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i<

HOW

TO REPAIR
SHOES

BY FRANK

L.

WEST
DIVISION

HEAD OF SHOEMAKING

'"^aaoMaO"'

TUSKEGEE NORMAL AND INDUSTRIAL INSTITUTE

fv*y

Institute

Press

Tuskegee

Institute,

Alabama

1912

k
&CI.A3i47i4 ^

PREFACE
fore
of writing Finding that there was nothing in the form to keep constantly beand illustrations which I might use while teaching them how to repair and

my

pupils

make

shoes, I set to

work compiling

a

set

of

lessons lessons

which would meet this on the following pages are planned
the very
first

immediate need.
for a

The

so as to take

steps

of

caring

shop
is

one from and making

waxed ends
shoe.

to

the

place

where he

ready to
a

make

a

Upon

each

step illustrated

herein,

great

deal

however, is to put, more might be said.. My main object, essential facts. the in a clear, compact way, of young men This book is dedicated to the thousands

who

are

anxious to do

common
truly,

things

in

uncommon

ways.

Yours very

Copyright,

1912

By

Frank L. West

CONTENTS
The Proper Way to keep Making a Waxed End
Some Points
to

a

Shoeshop

7

°

bear in mind about

Waxed Ends

12 12

To make

the Plain Stitch
of Different

The Study

Awls

13 15
17

How
The The

to

Sharpen Knives

Square-awl like the Knife and the Chisel
Divisions of a

Last

18

The French Hammer, Welt-knife and Rhan-file
Repairing a Heel

20
21

How

a

McKay

Sewed Shoe

is

made

25

Preparation of Sole Leather
Halfsoiing a Shoe (nailed)

29
32 42
Stitch

The Back and Lock Stitches The Underneath Patch and the Backbone
Shoe Leathers
Putting on a Cement Patch
Halfsoiing a Sewed Shoe

45

49
51 55
-59

Preparing an Insole for a Sewed Shoe

Patching a Shoe

at the

Tip

64

Halfsoiing aJTurned Shoe
List of

67
have
74

Tools Necessary

to

HOW

TO REPAIR SHOES

THE PROPER WAY TO KEEP A SHOE SHOP A Shoe shop should be kept clean as any other place of business. A clean swept floor,
clean, clear

corners, bright walls, clean win-

dows and everything straight and in place go to make a pleasant shop to work in and a
pleasant place for people to
visit.

Show me
of business,
a great

the inside of a shoemaker's place

and

I

will

be able to
does.

tell

you

to

degree the kind of customers he has
class of

and the
lighted
health.

work he
sake

The shop
for

should be well ventilated and
the
of

the

workmen's
hours

There should be
Often
a

set or special

during the day for sweeping and arranging
things.

burden
straight.

because

workman's work seems a things are not tidy and
putting

When
them

down

a

pair

of

shoes, set

straight with insides together.

The

little

things count.

A

bright, pleasant

HOW TO
shop
1.
is

REPAIR SHOES

the

first

step towards

making work

a

pleasure.

Always sweep from the front door
of the shop. to
in

to-

wards the rear end
2.

The

easiest

way
it

sweep
its

is

to

move
as

everything, placing

proper place

you go
all

so that

when you

are through every-

thing will be straight.

When

possible cover

machines while sweeping.

3.

Never

leave the

work bench without
tools,

leaving everything straight.
4.
lasts

Never keep heavy
and
lap-irons

such

as iron

on your bench.

Have

bench system.

MAKING A WAXED END
which shoemakers use are called ''ends" (warped thread twisted) and are made of two or more threads or strands
threads
of smaller thread, or flax, as
it is

The

called.
is

The
main

first

thing in making an end

break-

ing the

flax.

To
is

break the
to

flax,

hold the

part,

which

be broken for the end,
gripping
it

in the left hand,

firmly
8

where

HOW TO
you want
that
it

REPAIR SHOES
first

broken, between the
so that
it

finger

and thumb
point.

will not turn

beyond
lay

With
which
roll

the
is
it

right

hand,

the

part of flax

attached to the ball on

the knee

and

from you.
it

This will

cause the small

flax fibers to

separate, thus

enabling you to break

easily.

