Design and Construction of P/T Concrete Structures

Hemant Gor, Structural Engineer
Date Date 28th August 08

Session Outline
• • • • • What is Prestressing? Materials For Post-Tensioning Work Overview of Post-Tensioning Systems Myths about Post-Tensioning Basic Design Concept, Load Balancing

Session Outline
• • • • • Advantages of Post-Tensioning Construction of Post-Tensioned Slabs Application of Post-Tensioning to transfer Girders ACI Provisions on Prestressed Concrete Design BS 8110 and TR 43 Provisions for Prestressed Concrete

What is Prestressing?
Prestressing is a method of reinforcing concrete. The concrete is prestressed to counteract the applied loads during the anticipated loads during the anticipated service life of the member

Prestressed concrete (PC) vs. Reinforced Concrete (RC) The main difference between RC and PC is the fact that the steel reinforcement in the Prestressed Concrete is ACTIVE and the same is PASSIVE in Reinforced Concrete .

Application of Prestressed Concrete Nuclear Containment Bridges Water Tanks Storage Structures Pre-Cast Members Buildings .

Components of P/T work Strand (0.6” Diameter) Confirming to BS 5896/ prEN 10386 / ASTM Duct ( Flat / Circular Ducts) HDPE / Metal Anchorage ( Dead /Live End) Grout High Strength Concrete fcu ≥ 35MPa .5”/0.

7 15.Description of P/T material •7 Wire Strands Strand Type Nominal Tensile Strength (MPa) 1860 1860 1770 1860 Nominal Diameter (mm) 12.7 Euro 158 178 235 237 .7 15.1% Proof Load (kN) 12.7 Drawn 15.7 Super 15.7 Nominal Steel Area (mm2) 100 112 150 150 Minimum Breaking Strength (kN) 186 209 265 279 0.9 Super 12.9 12.

Pre and Post – Tensioned Concrete Pre – Tensioning : Steel reinforcement are stressed prior to concrete placement. Dubai Metro . Bridge I Girders Post – Tensioning : Steel tendons are stressed after the concrete has been placed and gained sufficient strength at the construction sites Example : Post – Tensioning of Floor Slab. usually at a precast plant remote from the construction site Example : Hollow Core Slab.

Post-Tensioning System .

relative to the surrounding concrete • Consists of 7 Wire Strands most commonly used sizes are 0.What is Unbonded Tendon? • Prestressing Steel is prevented from bonding to concrete and is free to move.5” Diameter Strands • The Prestressing Force is transferred to the Concrete through the anchorage ONLY .

Bonded Unbonded Force transmitted solely by the anchors Total force limited by anchor spacing Replaceable Retrofit Openings require more care Bonded Force transmitted by anchors and bond to concrete Greater force can be applied Strain compatibility with concrete Minimizes need for Un-tension Reinforcement Openings less Difficult .Post – Tensioning Systems Unbonded vs.

Force Balance : Example 1 .

Force Balance : Example 2 .

Force Balance Example 3 .

Post.Tension Slab Scheme .

Typical Two-Way Spanning Floors .

Example slide .

0 40 36 30 44 40 36 45 40 33 25 22 18 30 27 24 28 26 23 42 38 34 18 16 13 .5 5.Initial Sizing of Post – Tension Members Span to Depth Ratio Characteristic Flat Imposed Load Slab Qk kN/m2 Flat Slab with drop panel Flat Slab with Band Beams Slab Beam Ribbed Slabs Waffle Slab One Way Slab on deep beams Slab Beam 2.0 10.

Layout of shear walls to reduce loss of Prestress and Cracking Effect A) Favourable Layout B) Unfavourable Layout .

Tendon Arrangement Tendons Geometrically Banded in Each Direction Tendons Fully Bonded in One Direction & Distributed in other Direction .

Input required by P/T contractor • Floor General Arrangement Drawings • Loading Diagrams ( Live Load and Superimposed Dead Load) • Un-tension Reinforcement Required at junction of Core / Shear Wall / Columns with Post Tension Slab • Design Code ACI / BS 8110 / TR 43 • Flexural Member Type Classification • Permissible Crack Width .

