T T 1 4. The formalism presented here had been introduced some time ago [5]. l/r. and the evolution of the internal stress is coupled with the formation history of the microstructure (ratesensitive strain hardening). 8]. The formalism differs from that proposed later by Mecking and Kocks [9] and by Estrin and Mecking [10]. may differ depending how many particular microprocesses of plastic deformation are taken into consideration.10. or the "architecture" of the constitutive relations. formation of dislocation cells.3 T H E F O R M A L I S M IN M O D E R N CONSTITUTIVE MODELING The socalled formalism in constitutive modeling is a set of assumptions formulated on the notions of materials science.268 TABLE 4. and temperature. and applied recently to high strain rate plasticity [11]. and . The thermal activation strain rate analysis is employed for both the kinetics of glide and the kinetics of structural evolution. rl. The evolution of the effective stress is associated with glide kinetics and short transients of flow stress (instantaneous rate sensitivity) [12]. strain rate. Plastic flow of metals is determined on the atomic scale by the motion of defects (mainly dislocations).10.
The notion is adopted that plastic deformation in shear is the fundamental mode of deformation. thermally activated micromechanism of plastic deformation. at temperatures near the absolute zero). and they can be overcome by moving dislocations with the assistance of thermal vibration of crystalline lattice.z~ + z * or in tension/compression a . sj)exp[AGi(T. and k is Boltzmann constant. characterized by j state variables sj.a~ + a* (2) The assumption of additiveness according to Eq. Generally AG depends on the effective stress r* in a nonlinear manner [1.10 Rational Phenomenology in Dynamic Plasticity 269 formation of twins.f~ {sj[h(f'. Peierls barriers. T is the absolute temperature. and the instantaneous plastic strain rate F.. Those obstacles produce the effective stress z*. "c*. 2 implies the existence of two sets of obstacles opposing the dislocation movements [13]. is due to strong obstacles to dislocation motion like cell walls.e.f * {sj[h(1~. and second phase particles. and HCP lattices can be accomplished. grain walls.. BCC. The kinetics of defect (dislocation) movements interrelates at constant microstructure. Thus the internal stress is ~ . while more numerous. the instantaneous value of effective stress z*.4. Note that only plastic strain and plastic strain rate enter into equations. AGi is the free energy of activation. The expression for this process can be written as [" or after inversion  V i (T. As a result. The subscript i indicates the ith. It has also been shown that at high strain rates (103S1 ~ F < 106S1) an excessive dislocation generation occurs in FCC metals which leads to a substantial increase of the mechanical threshold (the flow stress in absence of the thermal vibration of the lattice. 1'. thus r .13]. etc. Another fundamental assumption is partition of the flow stress r into the effective stress ru and the internal stress r*. The secondary defects. sj)/kT] (3) r* . are supposed to be weak obstacles. so far unspecified. i. like forest dislocations. The internal stress zu must be also rate and temperaturedependent via dynamic recovery processes.e. twins. T)]. More recent numerical simulations have demonstrated the capabilities of the model. T} (4) where vi is the frequency factor. i. a quantitative description of strain rate history and temperature history effects in FCC.r)]}STR (5) . The first one. relaxation of longrange internal stresses due to dislocation annihilation and rearrangements of obstacles to dislocation motion. associated with the internal stress zu.
Thus the flow stress can be calculated for any deformation history. F(F).fj[Sk. Both components of stress in Eq. k . . T) indicates that the internal state variables. Consequently.1/V/fl.8] "r. 4 and 5 in the functional form "CsTaf~{s). the microstructure evolution is assumed in the form of a set of j differential equations of the first order d s j / d F . T(F)].•llgbp 1/2 Jro~2/t " " +e3// +e412 (8) where # is the shear modulus. T)]}sTa + f * {sj. and the state of microstructure is defined by j variables. [h(F. The following four are assumed as a satisfactory choice for the internal state variables: the microstructure is characterized by the mean distance L between forest dislocations.F. . the mean value of a grain diameter D. the mean value of a dislocation cell d. . An explicit expression for ~u can be written as [1.j. and 5 is an exponent which is equal to 1 for onedimensional characteristic spacing L and . 4. Both strain rate and temperature enter into Eqs.[h(F. (7) A solution of the set defined by Eq. defined by sj state variables and also on the current values of 1" and T.1 . b is the modulus of Burgers vector.. ~1 "~4 are constants which characterize dislocation/obstacle strength. the mean spacing between forest dislocations can be defined as L . and next the structure evolves with plastic strain. 6.270 Klepaczko It is assumed that the recovery processes leading to a structural evolution may be thermally activated. Since the microstructure undergoes an evolution. 7 provides current values of sj to be introduced into Eq.p . the plastic response of a material is divided into two logic steps: the flow stress z depends on the current structure. A range of characteristic spacing is possible. This is the fundamental assumption of the model. T}STR (6) where h(]~.4 IDENTIFICATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE Flow stress or yield stress in polycrystalline metals and alloys can be related to characteristic spacing of obstacles to dislocation motion associated with a particular microstructure [13]. and the mean distance between twins A Each of those obstacles to dislocation motion will contribute to the total value of the internal stress ~:u.10.sj do depend on the history of F and T defined more exactly as F(F) and T(F). 6 are written for a current state characterized by sj state variables. It is the source of temperature and strain rate dependence of zu. T)].
The first three terms in Eq.5 ONEPARAMETER MODEL OF MICROSTRUCTURAL EVOLUTION Common to all recent microstructurerelated models is that the set sj of internal state variables is reduced to a single structure parameter which can be identified as the mean dislocation density p [1. T)F]} (11) Introduction of the solution for p(Eq. 4.8 . The solution for p with F and T as parameters yields the following relation: P = P0 + ka(F. T) (9) where the difference M4f = Mg . is defined as vi = Pmb2VD. A simple evolutionary relation has been proposed in [6] dp/dF = MH. P0 is the initial dislocation density. 11 yields the final form for the ~u. A general form of the differential equation for structural evolution can be written as [5] d p / d r . The effects of d.4. and typicallyf ~ 10 3. to dislocation/ dislocation interaction. 8 are related..e x p [ k a ( F .10 Rational Phenomenology in Dynamic Plasticity 271 6 = 1/2 for twodimensional spacings (d. Generally.Mg(p. Thus the fourth term in Eq. 14]. evolution of subgrain. 9. f < 1. that is. is satisfied automaticall. that is. d. usually F ~ 0. respectively. M MII if F = 0. and the effect of grain diameter the so called HallPetch term [1]. 8 accounts for twin formation as a dislocation obstacle at the beginning of a certain strain level. 3). where f is the fraction of the total dislocation density. Once M4f is known in an explicit form.08. is the mobile dislocation density and VD is the Debye frequency ( ~ 1013s1). 6. F. D.y when p = P0. D.ha([". one can predict the current value of plastic strain F that will be accumulated in any process of deformation by integrating Eq. It is usually assumed for FCC and HCP structures that Pm = fP. 5 .10.Po) with = ha = k0(F/F0) 2m~ (10) The initial condition for M. T)(p . 12]. The second component of the flow stress. It is well known that at low temperatures and at very high strain rates some metals and alloys produce deformation twins. the evolution of d(p) intensifies strain hardening with a larger effect at small strains. dislocations form cells with linear dimension d. and A can be found elsewhere [1. A). Y){1 . 8]. F ) . r*. The frequency factor v. where p.Ma(p.Ma is the effective coefficient of dislocation multiplication [5. A more detailed characterization of all variables p. and A in this contribution are neglected. can found in the explicit form using the generalized Arrhenius relation (Eq. For BCC metals the . 11) and expression for ka into Eq. D.
13].6 RECENT APPLICATIONS The formalism in constitutive modeling with one state variable as the mean dislocation density p has been applied so far many times. Concerning FCC pure metals. was applied to model strain hardening and ratesensitive plastic flow for XC18 steel (approximately AISI 1018) [15]. A complete set of material constants for this steel is given also in Reference [15]. r(f'. [ 1 . where Pi and Pm are. . 3. the upper and lower yield point and Luders bands. . numerical simulations of strain rate history effects were reported in Reference [6]. was reported in [7]. 15] for both FCC and BCC structures. f is not a constant but varies. 8]. has recently been applied to calculate short and long transients for aluminum [12]. F <0. and the results of numerical calculations have been reported in several papers [1. causing.4. Those simulations for A1 in the form of ~(F) curves at different temperatures along with incremental changes of f~ do show relatively good agreement with experimental observations.cz~b{Po + ka(f" . in the simplified form of Eq 14. T). 16]. They more or less exactly depict experimental results for polycrystals of A1 deformed at different temperatures with jumps in strain rate [1. 1")+ z * (F. 10 and vi is defined as discussed previously. for example. A more realistic evolution equation. The identification of material constants in the model for the range of dynamic strain aging temperatures. 12. 7. The two state variable model with evolution Pi and Pm. Application of this formalism leads to the explicit form of the constitutive relation with F and 7" as parameters.r~(F.F. respectively. Inversion of the Arrhenius relation yields the explicit expression for ~* I where "c~ is the threshold stress at 0 K.10. with a simple evolution equation without annihilation.]}I/2 + "Co [1G0k~TlnVi(Fm)] (13) where ka(r ~. whereas for BCC structures it is approximately constant this is the Peierls stress barrier [1. 8.exp(ka(f% T. 6. 8. T ) . 4. the immobile and mobile dislocation density. T . Stressstrain curves for Armco iron and 1020 steel have been reported for a wide range of strain rates in References [6. T) is defined by Eq. 6.272 Klepaczko evolution of Pm is more complex. via experiments on XC18 steel. For FCC and HCP structures the threshold stress depends on the dislocation density. thus r. An agreement with experimental data was achieved for shear strains.
. E (1981). J. Physicalstate variables: The key to constitutive modeling in dynamic plasticity. J. An engineering model for yielding and plastic flow of ferritic steels. eds. Duffy. eds.10 Rational Phenomenology in Dynamic Plasticity 273 In general. and Rezaig. R. R.. R. It is flexible enough to include a variety of effects on flow stress at different strain rates and temperatures. Ris6. p. J. 147. H. in Impact: Effects of Fast Transient Loadings. modeling and experimental facts. E.. N. REFERENCES 1. (1977). (1986). Rotterdam: Balkema. J. M. B. p.. Klepaczko. (1983). 10. J. Klepaczko. J. Proc. A unified phenomenological description of work hardening and creep based on oneparameter models. L. R. E (1975). Klepaczko. 9. M.. 45. Danmark. 12. 14. 16. P. New York: ASME. Klepaczko.. Short and long transients in dynamic plasticity of metals. 15. 31: 6085. Murr. Morrone. A. Klepaczko.. Roskilde. (1991). 25: 3. 8. p. A. of Materials 24: 125. A general approach to rate sensitivity and constitutive modeling of FCC and BCC metals. and Weiss. Thermally activated flow and strainrate history effects for some polycrystalline FCC metals. in Material Behavior Under High Stress and Ultrahigh Loading Rates. Materials Sci. 3. Acta Metall. E (1988). and Ashby. and Kocks. Engng.. 7. 13.. Modeling of structural evolution at medium and high strain rates. (1975). Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Slip.. the formalism permits calculations of viscoplastic responses to different deformation histories for FCC. S. and Klepaczko... eds. J. (1992). A constitutive description of the deformation of copper based on the use of the mechanical threshold stress as an internal state variable... p. W. Trans. A. and HCP relatively pure metals and metallurgically stable alloys. Y. A. Klepaczko. Engng. Argon. New York: Plenum Press. 18: 121. in Constitutive Relations and Their Physical Basis. R. . and Kocks. et al. (1984). U. Micromechanics of Flow of Solids. Klepaczko. E. and Staudhammer K. Guman. Kinetics of flow and strain hardening. 2. in High Energy Rate Fabrication. Mecking. R. (1996).J. and Duffy. 5. R. BCC. 36: 81. 11. (1984). J.. (1987). J. J. Work hardening of mild steel within dynamic strain ageing temperatures. (1988). Acta Metall. New York: McGrawHill. Meyers. Dekker. R. J. (1969). Kocks. 387. 6. U. A. (1966). Acta Metall. U. 29: 1865. 8th Ris6 Symposium. Mescall. 3. R. Gilman. Follansbee. J. 32: 57. Zeghib. A. in ShockWave and HighStrainRate Phenomena in Materials. S. p.4. Klepaczko. 21. Frantz. and Duffy. Estrin. 4. MRL Brown University Report. Providence.. New York: M. Strain Rate and Temperature Effects During Dynamic Deformation of Polycrystalline and Monocrystalline High Purity Aluminum Including TEM Studies. J. R. P. J.. Materials Sci. J. History effects in polycrystalline FCC metals subjected to rapid changes in strain rate and temperature. J. A numerical study of adiabatic shear banding in mild steel by dislocation mechanics based constitutive relations.. Strainrate history effects and dislocation structure. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Nuclear Engng and Design 127: 103. Mech. and Mecking. H.
4. and l_ the tangent modulus. . 4. . . . . .11. The dot is differentiation with respect to time.0 and f < O ~0_'~ LHF~~ and f . . .11. . f is the yield function. . . . . .11. 61 avenue du PrEsident Wilson. . .2 Method of Solution . . ~ and [3 are secondorder tensors assumed throughout to be coaxial. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .0 (1) where c~ is the stress tensor. In Eq. . . . . . . France Contents 4. 274 . . . . . .3. H = h + ~:I:l: [3 is a scalar parameter.11. . . . . .3 Results . . . . h is the socalled hardening modulus. . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . ENS de Cachan/CNRS/Universit~ Paris 6. . . . . . . . and F is the elastic tensor assumed. . . References . i. . . It is convenient to introduce the deviatoric and hydrostatic parts of 0~ and [3 such that cz = a + pl. .11. 4. . . . . . . 94235 Cachan. . . . . . . . .ll Conditions for Localization in Plasticity and RateIndependent Materials AHMED BENALLAL Laboratoire de M~canique et Technologie. .1 Scope . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . . . . . . . . . . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. .. . . 4. Localization is understood in the classical sense. . . . . throughout to be isotropic (with Lam~ constants 2 and /~). .1 N (or ~ ) Has Distinct Eigenvalues.2 N and ~ Have Both a Double Eigenvalue . .1 SCOPE 274 275 276 276 278 280 We give in this paper closedform expressions for the critical conditions at localization and the orientations of the corresponding plane for general rateindependent constitutive equations of the form Fif f < O o r f . .e. . . ISBN 0124433413. . [3 = b 4ql with p = 1/3 tr(oO and q = 1/3 tr([3). as an Handbook of Materials BehaviorModels. . . . . . . . .SECTION q .11. . . g the strain tensor. . . . . . . . .
3) the eigenvalues of N and M. .n. 2. T+) plane ( in the (Z_.(N. 2_ of the generalized stress vectors N.q)2 _ (s 4. The localization condition for model (1) takes the form (see [5]) 1 H~(2 + 2/0 <_ (2 + 2~)4[((a + b). T+ = (N.((a .n)((a + b). and the respective normal components 2+.b)n)] .(2 +/.P _ q)]2 (4) = n. classical formulae in Mohr analysis show that the components ni of n in the principal frames of N and M satisfy.z)~[(n(a + b)n) 2 . respectively.4.~/[(Z+ 4. 2.2 METHOD OF SOLUTION We use here a geometrical method to solve in closed form the localization condition. The general localization condition reads det (n. a given direction n is represented by a point lying in an admissible area T+ (in an area T_) and corresponding exactly to the classical admissible area in the Mohr diagrams associated with N and M.(M.b ) n ) ( ( a . 3) and by Mp (p = 1. respectively.b)n + #pq 2 (2) Introducing the tensors N = a + b and M = a .2.n) <_ 0 [131.p 4.(ni)2(Mi. T+ 4. and is described as a bifurcation into modes involving jumps of the velocity gradient across a planar band of normal n.(ni)2(Ni .Nj)(Ni .n.11.n).n in the n direction.Mj)(Mi. and by Xp their common eigenvectors.b.N.(n(a .Mk) (5) (6) where (i.3). This can also be done using Lagrange multipliers as proposed by Bigoni and Hueckel [4]. When denoting by Np (p = 1. s the localiztion condition becomes 4/x(2 + 2#) _< H(2 + 2/x)(T+ .Nk) T_ + Mis + MjMk .n) . 4.T_) .NiX+ + NjNk .n) (3) In the (Z+. j.n). by elementary Mohr analysis. We denote by Hc the critical value of H at localization.n).M. T_ = (M. T_) plane). then the respective magnitudes T+ and T_.H. defined by 22+ = n. k) is a triplet with distinct numbers belonging to the set (1.n and M.b)n) 2] +/_zp +2 qn(a + b)n  ~P + qn(a .( 2 + 2/x)(2 2 .11 Conditions for Localization 275 instability of the inelastic deformation.22_) 4.
The domain representing the localization condition Eq. 5 (or 6) the components of n. 4.11. localization will occur when the domain D+ (D_) represented by this inequality meets in the (~+. The admissible domain in this plane is the triangular area T+. Depending on the constitutive behavior at hand.). T+) plane.1.1 Geometrical interpretation of the localisation condition in the (~+. 2 is delimited by the hyperbola C+. Clearly. and then by Eq.11. T_) plane) the admissible triangular area T+ (T_) defined previously. 4.3 RESULTS Two situations should be analysed separately. localization can occur at the beginning of the inelastic process or only after a finite period of this process. Benallal 4. . end up with an expression involving only ~+ and T+ (or ~_ and T_ only).11. T+) plane ( in the (~_.1 ~ (OR ~) HAS DISTINCT EIGENVALUES When the eigenvalues of ~ (or those of ~ ) are distinct. one can compute from Eqs.3. the admissible area T+ (or T_) is a triangle (see Fig. 3 one can compute ~_ and T_ as functions of ~+ and T+ (or ~+ and T+ as functions of ~_ and T_) and upon substitution in the localization condition Eq. moreover.11. In the FIGURE 4.276 4.
(Mj .Z {Ni + Nj + 2(p + q)}(N. This may happen when C+ (which is a hyperbola in our case) touches T+ at one of its vertices (in which case the normal to the localization plane is a principal direction of ~l and M). one gets the stationnarity condition: (Ni .Mj)sin 20[(2 +/.Nk) + (2 + 2/2)(32 + 2/.{M.Mk)) ]z (8) 412 [ 3.) 4/. Z_ and T_. This case will be examined in Section 4.Nk) .q)(Mj .11 C o n d i t i o n s for L o c a l i z a t i o n 277 first case. j.4.~ + 21a(Ni(Mj _ Mk) .(p . or when it becomes tangent to one of its sides ( in which case the normal to the localization plane lies in a principal plane of N and ~ ) .Nj)sin 20[(2 +/2)cos 2 0 ( N i .q)}(M.Mj) . 3). where they are obtained by the instant when the curve C+ delimiting D+ intersects for the first time the admissible area T+. cos 20 = 1 }2 (Nj .Mi(Nj .(Mj . from now on we consider only the second case. and maximizing H with respect to 0. they cannot have a triple one. 4 with equality to get H.Mj) 2+/2 (9) . T+.11. + Mj + 2(p .(Mi(Nj .l l { N i q.Nj) . Therefore. since because of their deviatoric nature. It remains then to consider the case where ~J and M have both a double eigenvalue. .2. Computing Z + . the critical conditions at localization must be obtained. Denote by (i. 2.Mk) 2 l. Now that the potential planes have been obtained.q)(Nj .Mk) 2] and a similar one for hi.#{Mi + Mj + 2(p .Nk) 2 . Let us assume that n lies in the principal plane spanned by xi and xj and call 0 the angle between xi and n (e c [0. the critical conditions are trivially given by the initial inelastic state. k) a triplet of distinct number belonging to the set (1.Nk) .Mk) p + q)(Nj . .Nj) .Mk) .Nj if.Nk)2 . re]).t)cos 20(Mi . it is concluded that the normal to a potential plane of localization lies always in a common principal plane of ~ and g4].Nk) 4/~[(Nj .2 ~ 4#+ Ni(Nj .q)}] (7) This stationnarity condition has two solutions: either sin 20 = 0 and the corresponding normals to the localization plane are the principal directions xi or xj leading to the value hi or hj given by hi 4[L~ q2g) 32 ( ( .(p .2(p + q)}] = (Mi . 2 + (p + q)(Mj . substituting the result in Eq.
The domains T+ and T_ degenerate to two segments. 11.11. 3). k+) and (i.Nj) z .1.t.1 < cos 20 < 1.~(Mk)_2 . 1_ T_ ~MkE1 . 3.Mh/211 .1. xk.q)(Ni .11.t)(3..3.0 and Eqs. + 2p) 8# {Nk(Mi.1 (Nk+ )2 .278 and the corresponding value of h is given by hij . 2. the equations of which are. xj.~ 1{ Benallal 4#(232+2P+ la)[Nk(Ni .( M i . These results. we can work. k) be two triplets of distinct numbers belonging to the set (1..2 (11) ) 2s 1 3Nk+ t~(nk 2 2 E_ 3Mh_ 1 3 (12) When the directions Xk+.Nj) 9 _ Mj) . 4. q .8 and 12 T_ and s as functions of T+ and s only (or T+ and s as functions of T_ and s only ) since one has s . we have Ni+ = Nj+1/2Nh+ and Mi+ = Mj+ = 1/2Mh+.M/)] 4p 32 + 2p q (2 + 2/. 11 allow are to compute only .Mj) 2# 2 + 32 + 2~ (p + q)(Nj . p. it is still possible to compute via Eqs. 2.Nk) . When N and ~ have both a double eigenvalue associated with the principal directions xi+. s plane and with the same arguments as previously stated. one can determine the domain of validity of each of the expressions hp and hp_q. xj+ and xi.(p . 8 and 10.Mk(Mi . Using Eqs.Mj) .2 N AND ~/~ HAVE BOTH A DOUBLE EIGENVALUE Let (i+. for instance.Mj) .M k ( N i  § [Nk(Mi Nj)] 2 } 1 ( N i .coincide. j .q)(Mj . T_ = (Mh)2/411 + 3(nh+) 2] and similar relations for T+ and s Therefore.(p .M k ( N i 2 Nj)} (10) + (p + q)(Mi . in the (T+. 5 and 6 using also Eq.zl vNk+E+ . too long to be reported here (see [5] for more details) are summarized in Table 4.3(nk+)2]. j+.0and T+ . The critical value hc of h at localization corresponds to the normal n leading to the greatest value of h. respectively.Mj) z This expression is of course valid only if . it is found that localization will occur when C+ touches the .Nj) .
= &a2 #J ) N. p{(Mh 2 = Z(P .l . . > 0.. T. =0 + n~ n. and nl.Z ( P . .o + 3 23 M. 5 .NI)] 2 ( ~ P)(N.(Nk .)' .4 ) ... n E n.IS the cone with axls n.N.k(Btk 1) 0 A.k = 0 n. + > + h.4))(Mz . . distinct or N . Btk 1 . A. B  :' 0 2(pqI(M.M..N )  Mi)'. 2 A. > 0.. . IS the plane spanned by n. 10. N I ) )  1 . d ~ s t ~ nort c 22N. T.TABLE 4. = f ..(M.k(B. . nE r.k I 0 B .. h. {(Mh A. A.k i 0 B. n.1 A@:. 2 0.1 . Bjt 5 0 A. A. L AJkB$ + 4A.)'] + * A. A.2 ( p + q ) ) ( N .~BI. B Z 5 0.k L 0 or A. 2 0. = f .  (N. ~f A . .b # 0 2_ Nk = &a+ 3 2M~ = &a3 + w Normal n to the localization planes Criucal value of h M. 1) L 0 or A .11 1 Cntlcal condit~ons localization for a + b at # 0 and a .Mi) .. .Z(P + q))(N.(Nk .k ~fA.2 ( p + q ) ) ( N . and angle 5 glven by:  * + diMk  2 . 2 0.)' .q))(MI .N.b.NJ]} xi 2(2 + P)(N.g + 3 2MI = io3 2 fr El & z i r A. = *a+ and MJ = fa3 3 (1 N. B.2(Nk .M. . + 4Akt(Bkt 1) 5 0 ?L G ntj n~ r . are the common principal d~recnons a of + = + b and a .(M..MI)'] (M.@.k > 0 B.
The alternative is to use Eq. The corresponding values of h are still given by Eqs. Benallal. and Comi.is easily obtained by regiving that the components of the unit normal to the localization plane nk. Rudnicki. Solids Struct. Localization analysis via a geometrical method. 4. W h e n the directions x/+. A.280 Benallal segment T+ at one of its extremities or becomes tangent to it. (1989). C. 5.11. Vol. (1975). Int. J. (1991). 2. Associative and nonassociative elastoplasticity. 28: 197213. Uniqueness and localisation.. Int.J. J. Rice. and Maier G. (1996). 2E+ = Ni+ = Nj+). it is concluded that the situation is exactly the same as when N or M has distinct eigenvalues and all the results of Section 4. I. Phys. W. and upon substitution in the localization condition. be comprised between 0 and 1.. or a direction belonging to the cone the axis of which is the common principal direction ( tangency to the segment T+ but not at its extremities) with angle ~ such that (cos ~ ) 2 = (nk+)2 = (nk_)2. R.. In this case. J. end up with an equation involving only E+ and E_.e. ~+ = Nk+). 8 and 10. and Hueckel. or an arbitrary direction in the common principal plane associated to the double eigenvalue ( when T + .do not coincide. T. E+) plane or in the (T_. and Rice.0 . A similar geometrical analysis can then be performed in the plane (E+. Bigoni.( n k + ) 2 . it is not possible to work in the (T+.1. 12 with E+ and E_ corresponding to the tangency point of the curve C+ with the segment T+. s plane. and Rudnicki.J. Solids Struct.1 hold true. D. A note on some features of the theory of localization of deformation. Xk. Meccanica 24: 3641.. J. 12) and the third one (nkk+) .' 3 2E+ 3Nk. R. Mech. nk+ (given by Eq. Eq. 11. Solids 23: 371394. Conditions for localization of deformation in pressuresensitive dilatant materials. Solids Struct. Borre G. the righthand sides being computed by Eq. It is concluded that the normal to the localization plane is either the common principal direction associated with the simple eigenvalue (when the tangency point is (T+ = 0. s where the localization condition is seen to be represented again by a hyperbola H. The admissible area in this plane. 3.' 3Mk1 1 < 1 0< 3. 2]E+ 1 2 E_ 0<+ < 1 0<+ 3Nk+ 3 . i.11. . and the critical conditions are also summarized in Table 4. compute T+ and T_. Int.. J.) 2 along the axis orthogonal to both xk+ and Xk. W. (1980).1 .( n k .. REFERENCES 1. 16: 597605.J. 2 E_ < 1 3Mk (13) This is again a triangular area and localization occurs when the hyperbola H meets this domain at one of its vertices or becomes tangent to any of its sides.
. . . References . . . . . . . . . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . . . . . 281 .3. . . . . . . . . . (iii) the d e p e n d e n c e of yield stress in torsion and b e n d i n g on Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. .3. .. . . Acknowledgment . . . . . 4. .4 Size Effects . . . . 4. .1 Validity . . . . . . . . .12. . .12. . 4. . .2 Gradient Deformation Model 2 (Asymmetric Stress [17.12. .18. . 4. . . are (i) the determination of widths and spacings of shear bands. .5 Forming Limit Diagrams (FLDs) .12. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. .23]) . .4 Gradient Flow Model 4 (Asymmetric Stress [17.23]) . . . . . . . . . . Thessaloniki. . .. . . .5 Generalizations . . . . . . . . . . . 281 282 283 283 284 285 286 287 288 293 294 296 4.18. . . . . .3. . . . .25]) .12. . . . conventional plasticity theory may not be capable of describing plastic flow and capturing the associated heterogeneity and scale effects. . . . .12. . 4.1 Gradient Deformation Model 1 (Symmetric Stress [2.3. . . . . .SECTION 4. . . . . . flow. .3 Gradient Flow Model 3 (Symmetric Stress [2. . . and internal variable theories of plasticity. . . . . . . . . . . . .12.25]) . (ii) the determination of velocities of Liiders and PortevinChatelier bands. . . . . .3. . . . . .1 VALIDITY W h e n the scale of observation and the resolution of the experimental apparatus are comparable to the size of the evolving microstructure. . . 54006 Greece. . . . . . . . and Michigan Technological University. . 4. AIFANTIS Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. . . . . . .2 Background . . .3. 4. . . .12. . . . . .3. . Houghton. Elementary Gradient Plasticity Models .12. . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . .12.3. . . . . . . Typical examples of questions that remain u n a n s w e r e d or partially answered by standard models. including deformation. . . . 4. . .12 Gradient Plasticity ELIAS C. .. . . . . . . . . ISBN 0124433413. . . . . Michigan Contents 4. . 4. . .
and (v) the dependence of hardness on indenter dimensions. as well as the dependence of interracial failure of multilayer coatings on film thickness. the initial motivation for introducing gradient theory was the need for determining the width of shear bands and the wavelength of persistent slip bands. and dislocation theories that do not involve an internal length scale in their constitutive structure. These questions can be addressed by modifying the yield or flow stress of classical plasticity theory to include additional strain gradient terms to model phenomenologically the heterogeneous character of plastic flow. These issues were later considered in detail by Aifantis and coworkers [47]. and they can also be determined independently from mechanical tests especially designed to measure spatial characteristics of shear bands and size effects.11.2 BACKGROUND The interest in higherorder gradient theories has been revived recently among researchers in solid mechanics and materials science because of the ability of the higherorder terms to model phenomena not previously captured by standard elasticity.9. An account of current work on gradient theory at various scales of observation ranging from nano and micro scales to meso and macro scales can be found in a recent review by Aifantis [1] and references quoted therein. The newly introduced phenomenological coefficients may be interpreted on the basis of the underlying microscopic mechanisms of plastic deformation. As first discussed by Aifantis [2.15] and thermodynamic [1216] aspects. as well as the problem of meshsize dependence in finite element solutions when the material enters into the strain softening regime.8]. Another set of problems pertaining to strain gradient hardening and size effects in torsion and indentation was identified by Fleck et al. It is emphasized that even though both of these approaches are based on a gradient modification of a scalar equation (the yield . This model or variations of it were adopted by a number of investigators [1922] to consider plasticity problems at the micron scale and to interpret size effects observed in particle reinforced composites and indentation tests. [7. (iv) the dependence of yield strength of composites on particle reinforcement size. More details on the aforementioned two basic gradient plasticity approaches can be found in the review articles by Aifantis [23.12. plasticity. as well as by others [816] who produced variants of the initial model and elaborated upon numerical [8.3].282 Aifantis specimen size. 4. who introduced another gradient plasticity model to interpret the related experimental observations.24] and Fleck/Hutchinson [25].
12. and one should not expect a general model to be invented for use in the vast number of applications at the micron and nano scales. 4. However. gradient plasticity theory is still at its beginnings.3. the associated boundary conditions. and through gradients of plastic rotation in the second one. to the variety of standard constitutive models that are commonly employed in conventional applications where heterogeneity and scale effects are not of interest.e.4.12 GradientPlasticity 283 condition) by incorporating gradient effects through the second invariant of the plastic strain tensor (effective or equivalent strain). the point of view is advanced that a variety of gradient models may be used according to the particular situation at hand. In this connection.cK72~ (1) .3. while it can be attributed to inhomogeneous strain transport through mobile dislocations in the first approach.1 GRADIENT DEFORMATION MODEL 1 (SYMMETRICSTRESS [2. and it becomes asymmetric in the second one. 4. the stress tensor remains symmetric in the first approach. This is mainly because gradient effects are directly introduced through gradients of plastic strain in the first approach.3. ELEMENTARY GRADIENT PLASTICITY MODELS The deformation and flow counterparts of the simplest form of the previously mentioned two types of gradient plasticity theories involving symmetric or asymmetric stresses are briefly reviewed in the following text.. Physically.12. The notation was purposely kept as close as possible to that of the original works. in analogy. and the experimental determination of the gradient phenomenological coefficients. but sometimes different symbols were used to unify the presentation. this was motivated by strain incompatibilities associated with necessary geometric dislocations in the second approach. i.23]) This simple form of gradient modification of the deformation theory of plasticity involves the incorporation of the Laplacian of the effective or equivalent plastic strain in the expression for the effective or equivalent stress. for example. It is beyond the scope of this paper to elaborate on the advantages and disadvantages of the mathematical structure of the two theories. = ~c(~) .
With appropriate extra boundary conditions (e. [17.~ji). with ehh . by the relations F ~ . 3 .~.~/2~.~(ui. # . Fleck et al. Sij being the deviatoric stress tensor. . F) are defined by the relations e . while the equivalent stress and strain measures (g.v/3mijmij/2. 4 .Uj. In analogy to the previous symmetric stress model.k denoting the curvature tensor. 1 2 .18.SijtSEij 4.. c being a phenomenological gradient coefficient. .j = 0 and ~jk 4.j. . It then follows that 2K(~)E 2K(~) (3) with s V/t~2 + L'2rh2. 2 GRADIENT DEFORMATION MODEL 2 (ASYMMETRIC STRESS [ 17.j i . EijEij . and Eij denoting the deviatoric strain tensor which.18.v/3SijSij/2.V/~2+ e2~2. with ~c(~)denoting the usual homogeneous part of tlow stress. boundary value problems can be solved. In this theory the stress tensor is aij 4zij. for m/j). and r h .25] have proposed a Cosserattype "asymmetric stress" strain gradient plasticity theory.mijtS)(.tS~.p O. e .8ij .~/~eijgij. we obtain from the previous equations the following gradientdependent stressstrain relations:  2F 2 (2) which should be supplemented by appropriate boundary conditions for the solution of boundary value problems. equals the strain tensor gij. .ij.~eijklmpi. . the relevant equilibrium equations are (aji 4. the equivalent work condition is postulated in the 1 form aw . as usual.284 Aifantis where the equivalent stress F and the equivalent plastic strain ~ are defined. with e denoting an internal length and E = dw(~)/d~ = ~c(~).2S. with aij denoting the symmetric part and zij denoting the antisymmetric part .g. for incompressible plastic deformation (ekk = 0). ~ .ij)(.25]) In contrast to the previous "symmetric stress" gradient deformation theory of plasticity..jS.i).j 4.0 denoting the usual strain tensor and Zij = <k&e. where Eij . By assuming the equivalent work condition Sij &ij = F6~. with mij denoting the deviatoric part of the couple stress tensor. 8. whose hydrostatic part does not enter into the equilibrium equations and is therefore taken to vanish.
v/xsijsij.0 (4) where the equivalent shear stress z and equivalent shear strain rate ? are defined as usual by z . whereas necessary extra boundary conditions are deduced from an appropriate variational principle.0 (neutral loading) or F .23]) 285 This simple gradient modification of the flow theory of plasticity (the flow counterpart of Model 1) involves the incorporation of the Laplacian of equivalent shear plastic strain 7 (note that for convenience 7 is used instead of g in accordance with the notation previously adopted in related literature) in the yield condition.~ .3 GRADIENT FLOW MODEL 3 (SYMMETRIC STRESS [2.h + G and h .. in the method of Muhlhaus and Aifantis [5].k( (7) where H .V29 .fgdt.cV2?) .p (6) and is determined by the consistency condition/~ = 0. 9 is treated as an additional independent variable and Eq. 3).ke .e. which eventually gives 9 . .h + SijC~keSke/4"c 2 . 7 in relation to the solution of elastoplastic boundary value problems.ke~r C~jke . the following generalized incremental potential functional ~'(1~i.?~Tj~ij:=>8ij (5) The relevant elastic strain increment k~e .0 & a/jg/j < 0 (unloading) .(K(7).23ij3ke + G(3ik@ + 3ie3jh).~/2~k~..Skr ~.12 GradientPlasticity 4. 5 satisfies the following loadingunloading conditions: _ f 3)if F . Various procedures have been developed for evaluating Eq.~e is determined by Hooke's law. To this end. which may be written in the form dij=C~jke(~.~. The corresponding associated flow rule reads F_.12. 7 as an additional field equation.3.with (2.3.c~c(?)/c~7.~ C ijkeF.0 & a/j~ > 0 (loading) 0 if F < 0 (elasticity) or a/jk/~ . G) denoting the Lam~ constants. F . For example.Sij"~ e ( . i.4. 9)is defined lfB ( .ij.? . Equation 7 is a differential equation for 9 in contrast to the classical plasticity case (c = 0) where 9 is determined from an algebraic equation. The plastic multiplier 9 in the flow rule given by Eq.
lidA0 fBfSij e 9 H9 qcV29} . By assuming that for 9 > 0.~9d V ~~~Cijkfgk~. Z V/G2 q~'2/'~12 is the overall effective stress. 2 5 ]) For completeness.X / ~ Z . The /. on ~epB n69 It is noted that Eq. ~elmji) comprising the five components of the deviatoric symmetric stress tensor Sij and the eight components of the deviatoric couple stress tensor glmji.286 Aifantis 1 with ~ [ 9 1 . by de Borst and Muhlhaus [9].(~. The applied tractions ti act on surface ~tB and displacementtype boundary conditions are prescribed ~uB= ~B~tB. . r ) = x .0 => ~nn .r = o (10) where Y denotes v/3SijSij +3vgZmijmij the uniaxial flow stress and Z .. as well as the introduction of a 13dimensional plastic strain rate vector t~p . The yield condition reads ~)(~. Vg} dV.= 0 at equilibrium arbitrary infinitesimal variations of [fi. 1 8 .0. we provide a condensed summary of this model (the flow counterpart of Model 2) for which the starting point is the replacement of the standard deviatoric Cauchy stress by a 13dimensional stress vector s = (S O. 9] and with 66i = 0 on GB. the second equation leads back to the consistency condition. The second of the conditions in the third equation is automatically satisfied on ~ B . for example.2fB {h72+ cVg.0 or 69 . 3 . 4 GRADIENT FLOW MODEL 4 (ASYMMETRIC STRESS [ 1 7 . These equations provide the basic framework for the corresponding finite element implementation as followed. the third leads to a nonstandard boundary condition along the elasticplastic boundary ~epB.0 (9) f~epB {cVT} 9 clA . 4 . ~ . 9 (first equation) leads back to the stress equilibrium relations and the standard tractiontype boundary condition. t'~/~)comprising the five components of the plastic strain rate "P tensor eij and the eight components of the plastic curvature tensor t'~/~. following relations are derived: the on for the f JB (rij'j~f'lidVJ~t[B[~ijlljti] (~(. 1 2 .
~EoEi 4. 11 can be decomposed into the following equations: (12) 2h stress rate Z.E / h .4. We note that a straightforward generalization of the symmetric stress model is r . VT)~cV27 (13) which was suggested at the same time as the original symmetric stress gradient theory. 4..(1). the relationship 22 F 2 . and the coefficient m is usually taken equal to 1. the asymmetric stress model has been generalized to include both stretch gradients and curvatures through. The purpose of the present introductory paper does not justify a review of them.3.12.p strain rate is defined as E. Similarly.f2. EP ~/}~eij + ~ ez~p~p~j~j_ _ V/(~p)2 + ( ~ ) 2 . The plastic work rate per unit volume is as 9 p before ivP . 1~ .Siji?.~)(.~Sij +~ ~ ~ .p __ 3 Sij f~ eiJ .l m j i .v/}E v.  where ~p .12 Gradient Plasticity 287 associated flow rule reads l~p_ 1 a~.ij)(.P.i j l'lijk 'lijk j (14) .~c(7) . 3 S0 3 ~glmji .V/2~iij "peij is the effective plastic strain rate and ~Xij ~j is the effective plastic curvature rate. can be obtained as where the overall effective .c* (V?. a few remarks are useful for the subsequent sections of the paper.Z/~v where the overall effective plastic . The stress rate is related to the elastic strain rate through a higherorder elasticity theory. but further details on this issue are omitted for brevity. for example.5 GENERALIZATIONS Various generalizations or variations of these models have been proposed by the developers of these theories and their coworkers.27]. It then turns out that the .(1) _Jr_tPcs. ef(p _ 3 elmji f~ flow rule Eq. It is noted that two gradient coefficients are now introduced to incorporate the effects of both first and second strain gradients. as well as by other authors [26. Nevertheless.. ~.2h Z. h(E) c~Ex (11) with the hardening rate h being chosen so that the uniaxial homogeneous tensile response is reproduced.p [mjixijp _ E .
~w(~)/~Eij. ~ = I/2~.~w(~)/~]l) )..22]. different models may be used according to the particular application at hand. 4. Then.~a(1) ~. This is based on an expression for the effective stress of the form F = cryv/f2(~) + ~rT.ij . The / hardening length scale is obtained as r ~ 0. where we focus on the symmetric stress gradient plasticity theory only and illustrate how it can be used to interpret size effects (Section 4.12. stress distribution relation) remain the same as in the standard mechanics of materials approach. it is pointed out that a recent elegant variant of the asymmetric stress model has been advanced by Gao et al.5a0 to . 13.12. The previously listed flow stress expression and the resulting model of mechanismbased gradient plasticity (MSG) is motivated by Taylor workhardening theory and recent indentation experiments [19].. Hooke's law for the elastic strains. and r7 . and moment vs.ayf(~:) for the nongradient case..e.288 Aifantis (3) where l]ijk . on the basis of Eq. strain distribution. The corresponding stress components are then obtained from the relations Sij .C2~72~ (15) The rest of the hypotheses (i. [21. 15 with ~c(?)= z0 ~ 0. and rests upon certain assumptions to relate the deformation behavior between "microscale" and "mesoscale" material elements. i. with G denoting the shear modulus and b the magnitude of Burger's vector.~cs) denote two independent internal lengths. It follows from the variety of strain gradient plasticity models discussed in this section that the search for a unified gradient plasticity theory may not be a reasonable task to undertake.5). Rather. and the associated gradient coefficients need to be determined from appropriate experiments. This view is further supported in the following two sections.5(G/ay)2bVJ ~ 5 ltm.4) and to derive forming limit diagrams (Section 4. The form of these models should not only depend on the underlying physical mechanism of plastic deformation but also on the mathematical simplicity and robustness of numerical implementation. This modification amounts to employing a gradientdependent flow stress of the type of Eq.e.4 SIZE EFFECTS In this section we elaborate on the interpretation of size effects in torsion and bending of solid bars by using a gradient modification of the strength of materials approach. different internal lengths may be involved. In this connection.12. "~ = /~(~) + C1(~7~ 9~7~) 1/2 . definitions of equivalent stress and strain.where F .llk. mijh .•(2) + 1]ijk refer to the orthogonal decomposition of 'lijk 'lijk the displacement gradient [25] and (/~1.1 ~V/~lijh~lijh. Accordingly.ijF~+j.
62 Y(oQo.12. .12 Gradient Plasticity 289 denote a perfectly plastic behavior for the homogeneous response. (c) Hardening behavior in torsion. L.476 mm Go 0. .'0 ' . r is replaced by the axial stress a.1 Quantitative comparison between theory and experiment: (a) Yielding behavior in torsion. a superimposed bar is added to the gradient coefficient when the constitutive equation is expressed in terms .6 7s FIGURE 4. . 9  9 ' 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 (a) (x (mm) . . 0:o.0 i i . . Am. which measures the gradient effect of the axial strain e with E denoting Young's modulus. pp.2 1. Soc. Y = GTswith G denoting shear modulus and 7s surface strain) on the size (radius ~ or height h) of the specimen's crosssection is obtained as follows: r ( ~ ) . . 9 . i . 142. 0. . ..4. 193223. 240!  . vol. ' ~0 h (mm) . 9 .38 mm x/c2/G =0. Eng. (b) Yielding behavior in pure bending. . . in the case of bending. .% ~2 + (c2/G) ( _ (c]/G)e ) ' Y f h ) .6o c. 9 . i.52 0 i . it turns out that an explicit expression for the dependence of the initial yield stress Y (first occurring at the outer surface of the bar where the elasticplastic boundary first appears. . . ' . 58. respectively. ~c(7) is replaced by a0.6 0. Also.. ./G =0.54 o 0. . M.58 Y(h) 360 (MPa) 320 o~ cl/E=1. ao) denote the yield stress in shear and tension for homogeneously deforming specimens.2 ' 0. and Cl is replaced by ~1. 2~ M/~)~3 600 (MPa) 400 200 2e~ = 2 0 g m 2~t = [ 3O g i n [ 20~ = 1 7 0 g n ~ (c) %'. Richards. Testing Mats. Figure 4. . Proc. . Inst. . As already indicated. .4 1.ao ( h / 2 ) h /2 ( ) (16) for torsion and bending. .1a. Morrison. .12. .28mm 2801 0. pp. Proc.. vol.e. . (b) . 1939) and on the height h of rectangular beams subjected to bending (C. . 9 . 1958). of Mech. .b shows the fitting of experimental results obtained for the size dependence of the yield stress Y on the radius ~ of cylindrical bars subjected to torsion (J. 9 9 ' 0.4 0. 955970. .8 1. 9 .0 1. W.
2a.23 and k = 117 MPa.12. In connection with these findings.12. suggest that a lot more work is required to determine the gradient coefficients. Similarly. for the interpretation of the recent experimental results on increased torsional hardening with decreased wire diameter reported by Fleck et al.. Eq. surface strain (es) relation depicted with solid lines in Figure 4. with Ep denoting plastic modulus (hardening coefficient) and E0 effective yield strength. 15 is replaced by z = ~0 + ky"+ ~ynl~72]j.65.w(e)+ Cl]~7/3[]62[~7e] 2 where w ( e ) .e[3Epe + 4 X ~ o _ ] / 8 is the homogeneous part of the strain energy density.1 ~tm. 15)~tmdiameter wires. Finally.C2) being gradient coefficients. These findings. ~c being the curvature.1 l. The values of the standard parameters n and k are obtained from tension data as n = 0.e. surface shear strain (7s) reads M ~= 2re + 7s3 + 1 + n+ 1~2 . by employing a gradientdependent strain energy density formulation which allows a direct comparison of the aforementioned two approaches. The dotted lines correspond to the prediction of the FleckHutchinson theory (2/x/3) ly I . through their asymmetric stress strain gradient theory is of the order of 2. i. The assumed expression for the homogeneous part of the strain energy density is the same as in Stolken and Evans [20]. This problem can also be discussed by using symmetric stress strain gradient models of the type of Eq.1~'e(17) The fitting of the experimental data by this expression is shown graphically in Figure 4. with g denoting the equivalent strain. and the most convenient form of gradient dependence of the flow stress on plastic shear strain (and possibly its rate) to be used in particular applications. reference is made to a recently published article by Stolken and Evans [20] where the asymmetric stress strain gradient plasticity model of Fleck and Hutchinson is used to interpret the observed size effect in bending of thin foils. and (Cl.tm for the (20. The corresponding expression for the sizedependent torque (M) vs. in themselves.290 Aifantis of • instead of 7.1c. and 4. we can obtain a moment (M) vs. 15. In fact. The value of the initial stress z0 is zero for all cases except for the 12~tmdiameter wire for which z0 ~ 58 MPa. which is now straindependent. The effect of the c2term vanishes identically in the case of bending. a powerhardening behavior is assumed for the homogeneous response and a similar behavior is assumed for the gradient coefficient. one may consider the form w . 12)~tmdiameter wires. The corresponding internal length estimated by Fleck et al. The value of the internal length parameter g is 5. by using the relation M = dW/dtr ( W = fA wdA) for the applied moment. 30. [17]. their possible dependence on strain.1~tm for the (170.
. (b).(a) Fitting of Stolken and Evans [20] thin foil bending experimental results with the symmetric stress and FIGURE 4. and for a dislocationbased model. Calculated yield stress (0. and Aifantis 1281.2 asymmetric stress strain gradient models. Zbib. showing gradient plasticity solutions for different gradient coefficients c.12. From Zhu. particle size for an AlSiMg metal matrix composite.2% offset) vs. The values off indicate particle volume fraction.
with implications ranging from device miniaturization and computer disk drive manufacturing to magnetic recording and tribological effects on piston wear. in principle. the determination of hardness and related mechanical properties from indentation tests where the size of the indenter varies from the micrometer to the nanometer regime. By approximating y with an average value equal to 2h/D (where h is the indenter's depth and D is the equivalent indenter's diameter) and using the rough estimates Vy . By taking H to be proportional to the yield stress a(H . to provide an explanation for the dependence of hardness on the size of the indenter. we can obtain from Eq. In concluding this section on size effects. and Aifantis [28] for interpreting size effects in metal matrix composites.tm.2 gm. have been reported recently in such smallvolume regimes. in particular. by Nix and Gao [19].2b. 1. Tabor's relation).. 15 can be utilized.292 Aifantis employed by Stolken and Evans [201 for a value of their internal length lc = 6. The gradient dependent form of the flow stress given by Eq.~ 3a. There is a departure of this prediction from the one reported in the aforementioned article of Stolken and Evans due to an error in their procedure when rescaling the moment and computing the corresponding theoretical values. Zbib. for example. have been observed as the indenter diameter D is reduced from 20 gm to about 2 I. including discontinuous yielding and sizedependent hardness. reference is made to an open problem of increasing current interest: namely. V27 ~ 4y/D 2. The solutions are cumbersome and were evaluated numerically by employing a gradient plasticity model based on Eq.2a are defined by ll = Cl/~o and 12 = v/c2/Ep. 18 a plot of H vs. we have [29] H = H0 + c1]V~)]s (18) where H0 is the hardness in the absence of gradient effects.12. as shown in Figure 4.12. A more rigorous (as contrasted to the previously described mechanics of materials approach) boundary value problem approach implemented by finite element analysis has been used by Zhu. The internal lengths ll and 12 appearing in Figure 4. 2y/D. Quite interesting phenomena. A deeper understanding of the mechanics and physics associated with the contact and penetration phenomena in such small volumes is important from both the scientific and technological points of view. A1A1202. The results are . The results of the gradient theory were in agreement with both existing experimental data and available microscopic dislocation models for these materials. Size effects. It was found that the strength of metal matrix composites decreases with increasing particle size of reinforcement under constant volume fraction for all three materials studied: A1SiMg. D where the values of the gradient coefficients Cl and c2 are adjusted to fit the experimental data reported. and A1TiB2.
a dot denotes time differentiation. a vertextype theory of plasticity of the form [3] D ij = 7 r . c .37GPa.!. C2) taking the values (0. and a prime denotes deviatoric component. 18 for (a) Cu (111) and (b) Ag (110) single crystals.12. Some initial results on this topic were reported by Aifantis [29]. it is shown how gradient theory can help in improving the construction of forming limit diagrams (FLDs) for sheet metals. 0.164 103N) for Figure 4.3b. 4. 2500N/m. the equivalent shear stress and shear strain.5 FORMING LIMIT DIAGRAMS (FLDS) In this section the applicability of gradient plasticity theory to predicting spatial instability phenomena in manufacturingrelated processes at the macroscale is presented.4.414 10 3N) for Figure 4. The quantities (Do. 853 N/m. D according to the gradientdependent constitutive equation Eq. shown in Figure 4. For sheet metal forming processes. In particular.7) denote.595 GPa.3 Fitting the experimental results of sizedependent hardness H vs. This leads to defining corresponding FLDs.j 7__6. 0.12. (19) may be used to describe the deformation. aij) denote the strain rate and stress components. as usual. A central goal is to avoid the occurrence of necking by operating in a safe regime of the applied strains during the forming process.7~ . A gradientdependent flow stress expression is . C1.12.3 with the parameters (H0.12 Gradient Plasticity 293 FIGURE 4. 2~i (7iJ k 2. and a detailed treatment can be found in a recent doctoral dissertation by Zhu [301.12.4.12. (1:.12.3a and (0. A physical picture of localized neck formation in sheet metal forming is depicted in Figure 4.
including gradient terms. are given in Figure 4. K ( 7 ) = h 7 ") given by h = hn7 n1. and the effect of strain path can be found in the aforementioned doctoral dissertation [30].a r c t a n x / ~ .V/1 + fl + f12.5. 7~  2nf(fi) 1 + fl (21) ilK0 =~ 0 o r . These relations hold for the case c . . The obtained FLDs which correspond to the two cases c = 0 and c ~ 0.0.cV2~ (20) with the hardening modulus h (h=~K(7)/~7. . the use of Hill's anisotropic yield criterion.12. however.0. Schematics of the sheet/inclined neck and the forming limit diagram (d. assumed. while more complex results are obtained for the case c 7~ 0. For plane stress conditions (rT33 = 0) and proportional loading (fl = D22/D11 ~const) a standard bifurcation analysis gives the following expressions for the shear band (or localized neck) angle Oc~ and the critical strain 7or: fl < 0 =~ Oc. 7c~ = 2fl 2 + n(2 + fl)2 (2+fl)f([3) (22) where f ( f l ) .294 Aifantis FIGURE 4.4 Localized neck formation in sheet metal forming (ac). which. with its rate form given by = h~ . do not greatly affect the predictions of localized neck orientation.12.e).. More details on this topic.
40 C: 120 (/~ L ! o O ~'~Ex ". . O0 0 ~ 0 9 . and (c) AKsteel.~ ' II .00 ~a~ 30..(I 1 (e) Minor engineering strain. I ..~ 30.00 80.. .00 20..~ 40.00 70.00 40. I . I .. : A~A~ ~'~ ~ ' 0 ~ I .. 0. 40  50 40302010 i I 60 (c) 80.~. i g. : I 'r.i~rimental t results "~ so  O C~" O AIR m ~ 9 .. 0.r. I .'mized band angle 0.00 l ' 1 ' I 9 Engineering ' i ' [ minor 140. ~ =" o~b_ ~ .00 I0.00 10.4. .00 strain 9 " Io \ . . I .00 "~ 80. (b) AKsteel._1 ols o~b 60  \ I 9I .~ct~d ! d ~ o 140 . 0 i .$ I~.00 60..00 . I .~ctod ~="re~ .00 ~ 60... 40..: c q 2 = 3 O M P a Fructured _.20 . ! 030 ..10 .5 Predicted and experimental FLDs for (a) Aluminum 2036T4. c r 0..lO o~.00 ~.00 120.0.00 0.00 30.i ~ 40  20  0~ . I .00 (d) 20.. I .. Comparison [301 of predicted and experimental results (Hecker 1975) of FLDs for (d) 2036T4 Aluminum and (e) AKsteel using Hilrs anisotropic yield criterion. .oo ~t. I . 20.~~ o~o fl.00 "~ 20..~ (a) ~0 0.. . ~ Ao% . I . A~celPtable Aff. c = 0. I 0.00 ~ 0. I" I AJcceptable AfY.~ctod Fractured TheoreUcal . . (UO 20 ~ . I . 20 40 60 Minor Strain 180 "  " I ' I " I ' (b) I " I " I " I Engineering " " minor strain '6~ ~ = ~ :1o '1" : I 9 Aff. c = 0.Fractured Th eoreUeal e ~ 50..~~= '" . .~. Storen and Rice' result  ! ~ o~=.OO. I.12.21) O 40 .00 o t I+.(10 20. .. I .12 Gradient Plasticity 295 140 I Ak ! l ' I ' I zero ~xtension direction opa.~.. 0oB / " ~..31 . 0 10 20  30 9 I .II) 1 .00 Io 9 O 9 Acceptable Afftsct~d . FIGURE 4.00 Minor engineering strain 10.00 10.
A gradientdependent flow theory of plasticity: Application to metal and soil instabilities. (2000).S. Aifantis. and Aifantis. A/Solids 17: 741761. Localization limiters in transient problems. 4. and Steinmann. On the gradientdependent theory of plasticity and shear banding. plastic strain gradients. Meth. I. 5. Sol. 2. 250289. 47: 171205. A gradient flow theory of plasticity for granular materials. microforces. Eng. C. Phys. E. N. J. Muller. A. Menzel. . (1994). On the continuum formulation of higher gradient plasticity for single and polycrystals. Mech. Numer. D. Zbib. Belytschko. A thermodynamicsbased formulation of gradientdependent plasticity. Muhlhaus. and the U. 14. Mech. 16. (1987). (1984). 3. M. Solids 41: 18251857. J. 6. A/Solids 11: 467486. A. A gradient theory of internal variables. B. Acta Mech. 24: 581597. Eur. Mech. J. E and Hutchinson. C. Y. and Aifantis. Microstructure in kinematic hardening plasticity. Aifantis. 121: 189202. (1996). (1998). 8. Vardoulakis. C. Gradient deformation models at nano. 42: 295304. 11. (1992). E. Solids Struct. and Muschik. J. Mech. T. The physics of plastic deformation. Plasticity 3: 211247. R. National Science Foundation is gratefully acknowledged. E. M. micro and macro scales. H. Rev. de Borst. Valanis. J. 9. C. W. J. (1989). C. N. G. (2000). C. 18. On the plasticity of single crystals: Free energy. A phenomenological theory for strain gradient effects in plasticity. Int. J. Solids Struct. W. A. A. J.296 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Aifantis The support of the General Secretariat for Research and Technology of Greece. 106: 326330. Simulations of plastic instabilities in solid mechanics. (1991). H. M. E. J. Int. Dodou with the typing and proofreading of the manuscript is also acknowledged. 92: 209225. Zhu and I. Acta Mech. 87: 197217. Tomita. Int. Zbib. J. Thermodynamics 19: 217249.. Appl. NonEquil. Mech. Vardoulakis. 42: 475487. G. 15. Phys. C. Mat. A variational principle for gradient plasticity. 17. P. 48: 9891036. (1988). and Hutchinson. (1993). Solids 48: 17771796. Engng. M. E. 10. J. and Aifantis. Strain gradient plasticity: Theory and experiment. Tech. 12. E. J. 13. (1994). and Frantziskonis. Mat. and Aifantis. Tsagrakis with the fitting of some of the experimental data and of my undergraduate student D. Int. Maugin. (1999). J. I. E. the TMR Program of EU. Acta Metall. 7. Eur. and Muhlhaus. (1994). REFERENCES 1. Engng. and Lasry. Phys. Mech. W. C. Acta Mech. Thermodynamics with internal variables. Part II: Applications. E. J. Rev. 28(7): 845857. and Borino. Gurtin. Aifantis. 116: 114. Mater. (1992). The help of my graduate students X. Fleck. Polizzotto. G. Appl. B. 35: 521539. On the microstructural origin of certain inelastic models. C. H.M. Part I: General concepts. (1991). Mech. H. Gradientdependent plasticity: Formulation and algorithmic aspects. (1992).. G. Tech. Ashby. K. Fleck.