When
the

the

fibers separate give the thread a light,

quick
thread

jerk and

it

will

break.

When

breaks pull
bers
will

it

apart gradually so that the

fi-

taper.

See

Diagram No.

1

for

breaking.

When
one
just

putting threads together lay them

behind the other so that the end

HOW TO
will

REPAIR SHOES
See Diagram

have
2.

a

very fine point.

No.

Putting the threads together

Roll the end with the same

movement

as

shown in Diagram No. 1, only allow it between the fingers of the left hand.
rolling or twisting,

to turn

After

wax well. TO PUT ON THE BRISTLE

To

put on

a

bristle,

wax

the

fine

ends

well to the point.

Catch the

bristle,

holding

head in left hand, pull the wax toward the end briskly, thus waxing only the part to
10

HOW TO
the

REPAIR SHOES

which the thread is to be fastened. Take bristle between the first finger and thumb, Diagram No. 3, and catch the fine

i.

part

of

thread with
well together,

it.

Twist

bristle

slanting

to

thread and the end.
5.

Stick hole in thread and pull bristle through
to

fasten

it.

See

Diagram No.
cut off heads

After
bristles

fastening thread,

of

and sandpaper the ends.
11

SOME POINTS TO BEAR IN MIND ABOUT WAXED ENDS
Never make an end longer than
sary to
to
is is

neces-

sew

a shoe.

If

an end

is

long enough
of

sew two shoes, double the amount
first

work

done by pulling the double end through
shoe.

the

By doing

this,

the end will

have to be pulled two or three times more
than
necessary.

The second
is

shoe,
as

when
strong

sewed with such an end,
as the first

never

one.

The
it

thread grows weaker and weaker as

is

used.

The second

shoe gets the dead
thread well waxed.

thread.

When sewing, keep the When the thread is well
not too large, and the end
the shoes seldom rip.

waxed, the awl
is

is

pulled up well,

TO
1.

MAKE THE

PLAIN STITCH

Push the awl through the leather from
Put the left-hand
bristle

the right side.
2.

through and

then the right-hand
3.

bristle.

The

left-hand bristle should always
12

be

,

HOW TO
you.
4.

REPAIR SHOES
which
is

in the side of the hole

farthest

from

Catch

hold of the bristles and pull

them through.
5.

After they are well through, catch the
bristles

end below the
6.

and

finish the stitch.
it

Pull the

end up well and hold

until

you can
7.

feel the

wax

set.

After the

first stitch is

made, the
always

bris-

tle

from

the

left

hand

will

come
on the

through on top
right side.
8.

of the stitch, or end,

Keep

the hands free from grease while
a

sewing with
9.

waxed end.

Always sew towards you.

THE STUDY OF DIFFERENT AWLS
Shoemakers use four kinds
Sewing-awl
of awls, namely:

Pegging-awl, Stabbing-awl (or straight-awl)

(inseamimg or

whipping-awl)
.

and the Stitching-awl (or square-awl)
Pegging-awl
sole for pegs.
is

The
in

used to drive holes
It is

the

sometimes used

to

make

holes in the

heels before the heel-nails are
13

HOW TO
put
in.

REPAIR SHOES
is

The Stabbing-awl
upper
is

used

in

sewing

rips in the

of a shoe to

and any other
in straight,
is

kind of sewing which
flat

be done

material.

The Inseaming-awl

used
a

when sewing the welt on a patch down to the sole, and in some when sewing the sole on the shoe.
Sewing-awl
point.
is

shoe, sewing

cases

The
at

round or oval shaped
will

the

This awl

make

stitches

which

have

a

tendency
reason
it

to
is

run into one another.
better for

For

this

making long
welt.

stitches

such

as
is

those

on

the

The
sole.

Stitching-awl

used for stitching on the

This awl

(the Square-awl)

makes
a

a

square

hole which allows you to
stitch

make

very fine
flat

when sewing on

the sole.

The

or

square hole does not allow

the stitches to

run together.

When
which
is

sewing,
as large

no awl
as

should be used
to-

the

two ends put

gether.

The

hole which the awl makes must
will ofifer resist-

be so small that the threads
ance

when being

pulled

through.

