Wireless Communications

Spread Spectrum....& more about CDMA

Spread Spectrum: DS-SS, FH-SS, Coding Gain, Fading Margins

Key Digital Modulation Techniques: OFDM .

Spread spectrum .

902-928 MHz. Users of FCC certified spread spectrum products do not require a license from the FCC. Allows for many applications such as repeaters. the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) allocated three frequency bands for spread spectrum (SS)communications. Spread Spectrum technology in three radio bands. 24002483.5-5850 MHz for transmission under 1 Watt of power.5 MHz and 5752.Spread-spectrum       In 1985. redundant base station and overlapping antenna cells. SS data radios offer the opportunity to have multiple channels which can be dynamically changed through software. This power limit prevents interference within the band over long distances. SS transmission technique has much greater immunity to interference and noise compared to conventional radio transmission techniques. originally developed by the military. An increasing number of users can use the same frequency (similar to cellular). .

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the receiver knows how to generate the same code. Time hopping: The signal is transmitted in short bursts pseudorandomly. Direct sequence: The digital data is directly coded at a much higher frequency. The code is generated pseudo-randomly. and correlates the received signal with that code to extract the data. .Spread spectrum     3 ways to spread the bw of the signal: Frequency hopping: The signal is rapidly switched between different frequencies within the hopping bandwidth pseudo-randomly. and the receiver knows before hand where to find the signal at any given time. and the receiver knows beforehand when to expect the burst.

Freq Hop Time Hop .

The 3dB bandwidth for each band (transmit and receive) is defined here for the three types of spreading: Single Carrier: BW 3dB = 1. to prevent interference with neighboring bands. So the figure for the total bandwidth must include these two Guard regions. . 6.Bandwidth Usage in CDMA 2000      Depending on the factor N and on the type of spreading used. 12 cdma2000 allocates Guard regions of 625kHz.2288Mhz Multi-Carrier: BW 3dB = (N . on each sides of the allocated bandwidth. 12 Direct Spread: BW 3dB = N x 1.2288Mhz. 9. 9. where N = 3.1) x 1.2288Mhz. the bandwidth that cdma2000 requires varies. 6.25Mhz + 1. where N = 3.

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Channel Spacing: (N+1) x 1.25MHz .2288 Mcps Modulation: Uplink:  BPSK Data modulation  QPSK Spreading modulation Downlink:  QPSK Data modulation  QPSK spreading modulation Detection: coherent for both uplink and downlink.Transmissions characteristics of cdma2000 (FDD)     Modulation chip rate: N x 1.

N .Walsh codes      Walsh codes are defined as a set of N codes. . Wj has exactly j zero crossings. Wj[0] = 1 for all j. 1.. ..1. for j = 0. .. . which have the following properties: Wj takes on the values +1 and -1. 1.. Each code Wj is either even or odd with respect to its midpoint. for j = 0. . N .1. denoted Wj.

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PCS and wireless local loop (WLL) services based on the IS-95A and IS-95B CDMA air interface standards.5G cellular.8 Mbps . cdmaOneΠidentifies 2G and 2.4 Mbps in a single carrier CDMA2000 1xEV-DV integrates voice and data on a single channel with speeds of up to 4.4 kbps while IS-95B offers up to 115 kbps. CDMA2000 is an ITU-approved. IS-95A supports data delivery up to 14. IMT-2000 (3G) standard CDMA2000 1X can double voice capacity and delivers data rates up to 307 kbps CDMA2000 1xEV is optimized for high-speed data: CDMA2000 1xEV-DO uses a designated channel for data at speeds of up to 2.CDMA: the present and future CDMA uses spread spectrum Technology.

CDMA ² Multiple Users .

the transmitted signal arrives at the receiver using various paths of different length). and lower multi-path distortion. Orthogonal FDM's (OFDM) spread spectrum technique distributes the data over a large number of carriers that are spaced apart at precise frequencies. voice. Since multiple versions of the signal interfere with each other (inter symbol interference (ISI)) it becomes very hard to extract the original information. Benefits of OFDM are high spectral efficiency. which is modulated by the data (text. etc. Useful because in a typical terrestrial broadcasting scenario there are multipath-channels (i.OFDM      Frequency division multiplexing (FDM) is a technology that transmits multiple signals simultaneously over a single transmission path.). video. such as a cable or wireless system. Each signal travels within its own unique frequency range (carrier). . resiliency to RF interference.e. This spacing provides the "orthogonality" in this technique which prevents the demodulators from seeing frequencies other than their own.

OFDM        The IEEE 802. And. ADSL and VDSL used for Internet access use a form of OFDM known as discrete multi-tone (DMT). there are other less well known examples in the military and satellite worlds. One of the first successful and most widespread uses of OFDM was in data modems connected to telephone lines.11a/g/n standards are based on OFDM. The high-speed short-range technology known as Ultra-Wideband (UWB) uses an OFDM standard set by the WiMedia Alliance. The almost completed 4G cellular technology standard Long-Term Evolution (LTE) uses OFDM. OFDM is also used in wired communications like power-line networking technology. . The wideband wireless metro-area network (MAN) technology WiMAX uses OFDM.

Overall spectrum of the simple OFDM signal shown with four subcarriers within. Note that the zero crossings all correspond to peaks of adjacent subcarriers . .

4GHz ) ± DSSS-QPSK.OFDM IEEE 802.1 (bluetooth) ± GFSK ZigBee 802. in America and 868MHz DSSS-BPSK in Europe.MIMO (UWB) IEEE 802.11 n .15.16 (WiMax) .11 .FHSS/DSSS IEEE 802.OFDM IEEE 802.15.11 a . .conclusion         IEEE 802. b (Wi-Fi) ± DSSS IEEE 802.OFDM IEEE 802.11 g . 915MHz DSSS-BPSK.4 systems (2.

Effects of Fading .

Irreducible Bit Error Rate due to multipath .

Simulation of Fading and Multipath .

Irreducible BER due to fading .

Irreducible BER due to fading .

BER due to fading & multipath .

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