Dissertation. Solids 46: 411425. PhD.W. 24. S. J. (1998). J.. pp. Nix. H. Zbib. Aifantis. (1996). T. P. Theory. W. pp. 121: 165176. 22. Phys. On nonlocal flow theories that preserve the classical structure of incremental boundary value problems. Gao. M. 28. Pineau. Acharya. H.. 295361. Lattice incompatibility and a gradient theory of crystal plasticity. 48: 15651595. J. Sci. E. Zhu. 33: 21612178. Nix.II. . A. 21. A microbend test method for measuring the plasticity length scale. W. eds. Sol. J. Michigan Technological University. A. and Aifantis. J. D. (1995). 46: 51095115. Strain gradient plasticity. Solids 48: 99128. Acharya. Zhu. W.. Indentation size effects in crystalline materials: A law for strain gradient plasticity. 53548. Int. Mechanismbased strain gradient plasticity . A. J. (1999). Y. Sci.. (2000).W. J. X. Acta Mater. 26. W (1997). Engng.. (1998). H. Mech. Solids 47: 12391263. T. eds. Pattern formation in plasticity. Dordrecht: Kluwer academic Publishers. (1998). Fleck. Nix.. Int. J. pp. and Bassani. 30: 12791299. and Bassani. ChichesterNew York: Wiley. Recent progress on gradient theory and applications. 29.12 Gradient Plasticity 297 19. Int.. in IUYAM Symposium on Micromechanics of Plasticity and Damage of Multiphase Materials. (2000). Strain gradients and continuum modeling of size effect in metal matrix composites. A. Phys. J. E.I. E. W. W.. Mech. eds. and Evans. 25. H. Phys. and Hutchinson. Mech. Stolken. J.. in Advances in Applied Mechanics.. and Hutchinson. D. On the role of gradients on the localization of deformation and fracture. C. H. and Zaoui. Aifantis.4. Y. Analysis. Aifantis. E. and van der Giessen. 39. Gao. H. Mechanismbased strain gradient plasticity . C. and Hutchinson.. J. Acta Mech. and Gao. L. A. Mech. A. 20. J. 23. Engng. 30. (1997). Hutchinson. de Borst. and Wu.. E.. Huang. in Material Instabilities in Solids. (1992). Huang. C. 27. Theoretical Analysis of Sheet Metal Formability. G. J. L. C. R. N. (1999).
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CHAPTER 5 Viscoplasticity .
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1 Introduction to Viscoplasticity JEAN LEMAITRE Universit~ Paris 6. which are essential processes in creep (under constant stress) and stress relaxation (under constant strain) phenomena. France Viscoplasticity refers to the mechanical response of solids involving time dependent. irreversible (inelastic) strains. At temperatures suitably below the melting point. In polymers. the crystalline phases experience slip. In addition. whereas the amorphous phases experience chain segment rotations against the resistance of weak intermolecular interactions. 61 avenue du Pr&ident Wilson. the interaction of moving dislocations with phonons and. ISBN 0124433413. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. two different mechanisms may be responsible for the material's rate dependency. at low temperatures. Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. 301 . and only a viscosity function is added. however. to a certain extent. which relates the secondary constant plastic strain rate kp to the applied stress ~ through two temperaturedependent material parameters 2(r). affecting the overall viscoplasticity of crystalline solids. This dependence. dislocations overcome their shortrange barriers through their thermal activation. Often this is the Norton's power law. The second is the slipinduced plastic deformation due to the motion and multiplication of dislocations. In elastoviscoplasticity. One mechanism pertains to vacancy formation and grain boundary sliding. 94235 Cachan Cedex.SECTION 5. with electrons results in a viscous drag on the dislocations. which is a ratecontrolling phenomenon. Therefore. viscoplasticity occurs in both crystallites and amorphous phases. N(~) This 1929 isotropic model has been much improved and sometimes replaced by an exponential function to take into account the anisotropy in single Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. elasticity and strain hardening are phenomena identical to those observed in plasticity. At the microscale. The deformation of essentially all metals is. becomes more pronounced at temperatures exceeding a third of the material's melting point. the models are of the same nature. timedependent. LMTCachan.
and 5.12.9.302 Lemaitre crystals (see Sections 5.3) or to homogenize what happens in polycrystalline materials (see Sections 5. and temperature. and a yield and memory surface is used in Section 5. It is always difficult to choose. the special case of polymers is described in Section 5. Over suitable ranges of deformation.8 and 5.11). the viscoplastic response of many crystalline solids stems from the motion of dislocations.5). 5. which is another difficulty (see Section 5. automatically or not. An essential feature of numerical calculations in elastoviscoplastic structures is the time wise in time incremental procedure different from that is used in plasticity. The resulting stressstrain relations are then dependent on the strain rate and strongly upon variations of temperature.4 and 5. the time increment that ensures the convergence of the calculation (see Sections 5. The difficulty in modeling is to distinguish the part of the stress which is responsible for strain hardening from the part contributing to the viscosity.8.7. nonlinear isotropic and kinematic hardenings are applied in Sections 5. There are several methods: the overstress is introduced in Section 5.10). Finally.10.2 and 5. no yield condition is required in Section 5.6. rate.7. .
5. Unter den Eichen 87. . . 303 . .3 Description of the Model . However.. . . . . . Germany 2BAME2. 303 303 304 306 307 307 5. . . . . . . .5 How to Use the Model . . . . . .2. . . .4 Identification of the Material Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12200 Berlin. 5. ISBN 0124433413. . The creep compliance for some superalloys differs by one or two orders of magnitude with respect to their Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. .. . . . . . . . . Universithtsplatz 2. . . . . . . . .1 VALIDITY The model describes the behavior of cubic singlecrystalline superalloys in the hightemperature regime under monotonous creep conditions in their primary and secondary creep phase. . . 39106 Magdeburg. . . . . . singlecrystalline components show an improved damage and fatigue resistance in comparison to polycrystals. . . . . . . . . . . the description of the thermomechanical behavior becomes much more complicated for single crystals because of their genuine anisotropy. . . . .2 A Phenomenological Anisotropic Creep Model for Cubic Single Crystals ALBRECHT BERTRAM1 and JURGEN OLSCHEWSKI 2 ~OttovonGuerickeUniversity Magdeburg. . . . . 5. . . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. .2 Background . . . .2. .2. . . . especially in the high temperature regime.SECTION 5. . . . . . . . . . . .2 BACKGROUND For many technical applications. . . .2. . 5. References . .2. . . . . . Germany Contents 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.. . . . . . .1 Validity .2. . . . . . .
D~a . The other is phenomenological and based on tensor function representations for the description of the anisotropy. The creep behavior in its primary and secondary phase can be described by a threedimensional and nonlinear generalization of a rheological model with two springs and two dampers (Fig. 5. a is the stress. Note that D and R are constant during monotonous creep tests. as well as the strong nonlinearity of the relation between force and creep rate.K )'~ where ~ is the strain. The latter approach has the advantage of being simpler in numerical implementation and wider with respect to the physical creep mechanisms to be included in the description. .B a ) R . and D and R are viscosities. One is to use slip system kinematics and onedimensional creep equations for each of them.304 D cy .2. 5.2.. since they are not limited to slip systemdominated creep.~ e.Ro exp ( . 2].2.d Bertram and O l s c h e w s k i C ! ! R o" K FIGURE 5. Ro. and B. The onedimensional constitutive law is given by the ordinary differential equation e 44.( C 4. For the creep modeling of single crystals two conceptually different approaches exist.1 crystallographic orientation.~ + e 4. The designer has to take into account this effect. 4.1). C and K are elasticities. The nonlinearity is taken into account by the dependence of the viscosities on the stresses in the following form: D = Do exp ( .B a ) with positive material constants Do.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL In the threedimensional case we generalize the preceding differential equation by means of the projection method described in References [1.
. by 1 S i ' .5. $2.. + ~ T i . $3.1. For that purpose we also use the exponential form of the onedimensional model but substitute the exponent by a linear form of Ki .E ~ + ( c i + Ki ) E . This system can be integrated by standard algorithms such as explicit or implicit Euler schemes.(s). These differential equations of second order can be reduced to a system of first order by introducing a stresslike tensor of internal variables S which is decomposed analogously into three parts S1.. The nonlinearity is again taken into account by the dependence of the viscosities on the stresses..Ci + Ki [T~ +~i(T.1/3 tr(E) 0 1 0 0 833 0 0 1 I 0 812 813 1 812 0 823 813 823 0 E3  with tr(E) = 811 Jr822 + 833.D ~ .1 / 3 tr(E) 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 822 0 . ' . The projections Ti of the stresses c~ij are obtained in an analogous form.~T Ti (s)] as We obtain the following evolution equations: E~ _ C i _t_ K i 1 T~ + ~ + ~ Ci + ~ T/ ~ S i S~ .Si)] Note that for monotonous creep all terms including T~ are zero..K i 0 t [E.2 A PhenomenologicalAnisotropic Creep Model This results in three tensorvalued equations 305 T. i ..'+ ( ci Ki Ci) CiK i ci K ~ ~T+~T+~T T . 2. 3 with the three cubic subspace projections of the strain tensor to a crystallographic vector base: 1 0 0 8ij with respect E2 I 1 i11ool i1ool El .
Roi. 2. . Roi. The identification has been done for three superalloys: SRR99. . 3. 6]. can be determined [5.4 IDENTIFICATION OF THE MATERIAL PARAMETERS In the present model. 3. we get D~1 . the following material constants appear: 9 Elasticities: Ci. 2. The other constants can be identified by minimizing the distance between experimental tests and the response calculated by the model. 9 are irrelevant and can be set equal to 1. i = 1. . . 5. 3 . . aij.0"23 J5 = 0120"23013 + + + + + all together taken with respect to a crystallographic basis. the coefficients a lj. i = 1.306 the nine cubic invariants Jj Bertram and O l s c h e w s k i Di = Doi exp ( . i = 2. j = 1 .0"110"12 . 9.0. CMSX4. . It is desirable for this purpose to have creep data within the relevant load range from single crystals for a widely distributed set of orientations.Ro) .12 .R~ . 3 9 Viscosities: Doi. 5. This leads to an inverse problem of nonlinear parameter identification.2. and CMSX6. . j . 1 Therefore. When subjecting the material to resonance tests.0 => Do1 . 2 .0"22 § 0"110"33 . .a i ) 9 j=l with positive material constants Doi. Ki. ~ij. It turns out that the following invariants already give a sufficient accuracy: . 4.2 . 6 If we assume that all inelastic deformations are isochoric. i = 1. j = 1 . the dynamic elastic constants Ci § Ki.0"23 § 0"220"33 .a i ) Ri = Roi exp ( . ..
7874 10 3 GPa 2 o~25 = 4. Mat. Damage modeling of the single crystal superalloy SRR99 under monotonous creep. Qi. and Olschewski. H. A. Identification of elastic constants and orientation of single crystals by resonance measurements and FEanalysis. It is capable of describing the creep behavior under monotonous loads in its primary and secondary phases. and Walker. J. MD vol.. 7. Zur Formulierung linearer anelastischer Stoffgleichungen mit Hilfe einer Projektionsmethode. Techn. Olschewski..153 GPa D1 = 1020 h GPa R1 = 1 0 2 0 h G P a 0{22 = 12. and Olschewski.4714 109 h GPa 0{32 .G. AMD vol.5 HOW TO USE THE MODEL The entire model is given with respect to a crystallographic basis. J. A. Mat. There exist extensions of the model to include the tertiary creep phase (damage) [79]. A. Mech.C.0. 73 (45): T401T403. A. and Sockel. J. (1994). (1996). Comp. Bertram. Anisotropic creep damage modeling of single crystal superalloys.2.5042 107 h GPa R2 = 1. Hermann. 3. in Twenty Years of Finite Element Analysis: Review and Future Prospects. J..783 GPa 2 o~35 = 4. Mech. Olschewski. Plasticity 15 (11): 11971215. J. (1997). ang. J.1673 10 2 GPa 3 ~26 = 3. Math. Sci. H. ASME. Special Issue of Int. A.5. Bertram. 2. 4. (1991).0697 10 3 GPa 3 o~36 = 5. Bertram. 5.2. and Bertram.10735 109 h GPa 374842 h GPa TABLE of Parameters for SRR99 at a Temperature of 760~ K1 = 461. and Bertram. (1999). P.. Han.. Identification of crystal orientation by resonance measurements. Comp. 5: 1216. 6. w . W. Han. Int. Zeit. W.559 GPa K2 = 28. in High Temperature Constitutive Modeling: Theory and Application.. Technische Mechanik 17 (4): 313322. K. J.2 A Phenomenological Anisotropic Creep Model TABLE 5. A. W. (1994). 5. Modelling Sci. and Olschewski. (1995). and Olschewski. Computer Appl. Sci.G. 8. J.24928 GPa 1 0{34 = 41.1164 10 4 GPa 3 C2 = 42. Qi. Math. Freed. A..764 GPa 156. 26. Formulation of anisotropic linear viscoelastic constitutive laws by a projection method... Qi.. 5 (24): 100109. J.0154 GPa 3 C3 = K3 = D3 = R3 = Applications to the superalloy CMSX6 can be found in Reference [41.0 307 [3].single crystals at high temperatures.. 74 (4): T322T325. Comp. Anisotropic continuum damage modeling for EC. Zeit. 7 (3/4): 284291.4347 GPa 1 o~24 = 1.1 C1 . Bertram. A. and Sockel. REFERENCES 1. Bertram. pp. 9.071 GPa D2 = 2. Computational modeling of anisotropic materials under creep conditions.. and Bertram. Anisotropic creep modeling of the single crystal superalloy SRR99.. (1993).. Math. eds. 13: 132141. Bertram. A. 121. A. 46. . J. 129137. J.. ang.436 GPa 1. (1998).
. . .3. . . . F r o m a mechanical point of view. . . . . . . . . . . UMR CNRS 7633. ISBN 0124433413. Depending on temperature range. . . . . . . . . .3 Crystalline Viscoplasticity Applied to Single Crystals GEORGES CAILLETAUD Centre des Mat~riaux de l'Ecole des Mines de Paris.4 Identification of the Material Parameters . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .3. . . . . the p r e d o m i n a n t deformation m e c h a n i s m is plastic slip. . .~e + ~p (1) Orientation tensor: m s _ ~(. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . 5. .~se 1 r~s + r~s e~ ~) (2) 308 Handbook of Materials BehaviorModels. . . . 308 310 311 312 314 314 317 5. . BP 87. . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . . . . . . . . . F91003 Evry Cedex. . . . . References . . . .3. . . . . . . France Contents 5. . plasticity can be either timeindependent or timedependent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . that means that the plastic strain rate of the material is the result of a sum of plastic strain rate coming from each active slip system.SECTION 5. . .2 Formulation . 5. .1 General Presentation and Validity Domain. .3. . . .3. For small perturbations. . .6 Remark .1 GENERAL PRESENTATION AND VALIDITY DOMAIN In most of the single crystals. . . . . . 5. . . . 5. . . .5 Numerical Implementation in Finite Element Code . . . . . 5. . . .3. the following definitions are valid: Strain rate decomposition: ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . but for each case the critical variable is the resolved shear stress. . . .3 Equations for Practical Use . . . . .
since they only describe the "geometry" of the deformation mechanism. magnesium. where no slip plane is present. In both cases. cadmium). The resulting strain can be modeled in the present formalism using a predefined value for m s and replacing 9s by a term depending on the twinned volume fraction [3]. On the other hand. more general expressions that are valid for large transformations can be read in classical papers [1. According to the crystallographic phase of the material and to the temperature domain. For FCC materials. the rotation being modeled by the antisymmetric part of the tensorial product r~s  ffs. (110) directions). 2]. basal slip is the most active. pyramidal slip can also be observed. In the case of BCC materials. .5. the most common family is octahedral slip ({ 111} planes. c height of the prism) with respect to the theoretical value for perfect network. leading to a modification of the m s tensor for active systems. in which a zone of the material is submitted to an apparent rotation and extension with respect to its initial position. a rotation of the slip planes takes place (about one degree for 1% deformation). These definitions are very general. titanium) prismatic plane is predominant. the influence of climb can be represented by a term including the tensorial product ffs  ffs. 9 for materials having a high c/a value (zinc. and (111) directions. Twinning is another crystallographic deformation mode. During the deformation of the material. On the other hand.3 Crystalline Viscoplasticity Applied to Single Crystals 309 mS9 s S Inelastic strain rate: ~P .~ (3) Resolved shear stress: ~:s _ gg:m s (4) The elastic part of the strain rate ~e is computed using the classical elasticity law respecting the symmetries of the single crystal. (110)directions)can also be found [4]. The case of HCP materials is much more complex. one or several slip system families must be introduced. This can be taken into account in a "small rotation" formalism. but cubic slip ({001} planes. which denotes a given slip system defined by the normal to the slip plane ffs and the slip direction n~s. Some of the variables in the equations are indexed by s. The constitutive equations have then to be written to correlate the resolved shear stress vs and the slip rate on each slip system 9s. Several families are usually active according to the value of the ratio c/a (a being length of the prism side. a simple solution consists in considering {110} planes. which produces a given deformation tensor. x/~/3: 9 for materials having a low c/a value (zirconium.
. The treatment of the elastic part is classical and is not reported here. Examples of slip planes are shown in Figure 5.1 for FCC materials (Fig. In the following.3. a vector storing the isotropic variables on each slip system (components p~).3.1 Slip systems for (a) FCC and (b) HCP materials. but several strategies can be used for choosing the potential [5.bs ( sign ('cs xS)dIxs'~cI . 5.xS[.3.3. 5.roi~. The size of these vectors is equal to N. The "inelastic part" of free energy is chosen so that the corresponding hardening variables linearly depend on the state variables: r s . 5. the state variables are the elastic strain (tensor).3.310 Cailletaud FIGURE 5.1a) and HCP materials (Fig.2 FORMULATION The framework of thermodynamics can be used for a rigorous formulation of the hardening of the material.] (7) (8) (9) . the number of slip systems in the model.1b). The model then uses a classical formalism. introducing for each system s a threshold fs and two evolution equations: fs = [~ .bi~i ~ s x S = c I ~s (6) hsrfl r (5) The terms hsr are the components of the interaction matrix which characterizes both selfhardening (diagonal terms) and crosshardening between the different systems [7].r ~ fis = b~(1 _ bipS) : / s .6]. and a vector for the kinematic variables (components c~).
the two types of isotropic hardening correspond to a part with the interaction matrix (index 1) and a part introducing selfhardening only (index 2).3 Crystalline Viscoplasticity Applied to Single Crystals 311 The full definition is achieved when the value of the accumulated slip rate bS= 19~1 is defined. In the preceding equations. and not s.r ~. a true threshold is introduced.3. it has been assumed that all the slip systems of a given family present the same behavior. I denoting the family of the system s. The initial resolved shear stress is roi. The values of vs can be used instead of p~ for the practical calculations. The viscosity is characterized by ki and hi. The calculations consist then of the following steps: 9 compute 9 knowing rate (Eq.i with (x} . In these equations. the inelastic strain rate (Eq. 13). For an explicit integration. the strain rate sensitivity can be adjusted using suitable values of the corresponding coefficients hi and ni (low values of ki). ~ on each slip system. the index I has been dropped for the sake of brevity.5.3 EQUATIONS FOR PRACTICAL USE The model can be simplified and treated exactly like a classical macroscopic model. so that the numerical behavior of the model is better. A timeindependent version of the model can also be proposed: a rule has then to be specified to determine the active slip systems for a prescribed external load. 11). The predominant systems are just found numerically because of the nonlinear character of the equations. Note that a system will be active provided that its resolved shear stress z s is greater than x s + r ~ or less than x ~ . so that the coefficients are indexed with I. compute the accumulated viscoplastic slip 12) and the evolution of the hardening (Eq. O) (10) Most of the viscoplastic crystallographic models for single crystals use a "Norton law" for each slip system so that all the slip systems are active. The next section describes the identification method. The present formulation gives a saturation of . 14). 5. 9 compute the actual value of the hardening variables (Eq. the starting point is the actual state of stress and internal variables. In the present case.max(x. On the other hand. a simple power function can be chosen: kl s/. and the kinematic hardening by ci and dI. For a viscoplastic model. the hardening capability is defined by QI and bi.
c ~ . if M slip .4 IDENTIFICATION OF THE MATERIAL PARAMETERS The model has been mainly used for modeling cyclic loadings in Nibase superalloys. the two opposite solutions consist in choosing either a diagonal matrix hsr=6sr (Kronecker ~) or an "isotropic" hardening.e~} + Q~{1  ~~} (11) (12) ~s = ~)s _ dcxSbS {P . These terms have to be chosen after a discussion with the metallurgists. When these tests are absent.x~) 5. like copper. or zinc. In addition. The identification process needs a numerical implementation of the model because. when several systems are equivalent. so that the tests needed for the identification include: 9 cyclic tests for discriminating between isotropic and kinematic hardening and for evaluating the cyclic hardening or softening. the result in terms of strain rates is the result of a collection of individual slip contributions. hsr = 1. Basically. specific tests must be made: (1) When several system families may be active. nonradial loading paths should be realized to evaluate the socalled latent hardening.3.eo + Q~ ~ r Cailletaud h~(1 .~ S (13) (14) mSb~sign ("c~ . zircaloy.~ . and the real specimen orientation must be used (a small misorientation can change the initially active slip systems and may drastically influence the material response). . 9 creep or relaxation test. Nevertheless. for a given orientation. For example. Other materials have also been investigated. (2) In order to know better the value of the terms in the interaction matrix.312 the hardening in both monotonic and cyclic loading. alloy 600. the loading directions must be chosen so that each family is excited. it does not differ very much from a classical viscoplastic model with isotropic and kinematic hardening. the model can be reduced to very simple expressions in the case of multiple slip. The most difficult challenge is to affect a value to the crosshardening between two families. 9 tests at various strain rates to characterize the viscous effect. x ~ .
3. . the Schmid factor being m. and that a tension along {111} will activate preferentially cubic slip (m = v/2/3. M) Value for 001 tension Value for 111 tension K R0 Q k x/6k 3k 2(n+3)/2n m(Mm)1/n ro m m (8/V/6)1/n v/6r0 ~Q 3ro v~ Q 3Q b 2v~ b b mM ~b 8 C D c Mm 2 a Mm 3c 4 v~a 8 3c 4 a 2x/2 .3 Crystalline Viscoplasticity Applied to Single Crystals 313 systems (among N) are equivalent for a pure tension loading under the stress cr. This fact can be used to separate the action of the two families. .5. since the model provides a different expression of the tensile curve for each tensile direction. it can easily be observed that a tension in the direction {001} will activate octahedral slip systems (m = 1 / v ~ . The corresponding values for octahedral and cubic slip systems are reported in Table 5. Coefficient Value for multiple slip (m. ) . M = 8). TABLE 5.m withK  m (raM)l~ n' X  ' rtl (16) For the case of FCC materials.3.1 (note that the exponent is the same for the crystallographic and the classical approach). the inelastic strain rate in the tension direction can be written: ~P _ _ Mm~ s  MmlmO mx~ k r)n (15) The model is then equivalent to a macroscopic model: k 1 x r R .1 Equivalencebetween the Crystallographic Model and a Classical Approach in Pure Tension. M = 6) (depending on the respective value of the critical resolved shear stress for each f a m i l y .
3. This effect is illustrated in Figure 5. the method can be either an explicit method. Since this version introduces only one adjustable coefficient. like a 0method. A "cubic Hill" criterion predicts that plasticity is uniform along the circumference.3. The most classical error consists in considering a cubic version of the Hill criterion for the description of cubic single crystals.x s) . like RungeKutta.. 5. 17). A~s. . On the other hand.~ e 5 A v S m s sign ('c . and the N values of vs. . or an implicit method.6 REMARK Many mistakes have been made in the recent literature concerning the behavior of single crystals. so that the consistent tangent matrix is given numerically [8]. For the 0method. . The system can be solved by a Newton method.Re .314 Cailletaud 5. the second from isotropic hardening (Eq. and the third from kinematic hardening (Eq.A~x .5 NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION FINITE ELEMENT CODE IN The integration of these constitutive equations in a finite element code is classical. such a model does not represent the large heterogeneities which can be observed during the torsion of thin tubes [9]. which also shows the evolution of yield surface in tensionshear when two slip families are present: according to the ratio of tension to shear. the residual vector consists of three types of equations. the vector of the internal variables is built with the components of ~e. for instance.. the first coming from the strain decomposition (Eq.r (18) R~s . it can only be fitted for describing the difference between a tension along 001 and a tension along 111. 18).3. For instance. it has nothing to do with a general formulation. For each case.2. 19).. Avs.x s) s (i 7)   <lex l.d~)Av s s (19) The unknowns are Aee.(sign(z s . the N values of ~s. the initial plasticity is not observed at the same location in the tube.Ae.Ae. For each integration point. since the group of cubic symmetries contains a large number of invariants which are not represented by Hill's formulation [9].
5. ~/~r = 1.2 Location of the plastic zones at the onset of plastic flow for two sheartension ratios. r/~r = v/3. b.3. c. a. Yield surface in (110) and (110) regions. .3 Crystalline Viscoplasticity Applied to Single Crystals 315 FIGURE 5.
330 70 Zy4.000 40.000 0 186.500 4.1 5. 950 ~ 120.6 20 62.~s _ dOsbS.000 octa cube 700 1172 4.6 70 54 0 0 1400 540 octa cube 88 96 15 15 245 377 AM1.8 Au4G.000 CMSX2. The coefficients are then valid for one grain more than for a single crystal.7 2. s.200 130 .4 2.9 3. 200~ * 6. room temperature 0.7 77.7 96.500 2110 1130 octa cube 490 360 4.400 3600(a) 0.000 17 4. Cailletaud K n ro Q1 bl c d Q2 b2 octa 5 10 OFHC Copper.2 3 v s s SC 16.000 1600 850 octa 20 10 80 316SS.2 + 0. with ~s = 0. 1100~  3200 560 octa cube 517 707 5 5 69 47 0 0 21. in a polycrystalline aggregate.2 2.3 1050 1056 octa cube 220 100 10 10 390 387 1000 1000 octa cube 920 540 4. Room 17.3.950~ AM1.2 169 temperature* 103 100.000 CMSX2.4 4.316 TABLE 5.6 10 1.8 3.8 e x p .6 4.000 4. .6 2.1 53 197 144 292 1600 850 Units: MPa.1 29 47 0 0 100.6 17. 950 ~C 3.7 2200 (a) 0~ . Room temperature* 65 8 2.000 94 101 200 67 prism basal p y r l (a) pyr21(c + a) 178 100 94 184 6. 650~ 400 3700 20.600 90.6 0.1 4. room temperature 0 730.2 Table of Parameters.000 AM1.140 6 octa prism 50 81 25 8. Room temperature* 25 30 5.000 Zr702.6 3.5 3.000 380 2400 50. 1 The sign (*) indicates that the model has been used for modeling polycrystal plasticity.
Solids Struct. (1998). 2. R.. R. Staroselsky. J. and Anand.. 9. Besson.. 50: 921934. and Cailletaud. . 1 2 .12  =hlo.12=H2=4. 7 5 h 2 9 = h 2 . Cailletaud. 113: 162170.. (1997).12 . J.h 5 9 = h6. Mandel. 1 2 = h 6 8 . SC16) 316SS.. J.h 5 . materials by slip and twinning.h 4 . Mc Dowell. Latent hardening in aluminium. Solids 46: 671696.h5.. Brown.. Hanriot. 5. and Nouailhas. Technol...h 4 ..4. 6. 8. Foerch. G.75 " h57 . E.H6 = 5 Nibase single crystals (CMSX2. 1 2 .ll . J.h36 h7. J. Experimental study of the anisotropic behaviour of the CMSX2 single crystal superalloy under tensiontorsion loadings. D... Cailletaud. A Cosserat theory for elastoviscoplastic single crystals at finite deformation. E (1966).5. J.12 .. (1994). Tensiontorsion behavior of singlecrystal superalloys: Experiment and finite element analysis. J. 14: 8798.h6. R. R. Forest. Int. RT h12 = hi3 = h23 = 317 The Interaction Matrix Corner. L.. 1 0 = h 3 4 . A. (1998). Archives of Mechanics 49 (4): 705736.c..11 .11 h8. Plasticity 11 (4): 451470.h2.4 h38 = h 4 9 . Mat. 9: 725740.h 5 6 = h 7 8 '.3 Crystalline Viscoplasticity Applied to Single Crystals TABLE 5.h 7 9 . and Ellis. Poubanne. and Cailletaud.11 = h58 = hs. AM1.h2. Engng. G. Int. Appl. 4. Mech. Inelastic deformation of f.. 3.. Pacou. and R~my. Revue Europ&nne des F. Objectoriented programming applied to the finite element method.1o= h8.11 = h 3 . Single crystal modeling for structural calculations. J.hl..3. 7 5 h i 8 = h i . in "Advances in Multiaxial Fatigue".12=hll.1o . Mech.3 Copper. and Sievert. D. 1 2 . 7.. Part 2. Le Riche..4 .H 4 = 4 . (1995). P. Phys..h9.h4. (1991). G.h 3 5 = h 3 9 = h 4 7 . G.h 4 6 . J. 1 o . Nouailhas. D.h 3 7 = h3.. Equations constitutives et directeurs dans les milieux plastiques et viscoplastiques.. 1 0 = h 9 .. pp.:.10 h 1 4 = h 2 7 = h 3 .11 =h8. T. L.11 . Acta Metall.h 8 9 = h 1 0 .. Cailletaud.H 3 . (1973).lO h67 = h69 = h6. Crystal plasticity.12  h7. G. (1983). 1 1 hi9 . L. Au4G Zy4 diagonal matrix hsr ~ 1 diagonal matrix REFERENCES 1. J. Asaro. M&ic. ASTM STP 1191. S.11 = h7.l~ments Finis 7 (5)" 567588. eds. 1 0 . D.c. and Kocks. R.. L. Application to material behaviors.h25 . 1 2 = h 4 8 .H 5 .. 244258.11 = h 9 .. hii = H1 = 1 h 4 5 . Part 1: Model presentation. U.
.1 NOTATIONS Vectors and secondorder tensors are underlined by a single bar: e. . _d are the position vector and the strain rate tensor.3 Polycrystal Averaging . . . . .aob j` (A" a_)0 . . . . . . Ecole Nationale d'Ing~nieurs. . . . .2 General Background . . . . . . ISBN 0124433413. .and secondorder tensors are respectively defined as a_ " b__. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. .A i j h l a l k The volume average o f f on the whole aggregate is represented by (f). 5. . .g. . 5. and the convention of s u m m a t i o n on the repeated indices is adopted. Fourthorder tensors are underlined by a double bar: A. . . 57045 Metz Cedex. . . . . . References . . . . . . 318 .4 Discussion of the Averaging Schemes . . . Universit~ de Metz. .riaux. . . . . . . Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The double contracted products between secondorder tensors or between fourth.1 Notations . . . . . Cartesian notations are used. . x_. 318 319 321 324 325 5. France Contents 5.4. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .SECTION 0 4 Averaging of Viscoplastic Polycrystalline Materials with the Tangent SelfConsistent Model ALAIN MOLINARI Laboratoire de Physique et M~canique des Matk. . .4. .4. . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.4. Ile du Saulcy. . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . . .. . . . . .
5. 2. The viscoplastic flow is assumed to be volumepreserving. The averaging scheme presented in following text assumes that the deformation remains uniform within grains and ignores all deformation heterogeneities such as shear bands and dislocation cells.4 Averaging of Viscoplastic Polycrystalline Materials 319 5. it is worth noting that the proposed averaging scheme is quite successful in decribing the texture evolution and the overall plastic response. Polycrystal averaging is based on several basic steps: 1. Elastic deformations are neglected. 3. grain interaction model. Each individual crystal (c). Large deformations are considered. characterization of the deformation mechanisms and of the constitutive law of individual grains.4. evolution laws for the crystallographic and morphological textures. sOis the deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor. 1) can be inverted into sij = Og(c) (d) Odij (3) .0 (2) Since the potential f(c) is strictly convex. see Reference [4] for details. crystallographic texture. description of the initial crystallographic texture (distribution of lattice orientations) and of the initial morphological texture (grain's shape and orientation of the principal geometrical axes). is governed by the following flow law: Of(c) dij = Osij (s) (1) where d O is the strain rate tensor. 5. therefore: dii . the flow law (Eq. and the model is aimed at describing the overall stressstrain response together with the evolution of the internal structure of the material (hardening of individual crystals. We consider a viscoplastic material constituted by a statistical homogeneous distribution of crystals. Despite these simplifications. and grain morphology). choice of a representative volume element (RVE) containing a large ensemble of grains statistically representative of the polycrystal.tr( d) . 4. and f(c) is a strictly convex potential.2 GENERAL BACKGROUND This paper describes polycrystal averaging for timedependent behaviors.
(d> Similarly.~jij (_D) (10) The problem addressed in this article is determining the macroscopic overall material response in terms of the local behavior of the phases. They are related to the microscopic stress and strain rate by volume averaging: S_. 9 O(D) (12) Similarly. the macroscopic stress potential is defined by (8) (9) and we have OG Sij . or to determine the law (Eq. 1. 1 i) is determined. respectively. 3. the macroscopic stress potential is precisely defined from Eq. In other words. The difficult step in the homogenization process is to calculate the local strain rates _d as a function of the macroscopic strain rate _D: _d. we would like to determine the macroscopic flow law (Eq.sup [s_"_df(s_)] s (4) The macroscopic strain rate potential F(S_) can be defined as the volume average of the local potentials [1]" f <fic)> (5) (6) The macroscopic flow law has the form OF D 0 .320 Molinari where g(C) is the strictly convex function conjugated to f(c) via the Legendre transform: g(_d) . 10) from Eq. from the stress localization law (13) ._d(_D) (11) If the localization law (Eq.~~0 (5) where S_ and _D are the macroscopic Cauchy stress and strain rate tensors. 6) from Eq.(s) (7) p .
11. an approximate solution of the "nonlinear" inclusion problem can be obtained by using a linearization procedure.4 Averaging of Viscoplastic Polycrystalline Materials 321 we can derive the macroscopic strain rate potential" F(S_).(f(s_(S_)) (14) 5. _V is the macroscopic velocity field. grains with the same chemical composition.B~ . in c terms of L. 11 or 13).c3x i (15) is applied at the remote boundaries of the aggregate.5. Grain's interaction is described by the following interaction laws [3]" sf . F is embedded in an infinite uniform matrix having the overall properties of the aggregate (to be determined in a consistent way). The method consists in approximating the material behavior by an affine response in a certain range of strain rates. We shall address a localization problem a little more general than Eq. We are interested in the determination of the velocity gradient l_ in the ellipsoid Ic. If the spatial distribution of the different phases presents a large degree of disorder.S_. same shape. The overall velocity gradient OV _L._D) c (16) (17) . The macroscopic strain rate _D and rotation rate El are the symmetric and antisymmetric part of _L. For nonlinear material behavior.4. the classical selfconsistent scheme is appropriate to get an approximate solution of the localization problems (Eq._D) ~ (_d .[A=~ coc .~ . and orientation of the principal geometrical axes.(P~ 9(p~ (_d . In the selfconsistent scheme it is assumed that the phase (c) can be represented by an ellipsoid F having the properties of phase (c). The matrix is called the homogeneous equivalent medium (HEM). and x_ is the position vector.3 POLYCRYSTAL AVERAGING In a polycrystalline material. and same crystallographic orientation can be considered as defining a particular phase. The solution of the inclusion problem (ellipsoidal inclusion embedded in an infinite homogeneous matrix) has been obtained in a closed form by Eshelby in the case of linear elastic materials.
4. a linearization procedure was used consisting in somehow replacing the nonlinear response of the HEM in the vicinity of the "working" strain rate _Dby an a[fine approximation (Fig. To each choice ofA ~ is associated a different model [7].(~im(~(x_ . _d and coc are the symmetric and c antisymmetric part of the local velocity gradient lf.0 with boundary conditions G~m .lj(X_ .1).x_I) Jr. The macroscopic deviatoric stress _S is the volume average of the local stresses s_ Zs< _ < with fc being the volume fraction of grain (c). Green functions G~m and Hm associated with the modulus A ~ are defined by A~jklG~m. 5. The tensors p0 and B~ are defined as m E pOhl _ o with 1 1 o 0 o 0 o (21) (22)  _ _ Tjilk ) r h. 4]. Different choices of A~ are possible.0 (18) (19) G~m. A ~ is a macroscopic stiffness viscoplastic modulus (fourthorder tensor) which depends on the macroscopic strain rate _D.0 at infinity (20) The Green function _/_/0 does not appear in the interaction laws (Eqs.x_I) F Hm.x_I) .0 and Hm . p0 and B~ are _ _ fourthorder tensors depending on A and on the shape of the inclusion (c). however it is a necessary ingredient for calculating the local hydrostatic pressure in terms of the macroscopic pressure..k(x .322 Molinari where s_c is the deviatoric Cauchy stress in the crystal (c).x') . The nonlinear response of the HEM 0G D* S* 06 (_D*) (24) . 16 and 17).i (23) To obtain these results.i(x_ . depending on the type of linearization used.j . 16 and 17) are obtained by using a Green function technique [3. ~ The interaction laws (Eqs.
a set of N nonlinear equations (N: number of grains) is obtained from which _d can be calculated in each crystal (c). .5. The solution of the localization problem is obtained as follows. 16). (a (~)~g . .1 Linearization of the macroscopic constitutive law DD*+ S* = OG/OD_* (D*) in __ the vicinity of the macroscopic strain rate D. Depending on the definition of the macroscopic viscoplastic stiffness modulus A_ different averaging schemes are defined. . . 80(8) 8D _D_D D FIGURE 5.a_'g . .a_40(p)" _D* + _S 0(_D) The backextrapolated stress is defined as S_ (_D) .0 g ~ / 0 4 ) ( s / . . The backextrapolated ~ stress is defined by the relationship in Eq. .j&z. Then. . with respect to A__ the role of tg. . is approximated for values of _D*close to _D. . p0 with respect to A ~ K is the fourthorder tensor defined by K~jk~. ~ new estimates of __a (c)tg a r e calculated. . . Then by solving the implicit equation (Eq. . . . . . .a_'~)] ~) (27) where __a (c)tg is the tangent modulus at the crystal level defined as a(c)tg(d_C~= 02g(C)/c3_dQd. . .0g~/0_a). . . _P~g is playing.A= (_D). .1/3a. . . . g(C) being the stress potential of the crystal (c) ( s / . . tg where A __+ A__tg. and S_ + ~fcs_ c. . 7]" d o . . Assume that at a given stage of the calculations an approximation of A__ is obtained.4.p0 ___+ptg. using the interaction law (Eq. . 26. .S_. . . together with the constitutive law 0_ s c = sf(_d~). .[_~ + _P~g. see also [6. From these values of d ~. . . 27) a new estimate of A tg is obtained. . _D ~ ~ (25) (26) A possible choice for A__ consists in taking the incremental tangent macro~ scopic modulus as defined by the incremental selfconsistent scheme [1]. Iterations are continued until m m . by _D* ~ S_* . .1 / 2 ( G a j z + a .aug)] ~) 9([K + _P~g" (_a(~)'~ .(_a(~)~g.4 Averaging of Viscoplastic Polycrystalline Materials ~ 323 S IS* = _ __a~ * + S o(__D) I s_ . a j k ) .
In the limiting cases where ~/+ 0 and ~/+ ce. 16). Changes in the . This has important consequences with respect to texture predictions. the average number of active systems per grain is about two or three for the tangent selfconsistent scheme. The standard Taylor averaging cannot be used in that case. define another type of tangent approach [2. the selfconsistent model favors soft systems. tangent) selfconsistent approach corresponds to ~I.4 DISCUSSION OF THE AVERAGING SCHEMES The tangent selfconsistent schemes (A~ A or A~ A= predict softer tg_ tg) grain interactions than the Taylor scheme.1). When _d is calculated.limA tg (the notation ~=tg used for the macroscopic tangent modulus is changed with respect to Eq. 4]. As a consequence. When a crystal has soft deformation mechanisms together with hard ones (as.324 Molinari convergence is achieved.~tg _ ptg. 1 / . 17. The secant (resp. Sometimes less than five deformation mechanisms are available in each grain. 16) has the form: $7c __ ~_ __ ~(A. the single crystal yield surface being then nonclosed. in HCP metals). Grain shape evolution is modeled in a natural way in the selfconsistent scheme via the tensor _p0 appearing in the interaction law. A family of averaging schemes can be obtained by considering the choice A~ r/A_ where ~/ is a positive scalar.1/m (resp. the material state is updated. the rate of rotation coc c of the crystal (c) is given by Eq. considering powerlaw materials with uniform strain rate sensitivity m. It can be shown that tg. In the next time increment._S) and the Taylor model (strain uniformity: _d . for example.Ag"_D in the interaction law (Eq. crystallographic texture. the interaction law (Eq. and resistance stresses of the slip systems).). a simple relationship exists between the tangent and the secant modulus: As . and a new localization problem has to be addressed [4]. while the selfconsistent scheme is still operant. while it is not so in general for the Taylor model. the static model (stress uniformity: s f . while it is closer to five for Taylor averaging. 27 because the approach and the results are different). (dC _ D). 5. which assumes strain uniformity. The localization problem has been solved now for a given material state (given grain's morphology.4._D) are ~ retrieved._ P~ therefore. Other choices are possible for A~ For instance. The interaction model associated with the choice A~ ~=tg_ mA=S and the use of the relationship _ _ ' S_.
A. Mech. Masson. On the selfconsistent modeling of elasticplastic behavior of polycrystals. equilibrium and compatibility are somehow satisfied "in average" between a grain and the surroundings. S. Sci. A. 7. R. A discussion of averaging methods. but the continuous evolution of the grain's shape can hardly be described in that model. Molinari. semicrystalline polymers. 2. can be followed in a continuous way during the process. A. Acta Metall. have been developed for FCC. R. in the selfconsistent approach. 41: 26112624. and Zaoui. Mater.. and Ahzi. ed. Proc. Lebensohn. S.. J. BCC. 4. Elasticity being neglected. 173246. (1987). Phys. in CISM Lecture Notes. Modelling Simul. G. it is of note that. and Kouddane... pp.. although the Taylor model satisfies compatibility but not equilibrium. A348: 101. 35: 29832994. Ahzi. Molinari. C. . equilibrium and compatibility are not accounted for between individual grains but are satisfied in the solution of the inclusion problem. Canova. REFERENCES 1. [5]. Mech. of Materials 26: 4362. J. A selfconsistent anisotropic approach for the simulation of plastic deformation and texture development of polycrystals: Application to zirconium alloys. R. applications are restricted to m o n o t o n o u s loading and large deformations. R. Eng. and Tom~.. and geological materials such as rocks and ice. 7].. Extensions of the selfconsistent tangent model. These schemes have been successful in describing the overall stressstrain response together with the evolution of the internal structure of polycrystalline materials (texture evolution). A. can be found in Molinari et al. and HCP metals. Roy. 7: 683697. N. Teodosiu. (1997). It is worth mentioning that the Taylor scheme can be modified into the Relaxed Constraint Taylor model to account for the existence of fiat parallel grains. Mater. Finally. 6. (1993). Micromechanicsbased modeling of plastic polycrystals: An affine formulation. including elastic effects. for a review see Molinari [4. Many applications of the foregoing averaging schemes. Self consistent modelling of plastic and viscoplastic polycrystalline materials. C.5. Therefore. Hutchinson. A... Springer Verlag.4 Averaging of Viscoplastic Polycrystalline Materials 325 grain's aspect ratio. Soc. Solids. A selfconsistent approach of the large deformation polycrystal viscoplasticity. 5. 3. Molinari. (1997). (1999). A. Acta Metall. which have important consequences for texture predictions. in particular of the tangent selfconsistent approach. Bounds and selfconsistent estimate for creep of polycrystalline materials. W. (1999). (1976). Molinari.
. . . . Copyright O 2001 by Academic Press. . . . Tests under uniaxial stress with step loadings on MgAlloy specimens have shown less reproducibility than a sensible application of a complex model would require [4]. . . . . During this loading the strain rate was kept nearly constant.f. .besseling@wbmt. . . 5. . . . .5. . . . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . it was concluded that the fraction model gives a quite accurate description for almost all loading histories considered. . no evidence was found in any of the tests that the yield surface may develop corners or vertices in the course of loading [3]. . . 5.nl Contents 5. . .5 How to Use the Model . . . . . .5. and the experiments were restricted to strains of a few percent. . . . . . Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. . . . . . .5. . . .5. . . . and internal pressure along carefully selected stress and strain paths. . . . References . .1 Validity .2 Background . . . 326 . . 326 327 327 331 334 335 5. . E BESSELING j. . .5 Fraction Models for Inelastic Deformation j... . .1 VALIDITY In the course of a fast breeder project in a period of approximately ten years a large number of experiments have been performed on tubular specimens. . . . .. In particular. . .4 Determination of the Model Parameters . . . . . . . The materials tested were austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. In modeling creep deformation. . Much less successful has been the application of the fraction model in the creep range. . . . . . . . . . . .SECTION 5. . . torsion. As in earlier but far less numerous experiments on A1Alloy specimens. .3 Description of the Model . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . the deficiencies of the mathematical model do not constitute the problem as much as the large scatter that is found in experimental creep data. . ISBN 0124433413. . . . . . . . . . .5.tudelft. . which were loaded in combinations of tension and compression. .5. . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .
all subjected to the deformation of the continuum. As to linear rheological models. advocated by Prager (who added the adjective kinematic to it). Also. but each with its own dissipative properties. Thus the history of an inelastic deformation process is recorded in terms of fraction stresses constituting the thermodynamic internal or hidden state variables and determining by their weighted sum the macroscopic stress tensor.2 BACKGROUND In elastic deformation the distribution of the internal energy on a microscopic scale is irrelevant to the macroscopic deformation problem. however.5. From its initial formulation [1. For a finite. Thus the internal energy can be replaced by the internal energy of a fictitious homogeneous elastic continuum.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL The fraction model of a solid is based upon the concept of a socalled natural reference state. which can be represented by subelements of an element of volume dV. The combination of one ideally plastic or hardening fraction with one purely elastic fraction gives a kinematic hardening model with a consistent shift rule for the yield surface. two or more Maxwell models in parallel can be interpreted as a fraction model [5]. is contained in the fraction model. 5.5.5 Fraction Models for Inelastic Deformation 327 5. with respect to which changes in internal energy in thermodynamic state space can be defined by an invariant function of elastic strains and entropy. possibly very small.5. In the fraction model the inhomogeneous energy dissipation is discretized in a phenomenological manner by conceiving the material to be composed of a limited number of portions. inelastic deformation mechanisms are initiated at certain points and will spread in subsequent loading over the whole volume in the neighborhood of a material point of the continuum. as required by Ziegler [51. neighborhood of a material point of the continuum model the geometrical configuration of the elementary particles of the real material in relation to each other is assumed to differ from the configuration in the natural reference state by a linear transformation of line elements in that point: dr = Fedr (1) Here r is the position vector and d~ is the vector of the infinitesimal lineelement. the dissipation of energy cannot in general be replaced by the dissipation in a homogeneous continuum. 2] it has been stressed that the fractions are not to be identified as grains. In inelastic deformation. Melan's kinematic hardening model. which only in the case of purely elastic behavior is integrable to the . In the real material.
The elastic d e f o r m a t i o n tensor. and the free energy per unit mass by f.89 +L~ ~) (L~ LET). Denoting the temperature by T.Avd~ ~ d i ' . In the fraction model the energy dissipation per .(L~+LP)dr (3) The velocity g r a d i e n t tensor L has been split into an elastic and an inelastic part.~ (L ~+Le~ ). is defined by d r o d r . the internal energy per unit mass by e.F v ~ .1 (FerFe _ I) (2) The rate at which locally d~ changes with time is characterized in the physical space by a tensor A v" d~ . T) (6) The fraction stresses crh are expressed in terms of the free energy by crk . the mass density by p. rle .D p (5) In the fraction model an element of volume is divided into N portions of size ~h. we have for each fraction p f k = p e k . The rate of deformation tensor D remains the rate of deformation tensor of the fictitious continuum. the rate of deformation tensor D and the s p i n t e n s o r ~2 may be split into an elastic and an inelastic part: De 1 . p f k = pfk(qek. each with its own elastic deformation tensor r/eh and its own dissipation process. the vector ~ and the initial position vector ro are identical. change its length and orientation by inelastic deformation.2d~o 07ed~). In the case of purely elastic behavior.Ts.p \0r/e kf (7) determinin~ the macroscopic stress tensor ~ by their sum with the volume fractions ~ " as weighting factors: N N .d~o d~ .'~e __ 1 ( L e  (4) We have ~e __ FeTDeFe D e _ D . leading to a Dph. np __ 1 ( L P _ L P T ) ~. acting as objective (with respect to the material) state variable in the internal energy function. In general. o~ . however.l & + V~Avv~ldr . Also. the lineelement d~ will.3 28 Besseling position vector ~ in the undeformed state.Z 1 1  1 (8) For changes of the state variables T and a k only rate equations can be given because of the thermodynamic irreversibility of the inelastic deformation and heat conduction processes.
5 F r a c t i o n M o d e l s for I n e l a s t i c D e f o r m a t i o n 329 unit volume. cgTak ( Then D pk and tjph must be proper duals isotropic behavior. The tensors T k are state variables in state space.Z 1 .Z 1 r) (9) In inelastic deformation the energy dissipation is the amount of work per unit volume that is transformed into heat. Hence tr D p k = tr l:lPk . Then we have in ) 1 Oq~k (14) oqT a tensor with the required duality properties. In the fraction model the tensor f~P is taken to be the zero tensor and the constitutive equations for the tensors D pk are formulated in terms of energy dissipation functions q0k: (.'if = div(Kgrad T)+cp (10) The scalar product of internal state variables and rates of inelastic deformation gives the rate of energy dissipation.D pk} (crk.0 and only the deviator of the stress tensors. we then have from Fourier's law of heat conduction with cv for the specific heat: pc.T  (ltr T)I. Since the symmetric stress tensors crk contribute to the energy dissipation solely through the symmetric inelastic deformation rates Dph.. If the fraction has an function of the stresses through the thereby the required invariance with DPk _ ~pk Talk Oq~ Ok .5.FekWlrjPkFek1 (11) Here the weighted sum of the tensors T k determines the stress tensor of Cauchy. T a .D p k .Z 1 /12) For a solid that permits a thermodynamic description. For the rate of change of the temperature. T. of Tah and a ak. the function r is a invariants of the stress tensor and has respect to rotation. producing dissipation with the skew symmetric tensor f~P in order that this tensor may differ from the zero tensor. the energy dissipation must be considered to be a .(tr cr)I (13) contributes to the energy dissipation. that occurs in the equations of motion of the continuum. q). not subjected to the equations of motion that apply in the physical space. cra  c r . N N .oh  (Tk D pk} (FekcrkFek~. it would be necessary to introduce additional state variables. ilPk). In case a fraction would have anisotropic behavior. change of volume is according to experiments a purely elastic phenomenon. is the weighted sum of the dissipation functions of the N fractions: N .
330 Besseling function of the objective stresses crh and the derivatives of cpk with respect to crah provide the proper duality for the tensor/jph. In terms of a yield function @ with a yield stress rrr. From the start of the theory of plasticity. We have 0<fl<l.@(or. below which no energy dissipation takes place. F~d) . b~d' \ FDd~ t. such that very high rates of strain have to be imposed for a small increase of stress. crF) the dissipation function is defined by (15) <p . cp>0 for ~+fl>0.~(e +/3. The energy dissipation must be positive.1 for 9 corresponds to zero stress. The parameter /3 introduces a threshold for the stresses. and the dissipation function is defined such that it is equal to zero for + fl = 0.7~o. The superscript k. The yield function defines a closed surface in stress deviator space. :r) It determines the creep rate/jc by O~ _ ~ cra O~ O~ (16) ' ~d~a acra (17) Experiments with metal specimens show that at a certain stress level the dissipation rate starts to increase very rapidly. A dissipation function with this type of high nonlinearity leads to great difficulties in numerical simulations of the inelastic deformation process. will be omitted. 0z@z1 (18) The value .~. by which these difficulties are overcome. limiting the stress states that can be reached. The constitutive equations for the inelastic deformation of one fraction are presented for the general case. This implies a high nonlinearity of the dissipation function at these stress levels. a discontinuity in the constitutive description in the form of a yield surface has been introduced. 9 . denoting the fraction. For ~ = 1 this is the state of zero stress. else cp0 (19) With the aid of the fourthorder tensors ~=a~f ~_(o~ ~ ~a~/'(~a~U~  /'~ae'~ (20) o.
From the consistency condition r 0 follows h ~adad.G//~d + C( l t r t / . and possibly with different values for the hardening coefficients h.~(T . memorysensitive characteristics of inelastic deformation are described by the model. 9 + fl > 0: 6. For small strains the stresses T h and ~rk are related by the orthogonal transformation R. the fourthorder tensors ~ and ~ . (21) Here h is a small positive or negative hardening coefficient that determines the change of the yield stress in plastic deformation. the rates of stress are defined by the following: ifr else if and else +=0: 6=(o~~ Ih~'il cC~tI. these experiments did encompass strains not larger than a few percentage points in nearly timeindependent plastic deformation. 0 ~~ + ~ dF . 5.= ~g~ . as well as the yield function 9 and thereby the dissipation function ~0.89 (od)Z.5 Fraction Models for Inelastic Deformation 331 the compression modulus C.cr~F1. Here the determination of the model parameters will be discussed for this particular application. are invariant under rotation.5. We have with the tr shear modulus G 3J2 ( I ) ./ I c) .C e t I . with different values for the threshold values fl.4 DETERMINATION OF THE MODEL PARAMETERS The validation experiments have mainly been restricted to materials which in their annealed state could be considered to have isotropic properties.5. d = ~~0 . Furthermore. Because of the isotropic properties of the fractions. It represents the rotation of the neighborhood of the material point of the continuum with respect to the initial configuration T k = RakR r.. and the coefficient of cubic thermal expansion e.To))I (23) .C~2I. the typical anisotropic. The von Mises yield condition is based upon the stress invariant Jz . o .0 (22) When the material behavior is simulated by a number of fractions with different values for the yield stresses cry.
There remains the determination of the number N of fractions. their weighting factors 6k.85.5. The yield stresses a~ are the initial values of the flow stresses @ of the various fractions. This is. 0. 0. For the higher power values the relaxation rate decreases too rapidly with the value of the excess stress 9 4//. but the accuracy of the simulation of complex stress histories will not be greatly enhanced in terms of predicted stress values. denoting the breakpoints with subscript p. the dissipation rate of a fraction upon reaching the yield surface is equal to 7(T). For 0"p . the model is not very sensitive to the precise location of the breakpoints on the model stressstrain diagram that mark the onset of yielding of one more fraction.1 shows the successive determination of the breakpoints and of the values for ~k and a). Since sin h 0. a simple dissipation function suffices: qo ~. of course. a property that is essential for the usefulness of the model. 0.88137 = 1. 0.7. If more than four fractions are taken. Simple tests on tensile specimens may provide the necessary data.EsP~/pwe have .0000. Furthermore. which are subject to change because of . which has a value of 0. and the values of their threshold values ilk.: 1)1 (27) 1 The value of 03 corresponds to the secant modulus.98. Usually a good choice for the breakpoints is given by the following values of the secant moduli: Es/E = 0.1 Table 5.sin h (0. the values of their yield stresses 0~. = 0"3 0"3 + (25) We specify the breakpoints by their values for the secant modulus Es. m.7E. 03.332 Besseling In view of its limited significance in the envisioned applications.(T). it proves to be much more suitable for the description of stress relaxation effects than the wellknown power law of creep.4.88137 ~ + fl) (24) In this expression 7(T) contains the temperature dependence of the creep process. the hardening coefficients hi. The determination of the model parameters for timeindependent plasticity is best illustrated for an experimental stressstrain diagram approximated by the RambergOsgood formula with material parameters E. a smoother representation of the stressstrain diagram is obtained. Because of the linear term in the series expansion of this function.