(The

threads will have to be pulled hard to get
14

HOW TO
them through.)
is

REPAIR SHOES
that the awl

Always be sure

small enough.

The

right sized awl, with an

end well waxsets)

ed and pulled

up

(until

it

are
a

two

things which are necessary to

make

good

strong stitch.

HOW
Diagram
to

TO SHARPEN KNIVES
at

top

of

page 16

tells

you not
a

begin half-way the blade
knife.

to

sharpen

straight

Why?

Because

beginning
have
a

at that point,

you

will in a short while

knife with a blunt or dull edge.
will

The

knife

seem

to

be made of poor metal.

In or-

make a knife cut, we must sharpen it from A to B according to diagram so that the blade can gradually work its way through the leather. A thick blade coming to a point all at once cuts hard, therefore, bear in mind
der to
that the knife

must be held

fiat

on the stone

or sharpener in order to get the right shape
as

shown

in diagrams.

Note the diagram
sharpened to
a

of the lip knife.

It

is

bevel on the
15

side that cuts

«<y

tp

{Q

%i4

"""^J

HOW TO

REPAIR SHOES

next to shoe only half-way and held flat on the outside. Thus a lip knife is sharpened
like a chisel.

There are two movements in cutting, forward and downward. A butcher never cuts a slice of meat without pulling his knife in two directions, across the meat and down through it. The chisel is made to cut by pressing it downward and across the wood.

THE SQUARE-AWL LIKE THE KNIFE AND THE CHISEL
The Square-awl must
that the effects of these

be sharpened so

two movements can
its
is

be gotten so that
the sole.
it

it

can cut

way through
or square,

Since the blade
in
its

flat

cannot be turned

place, or be pull-

ed across.
angle,
i.

The
it

e.,

blade must be cut off at an must be sharpened so that the

point on the
of the

outside of the curve will be sharp and to a point, tapering to the inside

curve. This will allow a straight, steady pressure on the awl to have the same

effect as that gotten
in cutting

with
its

the awl cuts

by the two movements and knife. Thus, way through freely.
a

chisel

17

THE DIVISIONS OF A LAST
Since shoes receive their shape by being

formed over the

last,

it

is

best that the divis-

ions of the last be given

some thought.
parts;

The last is divided into four The Toe, Ball, Shank and the
Diagram No.
shapes.
1

namely,

Heel.

shows these parts and their

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^

18

HOW TO
Diagram No.
of the outside.

REPAIR SHOES
of the in-

2

shows the length

side of the divisions as

compared with those

Notice the long shank and
of the

short ball.

Diagram No. 3 shows the outside

XD^V-g.

divisions

shape of

and the effect they have upon the Notice the short shank the shoe.
ball.

and the long

19

HOW TO
Always remember

REPAIR SHOES
that the ball of a shoe
a short
is

longer on the outside having

shank.

The

ball

is

shorter on the inside having a

long shank.

Compare
3.

outside

and inside

Diagrams 2 and

THE FRENCH HAMMER, WELTKNIFE

AND RHAN-FILE
has a round ball face.
for
it

The French hammer

When
it is

heavy,

is

used

beating

and
light,

moulding the
such

soles

in shape.

When

used for hammering in rounded places
as the

shank.
is

The

Welt-knife

used for trimming the
along the welt (or
,

upper surface
the same

of the sole

the part next to the upper)

.

It is

sharpened

way

as the lip-knife.
is

The

Rhan-file

used for smoothing sur-

face after the Welt-knife has

been used.

20

REPAIRING
The
heel, being
first

A

HEEL
under the
ground,
the

more
to

directly
strike

body and the
generally wears
reason,

out

first.

For the above
put into
see

much
oH

care must be taken to see that
solid

good leather and
Pull

work

is

it.

the

worn top-piece and

that

what

is

left is

hammered down solidly.
l(L.