Lighter Structures. Reduced Seismic Forces • Reduced Cracking and Deflection • Reduced Storey Height • Rapid Construction • Large reduction in conventional reinforcement .Advantages of Prestressed Concrete Floors • Increased Clear Span • Thinner Slabs • Reduced Floor Loads.

Method of Analysis of P/T Slab • Equivalent Frame Analysis ( 2D Analysis) • 3D Finite Element Analysis • Design Strips (EC2) • Full Tributary Width ( ACI and BS) .

62 f c' < f t ≤ 1.Classification of P/T Beams It is based on Flexural Tensile Stress under Service Loads BS 8110 Class 1 : No Tensile Stress ACI 318 Class U : Uncraked f t ≤ 0.62 f c' Class 2 : Tensile Stress ≤ 0.36 f cu Class T : Transient 0.2mm) .1mm/0.0 f c' Class 3 : Higher Tensile Stress Class C : Cracked compared to Class 2 based on Crack f t > 1.0 f c' width Limitations (0.

Post – Tension Member Design • Checks for Service Load Combinations • Bending Tension and Compression Stresses at Transfer and Service • Minimum Average Pre-compression in Member • Crack width at location exceeding Permissible Tensile stress Limit • Checks for Ultimate Loads • Flexure • Shear .

4DL + 1.Ultimate Flexure Design • The Ultimate Flexure Check for following Combination • 1.0 Hyper static Moments • Hyperstatic Forces • Generated in Indeterminate Structure .6LL + 1.

Secondary Moment M2 = Secondary Moment • Developed in Post-Tensioned Concrete members due to Prestressing forces • Consequence of constraint by the supports to the free movement of the member • Only develops in Indeterminate members • Simply Supported Beams have zero secondary Significant: Must be accounted for in the design of Prestressed Concrete Indeterminate Structures .

vary linearly between supports .) Mbal = M1 + M2 = Pe + Msec Mbal = Balanced moment by post-tensioning equivalent loads Secondary reactions at supports due to prestressing M2 Secondary Moments. M 2.Secondary Moment (cont’d.

Post-Tensioning Slab Procedure Placement of Bottom Reinforcement Mesh Placing Flat Duct along with Strands in both Directions Concreting After 3 Days Transferring 25% of Total Prestress Force to avoid Shrinkage and Temperature Cracks • Transferring remaining 75% of Prestress • Grouting of Duct • • • • .

Two Way Slab with Bonded P/T Banded in One Direction and Distributed in Another .

Stressing Tendons .

Deck will still move for many months/years .Closure Strip • Slab is temporarily allowed to cure in smaller segments • Can locate the lateral system in the middle of the individual pour • Allows for internal stressing – may be critical on subterranean projects • Typically remain open for 30 to 60 days.

Slip Loss ( Pre-Stressing Steel Seating at Transfer) 2. Creep of Concrete 2. Short Term Losses 1. Friction Loss 2. Shrinkage of Concrete 3. Elastic Shortening 3. Long Term Losses 1. Relaxation of Prestressing Steel .Loss of Prestress 1.

Date (if applicable) Presentation Title Transfer Girder • Harped Profile may be more efficient to resist concentrated loads • P/T Forces can balance the dead loads. • Stage stressing to avoid overstressing the beams • Multi Strand tendons when large forces are required .

Date (if applicable) Presentation Title Transfer Girder .

85MPa • Maximum Spacing of Tendons in any one direction shall not exceed lesser of 8 Times Thickness of Slab or 1.16MPa) .5 x (fc’)0.ACI Provisions on P/T Slab Design • Minimum Average Pre-compression 0.5m • Maximum Permissible Tensile Stress limit is 0.5 ( for fcu = 50MPa ft = 3.

Myths about P/T • • • • • P/T Concrete is crack free You can not drill / make openings in P/T Slab It is impossible to upgrade / repair a P/T Structure P/T structures are not durable If you drill into a tendon. it will fly out of the building .

Reasons to Consider P/T • P/T slab is typically 30% thinner • Long-term creep problems are virtually eliminated by load balancing • Moment of inertia approaches Igross • The slab can be stressed and the forms removed in 2-3 days • The 21 to 28 day shoring time for rebar concrete does not apply to P/T • Flexibility in Column Layout • Large Cantilevers .

Thank You for your Attention .

Date .

Movement Joint .

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