1 Determination of Fraction Parameters from RambergOsgood Diagram with m = 10 a n d v = 0 .1) the volume fractions follow directly from the slope of the stressstrain curve between breakpoints.023 ~ h = 0.429 2. 3 . An estimate for h is needed for the determination of the values of Ok.~/~ 0.139 isotropic hardening.091 1.020 k 1 2 3 4 2~=~ 0 n 0.98 0. be described by the same value h for all fractions. This isotropic hardening may.5 Fraction Models for Inelastic Deformation 333 TABLE 5.873 14.073 ~.~(1 .A~/(EzX~) 1 . Even far below the true creep range of temperatures. In the tensile test a considerable drop in stress can occur if the loading of a specimen is interrupted at constant strain for several minutes. p 1 2 3 4 5 Ef/E 0.498 0.498 0.906 1 1. but they are essential because of the cumulative effect of the isotropic hardening. Based upon this observation. while the initial yield stresses of the fractions are given by the strain at the breakpoints.783 0.103 0. in a first estimate. multiplied by the elastic modulus. The value of Eql/a3 is not used.713 1.495 3.728) 1. A further refinement of the model with different values for h k is mainly of value for cyclic loading.285 0. With the aid of the wellknown relations G __ E E 2(1 + v)'C .h) ~ These expressions show that in the case of incompressibility ( v . inelastic material behavior may be accompanied by strong strain rate effects (differences in predicted stress values of the order of 10%). Note that for the slope of the curve from p = 1 to p = 2 the line is taken to start on the elastic part of the diagram.85 0.5.7 0.144 0.4 0.547 0.> / A ~ / ( E A ~ ) (28) (1 .066 1. .713 0./~ (0. The values of h k do not greatly affect the values of O k and ~).025 A~/(EA~) 0. In a first approximation the drop in stress in such a relaxation period turns out to be more or less constant for the whole range of stress over the inelastic part of the tensile curve.3(1 .927 1 0~ 0.2v)' we derive the following expressions: ~y _ 3 Erl k 1 2 v ~rk ~3 2(1 + v) \ ~3 0 ~ 3 1 .5.259 0.403 E~.140 1.1 ~/~ 0.
5. The values of ~k (1 .489 0.5. This adjustment is best carried out if the values are chosen such that the curve for the first reversed loading is well represented.5 HOW TO USE THE MODEL Any finite element analysis of inelastic deformation problems will introduce the constitutive equations of the material in sampling (or integration) points .081 1.147 0. Sufficient accuracy was obtained in two steps.163 the threshold stress value for each fraction may put equal to the yield stress.091 0.hi). Obviously. For the data from the RambergOsgood formula considered in Table 5.489 0. for a good correspondence between the experimental curves for cyclic loading and the curves according to the fraction model. Often good results are obtained with values for hk which are proportional to the difference between the yield limit ay of the fraction k and the yield limit of the first fraction.002 k ~'~n=lft.173 h~ 0 0. since they determine the slope between breakpoints. Aa.0.092 0.5.120 ~kk 0. this k implies h I .5.h) in accordance with the values of Table 5.072 Iterative Determination of Hardening Coefficients. the new values for @k follow from the known values of ~kk (1 .000 0 0.285 0.044 0.1.080 1. and as a result.147 0.322 1 h En=l Besseling I~nhn/h4 hk 0 0. an adjustment of the hardening coefficients h k for the various fractions is needed. the initial yield surface does not expand. leading to a pronounced Bauschinger effect and followed by a rapidly increasing hardening..5. The values of fl then follow from Usually. For unequal values of h k the determination of their values is best solved by an iterative process.5. hn/h4 0 0.334 TABLE 5.018 0. Their values are given by ~kh(1 .037 0.1.141 0.2 k 1 2 3 4 ~kk(1 .489 0.279 0.2. this iterative process is illustrated in Table 5.019 0.044 0. diminished by this drop of stress.h k) 0. h k//h4 0 0.h k) remain constant in the iteration process.284 0.1557 0. After the values of h k have been calculated by running down the first column and up the second column of each iteration.115 ~kk 0.039 0.
In the case of large deformations. SpringerVerlag.J. The history of the variables of all fractions that have contributed to inelastic deformation must be traced by storing the values of the fraction stresses with the model parameters. Aero. 97114. 324 pages. An experimental and theoretical investigation of creep. E (1970). A theory of elastic. Nat. van der. and Giessen. the mesh of finite elements has to be redefined in a continuous or discontinuous process. in Creep in Structures.. (1994). the fraction model equations may be directly applied.J. Mathematical Modelling of Inelastic Deformation. E (1985). usually will be. 25: 529536. A. J. 2. Elsevier Applied Science Publishing.J.5. E. Lambermont. Appl. report $410. the history of the internal state variables must be recorded.J. If these points are material points of the continuum. . plastic and creep deformations of an initially isotropic material. H. in Plasticity Today. 5. Besseling. Inst. Sawczuk. Amsterdam.5 Fraction Models for Inelastic Deformation 335 of the elements. Jan. E. Models of metal plasticity: Theory and experiment. J. Mech. ed.. G. as they. 3863. J. Besseling. A theory of flow for anisotropic hardening in plastic deformation of an initially isotropic material. Res. for each sampling point in which inelastic deformation has occurred. pp. pp. Besseling. and Besseling. Chapman & Hall. eds. 3. Besseling. Of course.. but in either case the problem of keeping track of the material points of the c o n t i n u u m with their history arises.. E (1953). in case of small strains. 4... and Bianchi. E (1958). REFERENCES 1.. Hult.
. . . . . . .6. . . 336 337 343 343 346 5.6. . A t e n e t of m a t e r i a l s s c i e n c e [11] is Handbook of Materials BehaviorModels. Contents 5. .6. . ISBN 0124433413. . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . 5. Korea Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . . . 5. . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . Incompressible Form . Small Strain Viscoplasticity Theory Based on Overstress (VBO) E.4 The Determination of VBO Constants from Constant Strain Rate Data . .SECTION 5. . .1 General Remarks . . . .3 Reduction to a Simplified. . References . . KREMPL1 and K. . . . .2 Isotropic VBO Model for Inelastic Compressibility . . . . . . . . Isotropic. . . .6 Inelastic Compressible and Incompressible. . . . .6. . . . . . . . Troy. . . HO 2 1Mechanics of Materials Laboratory. .1 GENERAL REMARKS P h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l e x p e r i m e n t s are o n e of the f o u n d a t i o n s of the v i s c o p l a s ticity t h e o r y b a s e d o n o v e r s t r e s s (VBO). . . . 5. Isothermal. . . . . . . . . . . 336 . . . . . New York 2yeungnam University. . . . . . . . . . . .
6. The aim is to create an experimentbased. tests. Terms that are present for variable temperature equal zero when the temperature is constant.2 I S O T R O P I C V B O M O D E L FOR INELASTIC COMPRESSIBILITY The VBO formulation was started by Cernocky and Krempl [2]. acting micromechanisms are deduced from similar. if not identical. after all. servocontrolled testing machine with strain measurement on the gage section. 18. This aspect had not been discussed by Malvern [26.5. or positive. Creep and plasticity are not separately formulated.6. nonlinear differential equations in Box 5. Boxes are used. 5. VBO 337 that "the current behavior of a material is determined by its current state and the current loading conditions" (italics added by the present authors). To efficiently utilize the available space. From these responses the continuum model has to be synthesized. ordinary differential equations [5] is the numerical testing machine.27] and Perzyna [28].6 Compressible and Incompressible. Box 5. Krempl [13. VBO has been used at low. and have the equations collected in one place. A time integration program for a system of stiff. Inelastic incompressibility is introduced in Box 5. high. A nomenclature listing. The asymptotic solution provides a means of modeling the socalled flow stress region and has been very useful in modeling real material behavior. zero. small strain model that can be exercised like a real. and variable temperatures with one basic formulation. A static recovery term becomes negligible for low homologous temperature. . where a simplified tensorial and a uniaxial VBO are derived from the general theory.6. who showed that the overstress dependence enabled the modeling of longtime asymptotic solutions with a slope that can be negative. physical. A properly designed specimen represents the material and serves as the integrator of all the micromechanisms. All material constants are allowed to vary with temperature. It is clear that an experimentbased approach captures the physics of material behavior.2 for inelastic compressibility. 20].1. provide an overview.3.6.14] has shown the capability of the overstress model to reproduce normal and "paradoxical" inelastic deformation behaviors that were found in the literature and in specially performed experiments [ 1. precedes the display of the coupled. 12.
constant True (Cauchy) stress tensor Isotropic stress Stress No dimension No dimension No dimension Stress Stress No dimension Ac Ai. 1/ time ~0~g 0 . 11 Rate of deformation. 1 > ~ > Et/E Decreasing or constant. Eqs.5. 2. Eqs. constant Variable.1 Nomenclature Krempl and Ho Coefficient of thermal expansion Rate sensitivity coefficient Shape function.in~. true strain rate tensor gl 1 ~g22 1/ temperature No dimension No dimension 1/time Axial and transverse components of true strain rate in a uniaxial test Constants for normalization Strain beyond which the asymptotic solution applies approximately Effective inelastic rate of deformation.6.338 BOX 5. Eqs. 2.in) . 10 Overstress invariant. total Poisson's ratio Elastic Poisson's ratio. 3. 9 Inelastic Poisson's ratio.in 1 / time No dimension 1 / time /tr(~. controls the speed with which saturation is reached Initial and final value of A Stress .1/ V i 7 ~~. 0 < t / < 0.Af Constant.
positive decreasing. Et Elastic modulus. increasing. Dimensionless flow function F e9in F 0^ F. positive. P = F[F/D] . F = F / ( E k ) . 10 Static recovery function.F[0] Kinematic stress tensor Equilibrium stress tensor. 2.t Stress 1/time No dimension No dimension Stress Stress Stress No dimension Time Curve fit of data. positive. or a growth law. VBO 339 Stress Stress Drag stress. D > 0 E. Eqs.5. see k. Eqs. F[0] = 0. 3. tangent modulus at maximum strain of interest based on total strain rate Tangent modulus based on inelastic strain rate l~tE/(1~) Flow function. 11 Effective equilibrium stress Identity Viscosity function. increasing True (Cauchy) stress deviator tensor Temperature Time Material time derivative of x 1/ time Stress Degree Kelvin Time 1 / time ( )a [ ] Deviatoric quantity Denotes "function of" . k[0] r 0. constant.6 Compressible and Incompressible.
2~/)(tr(a .6. The "spring" of the Kelvin element has nonlinear and hysteretic properties. Isotropic VBO v Y (tr(~))l + ( l+r/ Ek[F/D] viscosity function rl (tr(a  (~g)~m EkEr/D] g))I) (1) + 0r ~th Invariants F 2 = ((1 + ~/)2tr((o". complex forms possible . The spring in front of the Kelvin element remains linear but the Kelvin element itself becomes nonlinear. The viscosity of the dashpot is represented by a nonlinear. Although the actual responses of the standard linear solid and of VBO can be vastly different.~ ) f  R[~]g static recovery (3) Growth law for the kinematic stress ag kinematic stress rate IF]ag (4) Growth law for the isotropic stress isotropic stress rate ~ A = Ac (Af .)t~ + ~ ~.g))2)/(1 + 2~/2) = LF = F[F]. Also.l+v _ m InelasticCompressible.2t/)(trg)2)/(1 + 2t/2) flow (2) function Growth law for the equilibrium stress = ~ ~ + (~.g)) + 012 . some general properties remain the same. in both models infinite time is required to reach the equilibrium stress in a relaxation experiment. The existence of longtime asymptotic solutions for constant loading rate can be offered as an example. BOX 5.2 Flow Law d(. decreasing function of the overstress.A)d) ratedependent.g)(o" . dynamic recovery + (1 . ~ = ((1 + r/)2tr(gg)+ (r/2.g inelastic hardening k[r/D] A 7/flF ~ / nrs "Y 9 r equilibrium stress rate elastic hard.340 Krempl and Ho VBO is based on the standard linear solid [14. 17].
. isotropic VBO 341 Deviatoric.) a_ ((1 + v ) / E ) i . and the thermal strain rates.~ and ~milar h~ b~n u~d.6 Compressible and Incompressible. for isothermal conditions .2v)/E)tr d (6) (7) .~ ~ ( ~g~ r~ Ek gd_fa.EtF [~l s FJ ~~ (12) Poisson's ratios based on strain rates The ratios v and ~/are constant and are limited by 0 _< v _< 0.~. ~/.6.rd/Ek .5.5 and 0 _< ~/<_ 0. The elastic strain rate is given as a total time derivative to ensure a pathindependent elastic strain for variable temperature and temperaturedependent material properties [21.2 Ek[ra/D] . which are added to obtain the total true strain rate.~et = ((1 . rl is variable q _ _ t2__ = vir/E + (n(~r . Eq. VBO BOX 5.5.5.g)l(Ek[r/D])) Uniaxial equations e [F~l'~g.)A + ( 1~)~'d (11) ~ .6. Naturally. \3/ The flow law. formulation.~ X wh~r~ ~  ' .~ _ .F.r162 .gd)). ~_ r tr(gagd) ~ .2 rd _ r tr((s . the inelastic.~)f (15) (16) ) . tr . without static recovery . ra (s) (9) (10) ?h ..~e7 + ~ (~e.2. isothermal.g)/(Ek[F/D])) A ~ olE + ((. 22].3 Inelasticincompressible. 1. Box 5. consists of three parts: the elastic.gd)(s .~g (14) (13) g Af )  + (1 .r. simplified.~ ' r [~] ~g=r t~'~'n /.0.
who treated the anisotropic case. In the absence of the static recovery term. 3.342 Krempl and Ho the terms containing temperature rate as a multiplier vanish. the static recovery term. The first term on the right causes a nearly elastic growth with an initial slope of ~kE and establishes the quasielastic region. materials. The constant inelastic Poisson's ratio r/complements the elastic Poisson's ratio v. It is the repository for modeling zero and negative rate sensitivity and other unusual but important rate effects [79]. The simple formulation of the growth law given in m . 2. The actual. The second term is needed for variable temperature [22]. [16]. longtime solution for any slope [16]. can be easily calculated. 9. 1 was arrived at by Ho [6]. In Eq. 13. The last term. has elastic and inelastic hardening terms as well as a dynamic recovery term. but otherwise incompressible. The growth law simulates the hardening/recovery format attributed to Bailey/Orowan [4]. which is followed by the dynamic recovery term. 3 and marked by nrs is zero for normal VBO.3 for a simplified version. The term containing f is introduced in Eq. When modeling solid polymer deformation [1. plays a significant role at high temperature and is zero at low temperature. The applied stress must be different from the equilibrium stress to affect inelastic deformation. the equilibrium stress evolves mostly in a rateindependent manner. The inelastic rate of deformation can be formulated using the viscosity function k[F/D] or the flow function F[F/D]. The modeling of different rate effects is a rather unique capability of VBO. The overstress invariant 1'. variable Poisson's ratio see Eq. The growth law for the kinematic stress is given in Eq. the effective inelastic strain rate (rate of deformation) q~ and the effective equilibrium stress ~ are normalized to the uniaxial state of stress and are given in Eqs. The factor/~ in the dynamic recovery term of Eq. Following Lee and Krempl [21]. 6.6. The growth law for the equilibrium stress g. and 10. The compressible solution may be applied to cavitating. see Eqs. 3 to ensure the existence of the asymptotic. For r / = 0. Eq. 3 the equilibrium stress growth law is written in terms of stresslike quantities. The next positive term represents the inelastic hardening. The equilibrium stress can be thought of as a measure of the strength of the defect obstacles that have to be overcome. 2 and 10 for their interrelation. the formulation of Eq. The formulation can also be given in terms of the strain rates by using their respective definitions. 17] inelastic compressibility has to be accounted for. The similarity of the expressions for the elastic and the inelastic strain rates is obvious.5 the usual forms are obtained and are given in Box 5. The kinematic stress is the repository for modeling the Bauschinger effect and for modeling the slope of the stressstrain diagram at the maximum strain of interest. The isotropic or rateindependent stress A primarily models cyclic hardening/softening. Note that only this term contributes in a timedependent manner. 4.
Recent room temperature data by Khan and Liang [10] on bcc alloys cover a wide range of strain rates. 31].g. INCOMPRESSIBLE FORM The model given in Box 5. D. 1316 apply. the Bauschinger effect. 9 The equations are separated into hydrostatic and deviatoric parts. E. 5.6. creep.2 can be simplified and reduced to the usual inelastic incompressible.5 W alloy with strain rates ranging from 10 6 to 1 1/s. The simplified model is capable of modeling nonlinear rate sensitivity in strain and stresscontrolled loading. For nonproportional loading extra hardening can be observed with some metals and alloys.6. [24] and has been used by (Tachibana and Krempl [30]) for high homologous temperature applications. 5.4 THE DETERMINATION OF VBO CONSTANTS FROM CONSTANT STRAIN RATE DATA The simplified VBO is applied to test conditions where recovery effects are negligible.2. 29. For the modeling of such behaviors special growth laws are needed. deviatoric formulation. Et. Only the equilibrium stress and the kinematic stress change. Therefore. e.5. relaxation. 9 The flow function F and five other constants (A.6 Compressible and Incompressible. the following simplifications are introduced: 9 Inelastic Poisson's ratio is set to 7 = 0 . Following Majors [25]. The high static strain rate data show typical .6.6. 5 to model inelastic incompressibility.6. and cyclic neutral behavior. With these simplifications VBO models viscoplasticity with kinematic type hardening. 9 The shape function ~ is reduced to a constant with the same name and the same limits as stated in Box 5. Eqs. ISOTHERMAL. [3.1 shows stressstrain diagrams for a Ta2. Starting with Box 5. It is further assumed that no isotropic hardening takes place and that static recovery terms are not operating. and ~) are needed to describe the inelastic behavior with the simplified model when fl is set equal to zero. Figure 5.6..3 REDUCTION TO A SIMPLIFIED. VBO 343 Eq. the simplified model has been proposed by Maciucescu et al.1. 5 is sufficient to demonstrate constant strain amplitude cyclic hardening or softening.
F .1 Strain 0.. The thin lines.344 Krempl and Ho bcc behavior.... .....3 is valid for every loading.6. The elastic modulus E and the tangent modulus Et at the maximum strain of interest can be directly obtained from the graph. top at a strain rate of 1000 1/s and bottom for 10 8 l/s.15 0...6. the unique evolution of g in the asymptotic region is factored in as well as the fact that the equilibrium curve is below the slowest stressstrain curve.. For nonlinear problems a normalized formulation is desirable... The thick lines are the numerical simulation of the influence of strain rate..05 True 0.... see Eqs... . ....~ 400 i 300 2OO 100 0...... = ~ ( 1 .... : l ./ ~ [ F / D ] where k i ..1.....6... While the model given in Box 5... 1014 of Krempl [16].. . i I .  l A. Next the condition F I l l .. are extrapolations to demonstrate that VBO can model a large range of strain rates....6. I ....'i" In determining the overstress.. the asymptotic solution applies when plastic flow is fully established. Accordingly. i .. I .... The finite time endpoint of a relaxation test started at a strain ~ can be below the slowest stressstrain curve [19]. For the determination of the flow function the relationships derived from the asymptotic solution and their interpretation are important....1 is imposed.... ...........1 The influence of strain rate on the stressstrain diagrams of a Ta2. i.....e0F where P is i. dimensionless and where e9 is an arbitrary constant with dimension of 0 reciprocal time. The symbols are selected points taken off the original stressstrain diagrams in Figure 6 of Khan and Liang [10]...5W alloy at ambient temperature. From actual stressstrain curves for various strain rates such as shown in Figure 5... 14 yields k / k 0 ...... With these guides the equilibrium stress is estimated. " ] l o i vs OIE02 l/s I ' 0 IE06 l/s 0 0.....04 in Figure 5... The equilibrium stress g and the constant drag stress D have to be determined together with the flow function F... Substitution into Eq.....Et/E) has been used and where the arbitrary s0 is the total counterpart of %. i ... The stressstrain curves are nearly equidistant in the flow stress region.2 Figure 5.1 the overstress at a given 9i n " 700 : ....... at strains ~ > 0.........e..... i ...
9969. 2 7 8 ( F / D )  7. It is also possible to tailor ~ so that "yield points" develop.6.1 together with the experimental data. p.4 F  ~o(i  Et/E)(F[F/D]  F[O]). Since the strain rates cover several decades but stresses do not. The logplot cannot be extended to the strain rate origin.6. VBO 345 strain rate and a strain ~ in the flow stress region (~ > 0.5 W Alloy of Khan and Liang [10] E GPa 178 /~t MPa 660 ~0 1/s 1 0. ~ < . It appears that the stressstrain rate data are insufficient to determine the material constants of this "unified constitutive law" uniquely.1.6.183 . To satisfy F[0] = 0 we set F = g0(1 . Figure 5. The correlation is very good. Selecting a value and numerically integrating the constitutive equation is a good procedure.F[0]) where P is the function obtained from the trend line analysis that has all the properties of F except that it is not exactly zero for zero argument.Et/E) (F [F/D] . These choices and the unity condition at the beginning of this paragraph yield D = 246 MPa and k0 = 1 1/s. Examples of experimentally observed overshoots are given by Khan and Liang [10]. log(k/k0) = y is plotted as a function of the stress ratio F / D = x using an Excel trend line analysis or equivalent.1 were performed and the results are plotted in Figure 5. It yields.5. is recommended. The task is then to determine both ~ and A so that the relaxation and the stressstrain data at TABLE 5.1 A MPa 190 D MPa 246 VBO Material Data for Ta2. Numerical experiments using the data given in Table 5.04) is estimated. Creep or relaxation tests are potential candidates. Knowing D.6. The same calculation was repeated with A = 170 MPa and D = 266 MPa with equally excellent results. 264]. and the stress. Additional experiments of a different nature are needed to uniquely determine A (or D) and @. Relaxation data are preferred since the strain rate range that can be obtained in a single run is exceptionally high [23. To avoid possible overshoots at the transition from quasielastic to inelastic behavior. The value of ~ has to be determined next. a linear polynomial approximation with R2=0. There is no doubt that other values of A can be found that would match the stressstrain data. the isotropic stress A can be easily calculated.1 shows such a yield point for the stressstrain curve of 1000 1/s. Here the overstress for the strain rate of 1 1/s was found to be equal to 246 MPa. i/s log/~ = 7 .6 Compressible and Incompressible. in the present case. Et. The constants are listed in Table 5.6.
.L o ! o i 300 200 100 0 .... ! : o . (1979).... New York: Halsted Press... E.. Stepleman.2 Numerical simulations of a repeated strain rate change experiment using the data of Table 5. :o i 0 0...1.. REFERENCES 1.. 5.... Polymer Engineering and Science 32: 10661072.. S.6.. 6. ?. Creep...... S... Neither the experimental nor the numerical results show a strain rate history effect....... =: .. 4.. (1975).. 3. a Systematized Collection of ODE Solvers. PhD Thesis.. 2.6. Hindmarsh.... (1983). K...1 True Strain 0. (1993).. J.. E...5 W...346 Krempl and Ho m 700500600!!!!!!!!!!!i!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii j ii iii i : 0 i400 . C. Specifically Nylon 66.. Numerical repeated strain rate change experiments are shown in Figure 5. Choi... E....15 0. M.. (1998). C..... No strain rate history effect is modeled in the numerical and in the laboratory experiments. creep and relaxation.. Scientific Computing. The numerical simulations exhibit over.and undershoots. r..2 Figure 5. ~ . Examples of overshoots are displayed in Figure 4 of the same paper for Ta.. International Journal of NonLinear Mechanics 14: 183203. H. e... which Figure 15 of Khan and Liang [10] does not..... Gittus...... A. E.. North Holland: R... a Divison of John Wiley and Sons.. This can be done when such data are available... a............6.. Cernocky.. Inc..... (1992). Amsterdam.. Application of the Viscoplasticity Theory Based on Overstress to the Modeling of Dynamic Strain Aging of Metals and to Solid Polymers. Viscoelasticty and CreepRupture in Solids.. they have been observed in other laboratory experiments. and Krempl. and Krempl. see Figure 14 of Khan and Liang [10]. ODEpack. However..... Ho..and undershoots are seen which are not found in the present data on Ta2.... At the transition points over... Viscoplasticity Theory Based on Overstress: The Modeling of Biaxial Hardening Using Irreversible Plastic Strain. various strain rates are modeled.. ~. P.... American Society for Testing and Materials.2. The effect of strain rate on the deformation and relaxation behavior of Nylon 6/6 at room temperature... and Krempl.05 0. A nonlinear uniaxial integral constitutive equation incorporating rate effects. Bordonaro. . Advances in Multiaxial Fatigue San Francisco.
et al. The uniaxial unloading behavior of two engineering alloys at room temperature. Acta Mechanica 69: 2542. Lemaitre. (1996). (1991a). K.. V. 23. (1999). A. and Kallianpur. K. Hawaii: Springer. Modeling of positive.. Aeronautical Engineering & Mechanics.. 15. in Time Dependent and Nonlinear Effects in Polymers and Composites STP 1357: 118137. Extension of the viscoplasticity theory based on overstress (VBO) to capture nonstandard rate dependence in solids. L. Ho. Series A 41: 103111. 18. Krempl. (1995). 21. R. S. E. Los Alamos. A small strain viscoplasticity theory based on overstress. (1986). VBO 347 7.. 9.. Krempl. cyclic creep and relaxation of AISI Type 304 stainless steel at room temperature. The overstress dependence of the inelastic rate of deformation inferred from transient tests. E. Schapery. International Journal of Plasticity 15 (10): 10891109. T. 8. E. 24. J. (1980). European Journal of Mechanics. and Krempl.L. E. et al. et al. (2000). U.. eds. D. (1994).. pp. (1985). A. 11. Mechanics of Solid Materials.. 13. (2000a). PA: American Society for Testing and Materials. and Krempl. Ho. Computational Engineering Science. JSME International Journal. T. 14. 16. Kujawski. and Krempl. K. and Sun.. An overstress model for solid polymer deformation behavior applied to Nylon 66. Uniaxial thermomechanical loading: Numerical experiments using the thermal viscoplasticity theory based on overstress. J. V. D. International Journal of Plasticity (In press). Krempl. (1999). Materials Science Research International 1 (1): 310. San Diego: Academic Press. NM: Los Alamos National Laboratory. 12. in Unified Constitutive Laws of Plastic Deformation. Ho. Krempl. negative and zero rate sensitivity using the viscoplasticity theory based on overstress (VBO).. Troy. J.. (1999). Journal of Applied Mechanics 52: 654658. A. Internationhl Journal of Solids and Structures 27: 14451459. C. and Liang. 17. E. and Krempl. Mechanical Engineering. Khan. 19. 10. (1991).. and Ho. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. E. Krempl. Krempl. and Chaboche. West Conshohocken. (2000b). and Nakamura. E. eds. . Kocks. (1979). Modeling the deformation behavior of a PnPb solder alloy using the simplified viscoplasticity theory based on overstress (VBO). Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 28: 129148. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 27: 363385.. Krausz. E. Krempl. E. p. From the Standard Linear Solid to the Viscoplasticity Theory Based on Overstress. (1998). An orthotropic theory of viscoplasticity based on overstress for thermomechanical deformations. Lee.. (1995). D. K. New York. Physical and Phenomenological Plasticity. Models of viscoplasticity: Some comments on equilibrium (back) stress and drag stress. 281318. A/Solids 10: 173192. The modeling of unusual rate sensitivities inside and outside the dynamic strain aging regime. Krempl. The influence of the equilibrium growth law formulation on the modeling of recently observed relaxation behaviors. 56. K.. An experimental study of roomtemperature rate sensitivity creep and relaxation of AISI Type 304 Stainless Steel. E. K. E. 22. Maciucescu. E.5. (1987). An experimental study of uniaxial creep. Lee. Cambridge: Oxford University Press.. R. Mechanics of TimeDependent Materials 4: 2142.. E. and Krausz. and Krempl. of Engineering Materials and Technology 123: 2835. Behaviors of three BCC metal over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures: Experiments and modeling.. K. 20.6 Compressible and Incompressible. Journal of Electronic Packaging 121: 9298. E.
E. Y. (1998). Quarterly of Applied Mathematics 20: 321332. Tachibana. 27.. A nonproportionality parameter and a cyclic viscoplastic model taking into account amplitude dependency and memory effects of isotropic hardening. (1994). P. . The constitutive equations for rate sensitive plastic materials. Materials Science and Engineering A186: 2334. L. The interaction of cyclic hardening and ratchetting for AISI Type 304 stainless steel at room temperature . and Krempl. A/Solids 13: 155173. Perzyna. Quarterly of Applied Mathematics 8: 405. Journal of Applied Mechanics 18: 203208. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 38: 575597. E. S. (1994). E.. The propagation of longitudinal waves of plastic deformation in a bar exhibiting a strain rate effect. B. (1951). European Journal of Mechanics.. Tanaka. Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology 120: 193196. 26. P (1963). and Krempl. Majors. (1990)..I Experiments and II Modeling with the viscoplasticity theory based on overstress. Ruggles. L. Modeling of high homologous temperature deformation behavior using the viscoplasticity theory based on overstress (VBO): Part III A simplified model. 31. 30.348 Krempl and Ho 25. Malvern. 28. and Krempl. E. Malvern. The isotropic viscoplasticity theory based on overstress applied to the modeling of modified 9CrlMo steel at 538C. E. M. (1951). 29. E.
. .7. . . . .7. a n d l o a d i n g circumstances.SECTION 5. . Modifications of the Model . Formulation . . .7. . . . . . . . . Haifa 32000. . . . . . . . . . . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . Integration of Equations and Implementation into Computer Programs . . . .1 VALIDITY The BP m o d e l of isotropic elasticviscoplastic b e h a v i o r is i n t e n d e d to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the m a c r o s c o p i c r e s p o n s e of metals a n d metallic alloys to l o a d i n g over a very wide range of strain rates. . It is an i n c r e m e n t a l t h e o r y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d c o n s t r a i n t s of c o n t i n u u m m e c h a n i c s a n d t h e r m o d y n a m i c s a n d is Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. . . . . . . 349 . . . . . . Identification of the Material Parameters . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . .3 5. . .7. . t e m p e r a t u r e s . . . . .6 349 350 350 353 353 355 355 356 5. . . . .2 5. . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of the Basic BP Model . . . . . . . . .7. . . . .7. . .1 5. . .4 5. . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ISBN 0124433413. . .7. Israel Contents Validity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . 5.7 Table of Material Parameters .7 An Outline of the BodnerPartom (BP) Unified Constitutive Equations for ElasticViscoplastic Behavior SOL R. BODNER TechnionIsrael Institute of Technology. . .5 5.
stress saturation under imposed straining. The macroscopic response properties indicated by the model include strain rate sensitivity and temperature dependence of inelastic deformation. the elastic and inelastic strain rate variables are generally nonzero throughout the deformation history. For enhanced generality. primary and secondary creep (by including thermal recovery of hardening).4. the Bauschinger effect).7..350 Bodner considered "unified" in that plasticity and creep are particular response characteristics based on a single inelastic strain rate variable.7. Plastic flow law (direction of plastic straining) and incompressibility condition: .3 D E S C R I P T I O N O F T H E BASIC BP M O D E L ( F R O M [ 1.7. The model is also "unified" in a more general sense by not separating a fully elastic region from the overall response (no defined yield stress).3 is applicable for many metals and loading conditions. A small strain formulation is presented here.g.2 F O R M U L A T I O N The BP elasticviscoplastic constitutive equations do not require a yield criterion or loadingunloading conditions. 5. and stress relaxation. Hardening corresponding to resistance to inelastic straining is treated by introducing load historydependent variables in the kinetic equation for the inelastic strain rate and by developing suitable evolution equations for their development with loading history. and the same equations apply for all circumstances. 21) a. As a consequence. Additivity of elastic and inelastic strain rates: b.7. extensions to large strains have been developed. 5. isotropic and directional hardening for both monotonic and reversed loadings (e. The basic set of equations described in Section 5. a few modifications for special conditions have been proposed which are described in Section 5.
~ \~11/ J (5) (6) where ?12 and ~:12 are the engineering shear strain rate and stress.(lIE)[(1 + v)dij . ' ( t ) . Expressions for the strain rate components: /:~ .(1/3)akkaij. and the proposed kinetic equation for inelastic deformation as a function of state quantities is . Z = ZI+ Z D. although a lower value. sij = erij. In Eq.7 BP Unified Constitutive Equations 351 where sij is the deviatoric stress.~ . 4. has been used in exercises at low strain rates ( < 10sec 1) to avoid possible numerical problems. and 2 is a positive scalar function of stress. c. Particular cases of uniaxial stress ~11 and simple shear z12 are /:P1  ~ \ o1. and Z is the overall scalar hardening variable.Z2] r~ (7) z (8) . erdf is defined by ryeff. which can be treated implicitly.[Z1Z'(t)]~. The quantity Do is the presumed limiting value of inelastic strain rate in shear and is usually set to be 108 sec 1.o. the overall hardening variable.2S j o'df S. and temperature.[(3/2)sidsij] 1/2.] (4) Equation 4 is a general growth function that indicates that ~ is close to zero at low values of effective stress r~cff followed by a region of rapid growth leading to a saturation value.VdkkSij] (3) which is Hooke's Law in rate form.Do exp . 104 sec 1.5.Yp(t)A1ZI[ Z'(t)Z. f Do exp . The hardening variable Z consists of isotropic and directional components.~ it.m. n controls strain rate sensitivity. Evolution equations for their development are Z . where Z ~ is due to resistance presumed to be uniformly distributed throughout the volume and Z D arises primarily on the developed slip planes of the materials and is therefore dependent on stress history and its current value.
e. while the terms in the thermal recovery functions. rl. 7 and 9 represent thermal recovery of hardening with Z z . For the condition of only isotropic hardening without thermal recovery. 8. the measure of hardening is the plastic work rate (. .Z1.O. Z0.Vp . [29]. the relevant Eqs. which result in increased rate sensitivity and lower stressstrain curves. the use of material constants at the current temperature obtained from isothermal test data is usually a valid procedure even under nonisothermal loading [3]. A2.352 Bodner which is the component of the directional hardening tensor flij in the direction of the current stress. with Z staying positive. etc. and the saturation value for Z I is Z1 and that for Z D is Z 3. if annealed.Zl. Numerical listings or functional forms for the temperature dependence of the material constants are therefore part of the characterization. rio(O) . An investigation on the thermodynamic consistency of the BP equations is described in Reference [26]. 9 is for dimensional purposes. the material constants reduce to n.ml with Do fixed and the elastic constants provided. Except for particular thermal history effects.aij(t)/[ahl(t)crkl(t)] 1/2 (10) and Vii(t) . 5 and 7 could be integrated analytically [4]. such as those due to dynamic strain aging.) Initial values are ZI(o) = Zo and.0 as minimum (annealed) values. (Use of Z1 in Eq. Temperature effects are treated implicitly through its influence on the material parameters. Z0. Higher temperatures generally lead to decreased values of n. m 2 can be temperaturedependent. The equations indicate stress saturation under imposed straining and secondary creep when Z I and Z D reach steady values. A1. where  Z1 Vij(t) (9) Uij(t) . From its definition. and the hardening rates m ~ . The hardening terms.. uij.g.flij(t) /[flkl(t) flhl(t)] 1/2 (11) which is the current direction of riO" For both components. Eq.~. and thereby accounts for the Bauschinger effect. r2. and the elastic constants are generally temperaturedependent.Z2 and flij .aije. and the second terms in Eqs. Z D changes sign with stress reversal. In the case of uniaxial stress and constant plastic strain rate.
pure copper and aluminum" ml . 7 [2]. e. and eeff and q are additional material constants" this generalization is applicable for copper (and probably aluminum and iron) at very high strain rates.7 BP Unified Constitutive Equations 353 5.m2b + (m2a . c. Generalization of isotropic hardening rate to represent possible strain rate dependence: [ mxa . Note: repeated reversed loading conditions with nonzero mean stress could lead to ratcheting for some materials such as stainless steels. A method that is fairly direct and simple is described in References [9. the method proposed by Ohno and Wang [27] could be adopted to Eq. d. 46 by Z~Z(1co).5 IDENTIFICATION OF THE MATERIAL PARAMETERS Procedures have been developed by various investigators to obtain the material constants for the BP equations from test data. see Reference [7]. e. > 104 see1 [6]. 10].Z0)] m2 .g.7. ~eff is the effective "O (deviatoric) total strain rate.5..M a 1~ r t~eff) q] ] (14) where mla is the initial value of ml according to Eq. 5.4 MODIFICATIONS OF THE MODEL a. most of the parameters at a given temperature can be obtained from monotonic uniaxial stressstrain curves over a range of strain rates for which thermal recovery of . First. Representation of possible increase of isotropic hardening due to nonproportional cyclic straining by the introduction of a measure of nonproportionality in Eq.mlb)exp[mlc(Z I .mlb + (mla .7. Introduction of continuum damage as a state variable [8] modification of kinetic Eqs.m2b)exp(m2c ZD) (12) (13) b. 12. 0_<co<l (15) where co is a scalar load history dependent damage variable with a proposed evolution equation that is a function of stress and damage. Representation of possible changes in the evolution equation for isotropic hardening due to repeated stress reversals. 9 for representation of that effect. Generalization of hardening rates for enhanced correspondence of stressstrain curves of strongly workhardening materials with test data [5].
22]. the region slightly beyond the essentially elastic range. i. Adjustment of the hardening parameters obtained from that equation with the equation of the present article is obtained by setting Zo [(n + 1)/n](1/2")Zo. Those tests serve well for examining of the predictive capability of the equations.e.0"11 1 dO'll dslP1 (16) as a function of stress. The parameters include those associated with directional hardening based on the observation that the rate of directional hardening m2 is usually significantly larger than that for isotropic hardening ml. Z1. The intersection of the extended curve with = 0 would be the saturation stress at which the total strain rate is equivalent to the plastic strain rate. The resulting curve is generally bilinear.7.1). directional hardening will saturate more rapidly and have greater influence in the low strain inelastic range. Recourse is then made to creep tests or very slow straining tests to obtain the parameters for the thermal recovery of hardening. From this information obtained at various applied strain rates. The parameter values obtained by these procedures are not necessarily unique unless further refined by the sophisticated methods of References [12. 5. Reliance on stress relaxation tests and tests involving rapid increases or decreases of applied strain rate are not recommended as references for obtaining material parameters for the BP equations. Z3 can also be determined by this procedure. The constants Z0. whereas strain rate jump tests involve complicated histories of elastic and inelastic strain rates. 13]. m (17) where the Z i values are those derived from the equation with the factor (indicated by * in Table 5. etc. the parameter n could be obtained from the dependence of the saturation stress on plastic strain rate using Eq. /I . The method involves determining the stressplastic strain relation from a uniaxial stressstrain curve at a constant applied strain rate and determining the quantity. In the early development of the BP equations. the factor [(n + 1)/n] appeared as a coefficient to the (Z2/Cr2eff)term in Eq. Relaxation tests cover only a limited range of strain rates.. with an upper slope m2 and a lower slope ml. 4. but are usually suitable for practical purposes. As a consequence. The other material parameters are not affected by the factor. .354 Bodner hardening is not effective. It is noted that cyclic test data (with reversed loadings) are not required by the preceding procedure but could be used for checking and possible adjustments. Some minor modifications of the preceding procedure are described in References [11.
A representative listing is given in Table 5. ( .7 BP Unified Constitutive Equations 355 5.7.108sec 1 C1008 steel.7 INTEGRATION OF EQUATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION INTO COMPUTER PROGRAMS Methods for integrating the mathematically "stiff" equations of the BP formulation have been developed in References [1416]. EPIC2 [16]. 63/37 Sn/Pb. Armco iron (all at RT) [24] also in [ 16] Copper (high purity) (RT) Copper (high purity) (RT to 800~ A533B steel ( .6 0 to 175~ ~ = 2000 S.Swt% Nb) (250~ Eutectic solder. and that of Reference [16] seems to have received most attention. e. With a suitable integration scheme.6 TABLE OF MATERIAL PARAMETERS Material parameters obtained for the BP formulation are available in the literature. References [9.5. 18]. STEALTH [28]. Do = 104 sec 1 Ni base alloy. B1900 + Hf (RT to 1093~ Inconel 718 (650~ HastelloyX (RT to 538~ Astroloy (RT to 982~ Aluminum (high purity) (277~ * Aluminum alloy 8009 (RT to 275~ Aluminum alloy AMG6 (Russian) (RT to 400~ Zirconium alloy (Zr2.I ) [61 [29] [25] *Kinetic equation containing factor as discussed in Section 5. the constitutive equations could be readily included in most finite element and finite difference programs.7.7. and also special programs developed for particular investigations. Computer simulations based on the BP equations have been performed with: MARC [10]. ABAQUS [17. TABLE 5. [1921]..1. 5. 1020 steel A16061T6. HY100 steel. W2tungsten.7. 10] [17] [11] [19] [12] [11] [22] [18] [23 ] Low strain rates ( < 1 sec1). Additional information on material parameters appears in a recent review of the BP equations [30]. A17039T64 Nickel 200.4 0 to 100 ~C) High to very high strain rates (>10 sec1). .g. D o.7.1 Material Parameters.5.
Lindholm. A. and Stein. Biaxial creep strains at notch roots Measurement and modeling. S. (1991). R. (1988). R.J. S.. Materials Techn. Fract.. and Lindholm.. ASME J. Phenomenological modeling of hardening and thermal recovery in metals. A. Rowley. J.. J. and Grove. and Sharpe. 11. Eng. (1975). Parameter estimation for an internal variable model using nonlinear optimization and analytical/numerical response sensitivities. Soc. Engng. R. Mech. ASME J. 118: 8893. Mahnken. K. Mech. and Lindholm. S. ASME J. Appl. and Walker. 6. K. Constitutive equations for elasticviscoplastic strainhardening materials. Engin. Chan. Materials Techn. K. 8. 33: 659674. Engng. Further development of a viscoplastic constitutive model for high temperature applications. S. 5. 110: 18.356 REFERENCES Bodner 1. Modeling of hardening at very high strain rates. 76(5): 27422747. Plasticity 12(4): 451479. J. R. W. E. 3. Materials Tech. G. 41(5): 607623. S. A. 175184. ASME J. R. Rajendran. ASME J. J. Modeling of continuum damage for application in elasticviscoplastic constitutive equations. R.. P. J. Bodner. N.. and Miller A. Dexter.. J. Mechanics 25(5/6): 705712. Mech. 26: 24572485. Bodner. Materials Techn. H. in High Temperature Constitutive Modeling Theory and Application. 12.. Analytical formulation of a rate and temperature dependent stressstrain relation.. Fract. and Bodner. Engng. in Unified Constitutive Equations for Creep and Plasticity. Analytical modelling of second order effects in large deformation plasticity. K. Fossum.. 2. and Thornton. U. 40: 846871. S. Numer. K. Khen. and Couts. K. eds. Engng. (1988).. pp. T. S. S. (1990). and Sharpe Jr. Chan. 13.. and Rubin. Materials Tech. (1992). and Partom. 15. Chan. Zeng. K. 4. M.. K. High temperature inelastic deformation under uniaxial loading: Theory and experiment. An efficient numerical implementation of the BodnerPartom model in the EPIC2 code. Math. Int. Bodner. S. Appl. 119: 4650. R. (1979). ASME J. (1989).. (1997)... 18. (1994). N. 7. 17. R. Materials Techn.. (1992). 118: 1927. Int. H. pp. London: Elsevier Applied Science. Elasticviscoplastic finite element analysis of a forging die. Engng. Chan. 111: 345353. S. . Phys. B. 119: 337345. Freed. J. Review of a unified elasticviscoplastic theory. E (1997). W. Inelastic deformation under nonisothermal loading. Engng. B. ASME J. Viscoplastic behavior of a notch root at 650~ ISDG measurement and finite element modeling. Engng. Cook. A. (1987). W. Development of a method for integrating timedependent constitutive equations with large. D. K. Sci. 112: 1525. (1989). Materials Tech. and Rubin... Methods Eng. B. H. and Chan. Rubin. (1986).. R. ASME J. S. Mechs. Solid Structures 29: 22352258. Engng. 42: 385389. E. Int. Bodner. Parameter identification for viscoplastic models based on analytical derivatives of a leastsquares functional and stability investigations.. Li. A. 273301. ed. M.. S. S. Miller. A. Constitutive modeling of the viscoplastic response of HastelloyX and aluminum alloy 8009. 10.. 16. 19. R. S. and Physics (ZAMP). (1996). S. New York: Amer. S. Bodner. Y. A time integration procedure for large plastic deformation in elasticviscoplastic metals. P. M. K.. Engng.. (1996). M. U. 14. Bodner. Int. (1991). and Walker. 9. Merzer. W. U. (1996). Tanaka.. Materials Techn. R. ASME J. Bodner. 101: 254257. M. D. A. small or negative strain rate sensitivity.
J. 21. D. BodnerPartom viscoplastic model in STEALTH finite difference code. Kroupa. Ohno. 26. (2000). Bodner. Evaluation of BodnerPartom model parameters at high strain rates. 6472. Harren. Engng. S. S. Composites Engineering. J.. Plasticity 9(3): 375403. Int. Feb. Seattle. 24. M. K.. (1993). I. 22.) 23. Engng. On the constitutive response of 63/37 Sn/Pb eutectic solder. ASME J. 1. Analysis of a [00/90 ~ metal matrix composite under thermomechanical fatigue loading. R. Dexter. W. Zhu. ASME J. (1996). OH. WPAFB. T. Skipor. 27. A. A. and Wang. and Grove. Washington (1995). (1990). Mechs. and Tabieva. and Neu. u and Cescotto.eJournalofmechanics. 3: 675689. of the Conf. Part I: Formulation and basic features for ratchetting behavior. N. (1987). Proc. Senchenkov. G. M. Viscoplastic characterization of A533B steel at high strain rates. Materials Techn. ASME J. Eur. Materials Tech. Bodner. Bodner. The finite element prediction of ductile fracture initiation in dynamic metalforming processes. 32(2): 132139. Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter. and Botsis J. J. AFWALTR864098. Unified plasticity: An engineering approach. (1995). 28. (1986). (1996). A. Determination of the parameters of the BodnerPartom model for thermoviscoplastic deformation of materials. E. J. Materials Laboratory. On the strain rate and temperature dependence of hardening of copper. 45433.. S. 29. of the Amer. J. Y. 499502. (1991). 118: 111. Rajendran. S. and Dawicke. R. Pressure Vessel Techn. 25. J.. (1993). 30. A. Nicholas. Part II: Application to experiments of ratchetting behavior.7 BP Unified Constitutive Equations 357 20.5. Int. A. 112: 218224. (Translated from Prikladnaya Mekhanika 32(2). and Lindenfeld. S. D. D.. Bless.. A. and Chan. Rajendran. S. S. J. M. R. Kinematic hardening rules with critical state of dynamic recovery. Mech. A/Solids 14(3): 333348.. and Rajendran.. L. J. S.org . V. pp. 108: 7580. R. Constitutive modelling of the stored energy of cold work under cyclic loading. AIP Press.. 1996. Appl. www. (1996). K.. Physique III. R. Physical Society.
. . . . . . . . . . . . L.1 DOMAIN OF APPLICATION The presented viscoplastic model pertains to the class of unified constitutive equations in which only one inelastic strain is considered as an i n d e p e n d e n t variable [1]. . 5. References . . .A. . . . . . Handbookof MaterialsBehaviorModels.SECTION 5. . . . . . . . 5. . . . Troyes University of Technology. . . . . . The use of only one plastic strain ep to describe rapid and slow inelastic deformation processes is an i m p o r t a n t simplification that is particularly useful u n d e r nonisothermal conditions. . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. .8. . . 92322 Ch~tillon Cedex. .8. . . . . . . . . .ISBN 0124433413.8. . . . . . . . . .R. . .8 Unified Model of Cyclic Viscoplasticity Based on the Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening Rule j. .3. introducing the viscous part of the stress (or the overstress). . 358 359 360 362 363 365 367 5. BP 72.1 Remarks . . France Contents 5. . . . . . . 5. The ratei n d e p e n d e n t plasticity can still be m o d e l e d as a limiting case. .4 Determination of the Parameters . . . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . . . CHABOCHE O. The viscoplastic formulation allows the stress state to overpass the purely elastic domain. . .3 Description of the Model . . . BP 2060. . . . .5 How to Use the Model . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . .N. .1 Domain of Application . . . . . . France and LASMIS. . . . Such a theory is particularly useful for the inelastic analysis of c o m p o n e n t s or parts submitted to complex multiaxial and thermomechanical cyclic loadings. . . . . .8. . . . . . . DMSE. 5.E.. 10010 Troyes Cedex. . .8. . . 358 . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Formulation of the Model . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . .
The presented constitutive model can be exploited for monotonic or cyclic loading conditions or for more complex situations. where and ~ e are. In the first case we use a set of secondrank tensors E i (associated with shortrange and longrange interactions at the level of the microstucture).8 Unified Model of Cyclic Viscoplasticity 359 These equations have been developed and applied essentially for metals and alloys. Microstructural evolutions (phase changes. The isotropic hardening is considered an unique scalar r. respectively. the Helmholtz free energy) from which derives Hooke's law and the relationship between hardening variables and their conjugate forces. The only aspects not covered here concern the special overhardening effects encountered under cyclic nonproportional loadings and the plastic strain range memorization effects that can take place in some metals and alloys that have a low stacking fault energy. This framework will not be recalled here (it can be found in Reference [5]). Introducing static recovery effects at high temperature allows us to correctly describe pure relaxation and pure creep behaviors (including the secondary creep). The plastic strain ~ p is defined by the total strain partition in the case of small perturbations: ~ . The corresponding conjugate forces are the back stresses X i. at least for situations where the material can be considered stable. 4]. to which is associated . The hardening description combines kinematic and isotropic hardening.5. These effects need additional variables and models [3.E p. precipitations. The domain of validity covers the whole range of temperatures between room temperature and very high temperatures. One defines a state potential (for example. The existence of dissipative potentials allows us to derive in a consistent way all the rate equations for the internal variables associated with irreversible processes. even though there are some capabilities to also model polymers through the limit case of a nonlinear viscoelastic model [2].E e 4. total and elastic strain (we do not consider here the thermal expansion). whose sum X is considered as the current "center" of the elastic domain (at least when considering its intersection with the deviatoric plane).8.2 FORMULATION OF THE MODEL The model can be presented in a general thermodynamic framework using the notion of local state and a set of internal state variables for the description of the present state (reversible processes) and of the dissipative evolutions (inelastic processes and associated hardening effects). aging) are not considered in the present article. 5. The principal state variables associated with viscoplasticity are the plastic strain itself and the hardening variables.
within an hardeningdynamic recoverystatic recovery format.. They are written here for a constant temperature. D is the drag stress. The possibility for a drag stress evolution will also be considered for isotropic hardening. needs time to take place. with the generalized norm ][ a ]]n . 5. which is proportional to the variable a itself and to the plastic strain increment. the variation of the yield stress.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL All equations are summarized in Table 5. ) dep . on the left for their general anisotropic form.r D(..8.. the static recovery.1.h(..( 3 ~ . kinematic hardening corresponds to a translation of the elastic domain in the stress space. Therefore. that take place without the influence of thermal activation. Back stresses X i and yield stress change R derive from this energy. either a constant or depending on isotropic hardening (see . The temperature dependency is discussed in Section 5. ) a dep ..8. and the second one is the dynamic recovery effect.3Ia.r s(.a g Tr a ~ is the L I deviator of a.. This second term globally represents the annihilations of dislocations by cross slip. where I a is the fourthrank identity tensor..360 Chaboche the conjugate force R. ~)1/2. represented formally for the variable a: da . 9 The viscoplastic potential is normally taken as a power function off. The same anisotropy is assumed for all hardening stiffnesses. Each hardening variable obeys a similar evolution equation.. we have N . 9 The yield surface is defined by Hill's criterion..(a" H" a) 1/2. It is thermally activated (much more important at high temperature) and represents rearrangements of dislocation microstructures by climbing mechanisms (and also possible recrystallisations). ) a dt (I) The first term is the direct hardening associated with the plastic strain increment (and the corresponding increase of "obstacles" with the dislocation density increase). In the viscoplasticity case f > 0 is the viscous stress or overstress. with N i . _ .8. where ~ .4. The different aspects and functions of the model are presented successively: 9 The part of the free energy corresponding to the stored energy is assumed to be quadratic in the hardening variables ~i and r. The last term. on the right in the particular case of uniaxial tensioncompression.C i N. though isotropic hardening corresponds to a change in its size..In the isotropic case. which reduces to the von Mises yield criterion in the isotropic case."4 . with II a I ] .
8 Unified Model of Cyclic Viscoplasticity TABLE 5.(~.1 bQr 2 fI~xll.1 General and Uniaxial Forms of Constitutive Equations. ~..K(1 + a~br) .r (x.p x = ~2~ c~ ~'~i Rate independent kinematic hardening: ~ .c.X) e2pPll~_xi P ..i Ci~ +.) Isotropic hardening: /" =/5 .n+ i + fin + 1 \ 7 6 / Plastic strain rate: ~.8. < = ( < ) ~ .~ib . Uniaxial 361 General anisotropic Free energy: 8 9 Ci ~ i "N :~ i + 89 r2 bQ Yield surface: ~.)~ . Ix.x) ~p =/5 S i g n ( a .)x.q57i N" F 9X ~/5 Static recovery of kinematic hardening: ~i = ~p .~ Back stresses: H p= e. ( ~ .<~(x. _.~ .~b~ 7 i = Ci i p ..II ~p .Tr Q Sign(R . = Static recovery on the back stress: (x.. I~ Mi r: x.q57iX~ ~'p ~.Rk_< Viscoplastic potential: O f= aX Rk<_O plastic strain rate modulus: D (f) n+l ~ = 77i D (fln+l n . = ~ p .bQr other functions for isotropic hardening: 1 4)(r) = 1 + axbr D .5. ~ ~' F " Xip Back stress rate equations: 5(i = Ci N" i p .)r x.)  with: ~b~(Xi)= " c7 ( .Qr) R .
or 1000 cycles). In the static recovery term a power function of ]] X~]]r = (X<F'X~)I/2 has been used. On the subsequent line we indicate the corresponding equations for each individual back stress X i.. 100. 9 The next line corresponds to the isotropic hardening.Ci/Yi (for ~b . The scalar function ~b is used to couple the kinematic hardening and the isotropic one (Marquis's format [6]). is the sum of the individual ones: 9 The kinematic hardening rules write independently for each variable ~i. The normality rule then gives the three expressions for the viscoplastic strain rate ~p. Limiting here to the uniaxial case. It is also shown that i b . On the contrary.0~2/c9f. It is replaced by 3 1 a in the isotropic case. with two exponents (fl > 1). The fourthrank tensor F indicates the anisotropy of the dynamic recovery. that could be useful to limit the rate dependency in the large rate regime. 9 The last line indicates the functions ~b(r) and D(r) used for introducing the effect of isotropic hardening on the backstress evolution equation and on the viscous stress (by means of the drag stress). 9 The static recovery of kinematic variables is then introduced: (~i)~ denotes the rateindependent two first terms (the solution for high rate loadings).. under which it becomes inactive.. A viscoplastic potential with two additive terms is also mentioned. . the isotropic hardening is used to describe a progressive cyclic hardening ( Q > 0) or softening (Q<0) taking place slowly in monotonic conditions and saturating progressively for the stabilized cyclic conditions (after 10.362 Chaboche following text). 9 The back stress.1 REMARKS 9 The kinematic hardening takes place and evolves rapidly during monotonic as well as cyclic loading conditions. One finds the plastic strain rate modulus/~ by deriving f~ in terms of f ' p .1).8. 9 The stress can be decomposed into additive terms. used to translate the elastic domain (and the equipotentials) in the stress space.]]~plIH~. with the hardening and dynamic recovery terms. 5. First we have indicated the rateindependent case. in terms of both rateindependent and static recovery terms. 3. normalized by the high rate asymptotic value for the back stress Mi . we have o" m Xi + [k + R ( r ) + D(r)l~pl 1/"] Sign(ip) i (2) .