Next

I,

3<Sois

split a

piece of solid, easy-cutting, scrap sole

leather, so that
of one.

two pieces can be gotten out
as
1

Put them on the shoe

Diagrams Nos.
well, piece

and 2; fasten
tacks.

shown in them on
See that

by piece, with
21

HOW TO
the heel
piece.
is

REPAIR SHOES
on the top-

level before putting

(In

some

cases,

if

necessary, a small

piece can be put under after the top-piece
has been trimmed.)
top-piece, trim in
line

After
shape,

it is

level,
dravs^

put on

then

guide

and

nail

down.

J2.(t

I

Always put the
that
is

nails

thicker on the

side

worn down most, to protect the heel. Rasp the heel well and in shape; smooth

with buffer and sandpaper.
it

When finished,
6)

should

set level

(Diagram No.
it

unless

you are ordered
wearer.

to leave

otherwise by the

22

HOW TO

REPAIR SHOES

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f \et<. OH

j35 'To^-yia^'*'

-fa.

Y Toy V*^^^^}?^

23

Vvv*voC

4..

24

HOW A McKAY
The Mckay sewed
same principle

SEWED SHOE
shoe
is

IS

MADE
as a nailed shoe.

made on the The leather
enough
to

for the inner sole or the foundation of the

nailed shoe need only be strong

hold the clinched

nails.
is

This inner sole

placed on the

last

and

trimmed
is

in shape

first;

after this the

upper
at

lasted over the last
tacks.

and tacked down with
is

short

The upper
it.

pulled

over

least one-half

inch so that the nails in outer

sole can catch sole that
is
is

The

space

on the inner

not covered by the upper leather
felt

filled in

with tarred
will

or

some other maat

terial

that

be water proof and
to stop

the

same time serve
soles.

the crying of the

This shoe may or may not have
sole.

a

middle
as
it

The middle
is

sole (or slip sole

is

often called)

put on the shoe next and
just
is

al-

lowed
line.

to

extend back
this

At

end

it

beyond the shank trimmed down to a

25

HOW TO
feather.

REPAIR SHOES
to fasten this sole in
is

Tacks are used

place.

The
in

outer sole
shape.

next put on and
is

trimmed

This, the outer sole,
nails that

then nailed on the shoe with

are

long enough to go through the middle sole

and clinch on the inner
per
at

sole,

catching the up-

the same time.

The

only differences between the nailed

shoe and the

McKay sewed shoe are THE McKAY SEWED SHOE
first

these:

1.

The middle
it is

solqis not fastened securely
2.

when

put on.

The

outer sole

is

fastened on with a thread which goes through

and catches the inner

sole.

This thread

takes the place of the nails in the nailed shoe.

Notice the cut on page 27
of the

of cross section

McKay

sewed shoe.

At the

left

side

the channel can be seen turned back.

The

heavy black line which passes through the
outer sole, middle sole and the inner sole
represents the
stitch

that

is

made on
holds

the the

McKay

machine.
This

This

stitch

outer sole on.

stitch takes the place of

the nails in a nailed shoe.
26

The

short heavy

4 o

3

C

27

HOW TO
black line
at

REPAIR SHOES
end
set

the

left

of

the

sole

which

does not pass through to the inside of the

shoe represents

a

of stitches
in
a

which are
it

sometimes put on the shoe

order that
it.

might appear

as a

shoe with

welt to

The

right side of

same cut shows the

sole

with the channel closed and covering both
sets of stitches.

28

PREPARATION OF SOLE LEATHER
All sole leather should be put in case
fore
it is

be-

used.

Good

soles often fail to give

the

service they should

when

they are not

properly prepared before being put on the
shoe.

The

first

step towards the preparation of
is

sole leather

wetting

it

thoroughly, in other
it

words, put
until
it is

it

in

water and allow

to

remain
it

wet through.

After this take
all

out

and

set

it

up

so

that

of

the water can

drain out that will.
the day before
it is

It is

better to wet leather
it

to

be used so that
least

will

have one

night

at

to

set

and mull.
it

When

it is

wet the day before using,
to drain

should

be allowed
in cloth or

and wrapped very close
prevent
it is

paper

to
If

it

from getting
it

too dry for use.

kept close

will re-

main

moist and

cut like

cheese.

In

this

stage the best results can be gotten in

work-

manship.

