P. 1
Things to Make

Things to Make

|Views: 117|Likes:
Published by MoreMoseySpeed

More info:

Published by: MoreMoseySpeed on Jan 29, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/03/2014

pdf

text

original

The systematic measurement of rainfall is one of those pursuits
which prove more interesting in the doing than in the prospect. It
enables us to compare one season or one year with another; tells us
what the weather has been while we slept; affords a little mild
excitement when thunderstorms are about; and compensates to a
limited extent for the disadvantages of a wet day.
The general practice is to examine the gauge daily (say at 10
a.m.); to measure the water, if any, collected during the previous
twenty-four hours; and to enter the record at once. Gauges are made
which record automatically the rainfall on a chart or dial, but these
are necessarily much more expensive than those which merely catch
the water for measurement.
This last class, to which our attention will be confined chiefly, all
include two principal parts--a metal

328

A RAIN-GAUGE.

receiver and a graduated glass measure, of much smaller diameter
than the receiver, so that the divisions representing hundredths of an
inch may be far enough apart to be distinguishable. It is evident that
the smaller the area of the measure is, relatively to that of the
receiver, the more widely spaced will the graduation marks of the
measure be, and the more exact the readings obtained.

FIG. 151. -- Standard rain-gauge.

The gauge most commonly used is that shown in Fig. 151. It
consists of an upper cylindrical part, usually 5 or 8 inches in
diameter, at the inside of the rim, with its bottom closed by a funnel.
The lower cylindrical part holds a glass catcher into which the
funnel delivers the water for storage until the time when it will be
measured in a graduated glass. The upper part makes a good fit with
the lower, in order to reduce evaporation to a minimum.
Such a gauge can be bought for half a guinea or so, but one
which, if carefully made, will prove approximately accurate, can be
constructed at very

A RAIN-GAUGE.

329

small expense. One needs, in the first place, a cylindrical tin, or,
better still, a piece of brass tubing, about 5 inches high and not less
than 3 inches in diameter. (Experiments have proved that the larger
the area of the receiver the more accurate are the results.) The
second requisite is a piece of stout glass tubing having an internal
diameter not more than one-quarter that of the receiver This is to
serve as measuring glass.

FIG. 152. -- Section of homemade rain-gauge.

The success of the gauge depends entirely upon ascertaining
accurately how much of the tube will be filled by a column of water
1 inch deep and having the same area as the receiver. This is easily
determined as follows:--If a tin is to be used as receiver, make the
bottom and side joints watertight with solder; if a tube, square off
one end and solder a flat metal to it temporarily. The receptacle is
placed on a perfectly level base, and water is poured in until it
reaches exactly to a mark made 4 inches from the

330

A RAIN-GAUGE.

end of a fine wire held perpendicularly. Now cork one end of the
tube and pour in the water, being careful not to spill any, emptying
and filling again if necessary. This will give you the number of tube
inches filled by the 4 inches in the receiver. Divide the result by 4,
and you will have the depth unit in the measure representing 1 inch
of rainfall. The measuring should be done several times over, and
the average result taken as the standard. If the readings all agree, so
much the better.

Preparing the Scale. -- The next thing is to graduate a scale,
which will most conveniently be established in indelible pencil on a
carefully smoothed strip of white wood 1 inch wide. First make a
zero mark squarely across the strip near the bottom, and at the unit
distance above it a similar mark, over which "One Inch" should be
written plainly. The distance between the marks is next divided by
1/2-inch lines into tenths, and these tenths by 1/4-inch lines into
hundredths, which, if the diameter of the receiver is four times that
of the tube, will be about 3/16 inch apart. For reading, the scale is
held against the tube, with the zero mark level with the top of the
cork plugging the bottom. It will, save time and trouble if both tube
and scale are attached permanently

A RAIN-GAUGE.

331

to a board, which will also serve to protect the tube against damage.
Making the Receiver. -- A tin funnel, fitting the inside of the
receiver closely, should be obtained, or, if the exact article is not
available, a longer one should be cut down to fit. Make a central
hole in the bottom of the receiver large enough to allow the funnel
to pass through up to the swell, and solder the rim of the funnel to
the inside of the receiver, using as little heat as possible.
If you select a tin of the self-opening kind, you must now cut
away the top with a file or hack-saw, being very careful not to bend
the metal, as distortion, by altering the area of the upper end of the
tin, will render the gauge inaccurate.
The receiver should be supported by another tin of somewhat
smaller diameter, and deep enough to contain a bottle which will
hold 3 or 4 inches of rainfall. In order to prevent water entering this
compartment, tie a strip of rubber (cut out of an old cycle air tube)
or other material round the receiver, and projecting half an inch
beyond the bottom (Fig. 152).
All tinned iron surfaces should be given a couple of thin coats or

paint.

332

A RAIN-GAUGE.

The standard distance between the rain gauge and the ground is
one foot. The amount caught decreases with increase of elevation,
owing to the greater effect of the wind. The top of the gauge must be
perfectly level, so that it may offer the same catchment area to rain
from whatever direction it may come.

FIG. 153. -- Self-measuring gauge.

Another Arrangement. -- To simplify measurement, the
receiver and tube may be arranged as shown in Fig. 153. In this case
the water is delivered directly into the measure, and the rainfall may
be read at a glance. On the top of the support is a small platform for
the receiver, its centre directly over the tube. The graduations, first
made on a rod as already described, may be transferred, by means of
a fine camel's hair brush and white paint, to the tube itself. To draw
off the water after taking a reading, a hole should be burnt with a
hot wire through the bottom cork. This hole is plugged with a piece
of slightly tapered

A RAIN-GAUGE.

333

brass rod, pushed in till its top is flush with the upper surface of the
cork.

If the tube has small capacity, provision should be made for
catching the overflow by inserting through the cork a small tube
reaching to a convenient height-say the 1-inch mark. The bottom of
the tube projects into a closed storage vessel. Note that the tube
must be in position before the graduation is determined, otherwise
the readings will exaggerate the rainfall.

FIG. 154. -- Gauge in case.

Protection against the Weather. -- A rain-gauge of this kind
requires protection against frost, as the freezing of the water would
burst the tube. It will be sufficient to hinge to the front of the
support a piece of wood half an inch thicker than the diameter of the
tube, grooved out so as to fit the tube when shut round it (Fig 154).

334

WIND VANES WITH DIALS

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->