There are three main aspects of the model to be determined successively: (1) the rateindependent response (an advantage of this unified model is that it is applicable when not considering the strain rate effect). it is possible to consider an elastic domain initially reduced to one point ( k .C i N 9~i. Clearly also. we need cyclic tests. 9 If necessary. In each case one can separate between initial (monotonic) and stabilized cyclic conditions. The test data can be chosen with great flexibility. 9 The evolution equations for the kinematic hardening variables ~i are valid even for varying temperature conditions (for any kind of temperature dependency for the parameters).8 Unified Model of Cyclic Viscoplasticity 363 Such a decomposition clearly shows the respective contributions for isotropic hardening: R(r) for the size of the purely elastic domain and D(r) for the value of the viscous stress. in order to still have the evolution of D(r) and 4}(r). we need longduration tests at high temperature (creep or relaxation or recovery tests). giving a very low value to Q (but not zero. Obviously. Introduction of a threshold in the dynamic recovery term allows for better descriptions (Reference [5]). if we want to identify static recovery effects. which is depending on the plastic strain rate.8. we need tests where the strain rate has varied by a large amount (they can be creep or relaxation for monotonic as well as cyclic conditions). it integrates in closed form to give r .l / b [ 1 . if we want a model to be used in cyclic conditions. . The isotropic hardening also plays a role in the current tangent stiffness associated with kinematic hardening. the backstress rate equations must necessarily incorporate an additional term proportional to the temperature rate. and finally. Contrarily.4 DETERMINATION OF THE PARAMETERS The model is designed to be fairly general for both monotonic and cyclic conditions at low or high temperatures.0) and to minimize the influence of isotropic hardening on the yield stress. This term is easily deduced from the thermodynamic potential by considering parameters Ci as depending on temperature when we express the time derivative of X i . (2) the viscoplastic response (but without the static recovery). if we want the effect of strain rate (viscoplastic model). because r is independent of Q: neglecting static recovery. Clearly. (3) the static recovery effects. 5.exp(bp)]). by the function 4(r). 9 The nonlinear kinematic hardening rule generally induces a too important ratcheting effect under nonsymmetrical cyclic stress control (or meanstress relaxation under cyclic strain control).5. depending of the set of influence we try to determine.
we can try to adjust k* + Q to be as small as possible.aK)g. C1..p 1/n (s) . Eventually 7i is replaced by 7i~boo = 7i/(1 + ax) if coupling between isotropic and kinematic hardening is considered.Q and Ci/ 7i(1 4. Then we determine the parameters Q.axb gv)[1 .6 s 1 and 10 .ax) from the stabilized cyclic curve. if we have a sufficient number of kinematic hardening models (three.k 4. and the parameter C3 is adjusted as the tangent stiffness to the cyclic curve Ao . Let us recall that we have already determined k* 4.e x p ( .364 Let us develop the three determination steps just mentioned: Chaboche 1. considering ip ~ Ct at the peak stresses. A few iterations allow us to finally obtain all the parameters k*.Aep for large strain ranges (2 or 3%. for example).K(1 4. 2..2 s 1. 7 (1 4.b ep)] 4. ax. For the rapid kinematic hardening. ?i. Determination of hardening rules in a rateindependent scheme. all of them realized in approximately the same high strain rate regime (say.. The third variable can be assumed to be linear (73 = 0). b. and ax. where N is the current number of cycles.000) to obtain a smooth transition between elastic regime and moderate plastic flow. and b from the monotonic data (same rate approximately) with the equation o. about 10 .t a n h 7i ~ / 2 " 7i V x Ci Ae v (3) in which k* represents the sum k + (1 + aK)K[~1/n assumed to be constant approximately. Q. We assume to have uniaxial monotonic and cyclic tests (with stressstrain responses at the stabilized cycle). In practice. We now use the available data in strain rate ranges between. we can take high values for 71 (typical values between 2000 and 10. b is more correctly identified by plotting the normalized maximum stress as a function of the quantity p = 2NAe v in one (or several) cyclic tests.exp(viep)] ~Ci (4) where 1 + axb ep is a linearization of q~ for low values of the accumulated plastic strain. Determination of the viscosity function.Q[1 . say. C2. The cyclic and monotonic uniaxial equations reduce to Ao 2 = ~ A crint 2 4. Ci. one can identify the following relation obtained by integrating the kinematic hardening models for uniaxial conditions: Aa _ k* + Q + Zi_.k* 4. From the cyclic curve.02% <Aep < 1%. 10 3 to 10 2 si). . ~'2 follow from the experimental data in the intermediate domain 0.
8.. followed by the application of the same cyclic loading as previously. with a special substepping technique and automatic time step control. the constitutive equations being necessary only at each individual finite element integration point (independent of the others in classical continuum mechanics). "ci.k versus ~p (for test values of k) one easily determines aK. This is done as a local process. 5~ = Y(y.t . exponent n and the corresponding values of k and K are obtained by trial and error (or by a leastsquare method).t/2 .k and Ar~/2 . E j. where after cyclic stabilization. This model is available in several general purpose FE codes (it is impossible to give a list here). Two integration methods can be used in the framework of the implicit NewtonRaphson algorithm (to solve simultaneously the overall equilibrium and the nonlinear behavior): The simplest way is through an explicit RungeKutta fourthorder method.t(ep) and Ar are completely known from the previously determined parameters.8 Unified Model of Cyclic Viscoplasticity 365 Functions cri.r~i. on the state variables y = {s p. We use data available in the low rate regimes (~p < 10 6 s 1) in the longduration creep or relaxation tests. The determination is improved if special recovery tests are available. Determination of static recovery. Their determination is greatly facilitated if pure relaxation tests are available.&xi. for instance) is applied after unloading (with a very low load. From the difference in the loglog plots of r . maintained to prevent any increase or decrease of plastic strain). 5.r as a function of ~p (with significant stress drops). r}. mr. either in monotonic or in cyclic conditions. In the monotonic case we have assumed a negligible evolution of the drag stress (that can be easily corrected).. a significant hold duration at high temperature (100 h.5 HOW TO USE THE MODEL Implementation in finite element (FE) codes of such unified constitutive equations can now be considered a standard operation. i. and 7r.e. taking all of the others as fixed. 3. where t indicates the current total local strain control supposed to be known from a given global iteration.. t). . Qr. The only disadvantage of this way is the inability to deliver explicitly the consistent tangent stiffness matrix that should enforce the best convergence of the implicit scheme.5. In those regimes the static recovery effect appears to change drastically the loglog plot of c r . Then. It indicates the lowering of O'int due to an increased contribution of time recovery. By successive approximations one can determine the parameters that concern these recovery effects: rni. Only the rate equations have to be explicitly written.
900. 610. 20. 400.800.6 2.000. 405. 162. 700. 30. 120. 630. 490. 1300. 82. 140. 980. The determination of model parameters as indicated in Section 5. 580.8.3 Examples of Material Parameters for Viscoplastic Behavior.400.4 shows that the notion of one constitutive equation (one set of parameters) for a given TABLE 5. 180. 80. 1750. 120. (MPa. 800. 236. 87. 24. 800.000. 3600. 24. 14. This method allows us to deliver the consistent tangent stiffness matrix.500. 60. MPa Material TA6V alloy INCO 718 superalloy IN 100 Superalloy " " " " 304 stainless steel 316 stainless steel " Z3CND1712 SPH . 162. 210. 25. 89.000. 60. 3000. 110. 300. T 350 550 700 800 900 1000 1100 20 20 600 600 oc 40. MPa 0. MPa 71 1300.000. MPa n K 190. 200.18 0.000. 116. 60. 505. MPa Building steel 35NCD16 steel Nimonic 90 alloy Cobalt VO 795 TA6V alloy INCO 718 superalloy IN 100 superalloy " " " " 304 stainless steel 316 stainless steel " Z3CND1712 SPH 22000. 530. 2800. 2000. with the possibility to condense the determination to only one tensorial and one scalar equation [7]. 70. 17. but it requires a number of lengthy explicit derivations (corresponding to the derivation of secondorder rates ~). 150. 35. 350.8. T 20 20 20 20 350 550 700 800 900 1000 1100 20 20 600 600 ~ C1 280. 615. 104. 7. 1. MPa 1.000. 10. 362. 6. 666. 400. 940. 60. 139. s) k 200. 1200.000. 1530.000. 500. 224. 120.700. or semiimplicit integration procedure (0method). 110. 8. 6750. 30. 10. TABLE 5.22 0.22 0. 678. 60. 142.000.15 0. 85.5 11.2 Material Examples of Material Parameters for RateIndependent Behavior. 40. 185.366 Chaboche 9 The fully implicit. 24. 25. 28.000. and eventually to only one scalar equation in the isotropic case. 41. 118. 10. 1800. 12.16 1. 25. 420. 15. 91. 12. 420. 10. 6. 9. 500.500. 151. C2 72 b Q ax k* 225. 350. 70.8. 450.5 6.
. strain rate domain. eds. Paris: Dunod. Solids Structures 34(18): 22392254. Berlin. Sur l'utilisation des variables d'~tat interne pour la description de la viscoplasticit~ cyclique avec endommagement. and Chaboche. S. Chaboche. (1977)... Division L. K. J. J. loadings with long holds or not. and Cordier. L. L. L. Methods Appl. and Krauss. (1979). Lemaitre. D. Chaboche. (1985). L. Mech. J. L. REFERENCES 1. J. SMIRT 5. small or significant strains. (1996). (1979).8. K.. (1997). 168. Chaboche. Etude th~orique et verification exp~rimentale d'un mod~. Therefore. 2.5. Paris 6. capabilities and thermodynamic framework. Comput. . Thermodynamic formulation of constitutive equations and application to the viscoplasticity and viscoplasticity of metals and polymers. J. and Cailletaud. Krauss.. Cracovie.8. monotonic or cyclic. Chaboche.3 give some determined values. Marquis. 5. G. Chaboche. Unified cyclic viscoplastic constitutive equations: Development. Modelization of the strain memory effect on the cyclic hardening of 316 stainless steel. 7.. Int. (1996). J. Symposium FrancoPolonais de Rh~ologie et M~canique. in Probl~. Universit~ Pierre et Marie Curie. to be treated as examples. Engrg. in Unified Constitutive Laws of Plastic Deformation. 133: 125155. one should remember that the use without caution of a set of parameters given in the literature can lead to important misinterpretations. G. Very often the material parameters should be depending on the considered application.8 Unified Model of Cyclic Viscoplasticity 367 material is not necessarily representative of the true situation. The choice of the various functions and the parameter values should be appropriated with the range considered for the application: temperature domain. Th~se de 3~me Cycle.. Academic Press. J. 4. pp. A. pp.2 and 5. Integration methods for complex plastic constitutive equations. L.mes Non Lin~aires de M~canique. M~canique des Mat~riaux Solides. DangVan. J. 6. 137159.le de plasticit~ cyclique. Tables 5. etc. 3.
. . . . .3.9. . . . . . . . 5. . . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . . . .4 Structural Tensor and Nonproportionality Parameter . . . .5 Description of Amplitude Dependence of Cyclic Hardening. . . . . . . . 5. . 5. . . . .3 Examples of Material Constants and Functions . . . .3. . . Nagoya University. 371 5. .3 Identification of Material Constants and Functions . . . . .2 Constitutive Equation of Inelastic Strain Rate . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . .3.9. 5. References . . . . . .1 Identification by Use of Analytical Expressions of the Model . . . . .2. . .9. .9. . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . 4648603 Japan Contents 5.2. . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . 5. . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nagoya. . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . 371 5. . . .9. . . 370 5. Furocho. . Chikusaku.3 Evolution Equations of Kinematic Hardening Variables . . 376 3 76 375 373 373 372 369 369 369 368 Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. . . . . . ISBN 0124433413.2. . . . . . .2.2 Formulation of a Model . . . . . 5. . Graduate School of Engineering. . . . . . . . . .9 A Model of Nonproportional Cyclic Viscoplasticity EIICHI TANAKA Department of MechanoInformatics and Systems.1 Fundamental Assumptions . . . .6 Evolution Equations of Isotropic Hardening Variable .1 Introduction .2.SECTION 5. . . . .2.9. . . . . . . . . . . 370 5. . . . .2 Identification by Numerical Simulations of the Model . . . ..9. . .
9. The model is formulated by modifying the viscoplastic model proposed by Chaboche et al.1 INTRODUCTION This viscoplastic constitutive model describes the behavior of both cyclic hardening and softening under proportional and nonproportional loading. A macroscopic structural tensor to represent an internal dislocation structure is first formulated. . and a rational nonproportionality parameter is defined. Then the component P~ of a vector P = P~n~ related to strain quantities or the component S~ of a vector S = S~n~ related to stress quantities is defined by the corresponding tensor component Pij or sij (i. . a deviatoric tensor is expressed as a vector in a fivedimensional vector space of the von Mises type [2]. . 5 and the summation convention on Greek indices is adopted. These variables are incorporated into the evolution equations of the isotropic hardening variable in order to describe the history dependence of cyclic hardening and softening. S~ = v/Ss31 (2) .3) as follows: (1) P5 .9 A Model of Nonproportional Cyclic Viscoplasticity 369 5. . [1]. The identification of material constants and material functions is also discussed in detail. 5). $2 = x. .9. 5. .2. Then internal variables to express the amplitude dependence of cyclic hardening are introduced.5.1 FUNDAMENTALASSUMPTIONS The initial isotropy of a material is assumed. . . In the following.2 FORMULATION OF A MODEL 5.j = 1 ./3(s11/2 + s22). . A set of orthonormal base vectors in the vector space is represented by n~ (~ = 1 .9. $3 = v/3s12~ 54 = x/~$23. .2p31/ x/3 S1 = (3/2)s11. a Greek index takes the value 1 . . The rate of deformation tensor is separated into the sum of the elastic and the inelastic part. . For brevity.
c3.3 70 5 .xl. 9 .x~P) (8) (9) ~:~ = ~3(a3~. The rate of X is represented by . c2. . 2 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATION OF INELASTIC STRAIN RATE Tanaka Based on the viscoplastic model [1].Xl/~) (7) ~ = c:(a:~.x) Isxl (3) p_ ( s. 2 . 3 EVOLUTION EQUATIONS OF KINEMATIC HARDENING VARIABLES In this model. The k. the nonlinear kinematic hardening rule [3] is adopted.x~P) where C1~ al. K.k K _Q)n (4) where S and X are the vectors related to the deviatoric stress tensor and the kinematic hardening variable. _ p (s . 2 . and the symbols ] ] and ( ) denote the magnitude of a vector and the Macauley bracket defined by x 0 if x > O if x < O (5) (x) 5 . The superposed dot on a variable indicates the material time derivative. and Q is the isotropic hardening variable. an inelastic strain rate t' and its magnitude/5 are expressed by ~. a2.X1 + X2 + X3 and their evolution equations are expressed as follows: (6) ~(1 = C l ( a l P . and n are material constants. and a3 are material constants. 9 .
the symbol  indicates the tensor product. two internal variables Y and R are introduced. i. a macroscopic internal state variable C representing an internal dislocation structure is introduced.9.C)I6 (10) where cc is a material constant.5. and its evolution equation is formulated as r= G(u  u . (0<__A<I) (12) where the symbol (tr) and the superscript (T) indicate the trace and the transpose of a tensor.u~C~C~u~ A V (0_~A_~ 1) (13) This variable always takes the value zero in the case of proportional cycles.2. to describe the amplitude dependence of cyclic hardening and softening. the variable C is represented by a secondrank tensor.e. 9 . 10. u  u is the target value of C that represents the stabilized internal dislocation structure formed by the loading process u.9 A Model of Nonproportional Cyclic Viscoplasticity 371 5 . The variable Y . and the symbol (o) expresses the inner product of vectors.5 DESCRIPTION OF AMPLITUDE DEPENDENCE OF CYCLIC HARDENING Next. Based on the discussion in Reference [4]. 4 STRUCTURAL TENSOR AND NONPROPORTIONALITY PARAMETER Material hardening and softening behavior under cyclic loading is influenced by the shape and the amplitude of a cyclic strain path. The component expression of A is given by _ /C~C~ . 5. By using C and u. a nonproportionality parameter A is defined by /tr(CXC) . 2 . and is approximately l / v / 2 in the case of the nonproportional cycles with a circular strain path.uoCXCu A.. C = C~/3n~  n/3 in the fivedimensional vector space (this tensor is a fourthrank tensor in the conventional threedimensional space).V ~riCX~ . and u = u~n~ is the normalized inelastic strain rate vector defined by u = ~'/P (11) In Eq. To describe the path shape dependence.
the variable Y moves gradually from the initial location (usually the origin of the inelastic strain space) to the center of the inelastic strain range. and when ce = 0. in the case of uniaxial cycles of a constant strain amplitude with nonzero mean strain (the case of cyclic relaxation).(R)] + q e ( R ) (16) where qN(R) and qI. For example.qI.9.6 EVOLUTION EQUATIONS OF ISOTROPIC HARDENING VARIABLE In this model the target value QH of the isotropic hardening variable is expressed by QII = A [ q N ( R ) .)P (19) .(R) are the functions of R to describe the target values for the cases of nonproportional (A = 1) and proportional (A = 0 ) hardening. the AP/2. and the relevant evolution equation is represented by ~I = r v ( P . To take account of the memory effects of cyclic hardening and softening. The variable R to describe the mean radius of a cyclic strain path is defined by R = [ P . (15) R is almost equal to 5.Q)ff . The evolution equation of the isotropic hardening variable Q is finally represented by = dII(QL .Qz. and Qmax is the maximum value of the isotropic hardening variable in the past.3 72 Tanaka describes the center of the translation range of the inelastic strain P.QH} (17) is also introduced. When cR equals unity.(Q). they are completely recoverable. respectively.QH + CR(Qmax . where cR is a material constant describing the ratio of permanent hardening.d s ( Q . the memory effects are permanent. a target value QL expressed by QL . when Q .r[ In the case of circular cycles of amplitude A P / 2 .r)l 6 (14) where ry is a material constant. The evolution equation of Qmax is described by Qmax .2.Qmax when Q < Qmax (18a) (18b) Qmax = 0.
2) (23) The constants al. The material constants of the kinematic hardening variables are determined in the following. C2. 23.9. Cl. K. . The linear hardening part in the stressinelastic strain curve of monotonic tension is first assumed to be approximated by X3 + Q = bP (21) The constant b is easily determined from the slope of the linear part. In the following. The value of k is evaluated as the stress at P = 0 in the (S . n. 612.(bP + k + KP 1/n) (22) The terms on the righthand side are evaluated by use of the stress in tension tests and the material constants identified previously.x + Q + k + Kf"~/" (20) In this equation.1 IDENTIFICATION BY USE OF ANALYTICAL EXPRESSIONS OF THE MODEL The analytical expression of stress for monotonic uniaxial tension is s . respectively.exp(cie)} (i = 1. dii. rr. a2. the rate effects are induced by the term KP 1/". we have X 1 + X 2 . a3.) versus P curve. and two material functions qe(R) and qN(R). 5. These constants and functions are identified by using analytical expressions and numerical simulations of the model.3. and the variables X1 and X2 are represented by Xi = a/{ 1 . Thus the values of K and n are evaluated by comparing the stress values at the equal inelastic strain value in the stressinelastic strain curves at several constant strain rates. 6ll. co.S . Then. 5. C3. 22 by Eq. Cl.KP1/.9. the vector component in uniaxial cases is represented by the corresponding lightface character.3 IDENTIFICATION OF MATERIAL CONSTANTS AND FUNCTIONS This model has 14 material constants k.5.9 A Model of Nonproportional Cyclic Viscoplasticity 373 where d//and ds are the material constants describing the rates of hardening and softening. CR. ds. and c2 are estimated by fitting the value of the righthand side of Eq.
. Furthermore. . 25 are already known. The material constants in Eq. 19 gives the analytical expression Q(P) = Qc(AP){ 1 . Since Eq. ~max = Qc(AP1/2) and QII= Qc(AP2/2).3 74 Tanaka In the saturated stage of cyclic hardening. so 5(3 is approximated by 2K3 .e.Qz.]exp{ds(V.QII is the difference between the two saturated stress amplitudes of the circular cycles of AP2/2 with and without the preceding cycles of AP1/2. Next. 26 to the experimental curve. 17 for cR gives the relation ~L .Vo)} (28) describes the AS~2 versus P curve in the cyclic softening process of amplitude decrease experiments. 17.exp(dnP) } (26) the value dH is determined by fitting Eq. 19 for the softening. in the amplitude variation experiments of circular cycles. Q = QI_ + [Qc(AP1/2) . the shape of AS~2 versus P curve is mainly governed by the evolution of the isotropic hardening variable. the stress amplitude AS~2 of circular cycles of inelastic strain amplitude AP/2 with zero mean inelastic strain is represented by (AS/2)2_ ~=1 1 + (<AP/2) 2 + bkP/2 aicike/2 + + k+ 1 + (<AP/2) 2 (25) where Qc is the saturated value of the isotropic hardening variable for the circular cycles. the value of Q is almost constant. Solving Eq. i.QH (27) In this case. The constant ds is determined from the condition that the analytical expression for Eq.. P0 and Qc(AP1/2) are the values of the accumulated inelastic strain and the isotropic hardening variable at the end of the preceding cycles. and thus the function value of Qc(AP/2) is evaluated by use of AS~2 obtained from the experiments.~H cR = Qm x . the target value QL in the subsequent cycles of smaller amplitude (AP2/2) after the saturated stage of cyclic hardening of larger amplitude (AP1/2) is specified by Eq. In this equation. and the value of Qz.b[' (24) In this case.
The constants a3 and c3 are determined by the condition that the analytical expression of X3 that is given as i = 3 in Eq. the other material function qN(R) is expressed by qN(AP/2) . Since all constants and functions except cc have already been identified.e x p ( . c3 and the two functions qp(R) and qN(R) are determined by performing the numerical simulations of the model. 24). 23 describes the preceding relation.qp(AP/2)] + qp(AP/2) (29) Next. 20 we have X3S(Xl q. the constant cc is determined by the simulation of nonproportional cycles such as the cruciform cycles that show intermediate hardening between the proportional and the circular cycles. The repetition of this procedure enables us to identify the material function qp(R).5. Hence. 30 can be evaluated.r y P ) }/ry (31) and by the numerical integration of Eqs. a3. 30. . the value Q of the isotropic hardening variable in Eq. By the use of this function and the Qr for circular cycles. Finally.Q ff k ff K P 1/ n ) (30) Then the value of the righthand side can be evaluated by using the experimental value of stress S and the values of k + KP 1/n and X1 + X2 identified previously. i. R = { 1 . 1619. Next.. By using the analytical expression of R. enable the simulation of uniaxial cycles by the constitutive model.x/2[Qc(AP/2) . 14 for the uniaxial cycles with nonzero mean inelastic strain is similar to the resultant cyclic relaxation behavior.X 2 q. and the relation between X3 and inelastic strain P is determined from Eq. First the value of ry is estimated by the condition that the transient behavior of Y obtained from the simulation of Eq. we can obtain the better estimate of the function qp(R). together with the material constants identified previously.3. Cc.2 IDENTIFICATION BY NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF THE MODEL The remaining constants rr. we can adjust the value of cc by comparing the simulation results of the nonproportional cycles with the saturated stress amplitude of the corresponding experimental results.9 A Model of Nonproportional Cyclic Viscoplasticity 375 5. the assumption of the function value qp(R) and the use of the linear hardening law (Eq.9. from Eq.e. by assuming the provisional relation qe(aP/2)=Q(AP/2) and by comparing the saturated stress amplitude versus inelastic strain amplitude relationship with the corresponding experimental results. for monotonic uniaxial loading.
(1994). a3 = 310 MPa cl = 1 6 0 0 . 4. and Ooka.3 76 5. Tanaka. 105: 153. REFERENCES 1. Armstrong. Mech. A. Trans. A. k = 75 MPa. Vessel Technol. S. J. al = 125 MPa. Jincho. E. C. (1966). 2. A mathematical representation of the multiaxial Bauschinger effects. Ohmi. P. Tanaka. 3. M. Akad.. CEGB. J. a2 = 70 MPa. cc=200 (MPa) (MPa) (32) qp(R) = 4000R + 28{1 . ds=4. Plasticity. RD/B/N731.9.. and Ooka. E. J. Murakami.. (1995). Effects of plastic strain amplitudes on nonproportional cyclic plasticity. and Rousselier. CR=0. Solids 33: 559.. S. E.4. c2=250. Effects of strain path shapes on nonproportional cyclic plasticity. n = 8.. (1985).. On the plastic and viscoplastic constitutive equations. The e x p e r i m e n t s of p r o p o r t i o n a l a n d n o n p r o p o r t i o n a l cycles were p e r f o r m e d by the p r e s e n t a u t h o r a n d c o w o r k e r s [5. L. Part 1: Rules developed with internal variables concept. T. Phys. O.1 7 0 0 R ) } The e x t e n s i o n of this m o d e l to the description of inelastic b e h a v i o r of 316 stainless steel in the range from r o o m t e m p e r a t u r e to 973 K is found in Reference [7]. 6. ASME. Tanaka. (1983). The value of 3 x 105sec 1 is c h o s e n for the inelastic strain rate. The material constants and the functions are K = 92 MPa. Murakami. d//=6. 7. (1985).. and Suzuki.e x p ( .e x p ( . Acta Mechanica 57: 167. E. Constitutive modeling of proportional/nonproportional cyclic plasticity for type 316 stainless steel applicable to a wide temperature range. Ilyushin. M.. 6]. 7] that this m o d e l can describe the cyclic h a r d e n i n g a n d softening b e h a v i o r of various c o m p l e x p r o p o r t i o n a l and n o n p r o p o r t i o n a l cycles with a m p l i t u d e variations a n d p a t h changes at r o o m and elevated t e m p e r a t u r e . European J. ry=40.. Moscow: Izd. (1963).2 5 0 0 R ) } qN(R) = 73100R § 209{1 . Tanaka. 5. M. and Frederick. A/Solids 13: 155. Press. Nauk (in Russian). Y. Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories. S. G. J. Mech. It is found in References [4. A nonproportionality parameter and a cyclic viscoplastic constitutive model taking into account amplitude dependences and memory effects of isotropic hardening. Report. Murakami..3 EXAMPLES OF MATERIAL CONSTANTS Tanaka AND FUNCTIONS For reference we s h o w a set of material constants and functions identified for 316 stainless steel at r o o m t e m p e r a t u r e . .. c3=6. Chaboche.3. Material Science Research International 1 (4): 247.
. . .1 BACKGROUND A number of engineering alloys.SECTION 5. . . . . 377 . .2 Evolution of Centers of the Yield and Memory Surfaces . . . . . . . . A constitutive relation for ratedependent materials. . . Canada Contents 5. . .10. .10 RateDependent Elastoplastic Constitutive Relations FERNAND ELLYIN Department of Mechanical Engineering. . . 377 378 379 380 382 383 386 5. . The main manifestations of rate dependency are loading rate sensitivity. . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . . . . . . . University of Alberta. relaxation. . . . . . .10. . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . .10. . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. 5. . and recovery are treated by one set of equations are generally referred to as "unified models. . see Ellyin [2]. . . . .3 Numerical Implementation . Constitutive models in which all aspects of inelastic deformation such as plasticity. . Edmonton. ISBN 0124433413. . . . . a plastic prestrain has a Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. 5. . . .2. such as type 304 and 316 stainless steels and highstrength titanium alloys. . therefore. . . ." Examples of this type of constitutive relation are given in this chapter by a number of contributors. .4 Illustrative Examples . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .1 Background . . exhibit ratedependent behavior even at ambient temperature. . . who provides examples and references to experimental data. . . .2. . . experimental evidence that the effect of prior deformation on the subsequent creep or plastic deformation is quite different. For example. . should be able to simulate the aforementioned behavior.1 StressStrain Relation . . however. There is. and an interested reader is encouraged to consult them for details. . creep. . . . . . . . .10. . .2 RateDependent Constitutive Model . .10. . . . . . AB. . . . and creepplasticity interaction. . References . creep.10. .
1/3 tr(e)l.10. the influence of plastic prestrain on the subsequent creep deformation is taken into account.4) 1/2 with 4 . Similarly. in the sense that the effect of prior creep on the subsequent plastic deformation is incorporated in the ratedependent elasticplastic constitutive relation. The ratedependent elastoplastic consti ~.which is the locus of the current elastic regime. and an interested reader is encouraged to consult these references. Creq.378 Ellyin greater contribution to the creep hardening than the same amount of creep prestrain [5]. The constitutive model to be described here is of a coupled nature.tive model for the creep deformation is given elsewhere [6. ~by. Another feature of these curves is related to the change of the tangent modulus at the elasticplastic transition region with the loading rate change.eq . The equivalent strain rate../. 5. we introduce two types of hypersurfaces: a yield surface. which defines the maximum equivalent stress.1/3 tr(8)l.and historydependent yield surface is given by ~y .2 RATEDEPENDENT CONSTITUTIVE MODEL The uniaxial stressstrain response at different strain rates has a characteristic feature which indicates an increase of yield stress with the increasing applied strain rate.S" S 3 2 _ q2 (~eq.~p dlp cgq cgq (2) An explicit relation of the radius of the yield surface can be obtained by .0~. is the accumulated plastic strain length.0 (1) in which g = 8 .e .. The 9 and q specify the center and radius of the yield surface. The evolution rule of the size of the yield surface is determined from dq  0~eq d~eq q. ~m.(2/34. The rate. lp) .max. Thus the framework for this constitutive model is based on the concept that any loading sequence can be predicted by two separate but coupled models. 7]. to which the material has been subjected in its previous history. and a stress memory surface. and er = d .f ( 2 / 3 deP:deP) 1/2. and le . since in these models creep and plastic strains are not separable from each other. To describe these observations in a multiaxial stress state. This type of distinction cannot be accommodated by a unified creepplasticity model. Note that herein bold letters indicate tensorial quantity.
. ~=g+~p where i~ (5) 1 .e.e.v tr(d)l] (6) /~P .~ [(1 + v)6.R2(~ .and historydependent.10 RateDependent Elastoplastic Constitutive Relations 379 adopting the conventional logarithmic strainrate dependency. It is expressed by ~r~ . The accumulated plastic strain length.. is related to the maximum equivalent stress. The evolution rules for the center of the yield surface.g O~a\ 0 ~ " d with 1(1 g~qTq2 ~ 1) and Ofy(~gfy ) lp). 0~. experienced by the material during its past loading history.. i. usually taken to be the slowest one in the loading history. will be described later on. (7) fy3g'g2 (8) which In the preceding. q . and (iii) plastic reloading. ~ e q .0 (4) in which g .~ S " 3 ~ . is both rate. . i. lp] lp.//.1~with 1/denoting the center and R the radius of the current memory surface. The stress memory surface.( 3 / 2 s " S) 1/2. E t .2~ lol[(1 + ~)/E] + q gg ~ (9) Depending on the relative position of the current stress point with respect to the yield and memory surfaces. the stress rate is given by ~ E 1+ ~ lol+ 1 . 3.1 STRESSSTRAINRELATION The total strain rate is decomposed into its elastic and plastic parts.5. ~b~. three loading regimes are distinguished: (i) elastic loading. (3) where geq'0iS a reference equivalent strain rate.10. 5.Et(o'eq . Inverting Eqs. similar to q in Eq.2. is used to describe cyclic strain hardening or softening phenomenon [2]. and that of the memory surface.. 57. (ii) monotonic plastic loading. tTeq. Et is the current tangent modulus.~ .q[1og(keq/~0q).
However. the stress point must be inside the current yield surface.R 2 = 0 (i0) fm(a where f y ( a . s : d < 0. which is described in text following. when there is a transition from elastic to plastic loading.li m _ ~g) (12) q where a y is the current stress point which is on the yield surface. and they will be explained in text following.2. and the current stress point is on the yield surface. 6. then one approaches Ziegler's rule in which ~ll(~ry . if the equivalent stress value increases.~) = 2 ~ ~ (a . The value of Et in Eq. In either case. 8 is calculated from a family of strain ratedependent stressstrain curves. For the proportional loading fl = 0. The plastic loading in which the current stress point is inside the stress memory is termed the plastic reloading.fl) &r fm(a &r . and Rlim is a constant depicting the maximum limit of the stress memory surface radius. the stressstrain relation is specified by Eq.li m ~ Rlim (o. however.~ ) is defined by the second equation of Eq. This condition is expressed by Ofu (a . 2. 5. s : 6 " > 0. see Eq. the evolution of . In the case of monotonic plastic loading. For the plastic reloading. the evolution rule for the center of the yield surface is given by O~ : / ~ ( a lim . For a loading to be classified as the elastic loading.a y) (11) and o. the size of the yield surface would be dependent on the current equivalent strain rate. For the latter two plastic loadings. For this loading case the memory surface does not change. or in the case of elastic unloading.2 EVOLUTION OF CENTERS OF THE YIELD AND MEMORY SURFACES For the monotonic loading regime. This will be explained later on. based on the current equivalent stress value and strain rate. 9. 8 and ~) = 3 / 2 ~ : ~.8) .10. the stress memory surface will expand but will remain tangent to the yield surface at the current stress point. or the first two terms on the righthand side of Eq.380 Ellyin Each of these loading regimes has a different evolution rule. When Rlim>~q.~ ) . the calculation of the tangent modulus are different.
1 Schematic representation of yield and memory surfaces for monotonic and reversed plastic loading.ti(tr m .10. It is related to the ratio of two distances between three stress points. 13.. trm (point E in the same figure).10. 5. and 82 is the distance from the point of onset of reversed plastic flow (point C) to the current stress point. i initialyield ~: & memorysurfaces 200 t 2oo ! 400 4O0 0 I 200 i 400 (MPo) FIGURE 5.10. trY.1)" R_ trm _ .5. r 82 (15)   where 61 is the distance measured from the current stress point. requires attention for this loading case.1). ZE O . . Et.trY) (13) where trm is a point on the memory surface whose exterior normal is parallel to the normal at point try (see Fig. For any point in the stress space.10.10 RateDependent Elastoplastic Constitutive Relations 381 the center of the yield surface is determined from . to the corresponding point on the memory surface..1). namely. The distance between 400  memorysurface f 200 A 0 (2. try (point D in Fig. the current stress point tr y and tr".. the stress at which plastic reloading took place (point C in Fig.. 5. determined according to Eq..(try _ ~) q (14) The calculation of the tangent modulus. 5. we define a ratio.
in addition to a required set of ratedependent uniaxial stressstrain curves.(1)). For a monotonic loading. The rate.eq.[((s) . where procedure for its determination is explained. An accurate determination of tangent modulus is of considerable importance in cyclic loading and strain energy calculation.. lp). the center of the memory surface remains fixed. However. This procedure for calculating the tangent modulus during reversed loading has several advantages in comparison to previously proposed methods [1]. are obtained from the elastic part of the stressstrain relations.. q q(~.382 two points (1) and (2) in the stress space is calculated from d .0. ~ . i. in the case of cyclic loading with a mean stress. Then an equivalent stress corresponding to point D is determined from O'eq = (O'eq. 5. 15. The following are determined from the latter set of stressstrain curves. 2) Upon the determination of fi~ and c~2. In addition to the transient hardening during cyclic loading.max~ rq)/(1 + r) (17) This is the value at which the tangent modulus is calculated from the uniaxial stressstrain curve at the current value of the strain rate.eq.3 NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION A computer subroutine has been prepared for the numerical implementation of the constitutive model. Note that Eq.fl) (18) w h e r e o"mean is defined as the geometric center of the cyclic stress path in the it+T /t+T ~ dl dl (19) J t where T is the period of cyclic loading and dl is the differential length of the curve. see Ellyin [2]. Two elastic constants.((2)_ (1))]1/2 Ellyin (16) where(~ ) and (s are the deviatoric stress values at the two points. the evolution rule of the center of the memory surface is given by = 0p cole stress space. there is an extra hardening due to nonproportional loading.and historydependent constants.e. lp) and E t .e. are determined from the family of = . i. In its most general form the model contains seven material constants.Et(aeq. the r value is calculated from Eq.10. ~m~.n = ~(a mean . 17 is applied only during unloading case where the radius of the memory surface does not change.~. E and v.
Figure 5. _Mode!Prediction 0.5. 4].8 1.2 Experimental data and model prediction for titanium alloy TIMETAL 21S at 650~ temperature for three strain rates.10 RateDependent Elastoplastic Constitutive Relations 383 ratedependent stressstrain curves.0 0. are given in References [2. ~eq. Various examples ranging from uniaxial to multiaxial monotonic and cyclic loading.10. 3 X I 0 s . For this 4ool 3OO 200 C/) 9 lw 8. for both proportional and nonproportional loading paths. Here a couple of representative examples of the model prediction and comparison with experimental results will be given. TIMETAL 21S. see illustrative examples to follow.10. lp.2 shows the experimental data and model predictions of uniaxial stressstrain curves for three different strain rates of a titanium alloy. This subroutine is now available for commercial use and may be obtained by writing to the author.3X10* 8 .4 0.6 0.2 0. and the accumulated plastic strain length. 3 X I 0 s " 9 8 ..10. 5. A twodimensional interpolation is used to obtain a continuous description of the dependency of the yield surface radius and tangent modulus on the equivalent strain rate.4 ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES The rateindependent version of the previously described constitutive model was programed and inserted into the usersupplied subroutine of ADINA Finite Element Computer Code. . The ratedependent version has also been programed and can be implemented in any FEM Code which has an option for the usersupplied material model.0 FIGURE 5.
'~S ~ . . . a type 3 0 4 stainless steel t u b u l a r s p e c i m e n was s u b j e c t e d to cyclic axial a n d differential a) 0. b. . .3292[1og(~eq/~0q)] 2"99. In this e x a m p l e . E = 8 6 6 0 0 MPa. 5 o:. 4 3 1 + 8. tangential strain.3.34. A f u r t h e r e x a m p l e is d e p i c t e d in F i g u r e 5. .1 Two e x a m p l e s of t a n g e n t 0 0.1. axial strain. Strain path. . c. f. . Model predictions [3].4 6 0 0 MPa.3 x 106 s .10. .10.~5 ' o"o C~Po) FIGURE 5. and ~eq _ m o d u l u s v a r i a t i o n w i t h the effective stress at r e f e r e n c e s t r a i n rates. Rlim . . . a. are g i v e n in Table 5. . Test results: (1) axial stress vs.384 material. I / o . (2) tangential stress vs. (3) axial stresstangential stress trajectory. r o.. q(~eq) = 4 6 . Ellyin v = 0.10. o./.3 Biaxial stressstrain response for the first 10 cycles at a fast strain rate 4 x 10 3 s 1.s  '  G (MPo) G C~} .
~ O ~t" 00 o o O ee~ c5~ o e~ ~" o O 00 O v~ .10 RateDependent Elastoplastic Constitutive Relations 385 O O 0G F~ e~ e~ e~ e~ O G ~ • ~ \ I • e~ ue~ eN O ce~ G o O o o .5.
Plasticity 9: 951959. It is s e e n t h a t for this fairly c o m p l i c a t e d l o a d i n g . 113: 324328. Conf.. M. z. and Wu. Int. ASME J. Xia. J. ASME J. Engng. An anisotropic hardening rule for elastoplastic solids based on experimental observations. Creepplasticity interaction of austenitic stainless steels at elevated temperature. and Sasaski. 10: 283294. Kawai. London: Chapman & Hall.1. The superscript "init" and "st" refer to the virgin and stable cyclic values of the cyclic stressstrain curves. Mater. E. Fatigue Damage. Tokyo. Appl. pp. E. Ellyin. Mater. J. Z. 56: 499507. Mech. E (1993). J. 2. 454464.. Int. ..0. Engng.0. 4.196. A ratedependent inelastic constitutive model. ASMEJ.s t r a i n r e s p o n s e a n d the stress t r a j e c t o r y for the first ten cycles are s h o w n in the figure for a s t r a i n rate of keq . Effect of rate and rate history on plastic deformation: Experiments and constitutive modeling. The tangent modulus versus effective stress for the initial stressstrain curve at the reference strain rate is given in Table 5. K. E (1984). T h e m a t e r i a l p r o p e r t i e s for this type 3 0 4 stainless steel w e r e [3] E .. Z. q~t _ 122 MPa. An experimental study on the effect of prior plastic straining on creep behavior of 304 stainless steel. Computers Struct. and Ohashi.153 a n d geq'0_ 6 • 10 5 S1. Xia. q~nit _ 75. 5.3a. Ellyin. T h e biaxial s t r e s s .386 Ellyin p r e s s u r e ( c o n s t a n t e x t e r n a l a n d cyclic i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e ) . a n d t h e y v a r i e d in a n o n p r o p o r t i o n a l m a n n e r in a s q u a r e d i a m o n d p a t t e r n as s h o w n in F i g u r e 5. Part II: Creep deformation including prior plastic strain effects. and Ellyin. v . and qinit(~:eq) .10. 115: 200203. 6. Ellyin. Technol. (1993). the m o d e l p r e d i c t i o n is in v e r y g o o d a g r e e m e n t w i t h the e x p e r i m e n t a l results. Crack Growth and Life Prediction. Xia. Japan..4 x 10 3 s 1.000 MPa. Proc.25. REFERENCES 1. 7. Ellyin. (1993). T h e axial a n d t a n g e n t i a l strains (ea. A new elastoplastic constitutive model inserted into usersupplied material model of ADINA. E (1991). April 1986.7 MPa. E (1997). (1986). Xia. et) w e r e c o n t r o l l e d .10. and Ellyin. Z. Technol. 3. Y.q0init[l+Cll~176 w i t h C1 . On Creep.
. . . . 5. . present a few typical comparative results. . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . . . . . . . . . 5. . . and plastic deformation occurs basically by the motion of dislocations. . . California Contents 5. . San Diego. 5. . we summarize this model. . . . . . provide a table of typical values of the constitutive parameters. References .3 Athermal Stress Component.6 ThreeDimensional Model . ~* . . . 5. which have been experimentally evaluated. . . a physically based model has been developed [47] for several polycrystalline metals. . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . .11. . . . . . .11. 387 . . . . . University of California.2 Model Description .SECTION 5. . . . . . . . . Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. .11. The model addresses the plastic deformation of metals in the range of temperatures and strain rates where diffusion and creep are not dominant. ISBN 0124433413. .11. . .11.4 ViscousDrag Component. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Physically Based Rateand TemperatureDependent Constitutive Models for Metals SIA NEMATNASSER Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials. . . . Here. . . . . .5 Thermally Activated Component. . . . . 5. . . . . . .11. . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . 387 388 388 389 391 396 396 5. . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . Za . . . . . . and show how the model can be used for Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. . . . . . ra . .1 INTRODUCTION Guided by the concept of dislocation kinetics [3] and accompanied by systematic experimental investigation. .
is due to the shortrange barriers that dislocations may overcome through their thermal activation. other dislocations that intersect the slip planes. denoted by z*. the distribution of secondphase particles or precipitates. 3 A T H E R M A L S T R E S S C O M P O N E N T . point defects such as vacancies and selfinterstitials. and the distribution and density of dislocations. affecting the current value of p.6. see Section 5. Although the decomposition of the stress in this manner may be an oversimplification of a rather complex process [3]. temperature. this stress is decomposed into three parts. 5 . is the athermal component. These barriers may include the lattice itself (Peierls stress). accordingly. One part. The flow stress is thus expressed as z = za + zd + ' c * (1) The stress. ~. 1 1 . z and ~ are the stress and the corresponding strain rate in a uniaxialstress compression test. especially the shear modulus. zd. which usually is important at high temperatures and high strain rates. za. mainly due to longrange effects such as the elastic stress field of dislocation forests and grain boundaries.388 NematNasser threedimensional computations. respectively. is independent of the current value of the strain rate. and solute atoms (interstitial and substitutional). The second part. When the model is used in a threedimensional setting. of the flow stress. alloying elements.11. #(T) [8]. In general. there is a remaining viscousdrag component. The microstructure evolves differently for different histories of and T. In what follows. Za. it has proved effective in interpreting the experimental results and in obtaining explicit constitutive relations of broad applicability.11.2 MODEL DESCRIPTION It is assumed that plastic deformation occurs by the motion of dislocations and that the resistance to this motion corresponds to the flow stress. Linear elasticity suggests that Za should be proportional . the most commonly used microstructural parameter is the average dislocation density. z. The temperature effect on Za is only through the temperature dependence of the elastic moduli. The microstructure here refers to the grain sizes. Finally. p. and some internal parameters that describe the microstructure. these quantities are the effective stress and the effective plastic strain rate. To simplify the interpretation of the experimental results. ~. Za The athermal part. 5. T. z. is a function of the strain rate.
e. the flow stress is essentially . it is seen that the hightemperature flow stress at low strain rates (0. and n are free parameters which must be fixed experimentally.11 Physically Based Rate. At high strain rates. Then. Figure 5. B is the drag coefficient.5. It displays the flow stress for 0. the strain rate is viewed as positive even in uniaxial compression tests). the strain 7 represents the effective plastic strain that is a monotonically increasing quantity in plastic deformation. the dots stand for parameters associated with other impurities. Therefore.(v)~'(r)/*'o (3) Further. and in the absence of creep. d6(7). ao ~ 0.001/s.1 illustrates this for AL6XN stainless steel.. 0 . 7 defines the loading path in a uniaxialstress deformation mode. Since ~ relates to the strain rate by 9 = PmbF. (4) where ao. in terms of the temperature. "]P(T)/~0 = g. is often related to the dislocation motion by "ca ~ MB~/b. In a general loading. the stress increases with increasing strain rate.11. l / s . Hence. . since 9 > 0 (by definition.4 VISCOUSDRAG COMPONENT. especially when the strain rate exceeds about 1000/s. and is also a monotonically increasing quantity. even at very high temperatures where the thermal activation energy of the dislocations exceeds the shortrange energy barriers. and b is the magnitude of the Burgers vector. the average grain size. where M is the Taylor factor.. ra = g[P(V). 389 = g(p. (2) where d6 is the average grain size. This increased strainrate sensitivity is usually attributed to the electron.9. for a common strain of 10%. At high temperatures.T]. i.11. ~ is the average dislocation velocity. i./M (where Pm is the mobile dislocation density). we use a simple powerlaw representation of g(7) and choose an average value for #0 so that la(T)/la o ~ 1.i/s) is insensitive to the strain rate. but not at the high strain rate of 3500/s.and phonondrag effects on the mobile dislocations [912]. "ca may be written as "ca = ao + a17 n + . it follows that "ca=g[m2B/(Pmb2). as a first approximation. ao may be neglected.. and other parameters which affect "ca. it may be used as a load parameter to define the variation of the dislocation density. .. rd. and 3500/s strain rates. From this figure.e. The viscousdrag stress. "ca It is experimentally observed that.0010. 5. .and TemperatureDependent Constitutive Models to #(T). and #0 is a reference value of the shear modulus. In the present case. al.
we have rd "~ m0.. ~] To examine the effect of the viscous drag..11.exp(e). These limiting cases may be used to simplify computations in threedimensional applications..g[M2B/(Pmb2).1 independent of the temperature.mo[1 . Experimental results of Reference [14] for tantalum show that the drag on dislocations is significant over a range of strain rates.390 1400 NematNasser AL6XN.~mo~O.. and B represents an effective damping coefficient affecting the dislocation motion. . and for e ~ 1. the flow stress increases rapidly.:iiiiii i i i i i i i i i i i i i  i  ! i    i   i i I i i i i I i i i i I i I i i 200 200 400 600 Temperature (K) 800 1000 1200 FIGURE 5. it is seen that.)]. 7 = 10% 1200 . plotted in Figure 5. T. Based on this [7]. The value of ~ may be established empirically. 1000 500Is 9 800 E Q _ 600 400 . From these data. when the strain rate exceeds about 1000/s. a  M2B Pmb2zy (6) where m0 is a material constant which can be measured directly at a very high strain rate and high temperature. For ~ 1. consider the experimental results [13] for AL6XN stainless steel. from a few hundred to several thousand per second..11. and we may assume "Cd .2. It can be estimated that ~ = O(10 4) when ~ is measured per second. we have "~d. we set rd .
.000 100.11. ~.2 1. and the internal variables characterizing the microstructure of the shortrange barriers. . ~ is the stress above which the barrier is crossed by a dislocation without any assistance from thermal activation.001 O.. . T. Reference [3] suggests the following relation between AG and z* representing a typical barrier encountered by a dislocation: AGG0 1. strain rate. T. ~ . calculated v ~ . This microstructure may evolve with the temperature and strain rate histories.5. y = 10% 550 A To = 1. 2 and g are the average effective barrier width and spacing. ~ 10 Strain Rate (1 Is) FIGURE 5.11 Physically Based Rate. The thermally activated flow stress.and TemperatureDependent Constitutive Models 391 600 AL6XN. and z *.5 THERMALLY ACTIVATED z* COMPONENT.000 5." .000K 500 450 9 experimental .11. let AG be the energy that a dislocation must overcome by its thermal activation. is a function of temperature. 1 .... .. . _. .o"/ ID = 400 350 300 0. To obtain a relation between ~.. z* in general. O0e2fb (7) where 0 < p _< 1 and 1 _< q _< 2 define the profile of the shortrange barrier to the dislocation. and Go is the energy required for a dislocation to overcome the barrier solely by its thermal activation.
.25 0.11.5 • 106 . bcc. In view of Eqs. obtain 9* '~ 1  ~001n~r (9) References [15 and 3] suggest that p = 2//3 and q = 2 are suitable values for these parameters for many metals. and COo is the attempt frequency of a dislocation to overcome its shortrange barrier.25 0.24 • 105 10~ 104 104 ~0(s1 ) 5 x 108 1.T). 79.g.o/f(?. From Eqs.1 and Reference [ 14]. and guided by experimental results.. k is the Bohzmann constant.24 • 1. For some materials (e. for this class of metals.62 • 1.1 Constitutive Parameters for Indicated Commercially Pure Metal. it is assumed in Reference [5].45 • 107 3. fcc metals). we follow Reference [5] and assume that f(?. z~ T) and 7r _ f(v. that ~ = ~.T).62 • 8. this gives. 7 and 8. NematNasser and coworkers have verified this suggestion for a number of metals. although other values may fit the experimental results better for certain cases. where ~0 is a reference (e. To account for the microstructural evolution which affects the average dislocation spacing.T)' ?o with zo Go b2fo and 7oPmbcoo~o (10) It is reasonable to expect that the average dislocation density increases with straining (workhardening) and that it decreases with increasing temperature (annealing). Metal.l+a i ~mm (ii) TABLE 5.20 0.g.5 • 106 3. initial) average dislocation spacing. f= 1 Tantalum Molybdenum Niobium Vanadium al(Mea) 473 720 440 342 n 0. see Table 5.392 respectively. the dislocations that intersect the slip planes are the most dominant shortrange barriers.15 P 2/3 2/3 2/3 1/2 q 2 2 2 2 T~ 1100 2450 1680 1260 k (K_I) Go 8. We assume that ~ is related to AG by NematNasser where 7r = Pmbcoos here. ~. Based on this observation.11.
0. ..11.20 0.35 0. .and TemperatureDependent Constitutive Models 800 700 600 393 50O 4OO ~ . . 8.000 S "t f.10 0. 0. 0.11.3 0. K . .00 O. . .= ~ K 6oo ! 200 I00 0.3 Comparison between model predictions and experimental results for indicated metal and constitutive parameters given in Table 5. M~ . .25 0.50 Tree Strain 0.60 0.11 Physically Based Rate.25 Tn~ Strain 0.5.7 16ooT .20 True Strain 0.05 0.70 080 700 F Im Vanadium.05 0. .40 0.00 0. .30 0. .10 0.1. T. .40 0.00 0. . . 500K ~ 400 200 0.5 0.1 .30 0.50 800 r [[ Nb. 1400 098K g o 0.35 0.30 0. .2 .000 s1 .40 0.20 0.15 0.10 0. 600 ~ ~ 2 9 6 . .6 0.4 '13"ueSm~.45 FIGURE 5.15 0. 398K" gSK I00 0 0 0.45 0. 8.
4 1 *NA = Not available.11.8 0 0 2 X 1010 1. annealed OFHC Cu.d e p e n d e n t heat capacity. (12).394 NematNasser where Tm is the melting temperature and the index m is a free parameter which m u s t be evaluated from the experimental data. as received AL6XN Ti6A14V al (MPa) 220 220 900 685 n 0.9 x 105 6.35 0. we arrive at the following expression for z*: z* . Table 5.9 • 105 4.11.GooIn . 7o f(2.3 compares the model and experimental results.1 gives typical values of the constitutive parameters for the indicated commercially pure bcc metals. Table 5.3 0.6 x 105 6. Combining Eqs. 911. the lattice provides the main source of the shortrange resistance to the dislocation motion. and fl. q= 2 OFHC Cu.2 X 105 9o(S1) 2• 2• 1010 101~ mo (MPa) NA* NA* 140 NA* ~(s) NA* NA* 3 X 10 4 NA* a m 20 1. p = 2/3. In this case. the temperature of the sample increases due to heating t h r o u g h plastic work. Cv is the t e m p e r a t u r e . it is s h o w n in Reference [16] that fl is essentially 1. and Figure 5. This temperature change can be c o m p u t e d by AT zd7 (14) PoCv where P0 is the mass density. T) for T<T~ (12) 7m b2go' where 7obPmC~ f(Y. 2 C o n s t i t u t i v e Parameters for Indicated Metals. For most bcc metals. At finite strains and high strain rates.2 provides data TABLE 5 . go = g = b.11.. In these cases.T)l+a 1 Tc is given by To G~(lngf (?' Tc)) 1 k 70 (13) Note that z * . and hence a = 0 and f = 1 in Eq. .z ~ 1  . at high strain rates. 1 1 . Metal.3 0.0 for T > To.32 X 101~ 5 1/2 2.05 z~ (MPa) 46 400 630 1560 k/Go (K1) 4. Note also that. the drag effect is neglected.~l is the fraction of the plastic w o r k used to heat the sample.
i 8... ..and TemperatureDependent Constitutive Models 395 for annealed OFHC copper.70 True Strain 2O0O 1600 /~.. ..11 Physically Based Rate.. 400 3... ' ' ' J/! 0.11.~...11.= 0 " • " : .. ~7 ... l" .. .. .50 060 0.700 s" 0...4 True Strain 2400 0..~.4 [17]. .2.6 0.. 77K ~" 1600 m g .11. 8O0 700 600 T / I Solid Curves:ModelPredictions Dashed Curves:Experments I I I OFHC Copper .00 0. s" 296K 1200 ~ 800 _ 798K .30 0.5. . AL6XN stainless steel.40 0. The corresponding comparison with the experimental results is shown in Figure 5.T a'77K ~ "~.4 Comparison between experimental and model results for indicated commercially pure metals and constitutive parameters given in Table 5.10 020 0. .10 020 030 0. .2 0..00 Tme Sb~in FIGURE 5. . .. and a titanium alloy.8 Ti64 Solid Curves: Model Predictions Dashed Curves: Experiments 2000 .50 0.40 0.000/s 100 0 0 0.
and l:d is a function of ~..7 c3~ For example. NematNasser.6 THREEDIMENSIONAL MODEL Let ~ denote the deviatoric true stress tensor and DP the plastic deformation rate tensor. and ~o be the Jaumann rate of the stress tensor. G. (1999). NematNasser.. NematNasser. 4. Hence. )1/2 "e " "e . Since ~* = r . Mater. E. F. Highstrainrate response of commercially pure vanadium. and Isaacs. S. S. S. Acta Mater. Oxford: Pergamon. in Progress in Materials Science: Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Slip. The final constitutive equation then is ~o = L" (D . Argon.G.(l:a + l:d). 19]. when the drag resistance is significant. (1998). see Reference [19] for more details. 5. L... when f ~ . (1975). and Okinaka. 45:907919. Y. S. 20. REFERENCES 1. U (1998). Mater. L. and Ni. A physicallybased constitutive model for BCC crystals with application to polycrystalline tantalum.. (2000). 3. 2. S. Direct measurement of isothermal flow stress of metals at elevated temperatures and high strain rates with application to Ta and TaW alloys.v ~ 1:.11. We define the effective stress and strain rates by (3 "C . (1998). U.. Q. Thermodynamics and kinetics of slip. Acta Mater. NematNasser. Ni. 7. the expression for ~ is not explicit. Let L be the elasticity tensor. and Li. p. and Liu. special numerical algorithms are necessary in the applications. S.396 NematNasser 5.O p) (18) where D is the deformation rate tensor. Guo. we set 0f~ OP . W. T... ~ is given by Eqs. and 1. Kocks.. S.. Experimentallybased micromechanical modeling of dynamic response of molybdenum. NematNasser. 46: 565577. f~ . NematNasser. 7. M. (1997). Okinaka. 8. Phys. . 19.. and Guo.) denoting the plastic potential [18. we obtain P (16) OP=7~. A.. T. vol. J. W. 32: 243260. M. #= (17) Here. Flow stress of fcc polycrystals with application to OFHC CU. A constitutive model for FCC crystals with application to polycrystalline OFHC copper. J. and Ashby. Scripta Mater. Mech. 30 (4): 325341.. ( 3 ) 1 / 2 De: D v (15) With f~(~. 6. Mech. Mech. B. Solids 46 (6): 10091038. 40: 859872.