MOULDING
All soles should be cut in rough shape be29

^.

j

I

T
i

Hi

4

f

HOW TO
fore being put

REPAIR SHOES
all

on the shoe and

meaty sub-

trimmed from them. In trimming away the meaty substance (if there should be
stance

any) be sure and see that the sole
the same thickness
sole should
first,

is

made
the

all

over.

After

this

be hammered out for two reasons:
all

to

make

of the grains of the leather
to

more compact; and second,
shape so that
it

mould

it

into

will lay close

to the shoe all sole

around the

edges.

The
or

should

be

moulded
to

so well that there will

be nothing
it

do
it

when

nailing
it

sewing

on but
has been

fasten

where
in

is.

Diagram on page 30
after
it

shows three views of the sole

trimmed

rough shape and moulded.
attention

Too much

cannot be given to
leather.

the preparation of sole

The

shoe-

maker who understands how
leather properly and does
it

to prepare his

at all

times will

be sure to win customers.

Under no circumstances
sole leather right out of the

is

it

wise to take
it

water and put

on the shoes.

31

HALFSOLING
The
shoe that
is

A
to

SHOE (NAILED)
be halfsoled
It
first
is

a

McKay sewed
mind now
just

shoe.

should be borne in
shoe
is

how

the

McKay sewed
is

put together

as stated in

previous lesson.
to cut off the old

The
soles.

first

thing to do

Be careful to see if there is a set of stitches on the outside of the middle sole; if so, be sure to cut them between the middle
and the outer
sole.

CUTTING OFF THE OLD SOLE

To

cut off the old sole stick the knife be"
soles
soles
at line

tween the

a

(sec

Diagram

1)

and cut the
site side of

apart around to the oppo-

shoe to same line;

hold the old
off at line a

sole

back with one hand and cut
sure not to cut towards
1)

making

the

upper.

Line a (Diagram

represents the shank line

or the imaginary line

where the forepart and
sole
is

shank meet.
point the

If

the

cut off
it

at this

new

sole can

be cut by

with an
best for

allowance for an inch lap which

is

making

a substantial joint.

32

HOW TO
It is

REPAIR SHOES

INSPECTING THE SHOE

now time
there
is

to inspect the old shoe to

see

if

anything
if

foundation.

See

the

wrong with the upper is worn around
if

the edge of the inner sole; see
sole has

the middle

been worn too thin
in

at

some

point.

Everything must be put

first-class

condi-

tion before

putting on the

new
is

sole.

The

shoe should be leveled and the inner sole

should be tested to see
at all

if it

sound enough

places to hold the nails that are to be
sole.

put in the outer

33

HOW TO
FITTING

REPAIR SHOES

ON THE
it is

SOLE
best to skive the
first

In fitting on the sole

new

sole that

is

to

be put on

so

that

if

something goes wrong the place
can be

for sole

moved up

a

little.

If

the

shoe

is

'^vSvw.

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skived

first

the sole cannot be

made longer
See Diagram
to

and
1

a

bad

joint will

be made.

to 4.

Care should be taken
sole
is

see that
b

the

new

cut thin

enough

at line

on

Diagram 4 to make a neat joint and yet left thick enough to hold the nails which are to
fasten
it

across the shank.
felt

After the soles have been skived, tarred
34

HOW TO
from crying.

REPAIR SHOES

should be put between soles to keep the shoe

The
avoid

felt

should be

made
the

thin
sole.

enough
one

to

any bumps in

Fasten the sole on across the shank;
nail in the

drive

middle of the

sole at the toe

about one inch from the end; trim the
sole square with the

new

middle

sole

(or square

C

/-

»3

K»VL ^W^ •4«'«-'0 a>^A K'^r^ H^^
tuVvvVu. dLv«.w
C^u.v«(J

x».\ve

the with the shape of the inner sole in case oneshoe has no middle sole) leaving it about
,

sixteenth of an inch larger

all

around so that

making the edges can be rasped up without it was at the sole closer to the upper than
35

HOW TO
first.

REPAIR SHOES
is

After the

sole

trimmed,

draw

a

guide line around the edge of the sole for
nailing far
nails

enough from the edge

to allow the

when

driven in to strike about the same

place where the

McKay

stitch was.

Be sure

v?.

in nailing that the shoe
last.

is

level
is

on the iron
out

Many

times the shoe
nails are

hammered

of shape

and the
last is

not clinched be-

cause the

not directly under the nail.

This happens mostly on the outside of shoe.
36

HOW TO
After the sole
is
is

REPAIR SHOES

PREPARATION OF THE EDGE
nailed on and the bottom

made level, prepare the edge for the iron. The iron should be smaller than the sole as The sole is first rasped up unit now stands.
til it

blends with the middle sole.
is

After this

the edge

bufifed

until

it

is

smooth.
is

The
ofif

surplus on top of middle sole

trimmed
of the

with the welt knife and rubbed
the bone.

down with
sole
is

The bottom edge
fit

next trimmed of¥ to
iron.

the guard of the edge

This bottom can be smoothed with the

fine part of the rasp, after

which

it

is

bufifed.

The edge
smooth.

is

now sandpapered

until

very

SETTING UP THE EDGE
It
is

better before applying the edge ink

to first set a

up the edge by moistening it with wet sponge and then using the warm iron.
first

This, the
to

setting, enables the
his

workman

be sure that

edge
ink

is

right before apply-

ing the ink.

The
iron

is

afterwards appHed

and

left to

stand until nearly dry.
is

At

this
it

stage the

warm

again rubbed over

37

>

•A

(P

I
-t3
C/5

i

t
I
3<

HOW TO
until the

REPAIR SHOES
a

edge

is

burnished to

high polish.

In order to do good burnishing the shoe

must be held firmly

in

one hand and the bura square,

nishing iron equally as firm in the other and

rubbed back and forth with movement.

sturdy

7

CLEANING THE BOTTOM
After the edges are burnished (or
the bottom
is

set

up)

cleaned by rasping the surface
flat

of sole over the nails with the fine

side of

the rasp to get the
leather.

nails

smooth with the
that the im-

Next buff

the top surface from the

sole with the grain,

making sure
40

HOW TO
pression

REPAIR SHOES

made
is

is

which the guard of the iron has After the bottom left on the edge.
smooth
it

clean,

with sandpaper.

The bot-

tom should never be sandpapered until it is dry when a clean white bottom is wanted.
In order that the shoe might appear neat
well to
it is

make

a

line

across

the sole
I)

at

the
a

shank
gloss

line

(line b

Diagram
the

and apply
this

polish over

shank

to

point.

The fudge wheel
edge
ance.

should be used around the

of sole to give the job a finished appear-

41

THE BACK AND LOCK STITCHES
The Back Stitch is used on common rips when the shoemaker has no machine on
which
stitch

Diagram No 1. shows the most common place where the
to

do repair work.

is

used.

\?M.

Diagram No.

1

In making the stitch, use a single thread

with a needle.

To

sew, leave the knot on

the inside and pull the needle through to the
outside.

With your

awl,

make

a

hole and

carry the thread back through, thus

making
outside.

one

stitch.

Make

another hole and from the

inside bring the needle

back
42

to the

HOW TO
At
this point,

REPAIR SHOES

the

awl will have to be stuck
stitch in

back

in the

second hole by the other

make the second stitch. This back movement gives the stitch its name, Back
order to
Stitch.

See Diagram No.

1.

"THE LOCK STITCH"

The Lock
upper
sole.
is

Stitch

is

mostly used

when
at
is

the the

ripped loose from the welt

In this case, a row of stitches

made
a

along the edge of the upper^ into which

second row of
through)
.

stitches

is

locked (or sewed

Do

not

cause the shoe to

enough upper to wrinkle when being sewed
catch
stitches are
is

down. The second

made through
its

the sole, and the upper

pulled in
stitches

place

by the
pulled

first

row.
to

The

should be

down
is

where the upper and welt
2.

meet.

See Diagram No.

Always see

that

the upper

lock-stitch.

the stitches

dampened before beginning to A stabbing-awl is used to make in the upper when lock-stitching.
is

The

inseaming-awl

used

to lock the

upper

to the sole.

Always sew toward you when
43

HOW TO
when you begin

REPAIR SHOES

putting in the stitches in the upper, so that

be sewing toward you in the sole. Always use a heavy end in lock-stitching— from 8 to 12
it

to lock

down, you

will

strands.