17.. NematNasser. The effect of dislocation drag on the stressstrain behavior of fcc metals.. in Shockwave and HighStrainRate Phenomena in Materials. Chiem. Mater. and Weertman. 6: 260264. Rev. NematNasser. Ono. J. 37: 728737. Dislocation kinetics at high strain rates. Appl. R. 12. Conrad... 10. and NematNasser. Mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms of a commercially pure titanium. Solids. Thermomechanical response of AL6XN stainless steel over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. Eng. P. 35: 28652875. (1998). G.. 18. P.and TemperatureDependent Constitutive Models 397 8. On the structure of stressstrain relations for timedependent plastic deformation in metals. Determination of temperature rise during high strain rate deformation. E J. J. R. (1970). S. in press. Appl. Kapoor.11 Physically Based Rate. Material deformation at high strain rates.. Phys. 19.. Rice. Y. U. (2001). Mech.5. eds. (1992). Mater. Guo. 16. Mech. Sci. S. S. G. (1999).. R. C. 11. 1: 345350. Acta Mater. Marca et al. Phys. NematNasser. On the question of flow stress at high strain rates controlled by dislocation viscous flow. 9. 40 (2): 159164. Mech. 47: 37053720. (1982). Zerilli. Phenomenological theories of elastoplasticity and strain localization at high strain rates. Scripta Mater. and Follansbee. and NematNasser. J. S.. 15. S. Mater. 14. Temperature dependence of dispersed barrier hardening.. W. pp. W. E. Acta Metall. H. J. Kocks. Mater. W. and Kihl. (1970). 13. Kapoor. J. 6985. (1987). R. Highrate deformation of single crystal tantalum: Temperature dependence and latent hardening. 45 (3): 519545. and Armstrong. Mech. 27 (1): 112. (1999). Regazzoni. (1968). . (1992). The athermal component of the flow stress in crystalline solids. 40: 18031808. K. Marcel Dekker. Acta Metall. D. J. Guo. S. Mech. S. Appl.. (1992). and Cheng. Y. 39: 18031806. Follansbee.
. . . . .12. 5. . The threedimensional constitutive model for glassy polymer deformation is a finite strain elasticviscoplastic adaptation of the standard linear solid Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . . . . . . . We use established and speculated physics of amorphous polymer deformation together with continuum mechanics formulations of finite strain kinematics to develop and implement a threedimensional representation of the strainrate. .4. . . . . .and temperaturedependent inelastic deformation of glassy polymers has important applications in solid phase forming processes near the glass transition temperature. . . . such as blow molding and film stretching. . . . . . .4. . 5. . . and in microscale deformation processes such as crazing. . . .12. . . ISBN 0124433413. . . .1 BACKGROUND The strainrate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and pressuredependent response of glassy polymers. 5. . . . . . . . . .SECTION 5. . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . . Ann Arbor. . . 5. . . . . . . . . Massachusetts Contents 5. ARRUDA1 and MARY C.12. . . . . . . . 398 399 402 402 402 404 406 5. . . . . . . . . 398 . . Cambridge.12.1 Background . . Massachusetts Institute of Technology. . . . .12. BOYCE 2 1Department of Mechanical Engineering. . . .2 Modeling Complex Deformation States and Histories . . . . . . . 5. . . . . References . . . Michigan 2Department of Mechanical Engineering. . .2 Description of the Model .1 Model Results for Simple States of Deformation . University of Michigan. .12. . . . temperature. . . . . . . .12 ElasticViscoplastic Deformation of Polymers ELLEN M. Center for Materials Science and Engineering. in impact absorption during large strain deformations. .4 Applications of the Model . . . . .3 Identification of Material Properties .12. . .
The elastic component of the deformation gradient. The model elements include (1) a linear spring used to characterize the initial response as elastic.12.12.Vxx: F = FeF p where FP is the deformation gradient of the relaxed configuration obtained by elastically unloading to a stressfree state via F e1.1.U e.5.12 ElasticViscoplastic Deformation of Polymers 399 linear elastic spring viscoplastic element rubbe r elasticity Langevin 'spring' FIGURE 5. acting in series with a Kelvin element which is a parallel arrangement of (2) a thermally activated viscoplastic dashpot used to represent the rate. F e.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL the multiplicative (1) The representation of the kinematics begins with decomposition of the deformation gradient F .12. 5.1 Schematic of the threeelement elasticviscoplastic model. F e = V e. Note that this results in no loss of generality. [7]. .and temperaturedependent yield that monitors an isotropic resistance to chain segment rotation. is restricted to be a stretch only. Constitutive descriptions for each of these elements are summarized within the context of a general finite strain deformation framework. and (3) a nonGaussian molecular network spring that models the molecular orientationinduced anisotropic strain hardening. The elements of the glassy polymer model can be visualized in one dimension using the schematic in Figure5. as shown in Boyce et al. model from viscoelasticity. this approach builds on the original onedimensional model of Haward and Thackray [13].
~oe: T . that Wp is algebraically prescribed without loss of generality as a result of the imposed symmetry on the elastic deformation gradient.~R '~chain ~. '~.FPFpr.~'1 ( ' ~ ~ n ) [ B . the initial hardening modulus. the spin. The material properties describing the strainhardening characteristics are #R. The underlying macromolecular network orients with strain and has been found to be well modeled using the Arruda and Boyce [1] eightchain model of rubber elasticity.400 Arruda and Boyce The velocity gradient. L.chainI] (5) where B . can be expressed as the sum of the symmetric tensor D. and J = det U e. which is constitutively prescribed through the characterization of the viscoplastic element. which captures the effect of orientationinduced strain hardening. approaches its limiting extensibility ( v ~ ) . and N. T N. the rate of deformation. and is given as follows: L = FF 1 = D + W = Le + FeLPF e1 (2) where the velocity gradient of the relaxed configuration. may be represented in terms of its symmetric and skewsymmetric components: Lp = D p + W p (3) where Wp is the plastic spin and DP is the rate of shape change in the relaxed configuration. It may be shown. LP = FPF pl.~. and the skewsymmetric tensor W. Temperaturedependent strain hardening modeled by this element assumes that the thermally equilibrated number of chains per unit .~. the number of rigid molecular units between entanglements. and '~chain. The network stress tensor (taken to be deviatoric) is given by X/~ TN . as in Boyce et al. [7]. fl (6) and its inverse provides the functionality that as the chain stretch. The linear spring used to characterize the initial response of the material is constitutively characterized by the fourthorder tensor operator of elastic constants. the stress increases dramatically. (ln U e) is the Hencky strain. The Langevin function ~ is given by ~o(fl) _ coth(fl) .chain. The nonlinear rubber elasticity spring element introduces a convected network stress.l~cpe[ln U e] (4) 3 where T is the Cauchy stress.[1 tr B] 1/2 is the stretch on each chain in the network.
and it can be expressed in terms of its magnitude. T. and the convected network stress. [6] by taking the athermal shear strength.(~) ~}] (12) where 7o is the preexponential factor proportional to the attempt frequency. and the athermal shear strength. Strain softening is modeled after Boyce et al.e. R is the universal gas constant. The deviatoric component of the driving stress state is denoted T *~. The magnitude ~P is taken to depend on the relative values of the effective shear stress. and k is Boltzmann's constant. s. to a . N: 1 "c2 N ~T*' 1 (10) The rate of shape change DP in the viscoplastic element is assumed to be aligned with the deviatoric driving stress state: D p = ~PN.and temperaturedependent yield behavior. to evolve from its initial annealed value. which provides n(174 constant [4].FeTNFe~ (8) J T* is the driving stress state.B exp ~~ (7) where A represents the portion of the network that does not dissociate with strain and the term containing B represents the thermally dissociating network.12 ElasticViscoplastic Deformation of Polymers 401 volume follows: n(O) .A . and its tensorial direction. and  is the absolute temperature. Ea is the activation energy for thermal dissocation. which ensues once isotropic barriers to chain segment rotation are overcome. (11) where ~P is the plastic shear strain rate.5. r. the portion of the total stress which continues to activate plastic flow. i. The viscoplastic element describes the rate. As is the zero stress level activation energy. TN: 1 T* .v) (where # is the elastic shear modulus.T .077 p / ( 1 . The effective shear stress on this element is found from the tensorial difference between the Cauchy stress. r. Mass is preserved. and v is Poisson's ratio)... according to the relation: 7P 7o exp  [ ~xAS{ . s. So0.
33 ~o (S1) 2 (1015) 2.4 APPLICATIONS OF THE MODEL 5 .12. 5. where p is the pressure and ~ is the pressuredependent coefficient of the material.1 lists properties for polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polycarbonate (PC). Sss: where h is the softening slope. The material constants for the model are fit to the uniaxial compression data.12. .8 (107) As (S) 3. 5. to the athermal shear resistance.1 Material Properties. ~p. Table 5. 1 MODEL RESULTS FOR SIMPLE STATES OF DEFORMATION Figure 5. The model is found to capture the uniaxial compression data and then found to predict the plane strain compression data very well.8 2. 1 2 . The predictive capability demonstrates that the constitutive model contains the essential physics of the threedimensional anisotropic nature of the network deformation behavior.87 #R (MPa) 18 8 N 2. This capability has also been shown on other amorphous polymers.9 (10 19) h (MPa) 500 315 so/Sss 0.12.12. Material properties are obtained by reduction of uniaxial compression data at different strain rates as discussed in References [2. Pressure dependence is taken into account by adding the pressure contribution.12. 5].33 0.2 shows both experimental and constitutive model results for the cases of uniaxial compression and plane strain compression of PMMA. the plane strain compression simulation is thus a true prediction.78 0.1 preferred state. (4)(13). 4 . Arruda and Boyce Elastic Material PC PMMA Viscoplastic Softening Orientation hardening E (MPa) 2300 3200 Y 0.3 (10 19) 1.402 TABLE 5.3 IDENTIFICATION OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES The constitutive description is thus summarized in Eqs.
.5 TRUE STRAIN FIGURE 5. . Note that data are needed at two temperatures to obtain the temperaturedependent material constants. plane strain data ~~uniaxial eight chain . 9 1993.. Evolution of plastic anistropy in amorphous polymers during finite straining.0 .plane strain eight chain 0. "!" "'~" ' . uniaxial data . ..0 1. . The strain hardening is found to be lower with increasing temperature and is well predicted by the model. . ./ / / 5q 100 I .) Figure 5. ..5. i . however..____. and Boyce.0 .. .4. (7). . $:'~< . The simulations considered the temperaturedependent representation of the network structure given in Eq._<i. (Reprinted from International Journal of Plasticity. The expected increase in initial yield stress with increase in strain rate is observed and predicted. ~. . Vol. .. . where both experimental and model results are shown.12 ElasticViscoplastic Deformation of Polymers 403 200 5q U~ l .3 depicts both experimental and model results for the temperature dependence of strain hardening in PMMA.5 1.} il 0 I 0. . .. pages 699720. M. the third curve is a prediction.2 Deformation statedependent response of PMMA at room temperature. true strain curves at different temperatures. and there is a rise in the material temperature during straining which produces thermal softening in addition to strain softening. . . M. C. 9. Arruda. the results show uniaxial compression true stress vs. . .:j i . l / s ) does not provide enough time for heat transfer to occur.12. .12. This same model was used to simulate the rate dependence of PMMA as shown in Figure 5.12. E. . with permission from Elsevier Science. The highest rate ( . note the greater amount of softening observed at the higher strain rate.
. &.. only contributions from the driving stress act to generate heat." ..__ '~. .. ... 19.~ : . therefore. "'~ . . 1 2 . . 9 1995./ . .0 0. R. 5 . (Reprinted from Mechanics of Materials.. . 4 . where thermal softening can alter the expected deformation response of the material.. ~ .. and Argon [9]. and their processes typically involves inhomogeneous deformation the entire ...~ ~ s 100  . C. o..I ..0 FIGURE 5. pages 193212.. . ..i'~:" ~. A full discussion is provided in Arruda et al.) The model considers the network orientation contributions to the total energy to be stored and not dissipated. ./.. with permission from Elsevier Science.. Vol. The strong dependence of the stressstrain behavior on rate and temperature is particularly important in cases of processing polymers and designing polymer components for impact loading situations. Montagut. E.. .... andJayachandran.404 200 .. il 0." .3 Isothermal response of PMMA at various temperatures. . [4] as well as in Boyce...'// . Boyce. M. " i ! ! ! I 1 Arruda and Boyce ! ~176 / . CL.. ". .'.~.. M. . I"'I  25oc ./ 1. :':. their products. .5 TRUE STRAIN f . Arruda.12.. 2 MODELING COMPLEX DEFORMATION STATES AND HISTORIES Inelastic deformation of polymeric materials..
as well as indentation of ...0 FIGURE 5. Boyce.O01/s theory . ..~ : _ ...:.. u3 Dq 100 i. .I .. ..~. homogeneous manner.. and Argon [9] on thermomechanically coupled cold drawing. pages 193212..:.... . . Boyce.5.. ~ "= . and hydrostatic extrusion of polymer cylinders [5]. ..' . C.12 ElasticViscoplastic Deformation of Polymers 200 . Such inhomogeneous deformation can now be analyzed in detail using accurate constitutive models together with the finite element method. Problems include simple shear experiments [10]. E. Neck propagation has been investigated using this constitutive model in several studies. : ...O01/s .i i I .. ..~ ' "~ ~ >~. ... .. The classic example is the necking and neck propagation behavior of polymers during a tension test. . .. ~ 9.~ . (Reprinted from Mechanics of Materials. " ~ " . Montagut.1is theory O.... and Jayachandran. ~ ' . with permission from Elsevier Science. and thermomechanically coupled compression [4].. ' il . . M.. data data 0. including Boyce and Arruda [8] on waisted bars. . / . ...1/s O. ' ' ' I 405 ' I I i ..5 1.. 9 1995. Arruda._ " . 19. . ... ~ .. M.4 Strain ratedependent response of PMMA at room temperature.  0. . 0. Numerous other problems have also been examined using this constitutive model together with the finite element method. . R..~. .0 T R U E STRAIN 0.. Hasan [12] on both cylindrical bars (see Boyce and Haward [11]) and thin sheets.12..) specimen or product is not deforming in a uniform. Vol.. .. . ' . i i I i .'q. and Wu and van der Giessen [20] on plane strain tension. ... . E~ 0 ! . .
M. Phys. C. and Young. Hasan. R. R. Haward. M. Arruda.and multilayered polymeric coatings [1416].. M. (1997). C. 30: 12881298. C. C. M. R. Boyce. (1994).. C. C. eds. Mech. Large inelastic deformation of glassy polymers. Arruda. The use of a mathematical model to describe isothermal stressstrain curves in glassy thermoplastics. Evolution of plastic anisotropy in amorphous polymers during finite straining. An experimental and analytical investigation of the large strain compressive and tensile response of glassy polymers. (1994). Int... polymeric products.D. A. Such detailed simulations provide better understanding of specimen. Boyce. A threedimensional constitutive model for the large stretch behavior of rubber elastic materials. J. Journal of Computer Aided Materials Design 2: 151166. M.. C. E. Boyce. R. Boyce. (1989). N. R. C. G. Boyce. Design of multilayer polymeric coatings for indentation resistance. 34(9): 716725. Thermomechanical analysis of indentation behavior of thin PMMA coatings. Jayachandran. (1990). On the kinematics of finite strain plasticity.. M. S. and Argon. and Arruda. 3. 2. (1992).. (1993). 4. 19:193212. Boyce. M. (1988).. Jayachandran. (1968). Soc. G. M. S. Mater. and process behavior and can be utilized in the design and development of multiphase polymer materials. 7. M. Sci. (1995). J. Adhesion Sci. E. and Argon. The post yield deformation of glassy polymers. J. and Argon.. Mechanics of the indentation test and its use to assess adhesion of polymeric coatings. Effects of initial anisotropy on the finite strain deformation behavior of glassy polymers. 6. London: Chapman and Hall. M.. Boyce.. M. A. C.. M. R. S. M.. D. temperature and thermomechanical coupling on the finite strain deformation of glassy polymers. Thesis.. M. 8. J. R. Mech.. and polymerprocessing operations. REFERENCES 1. (1995). R. Boyce. E.. Effects of strain rate. C. Polymer Engin. Int. Mater. Roy. 11. Journal of Computer Aided Materials Design 2: 2348. Plasticity 9: 783811. Arruda. 7: 3547. J. Parks. Technol. tension and simple shear of polycarbonate. N. Sci.. A. Series A 302: 453472. M.. D. D. A. E.19]. M. Parks. Mater. 14. M. E. 13. 12. Polymer Engin. 5. Large inelastic deformation of glassy polymers. C. Cambridge: MA. M. 7: 1534. E. Arruda. and Haward. Mech. Phys. 7: 813836. 16. Polymer Engin. (1994). The large strain compression. and Jayachandran. S. Boyce. R. J. M. Arruda. and stress fields at blunt notches [17]. G. Lond. E. and Boyce. Montegut. and Boyce. 32: 10731085. and Parks. N. 9. 10. in Physics of Glassy Polymers. and Argon. and Argon. Solids 41 (2): 389412.. A. J. Boyce. Proc. MIT Department of Mechanical Engineering. and Boyce.. Solids 37: 647665. A.. O. Haward. and Thackray.. M. M. Jayachandran.. C. and Argon. Part II: Numerical simulation of hydrostatic extrusion. (1988). (1993). S. . The effects of thermomechanical coupling on the cold drawing process in glassy polymers. A. Mech.406 Arruda and Boyce single. and Jayachandran.. micromechanics of filled polymers [18. Part I: Rate dependent constitutive model. (1993). Boyce. Sci. Weber. 15. Mech.. (1993). S. M. product. C. M. Plasticity 9: 697720. Ph. C.
On neck propagation in amorphous glassy polymers under plane strain tension. Phys. E. E. Mech. A. J. and van der Giessen. E. Phys. Wu.12 ElasticViscoplastic Deformation of Polymers 407 17.. Steenbrink. Lai. J. D. A numerical study of cracktip plasticity in glassy polymers. P. Solids 45: 405437.. J. 20. 18. . Solids 48: 233273. van der Giessen. and Wu. Mater. S. (1995). 19. (1997)...5. E D. (1997). C. and van der Giessen. Plasticity 11: 211235. C. Int. M. 25: 183197. Socrate. Mech.. (2000). Micromechanics of toughened polycarbonate. Mech. and Boyce. Void growth in glassy polymers. J.
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CHAPTER 6 Continuous Damage .
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damage can originate from multiple causes: debonding of atoms. France Damage of materials means the progressive or sudden deterioration of their mechanical strength because of loadings or thermal or chemical effects. as an order of magnitude: 0. the scale at which this homogenization takes place needs to be established. 61 avenue du Pr~. Let us say. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.1 mm for metals = 1 mm for polymers and some composites 10 mm for wood and some composites ~ 100 mm for concrete Most of the models of continuous damage introduce a damage variable at the mesoscale related to the volume density p of microvoids (porosity or ductility) or more generally to the surface density D of defects (microcracks and Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. or growth and coalescence of microcracks and microcavities. "reasonable" representative volume element (RVE) in the mechanics of materials.1 Introduction to Continuous Damage JEAN LEMAITRE Universit~ Paris 6. continuous damage means a homogeneous modeling in which microcracks and microvoids are represented by a continuous variable in the sense of the mechanics of continuous media. ISBN 0124433413. It covers all related phenomena that occur from the virgin or reference state up to a mesocrack initiation. macroscale is the size of engineering structures which must not brake. LMTCachan. and Mesoscale is the size for which the homogeneous constitutive equations are written: it is a material point in mathematics. Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. Despite the discontinuous nature of such processes at the microscale. From a physical point of view. a. 94235 Cachan Cedex. 411 . nucleation. Having said this. Microscale is the size at which the elementary mechanisms occur.SECTION 6.sident Wilson.
known as low cycle fatigue (see Sections 6.12). This is the case for the formation of crazes in polymers (see Section 6. The evolution of p or D represents the deterioration of the materials up to mesofracture. which yields a decrease in the elastic rigidity. damage is observed as different phenomenological phenomena.14. including: 9 Brittle or quasibrittle damage when fracture occurs without significant irreversible strain. 9 Some materials need special treatment even if the same formalism applies. or for the debonding of interfaces in composites (see Chapter 10).7 and 6.15.412 microvoids) in any plane of the RVE. This coupling is often introduced in elastic and plastic constitutive equations through the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. or below the yield stress.9. for the large difference of strength in tension and compression of concrete (see Section 6. 9 Ductile damage in metals subjected to large plastic strain at low temperature: T(K)< ~ 1Tm. 6. 9 Fatigue damage due to repetitions of loading either above the yield stress.13). . the melting temperature.14. Lemaitre (~V cavities P= 6Vo O<p<l D ~S defects ~So O<D<I 6Vo and 6So being the volume size and the surface size of the RVE.15).6. At the mesoscale. known as high cycle fatigue (see Sections 6. and 6.4.2. 6. and 6.3. 6. See Sections 6. and 6. These variables represent the weakness of the materials. 6. See Sections 6.14). in the actual yield stress.5. and even in the gigacycle range (see Section 6. See Sections 6. 9 Creep damage due to large plastic strain in metals subjected to elevated temperature: T(K) > ~ 1Tm.11). and in many other properties.8 and 6.10.
. . . .3 Description of the Model . . . France Contents 6. . . . . Reference . . . 6. . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.SECTION 6.4 Identification of the Parameter cr~ .2.2. . . . . With the concept of effective stress ai) r .D and the principle of strain equivalence. 94235 Cachan Cedex. . . . . .2. . 413 . . . . 6. . . . .2. . . . .2.2 Background .1 Validity . . . . . . .5 How to Use the Model . . . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . the Helmholtz state potential energy is written as  1  r r 2 p EijhleiJGl(1 .2. . . .D) + . . . . . . . .2 DamageEquivalent Stress Fracture Criterion JEAN LEMAITRE Universit~ Paris 6. The thermodynamics of irreversible processes defines its associated variable Y. . . . . . . called the "energy density release rate" such that Y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ./~ is the power dissipated in the process of damage. . . . . . .2 BACKGROUND In the continuum theory of isotropic damage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. a damage state variable D is introduced as the surface density of microcracks and microcavities. . . . . . . . . . LMTCachan. . . . . . ISBN 0124433413. . . . . . . . 6. . . 6. . . . . . .1 VALIDITY This is a fracture criterion that is valid for brittle and quasibrittle materials but also for ductile materials as a first approximation for a quick estimation (at least much better than the von Mises equivalent stress criterion often used). 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 avenue du PrEsident Wilson. . . .2. . 413 413 414 415 415 416 6. . . . . .
3 DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL The damageequivalent stress is defined similarly to the plastic von Misesequivalent stress for plasticity as the onedimensional stress 0* which. Off e or 1 F v 00 v 0k k ~ . Then 0~t' we Y = . v is the Poisson's ratio.0ij&~.~ . For the onedimensional case: 0* 0 O] 0eq . and ~ is the elastic strain tensor. where 0~ is the stress deviator 0 .l _ D We being the total elastic strain energy density dWe . E/jkl is the elastic tensor. an is the hydrostatic stress an .D) Rv where 0eq is the von Mises equivalent stress.89 and R~ is the triaxiality function 0kk. . In the case of linear isotropic elasticity coupled with damage.414 Lemaitre where p is the density. and 6ij is the Kronecker operator.0* [a]  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 a e2qRv 0H 0eq 1 =3 Rv= 1 Writing the equality we(a*) We(aij)" 0*2 2E(1 **D) 2F (1 . Rv =2(1 + v) + 3(1 . 0ij = P ~j ~'ij = E 1 .0n~j.2v)(an/rrCq) 2 6.D E 1 .0~j. for the same value of the damage.P oqD .D) . yields the same value of the elastic strain energy density as in the case of a threedimensional state.2. 2 0eq We = 2E(1 .D ''j where E is the Young's modulus.
TABLE 6.6.2. it is p o s t u l a t e d that the fracture of a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e v o l u m e e l e m e n t is g o v e r n e d by the total elastic strain e n e r g y density.4 IDENTIFICATION OF THE PARAMETER a~ T h e u l t i m a t e stress to r u p t u r e is o b t a i n e d from a tensile stress at m e s o s c a l e u p to fracture. ~ 20 20 20 20 600 20 593 550 20 20 20 20 o'u. steel 304 st.e q u i v a l e n t stress r e a c h e s the value of the u l t i m a t e stress at fracture in t e n s i o n (or c o m p r e s s i o n ) .1 Material Table of Parameters Temperature.2 DamageEquivalent Stress Fracture Criterion defines the d a m a g e e q u i v a l e n t stress 415 ~7" . that is. Since the variable Y associated w i t h the d a m a g e D is r e l a t e d to the elastic strain energy.ou 0"* 6.~ r u .~TeqP~v/2.5 H O W TO USE THE MODEL T h e crack initiation in a s t r u c t u r e . T h e d a m a g e . 6.e q u i v a l e n t stress is c a l c u l a t e d from the stress c o m p o n e n t s ~ij r e s u l t i n g from a s t r u c t u r e analysis.2. steel Inco 718 2024 A. ~ru is characteristic of each material. o'* ~.2. MPa 458 412 790 760 650 950 700 1150 500 3 35 500 C 35 steel A 201 steel A 517 steel 316 st. will o c c u r in the z o n e w h e r e or* is m a x i m u m . w h e n o r * . steel 316 st. alloy Concrete in tension Concrete in compression Ceramic alumina . w h e n the d a m a g e . or the fracture. steel 304 st.
416 Lemaitre This fracture criterion. SpringermVerlag. . A Course on Damage Mechanics. proportional to the von Mises equivalent stress.J. (1994 and 1996).1 for values of au corresponding to some materials. REFERENCE 1. Lemaitre. takes into account the important effect of the triaxiality ratio a~i/aeq by the triaxility function Rv. See Table 6.2.
3. . . . References . . . etc. . epoxies.3. . . . . 6. . low temperature). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. . . . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . . Tempe. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Description of the Model . . . . . . .2 Background . . bones. . . . . rocks. . . etc. . .3 Micromechanically Inspired Continuous Models of Brittle Damage DUSAN KRAJCINOVIC Arizona State University. . . . . . These two materials are known as being damagetolerant and damagesensitive. . . ISBN 0124433413. . 417 418 418 419 420 420 6.3. . . 6. . . . . carbon. respectively. . . .3. . . . . .1 Validity . . . . . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. The damage in the form of microcracks may be attributed to manufacturing processes. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cement. or (b) all microstructures (including iron. .4 Identification of Parameters . . . . . This class of deformation is typical of materials with inferior cohesive strength and (a) heterogeneous microstructure (such as composites) at any state of stress. 6. . many semiconductors. . . . . environmental causes (such as corrosion.SECTION 6. . . . . . . . . . .) in the absence of longrange tensile stresses. . 417 . . . . . . . . ceramics.1 VALIDITY The continuum models of damage evolution that are based on the micromechanics of damage are applicable to deformations during which the irreversible changes of microstructure are related primarily to the random site nucleation of microcracks and their stable growth. . . . . . . applied loads. .5 Model Restrictions . . . 6. . . Arizona Contents 6. . .
the selection of a "best" choice of damage parameters is somewhat arbitrary. during which the effective parameters of the material points of a continuum are derived by considering the volume of material. S) exists and the normality rule is valid. the relation between volumeaveraged stress and strains is 8ij .3 DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL The damage (microcracks) density D is concealed within the effective compliance of the RVE. The choice of the effective compliance Sijmn(D) is hereby prescribed for these reasons: . the rate of the effective compliance may be derived from Sijmn = 2 O ~ S) 0~"~(F.3.2 BACKGROUND Krajcinovic Micromechanical models are deduced by the process of homogenization. Assuming this to be the case. Using positive and negative projection operators. where 1_ _ F=~aijam. or vice versa. defined by a large number of microcracks embedded in homogeneous matrix. Assuming that a scalar damage potential f~(F. This assumption may be violated when normal stresses change the sign and a closed crack opens. 6. Assuming that the all tensors in Eq. the rate form of the stressstrain relation is = +  e + d (2) The dot above a symbol stands for the rates. When the RVE is small enough to consider the applied macrostresses and strains to be uniform.3. 1 are differentiable. and the superscripts e and d stand for elastic and damage. the model is local. that is centered by the material point. the stresses and strain tensors are divided into positive and negative parts. (3) is the thermodynamic force (that drives damage evolution) conjugate to the selected internal v a r i a b l e Sijmn (effective compliance). Since the exact locations and geometry of all microcracks cannot be determined at each material point (onto which the RVE was mapped) and for all instances.418 6.Sijmn~mn (1) where the bar above the symbol stands for the average over RVE and Sijmn is the compliance tensor of the damaged volume. The smallest volume for which a considered effective parameter of the volume does not depend on the exact locations of microdefects is known as the representative volume element (RVE).
6.3 Micromechanically Inspired Continuous Models of Brittle Damage
419
9 it can be relatively easily measured in the laboratory and in situ; and 9 it can be derived using methods of micromechanics.
Assume, for simplicity, that all microcracks are of pennyshaped geometry defined by their radius a and orientations (0, ~b) that are not correlated. Hence, the microcrack density function is w(a, O, dp) ~ O(a) + p(O, dp) (4) In this case the effective compliance of the RVE is
i,j== if=.

+
a0
2/=
o,

+,j=.
In Eq. 5, S~m, is the compliance of the pristine material, Fom,, is the normalized compliance attributed to a single crack, and co = N(a3), the BudianskiO'Connell damage parameter for an isotropic distribution of pennyshaped microcracks. Tensor ~/jm,, defined by the double integral in Eq. 5, generalizes the BudianskyO'Connell damage parameter to damages that are not isotropic. Analytical quadrature of Eq. 5 and closeform estimates of the effective compliance using one of the effective field models are available for dilute concentrations of pennyshaped cracks and linear slits in the reference provided below. Finally, the meanfield estimate (Eq. 5) of the effective compliance is based on many other assumptions. The most debatable assumption is that the released energy rate G is equal to the pathindependent integral J. Equation 5 defines the thermodynamic state under described assumptions in all points if the microcrack density function (Eq. 4) is known. If the affinity (the difference between the force F driving the damage evolution and the thermodynamic force resisting the damage evolution) is small, the considered irreversible process can be approximated by a temporal sequence of states equilibrated by forces F. In this case the macropotential ~2(F, S) can be, at least in principle, deduced from the micropotentials that regulate individual microcrack growths.
6.3.4 IDENTIFICATION OF PARAMETERS
In comparison to the determination of statistical distributions of microcracks, the measurement of effective compliance is rather simple. However, the weak aspect of the considered model, and many other continuum models of damage evolution, is related to rather arbitrary determinations of the potentials in Eq. 3. Hence, the evaluation of rates is often not very reliable. The thermodynamic force Fomn, conjugated to the damage parameter Sijmn(D), is related to the elastic energy release rate. These facts provide the
420
Krajcinovic
connection between the damage and fracture mechanics and may be used in the experimental measurements of damage needed to determine the model parameters. The task of identifying the macropotential from micropotentials is a nontrivial task that must reflect the statistical nature of the affinity as a microcrack grows through a material with a disordered microstructure.
6.3.5 MODEL RESTRICTIONS
The considered continuum models, based on the mechanics of microcracking, belong to the class of meanfield models that relate average stresses and strains using effective material (or structural) parameters. The BudianskyO'Connell damage parameter, used in most, if not all, models, does not discriminate between a few large cracks and many smaller cracks as long as the product co = N(a 3) is the same. Since the onset and stability of propagation of large and short cracks are different, this damage parameter, along with reliance on averages, becomes questionable when the microcrack propagation and their clustering become a significant mode of damage evolution. As soon as the affinity of a single microcrack becomes larger than unity enough to render its growth unstable, the previous model and all other local continuum models lose validity. The affinity of a single crack depends on the local stress and local cohesive strength at its tip, which may be radically different from the averages. Hence, any model that does not consider the microscale disorder will be of limited utility for all but dilute concentrations of damage. A rather novel method using particle dynamic simulations may prove to be useful in determining constitutive equations in both quasistatic and dynamic deformations. In general, the described model is applicable to quasistatic deformations at relatively small microcrack densities, especially when a damagesensitive material is subjected to largerange tensile stresses.
REFERENCES
1. Kachanov, M. (1993). Elastic solids with many cracks and related problems, in Advances in Applied Mechanics, pp. 259443, vol. 29, Hutchinson, J., and Wu, T., eds., New York: Academic Press. 2. Krajcinovic, D. (1996). Damage Mechanics, NorthHolland Series in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, vol. 51, Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier. 3. Mastilovic, S., and Krajcinovic, D. (1999). Highvelocityexpansion of a cavity within a brittle material. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 47: 577610.
SECTION
6.4
Anisotropic Damage
C. L. CHOW and YONG WEI Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of MichiganDearborn
Contents 6.4.1 Validity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 6.4.2 Background on Damage Variables . . . . . . . . . . 422 6.4.3 Description of DamageCoupled Constitutive Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 6.4.4 Identification of Damage Effect Tensor M and Damage Characteristic Tensor J . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 6.4.5 How to Use It by Numerical Simulation .... 428 6.4.6 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
6.4.1 VALIDITY The damage mechanics approach is based on the irreversible thermodynamics theory. In the last two decades, this theory has been widely applied to study the behavior of rocks, composite materials, and concrete, as well as ductile fracture, creep rupture, and fatigue failure of metals. One basic hypothesis in most damage models is that the damage can be viewed as a macroscopic state variable D, known as the internal state variable, by ignoring the details on the nucleation and growth of distributed microdefects in a material element. The success of a damage model to a large extent depends on the definition of the damage variable D that is related to the concept of effective stress tensor F introduced first by Kachanov [1] and developed thereafter by many others [2]. A scalar damage variable D was defined by Kachanov as the loss of an effective loadcarrying crosssectional area that is responsible for accelerating the tertiary creep strain rate. The concept has been used by researchers as the decrease of the elastic modulus in isotropic damage models. The
Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. ISBN 0124433413. Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.
421
422
Chow and
Wei
orientationindependent scalar damage variable was, however, subsequently found to be inaccurate, since it implies that Poisson's ratio does not change. Both theoretical analysis [3] and experimental measurement [4,5] have revealed substantial damageinduced changes in Poisson's ratio that are associated with the decrease of elastic modulus. In effect, an initially isotropic material such as AL2024T3 after gross plastic deformation has been experimentally observed to undergo anisotropic damage [8]. The deficiencies of scalar theories have therefore caused concern about their effectiveness in modeling material behaviors. In this section, several anisotropic damage models are presented. Damage variables are first introduced. Then the damagecoupled constitutive equations and the damage evolution equations are formulated within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics based on the Helmholtz free energy, the yield surface, and the damage surface. A distinct advantage of the damage models is their ability to be readily incorporated in the finite element analysis through a damagecoupled stiffness matrix. Finally, several applications of the damage models are presented to illustrate failure analysis in engineering structures subjected to either static and dynamic loading.
6.4.2 BACKGROUND ON DAMAGE VARIABLES
According to the theory of damage mechanics, the effective stress tensor is applied to substitute for the Cauchy stress tensor in the development of constitutive equations of elasticity and plasticity and of damage evolution equations. The relationship between the effective stress tensor F and the Cauchy stress tensor cr is expressed as [2]
# M(D)'# = (I D)I"cT
(i)
where M(D) is the damage effect tensor and I is the unit tensor. Selection of the damage variable tensor D may be based on the phenomenological or micromechanics approach. Currently, most of the micromechanics models are less ineffective for practical applications. This is primarily due to the difficulties associated with the determination of the microcrack distribution and the development of the evolution equation. Therefore, phenomenological approaches are emphasized within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. Accordingly, the Helmholtz free energy 9 is postulated based on the principle of equivalent elastic energy that "the elastic energy of the
6.4 Anisotropic Damage
423
damaged material is the same in form as that of an undamaged material except that the stress is replaced by the effective stress," i.e.,
pW  WE +pWp = 8 9
1" e + pWp(q)
(2)
where p is the density, W E is the elastic energy, kI/p is the plastic part of free energy due to strain hardening, Co is the elastic tensor of the undamaged material, and q denotes a set of internal state variables for the strain hardening. With the definition of the effective stress in Eq. 1, the free energy can be derived in the Cauchy stress space as
p t p _ 89
M r ' C o 1" M ' a + ptpp(q) _= 8 9
C 1 
cl.a
+ ptpp(q)
(3) (4)
M r :Co 1 :M
where C is the elastic tensor for damaged materials. Accordingly, the damage energy release rate tensor Y, or the conjugate to the damage variable, is defined as Y =  P 0D
ov
(5)
6.4.3 DESCRIPTION OF DAMAGECOUPLED CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS
The constitutive equation of elasticity can be derived in the Cauchy stresstrue strain space by the free energy in Eq. 3 as 8e = p ~
where
0tg = C  l . a
(6)
8e is the true strain tensor. For elastoplastic damaged materials, following the von Mises theory, the yield surface is postulated in terms of the effective stress as
Fp(e, R) = op [Ro + R(e)] = 0
where ap is the equivalent stress
1
(7)
~, =
{~'o
.~}~
(8)
Ho is the plastic characteristic tensor for undamaged material, Ro is the yield stress, p is the effective equivalent plastic strain, and R is the strainhardening threshold. In the Cauchy stresstrue strain space, Eq. 8 becomes
ap = 89 T. H" a a
H = M ~ ' H o 9M
(9)
424
C h o w a n d Wei
For anisotropic material, the form of the tensor Ho is given as [6] g+ h h g 0 0 0
h
H0 =
h+f
f 0 0 0
f
f+g 0 0 0
0
0 2r 0 0
0
0 0 2m 0
0
0 0 0 2n (10)
g 0 0 0
where f, g, h, r, m, and n are parameters characterizing the current state of plastic anisotropy. For isotropic materials, f = g = h = 1 and r = m = n = 3. The constitutive equations of plasticity for damaged materials are derived in the Cauchy stresstrue strain space as
~,P  2p cga
oFp
P  2P O (  R ) = 2p
(11)
where ep is the plastic strain tensor and 2p is the Lagrange multiplier. It is postulated that there exists a plastic damage surface Fd = 0 which separates the plastic damaging domain from the undamaging domain. The plastic damage surface is formulated with the thermodynamic conjugate forces of the plastic damage variables as
Fd(Y, B) = Yd [Bo + B(w)] = 0
where the equivalent damage energy release rate Ypd is defined as
(12)
Ya  ( 89 "J" Y)1/2
(13)
Bo is the initial plastic damage threshold, B is the plastic damage hardening, w is the overall damage, and J is the damage characteristic tensor. The plastic damage evolution equations are derived in a thermodynamic framework as [7]
C3Fd
_
2d J : Y
(14)
aFd
6.4 Anisotropic Damage
425
The overall damage rate v~ can be determined by the plastic damage surface in Eq. 12 as
oqYa.
~ Cr
~V  c3ya OFa OD
c3cr
dB
(15)
OY f dw
Then the damage evolution equation can be written as
15=w
J:Y
2Yd
(16)
A failure criterion has been proposed based on the overall damage accumulation associated with the concept of the plastic damage surface. Based on this criterion, a material element is said to have ruptured when the total overall damage w in the element reaches a critical value Wc.
6.4.4 IDENTIFICATION OF DAMAGE EFFECT TENSOR M AND DAMAGE CHARACTERISTIC TENSOR J
The generalized damage tensor D may be defined as a secondorder, fourthorder, or higherrank tensor. It is always true that a higherrank tensor contains more information and provides a more accurate representation of the behavior of material degradation. The drawback in applying a higherorder tensor is often associated with the measurement difficulty of all the required material parameters and with inefficient numerical analysis. Some simplifications may consequently be necessary from a practical viewpoint. Several damage effect tensors M have been established with the introduction of a secondorder symmetric damage tensor D [810]. Some of the proposed forms are summarized as
0
0 0 1 1D2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1D3 0 0 0
0
0 0 1 V/(1D2)(1D3) 0 0
0
0 0 0 1 V/(1D1)(1D3) 0
0
0 0 0 0 1 V/(1D1) (1D2)
A.
Mz
0 0 0
(17)
426 "I_~ID~
0 0 B. M
Chow and Wei
0
1 lD2 0
0
0
1 1D3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
2 2(D2+D3) 0 0
0
2 2(Dl+D3)
0
0
(18)
0
2(D1 +D2).
2
0
0
0
1 lD2
0
0
1 lD3 .
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
"
0
C.M= 0 0 0 0
0 0
1 1 ~(~~+ ~_~'~) 0
o
1 1 ~(~=~+ ~k)
o o
o
o
o
o
o
~~+_<~ 2 ~,
(19)
"eD~ 0
0 D. U
0 eD~
0
0 0
eD3
0 0
0
0 0
0
0 0
0
(20)
0
0
0
0 0
0
0 0
0
r 0
0
0 e(DI+D3)/2
0 r
0 0
where D1, D2, and D3 are the respective principal values of the damage variable D. The damage energy release rate Y for cases A, B, and C have been derived by means of Eq. 5 in Reference [10].
6.4 Anisotropic Damage
427
Models based on a fourthorder symmetric damage tensor D have been proposed [2, 11, 12]. One sample form of damage effective tensor is [2]
lD1 v D1 1v lD1 v D1 1v lD1
M
1
0
0
0
0
0
1 0 0
0 0
0 1 0
0 0
0 0 1
0 0
0 0 0
1Ds
0 0 (21) 0
0
0
0 _ 0
1
0
Based on the assumption that original isotropic materials will remain isotropic under load, a damage effect tensor is expressed with two scalars D and # [13]" "1 # #
M ~
# 1 # 0 0 0
# # 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1# 0 0
0 0 0 0 1# 0
0 0 0

1D
(22) 0 0 .0 0 0 1#_
This model is for isotropic materials, but the changes in both Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio due to material degradation are taken into account. The damage characteristic tensor J in Eq. 13 may be defined as [13] 1
/1 /1
J ~..
/1 /1
1 /1 /7 1
0
0 0
0
0 0
0
0 0
(23)
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
2(1/1) 0 0
0 2(1/1) 0
0 0 2(1/1)
where q is a material constant.
428
Chow and Wei
6.4.5 H O W TO USE IT BY NUMERICAL
SIMULATION
The procedure for formulating the finite element analysis with damage is similar in principle to the conventional finite element method analysis. However, the stiffness matrix C needs to be modified for the following equation when damage effects are taken into account. do" = C :dg (24)
where dcr is the Cauchy stress increment and de is the true strain increment. The approach to deriving the damagecoupled stiffness matrix can be found in References [13,14].
6.4.6 APPLICATIONS
Several CDM models have been applied successfully to characterize the failure analysis of different materials for ductile fracture, metal forming, and fatigue failure in the last decade. The failure analyses include the following: 9 9 9 9 9 Crack initiation and propagation in mixedmode ductile fracture [14] Threedimensional ductile failure analysis [15] Damage analysis in composite materials [ 16] Prediction of forming limit diagrams [ 17] Fatigue failure analysis [18,19].
REFERENCES
1. Kachanov, L. M. (1958). On the creep fracture time. Ivz. Acad. Nauk U.S.S.R. Otd. Tech. Nauk. 8:2631. 2. Lemaitre, J., and Chaboche, J. L. (1990). Mechanics of Solid Mechanics, Cambridge University Press. 3. Case, E. D. (1984). The effect of microcracking upon the Poisson's ratio for brittle solids. J. Mater. Sci. 19: 37023712. 4. Cordebois, J. P., and Sidoroff, E (1982). Anisotropic damage in elasticity and plasticity. J. Mech. Theor. Appl. 1: 4560. 5. Chow, C. L., and Wang, J. (1987). An anisotropic theory of elasticity for continuum damage mechanics. Int. J. Fract. 33: 316. 6. Hill, R. (1950). The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity, Oxford: Clarendon Press. 7. Yu, L. G., Chow, C. L., and Duggan, B. J. (1993). An orthotropic damage model with damage field mobility (DFM) method for fatigue crack propagation, in Advances in Engineering Plasticity and Its Applications, pp. 363370, Elsevier Science Publishers.
6.4 Anisotropic Damage
429
8. Chow, C. L., and Wang, J. (1987). An anisotropic theory of continuum damage mechanics for ductile fracture. Engineering Fracture Mechanics 27: 547558. 9. Lu, T. J., and Chow, C. L. (1990). On constitutive equations of inelastic solids with anisotropic damage. Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics 14: 187218. 10. Chen, X. E, and Chow, C. L. (1995). On damage strain energy release rate Y. International Journal of Damage Mechanics 4: 251263. 11. Hansen, N. R., and Schreyer, H. L. (1995). A thermodynamically consistent framework for theories of elastoplasticity coupled with damage. Int. J. Solids Structures 31: 359389. 12. Cauvin, A., and Testa, R. B. (1999). Damage mechanics: Basic variables in continuum theories. Int. J. Solids Structures 36: 747761. 13. Chow, C. L., and Wei, Y. (1999). Constitutive modeling of material damage for fatigue failure prediction. International Journal of Damage Mechanics 8: 355375. 14. Chow, C. L., and Wang, J. (1989). Crack propagation in mixedmode ductile fracture with continuum damage mechanics. Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs. 203: 189199. 15. Chow, C. L., and Chen, X. E (1998). An endochronic damage model for threedimensional ductile failure analysis of doubleedge notched thicktension specimens. Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs 212C: 2534. 16. Chow, C. L., and Yang, E (1994). Elastic damage analysis of interlaminar stress distributions in sysmetrical composite laminates with edge delamination cracks. Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs 208:111. 17. Chow, C. L., Yu, L. G., and Demeri, M. Y. (1997). A unified damage approach for predicting forming limit diagrams. ASME J. Eng. Mater. Tech. 119: 346353. 18. Chow, C. L., and Yu, L. G. (1995). An anisotropic damage model for metal fatigue. Computational Mechanics '95 2: 19041919. 19. Chow, C. L., and Wei, Y. (1996). A fatigue damage model for crack propagation. Advances in Fatigue Lifetime Predictive Techniques, ASTM STP 1291, 8699.
SECTION
6.5
The Modified Gurson Model
V. TVERGAARD and A. NEEDLEMAN 1 2
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Solid Mechanics, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark 2Brown University, Division of Engineering, Providence, Rhode Island
Contents 6.5.1 Validity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.2 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.3 Description of the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.4 Identification of Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.5 How to Use the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
430 430 431 434 434
435
6.5.1 VALIDITY The effect of microvoid nucleation, growth, and coalescence on the plastic response of structural metals is modeled. The formulation is valid for finite strains, and there are versions for both rateindependent and ratedependent plasticity. Porosity is accounted for through a single parameter, the void volume fraction. Any effect of deformationinduced void shape changes is neglected. The accuracy of the model is highest for states of relatively high stress triaxiality of relatively low void volume concentration. In order to predict crack initiation and growth, a length scale needs to be incorporated into the problem formulation.
6.5.2
BACKGROUND
Ductile fracture in structural metals deformed at room temperature takes place by the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of microvoids. The voids generally nucleate by decohesion of secondphase particles or by particle fracture, and grow by plastic deformation of the surrounding matrix. Void
Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. ISBN 0124433413. Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. All fights of reproduction in any form reserved.
430
6.5 The Modified Gurson Model
431
coalescence occurs either by necking down of the matrix material between adjacent voids or by localized shearing between wellseparated voids. This process of progressive cavitation softens the material, eventually leading to plastic instability and/or fracture.
6.5.3
DESCRIPTION
OF THE MODEL
The basis for the material model is a modification of the flow potential due to Gurson for a progressively cavitating solid.
~e @  ~~ 4 2qd* cosh t 2 ~ /
Here ~ is the matrix flow strength and
 1  (ql
 0
with o'ij being the Cauchy or true stress. The potential q~ reduces to that for a Mises solid (see Chapter 4) when f*  0. The parameters ql and q2 were introduced to bring the predictions of the model into closer agreement with full numerical analyses of a periodic array of voids. The bilinear function f*(f) accounts for the effects of rapid void coalescence at failure and is given by
f* {f f<f~ f~ 4(~f~) (f  f~)l(ff  f~) f ~_f~
where f is the void volume fraction. As f ~ ff, f* ~ 1/ql and the material loses all stresscarrying capacity. The evolution equation for the void volume fraction is written as
where () denotes partial differentiation with respect to time. The rate of increase of the void volume fraction due to the growth of existing voids is determined from the condition that the matrix material is plastically incompressible,
fgrowth  (1  f) d~k Here, d/~ is the plastic part of the rate of deformation tensor (also called the velocity strain tensor).
432
Tvergaard a n d N e e d l e m a n
The contribution resulting from the nucleation of new voids is taken to be described by
Jnuc~at~on =
~'b +~ ~k~
Nucleation for a given population of particles is generally regarded as either plastic straincontrolled, d > 0 and ~ = 0, or stresscontrolled, d = ~ , and often taken to follow a normal distribution. For example, for straincontrolled nucleation, M = 0 and ~r fN exp l(~eN
when ~  (B)max and ~ > O. Here, E and Et are, respectively, the Young's modulus and the tangent modulus of the matrix material, fN is the volume fraction of voidnucleating particles, eN is the mean nucleation strain, and SN is the standard deviation. There is a similar expression for stresscontrolled nucleation. For a rateindependent matrix, d~  ~ pij qkz CrhZ where akz is the Jaumann rate of Cauchy stress and 3 aij P iJ = 2 ~ 4 ~ ~ ij ,
I
1
3 aij q iJ  2 Fr 4 fl ~ ij
l
f* (q2ahk~ c~  ~ qlq2 sinh \ 2~" / '
/3  ~ +g eby
gr
90~
H
where
=
g
3a(1 f)~f+
d +~a E  Et 1 f~,F 2
c9~  =
of
cosh
\2~/

qls*]
with 1 K(~_fc)/(ff _fc) f<fc f >_f~
0~ fie _ f , =  2 ~~ 0~
(Tkk qlq2 ~ sinh \ 2~ /
6.5 The Modified Gurson Model
433
We also note that 3alj +f*qlq2 sinh (q2akk'~aij 8.2 a \ 26 /
Oaij
The preceding expression for the plastic strain rate pertains to plastic loading, which is when 9 0 and qklakl/H > 0. Otherwise, d/~  0 . The rate of increase of the matrix flow strength is given by
EEt aijdPij E  Et ( 1  f)a
Assuming small elastic strains, so that the elastic response can be represented in terms of a hypoelastic relation, the stressratestrainrate relation can be written as
(r0  Lijhzdkz
where, for plastic loading,
Lijkl  Lijkl
1 H + pmnLemnrsqrs Lij mnpmn (Lklrsqrs)
/
Here, L~jkzis the tensor of elastic moduli
Lijkl


E 1+ v
(&~jz + &~jk) ~ 1  2v
with v being Poisson's ratio. For a ratedependent matrix material, the plastic part of the rate of deformation tensor is written as dp _ (1  f)8"~ 0 r
ahz Oakz
with ~ a function of the current state. For example, for power law strain hardening and strain rate hardening, an expression of the form

~0
o(1 F~/eo)
has been used in applications, when m is the strain ratehardening exponent, N is the strainhardening exponent, and ko, ao, and ~o are a reference strain rate, strength, and strain, respectively.
434 The stressratestrainrate relation takes the form
e !1 f)o'._.~ O~ O0"mn
Tvergaard and Needleman
In the ratedependent case, straincontrolled nucleation is written as fnucleation = ~ and stresscontrolled nucleation is still characterized by the previous expression with d = ~. The evolution of ~r is determined from the consistency condition that q)  0 during continued plastic deformation.
6.5.4 IDENTIFICATION
OF PARAMETERS
The elastic parameters E and v, as well as the matrixhardening properties, such as an initial yield strength, ~ry, and a strainhardening exponent, N, are determined from a uniaxial tension test for the matrix material, i.e., the material with f = 0. The parameters ql and q2 have been estimated by a number of micromechanical analyses and by experiments on sintered metals. Generally, the values are in the ranges 1.25 < ql < 2 and 0.9 < q2 < 1, and frequently used values are ql  1.5 and q2 = 1. For the coalescence model the parameters fc and ff have been estimated using both experiments and micromechanical analyses. The value ff = 0.25 often reasonable, andfc ranges from 0.03 to 0.15 when the initial void volume fraction ranges from 0.001 to 0.08. The initial void volume fraction and the nucleation parameters such as fN, eN, and sN differ a great deal from material to material. These parameters can be estimated by studying micrographs for test specimens at different stages of deformation.
6.5.5 HOW
TO USE THE MODEL
The material model is typically used in a numerical computation, either to predict flow localization or to predict final failure by void coalescence and crack growth. The onset of plastic flow localization is often predicted at small void volume fractions, so that coalescence has not yet played a role. Several studies of localization have used a simplified model, the MKmodel but localization is also predicted in full numerical computations.
6.5 The Modified Gurson Model
435
W h e n final failure b y v o i d c o a l e s c e n c e is p r e d i c t e d at a m a t e r i a l p o i n t , the m a t e r i a l loses its s t r e s s  c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y at this p o i n t . In a finite e l e m e n t c o m p u t a t i o n it is p r a c t i c a l to r e p r e s e n t this in t e r m s of an e l e m e n t v a n i s h t e c h n i q u e , w h e r e the stiffnesses a n d stresses for the e l e m e n t are n e g l e c t e d s u b s e q u e n t l y . W i t h this p r o c e d u r e the m a t e r i a l m o d e l c a n p r e d i c t first d u c t i l e failure as w e l l as d u c t i l e c r a c k g r o w t h in a n u m e r i c a l analysis. D i s c r e t i z a t i o n i n d e p e n d e n t p r e d i c t i o n s of f r a c t u r e r e q u i r e a l e n g t h scale to be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the p r o b l e m f o r m u l a t i o n .
REFERENCES
1. Becker, R., Needleman, A., Richmond, O., and Tvergaard, V. (1988). Void growth and failure in notched bars. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 36: 317351. 2. Chu, C. C., and Needleman, A. (1980). Void nucleation effects in biaxially stretched sheets. J. Engin. Mat. Tech. 102: 249256. 3. Gurson, A. L. (1977). Continuum theory of ductile rupture by void nucleation and growth, Part I: Yield criteria and flow rules for porous ductile materials. J. Engin. Mat. Tech. 99: 215. 4. Koplik, J., and Needleman, A. (1988). Void growth and coalescence in porous plastic solids. Int. J. Solids Struct. 24: 835853. 5. Needleman, A., and Rice, J. R. (1978). Limits to ductility set by plastic flow localization, in Mechanics of Sheet Metal Forming, pp. 237265, Koistinen, D. P., and Wang, N. M., eds., New York: Plenum. 6. Needleman, A., and Tvergaard, V. (1994). Mesh effects in the analysis of dynamic ductile crack growth. Eng. Frac. Mech. 47: 7591. 7. Pan, J., Saje, M., and Needleman, A. (1983). Localization of deformation in rate sensitive porous plastic solids. Int. J. Fract. 21:261278. 8. Tvergaard, V. (1981). Influence of voids on shear band instabilities under plane strain conditions. Int. J. Fract. 17: 389407. 9. Tvergaard, V. (1982). Influence of void nucleation on ductile shear fracture at a free surface. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 30: 399425. 10. Tvergaard, V. (1990). Material failure by void growth to coalescence. Adv. Appl. Mech. 27: 83151. 11. Tvergaard, V., and Needleman, A. (1984). Analysis of the cupcone fracture in a round tensile bar. Acta Metall. 32: 157169.
SECTION
6.6
The Rousselier Model for Porous Metal Plasticity and Ductile Fracture
GILLES ROUSSELIER
EDF/R&D Division, Les Renardidres, 77818 MoretsurLoing Cedex, France
Contents 6.6.1 Validity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 6.6.2 Formulation [ 1113] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 6.6.3 Description of the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438 6.6.3.1 General Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438 6.6.3.2 Extension to Viscoplasticity . . . . . . . . . . 438 6.6.3.3 Extension to Void Nucleation . . . . . . . . 439 6.6.3.4 Ductile Fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 6.6.4 Identification of the Material Parameters f0, 0"1, and lc ............................... 439 6.6.5 Implementation in Finite Element Codes . . . 441 6.6.6 Tables of Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 6.6.6.1 "ESIS" Ferritic Steel at 0~ . . . . . . . . . . . 442 6.6.6.2 Other Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
6.6.1 VALIDITY
In the f r a m e of c o n t i n u u m d a m a g e m e c h a n i c s a m o d e l for p o r o u s m e t a l pla st i c i t y is p r e s e n t e d . This m o d e l y i e l d s m a t e r i a l instability ( l o c a l i z a t i o n of d e f o r m a t i o n a n d d a m a g e in a p l a n e ) a n d c a n be u s e d to p r e d i c t d u c t i l e f r a c t u re of p l a i n a n d c r a c k e d s t r u c t u r e s in the f r a m e of a local a p p r o a c h to fracture.
Handbook of Materials BehaviorModels. ISBN 0124433413. Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.
436
6.6 T h e R o u s s e l i e r M o d e l
437 [1113]
6.6.2 FORMULATION
In the continuum theory of damage, a damage state variable f is introduced in addition to the strainhardening state variable p and the plastic strain tensor el. The variables p and f are scalars, and the model is theoretically limited to isotropic strain hardening and damage; in practice, the model can be used for anisotropic ductile damage under proportional loading. The thermodynamics of irreversible processes defines thermodynamical forces (P, F) such that the specific intrinsic dissipated power is
O"
= . if  e p  F f > O p
(1)
where p is the density; p = Po in the undamaged reference state; and Po = 1 can be assumed if inertial effects are neglected. The variables E/P, P, F associated with the internal variables __eP,p, f derive from the specific free energy ~(~  e__P, p,f) = ~(e_e, p,f) [8]: _~
p
0~t'
0~
e=Op' vof
be an
0~t'
0~
(2)
The
W
is
assumed
to
additive
function
W=
l~e E ~e ~ . = .= + Uffp(p) + ~ f ( f ) . consequently, P  e(p), F  h  l ( f ) , and, inver
sely, f  h(F). The existence of a plastic potential is postulated that depends on the first and second invariants of the stress tensor: Crm coupled with F and Ceq coupled with P:
~vMCreq/P P is the yon Mises plastic potential (and yield criterion q~M = 0), and P = R(p) is the strainhardening curve of the material. The simplest form is assumed for the second term: ~m = g(crm/p)h(F). The normality rules gives 9

cg@~M
 12 Cg@m = 3pg'(r
3
(4)
/~ _ _ 2 0 ~
0~
(5)
The variable f is defined as the void volume fraction, and the matrix material is postulated to be incompressible (the volumic elastic strain ee is m neglected); therefore, p  ( 1  f ) / ( 1  f o ) and f  3 ( 1  f ) k P m. From the
438 latter equation it is g (9)
=
Rousselier
demonstrated
D01
[12, 13] that , F=
exp
0m (~1)
Const.