Diagram No.

2

44

THE UNDERNEATH PATCH AND THE BACKBONE STITCH
Frequently there are places to be repaired

which call and lining
will call the

for

a

patch between the upper
shoe.

of the

Such

a

patch

we

underneath patch.

The

job will

be strengthened by stitching the place down
with the backbone
stitch.

Diagram No.
shoe.

1

shows

a place
at

which has been broken

in the
is

vamp
most
a

the front of the

This

a

common
repair

place to use such a patch and

very delicate place to repair.

To

this,

rip

the

vamp from

the

quarter on both sides of the broken place far

back enough
fore

to allow a patch to

be put under
Be-

or between the upper and the lining.

putting the patch

in

its

place (dotted

lines in

Diagram No.

1

represent the patch

in
it

its

place) sandpaper the top surface so that

will take the

cement.
its

After

this

is

done

put the patch in

place and, with a small

wooden paddle,
stuck together.

distribute channel or

rubber
be

cement over the two surfaces

that are to

45

HOW TO

REPAIR SHOES

After the cement has set a while, stick the parts that have ripped apart back together. Make special effort to join them as they were
at first.

VVt),\

© c^<-oC \vN\e^

'^\\c«A>

yc^V^V

Y«-^

46

HOW TO

REPAIR SHOES

THE BACKBONE STITCH

To make

the job strong and

at

the

same

time neat, the parts should be stitched
with the Backbone Stitch.
stitch
first

down
is

In making this
2)

(See

Diagram
the
lining

No.
of

the

place

whipped together, catching the material
to

through

upper.

This

is

done with one end and the stabbing-awl.

The

stitch

is

made

just

as

the

back

stitch

is

made, only

it is

put in across the broken place.

Be sure and keep the stitches straight across the place on the outside and the same length.
After the place has been whipped together,
the stitching

down is done. With the same end sew down the stitches. This is done
through to the lining and pulling
in the joint of
it

with the back stitch catching every other
stitch

down

broken place
stitch

as

though
a
sta-

you were driving the
ple. After pulling

down with
the

down
the
off

every other stitch go
rest

back

and

catch

same way.

When
place

through cut
lightly.

thread and beat the

down

47

48

SHOE LEATHERS
which are most commonly made into leather for the purpose of making boots and shoes are taken from the steer, calf, horse, colt, goat, sheep, lamb and kangaroo.
skins

The

These
such

skins are called "hides," "kips" and

"skins."
as

The
the

skins
steer

from the larger animals
and horse, are called

"hides."

Skins which

come from

the half

grown

steer or

cow

are called "kips."
as the

The

skins

from smaller animals such
and kid are simply called

goat, sheep

skins.

The skin of the steer is most generally made into sole leather. Whenever it is used
for
it

upper

leather,

it is

split.

Splitting causes

to lose

much
is

of

its

durability.
it

Calf skin
rability.

not

split;

is

noted for

its

du-

Nothing better could be wished.
is

This skin

tanned whole. used for sole
texture

Skins from the horse and colt are also very
strong.
leather.

Neither of these

is

Goat skins

are

uniform

in

and

strength, and are very generally used.
49

For

HOW TO
real fine
finest grained skin
is

REPAIR SHOES
is

work, the kid skin

used.

The

gotten from the kid be-

fore the animal has

had any food except that

gotten from

its

mother.
is

Sheep skin

quite

spongy and pHable.
a

This does not make such

strong leather.

Cheap grades
sheep skin.

of soft shoes are

made from

makes a very fine grained leather if it is taken from the animal before After this age the skin it is one month old.
skin

The lamb

begins to get coarse.

The kangaroo
although
it is

skin

makes
It

a

very tough
but
little

and durable leather.

stretches

quite pliable.

The
most
for

animal

which

is

exposed
to

to

the
itself

weather most and which has
its

exert

living always

produces

a skin

of

superior quality.

50

PUTTING ON
As
a

A CEMENT PATCH
job

rule,
a

shoemakers consider cement and
try
to

patching

hard

avoid

it.