01 In
1 (ff)
(6)
where D and 01 are constant parameters. The third parameter of the model is the initial void volume fraction f0.
6.6.3 DESCRIPTION 6.6.3.1
OF THE MODEL
GENERAL EQUATIONS
The equations to be used in applications are resumed from the preceding section:
~b = 0eAq R(p) + Df01exp(0~) = 0
(7)
= = _E. p 
_
_
(8)
= P 20e~q' ~'Pm ~pDf exp =
f = 3(1f)/~Pm
~
(9) (10)
where 0eq= (3__~" _.~/2)1/2 is the von Mises equivalent stress, __~ = ~  0ml is the stress deviator, 0m = tr(_~)/3 is the hydrostatic stress, /~ = (2~" ~ / 3 ) 1/2, k~ = ~ + ~Pml, p is the cumulated plastic strain, f is the void volume fraction (initial value fo), P = (1  f) / (1  fo) is the relative density (initial value Po = 1; since fo is small, some authors simply take p = 1  f ) , D, fo, 01 are constant parameters, and R(p) is the true stresstrue plastic strain curve of the material.
6.6.3.2
EXTENSION TO VISCOPLASTICITY
R(p) is replaced by R(p,/~) and/~ is deduced from (I)= 0. For example, if R(p,/~) = R(p) + Mp 1/m, then P= <1[~
_
R(p) +Df01exp(~l)] ) rn
0m
(ii)
where (x) = x if x > 0 and (x) = 0 if x < O.
6.6 The Rousselier Model 6.6.3.3 EXTENSION TO VOID NUCLEATION
439
The rate of the void volume fraction is given by f  f g 3(1  f g ) ~ and f,,  A p or other rate equations.
+fn with fg =
6 . 6 . 3 . 4 DUCTILE FRACTURE
The model describes not only porous metal plasticity but also void coalescence and ductile fracture. Actually, void growth in the model results in strain softening, which promotes localization of deformation and damage in a plane. Crack initiation and propagation occur naturally in a theoretical or
finite element calculation, resulting from the constitutive relations only, without it being necessary to define a critical void volume fraction [11].
For practical reasons it may be useful to accelerate void growth beyond a given value f  fc, for example, with f = 3B(1  f ) ~ if f > fc (B > 1). The value fc has to be chosen well beyond the void volume fraction at strain localization, so that it will not affect the local instability, fc is not a parameter of the model, in contrast with the GursonTvergaardNeedleman model. It may be useful too, for large crack growth, to set the rigidity to 0 when f exceeds some given value ff [10]. Typical values are fc = 0.2, B = 3, and 0.9.
6.6.4 IDENTIFICATION OF THE MATERIAL PARAMETERS f0, o1, A N D lc
From cavity growth measurements [12] and theoretical considerations, it was concluded that D can be considered as materialindependent and that for most materials D2 (12)
The identification is based on coupled mechanical testing and finite element analyses. To calibrate f0, quantitative metallographic examinations are recommended, but not mandatory. For steels, if these examinations are not available, f0 can be estimated from the chemical composition thanks to the Franklin formula (manganese sulfide and oxide inclusions):
f0 = 0.054 %S(wt)  %Mn(wt)] + O'055~176
[
(13)
The parameter al or the couple (Crl,f0) can be calibrated with smooth or notched round tensile specimens. A stiff testing machine is recommended,
440
Lol
/
Rousselier
~d
o1(2)>o1(1 )
Load
/
(1)
(2)
ecl
gc2> gcl
~ 0 = ~0 ~
FIGURE 6.6.1 Effectof parameters (O'1,f0) and lc on the load vs. diametral reduction curve of a tensile specimen.
and the measurement of the reduction of diameter A~b = 4)0  ~b is mandatory. The loadversusdiameter reduction curve presents at ~b = ~b a breakpoint of F rapid decrease of load corresponding to the inflation of a macroscopic crack in the center of the specimen (Fig. 6.6.1). In the case of smooth specimens, the diameter reduction of the minimum section can also be measured with interrupted tests and the breakpoint determined from the residual diameters of broken specimens. The parameters are calibrated so that the experimental and numerical breakpoints coincide. The hardening curve R(p) can be calibrated with the same tensile experiments. A first try for al is the mean of 2R(p)/3 over the range of deformation p = (0, gv), gF = 21n(~b0/~br) experienced by smooth tensile specimens. If R(p) = Kp", then 2 Kg} 2 R(gF) 1= 3n +~ (14)
O'1 = 3 n +
This equation and the Franklin formula give a first estimate of (O'l,f0) but cannot replace a complete calibration. The ductile crack propagation in the center of tensile specimens, or crack initiation and propagation in precracked specimens (compact tension [CT]), depend on the finite element model: element size lc, element type, symmetries, mesh geometry, etc. That is why (i) the additional parameter lc has to be calibrated for applications to cracked geometries, and (ii) the same finite element model has to be used for calibration with laboratory specimens and for applications to structural components. The parameter l~ can be calibrated with experiments on tensile specimens or fracture mechanics specimens (CT). With tensile specimens the slope of the load vs. diameter reduction curve after the breakpoint has to be well
6.6 The Rousselier Model
441
defined. It may be not the case if the testing machine is not stiff enough, lc is calibrated so that the numerical and experimental slopes coincide. With fracture mechanics specimens, the calibration is performed on the slope of the displacement vs. stable crack growth Aa curve, or on the slope of the JR curve (tearing resistance parameter vs. Aa). For many steels lc is in the range 0.40.6 mm. lc is related to the interparticle spacing.
6.6.5 IMPLEMENTATION IN FINITE ELEMENT CODES
The following implicit algorithm is recommended. The symbols X  X + AX are used, in particular f  f  + Af. For a known strain increment A_~, Af is given by the scalar implicit equation: [(~)+2#A~_d]
31zApR(p+Ap)+Dal(f+
eq
Af)exp
(cry1)
3B(1  f )
0
where +3K A e m 
Ap
Bf(1  f) D exp(am/pal)'
p
(16) With the implicit algorithm, _a can be computed from A~_,i.e., a =  e). The tangent operator derives consistently from this equation:
A a _  dO(Ae__)/d(Ae) " Ae_..
The calculations have to be performed with large displacements and large deformations options activated. In the finite element model a reduced integration scheme has to be used: for twodimensional models, 8noded quadratic elements (2 • 2 integration order), or: linear quadratic elements (1 • 1 integration order) coupled with linear triangular elements. For crack propagation and precracked geometries a uniform mesh along the crack extension has to be used. Rectangular or square elements are preferred, with sides lx along the crack extension and ly in the perpendicular direction. The size lc of these elements is a parameter of the model, lc is related to the height ly of the elements. For symmetrical geometries (half model) and 8noded quadratic elements l c  2ly; rectangular elements with lx  2ly are preferred. For complete geometries lc  ly; square elements with l x  ly are preferred (Fig. 6.6.2).
442
Rousselier
Cr~
Ick
e,y = gc
Or ~ck _ _ , ;. . . . . . .
]
I
.......
9. . . . . . l ,! ! I
I
l
.L . . . . . .
t . . . . ,I I I
I
,
l,~ =~
ly
,~ "'
, ......
! !
,
I
, . . . . . .
! !
4. . . . . . .
 l  
L. . . . . . . . . . .
I
X___., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
, I , I
I I I
'I
Complete
model
II
,~ . . . . . .
I i
i
i ............
, I
I
I
Half model (symmetrical problem)
Uniform mesh of precracked geometries.
t
FIGURE
6.6.2
6 . 6 . 6 TABLES O F P A R A M E T E R S 6.6.6.1 " E S I S " FERRITIC STEEL AT 0 ~
A numerical round robin on the application of micromechanical models and the local approach to fracture for characterizing ductile tearing has been proposed by the European Structural Integrity Society (ESIS) [3]. It is based on the data of a 22 NiMoCr 3 7 steel (German designation). The chemical composition of this steel is given in Table 6.6.1. The Franklin formula 13 gives f0 = 0.00015. The stressstrain curve is R(p)908p0 " 1 2 5 (MPa) for p > 0.1459. The experiments on smooth tensile specimens (~b0 = 6 mm) show breakpoints at eF = 1.038 and 1.160. Equation 14 gives (71   541 and 548 MPa, mean value 545 MPa. A set of 14 finite element calculations has been performed by CEA (Saclay), MPA (Stuttgart), and EDF (Les Renardi~res); the numerical breakpoints are given in Table 6.6.2. A quadratic fit of s f0) is ev  0 . 5 9 0 4 0.0642 lnfo  [3.83 4 0.922 lnfo 4 0.0192(lnfo)2](~rl/1000) 4 (2.54 4 0.468 lnfo)(crl/1000) 2 (17)
For fo = 0.00015 and O"1 = 545MPa, Eq. 17 gives e F  1.081, in the interval of the two experimental values. This shows the good quality for this steel of the simple calibration method based on Franklin formula 13 and Eq. 14.
6.6 The Rousselier Model
TABLE 6.6.1 Steel "ESIS" 304L Austenitic weld A48 Rotor steel A508 class 3 heat A A508 class 3 heat B A508 class 3 (NKS1) A508 class 3 (SC1) NKS 3 10MnMoNi 5 5
443
Chemical Composition (Weight %)
C 0.22 0.023 0.010 0.20 0.225 0.143 0.163 0.192 0.22 0.25 0.10 S 0.004 0.0013 0.0013 0.021 0.013 0.0054 0.008 0.002 0.012 0.011 0.004 P 0.007 0.019 0.022 0.010 0.0063 0.007 0.007 0.012 0.009 0.007 Mn 0.88 1.64 1.45 0.97 0.71 1.265 1.375 1.395 1.32 0.68 1.29 Si 0.23 0.41 0.36 0.23 0.23 0.267 0.24 0.25 0.20 0.23 0.15 Ni 0.84 9.6 11.16 0.12 1.02 0.745 0.70 0.765 0.78 0.71 0.94
Steel "ESIS" 304L Austenitic weld A48 Rotor steel A508 class 3 heat A A508 class 3 heat B A508 class 3 (NKS1) A508 class 3 (SC1) NKS 3 10 MnMoNi 5 5
Cr 0.39 19.0 18.20 0.10 1.72 0.196 0.17 0.03 0.08 0.47 0.06
Mo 0.51 0.45 2.78 0.03 0.70 0.551 0.50 0.48 0.57 0.75 0.58
V
N
O
0.059 0.054 0.011 0.035 0.0025 <0.01
0.0061 0.068 0.008
0.007
0.0035
<0.01 0.01
TABLE 6.6.2
"ESIS" Steel ( K = 908 MPa, n = 0.125); Numerical Mean Strain eF at BreakPoint
(Smooth Tensile Specimen)
~f0, al(MPai 0.00010 0.00020 0.00021 0.00032 0.00061 0.00200 312 445 0.989 0.929 0.924 0.872 0.796 0.629 519 600 655 700 800
1.148
0.514
0.872 0.694
0.945
1.011
1.078 0.882
For a different choice of parameters: f0 = 0.00010 and cr1   4 4 5 M P a (~/: = 0 . 9 8 9 ) , the calculation of experiments on CT specimens gives lc 0.4 mm (square elements). If the rigidity of the material is set to 0 for a very low value of the void volume fraction f = 3 ~ = 0.05, then lc has to be increased to 0.6 mm.
13 0. the parameters of various steels are given in Table 6. if n and h are very close.113 0.55 b 0.6.3 Rousselier Parameters Orient. 6.I<pr' and critical strain ~F on smooth tensile specimens. A508 class 3 heat B direction T(axial) at 0 Celsius.4 0.444 TABLE 6.6.4 0. fo) of a different steel with stressstrain curve R ( p ) . circum. 304L.13 0. Equation 17 is valid for smooth tensile specimens only. and 10 MnMoNi 5 5 (square elements lx = ly). Equation 17 can give a first estimate of the parameters (0"1.184 0.55 0. The parameter 0.8 mm with d~=0.4 0. The temperature dependence .4 0.366 0.4 0.125 0.1 0. L (circ. 14.6.4 a 1 0.4 0.104 0.55 0.1 depends on the stressstrain curve used in the calculation.6 mm with d~=0.4 0.4 0.2 OTHERSTEELS Corresponding to the chemical compositions of Table 6.1.1 0. (a) lc=0.05.1 0.168 0.121 0. The corresponding equations should be determined for notched tensile specimens and for other values of n. if it is different from the real curve of the material (NKS1 steel). with the correction ffl = 0"1[/~GfiF/(/'~}1)]/[K~/(n + 1)]. weld [13] A48 [2] Rotor steel [ 13] A508 A[13] A508 B[13][1] L (axial) T circum. in a way more or less unpredictable by Eq.) L (axial) idem 220 290 100 220 260 290 320 20 idem idem idem idem 10M55 [10] idem idem idem idem L 545 445 500 565 240 490 445 445 410 445 365 445 400 370 350 430 415 435 445 460 445 0.9).55 0.55 0.6.) idem 300 20 300 40 100 100 320 0 320 100 idem idem [6] idem NKSI [4] idem T (axial) idem L (axial) idem idem SC1 [7] NKS3 [5] idem idem T (circ.1 0.55 0.125 0.113 0.) L (circ.55 0.55 0.55 b D=2 except for 304L (D=1. Rectangular elements lx = 21y except for "ESIS".6.3.1 0. Temp ~ 0 K MPa 908 908 731 1010 974 795 795 795 1008 797 795 820 820 611 934 995 986 988 971 1030 n 0. (b) lc=0.111 0.55 0.118 f0 105 15 10 69 10 200 50 16 18 18 50 50 7 7 7 60 50 50 50 50 50 1 O"1 M P a Steel "ESIS" [3] lc mm idem 304L [9] Aust.060 0.14 0.05.
(1998). Rousselier. 11. A. M~canique Non Lin~aire et Approche Locale de la Rupture. The parameter lc s e e m s to b e 0 . Eng. PhD thesis.M. E. pp. S. 7.. Seidenfuss. Bethmont. Eng. (2000). R. Universit~ de Technologie de Compi~gne. Bethmont. The method of local approach of fracture and its application to a thermal shock experiment. 152: 1118. (1994). J. G. in Trans. 6. (1999). M. G. M~canique des Mat~riaux Solides. Devesa. Ecole Nationale Sup~rieure des Mines de Paris. in ThreeJDimensional Constitutive Relations and Ductile Fracture. First spinning cylinder test analysis using a local approach to fracture. Ecole Nationale Sup~rieure des Mines de Paris.. . Nucl. G. R. 332354. 190: 171190. C. (1987). Approche Locale de la Rupture Ductile: application h u n Acier CarboneManganese. M. G. Nucl. 9. 119: 249261. 2. W. 105: 97111. and Batisse. 10. PitardBouet. pp. G. (1985). K. G. A methodology for ductile fracture analysis based on damage mechanics: An illustration of a local approach of fracture.. Eng. and Chaboche. 4 m m for t h e ferritic s t e e l s w i t h M n ( % ) < 1. Paris: DunodBordas. Rousselier. (1981).. G. Bauvineau... can be affected by dynamic strain aging (PortevinLe Chatelier). (1989).. J. and Brocks.6 The Rousselier Model 445 of O"1 maximum at 220~ Mn(%) = 1. J. (1999). G.JC. Nucl. 8. of the 9th Int. on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology. Ductile fracture analysis by means of a local approach. D~clenchement du Clivage dans un Acier Faiblement Alli~: R6le de l'Endommagement Ductile Localis~ autour des Inclusions. Sauter..2"1. Des.6. (1996). (1989). Devaux. (1988). Conf. G. Bernauer. 4. ESISTC8 and GKSS/WMS/00/5.. 3. Numerical round robin on micromechanical models. and Jovanovic. Contribution h la Mod~lisation de la Rupture Ductile des Aciers. Batisse. for the ferritic steels of Table 6. and computational analysis in the upper shelf by means of the global and local approaches. Phase II: Results of task a. Des. ASTM STP 995.. (1987). Carassou. Finite deformation constitutive relations including ductile fracture damage. and Kussmaul. Rousselier. PhD thesis. PhD thesis. Ductile fracture models and their potential in local approach of fracture. Des.6... NorthHolland. 13.. Eripret.4.0 a n d 0 . Kussmaul.L. K. PhD thesis.. Rousselier. 331355. Application d l'Acier Inoxydable Aust~nitique Z2 CN 1810 sous Chargements Complexes. on the 10 MnMoNi 5 5 steel. Nucl. A. Mottet. 5. Lemaitre. G. Bethmont. 5 5 m m w i t h REFERENCES 1. Universit~ Paris VI. L. Marques Vieira... 12. Rousselier. Experimental investigations on the "shallow crack effect". Eng. Des.3. M. J. Technical report. Devesa. and Rousselier. M.
. . . . . . . References . .7. . . . . . elasticplastic. . 6. . . . . . . .3 Constitutive Equation of Damaged Material . . . . . . . .1 VALIDITY This m o d e l was originally developed to describe the anisotropic state of creep damage and the related evolution equation of the damage. .3 Definition of Effective Stresses . . .2 Restriction and Interpretation of Damage Tensor .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .7. . . .7. . . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . . .7. . . . . . .3. . . . . 4648603 Japan Contents 6. . . . 6. . . . . . ISBN 0124433413. . . . . . . . . . 6. . .3. . . . . .1 Representation of Anisotropic Damage State . . . . . . .2 Evolution Equation of Anisotropic Creep Damage .SECTION 6. . 6. . . . .5 How to Use the Model . .2 Background .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . . . . Since the m o d e l is based on the concept of effective area reduction caused by distributed microscopic cracks and cavities. it can also describe anisotropic states of damage observed in creepfatigue. . .7 Model of Anisotropic Creep Damage SUMIO MURAKAMI Nagoya University. . . . . . . . 6. . Furocho. . . . . . . . . . 446 . . . . . . . .7. .1 Validity . . . . 446 447 447 448 450 450 450 451 451 451 452 452 6. . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . Chikusaku. . . . . . . . . . . . . . and elasticbrittle damage of Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. 6. . . . . . .7. . . . . . .7. . . . . . . .4 Identification of the Parameters .7. . . Nagoya. . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . 6. . . .3 Description of the Model . . . . . . .7. . . . . 6. .7. . . . . . . .2. . .1 Anisotropic Damage Variable and Effective Stress . . . . .2.
and represent the line elements PQ. Then the effective net area of vdA will be equivalent to a smaller undamaged area element v* dA* in a fictitious (equivalent) undamaged configuration Bf of FIGURE 6. Current damaged configuration.1 Definition of threedimensional state of damage. b. .6.2 BACKGROUND The present model of threedimensional anisotropic damage [13] has been developed by extending the isotropic damage theory of Kachanov [4]. and rocks.7. dy and vdA as shown in Figure 6. 6. composite materials. concretes.1 REPRESENTATIONOF ANISOTROPIC DAMAGE STATE Let us take a representative surface element PQR of an arbitrary orientation in the current (actual) damage configuration Bt of a body.7.7.1a. PR. It is assumed that the principal effect of the material damage is the effective area decrease due to threedimensional distribution of microcavities.2. where v is a unit normal vector of the element PQR. and the area of PQR by vectors dx. 6. Fictitious undamaged configuration. a.7 Model of Anisotropic Creep Damage 447 more general materials such as metals.7. The damage variable proposed here can describe the anisotropy with symmetry larger than or equal to orthotropy.
7.D to represent the tensor K(G1) r in the form of K(cx) = i .2. K .D)(vdA) (3) where I denotes the unit tensor of rank two.det G (1) By introducing a new tensor I . Since the decrease in the effective area of vdA to v* dA* is related to the material damage.1b which is mechanically equivalent to Bt. Then we take two sets of principal coordinate systems OXlX2X3 and O*XlX2X3 of the tensor D. and will be called a damage tensor with respect to the current damage configuration Bt.2 RESTRICTION AND INTERPRETATION OF DAMAGE TENSOR In view of the requirement (v* dA* )(vdA) = [(I . Thus the secondrank tensor D of Eq. 6. and construct two tetrahedra QPQR and .D (2) Equation 1 can be written as follows: v* dA* = (I . If we represent the fictitious deformation gradient from Bt to Bf by G and employ Nanson's theorem. and D can be expressed in a canonical form 3 D .7. Thus we can assume symmetry of the damage tensor D. the damage state can be identified uniquely by specifying the transformation between vdA and v* dA* of the two configurations Bt and Bf properly.448 Murakami Figure 6. 3 is an internal state variable representing the anisotropic damage state of materials. The symbols in Bf corresponding to those in Bt are denoted by an asterisk (*). 3) and Di are the principal directions and the corresponding principal values of the tensor D.D) can be excluded without loss of generality.~ i1 Dini  ni (5) where ni(i = 1. the area vector v* dA* in Bf is related to the vector vdA in Bt as follows: v*dA . 2.(1/2)dx* • = K(G1) r(vdA).D)(vdA)] 9(vdA) > 0 (4) the asymmetric part of ( I .
6.. a. 3) (6b) where dAi .7.3dA~ dAi . Though the damage state corresponding to arbitrary distribution of microscopic cavities can be described by the second rank symmetric tensor D. Current damaged configuration.7.D i ) d A i (no sum oni. the principal values Di of the tensor D can be interpreted as the effective area reduction ratios or the effective void area densities on the three principal planes of D in Bt. Substitution of Eq.Di)dAini (6a) = n.2 Cauchy stress and effective stress in current damaged configuration and fictitious undamaged configuration.6.v/~dA* (i . 3 O*P*Q*R* as shown in Figure furnishes 3 v* dA* = ~ i=l (1 . .2.vidA and dA/* . According to Eq. the canonical expression (5) implies that the tensor D cannot describe the damage states which have more complicated symmetry than orthotropy.. 2. i . 2. Fictitious undamaged configuration.dA. + n2dA~ + . 3) designate the facet areas of the tetrahedra perpendicular to the principal direction n.7 Model of Anisotropic Creep Damage 449 6.1.1 . 5 into Eq. b.( 1 . FIGURE 6.
q_ a ( I .7. and is given as follows: a* = K1Go" . Since it is inexpedient to formulate constitutive and evolution equations of damaged materials by using the asymmetric tensor a*.D)ll (8) Thus it can be interpreted that the mechanical effect of the Cauchy stress a in Bt is magnified to the effective stress S of Eq. the effective stress with reference to the current damaged configuration Bt for the general states of damage can be defined as a stress a*. 6. This stress a * corresponds exactly to the first PiolaKirchhoff states tensor concerning the reference configuration Bf.[a ~is _ (1//2)[( I _ D)lo.2.3 DEFINITION OF EFFECTIVE STRESSES Murakami According to the notion of effective stress usually employed in damage mechanics [46]. which will be induced in the tetrahedron O *P * Q *R * in Bf of Figure 6.D)Ia 9 (7) where a is the Cauchy stress tensor in Bt. we adopt the symmetric part of the Cartesian decomposition of a * S .7. 8 as a result of the effective area reduction due to damage. 7 .450 6. 6 .2 if the surface element P* Q* R * is subject to the identical force vector t(V)dA as that on the element PQR in Bt (where t (v) denotes the stress vector on the surface element PQR).( I . 7 is asymmetric. 3 . 1 ANISOTROPIC DAMAGE VARIABLE AND EFFECTIVE STRESS A state of anisotropic damage and the increased effect of stress due to the cavity development are described by a secondrank symmetric damage tensor . Representation of a damage state with respect to the elastically unloaded damage configuration and the effective stress in reference to the initial undamaged configuration were also discussed in Reference [1].7. The effective stress a* of Eq.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL Based on the theory just described the model of anisotropic creep damage can be developed as follows.
6] or that of energy equivalence [5. the equivalent value of the effective stress tensor S. 11 are identified by performing creep damage tests under combined tension and torsion. and ~1(0 ___~/___ 1). 3 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATION OF DAMAGED MATERIAL A constitutive equation of the damaged material can be derived from the corresponding constitutive equation of undamaged material by employing the effective stress tensor S of Eq. 10.D ) . 3 . and the symbols S (1).j~)SEQ] m • [tr{(I . 4 I D E N T I F I C A T I O N OF T H E P A R A M E T E R S The material parameters of Eq. and the direction of the maximum principal stress. 10 and by postulating the hypothesis of strain equivalence [5.~ .or_(1  (11a) rl)I] (11b) SEQ [(3/2)trS2D] 1/2.(1/3)(trS)I where (') denotes the material time derivative.fltrS k (1 . SD. the deviatoric tensor of S. /~(0 _<//<__ 1). SD . on the other hand. 3]" /~ B0~S(1) q. ~. 3 . 6 . and then by fitting Eq. m.D)l~r k ~r(I. 6 . 6] in damage mechanics. 2]" 3 D =  i=1 S .7 Model of Anisotropic Creep Damage 451 D and a symmetrized effective stress tensor as follows [1.I ( v (1) Q Y(1))}]g'm[l]y(1) (~ y(1) . 9 together with the effective stress S of Eq.D) 1] where (10) Di and ni are the principal value and the principal direction of D.(1/2)[(I. SEQ. 11 together . 6 .6. and v (1) designate the maximum principal value. 7 . 2 EVOLUTION EQUATION OF ANISOTROPIC CREEP DAMAGE By employing the damage variable D of Eq. 7 . ~(0 _< ~ <__1). and by taking account of the microscopic mechanisms of damage development. are material constants. The symbols B.S . the evolution equation of isotropic creep damage [46] can be extended to the anisotropic case as follows [2. 7 .
H. J. 11) can be effectively applied to problems where damage anisotropy has significant effects. Ponter. Mechanical modeling of material damage... 2. (1996). 3. S. S.. Skrzypek.5 1. Trans. S. A Course on Damage Mechanics.7.. Mech. A.5 HOW TO USE THE MODEL The evolution equation of anisotropic creep damage (Eq. D. (1986).7.0 Murakami ~ 10.. 6. Proc. REFERENCES 1. Berlin: SpringerVerlag. J. Berlin: SpringerVerlag. 422444. A.1. (1998).1 Materials OFHC copper Nimonic 80A Table of Parameters of Eq. Murakami.0 0.0 with a proper damagecouple constitutive equation of creep to the corresponding results of the tests. R. (1999).25 0. Introduction to Continuum Damage Mechanics.55 5. These problems are usually found in the case of nonproportional loading. Kachanov.7. Kawai. Sci.54 m 5. 5.48 x 10 16 (MPa)5~ 1 ~ 0.452 TABLE 6. 11 Temperature~ 250 750 B 4. pp. See Table 6.46 • 10 13 (MPa)5. . and Ohno. R.55(h) 1 9. and Ganczarski. M. 30: 491502. S. Appl. J. Finite element analysis of creep crack growth by a local approach. Int. 6. Murakami. ASME 55: 280286. 4.75 0.46 ]3 0. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.55 5. Mech. in Creep in Structures. Berlin: SpringerVerlag. N. M. eds. A continuum theory of creep and creep damage.. (1981). Murakami. L. and Rong.. Lemaitre. (1988). J. 3rd IUTAM Symposium. and Hayhurst. Modeling of Material Damage and Failure of Structures..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . Tensile stresses and strains will separate the crack surfaces and reduce frictional forces. References . . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . . . . A second criterion is used for higherstrength materials where failure is governed by the nucleation and growth of mode I tensile cracks. . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . the irregularly shaped crack surface results in frictional forces that will reduce crack tip stresses. University of Illinois. . . . 2Nf. . . .8. . . . . .2 Background . . . . 6. . .8. . 6. A separate damage criterion is needed for each case (see Fig. . . ISBN 0124433413. Urbana. 6.8. .8. . . . The models provide an estimate of the fatigue life. . thus hindering crack growth and increasing the fatigue life. .1 Validity . . . . .8. . . . 6. . . Once formed. Fractographs from specimens that have failed in pure torsion loading show extensive rubbing and are Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. . . . . . . . . . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . . . . . 6. these microcracks are driven by cyclic tensile or shear strains. . . . . . . . 453 453 454 455 455 456 6. . . .1). . . . . .8. . . . . 6. . . .8. . . . .4 Determination of Material Constants . . . . . . One criterion is used for ductile materials that fail by the nucleation and growth of shear microcracks. . . . .8 Multiaxial Fatigue Damage Criteria DARRELL SOCIE Department of Mechanical Engineering. .SECTION 6.2 BACKGROUND Microcracks emanate from slip bands in materials subjected to cyclic plastic deformation. . . . . . . . . . for complex muhiaxial loading. .3 Description of the Models . . . . . . . 453 . . Illinois Contents 6. During shear loading. . . . . .5 How to Use the Models . . .1 VALIDITY Two muhiaxial fatigue damage criteria are needed for metals.
yield strength of material. The sensitivity of a material to normal stress is reflected in the value k/cry. .3 DESCRIPTION OF THE MODELS The following damage model [1] may be interpreted as the cyclic shear strain modified by the normal stress to include the crack closure effects that were previously described. and the righthand side describes the material resistance. " I Damage due to cyclic shear stains (b) Damage due to cyclic tension strains (a) FIGURE 6. 6. The lefthand side of the model describes the loading conditions. b.4. k . 7'f(2Nf) c' fin.max = normal stress on maximum shear strain amplitude plane. relatively featureless. This model not only explains the difference between tension and torsion loading but also can be used to describe mean stress and nonproportional hardening effects in complex multiaxial loading histories.454 Socie I I I I o As l~ . try .material constant. Damage due to cyclic shear strains.8.1 a. in contrast to tension test fractographs where individual slip bands are observed on the fracture surface. Damage due to cyclic tension strains. Shear strain life properties are introduced and summarized in Section 6. AT(1 + k Crn'max~ = ~(2Nf) b' + r' 2 O'y f where A7/2 maximum shear strain amplitude..8. thus providing experimental evidence for the influence of mean normal stresses.8.
commonly referred to as the SWT parameter.max. was originally developed and has widespread use as a correction for mean stresses in uniaxial loading situations. Ag1 T r~5 (2Nf)2~ + rrSe)(2Nf) b+c 2 The stress term in this model makes it suitable for describing mean stresses during multiaxial loading and nonproportional hardening effects.4 DETERMINATION OF M A T E R I A L CONSTANTS Material constants are obtained from standard lowcycle fatigue tests of the material (see Table 6. In these materials.1 and ~y .1 Axial Fatigue strength coefficient Fatigue strength exponent Fatigue ductility coefficient Fatigue ductility exponent Modulus ~r} b ~ c E Shear z~ ~ cr}/x/3 by ~ b y~ ~/v/3e~ cy ~ c G .6.8. As a first approximation or if test data from multiple stress states are not available. and maximum stress on the principal strain range plane.8.5 HOW TO USE THE MODELS For a complex stress state the planes experiencing the largest amplitudes of shear and normal strains must be determined from the stress and strain TABLE 6. cracks nucleate in shear.8 Multiaxial fatigue damage criteria 455 An alternate damage model is needed for materials that fail predominantly by crack growth on planes of maximum tensile strain or stress. 6. This model.8.1). 6. The SWT parameter can also be used in the analysis of both proportionally and nonproportionally loaded components constructed from materials that fail primarily because of mode I tensile cracking. but early fatigue life is controlled by crack growth on planes perpendicular to the maximum principal stress and strain. [2] proposed a suitable relationship that includes both the cyclic strain range and the maximum stress. Smith et al. k . Ael. O'n.8.or). The SWT parameter for multiaxial loading is based on the principal strain range.
8.445 80 358 0. P.097 0. Fatigue lives can be estimated from both models.413 0. cry. Society of Automotive Engineers. and Topper.413 0.402 185 709 0. tensile or shear.353 78 280 0.060 2. s) Fatigue ductility exponent. .092 0. REFERENCES 1. the normal stresses are determined.4 tensors.121 0. 2. Frequently.82 83 972 0.31 0. (1970). H.171 0. MPa Fatigue strength exponent.114 0. the expected mode of damage. Multiaxial Fatigue. by Shear fatigue ductility coefficient.67 0. c Modulus. Once these planes are identified. Journal of Materials 5 (4)" 767778.8. E. B. ~zy. N. Watson.26 0. c~ Shear modulus. and Marquis. k 948 0. (2000)..445 210 505 0.3 304 stainless steel 1000 0. See Table 6.2 for the material constants..82 208 902 0. MPa Shear fatigue strength exponent. G Yield strength. MPa Material parameter. is not known. R. T. z~.456 TABLE 6. E.8 Socie Inconel 718 1640 0.2 Table of Material Constants 1045 steel Fatigue strength coefficient. D. G. Socie. A stressstrain parameter for the fatigue of metals. the lower of the two estimates is often used. ~) Shear fatigue ductility exponent. Smith. In this case.055 4. b Fatigue ductility coefficient. GPa Shear fatigue strength coefficient.
. . . . These muhiaxial stresses arise from factors such as external loadings. . . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. .9. . an original method of computing based on a muhiscale approach was proposed by Dang Van. . . . . . 6. . . . .2 BACKGROUND In order to derive a muhiaxial endurance fatigue criterion. . . . . . In spite of this clear industrial need. . . . . . .SECTION 6. . . . . . .9. . . . . . Ecole Polytechnique. .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Background . . . . . .9. . .1 Validity . until now modeling of metal behavior in a highcycle fatigue regime was often based on empirical approaches: the WShler curve and the GoodmanHaigh or Gerber diagrams are still the very popular tools for engineers. . . . 6. . .9. . Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. . . . ISBN 0124433413. . . . . and finally residual stresses. . 6. 457 . . . . . . . . . . . . which can induce muhiaxiality even if the loading is uniaxial. . . . . . . . France Contents 6. . . . . . . . . . 6. DANG VAN kaboratoire de Mechanique des Solid.9 Multiaxial Fatigue Criteria Based on a Multiscale Approach K. . However. . . . . . . . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. .3 Formulation . . . .1 VALIDITY 457 457 459 461 461 463 Prediction of highcycle fatigue resistance is of great importance for structural design. 6. . . the geometry of the structure. . .5 How to use the Model . .4 Identification of the Parameters . . References . these concepts are not appropriate when studying the muhiaxial stress cycles that are frequently encountered on modem mechanical components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . 91128 Palaiseau. . . . .
g x. Typically V is of the order of the dimension of the strain gauges. but they may also propagate. local stress 6) differ from the macroscopic ones. After a certain number of cycles. these conditions are described with the help of macroscopicparameters which are evaluated according to different assumptions of homogeneity and isotropy. the initiation of the first visible cracks takes a large part of the fatigue life of the structure. even if it is necessary to have plastic deformation at the micro. because the phenomena which cause fatigue initiation are microscopic. a main crack initiates. For example. since. and shields the other defects and consequently leads to the final rupture of mechanical structure.458 Dang Van This method is quite different from existing fatigue approaches. this stage is then followed by localized damage corresponding to formation of intragranular microcracks. grows in size. engineers evaluate the stress 12 not at a point of a structure but over a finite volume V that defines the macroscopic scale which is used (see Fig. However. It is thus characterized by a large heterogeneity of plastic deformation from grain to grain: only certain misoriented crystals undergo plastic slips.or the mesoscale (corresponding to the grain size). Thus the use of classical macroscopic engineering parameters does not seem pertinent. In most of the existing fatigue models.9. and in this way a very heterogeneous distribution of microcracks can be observed.t xi FIGURE 6. In a highcycle fatigue regime.and mesoscopicscales. these microcracks can be arrested by grain boundaries. the local parameters (for example. It arises from the observation that generally the first fatigue damage processes begin in grains which have undergone plastic deformation.1 Differentscales of material description: the macro. In this fatigue regime. It demonstrates the importance of studying conditions governing the crack initiation process. with the appearance of slip bands in some grains which broaden progressively with the applied cycles. i l Y'T tz' ] _z_. 6. .9. most of the time no visible irreversible deformation at the macroscopic level can be detected.1).
then p must become independent of time after a certain number of cycles. let us assume that A . Assuming that an approximate elastic shakedown occurs if the loading cycles are near the fatigue limit. then there must exist a local fixed .9. More precisely. For the sake of simplicity. for instance. t) + p(m. (see. using shakedown theorems (Melan's theorem and its generalization by different authors. For practical applications.identity (elastic homogeneity).9 Multiaxial Fatigue Criteria Based on a Multiscale Approach 459 at that local scale.A. If elastic shakedown happens. and as a consequence local residual stress p.t) is the macroscopic stress tensor at time t in the representative volume element V(M) surrounding M. is not necessary. it is postulated that. the mechanical structure shakes down elastically at all scales of material description. provided that the material is considered a structure made of grains of different crystallographic orientations. Then. and ~(m. The physical interpretation of this hypothesis is that after a certain number of loading cycles the response is purely elastic (or at least the plastic dissipation rate becomes negligible). respectively. the material cannot be considered anymore as homogeneous. The general relation between macroscopic and local stress tensor is ~(m. Under this assumption. Theoretical developments of this theory are presented in Reference [2]. In this equation A is an elastic localization tensor which depends on the microstructure. These parameters are evaluated from the macroscopic parameters thanks to a hypothesis of elastic shakedown. the local stress tensor and the residual stress tensor at any point m of V(M). 6.6. it is only necessary to remember how to derive local parameters from macroscopic stress cycles near the fatigue limit. t) are. the local redistributions induced by the inhomogeneous incompatible strains ep. near the fatigue limit threshold. t) and p(m.~(M.3 FORMULATION The originality in Dang Van's proposal is precisely the use of local mesoscopic mechanical parameters a to derive fatigue resistance criteria. Reference [1]). so that the local plastic yield criterionf(m) is no longer violated. the precise knowledge of the local constitutive equations. are not accounted for. ~(M. t) . In particular. it is possible to derive a method for estimating the apparent stabilized stress (tensorial) cycle at the macroscopic and mesoscopic level which intervenes in the proposed fatigue criteria. t) This relation is well known in the theory of polycrystalline aggregates. which is presented in following text. which is not possible to evaluate. then p characterizes the local stress fluctuation in V(M).
then 6(m. ~(m)) _< 0 If the Mises criterion is chosen. representing the limiting value of the Mises norm for which elastic shakedown is possible. Since the local stress is approximately known at any time t. for at least one time instant t of the stabilized cycle. it is natural to try to take account of the characteristic of the loading path (as in plasticity).fOg(M.9. [1] showed that p* (m) can be approximately taken to be the center of the smallest hypersphere surrounding the loading path in the deviatoric macroscopic stress space represented in Figure 6. Because of the shakedown hypothesis at all scales of material description. t). ~(m)) . s) represents the deviatoric stress corresponding to Ig (resp.2 Determination of the local residual stress p . Thus a reasonable fatigue criterion could be stated as follows. Finally. if. In this figure. S at stabilization is also elastic. t) belongs to the hypershere in five dimensional space. by that construction. one has t)] ___ 0 for m c v(M) . the local stress state is known at any time t of the apparent stabilized state. Mandel et al. (independent of time) residual stress tensor p*(m) and a fixed set of local hardening parameters ~(m) such that: t) = Z(M.9. S (resp. 6). t) + V (m) f(6(m.p* (m). at the shakedown state.2. Crack initiation will occur in a critically oriented locus (usually corresponding to a grain) within V(M) that has undergone plastic deformation. t) 4.460 Dang Van C ~' m~ ~ D FIGURE 6. One must still choose a fatigue criterion.
it can be interpreted as the mean value of the normal stresses acting on all the planes that pass through the considered point of the structure. Based on these remarks. because at each point one has to consider the plane on which the loading path (z[t]. then t f/2 a .b where a and b are material parameters that can be types of fatigue experiments: uniaxial tests of torsion on classical fatigue test machines.6. whereas a small portion of path F2 induces damage. Furthermore. Damage arises over a precise portion of the loading path (or equivalently.~ + a p . This computation can . and the abscissa is the hydrostatic stress p. being an invariant scalar. p[t]) is a "maximum" relative to the criterion. and t is the twisting. over a precise time interval of the loading period). 6.3. Two more loading paths are shown.9.~ f/3 ' bt determined by two simple tensioncompression and the fatigue limit strength fatigue limit in alternate The safety domain (no fatigue crack initiation) is delimited by the two straight lines represented in Figure 6.9.4 IDENTIFICATION OF THE PARAMETERS The simplest criterion that can be conceived is a linear relation between these quantities. For this reason. The ordinate is the algebraic shear stress acting in an oriented direction. this quantity is rather difficult to compute generally because it depends of the considered plane. hydrostatic stress is preferred because it is much easier to use. F(a) is chosen to be a function of the local shear r and the local hydrostatic stress p.9 Multiaxial Fatigue Criteria Based on a Multiscale Approach 461 In such a criterion. However. Since cracks usually occur in transgranular slip bands. On the same figure the loading paths for fatigue limit in tension compression and in twisting are represented. the normal stress acting on these planes accelerates damage formation. Path lP1 is nondamaging because it lies entirely within the straight lines that delimit the safe domain. in contrary to most (or all) existing fatigue criteria.9.. the local shear acting on these planes is an important parameter. the current stress is considered. 6.5 HOW TO USE THE MODEL To check automatically the fatigue resistance of a structure is a rather difficult task. Moreover. v(~) . If f is in alternate tensioncompression.
3 Fatiguelimit domain and loading paths. Another possibility is to use the octahedral shear J2[a(t)] instead of z(t). the criterion also provides the direction of crack initiation. Couples (~. However. Another interesting proposal derived from the multiscale approach was given by I.(t ) r The stresses r and trj(t) are principal local stresses at time t.462 "t Dang Van I tensioncompression . p) are situated in the positive part of ~. FIGURE 6. Therefore. Working this way. be simplified as follows. this method does not give the critical facets.Max t "c(t) b p(t) is calculated over the loading period. p) verifying the condition d > 1 are associated with specific facets. The maximum shear stress according to Tresca's measure is calculated over the cycle period: z(t) = Tresca[tT(t)] It is useful to notice that Tresca[tT(t)] = Tresca[s(t)] = MaxultT. The quantity d that quantifies the danger of fatigue failure defined by d . If d > 1.9.V. the fatigue failure will occur.Papadopoulos: the fatigue limit for a given periodic loading 2Q(t) corresponds to the limit of the intensity 2 such that elastic shakedown is possible. plastic shakedown or ratchet phenomena will induce damage and fracture because of subsequent softening. . The limit size k* . ~ . o . Beyond this limit. all couples (~. The maximum is to be taken over the cycle. All facets which could be involved by the crack initiation are automatically reviewed.
(1977). Comm. Mech. Mandel.fl > 0 As previously.. Adaptation d'une structure elastoplastique ecrouissage cinematique.. eds.M. and Papadopoulos. This corresponding fatigue criterion is k* 4~Pmax . . Dang Van. is determined. Halphen.V. Introduction to fatigue analysis in mechanical design by the multiscale approach. and Zarka. J. B. Dang Van.I. 2.. By this method it is no longer necessary to describe the whole loading path once k. New York: Springer Wien..6. REFERENCES 1. If k* is greater than some limit value which depends on the local maximum hydrostatic stress in the cycle. In many cases. fatigue will occur. K. I. the predictions are very similar to the current state methodology as presented previously.S. the parameters ~ and fl can be identified by two different tests.9 Multiaxial Fatigue Criteria Based on a Multiscale Approach 463 of the hypersphere surrounding the loading path (as explained previously) is one possible and natural way to characterize this state. (1999).. in C. K. Res. 4: 309314. from Theory to Applications. J. Courses and Lectures N ~ 392 on High Cycle Metal Fatigue.
10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . France Contents 6.10. . . . . . . . 6. . . . It follows that the framework of the weakestlink statistics [2] can be used under the assumption of a gradual change of the flaw distribution with the number of cycles. 6. . . .10. .2 GENERAL FRAMEWORK In many situations. .2 General Framework . . . . . . . is that stable propagation occurs at the microscopic level instead of unstable propagation at all scales. The key distinction. . . . . .1 o.10. . . . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . with no warning signs such as nonlinearities. 6. . . . . . . . . . . 61 Avenue du PrEsident Wilson. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Numerical Implementation . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . initial flaws are randomly distributed within a structure. . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. however. .10. . 6. . We assume that the flaw distribution is characterized by a probability density 464 Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. 1 Validity . ISBN 0124433413. . . .. . References . . Therefore. . . . . . . . . . . .10 A Probabilistic Approach to Fracture in High Cycle Fatigue FRAN(~OIS HILD LMTCachan. . . . . . . the probabilistic treatment of fracture in HCF closely follows the one used to model the failure of brittle materials [1]. . . . .10. F94235 Cachan Cedex. .1 VALIDITY 464 464 466 469 470 4 71 Fracture data obtained in high cycle fatigue (HCF) are usually scattered for many different materials. . . . . . Their failure is often catastrophic. . . . . . .4 Identification of the Material Parameters . 6.SECTION 6. In HCE most materials are loaded in their elastic domain. .3 Description of a Probabilistic Model in High Cycle Fatigue . .
is related to the flaws that are critical (e. Q] >_Go}. where Q is a loading parameter. N)] . the failure probability Pr0(Q. When propagation is unstable.N)..g. The second one.N)= {wIG[~(w. Q] < Go).g. N) .l ( w .g. a flaw direction characterized by a normal n [1]). the energy release rate G[w.10 A Probabilistic Approach to Fracture in High Cycle Fatigue 465 function f. The morphological parameters W are assumed to be uniquely related to their initial values w through deterministic functions of C 1 class that model the crack propagation law w = r Q.I JD fo(w)dw (1) with. Q.. Eq. The latter distribution refers to the initial flaw distribution characterized by a probability density function f0. the set of flaws D splits into two subsets.{WIG(W. .g. Q.Q) >G~}. the failure probability PFo(Q) of a domain f20 for a given loading parameter Q is expressed as [1] PFo(Q). It may depend upon several morphological parameters w (e. for instance. Q.6. 3 can be written as Eq. Dc (Q. Q] _>Go. is related to the flaws that are not critical (e. The failure probability PF0 within a domain ~0 of volume V0 is given by the probability of finding a critical flaw. Equation 5 constitutes a unified expression for the failure probability with or without stable propagation. N)dw JDc(Q) (3) e. it relates the failure probability to the initial flaw distribution f0. the initial morphological parameters w evolve to become W after N cycles. The first subset. Through Eq. N)fo(w) (4) where J denotes the Jacobian of the transformation defined in Eq. N) (2) For a given number of cycles N and a fixed Q.f fo(w)dw JD/ (Q. For a given load level. G[w.. In particular. In both cases. Dc. The higher the load level. where Dc defines the initial flaws that become critical after N cycles: Pro(Q. Dc(Q) = {wiG(w.J . fn is related to fo by fn[~(W. and Gc a critical energy release rate). N) is linked with the flaw density function fN: Pro(Q. Dc(Q) .. Dnc. 5.g. 2. and other morphological parameters may be needed).f fN(W. 4.. The function f gives the flaw distribution at a given stage of the load history. a flaw size denoted by a. bifurcation may take place (therefore _N ~ o. In the case of stable propagation.N). the larger Dc becomes with respect to Dnc.N) (5) e. Q) _~Gc}. Q. If no new cracks initiate during the loading.
If the stable crack extension is assumed to remain in a mode I configuration.1 . 5 and 6. This direction is constant during the whole stress history. These volume elements are subjected to cyclic and proportional loading conditions. Q. Equation 7 constitutes a generalization of the existing failure probabilities that are only valid under timeindependent behavior [1].. N).10. By means of Eqs. Even though this section addresses the case of HCF. the same formalism can be used to study subcritical crack growth of monolithic ceramics [3]. we consider volume elements where the defects are described by pennyshaped cracks.e x p I~o fa l n ( 1 . The normal to the crack plane is assumed to be aligned along the maximum principal stress direction (i.e. a general relationship between the initial flaw distribution and the failure probability of a structure f~ can be derived: exp[0/ln/ Equation 7 shows that the failure probability of a structure can be related to the initial flaw distribution even for materials exhibiting timedependent behaviors.466 Hild If we neglect the interaction between flaws. The time dependence is given in the definition of the set D~ (Q. 7 allows for the competition of flaws of different sizes at different locations with different stress levels. N) of initial defects that become critical after N cycles when the applied load level is equal to Q. Q] _ Go. It is worth noting that Eq.3 (8) .21 P F ..o)dV 1 (6) The failure probability PF0 as well as the failure probability Pv depend on the loading parameter Q and the number of cycles N. mode I mechanism). The expression for Pv can be related to the failure probability Pro of a link by [1. 6.P.3 D E S C R I P T I O N OF A PROBABILISTIC M O D E L IN H I G H C Y C L E F A T I G U E In the following. a failure criterion can be rewritten in terms of stress intensity factors: Ycrv~ = Kc with cr = max ai i=1. and the weakest link is not necessarily a flaw located at the most loaded point(s) but the most critical flaw defined by G[~(F. the cumulative failure probability Pv of a structure ~ of volume V can be derived in the framework of the weakestlink theory [2] and with the independent events assumption.
below which no propagation occurs. The critical flaw size is expressed as i ac ~ (9) The threshold size ath. By integrating the crack propagation law.10 A Probabilistic Approach to Fracture in High Cycle Fatigue 467 where Y is a dimensionless shape factor dependent upon the modeled defect. and o" are the principal stresses. The function g is defined by [5] 1R g(R) . By using the previous crack propagation law. A modified Paris' law models the crack growth rate da/dN [4.6. (12) where C and n denote material parameters. one can determine the relationship between the critical defect size ac and the initial critical flaw size aco: (a~M) q) with (~~0)_ .1 .mR where m is a material parameter. The crack growth law is expressed in the framework of linear elastic fracture mechanics. the density fN can be linked to the initial density f0. the flaw size distribution evolves with the number of cycles N (when a constant stress level a is applied): its value after N cycles is denoted by fN(a). 5]. (O'max~ n IK Kth I \Ttt~thf Nv (14) Sth " Kth Yg(R)4 .(P\ y aM Kthg(R). The effective stress intensity factor range AKeff is expressed as Kmaxg(R) . is related to a threshold stress intensity factor Kth by ath [Yg(R)aJ [ Kth ]2 (10) Kmin/Kmax on the (11) where the function g models the effect of the load ratio R = closure condition [4.Kth AKeff  Kc Kth (13) g(R) For cyclic loadings. 5] O da _dN a < ath CAi~eeff when ath < a < ac when +oo when a _> a.
the failure probability as [6] Pv0  ~ac0 ~~176 fo(a)da (18) where aco = ~k(ac)denotes the initial defect size that becomes critical after N cycles (i.fo(ff[a(N)]) da (16) where the coefficient dq/da comes from the change of measure (from da to d~[a]). At the level of a structure f].l exp[~o f ln(1.n)(1 n) q~(x) 2[x + 2 ln(x when n ~ l a n d n ~ 2 when n . It is useful to introduce a function ~ such that a ( 0 ) = ~[a(N)]. the failure probability Pv is expressed as Pv . .Xth)] .n)x + Xth] Hild (2 .e.. 7 when only one morphological parameter is used to characterize the defect distribution. If no new defects nucleate during the loading cycles.468 where the function r depends upon the value of the power n (X .1 when n = 2 (15) Xthln(x .Nv). This function can be computed by using the previous results. Since the crack propagation is assumed to be deterministic..Xth) X 2X  Xth and aM is a characteristic defect size to be specified later on. The failure probability of a volume element is the probability of finding defect sizes greater than or equal to ac after N cycles: Pv0  f~ct~176 fN(a)da Pro can be (17) rewritten Under the previous assumptions. the probability of finding a defect of size a and range da after N cycles is equal to the probability of finding a defect of initial size ~(a) and range d~(a). equal to ac when N . the density fN can be related to the initial density f0 by fN(a) .faco~~)fo(a)da)dV] (19) Equation 19 particularizes Eq.Xth)ln[(1 .
Table 6. n. Sth. say 107).1 shows the parameters obtained for an austempered spheroidal graphite (SG) cast iron [7]. k = Kth/Kc. Systematic observations of fractured surfaces of fatigued samples using a scanning . Two different routes can be followed to identify the parameters of the previously mentioned model. fl. if at least two load ratios are available. fl 4. 9 The second procedure is more timeconsuming.10.1). If possible. Y. n. fl.) is the Euler function of the first kind. In this section. 19 can be replaced by the threshold flaw size ath defined in Eq. It must be remembered that there are as many fatigue limits as values of the failure probability.4 IDENTIFICATION OF THE MATERIAL PARAMETERS Two different sets of parameters have to be determined. one may consider an approximated value for the constant m: m ~ 0. Then. by considering one constant failure probability (say 50%). where B(. On the other hand. If only one load ratio is considered. link).10 A Probabilistic Approach to Fracture in High Cycle Fatigue 469 6.10. The first set is related to the crack propagation law: C. The constant B~ is equal to B(~ + 1. and aM are material parameters. and Sth. The second one uses microscopic observations of the flaw distribution and determines the crack propagation law from global considerations. The fatigue limits correspond to the case where the initial critical flaw size ac0 used in Eq.5.6.. 10. one can identify the material parameters by first considering the fatigue limits (usually defined for a conventional value of the number of cycles to failure. _~+B+I DaflUM (20) where a. one can determine the parameters of the crack propagation law: C/aM. and V/Vo. The first one uses data obtained at the structural or sample level and deduces the behavior at the level of one volume element (i. It can be noted that the size aM now corresponds to the maximum flaw size within the material. one has to consider the volume V0 containing on average one defect. the flaw size distribution is modeled by a beta density function a~(aMa) ~ fo(a) .. the latter can be compared to conventional fracture mechanics experiments. The second set is associated with the flaw size distribution.. but its predictive capability is usually higher than in the previous case. the comparison of the fatigue limits for the same failure probability and the two load ratios allows one to identify the constant m. m. The following parameters can be identified: cz. . 9 If the only available data are W6hler plots.e. The constant k is usually on the order of 1/3 for metallic materials. In addition to the parameters of the beta distribution.
59 C/aM n m electron microscope (SEM) are performed to determine the flaw size distribution (here.3 18 340 1/3 5.470 TABLE 6. propagation in a compact tension (CT) specimen).5 Hild Ferritic SG cast iron [9] 400 2 105 2. see Eq. 6.34 ~0. To this equivalent stress corresponds an initial flaw size ac0 that is computed by solving Eq.]~. A commercial finite element code can be used when closedform solutions are not available. and the weight wi of the integration point i Vj ng i1 .Kth/Kc Material P a r a m e t e r s for Two Grades of SG C a s t Iron Austempered SG cast iron [7] 175 1.4 • 10 4 2. This is particularly important when the defects distributed within the material behave like small cracks.10. 8) is computed. The value of V0 is usually representative of the gauge volume of the sample.0 0. The failure probability Pvj of a finite element j depends upon the element volume Vj.75 17.5 V/112 1/3 3. the identified values can be compared to them.10. the maximum principal stress.g.9 • 10 5 2. ~.. It should be noted that a constant failure probability is equivalent to the same defect size in tensioncompression [6]. 9].1 shows the parameters obtained for a ferritic SG cast iron [9].10. Table 6.5 NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION This model is coupled with an elastic calculation.1 Material aM (~tm) Y Sth (MPa) 0~ ]~ V0 ( m m 3) k . 14 through a Newton method. the threshold stress intensity factor is different from that of large cracks [8. For those cracks. the equivalent stress (e. At each integration point i. and V0). The parameters of the crack propagation law are determined by considering one constant failure probability. If independent fracture mechanics experiments are available (e. the number ng of integration points for this element.g. The computation of the failure probability is then performed numerically in a postprocessor [10]..aM.
A. Eng. Fat.S. Fract.. S. Fract. Short crack behavior in nodular cast iron.. Techn. New York: Academic Press. V. B4ranger. M.. 10. 2.. Mech. (1971). Fatigue crack closure under cyclic tension. Billardon. this volume 558565. A probabilistic approach to predict the very high cycle fatigue behavior of spheroidal graphite cast iron. D. P. I. The significance of fatigue crack closure. Hild. Billardon. H. R..10 A Probabilistic Approach to Fracture in High Cycle Fatigue 471 w h e r e Pvi is the c u m u l a t i v e failure probability at a p o i n t i c o m p u t e d by u s i n g Eq. A.. J. Fatigue initiation in brittle heterogeneous materials. 2. Fatigue failure maps of heterogeneous materials. and Pineau. Chantier. 23: 173180. Struct. In Fracture pp. Mat. (1996). E. 591619. Fat. Struct. T h e failure probability PF of the w h o l e s t r u c t u r e is t h e n c o m p u t e d as Pv1exp Ij~__~ll n ( 1 Pvj)] ~jn~=l V i i . and Robert. Billardon. . See also Elber. J. 6. E. 18: 409414. Liebowitz.. E (2001).P. Kadouch. H. Eng. J. Statistical approach to brittle fracture. R. Mech.S. 18.. Probabilistic approach to fracture: The Weibull model. Hild. Eng. Res.. Comm. Recherche a~rospatiale 3:191201 (in French). Hild. W. Mat. and Hild. Struct. YaacoubAgha. Bobet. Mech. 3. (1970). (1996).. M. E (1998). ASTM STP 486: 230242. 118: 343348. Mat.. Baudin. Eng. 4. A.P. Fract.. ed. Fat.. E (2000). Fract.. 21: 287296. 7. Nonlinear Models and Properties. Mat. and Roux. Analysis of the failure due to subcritical crack growth. R. Elber. Eng. (1977). / (22) w h e r e ne is the total n u m b e r of e l e m e n t s \ V ( REFERENCES 1. 8. G. 9. J. Angeli. C14ment. Marquis. W. 7: 251265. Mesure et calcul du seuil de fissuration apr~s surcharge. (1968). E. 22: 1121. (1991). and B4ranger. 2: 3745. High cycle fatigue behavior of spheroidal cast iron.6. (1984). and Hild. Freudenthal. O. Hild. 5. In Handbook of Materials Behavior.. and Lambelin. A. Mat. vol. Pellas.
. 6. . . . . .11. . . . .2.4 Prediction of Gigacycle Fatigue Initiation from a Flaw . . . 472 . . . . . .. . CNAM/ITMA. . . . .4. . . 2 rue Cont. . 6. . . . . . .11. . .2. . . . .2 Initiation Mechanisms at 109 Cycles . . . 6. . .1. . . . . . a n d it is a d m i t t e d . .4. . . . . . 6. it is a s s u m e d that the a s y m p t o t e of the SN curve is n o t horizontal. . the s t a n d a r d c o n s i d e r s that the fatigue life is infinite. . . . .11. . . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . 6. 6. 6. . .11. . .3 Gigacycle Fatigue of Alloys without Inclusion . . .11. . . . .11. . . . . . . a c c o r d i n g to the s t a n d a r d . . . . . .1 Gigacycle Fatigue of Ti Alloys . . . . . .4. . . . . .3 Integration of the da/dn Curve . T h e SN curve is g e n e r a l l y l i m i t e d to 107 cycles. . . . . France Contents 6. . . .. . 6. . .4. 474 474 475 476 477 479 479 480 481 482 482 486 486 486 486 487 487 487 W h e n the fatigue curve or SN curve is defined. . . .11 Gigacycle Fatigue Regime C.1 SN Curves up to 109 Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Gigacycle Fatigue of Alloys with Flaws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 6. . . 6. . . F o r o t h e r alloys. . 6.11. .11. . . .5 Role of the Grain Size . BATHIAS Laboratoire de M~canique de la Rupture. . .11. .11. . . . . . Handbook of Materials Behavior Models.3. 6. . . .4 General Discussion of the Gigacycle Fatigue .2. 6.. . that a h o r i z o n t a l a s y m p t o t e allows one to d e t e r m i n e a fatigue limit value for an a l t e r n a t i n g stress b e t w e e n 106 a n d 107 cycles. . . . . . . .. .SECTION 6. . . . . .2 Initiation Zones at 109 Cycles .4 Role of the Porosities . . . . .. B e y o n d 107 cycles (Fig. . . . .11. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . . 75003 Paris.1 Initiation Zones at 109 Cycles . 6. .2 Fatigue Initiation of Ti Alloys . . . . . .2 Specimen . . . . . . . .1). . .11.. .11.11. . .11. . .4.11.11. . . . . . . . . .1 Experimental Device . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ISBN 0124433413.11. .1. . .2. . . . . . References . . it is u s u a l l y d o n e in reference to c a r b o n steels. . . . .1 Principle . 6. . .3 Role of the Inclusions . . .
... 300 hours of tests would be necessary. the true infinite fatigue limit should be aD30MPa. this is because of the convenience of this approximation. it is said that aD minus 3 s gives a probability of fracture close to zero. the standard has been to represent the SN curve by a hyperbole more or less modified as follows. Roughly speaking.< 50 40 30 20 scatter 9 9 9 n m n ~ IFatigue [ limit ? 0 0 I unlimited fatiguelife I 10 1 I 10 2 I 10 10 10 CYCLES TO FAILURE. Using.1 Typical SN curve is defined by international standardisation. A fatigue limit determined by this method to 107 cycles requires 30 hours of tests to get only one sample with a machine working at 100 Hz. and the probability of fracture is given by the standard deviation of the scatter (s). experiments show that between aD for 106 and aD for 1 0 9 the difference is greater than 30MPa for many alloys. and this is also true for the fatigue limit.11. It is important to understand that if the staircase method is popular today for determining the fatigue limit.6. . Since W6hler. the staircase method. few results can be observed in References [1 to 6]. the shape of the SN curve beyond 107 cycles was predicted using the probabilistic method. for example. Assuming that "s" is equal to 10Mpa. However. Thus a highfrequency test is needed to explore the gigacycle fatigue regime. 80 70 60 0 . Nf 3 I 4 5 I 10 6 I 10 7 I 10 8 FIGURE 6. The actual shape of the SN curve between 106 and 101~ cycles is a better way to predict risk in fatigue cracking. the fatigue limit is given for a number of cycles to failure. For fatigue limits based on 109 cycles. Until now. which is expensive.11 Gigacycle Fatigue Regime 473 100 Failure area (All samples are broken) r/3 r~ 90 [. the fatigue limit is given by the average alternating stress crD. To reach 108 cycles. In principle. A classical way to determine the infinite fatigue life is to use a Gaussian function.
a short crack does not grow as a long crack. other methods may be listed as: 9 W6hler: Ln Nf= ab ~ra 9 Basquin: Ln Nf= ab Ln aa 9 Stromeyer: Ln Nf. when initiation depends of inclusions. It is understood that below AKth and below CrD the fatigue life is infinite. But. It seems that there is no general relation between AKth and crD even at 109 cycles. It means the relation aD versus AKth must be established in the gigacycle regime if any relation exists. The fatigue strength difference at 10 7 and 109 cycles could be more than 100 MPa.L n era. The experiments show that there are several mechanisms.1. The resonant length of the specimen and concentrator is . the relation between crack growth and initiation is not obvious for many reasons.ab Ln (oac) Bathias Only the exploration of the life range between 106 and 101~ cycles will create a safer approach to modeling the gigacycle fatigue regime. 6.474 Hyperbole: Ln Nf=log a .1 EXPERIMENTAL DEVICE 6. When the crack nucleates from a defect. Another important aspect is the concept of infinite fatigue life. Second. In particular. ultrasonic fatigue testing has become less timeconsuming. A schematic view of our USF system for this study is shown in Figure 6. when a defect is small. The vibration of the specimen is induced with a piezoceramic transducer which generates acoustical waves to the specimen through a power concentrator (horn) in order to obtain more important stress and an amplification of the displacement. the fatigue limit crD is usually determinated for Nf= 107 cycles. depending on the alloys and defects. the effect of the R ratio or the closure effect depends of the crack length. The machine is essentially an ultrasonic machine constituted of a Branson power generator whose frequency is held at 20 kHz. First. However. In fact. Thus the relation between AKth and aD is still to be discussed. it is not certain that a fatigue crack grows immediately at the first cycle from a sharp defect. such as an inclusion or pore.11. As has been shown [16].2. fatigue failure can appear up to 109 cycles and may be beyond 109 . a Murakamitype model appears to be efficient. it is said that a relation must exist between the fatigue limit and the crack growth threshold.11.11.1 PRINCIPLE Since the first 20kHz machine was constructed in 1950 by Mason [7].
R2. and the obtained solutions can be summarized as follows: Specimen resonant length ( f = 20 kHz): L1 = ~ arc tan tanh~fl L2) atanh/oL2/] } /1/ .1 ~tm.6.11. is measured by an optic fiber sensor. The dynamic displacement amplitude of the specimen extremity U0.11 Gigacycle Fatigue Regime 475 stress .9~tm with a resolution of 0. which is capable of damaging materials. R1.~_L.3.2 SPECIMEN The specimen design for the ultrasonic test is shown in Figure 6. and L2 were fixed for all materials to facilitate the machining of specimens.11..2 Schema of a Piezoelectric Machine calculated at a frequency of 20 kHz... Axial ~ 1 \ alsplacem~nt I I I I I I I holln ~ ~J ~ . The dimensions Ro.I. and the specific length L1 w a s determined analytically to have a resonance frequency of the first longitudinal vibration (f = 20 kHz) and a maximum strain value in the middle section of the specimen (x = 0). A detailed analysis has been given [1]. 6.~ FIGURE 6. sample 'I ~.11. which permits one to measure the displacement from 1 ~tm to 199.1. A system of videocamera/television is used for the detection of crack initiation with a magnification of 140200 times.
which is. a new fatigue strength at 109 cycles has to be . . L2)fl ~ = EdVo~(L~.. mm.3 Ultrasonic Fatigue Specimen "1 (2) with a = .. a new SN curve must be determined up to 1010 cycles. in fact. and am = maximum stress deduced from Hooke's law. L2 FIGURE 6.476 R=31 2R1 ]~1 . p . and am(x=O) (5) (6) cos(KL1)ch(aL2)/sh(flL2) (7) where U o = m a x i m u m displacement amplitude at the extremity of the specimen.11. Ea= dynamic Young's modulus. em = maximum strain occurred in the middle section of the specimen. L~)fl with ~b(L1.d Bathias Kt=1. . MPa. Second. 6. .2rcf~ fl = v/a2 .000 Hz). MPa.v i b r a t i o n a l frequency (= 20. Relation between Uo ( x = L) and e.~I.d e n s i t y .11. L2) = (3) (4) g/cm 3.arc L2 1 cosh(R2/R1) K.2 FLAWS GIGACYCLE FATIGUE OF ALLOYS WITH How to model gigacycle fatigue initiation? First..03 .(x= 0) or ~ = Vo~(L1..K2 where f . more than the fatigue life of all technological machines.
.. The first part is devoted to alloys with flaws.............. i i i i ii . i......i......... and cast iron (39)..i....i......... i..... ..i......................... and microplasticity... . ...... ............ ~ i i.. ...... It means that the SN curve is not an asymptotic curve.11.....11......2...........i..i.... In order to present an overview of gigacycle SN curves............... .i........i... i..i.i. ..... interface.. ~o... i................~ " ~ ..... spring steels.................. .4 to 6......i...........i. . fracture mechanics....... i..... microstructure is a key parameter.... .........i.. pores)......i.............. i...... F.. !... .... ~ . i i. i......... Thus the discussion of gigacycle fatigue prediction is split in two parts.i................ ii i i ..........i':~~ !............. iii'~" ..... i ! 10 9 10 10 .. Thus the concept of infinite life fatigue is not correct..............~%~ ....1 S N CURVES UP TO 1 0 9 CYCLES In the specialized literature. i ...~i i i i i i.. 9 Initiation is not related to defect.................. i........i45~c 104 105 i i ii Z E .." ! !.. such as grain size... defects.. "~ 10 6 10 7 10 8 ... .. ...... i. The experimental results (Figs...... ~ ...... i........... in this case.. .11... ...... i.................. 10 A K (MPalm) 100 i. .... i... .... i'i'i" i . prediction of gigacycle fatigue is based on two different mechanisms" 9 Initiation is related to flaws (inclusions........i.. 6........11 Gigacycle Fatigue Regime 477 the predicted using the regular statistical method......... or the short crack approach. 6. Ni base alloys...... ... i......... i. load transfer.................7) show that specimens can fail up to 109 and beyond....... and prediction is derived from stress concentration......... .............. More specifically......11........................................4 SN curves for High Strength Steels ... few results were given on this topic until "Euromech 382" was held in Paris in June 1998 (3)...............6........ . .. i........... . FIGURE 6................i....... .... four types of alloys have been selected: highstrength steels.....i........ and the definition of a 10 3 r ! ! ! ! ~ !i y~8.... ! ..... ......................i..........!........ ....................i... .........
111111 .6 SN Curves for Nickel Base Alloys fatigue limit at 106107 cycles is not conservative..E+08 1.E+11 Cycles to failure FIGURE 6.5 SN curves for Spring Steels 400 350 300 D..E+04 1.E+05 ..i .E+05 1.. ..... 1. I . .E+07 1........8 seeded 9 R=0.. . iB II B 9 9 9 9 9 9 ill 9 R=0. the difference between TDH at 106 and 109 can be 200 MPa.l . . 1.E+08 1. I 111.. . .... 1.. .l. 11111 l I . ...i .8 standard 9 R=0 standard 9 R=0 seeded ~ 25o 200 150 0 0 .. 11111 ...E+09 1.. .... ...E+11 700 .E+04 1.E+06 1. .478 950 Bathias 900 850 x 9 9 9 E 800 t~ 9 750 .l l l I 111111 ....E+10 Cycles to Failure FIGURE 6. . .E+10 1.. 11111 .11. .E+06 1.E+09 1. . .E+07 1.. 1. Depending on the alloy.11. .....l . the gigacycle fatigue strength becomes the more realistic property for predicting very long life.. From a practical point of view. I I. . .
the initiation is located at an internal zone. We compute the initial value of AK at the tip of the inclusion or at the pore.0E+07 1.11. Therefore.2. 6. according to the standard. 320 ~300 v Transition O  O 0~0 00 9 20KHz 9 Hz 25 E 280 ::3 .7 SN Curves for Cast Iron 6. or gigacyclic (109 cycles) fatigue. .11. we can create a model for three types of crack initiation in a cylindrical sample whose surface was polished.2.200 O t__. the gigacycle fatigue crack initiation seems to occur essentially inside the sample and not at the surface. there is only one initiation site.~ O 180 1.0E+10 Nombre de cycles FIGURE 6. megacyclic (106 cycles).3 INTEGRATION OF THE da/dn CURVE Consider da/dn = CAK"H and A K = 0z/2) Act v/rca where Aa is the fatigue limit at 109 cycles for a given R ratio and a is the m a x i m u m size of the radius of the internal propagation. at 106 cycles.. depending on whether it is low (104 cycles)._E 260 X t~ E 24O ID " 220 t~ r.2 INITIATION ZONES AT 10 9 CYCLES According to our own observations and those of Murakami [i0]. the crack initiation sites are multiple and on the surface.0E+04 1.11. The average AK initial is given in Table 6.11.0E+05 1. as is observed for some with shorter life. for the higher number of cycles to rupture.0E+06 1.1 for a nickelbase alloy (N18).6..0E+09 1. but.11 Gigacycle Fatigue Regime 479 .0E+08 1. Let us say that for the smallest numbers of cycles to rupture.
1 R ratio 1 0 0. 4 PREDICTION OF GIGACYCLE FATIGUE INITIATION FROM A FLAW Few models are able to predict the effect of nonmetallic inclusions on fatigue strength. Murakami and coworkers [10] have investigated the effects of defects. The fatigue limit prediction equation proposed by Murakami is as follows: O" w + [(1 (v/area) 1/6 2 where C1. In vacuum AKth is higher than in air. a modified empirical equation based on the Murakami model was proposed to estimate gigacycle fatigue initiation from inclusions and small defects. The model does not specify the number of cycles for which the stress aw is represented.45 for a surface inclusion or defect.226 4HV x 10 .4 .56 for an interior inclusion or defect. 2 . and inhomogeneities on fatigue strength of highstrength steels and have expressed the fatigue limit as functions of Vickers hardness HV (Kgf/mm 2) and the square foot of the projection area of an inclusion or small defect: x/area (btm).5 8 4. C1. Concerning the pores.5 12 6. This may be because adequate reliable quantitative data on nonmetallic are hard to obtain. it is reasonable to think that the crack initiates without nucleation from a pore. This model is especially accurate for highstrength steels. It means that the fatigue life of the specimens should be less than 106 cycles instead of 109 cycles. 1 1 . AKi is smaller than AKth for the same R ratio. Thus it is not realistic to say the crack grows as soon as the first cycle is applied. 6 . According to experimental data.480 TABLE 6. and a = 0.5 AKi particle MPav/m 8. O" w (v/area) 1/6 2 . A nucleation time is operating. In this respect. but AKth is determined in air and for a long crack.8 Bathias AKth 5.3 Concerning the particles. for a given AKi the crack growth rate is always higher than 10 6 mm per cycle.25 3.7 AKi pore MPax/m 6 6.11. inclusions.
481 /~and the the 6.0.11.11.11 GigacycleFatigue Regime where / ~ . It is well known that in titanium alloys there is not any inclusion or porosity. In this condition.3 .2 compares the fatigue strength predicted by Eq.0.9 show examples of the small inclusions defects caused fatigue fracture of the specimen. FIGURE 6. 2 and experimental results in the gigacycle regime. nucleation of fatigue crack cannot nucleate from defects.8 and 6. titanium alloys were tested in crack propagation and in crack initiation.12 log Nf for an interior inclusion or defect. 7 9 .11. . and 2 .6.11. The size x/area of inclusions at the fracture origin is about 20 btm. 0 9 .3 GIGACYCLE FATIGUE OF ALLOYS WITHOUT INCLUSION What does happen in alloys without inclusion in the gigacycle fatigue regime? To answer this question. Table 6.. Figures 6.8 GigacycleFatigue Initiation on Inclusion.108 log Nf for a surface inclusion or defect.11.
3. At room temperature a significant difference can be observed in SN curves between the different TP conditions... TP2.11.E+08 1.11..<. and T P 3 were used to produce the forging with different microstructures and attendant mechanical properties (Table 6....E+05 1.482 Bathias 6. TPI(2).E+04 Cycles to failure FIGURE 6.E+09 1.1 GIGACYCLE FATIGUEOF TI ALLOYS A Ti6246 alloy was supplied by the RMI Company: the chemical composition is shown in Table 6.t. 6.. Four thermomechanical process (TP) routes . ". Thus the TP3 material has comparatively 650 600 550 a.11..3. The ~ + fl process conduces to a bimodal structure with duplex lamellae and a globular primary alpha phase.11.3..a TPI(1). 1. 500 x 450 400 350 300 250 m  9 ' 9 mm 9 TP1 (1) 9 TP1 (2) r TP2 9 TP3 E .4).1 .9 presents SN curves depending on the thermal processing. . Quantification of the morphological aspects has been performed to provide a complete description of various microstructures.... Figure 6.E+06 1.E+07 1. The flprocessed microstructures present a similar lamella aphase morphology with a different primary ~ volume fraction and grain size in a transformed fl matrix...E+10 1.2 FATIGUE INITIATION OF TI ALLOYS With the same alloys it is found that crack initiation and fatigue can occur up to 109 cycles even if there is no inclusion or pore.9 GigacycleSN Curve for Ti 6246 at 300 K and R .11.11.
4% 445 4.7% 465 8.: maximum stress applied to specimen (MPa).63e+6 28.2 Comparison of Predicted Fatigue Strength and Experimental Results HV Nf Jarea H (pm) Gxp ~ ~ ( 2 ) Err.75=+8 20 900 760 724 4. (2): fatigue strength estimated by Eqs.1 0 588 621 +5.0e+7 14.45'+7 53 350 550 588 +6.4% 465 7.6% 550 2.0% 450 2.76'+7 16 135 740 787 +6.1 0 862 862 0% 554 1.11.5'+5 60.TABLE 6.2% 445 1.. u. 1. cr. error %: (owuexp)/aexp.59=+5 20 0 760 763 +0.3% a.9 240 883 902 +2.9% 500 1.3% 345 4.. .7e+8 25 650 780 762 2.92e+5 25 0 630 592 6.% (2) 465 5. (11. 2 (MPa).12e+8 13 25 750 775 +3.
the TP 1 (1) and TP 1 (2) materials exhibit a lower response.4 Mechanical Properties of Ti 6246 0"0. 6. with only 325 MPa. a linear relation between yield stress and ~D in the gigacycle regime is found: crD .484 TABLE 6.1 1 8 4 4. In TP2 conditions. In conclusion. Alloy Investigated (in wt%) Sn Zr Mo C (ppm) 90 83 Cu (ppm) <50 <50 Si (ppm) <50 <50 Fe (ppm) 400 300 02 (ppm) 930 1100 H2 (ppm) 44 28 Bathias N2 (ppm) 80 70 5. Note that the TP3 alloy gives the lowest AK threshold and the best fatigue limit.. It can be seen that the facets are oriented to the fracture plane: a feature common to all specimens. the microstructure and.10).70 1. at 490 and 400 MPa for 109 cycles. In this case.2&3 A1 Chemical Composition of Ti6246.6 ~rv . and the TP2 material has the worst fatigue limit resistance.04 3. A nucleation process must exist.96 4.1. colonies of the primary alpha phase (P) are showing through the fracture surface by backscattered electron observations and form a sort of facet (Fig.08 6.3 TP Number 1 (1) 1(2). the gigacycle fatigue stength is associated with a transformed amount and a secondary alpha volume fraction.11.11. and TP3 have a systematic internal fatigue crack site.68 5.98 2. it is very difficult to get a general relation between AKt~ and A~D.43 TABLE 6.2 (MPa) UTS (MPa) 1135 1144 1043 1145 A (%) 15 12 17 11. respectively. TP2.11. Internal fatigue initiation with quasicleavage facets in primary alpha phase has been shown. it is emphasized that the gigacycle fatigue regime is not always correlated with defects such as inclusions or pores.25 6.5 RA (%) 17 21 28 13 TPI(1) TPI(2) TP2 TP3 1003 985 924 1044 the best fatigue resistance (510 MPa). For Ti6246. In those conditions. more particularly. The SEM fractographic observations indicate that all the TPI(1) broken samples have systematic surface initiation (less than 40 ~tm of the external surface). with a fatigue limit estimated. whereas TPI(2).
11 Gigacycle Fatigue Regime 485 FIGURE 6.6.11.10 Fatigue Crack Initiation on ~ Primary Phase .
4.486 6. .2 INITIATION MECHANISMS AT 1 0 9 CYCLES The explanation of the phenomenon is not obvious. we can create a model for three types of crack initiation in a cylindrical sample with a polished surface. Thus the surface plays a minor role if it is smooth. especially if the R load ratio is high.1 INITIATION ZONES AT 10 9 CYCLES Bathias In the specialized literature. depending on whether it is low (10 4 cycles). 6.11. It means that internal initiation is correlated with stress concentration or load transfer.4. Figure 6. few results are given on this topic [1].4 GENERAL DISCUSSION OF THE GIGACYCLIC FATIGUE 6. But it is not a general relation. It means also that the effect of environment is quite small in the gigacyclic regime. according to the general opinion.11. in competition with the surface damage.11. 6.3 ROLE OF THE INCLUSIONS The inclusions can be some privileged crack initiation sites. internal defects or large grain size play a role.11. If the crack initiates from an inclusion or from a pore. The effect of plane stress plasticity is evanescent compared to microplasticity due to defects or microstructure misfits. there is only one initiation site. at 10 6 cycles. for the higher number of cycles to rupture. or gigacyclic (10 9 cycles) fatigue. What remains is to specify how and why some fatigue cracks can initiate inside the metal in gigacyclic fatigue.6 presents an example of the N18 alloys. the gigacycle fatigue crack initiation seems to occur essentially inside the sample and not at the surface. For the smallest numbers of cycles to rupture. Therefore. In this case. since the initiation of short cracks is inside the specimen. It seems that the cycle plastic deformation in plane stress condition becomes very small in the gigacycle regime.11. as is observed for some with shorter life. the crack initiation sites are multiple and on the surface. but. the initiation is located at an internal zone.4. megacyclic (10 6 cycles). According to our own observations and those of Murakami [10]. it seems a relation between AKth and CrD at 10 9 cycles can exist.
S. Jago. Y. S. particularly in tensioncompression. Application of fracture mechanics concept in ultrasonic fatigue. CNAM. the inclusions and the porosities are not important. Miller. M. 47(5): 683690. (1950). Gigacycle fatigue. the relation between AKth and CrD is difficult to justify. Piezoelectric crystals and their applications.4. They are only grain anomalies that initiate cracks. J. Ultrasonic Fatigue of Ti and Alloys at Cryogenic Temperature.11. (1982). 9. 7.5 ROLE OF THE G R A I N S I Z E In titanium alloys. (1994). The important influence of the microstructure on the fatigue resistance at a high number of cycles has already been mentioned. (1994). Fatigue 16: 163182. Murakami. FFEMS 22(7).. so much that the load ratio is low. and Bechet. Th~se de Doctorat CNAM.4. Univ. J. the internal initiation often occurs near long primary ~ platelets. Ultrasonics. Th~se de Doctorat. the secondary phase seems to also play an important role in the resistance at gigacycle fatigue. Ultrasonic fatigue. 6. 8.4 ROLE OF THE POROSITIES The porosities can initiate crack in competition with inclusions. StanzlTschegg. W. Mech.. (1996). J.6. T. Ni. 161164. 2. (1991). Bathias. Engng. inclusions and inhomogeneities on fatigue strength. and Endo. M. (1999). Mason. AIMEISBN member 0895203979. G. C. 10. Influence of microstructure of (c~ +/3) Ti alloy on highcycle fatigue and tensile behaviour test. (1999). H. K.11 Gigacycle Fatigue Regime 487 6. Wells. In the T6A4 V and 6246 alloys. J. Nevertheless. 4. J. Fatigue 96: 18861887. Fract. and StanzlTschegg. .. 3. (1997). ParisSud. pp. Ultrasonic fatigue.. Mechanical Behaviour of Alloys in Ultrasonic Fatigue. Bonis. REFERENCES 1. FFEMS 22(8): 647655. P. 5. enhancing more or less the ~P/b platelet cracking [5]. (1996). In this case. Tao. 6.1 1. C. Wu. Effects of defects. Th~se de Doctorat. and Bathias.
. . . . Since crazes arise mainly in amorphous glassy polymers. .2 Crazing Versus Micro Shear Bands . . . . . . . . France Contents 6. . . . . .SECTION 6. . . 6. . . . . . . . . the basic structural concepts of this type of material will first be summarized briefly. ISBN 0124433413. .12. . . . . . . 6. . 6. . 67083 Strasbourg.12. . .1 BASIC MICROSTRUCTURE OF GLASSY POLYMERS Any mechanical damage mechanism is closely dependent on the microstructure of the material. 488 . . .12 Damage Mechanisms in Amorphous Glassy Polymers: Crazing ROBERT SCHIRRER Institut Charles Sadron. . . . . .3 Craze Rupture and Running Crack Tip . . . . 6 rue Boussingault. . . . . . . . . . . . . or at least in the glassy phase of multiphase polymers. . . . . . .3 Glassy and Rubbery States .. . 488 489 489 490 491 491 496 498 499 6.12.12.12. 6.1.12. . . . . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . . . .1. .1 Macromolecules . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . .2. 6. . . . .1 Local Deformation Mechanism . . . In polymers these mechanisms are dominated by the long and flexible macromolecules. . . . . . . .2.1. .12.1 Basic microstructure of Glassy Polymers 6.2 Amorphous and Crystalline Structures . . . . . Handbook of Materials Behavior Models.. . . . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . .12. .2 Craze Growth . Bibliography . . . . . 6.2.
successive atoms are located at only partially random positions.~.12. The principal basic property of a macromolecule is its weight: M.4).3).12. The first is a glassy disordered structure in which the smallest elementary volume representing the material has nearly the size of a monomer (Fig.12.6.1 MACROMOLECULES Macromolecules are long repetitive sequences of an elementary chemical structure called the monomer (Fig.1. The second solid state is a semicrystalline structure in which the macromolecules are arranged on more or less regular small rigid lamellae with flexible amorphous connecting macromolecules (Fig. The lamellae adopt a radial disposition to form large rigid / ~ "'4. Z. The backbone of this long chain is mainly composed of carbon atoms linked together.12. which in the solid state may have two quite different microstructures.1.1 A simple image of a macromolecule.12.12. 6. 6. and since the angle between two carbon atoms has a fixed value. and consistent mechanical properties are attained when each macromolecule is connected to at least two others."m~ ( =Angstroms ~ / / / / // ""~"" ~O^ FIGURE 6.2 shows the physical environment of the macromolecule modeled as a more or less flexible tube in which the macromolecule creeps. 6. The macromolecules are connected to one another through physical entanglements (reversible knots) or irreversible chemical bonds. the energy necessary for this creep being either thermal or mechanical.12.~C. .2 AMORPHOUS AND CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURES A polymer is a large condensed assembly of macromolecules.1). In this microstructure the basic parameter is the molecular weight between entanglements.12 Damage Mechanisms in Amorphous Glassy Polymers: Crazing 489 6. The stiffness of the macromolecule results from the stiffness of the monomer itself and from the shape and size of the space it occupies. 6. (the number weight) or Mw (the molecular weight). Figure 6. ~ rn Dimension \~.
the smallest elementary volume representing the material is much larger than in amorphous polymers. In the case of large plastic strains. ~ " Entanglement kn Thermoplastic FIGURE 6. the shortrange molecular interactions between nonlinked atoms are strong and local loads are carried from atom to atom.1.490 Schirrer ee o T other molecules FIGURE 6. spherulites. .2 The tube model. ranging from several tens of micrometers to millimeters. 6. In these polymers.12.12.3 GLASSY AND RUBBERY STATES Amorphous polymers are in their glassy state below the glass transition temperature Tg and rubbery above this temperature.12. Below Tg.3 Crosslinked Amorphous microstructure showing physical or chemical links. the atoms (or larger molecular groups) may flip from one position on the cone to another. The semicrystalline polymer may be regarded as a twophase material. If a small elastic strain is applied to the polymer. almost all carboncarbon bonds are stressed and the carboncarbon cone angles are distorted.
The elastic properties are mainly due to the entropy of variation of the positions of entanglements.2 CRAZING VERSUS MICRO SHEAR BANDS 6.~max of the fully extended macromolecule is roughly Lc/Lo.12. In the glassy state the interactions between atoms render the elongation irreversible.12. Once cavities are created. the microstructure of the polymer alters dramatically: some macromolecules have broken and the material is now a "composite" of bulk and holes. Above Tg.1. The linear reversible behavior of the rubbery polymer may reach an extension ratio of up to 10. and the atoms are free to twist on the carboncarbon cone.12.6).1 LOCAL DEFORMATIONMECHANISM Figure 6. the shortrange interactions between nonlinked atoms vanish. which is nearly proportional to the macroscopic strain.12. leading to nonrecoverable deformations.12 Damage Mechanisms in Amorphous Glassy Polymers: Crazing 491 Amorphous state FIGURE 6. the molecular structure of the polymer nevertheless remains basically unchanged.5 also shows that the extension ratio .12. 6.4 A typical semicrystalline microstructure. 6. and this schema is close to true in either the glassy or the rubbery state.5 shows that a network of entanglements may follow the external strain.2. and the energy input into the material is converted into heat.2.6. under certain circumstances some molecules may break and a cavity may occur (Fig.1 Ultimate Extension Ratio Figure 6. entanglements remain the only connecting points in the material. 6. where Lc is the contour length and L0 the . Conversely.12.12. Apart from the new positions of the entanglements.
max '~ Lc/k(Me) 1/2 (1) where Me is the average molecular weight between entanglements. aro S J f FIGURE 6.5 Molecularelongation in the glassy state. On a molecular basis: Lc ~ LmMe/Mmo and '~. Mmo the monomer molecular weight. geometrical distance between entanglements.4 FIGURE 6.12. 2max of the fully extended material must be calculated in the threedimensional situation.492 Schirrer Lc Fullyelongated~ molecules Neck'~ . and k a . Lm the length of the monomer.12. In the case of a real polymer.6 A cavity at the instant of creation.
the density p. Thus the energy consumed is at least the thermodynamic surface energy Ws arising from the specific thermodynamic surface energy F. At the critical equilibrium point. and the unknown molecular value Me may be calculated from the rubbery plateau shear modulus GN. and hence r0 = 2F/ah. close in size to the macromolecules (radius r0 of 110nm).2 Cavitation under Hydrostatic Tension Unlike in metals. cavities do not preexist in glassy polymers. The elastic hydrostatic energy density stored in the body is a~/2kb where kb is the bulk modulus. The cavity shown in Figure 6. Lm and Mmo a r e known from the chemistry. and the gas constant R: M~ = pRT/G~ (2) At extensions above /~max. F is roughly 0.12. and the critical value ah is approximately 10 MPa.6 may be created only if the closing forces due to surface tension in the cavity are smaller than the opening forces due to the hydrostatic tension. which means that the void radius r0 is very small (6 nm). the size of the volume from which the energy is drawn is so close to the molecular size that continuum mechanics is not . Some models have nevertheless been developed on molecular bases. This concerns the nonlinear mechanical behavior around the cavity. there is the critical hydrostatic tension: crh < 3kb/~ 3 (3) It is not easy to determine what proportion ~ of the local elastic energy is consumed to form the cavity. Finallly. and the elastic energy used to form the cavity is drawn from the bulk in its vicinity over a distance ~r0 proportional to the radius of the cavity. Ws = 4rrr2F. the energy balance criterion between the elastic energy density available in the material and the surface energy consumed in the cavity must be fulfilled. Another difference between voids in metals and polymers is that voids in polymers do not evolve into a porous microstructure but into crazes through a collective yield flow deformation process. a number of basis assumptions can be made. 6.12. In the mechanical approach. for example.03Jm 2. Prior to cavitation.6. In addition. In rubbers.1. the amount of energy stored in this vicinity is 4~ 3~ a h /2 k ~ . and it is only partly consumed 6 to create the cavity. In usual glassy polymers /~max lies between 2 and 10.12 Damage Mechanisms in Amorphous Glassy Polymers: Crazing 493 constant. the stressstrain constitutive equation may be simply modeled by an infinite stressstrain slope. a mechanical analysis of their equilibrium if fairly difficult.2. the temperature T. the closing stress 2F/ro due to the surface tension acting at the boundary of the cavity is equal to the hydrostatic tension ah. Since the voids are quite small. Moreover. where nonlinear viscoelastic or even plastic flow takes place.
<~ and S(x/~ '~ ~ /'+ ' .12.. and they grow like micronecks. A craze inside a polymer has usually a penny shape and resembles a crack except that fibrils bridge the crack surfaces.7) The local stress increase around an isolated new cavity may create other neighboring organized cavities to form a craze precursor. 6.1.12. 1/xm Macromolecules [.01 to O.3 Craze Microstructure (Fig. 0.+(. the load Crc applied to the craze surface is a material property roughly constant along the craze boundary and similar to the yield stress Cry. carrying loads from one to the opposite surface. 6. while the craze shape is close to that predicted by the Dugdale or Rice model: ~<.12. 1 ] ~ Io. .2. These fibrils are thin (10100nm) and rather long (up to 10 ~tm). Local yield consumes much more energy. Therefore. I. _ x i77 ~) (4) where K1 is the stress intensity factor and E* the plain strain modulus.7 The craze microsturcture. Experimental values of Crh ( ~ 30 MPa) and kb ( ~ 10 GPa) in glassy polymers indicate that only a very small part of the local energy is used to create the cavity surfaces in these polymers. c / Fibril Vacuum Craze tip 1 to 10 # m > FIGURE 6.494 Schirrer necessarily relevant.
5 Craze versus Micro Shear Band If a glassy polymer is subjected to a mechanical stress. local microscopic fluctuations may induce a cavity or a micro shear band. caught at their ends in two separate fibrils.12. In the fibrils the polymer macromolecules are fully stretched.1. ~ ~ zone zone limi Vacuum ~ " Active "fluid" ~Fibril Micro neck ~ Surface tension FIGURE 6. the fibril diameter D.2R)2/D 2 (6) Values for/]. Several criteria must be satisfied to obtain crazes rather than micro shear bands.8 The micromechanics of craze growth. the radius R connecting bulk and fibrils.12.2. the extension ratio in the fibrils is /]'fibril ~ (D 4.6. and the process zone size h.2.1.8 shows how the craze fibrils grow by extracting polymer from the bulk in the socalled fluid process zone.12 Damage Mechanisms in Amorphous Glassy Polymers: Crazing 495 6.. some of which have a Macromolecule ~ .12. . 6. The mechanical parameters governing the extraction process are the local flow stress ac.4 Craze Micromechanics Figure 6. A first cavity is the necessary precursor of any subsequent craze. ~ ~ O'c h=D Flow. Some molecules.fibril normally lie between 2 and 10. The fibrils extract material from the bulk in the process zone h. must therefore break or create a connecting cross fibril. Simple scaling laws of fluid mechanics show that the fibril diameter is of the order of D 8r/ c 2R h Since the volume before and after fibrillation remains constant. the surface tension F.12.
it is clear that a craze cannot form. or3 through constants A and B: ~c = A + B/(~I + ~2 + ~3) (7) In molecular terms. Eq. the craze grows through a meniscus instability mechanism with a craze front resembling fingertips.10.9 illustrates this crazing criterion: within the grey area there is no damage.12.9 Von Mises criterion plotted together with the crazing criterion for a typical polymer (polymethylmethacrylate). strain rate. Equation 6 indicates the required micromechanical extension ratio ~. Finally. Figure 6.2 CRAZE GROWTH As seen in Figure 6. cavitation occurs at a certain level of hydrostatic tension and cannot in fact occur in compression or pure shear.12. . Since the fibril growth is similar to a creep mechanism extracting material from the bulk. 1 defines the highest extension ratio 2max of the polymer. it seems FIGURE 6. or2. A frequently used equation correlates the critical macroscopic crazing strain ~c and the principal stresses Crl. Obviously.2. and if/~max < ~.fibril in the craze fibrils. this mixedmode criterion must be separately determined for each glassy amorphous polymer. In mechanical terms.496 Schirrer molecular basis whereas others are related to the mechanics of the material.12. and molecular weight and structure.fibril. 6. all these criteria depend on temperature. whereas in the upper right zone (tension) crazes arise and in the lower left zone (compression) micro shear bands arise.12.
10 The meniscus mechanism governing craze growth.12. 4. The local material property ere(t) is readily determined by recording the craze length as a function of time S(t). In this equation. creep is generally a stress. reasonable that the craze front will move with a velocity Vc governed by a creeping law.12 Damage Mechanisms in Amorphous Glassy Polymers: Crazing 497 FIGURE 6. In polymers. .5.and temperatureactivated process. in an experiment at low constant K1 where the crack does not grow into the craze. to obtain the craze growth law in the basic mechanical situations like constant external load (creep mechanism) or linear increasing external load. the material properties crc and E have to be replaced by the equivalent timedependent properties ~c(t) and E(t).] In most cases the growth of the craze length can be expressed as S(t) = (8) At n (9) where A is a constant depending on the loading conditions and n ~ 0. The stress acting on the craze surface is controlled by the external load and the craze shape by the stress intensity factor K 1 of Eq.6.\8S(t). (/~K 2 ~ 1/2 crc(t).
11) can be described in mechanical terms. 4. Thus.2. their oldest part is the midrib. the case of crazes breaking in their midrib region (Fig. KI  = S/Vc (10) ~c[8T(~Yc)Vc/7~]1/2 (11) Equation 11 relates the macroscopic fracture toughness of a propagating crack to local material properties like the lifetime of fibrils and the Dugdale craze stress. This type of craze breakdown is quite common in brittle polymers. since the molecular theory holds that the fibrils break through a slippage mechanism (molecular creep) evolving to disentanglement. Use of this concept is satisfactory from a molecular point of view. If the fibrils grow by extracting polymer from the bulk. real measurements of craze length S and toughness K1 at a . 6.12.12. Although most models of fibril breakage are based on molecular theories and do not concern mechanics. The model is particularly simple for a crack propagating with velocity Vc and having a craze S at its tip: "r(r Using Eq. Conversely. 6. the concept of lifetime z(~r) (the time ~ a structure survives a stress ~r) can be applied to the center of a fibril.12.498 Schirrer Velocity Vc Velocity Vc > Q O Midrib Propagation r FIGURE 6. some fibrils may break. if the fibrils break in their midrib.3 CRAZE RUPTURE AND RUNNING CRACK TIP Once a craze has formed and grown for a certain time.11 The steadystate propagating craze at a crack tip.
A. of Fracture 77: 141159. Thomas. The disentanglement time of the craze fibrils under cyclic loading.. 5. Le Masson. M. J. L. and Tomatis. R... D. 4. E. I. H. W. E (1993). R. Fond. .. (1984). R. and Hadley. Int. Vol. and Yee. A Comprehensive Treatment. J. Journal of Material Science 18: 30043010. Materials Science and Technology.6. C. 2 in Advances in Polymer Science 91/92. Polymers toughened with rubber microspheres. Trassaert.. Weinheim: VCH. P.. Lobbrecht. R. Polymer Eng. I. pp. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.. 698765.. Lang. Berlin: Springer Verlag 1990. A. ed. ed. Narisawa. H. Ward. 2.12 Damage Mechanisms in Amorphous Glassy Polymers: Crazing 499 running crack tip may be used to obtain the local mechanical properties Z(ac) and ac. in Structure and Properties of Polymers. Schirrer. vol. (1983). The disentanglement time of the craze fibrils in PMMA. Kausch. Crazing in Polymers. B... 12. An introduction to the Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers. (1996). and Science 24: 820824. 6... 3. New York: Wiley 1993. and Schirrer. Crazing and fracture of polymers. and Schirrer.
... ..13.. . . ..2.5 H o w to Use the M o d e l . . .. .. . . . .. 6. 6... . . .. .1.4 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of P a r a m e t e r s .. . . . . . .. . . .. . .. 6. ... . 6.2 P r i n c i p l e . . . . . . References . .. . . . .. . 6. .13.13. .. . .. .. . . . . ISBN 0124433413. . . ..13. . . . . . .5 H o w to Use the M o d e l . .1 Validity . .... . . .2 B a c k g r o u n d .. . . 501 501 501 502 503 504 504 6. .. .. 6. . .. . .. .. . . . .13.. . . 61 avenue du Prdsident Wilson. . . . . . . . . . . . ..1 Validity . . . France 2 LMTCachan. .. . 503 505 505 506 506 506 507 508 511 512 6. 6. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 6. . 6.13.. . . . . ... . . .13.. . ... . 6. .2. .2.3.1. . .. . .... Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. .. .1 Validity .3 D e s c r i p t i o n of the M o d e l .. ... .. 1 I s o t r o p i c D a m a g e M o d e l [4] . 510 500 Handbook of Materials Behavior Models.13.2. Universitd Paris 6. ..3.13. ..... . ENS de Cachan.4 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of P a r a m e t e r s . . . .13. . BP 92101. Cachan Cedex.. . . .13. . 6. . . .13.2 Nonlocal Damage . .2 P r i n c i p l e . . 44321 Nantes Cedex 03. 6. . . . . . . ....... . Ecole Centrale de Nantes.13.3 Anisotropic Damage Model . 94235.. . . .3. 6. . .. . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.3 E v o l u t i o n of D a m a g e . .... ... . . . France Contents 6 .. .. . . . .3.3.... . .. . .. . ..2. .13 Damage Models for Concrete GILLES PIJAUDIERCABOT 1 and JACKY MAZARS 2 1Laboratoire de G~nie Civil de Nantes SaintNazaire. . .13. .13. . ... .3 D e s c r i p t i o n of the M o d e l . . . .1.4 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the I n t e r n a l Length . . 6. .1. .. 1 3 .. .. .. . .13...... .SECTION 6.
13.d) aij v0  Eo(1  d) [akhcSij] (1) E0 and v0 are the Young's modulus and the Poisson's ratio of the undamaged material. . and 5ij is the Kronecker symbol. bending of structural members) [4]. The elastic (i. The damage energy release rate is ~/ 1 0 Y = ..~sijCijhlshl with the rate of dissipated energy: Opt.6.p . After this point is reached. 6. the model provides a mathematically consistent prediction of the response of structures up to the inception of failure due to strain localization.13. The stressstrain relation reads: 8ij Eo(1 1 + v0 . an enhancement of the relation which takes into account the effect of crack closure is possible.3. Its aim is to capture the response of the material subjected to loading paths in which extension of the material exists (uniaxial tension. Finally.~ .13.1.e.13 Damage Models for Concrete 501 6. It should not be employed (i) when the material is confined (triaxial compression) because the damage loading function relies on extension of the material only.13. (ii) when the loading path is severely nonradial (not yet tested). free) energy per unit mass of material is p~' = 1(1  d)sijC~ (2) where C~ is the stiffness of the undamaged material.2 BACKGROUND The influence of microcracking due to external loads is introduced via a single scalar damage variable d ranging from 0 for the undamaged material to 1 for completely damaged material. It will be considered in the anisotropic damage model presented in Section 6. In this last case.2 is required. and (iii) when the material is subjected to alternated loading.1 This constitutive relation is valid for standard concrete with a compression strength of 3040 MPa. the nonlocal enhancement of the model presented in Section 6.1. eij and aij are the strain and stress components. This energy is assumed to be the state potential.1 ISOTROPIC DAMAGE MODEL VALIDITY 6. uniaxial compression.13.
tc)=O. its value is ~c0. ~c) = ~ . 6. If f ( ~ . They are combined with the weighting coefficients at and 0~c. The loading (4) f(~.1. e l s e / C ~0 0 ~. respectively.3 EVOLUTIONOF DAMAGE The evolution of damage is based on the amount of extension that the material is experiencing during the mechanical loading.d) lcCijklcrkl c (8) . An equivalent strain is defined as i1(<~i>4(3) where (.)+ is the Macauley bracket and function of damage is ~i are the principal strains. t c ) .which can be related to the peak stress ft of the material in uniaxial tension: f' ~c0 = E0 (5) In the course of loading ~c assumes the maximum value of the equivalent strain ever reached during the loading history. Initially. defined as functions of the principal values of the strains ~lj and ~ due to positive and negative stresses: e i j .(1 t  d)CijklO'kl. the damage variable is split into two parts: d = o~td t +. (6) The function h(~c) is detailed as follows: in order to capture the differences of mechanical responses of the material in tension and in compression.O and f(~.502 PijaudierCabot and Mazars Since the dissipation of energy ought to be positive or zero.~ where tc is the threshold of damage growth. 1 t eij = (1 . the damage rate is constrained to the same inequality because the damage energy release rate is always positive.13. then {d h(~c) ~~ with c~ ___ 0.o~cdc (7) where dt and dc are the damage variables in tension and compression.
Table 6.4 IDENTIFICATION OF PARAMETERS There are eight model parameters. Finally. Bt). as a function of the variable ~c: dt ~ 1 ~ ~Co (1  At) ~c ~Co(1 . This type of test is difficult to implement. The evolution of damage is provided in an integrated form.1.1 STANDARDModel Parameters E0 ~ 30. In uniaxial tension c~t = 1 and ~c = 0 . Note that Eq.7 <~At<~ 1.__ (9) Note that in these expressions. In uniaxial compression ~c = 1 and at = 0. and the tensile strength of the material can be deduced from the compressive strength according to standard code formulas. 5 provides a first approximation of the initial threshold of damage. strains labeled with a single indicia are principal strains.13 Damage Models for Concrete 503 ~ 9_ ~ _ 52 .13. which underestimates the shear strength of the material [7].13.2 ~c0~ 1 x 1 0 . The parameters (Ac.6. The usual value is f l = 1.05 .~Co)] Ac exp[B~(~c. The Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are measured from a uniaxial compression test.. Hence. A direct tensile test or threepoint bend test can provide the parameters which are related to damage in tension (tc0.0~<fl~ 1.13.000 MPa v0 ~0.~Co)] (10) 6. fl should be fitted from the response of the material to shear.2 104~Bt<~5 • 104 1 ~< ~<1. At. ~ .00040. dt and dc can be obtained separately from uniaxial tests.5 Ac 103~<Bc~<2 • 103 1. TABLE 6. Bc) are fitted from the response of the material to uniaxial compression.4 0.A c ) dc ~ 1 .~: At exp[Bt(~c.1 presents the standard intervals for the model parameters in the case of concrete with a moderate strength.
the range of validity of the nonlocal model is exactly the same as the one of the initial. This model.2.003 0. enables a proper description of failure that includes damage initiation. to0 = 0.006 0.13. Bt = 15. At = 1. ~~ 0. This modification of the model is necessary in order to achieve consistent computations in the presence of strain localization due to the softening response of the material [8].30.000. 6.1 shows the uniaxial response of the model in tension and compression with the following parameters: E 0 . .1 Uniaxial response of the model.002 . ]~ = 1.001 35J 40 Strain FIGURE 6.2.008 0. local model.005 0.13.2.001 n . v 0 . 6. 0.007 0.504 PijaudierCabot and Mazars 5  !     ! 0.0.000MPa. Bc = 1500.1 VALIDITY As far as the type of loading is concerned.0001. however. and its concentration into a completely damaged zone.004 0. damage growth. Figure 6.2 NONLOCAL DAMAGE The purpose of this section is to describe the nonlocal enhancement of the previously mentioned damage model.13. which is equivalent to a macrocrack.13. Ac = 1.
. and the energy dissipation. since all the model parameters (the internal length excepted) . 4) becomes f(~. the local damage model and the nonlocal damage model are.g. strictly equivalent (~ = ~).2 PRINCIPLE Whenever strain softening is encountered.13 Damage Models for Concrete 505 6.6. and a surface (in three dimension) of discontinuity of the strain rate appears and develops. and ~ ( x .s) is the weight function.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL The equivalent strain defined in Eq. 6. whenever the strains in specimen are homogeneous. [5]).4 IDENTIFICATION OF THE INTERNAL LENGTH The internal length is an additional parameter which is difficult to obtain directly by experiments.13.. In fact.2. Z) = e . which is physically incorrect [1]. strains and damage concentrate into a zone of zero volume.13.2.. Various remedies to this problem can be found (e..2. It follows that failure occurs without energy dissipation.13. it may yield localization of strains and damage. for instance: r 4 [ ' xs['2)12 (12) where l~ is the internal length of the nonlocal continuum. Vr(X) is the representative volume at point x.e. The rest of the model is similar to the description provided in Section 6. the socalled internal length. 3 is replaced by its average ~: ~(x) . The basic idea is to incorporate a length. In the nonlocal (integral) damage model. the source of strain softening): a spatial average of the local equivalent strain.Z. into the constitutive relation to avoid localization in a region of zero volume.1.(x) r s)~(s)ds with V. The loading function (Eq. When such a solution is possible. The internal length controls the size of the region in which damage may localize. This localization corresponds to the occurrence of bifurcation. This can be viewed also as a simplification. 6. this length is incorporated in a modification of the variable which controls damage growth (i. tends to zero.V.13.(x)  r s)ds (11) where ~ is the volume of the structure. which is finite for a finite volume of material. by definition.
no automatic optimization technique has been devised for it. Compared to the local damage model. The implementation of the nonlocal model in an incremental format is awkward. This table will be used for any subsequent computation. An approximation of the internal length was obtained by Bazant and PijaudierCabot [2]. more importantly. and. the internal length lies between 3da and 5da. the nonlocal model requires some additional programming to compute spatial averages. provided the mesh is not changed. Comparisons of the energy dissipated in two tensile tests. as of today. For standard concrete. Since their failure involves the ratio of the size of the zone in which damage can localize versus the size of the structure.2.5 H o w To USE THE MODEL The local and nonlocal damage models are easily implemented in finite element codes which uses the initial stiffness or secant stiffness algorithm. a special averaging procedure is needed to account for material points that are not represented in the finite element model. and. 6. It is still based on a manual trialanderror technique and requires some experience. It should be stressed that such an identification procedure requires many computations. The reason is that the constitutive relations are provided in a total strain format. These quantities are computed according to the same mesh discretization and quadrature as for solving the equilibrium equations. its bandwidth can be very large because of nonlocal interactions. its neighbors and their weight are stored can be constructed at the time of mesh generation.506 PijaudierCabot and Mazars are not affected by the nonlocal enhancement of the model if they are obtained from experiments in which strains are homogeneous over the specimen. . The local tangent stiffness operator relating incremental strains to incremental stresses becomes nonsymmetric. The most robust way of calibrating the internal length is by a semiinverse technique which is based on computations of size effect tests. To speed the computation. one in which multiple cracking occurs and a second one in which failure is due to the propagation of a single crack. These tests are carried out on geometrically similar specimens of three different sizes. a table in which. provided a reasonable approximation of the internal length that is compared to the maximum aggregate size da of concrete. for each gauss point. a size effect is expected because the former is constant while the later changes in size effect tests. Attention should also be paid to axes of symmetry: as opposed to structural boundaries where the averaging region lying outside the structure is chopped.13.
This anisotropic damage model has been compared to experimental data in tension. The following section describes a constitutive relation based on elastoplastic damage which addresses these issues. compressionshear. ekZ is the elastic strain. In tension. 6.13.13 D a m a g e M o d e l s for C o n c r e t e 507 6. The influence of crack closure is needed in the case of alternated loads: microcracks may close and the effect of damage on the material stiffness disappears. damageinduced anisotropy is required for more complex loading histories.Cijkl t 0 (cdamaged )klmnO'mn 1 (13) e where alj is the effective stress component. i. Finally. We definite the relationship between the stress and the effective stress along a finite set of directions of unit vectors n at each material point: a _ [1 .(nkCrnknt)nii2 (14) where a and z are the normal and tangential components of the stress vector..13. and d(n) is a scalar valued quantity which introduces the effect of damage in each direction n. plastic strains are observed when the material unloads in compression. which does not account for directionality of damage.d(n)]nial)n ) . v _ [1 .2 PRINCIPLE The model is based on the approximation of the relationship between the overall stress (simply denoted as stress) and the effective stress in the material defined by the equation cr0 . microcracks are perpendicular to the tensile stress direction.1 VALIDITY Microcracking is usually geometrically oriented as a result of the loading history on the material. and tdamag ed "~0kl is the stiffness of the damaged material. in compression microcracks open parallel to the compressive stress direction. compression.CoktekZ t 0 e or crij . respectively.13.e. It provides a reasonable agreement with such experiments [3].d(n)] i=1 [cri)nj . might be a sufficient approximation in usual applications.3.3. The basis of the model is the numerical interpolation of cl(n) (called damage surface) which is approximated by its definition over a finite set of .3 ANISOTROPIC DAMAGE MODEL 6. and nonradial tensionshear. when tensile failure is expected with a quasiradial loading path. Although a scalar damage model.6.
Hence. several forms of damageinduced anisotropy can be obtained. (17) else dd(n*) = O.~ de~nf > 0 rid(n) then = gd[1 nt.3. After an . In compression or tensionshear problems. 4: f(n) = nie_. The material is orthotropic with a possibility of rotation of the principal axes of orthotropy.13.d  z(n) (16) where Z is a hardeningsoftening variable which is interpolated in the same fashion as the damage surface. It is the simplest approximation which yields anisotropy of the damaged stiffness of the material. 6. The initial threshold of damage is ea.Q (15) Depending on the interpolation of the damage variable d(n). The stress is the solution of the virtual work equation: find ~rij such that Vei) ~.nkathlnlni)] . The evolution of the damage surface is defined by an evolution equation inspired from that of an isotropic model: Iff(n*) .j ~ * . which is similar to Eq.508 PijaudierCabot and Mazars directions.0 and n. eij nj)d. plastic strains are also of importance and will be added in the model. the evolution of damage will be indexed on tensile strains. dz(n) = 0 The model parameters are ea and a. When the loading history is not monotonic. ~ t * 3aije'iJ = a~ ([(1 . damage deactivation occurs because of microcrack closure. The stiffness degradation occurs mainly for tensile loads.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL The variable d(n) is now defined by three scalars in three mutually orthogonal directions. .d(n))nkat~tntni + (1 .3.1 Evolution of Damage The evolution of damage is controlled by a loading surface f.d(n))(aijn ) .eijnj  e. de~.c/(rl i e * (n~*e~nj) 2 exp(a(n~* ~o"J ~a)) n. 6. The model also incorporates this feature. 47~ .13.3. Note that the vectors n* are the three principal directions of the incremental strains whenever damage grows.
The hardening rule is given by w = qpr + Wo (21) where q and r are model parameters. 2 x.1' B1 .1 (20) These two ratios will be kept constant in the model: fl = 1. the new damage surface is the sum of two ellipsoidal surfaces: the one corresponding to the initial damage surface.de~j 4.V ~ fl . w is the hardening variable. microcracks close progressively and the tangent stiffness of the material should increase while damage is kept constant.13. respectively.Itl .3.X/~ 2/3.13 Damage Models for Concrete 509 incremental growth of damage. 6. and of the biaxial compressive strength to the uniaxial strength.2 Coupling with Plasticity We decompose the strain increment in an elastic and a plastic increment: deij . We have implemented the yield function due to Nadai [6].3. 2) which were originally related to the ratios of the tensile strength to the compressive strength.6. w0 defines the initial reversible domain in the stress space.3.7 1 +7' A2 .d ~ (18) The evolution of the plastic strain is controlled by a yield function which is expressed in terms of the effective stress in the undamaged material. It is the combination of two DruckerPrager functions F1 and F2 with the same hardening evolution: Fi ~t J24A. where (a)+. and (a)_ are the positive and negative parts of the stress tensor.3. denoted 7.Bi w (19) where J~ and I~ are the second invariant of the deviatoric effective stress and the first invariant of the effective stress. and the ellipsoid corresponding to the incremental growth of damage. and (Ai.3 Crack Closure Effects Crack closure effects are of importance when the material is subjected to alternated loads.16 and 7 = 0. 6.1 2 f l . 3 . denoted fl: A1  V/ 2 1 ./2 7 1 +7' B2 . The relationship between the stress and the . A decomposition of the stress tensor into a positive and negative part is introduced: a = (a)++(~r)_.4. During load cycles. and p is the effective plastic strain. The evolution of the plastic strains is associated with these surfaces. Bi) are four parameters (i = 1.13.
(22) where de(n) is a new damage surface which describes the influence of damage on the response of the material in compression.510 PijaudierCabot and Mazars effective stress defined in Eq. plasticity is negligible.3. and hence ~d is directly deduced from the fit of a uniaxial tension test. To circumvent the difficulties involved with softening in the computations without introducing any nonlocality (as in Section 6.4 IDENTIFICATION OF PARAMETERS The constitutive relations contain six parameters in addition to the Young's modulus of the material and the Poisson's ratio. with 4~  [~t(~)nk~tklnzn~]njdf~de~j (24) where ~b is the energy dissipation per unit volume. and along each principal direction i. 6.d(n)]/rr) t +i. in tension.2). a. 3] (23) where ~ is a model parameter.n. Therefore. It is defined by the same interpolation as d(n). and h is related to the element size (square root of the element surface in a twodimensional analysis with a linear interpolation of the displacements). The first series of three parameters (~d. 5). this parameter is determined by plotting the decrease of the uniaxial unloading modulus in a compression test versus . Their determination benefits from the fact that.n.Gf. Once the evolution of damage in tension has been fitted. we have the relation dic( dj(1 2(~iJ)/~z' iC [1. 14 of the model is modified: rrijnj  [1 .13.13. Gf is the fracture energy. a becomes an elementrelated parameter. For a linear displacement interpolation. ~) deals with the evolution of damage. + [1 dc(n)]lrr)2i. The third model parameter e enters into the influence of damage created in tension on the compressive response of the material. the energy dissipation due to damage in uniaxial tension is kept constant whatever the finite element size. de(n) is directly deduced from d(n). a is the solution of the following equality where the states of strain and stresses correspond to uniaxial tension: h4~ . ~d is the uniaxial tensile strain at the peak stress (Eq. Parameter a is more difficult to obtain because the model exhibits strain softening. Since this new variable refers to the same physical state of degradation as in tension. If we assume that in uniaxial tension damage starts once the peak stress is reached. and it is computed from the fracture energy.
26. Figure 6. 6.13.2 Uniaxial tensioncompression response of the anisotropic model (longitudinal [1]. In a loglog coordinate system.2. 0 7 N/mm.5.35. 15. O. _5. Strain (xlO00) FIGURE 6.15. COo . Again. An initial stiffness algorithm should be preferred because it is quite difficult to derive a consistent material tangent stiffness from this model. 4.13 Damage Models for Concrete 511 the growth of damage in tension according to the model..2 shows a typical uniaxial compressiontension response of the model corresponding to concrete with a tensile strength of 3 MPa and a compressive strength of 40MPa. 25. 2. other model parameters: 0~ = 12. and volumetric Iv] strains as functions of the compressive stress). 30. Stress MPa  I _ I I I I i 4. 20.5 H o w TO USE THE MODEL The implementation of this constitutive relation in a finite element code follows the classical techniques used for plasticity. f t .0 . They are obtained from a fit of the uniaxial compression response of concrete once the parameters involved in the damage part of the constitutive relations have been obtained. 2.. v . 6. w0).3. r = 0.4 MPa.0. r.a .13. 6. the evolution of 5.000 MPa.13. The set of model parameters is: E .8 MPa (which yields e. 20. . 7 6 • 104). transverse [2].6. a linear regression yields the parameter ~. fracture energy: G f .0 . The second series of three parameters involved in the plastic part of the constitutive relation is (q. q = 7000 MPa.
1. B. and Bazant. G. and PijaudierCabot. France. (1999). J. and PijaudierCabot. J. Mazars. Z. Mech. Continuum Models for Material with Microstructure. Steelconcrete bond analysis with nonlocal continuous damage. C. (1984).P. 15. which is carried out according to Simpson's rule or to some more sophisticated scheme. (1985). J. Th~se de Doctorat ~s Sciences. (1987). (1989). p. vol.. John Wiley. G. Review 39: 675705. 2nd ed. Z. J. 4. Fichant. . (1995). 2. Engrg. and Pulikowski. G. ASCE 117: 862882. New York: McGrawHill. ASCE 115: 755767. 8. La Borderie.. J. Bazant. J. Since the plastic yield function depends on the effective stress. Bazant. 7. Muhlhaus. The difficulty is the numerical integration involved in Eq. Mechanics of distributed cracking. 5. ASCE 113: 15121533. Engrg. Mazars. J. 572.512 PijaudierCabot and Mazars damage is provided in a total strain format. S.. Mech. Application de la m~canique de l'endommagement au comportement non lin~aire et h la rupture du b~ton de structure. ed. Nonlocal damage theory. It is computed after incremental plastic strains have been obtained. (1950). PijaudierCabot..P. Measurement of the characteristic length of nonlocal continuum. P. Applied Mech. Theory of Flow and Fracture of Solids. damage and plasticity can be considered separately (plastic strains are not affected by damage growth)... Mechanics of Cohesive Frictional Materials 4: 339359.. REFERENCES 1. Isotropic and anisotropic descriptions of damage in concrete structures. PijaudierCabot. A. 6. Structural Engrg. Universit~ Paris 6. Nadai. 3. G. H. Int. (1991). Z..
. . . . . . ... . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . France 2 Universit~ Paris 6LM2S.. 6...2 Background ... 6.2 A n i s o t r o p i c Case .. . ... .5. . . .. . .. . .14 Isotropic and Anisotropic Damage Law of Evolution JEANLEMAITRE 1 and RODRIGUE DESMORAT 2 1Universit~ Paris 6. 5 H o w to U s e t h e M o d e l . . . ... . . and even quasibrittle if it is used at microscale.2 A n i s o t r o p i c Case .. . .14. . .. .. 518 6. . .. .14. ..3..14. .. .14. 1 4 ...14.. . . . ... .3. . .. . .. ISBN 0124433413. . . . . ..14. .. .. . . . . France Contents 6 . . .3 D a m a g e T h r e s h o l d . 6. .. . 6. creep. 518 519 522 523 524 513 514 515 515 516 516 516 517 6. .. .. 1 4 . . . . . .. . . 6 .. .. 1 4 . . . . .. 8. . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press.. 1 VALIDITY Based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes dealing with elastic energy and plastic strain at mesoscale. 1 4 . 1 Validity . . . . . . .. . . . .. ... . . ... . . .. . . . .. . .5 Different E v o l u t i o n of D a m a g e in Tension and Compression . . . .3. . . 524 6 . . .. 6. . . . 6 . According to the definition of the damage variable. . . . . 4 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of T h e M a t e r i a l P a r a m e t e r s . . .2. . . .5. fatigue. 6. . . 3 K i n e t i c L a w of D a m a g e E v o l u t i o n . . . . . . . . 6. ..14. .. . . 6 ..3. .. . .. .. . .1 I s o t r o p i c Case . LMTCachan. . . .. 1 4 ... . . . . the micromechanisms act only as the surface density of microcracks and microvoids in any plane of Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. . . . 94235 Cachan Cedex. .14.1 Use it as a P o s t p r o c e s s o r ... . . . .. .4 M e s o c r a c k I n i t i a t i o n C r i t e r i o n .. 75015 Paris. .SECTION 6.. . 513 . .. . Bibliography .2.2 Use it in a F u l l y C o u p l e d S c h e m e .14. . . 61 avenue du PrEsident Wilson. .. . . . . . .3..1 I s o t r o p i c Case .14. . 6. this law is able to model any kind of damage: ductile. . rue du Capitaine Scott. . .
1 . the accuracy of its prediction is much better when the identification of the parameters is performed from tests as close as possible to the case being considered for the application. The specific Gibbs energy ~k* taken as the thermodynamic state potential is qualitatively written from experimental results of damage measurements in several directions: p6.'OG.riD n +p~P (1) where 9 E and v are the Young's modulus and the Poisson's ratio. The weakness of the damage law results from its generality. The materials act according to the numerical value of the parameters which quantify the law. rr~ = a i j . rI .lahk is the hydrostatic stress. = l+v D D 3(12v) 2E HijO'jkHklrYliI2E rr2 1 .. from which the effective stress is (2) rrij ~ __ (HikCrklHl j D )D 4.D~ij. p is the density. 9 a is the Cauchy stress.1. H .r l D n fiij oH (3) . as shown by microscopic observations. 6.14._D) 1/2" 9 D n = 89 9 r/is a material parameter needed to take into account the variation of the contraction coefficient with damage during a tension test ( r / ~ 3 for many materials).1 / v / 1 . it is mainly driven by the plastic strain which makes it orthotropic. It is a secondorder tensor _D if.D. 9 ffP is the plastic part of the thermodynamic potential.514 Lemaitre and D e s m o r a t the Representative Volume Element.an6ij is the stress deviator and a n . If isotropy is considered. Dij .2 BACKGROUND The damage variable as previously defined is a scalar D if the hypothesis of isotropy is made. 9 // (1 . The isothermal law of elasticity coupled with damage derives from e 0~* .
(_H_~D_H)eq.14. where rYeqis the effective von Mises equivalent stress: ~ O'eq  1.D %~J (6) R~ is the triaxiality function: e~5(1+v)+3(12v) crn (7) 6 .14 Isotropic and Anisotropic Damage Law of Evolution or ~ 515 oiJ=l_ ~ij D (4) for the isotropic case (the superscript z) denotes the deviatoric part).1 Y/DH (10) . as the contracted product _Y: /5 is the power dissipated in the process of damage.6. F/q . 2 . We will need instead the expression of the effective strain energy density. denoted Y and defined as for the isotropic case (scalar Y) as 1 1 aeqev ~2 (8) with the effective triaxiality function Rv 5(1+v)+3(12v) F/q 2 (9) (7H ~ e q . derives from Y~j= PODv (5) 6. 2 ANISOTROPIC CASE The expression of Yij will not be used. The energy release rate density _Y.2.1 Y ISOTROPIC CASE F2qRv/2E. 1 4 .
516 Lemaitre and Desmorat 6.3.3. isotropic hardening R. and the yield stress ay: f = (F_.~ p(1 . Finally. it is possible to choose the dissipative potential from which derives the damage constitutive equation F = f + FD (11) where f is the von Mises plastic loading function written for kinematic hardening _X. /~ . The normality rule also defines the evolution of the state variable r associated with R as /" = OF .2 ANISOTROPIC CASE An extension of the isotropic case is keeping the two main properties of the damage evolution driven by the elastic energy and the plastic strain.D).14.X_)eq .R .1 ISOTROPIC CASE The damage evolution law is given by OF O~FD /)=. the istropic damage law of evolution is /)= ~ /~ (15) 6. S FD(s+I)(I_D) (s/S+l (13) where .[ stands for the absolute value of the principal values of the plastic .~~.14.( 2 ~ ) 1 / 2 (14) Then 2 =/" is identified as the accumulated plastic strain rate ib multiplied by (1 .and temperaturedependent parameters.D ) . 6.ay (12) and where FD is the damage potential function. from qualitative experiments.~ is the plastic multiplier and S and s are two material.14.3 KINETIC LAW OF DAMAGE EVOLUTION Here again. The dissipative potential is now chosen as F=f + YO[dr[o where [.~~=.
This corresponds to the nucleation of microdefects. Furthermore. (19) 6 . so that the damage rate/)ij is always positive. 3 DAMAGE THRESHOLD Experiments show that the damage initiates when a certain value of the accumulated plastic strain pD is reached.(s)SldeP J~ (17) with i . 1/m (21) where (.d r / d t .6. Unfortunately. the anisotropic damage law of evolution is /30 or ~Pl/j (18) I~1 if written in terms of principal values.J~ being always positive. and a correction must be added.14 Isotropic and Anisotropic Damage Law of Evolution 517 strain tensor.ffy)epD . fgijJ~ ~ . 1 4 .A(au . Then PD . A fo p~' (aeq fly)L'(Xm)/m /0 R(p)z(p)dp with z(oc)0 (20) mF dp . C'pD ( ~ _ ~ ~m _ . standard thermodynamics gives a much too large value of Cs. the contribution of the kinematic hardening is small in the static case and negligible in the cyclic case: d/)~ A Taking z(p)__~p(lml /m with two material parameters A and m > 1 and writing the equality of ~b~ for the general threedimensional case and for the onedimensional tensile case allows us to express PD as a function of the onedimensional threshold epD in pure tension (strain hardening saturated at the ultimate stress au).} denotes the positive part. 3 . and pD is related to the energy stored in the material ~bs.
and m Lemaitre and Desmorat p D . 15 and 18) of damage evolution with a change in the definition of the effective strain energy density Y (isotropy) or Y (anisotropy). A way to model such a phenomenon is to introduce a crack closure parameter h.1 Isotropic Case We have ~ . is Y = 1~+ 2E (or)+: (6)+ + h (rr} O .3.0 if ~s~bD or in an equivalent manner if PK_PD.D) in tension.a/(1 .14.a/(1 ..14.D)2(1 (o) ~ hD) ~ (1 .hD) in compression. 0 < h < 1.2 ~ q D) (1 .5. This corresponds to instability of atomic decohesion after localization of damage and strain in this plane. in the effective stress ~. / S i j .Cry o.4 MESOCRACK INITIATION CRITERION Because of the definition of the damage variable. taking into account the different behaviors in tension and in compression. Max(D)1 = Dc +mesocrack initiation 6.518 for the monotonic case.mqax_}_ O. and ~ . and the evolution of the damage is slower than in tension.3. The strain energy release rate.3. A thermodynamics analysis leads then to the same laws (Eqs.g'pD Cru . a mesocrack initiates in a plane of normal ni when the corresponding damage reaches a critical value Dc. 6.e~in O'y" 2 for the periodic case.. The damage in such a plane is given by the norm of the damage vector Dijnj or by the larger principal value DI.5 DIFFERENT EVOLUTION OF DAMAGE IN TENSION AND COMPRESSION In compression there is partial closure of the microcracks or microvoids.hD)2J (22 ) .14. 6..
60. monotonic functions of the temperature. ~2 The case h .2v) 2E (CrH) 2 (23) where the "special" positive part cr~ is used. which is identical in tension and in compression.1 Ti][_//1Ti] (.3. m stand for the damage threshold. 6. the Poisson's ratio v. This set of material parameters can then be used as a starting solution of an optimization procedure to minimize the difference between predictions by the model and available test results of any kind. D Eu . . the ultimate stress cru. s. The Young's modulus E. negative) of a tensor in terms of principal components and where (.14.14.2 in the isotropic case.14. 18) is _ 1 + V(HCrDH)2 3E + 3(1 . h stand for the damage evolution.4 IDENTIFICATION PARAMETERS OF THE MATERIAL This model possesses six specific parameters which have to be identified for each material and which are.6.2. 9 epD. 6.1 corresponds to g .)+ (resp.~i) (24) with the normalization T~H_ITj .14 lsotropic and Anisotropic Damage Law of Evolution 519 where (. 9 Dc stands for the mesocrack initiation.) is the positive part of a scalar. built with the eigenvalues/~i and the corresponding eigenvectors Ti of (//_aD). The corresponding function to use in the damage law (Eq.1) The proposed method is to first obtain rough values of the parameters from standard tests.CreqRv/2E and to the initial damage law. the single parameter epD is sufficient to model the damage threshold in monotonic loading. 9 S. The h parameter is no longer needed to reproduce the same order of magnitude of differences between tensile and compression behaviors given by h ~ 0. in fact.2 Anisotropic Case For the anisotropic damage model the stress deviator Cr~ and the hydrostatic stress Cr/Iact as independent variables. For most metals h ~ 0.)_) denotes the positive part (resp.5. This feature allows us to introduce the quasiunilateral conditions in the model by simply taking the positive part of the stress deviator instead of the full stress tensor. and the yield stress Cry are not specific to the damage law and are known from elsewhere (see Table 6. (.
000 0. the yield stress (ry.2 0.4 7 0.000 0.2 h 0.14.32 300 400.2 0.10 0.2 30.2 0.3 134.12 0.2 0.000 0.2 2.6 s 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 Dc 0.8 2.520 TABLE 6.2 0.000 0.44 0.3 150.2 0.5 107 1 (a) A s t a n d a r d t e n s i o n test gives 9 9 9 9 the u l t i m a t e stress ~ru.03 0.000 0.D3 .23 0. the law of elasticity c o u p l e d w i t h d a m a g e s h o w s that the d a m a g e in the d i r e c t i o n s 1.28 320 200.000 0.2 0.32 195.000 0.99 0.1 Materials Steel AISI 1010 Stainless steel AISI 316 Stainless steel 2 1/4 Cr Mo Table of material parameters Temp.3 0.4 0.000 0.025 1. 18]) a n d ~ / ~ 3.3 260 6 190 145 105 85 380 0.15 0.2 0.3 140.5 0.5 0.2 0. t h e n Dc  3 Dlc ~  2r/ ~ 0.25 0.5 0.2 0. it is best to l o o k for elasticity c h a n g e s i n d u c e d by d a m a g e d u r i n g very l o w cycle fatigue tests (this m e a n s a n u m b e r of cycles to failure of 10 to 100). a n d 3 is s i m p l y r e l a t e d to the Young's m o d u l u s E.000 0.3 200. F o r the o n e . the d a m a g e d m o d u l u s E1 in .5 0.D 1 / 2 (from the d a m a g e e v o l u t i o n law [Eq.3 1 1 72.18 0.2 306 2.2 190. (b) A strain localization theoretical analysis s h o w s that the l o c a l i z a t i o n in t e n s i o n o c c u r s for ~/D~/~ 1.i or 2 is a "good" value for a starting solution. E v ~ (MPa) 20 20 600 20 300 500 580 Steel SOLDUR 355 A1.2 0.3 0.2 340 235 165 135 475 500 500 3 0.10 0 1 1 1 1. we have D2 .2 0. m .000 0.000 0. for the d a m a g e t h r e s h o l d still.2 2.5 (25) (c) T h e identification of the p a r a m e t e r s S a n d s n e e d s d a m a g e measurements.10 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 0..3 177. 2. alloy 2024 Ceramic A1 Concrete 20 20 20 20 ~y ~ru (MPa) (MPa) 700 Bpu BpD m Lemaitre and Desmorat S (MPa) 2. the u l t i m a t e plastic strain ~pu from w h i c h ~p~) ~ ~pu.4 1.26 0. As in t e n s i o n (in d i r e c t i o n 1).7 6 5.d i m e n s i o n a l case of t e n s i o n in d i r e c t i o n 1.
1 FIGURE oo I I Plane tension I I 0 log Rv 0. we have d V x _ ~O'uRvU[ dp \ 2ES with Rvuz  or og~Log dD1 ~~ +sLog Rvvz o"u (29) 2 5(1 + v) + 3 ( 1  2v) [( 1 D1 2 1D1 + 1 1~ Then the graph of Log (dD1/d~11) as a function of Log(Rvvz) allows for the identification of S and s (see Fig./ ~ and considering the strain hardening saturated at 8eq "~ tru.2V E 1 .14. and the damaged contraction ratio ~12 by D1 ~ 1 E1 (26) E D2 = D3 ~ 1 E1 1+ v E 1 + 3v12 .2v (27) Then D1 and D2 may be evaluated from experiments if the strains gl and e2 are carefully measured during unloadings.1 E1 1 .1.14 Isotropic and Anisotropic Damage Law of Evolution 521 direction 1.2v12 with DH .6. /1' I i SOLDUR 355 i i log dEp dD11  1 0.1 0. This allows us to check the feature D1 = 2D2 in tension and to evaluate ~/~ 3 for most metals from rlDH .3D1 (28) Referring again to the damage law written in uniaxial tension (UT) for which [~111].14. the Poisson's ratio v. .1). 6.2 6. Determination of S and s.
j. and obtain S from 2 (7 u g. Dc. m. The optimization procedure consists of two steps. 1. the set of equations to be solved for any case of loading is D. of course. take s = 1 or 2. we minimize the error between computations and experiments. we calculate each available experiment by performing the numerical time integration of the set of constitutive equations fully coupled with damage. ay.j  I pl. Concerning the identification of the damage law. but again it is advised to do it on the D(p) curves. a software such as SIDOLO is needed to drive the finite element computations and to optimize the full set of material parameters.pD S ~ ~E Dc )1/~ (30) Having the approximate values of au. gpD. it is possible to perform an optimization procedure for better values if additional test results are available.5 HOW TO USE THE MODEL For the anisotropic damage law. In fact. First.pR . a sensibility analysis shows that the two main parameters that have to be adjusted are m and S. 6. This can be done on the full stressstrain curves up to failure. consider Rvur . 2. and s.. S. ? = e qRv 2E .14. it is sufficient to calculate the Damage versus Accumulated plastic strain D(p) curves (damage and plastic strain are both directly measured) and to compare them with the experiments.~ 1 (for the isotropic damage law we always have Rvur = 1). Next. but mathematics softwares are generally more efficient for uniaxial loading: such softwares allow us to define the material parameters as arguments of functions. A finite element computer code may be used. If complex loading needs to be considered for the identification process.522 Lemaitre and Desmorat If some very low cycle fatigue tests are not available.g. and they allow us to draw curves in the programming pattern.
(_H_~D_H)~q. They lead then to the knowledge of the history of Y. at least if the dependency of the triaxiality function upon the damage is neglected. ~ depl (32) Ductile and creep damage as well as low cycle fatigue may be analyzed by this method. we get [RvuT(D1)]SdD1  G. a twoscale damage model is needed. an elastoviscoplastic calculation for creep or creepfatigue failure. The work is fully similar for the case of isotropic damage.5. the dependency of Rv upon damage has to be made explicit.p)~/2 The integration of the damage differential equation is performed until Max D1 = Dc.D O 4 /. _/t  c_ _ _ _ n r___E D. ~n ff H .6.1 USE IT AS A POSTPROCESSOR p gij(t) are given at The history of stress ~rij(t) and the history of plastic strain each point considered.15. 15 or 18) is performed "a posteriori" with an eventual initial damage D~ Dij . The time integration of the damage evolution law (Eq.14 Isotropic and Anisotropic Damage Law of Evolution 523 with 2 Rv ~(1 + v ) + 3(1 .~O'kk. as explained in Section 6. which corresponds to a mesocrack initiation. For brittle failure and high cycle fatigue. For the uniaxial tensile case.~Dkk (_1 . They may come from  an elastoplastic structure calculation for ductile failure. 6.14. . .2v) 1 1 1 Gq . an elastic structure calculation with a local analysis by Neuber's method when smallscale yielding induces low cycle fatigue.0 I~_P(t) ijdt if p > PD (31) For better accuracy.
J. 5. 6. Lemaitre. A.2 U S E IT IN A FULLY C O U P L E D S C H E M E Lemaitre and Desmorat When the damage is not localized and if a high accuracy is needed. Lemaitre. Desmorat. Mod~lisation et estimation rapide de la plasticit~ et de l'endommagement. and Sauzay. (2000). R. submitted for publication. A Course on Damage Mechanics. Universit~ Paris 6. J.. R. Int. 7179.14.. J. (2000).. 23(3): 241252.. Multiaxial creep fatigue under anisothermal conditions. (in press). (1992). Sermage.2.524 6. Mech. The price to pay is a very important time of calculation. J. R. R. Benallal. the full set of the elasto(visco) plastic constitutive equations coupled with damage needs to be solved as field variables. Solids Structures. ed. Lemaitre. R. Anisotropic damage law of evolution. Strain localization and unilateral conditions for anisotropic induced damage model. in Symposium on Continuous Damage and Fracture. . A/Solids 19: 187208. Springer Verlag. & Struct. see Section 9.. as a subroutine UMAT for ABAQUS). 4. Th~se d'Habilitation h Diriger des Recherches. Eur. J. Desmorat. M. pp. Elsevier. J.. Desmorat. Desmorat. Fast determination of localized plasticity and damage by energetic methods.5. Such constitutive equations coupled to isotropic or to anisotropic damage need to be implemented in a finite element computer code (for example. 2. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. For details. R. 3. (2000). (2000). Fatigue and Fracture of Engng Mater. and Desmorat.
.15 A TwoScale Model for QuasiBrittle and Fatigue Damage RODRIGUE DESMORAT1 and JEAN LEMAITRE 2 1Universit~ Paris 6LM2S. 61 avenue du Pr~.15. . .2 Monotonic Failure of Brittle Materials . . . . . .15. .15. . . . It applies to the quasibrittle type of Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. .1 Validity . . . . . . 534 535 535 532 530 529 528 525 526 527 6. .15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .5 Stored EnergyBased Damage Threshold for Multilevel Loading. . . . . . . . . . .15.15. . . . . 94235 Cachan Cedex. 532 6.3. 6. . rue du Capitaine Scott. . . . . 6. .5 How to Use the Model .6 Tables of Material Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . .3. . . . . . . References . . . . . . .sident Wilson. 525 . 75015 Paris. . . . . . . 6. .15. . . . . . . . . . .4 Identification of the Material Parameters 533 6. 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 ThreeDimensional Model for any Kind of Loading .3. . . . . 6. 6.15.2 Background . . . . . . . It can be used to predict the state of damage and the conditions of crack initiation in mechanical components subjected to mechanical and thermal loadings. . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . ISBN 0124433413. LMTCachan. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .1 VALIDITY This model describes the progressive deterioration of solid materials up to a mesocrack initiation. .3 Description Of The Model . .15. .3. .3 Formulae for Proportional Fatigue Loading . . Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. .15. . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . . . . .SECTION 6. . France 2 Universit~ Paris 6. . .15. .4 Formulae for TwoLevel Fatigue Loading . . . . .15. France Contents 6.
or of the number of cycles. ~.v (2) .) have a #superscript meaning microscale when ij the fields at the mesoscale of the RVE are simply denoted crij. 2. f. The main output is the evolution of the damage as a function of loading. .~ p .2 and 9.15.2 BACKGROUND The points that need to be recalled are as follows: 1. The description of elastoplasticity coupled or not to damage (see Sections 4. = 2 45v 15 1 . 6.ij ~ j~(F. The time histories of the stresses and strains at the most loaded point(s) of the structure are then the inputs of the model. An initial elastic structure calculation (analytical or by finite element [FE] analysis) is needed to define the stress and strain fields at the mesoscale. 3. The present analysis may also model failure with (visco)plasticity at mesoscale. The definition of two scales to model a weak inclusion embedded in the RVE. damage D ~ . but anisotropic damage (Section 6.14. ~P.14) may be easily incorporated. time. total strain and plastic strain tensors ~ . The model is written for isotropy.F.526 Desmorat and Lemaitre damage as brittle failure and high cycle fatigue. The scale transition is made by using the EshelbyKr6ner localization law: the total and plastic strains at microscale are related to the strains at the mesolevel as F. In that case the mesostresses and mesostrains may be the result of a mechanical analysis of the structure by means of an FE analysis or of any analytical or semianalytical procedure like the Neuber method following an elastic calculation. The isotropic damage law of evolution described in Section 6.4) (1) where fl is given by Eshelby's analysis of a spherical inclusion. microcracks) embedded in the RVE. ~ij. The fields in the inclusion (stress tensor a~.2). Two scales are considered (in addition to the macroscopic scale of structures): the mesoscale or scale of the representative volume element (RVE) of continuum mechanics. In both cases the damage is always very localized at a microscale in the vicinity of a defect considered as a weak inclusion. and the microscale or scale of a microdefect (microvoids.~ . Note that we consider damage at microscale only. and we will omit the #superscript in that case by setting D ~ = D.
A proportional loading at mesoscale corresponds to a stress field aij(M.1 (4) Tensioncompression is of course a proportional loading. G the shear modulus.6.1 . MESO .fl)(e~ p . and E the Young's modulus.D : O'ij  2G(1 . 6i) . D D Teq .V/3 Tij Tij .15. t) of constant principal directions proportional at the considered point M to a given tensor Tij(M).15 A TwoScale Model for QuasiBrittle and Fatigue Damage 527 Equation 1 may also be written in term of stresses or effective stresses: ff~J .15. This is the reason to consider a twoscale model in which the damage occurs in a weak microinclusion embedded in a mesoRVE that is elastic (or elasto[visco]plastic) and free of damage.1 Selfconsistent scheme Microelement embedded in an elastic RVE. The definition of a proportional loading. STRUCTURE CALCULATION Elastic Plastic Damage t~i~(t) ei~(t) { E v ~ ij (t) e ij (t) e ij (t) D p~ el.ePij) (3) where v is the Poisson's ratio. 4. This hypothesis allows us to obtain the mesostress and strain by a classical structure calculation that is elastic (or elasto[visco]plastic) with no damage at mesoscale and to solve the constitutive equations of elasto[visco]plasticity coupled with damage as a postprocessor at microscale. 6.t (Yf RiE Elastic E v micro FIGURE 6.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL Brittle and high cycle fatigue (HCF) damages are always very localized at a scale much smaller than the plastic strain.a(t)Tij.
The weakness of the inclusion is related to its yield stress a. 3) = c?~= 1 .e._X")e.  6.3.14 will in fact be written in terms of microstress. 1) even for fatigue cyclic loading. the fields at microlevel are obtained from the time integration of the constitutive equations at microscale coupled together with the law of localization (Eq.1 THREEDIMENSIONALMODEL FOR ANY KIND OF LOADING The history of the plastic strains 4 ( 0 and of the stresses aij(t) at the mesolevel being inputs.528 Desmorat and Lemaitre The mechanical behavior of the material is modeled in two different manners related to the two different scales. the microenergy density release rate.~ (or Eq. Since damage is considered at microscale.15. At the mesoscale the material is considered elastic because brittle or HCF failures occur at states of stresses below or close to the yield stress. below which we consider that no damage occurs. but with the same plastic modulus C than at mesoscale. To simplify.~ 2 C ~ 7 ( 1 .D 2 (_~" . the isotropic damage evolution law of Section 6. 13 = (Y~/S)Sp~.D (5) X~" .(#9in which X~ is the back stress): X_#)eqaf ~ = aj + fl(a~P . v .~ ) r 1 + v. i. The equations to be solved are those of elastoplasticity coupled with damage with linear kinematic hardening (yield function f ~ ./1 . . taken equal to the true fatigue limit af of the material. only linear kinematic hardening is assumed at microscale.D ) .At the microscale the behavior is modeled by elastoplasticity coupled with damage. and microaccumulated plastic strain.. The elastoplastic properties of the inclusion are those of the material at mesoscale below and above the yield stress.
hD) . The case h .) + (resp.(rr~) ] (1 . 2 MONOTONIC FAILURE OF BRITTLE MATERIALS For proportional monotonic loading at mesoscale aij = a(t)Tij. it is possible to perform an analytical integration of the damage law up to D = De. A damage threshold epD .15 A TwoScale Model for QuasiBrittle and Fatigue Damage 529 /3 p~ if Cs>r m or P~>pD PD  8pD . N are Norton's parameters.ry~e~a + a~d. (.v i Section 6.(f~/K) N in viscoplasticity. and from Norton's law JL . .(Y~/S)Sp ~' takes into account the partial closure of the microcracks or microvoids in the evolution of the damage. and the formulae obtained here apply to quastibrittle materials. 2 = p ~ ( 1 .u u O'y for cyclic loading The strain energy release rate Y'.D) is the plastic multiplier calculated from the consistency condition f~ = 0 and f ~ .6~2R~'/2E (with the notations of eq . 1 5 .2). 6 . vI(Trcr~)2 (Trcr/~)2] (6) where (.1 corresponds to Y~ .0 is considered (take also m = 0). C is the kinematic hardening parameter. there is initiation of a mesocrack. 3 .14) and to a damage law that is identical in tension and in compression.)_) denotes the positive part (resp. is defined as Y~ = l+v[(_a~)+:(_a~/+ 2Y ilD) +h (rr~) . the consideration of the damage law 1 3 . negative) of a tensor in terms of principal components and where (. By the introduction of the crack closure parameter h (for most of metals h ~ 0.) is the positive part of a scalar.. Finally.0 in plasticity. Teq = 1. and K. _ x2 O. The hypothesis of no plasticity at mesoscale is made. taking into account the different behaviors in tension and in compression. When the damage D reaches the critical value Dc.6.
7) allows us to calculate the damage D at a given mesostress a.fl)(2ES) s by introducing 2 1 (1 . and an approximate formula for the stress to failure may be derived only for small values of s not far from 1" err .2v)~ 2 Rv. (~) varies significantly over the integration intervals. For simplicity we assume here that h = 1 and we limit the analysis to the case of elastic fatigue (Aa ~_ 2af).3 FORMULAE FOR PROPORTIONAL FATIGUE LOADING For proportional cyclic loading at mesoscale aij = a(t)Tij.15. A scalar e~ is defined to quantify it under the proportional loading assumption.. of constant stress amplitude Aaij = AaTi) between O'minand Crma . . The time integration of the damage law (coupled with Eq..~ ~f + 30(1 . Teq = 1. 3G(1 .fi)(2ES)SDc _2sDs (Tkk) f /XV* (10) For compressionlike loading (a < 0).530 Desmorat and Lemaitre There is microplasticity for mesostresses larger than the fatigue limit af.O'min+ A o ' .tTf '~ comp hS (11) oR Ios 6..7 ( 1 + v ) + 7 RS"* fff.C/~ ~ 3G(1  fl) (7) In general.3. ( ~ ) .I (9) The function Rv. when Cr~f 8~P~8~TijD 3 and Ct) 6" . it x is possible to obtain accurate formulae for the number of cycles to crack initiation. considering the parameter h within the comp damage law allows us to calculate the stress at failure in compression crR much larger than in tension and to show that 0"~ nsi~ . we have C/G ~ 1" this shows that for a _> r the von Mises stress at microscale remains quasiequal to the limit fatigue (d"~ ~ 0 in the previous equation and then a~ ~ af).
. y) can be easily calculated by using mathematics softwares.2.fl) if Tkk .TrT .fl) Damage will initiate after a number of cycles No when the damage threshold pD is reached: No=PD @ .> 2of). aN [6G(1fl) pD . y) ~ (y .6.pD C OuCry ]m mo. a mean stress effect different in tension and in compression is obtained with h = 0. The function qg* (x.. cp* (x. of of (19) 9 a mean stress effect in tension identical to the mean stress effect in compression (due to h = 1). .0 (18) Tkk3G(1 .({)d{ + /x R~. The plastic strain increment over one cycle fcyde p~dt is then ap. omax Tkk) k.(x) + RSv. y) ~ 2 RS~.2)[RSv. 2(a~. A simple conservative approximate formula may be derived only for small values of s. ({)d{ (16) with Rv.2of) (1 /3)D~ if Tkk .0 (14) o~s+lq)* (ominTkk' omaxTkk) (15) if Tkk .TFT yk 0 aN cSD _ Tkk3G(1 .g. 9.fi)(2ES)~D~  if Tkk r 0 NR They exhibit No q.2~f) (12) 6N = 3G(1 .. if Ao.offs+l(49* (omin Tkk. 9 no mean stress effect in shear as experimentally observed.(y)] The formulae for the number of cycles at crack initiation are finally (17) N N0+ 3es e 2(Ao. defined by Eq. q)* (x.~ f (13) The damage increment over one cycle will then be aN = 3ES 3G(1 .fl)(2ES) s \ of of where the adimensional function ~.15 A TwoScale Model for QuasiBrittle and Fatigue Damage 531 The model will predict failure only if the stress amplitude at mesoscale is larger than twice the fatigue limit (i. is introduced.e.x .
Damage will initiate after n levels when the stored energy density reaches a loadingindependent threshold or in an equivalent manner when the accumulated plastic strain p~ reaches the . damage initiation occurs during the second level.5 STORED ENERGYBASED DAMAGE THRESHOLD FOR MULTILEVEL LOADING Each level is periodic between Omi and a~)ax at mesoscale.3.(O'maxl Jr.15. the rule obtained is bilinear with an angular point P of coordinates ([NR . i _ O. 6.3. It represents well the nonlinear accumulation of damage observed experimentally.N1 JrN2 (N1 known) is determined by: N.O'minl)/2 and F2. The number of cycles to failure is given by NR2 N1 } NR .N1 _ NR2  NR1 (20) NR1 . Two cases may be defined: (a) N01 < N1. The number of cycles at failure NR .N1 cycles of level i = 1 are followed by N2 cycles of level i = 2 up to failure for a number of cycles N R . the previous relationships lead to a rule of damage accumulation different from the classical Miner's rule N1/NR1 + N 2 / N R 2 1. damage initiation occurs during the first level.15. + NR .N1 = .4 Desmorat and Lemaitre We consider here a twolevel periodic loading in the fatigue regime of stress amplitude At)"1 ~ O'maxlO'minl and A~2 and of mean stress ~1 ..No1 (b) N01 ) N 1 . Each level (denoted i) applied alone leads to a number of cycles to failure NRi after a number of cycles up to damage initiation Noi. Nol/NR1). In the diagram N1/NR1 versus N2/NR2.532 FORMULAE FOR TwoLEVEL FATIGUE LOADING 6. ~ No1 No2 No2 (21) Because of the existence of a nonzero damage threshold (No/~ 0). N .(m/)ax_ ~ larger than 2crf).N1 qN2.No1 No2 NR1 .NOl]/NR2. corresponding n(i) to von Mises stresses a ~'(i) and a l'(i) at microscale (stress amplitude eqmin eqmax A o .
13. and the ultimate stress rru are identified from a classical tensile test at mesoscale.I ) x 1/m . the Poisson's ratio v. The damage threshold ~po may also be derived from such a test (see Section 6. the exponent m. ~pm. ~ Parameters at microscale. the damage threshold ~pm. and the critical damage De can be determined only by a nondirect identification. the linear kinematic hardening parameter C. The Young's modulus E. the numerical values of two sets of parameters must be identified. either by "manual groping" or numerically with a "good" starting solution deduced from the number of cycles to failure for periodic tensioncompression tests (Eq.14) or may be identified from twolevel fatigue tests at the same time as the exponent m (next paragraph).15 A TwoScale Model for QuasiBrittle and Fatigue Damage 533 loadingdependent threshold PD given by: / Cry(") + ~(") Cqmin cq. 2 _qt_ k=l . 9 Parameters at mesoscale. . The damage strength S. The explicit formulae given for twolevel fatigue tests may help in the identification of the damage threshold parameters (if such tests are available.  / iIm 11 m ] [eD eqmax ( Pn1) " 1/m q (22) eqmin ~2 1 .4 I D E N T I F I C A T I O N OF THE MATERIAL PARAMETERS For each material at each temperature considered. of course).( P ~ . This is a way to m e a s u r e N01 and to consequently adjust the values of ~po and m of Eq. since mechanical tests at microscale are not possible to perform. the damage exponent s. .O'f [(p~) /m] __ (0. The fatigue limit rrf needs some fatigue tests in order to obtain the quasiasymptotic part of the W6hler curve. The W6hler curve and some twolevel low cycle fatigue tests are the experimental data needed to identify the five parameters S. 19). The angular point P already defined corresponds to the case N01 = N1 for which the damage initiates at the time of level change. and Dc by an optimization procedure. the yield stress try.m. u _ O'Y)g'P D where p~ is the value of the accumulated plastic strain reached at the end of level (k).15. 6. s.6. .
6. the postprocessor DAMAGE2000. and use Eqs.5 HOW TO USE THE MODEL Failure of brittle materials and high cycle fatigue (HCF) of ductile materials are both calculated with the twoscale model (with different material parameters) with the same computer code. 810 and 11 to identify S and h. The total number of cycles NR is then given by Eq.Nn.N2 q . . The code DAMAGE2000 is able to handle any kind of loading. one can consider epD = 0. q. In general.. It has been confirmed that this model contains the following properties: effect of stress or strain amplitude.N01) N + ~ k=2 Nh ~~ . For HCF applications.Dr (23) where for simplicity damage is assumed to initiate on the first level after a number of cycles N01 and where Nh cycles of periodic loading at level (k) are made. For brittle materials. effect of compression (with h < 1). N n .N1 q. and fatigue periodic by block or random fatigue. nonlinear accumulation (due to the existence of the damage threshold).15. or any other proportional loading.. . effect of mean stress in tension. effect of an initial hardening or initial . the set of material parameters concerning the damage law (at microscale here) is identical to the set at mesoscale obtained for the singlescale damage model of Section 6. a straindriven algorithm is used in the classical iterative Newton's method with the elastic predictorplastic corrector procedure. 19 and 2021 may be used for single. . . no effect in shear. the parameter which needs to be carefully identified in fatigue being then the exponent m. A "jump in cycle" procedure based on stepwise linearized damage saves much computer time in the case of HCE The scheme for the numerical integration of the constitutive equations as well as the Fortran subroutine of the initial version of the twoscale model may be found in Reference [7]. . the simple formulae of Eqs. ~(t) of mesostress and strain. monotonic or fatigue. the simple formulae of Eqs.1 being known. To integrate the set of equations for a given history or(t). 23 with NR .2. s = 1. . each number of cycles N 1 . proportional or not.and twolevel fatigue loading.534 Desmorat and Lemaitre For brittle materials with no fatigue tests available. For multilevel experiments the accumulation rule of the damage is (N1 . compression.14. 811 may be used for failure under tensile. and D~ = 0. m = 0 (there is then no need of C). O'f of the order of cru/2. which is the numerical implementation of the threedimensional constitutive equations.
and fatigue under any history or random loading. (1999). Roy.2 0.15 A TwoScale Model for QuasiBrittle and Fatigue Damage 535 damage. J. D.2 h 0. Eur.. J.. 7 Lemaitre. (2000). R. ay (Mpa) 400 400 Cru (Mpa) 600 475 ~rf (Mpa) 200 180 C (Mpa) 2000 500 epD 0. A/Solids 19: 187208.025 m 1 1. J. and Sauzay. Fast determination of localized plasticity and damage by energetic methods. LMTCachan. 4 Kr6ner. Mod~lisation et estimation rapide de la plasticit~ et de l'endommagement. I. Sauzay.3 S(Mpa) 0. P.15. Springer Verlag. bi.5 0.2 Brittle Material. fatigue limit in two or three dimensions.3 s Dc h 0. no effect of an overload. Th~se d'Habilitation fi Diriger des Recherches. effect of nonproportional loading.5 0. (1957). 115: 197232. Proc. (1994). J. J.6 TABLES OF M A T E R I A L P A R A M E T E R S HCF of Steels (E = 200.3 • 10 8 s 1 Dc 0.000 Mpa. R..15. Int.1 Material Stainless steel SOLDUR355 2 1 5. 5 Lemaitre. Mech. v 0. Engrg. A Course on Damage Mechanics. 8. J. Acta Metall. Anisotropic damage law of evolution. J.3 TABLE 6. Fract. Postprocesseur de m~canique de l'endommagement.6.2 cru(Mpa) 3 crf(Mpa) 1.or threeaxial fatigue.15. M.. 6 Lemaitre. Lemaitre. J. Damage 90: A postprocessor for crack initiation. and Desmorat. Solids Structures (submitted for publication).2 TABLE 6. E.005 0. 9: 155161.5 epD 0 S(Mpa) 2. Methods Appl. J. Comput. 97: 6781. A two scale damage concept applied to fatigue. R. (1961).05 Material Concrete E(Mpa) 30. and Doghri. A241: 376. M. 6. The determination of the elastic field of an ellipsoidal inclusion and related problems. (2000). v = 0. 2 Desmorat. Mech. Int. 9.. On the plastic deformation of polycrystals. Notice 10. Sermage. (1992).000 REFERENCES 1 Desmorat. (2000). and Lemaitre. Universit~ Paris 6. 3 Eshelby.3).. London. J. Desmorat. R. . Soc.
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CHAPTER 7 Cracking and Fracture .
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SECTION 7. but an approximation of microcracks or crack growth in mode I at constant stress allows us to write 2E Gc ao = cr~ Dc where Gc is the toughness of the material and Y the damage energy density release rate. what is an initial crack? It can be a known defect created by a mesofracture event during a forming process. and then the fracture mechanics procedure is followed. It can also be the final stage of damage giving rise to a mesocrack of the size of the representative volume element (RVE): an abstract concept.2. Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. LMTCachan.D) Handbook of Materials Behavior Models. 94235 Cachan Cedex. 61 avenue du PrEsident Wilson. Y being the associated variable to the damage variable D. for example. But from a practical point of view. (see Section 6. 9 with a surface fracture mechanics energy: fjo Gd(a2).1 Introduction to Cracking and Fracture JEAN LEMAITRE Universit~ Paris 6. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.2) 6 e2qRv y z 3 Dc O"2 u 2E(1 . A development of this concept may be found in Section 7. It can also be a known defect with a smooth shape which does not represent a crack in the sense of fracture mechanics. France Fracture mechanics deals with existing cracks. the associated variable to the crack surface. which has the sharp shape of a crack. G being the strain a~ energy release rate. The fracture analysis of such a defect needs first a "crack" initiation procedure to be applied to initiate a sharp shape. A way to match damage mechanics and fracture mechanics is to consider that the damage mesocrack of size a0 has consumed an energy which can be calculated in two ways: 9 a volume damage energy: a o fo YdD. ISBN 0124433413. 539 .
Fracture mechanics considers different mechanisms of failure. depending upon the materials and the loadings. 9 Fatigue failure for cyclic loading (see Section 7.9).0 (0"222V/~) r being the polar coordinate from the crack tip r = 0 and rr22 being the normal stress in the direction normal to the crack.10) where the crack grows at each cycle with the phenomena of crack opening and . This background is described in Section 7. and Dc the critical damage at mesocrack initiation (De ~ 0.5 for many materials).5. Nevetheless. Fracture mechanics relates the length or the surface and the shape of the cracks to the intensity of the loading related to the crack. the conjugated variable to the crack surface A which can be calculated from the overall potential energy W of a structure calculation: 0W G=~ OA 9 From the point of view of conservation of energy. crack loading is in terms of the stress intensity factors characterizing the singularity of the elastic stress field at the crack tip. Delamination of coatings is described in Section 7. For example. in which no or almost no plasticity avoids an instability phenomenon of sudden fracture (see Section 7.540 Lemaitre with rru the ultimate rupture stress.6. 9 From the thermodynamic point of view. loading is described in terms of contour integrals around the crack tip.4). the load is expressed by the energy release rate G. the probabilistic approach of Weibull directly relates the probability of fracture to the applied loads (see Section 7. ff is the normal to the contour C. nl being its component along the linear crack in a bidimensional medium. 9 Brittle failure. such as the Rice integral: J = Wen1  ffijnj OX1f ds where we is the elastic energy density. in which the friction between crack lips is taken into account). and Section 7. and ff is the displacement in the structure.7. 9 Ductile or creep failures when plasticity or viscoplasticity induce stable crack growth (see Sections 7.8 and 7.3. E the Young's modulus. in a pure mode I of opening of the crack KI . 9 In a local analysis.lim r.
Fracture mechanics is finally an engineering tool for designing and controlling the structures in service for safety purposes (see Section 7.12). It can also be related to damage concepts (Sections 7.11 and 7.14). It induces specific phenomena when dynamic effects occur (as discussed in Section 7.11.1 Introduction to Cracking and Fracture 541 crack closure as explained in Section 7.7. .13).
. . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . 7. .2. Copyright 9 2001 by Academic Press. . . . . . . . . References .1 VALIDITY The p u r p o s e of this section is to provide a view on the possible c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n damage and f r a c t u r e m e c h a n i c s in the particular case of quasibrittle materials (concrete.1 Behavior of a Structure Using a Combined Approach of Damage and Fracture Mechanics . France Contents 7. . . . . . . . . . . 44321 Nantes Cedex 03. . .2. . . . .2.2. . . . . France 2Laboratoire de G~nie Civil de Nantes SaintNazaire. . . . . . ISBN 0124433413. . .1 Validity . .SECTION 7. 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9. . . . rocks. .2. BP 92101. . . . . . . . . . . All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. . from one theory. . . . . .. . . 7. . . . 542 .2. . . . . . .4. . .2. . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . .4 How to Use These Bridges . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Background . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . Handbook of Materials BehaviorModels. . . . The objective of this exercise is to offer the possibility to pass from one theory to the other d u r i n g a same calculation or to obtain.3 Equivalences . . . . . ceramics) for w h i c h linear approaches are realistic. . . . . i n f o r m a t i o n on h o w to use the other. . .2 Bridges between Damage and Fracture Mechanics JACKYMAZARS1 and GILLES PIJAUDIERCABOT2 1L3SInstitut National Polytechnique de Grenoble. . .3 Identification of the Internal Length. . . 542 543 544 545 545 547 548 548 7. . . . . . . Ecole Centrale de Nantes. . . . . . . . .2 Residual Strength of Initially Cracked Structures . .2. . 7. . . . . . .
These considerations start with the assumption of a specific form of the free (reversible) energy stored in the material during straining. with constant components depending upon the Young's modulus and the Poisson's ratio for an isotropic material which is linear elastic.~ q c3A (6) . and K is the global stiffness.O~ij  Aijkl(1 . It deals with energetic considerations.~ Kq~ 1 (3) AijDkz is the local stiffness matrix at a given stage of damage..Aijk..K q . Y is the damage energy release rate: OT ffij ~. G is the fracture energy release rate: cg~k cgT 1 2 OK Q . G .2 Bridges between Damage and Fracture Mechanics 543 7. internal energy. Let us emphasise that this section deals with the simplest possible forms of such energy. The state equations are deduced from the free energy defined as T = UTS (1) (U. and eij is the local strain component. A load denoted as Q is applied to the structure.. At uniform and constant temperature the state laws provide the stressstrain relations and the definition of the energy release rates.~ .~ Aijkl~ijekt 1 D (2) For the overall body. temperature. 9 For the damaged material. damaged or partially cracked.D)~kl.D) (4) AijkZ is the stiffness matrix for the virgin material. S. T. Assuming linear elasticity and isotropic damage. entropy). from which it is easy to relate local damage variables and global fracture variables..2 Aijkl~'ij~kl (5) 9 For the cracked structure (A is the actual area of the crack).2 BACKGROUND A unified way to present damage and fracture mechanics is through thermodynamics. q is the corresponding displacement. the free energy density is u . the total free energy is written as U .7.2. cOT 1 Y = OD . For the elementary volume at a given state of damage D. the relationship between AijDkl and the initial stiffness of the undamaged material is AijDk.(1 .~q .
the critical condition of crack propagation is . the wavelength 2rt/co is proportional to the internal length of the nonlocal continuum (for more details. This equivalence is thermodynamically acceptable if the consumption of energy is the same during the two processes.0 for i r 1 and j 7~ 1. GA_>0 (7) Since (Y) is a quadratic function and K decreases when A increases (see Eq. For this. nonhomogeneous) harmonic solution with a wavelength which is not indeterminate. 7. The calculation of the approximated fracture energy performed with the smallest value of the wavelength calculated for a uniaxial tensile test and corresponds to mode I crack opening. .. it seems natural to go from one concept to the other [5].r aD(x) (8) Conversely. It is generically denoted as D = f(~) where ? is the nonlocal strain defined in Chapter 6 of this volume [6]. the equivalent progression dA of a crack equivalent to a state of damage in the same structure is the solution of a aA .G = Gc (Gc is the critical energy release rate). The equilibrium equations have a nontrivial (e. Considering the case of LEFM. these equations imply that / 5 _ 0 and A___ 0. The evolution law of damage is nonlocal. showing that irreversibilities correspond to microor macrocracking propagation. we obtain Y/)_0. 6). One possible method is to transform a given damage zone into an equivalent crack. In fact.2. 7. The wavelength is also a function of the evolution law of damage. one needs to know the distribution of damage around the macrocrack. We assume at this stage a distribution of damage denoted as D O and the corresponding strain field denoted as s ~ When small deviations from this equilibrium state are analyzed. Consider an infinite body subjected to uniaxial tension in direction 1.O. it is possible to derive the fracture energy Gc from the distribution of damage around a macrocrack which propagated in the considered structure (Fig.3 EQUIVALENCES Considering the similarity of the two approaches. which is approximated as follows.544 Mazars and PijaudierCabot The first and second principles of thermodynamics are completely satisfied if the ClausiusDuhem inequality is also verified. cr~ with cr~ .g. see Reference [2]).2. the displacement field is the solution of the partial differential equations div((rij).1). For the two considered cases. Then.
s)ds r/(z) f7 with  COS((OmaxZ)ifZ E 2 ~ m a ' 2(Omax x r/(z) .2. which encountered damage: r oo JO 2 1~111 dy 1 (10) 7. the distribution of damage perpendicularly to the crack direction is (the coordinate perpendicular to the crack path is denoted as y): D(y) . Geometry of the localization band assumed for the calculation of the With the minimum wavelength. 7.2 Bridges between Damage and Fracture Mechanics 545 FIGURE 7.2.2. During the tests many observations and measures were made 7.4].2.1 .1 fracture energy.f'+~ o~(s)I/(y 4.2a) tested by Mazars [3.4 HOW TO USE THESE BRIDGES BEHAVIOROF A STRUCTURE USING A COMBINED APPROACHOF DAMAGE AND FRACTURE MECHANICS The structure considered is a compact tension specimen (Fig.0 elsewhere (9) The energy consumption due to crack propagation is the integral of the energy dissipation at each material point in the fracture process zone.7.4.
2.c e "i j o 13 J 1. (c) 0 X C test. I 0 o.~ o.z Opening I t . Evolution of the stiffness with the crack. Geometry.~ t"1 BIT1 FIGURE 7. e+.caLc. c. (e) experimental. The calculation is performed using the damagefracture combined approach.2 Compact tension specimen. . a.. b. Global behavior..I t \.546 r)Ocm Mazars and PijaudierCabot thickness= 10 (a) ?s KlkN/m lOS ! (b) .1 20 ~n ~  a ffz a~) Q kN 20 le. (t) theoretical..
2 Bridges between Damage and Fracture Mechanics 547 showing that the global behavior includes three stages: 9 OA. A being the actual equivalent area of the crack equal to a. qB = 0 . this necessitates predetermining the evolution K = K(A). Bt = 20. linear elastic. which is close to the 102 N/m obtained for Go.8. 9 from B to C with linear elastic fracture mechanic. At = 0.23E . see Reference [6].9.51E + 05 k N / m 3 Gc . Bt. See Figure 7.4.03 m.t (a and t.2 RESIDUAL STRENGTH OF INITIALLY CRACKED STRUCTURES Given a crack observed in a structure. one can deduce q = ( 2 G ~ ) / ( . but without macrocrack. and At.d K / d A ) .2. Equation 9 provides the distribution of damage .2b.1/2q 2 (dK/dA)B = 102 N / m 9 LEFM calculation: from Eq. and lc being non local damage parameters.2. from which comes Q = Kq. The following parameters have been used: 9 nonlocal damage calculation: E = 34. being length of the crack and thickness of the plate).7. We may notice that the global behavior deduced from the G~ value is close to the experimental one and the value determined from the analytical calculation w is Gf = 115 N / m . To simulate this behavior. damage with microcracks. From Figure 7. 9 critical fracture energy at point B: QB = 18.5E + 04 kN/m. combination of both microcracking and macrocrack. KB .2b it can be pointed out: 9 that the equivalent crack length at point B is a = 13 cm. The bridge from the first calculation to the other directly uses the equivalent crack concept previously presented. 6 and as . 9 BC. 9 AB. it is possible to transform the crack into an equivalent damage zone. respectively.04. It confirms that the real crack appears close to the maximum load and that the evolution on the surface is faster than inside the specimen. 9 that the experimental curve which gives the evolution of the ratio Q/q (#K) versus the crack length measured directly on the surface of the specimen is very different from the theoretical one. 7. lc = 3 0 m m (K0 being initial damage threshold.2. (dK/dA)B . 2 E . to0 = 1.000.9 kN.G = G~ at propagation. we propose two kinds of calculation: 9 from O to B with a nonlocal damage model.500MPa.
CRC Press. Mazars.3 IDENTIFICATION OF THE INTERNAL LENGTH Size effect tests directly provide the fracture energy of the material (see Reference [1]). Bazant. Solids Struct. J. Failure analysis of initially cracked concrete structures. PijaudierCabot. and Mazars. Bod~. PijaudieroCabot. Hence Eq. The radial distribution of damage at the crack tip is assumed to follow the same mathematical expression (in which the distance r to the crack tip replaces the coordinate y. (1997). 33: 33273342. 6. France. the single unknown in Eq. Tailhan. J.. From damage to fracture mechanics and conversely: A combined approach. L. ASCE 123: 11531160. Equation 10. (1984). Mazars. Bod~ et al. [2] tested such a procedure and found that it provided reasonable accuracy (10 to 30% error on blind predictions). La Borderie. or the internal length of the nonlocal model equivalently. Damage models for concrete. this volume. In practice. J.and macroscale damage of concrete structures. 10 becomes the internal length. REFERENCES 1.. Engrg. 3. A description of micro. L. J. Mechanics. Int. and Planas. (2000).4. L. P. 10 yields a relationship between the evolution law of damage and the wavelength of the distribution of damage. 5.. J. This distribution of initial damage can be projected on a finite element mesh. the evolution of damage is not necessarily entirely known. Z. J. 2. . Application de la m~canique de l'endommagement au comportement non lin~aire et h la rupture du b~ton de structure.. Universit~ Paris 6.2. (198