Most

of the time they

would rather sew

a

patch and spoil the looks of the shoe than
take pains to prepare the patch properly for

cementing.

"^^
The
very
first

step

is

to select a patch
is

from
of so

the same material that the shoe
that the fibers will cohere.

made

Next

see that the

part to be patched

is

clean and dry.

Tighten

the place with stretchers.

Now

proceed ac-

cording to diagrams.
51

52

HOW TO
Diagram
2.
1.

REPAIR SHOES

Skive patch in shape desired,

bringing outer edges to

Lay patch over the

Diagram hole and mark place
a feather.

with crayon;
pencil.

make
3.

cross

guide lines with
off

Diagram

Take

the

patch

and skive the shoe.

Diagram

4.

Put ce-

ment on patch and shoe; distribute evenly with small wooden paddle. (Note: Be sure and keep cement well corked. The thumb should be held over the mouth of the bottle while cement is being used.) Let the cement Diagram 5. turn white on shoe and patch.
53

HOW TO
Warm
place

REPAIR SHOES

patch and shoe with an even heat and
together

Press firmly

making guide Unes meet. together all over and smooth

WJ

well with

warm

heel-burnisher.
set well,

Diagram

6.

After patch has

sew

it

down

to sole

well back and trim off surplus leather.
54

HALFSOLING
Cut
off

A

SEWED SHOE
pick out the old

old

sole
off all

and

stitches.

Cut

double soles next to the

welt and pull the middle sole from the outer
sole.

This

will leave the stitches out of the

middle

sole.

Test the welt
at

all

around.
it

If

found

to

be weak

any place,

should be

re-sewed.
First,
fit

on the

sole as

usual, having the

sole well
in.

moulded

to the shoe

and the
it

filling

Trim

the sole, leaving

a little

wider
the
a

than the welt so that the edge can be worked

on without cutting the welt closer
shoe.

to

After trimming
for

the

sole,

make

guide-line

cutting

the

channel

close

enough to the edge bed of the channel
hole in the welt.
that the channel
stitches.
is

of the sole to

throw the

directly

under the old

See

Diagram.
to

Be sure
hide the
is

deep enough

(Half the thickness of the sole

deep enough.)

When

the

bed

of the

channel

is

too far in
in

and not directly under the old hole
55

the

c/)

^

03

5!

6

HOW TO
site side of that

REPAIR SHOES

welt, the sole will be

drawn from the oppoon which you are sewing,

consequently, to sew the opposite side, the
welt will be drawn down, causing the shoe to

much narrower, and in most cases, to become much tighter. This one point has caused many shoemakers to lose customers. The work was neatly done by them, but the
look
shoe was
left

with a narrow welt and a very

uncomfortable feeling.

The

channel,

when

cut, generally

is

about
sole.

1-8 inch

from the outer edge

of

the

This space between the edge and the channel will be covered by the guard of the edge
iron.

This guard

will

make an impression

which
to

will hide the channel.
is

See that the welt
sew.

moist before beginning
stitches

When

sewing see that the

on the welt do not pull through, by pulling
harder on the right-hand thread (the stitch

on the

sole)

.

See to

it

that the awl

is

smaller

than the two threads put together so that
there will be a resistance

when

pulling

them

through.
57

HOW TO

REPAIR SHOES

down the channel while the leather is yet moist. Some shoemakers use the bone to rub down the
After the shoe has been sewed, rub
stitches
in

the

channel before closing
causes
the
it

it.

This

operation

channel to be
will

forced so wide open that
close.
If

be hard to

the stitches are put directly in the

bed

of the

channel,

there will be no need
closing channel.

to rub

them down before
job will not
set

The
line

be complete until the
the shank-

edges are

up, shanks blacked;

and the

joint of the soles fudged.

The
stitch

stitches

must

also

be divided with the
the

divider or fudged to give the finish.

Black-

ing the shanks
pair job.

is

last

thing to do on a re-

It is

better to use a gloss polish.

Put

it

on

after everything else has

been done

sothat
to dry.

you
far

will not

have to wait on the shoe
of joint should the

How
nails

from the edge

be put?

How

long should an end be

for

sewing on the average halfsole?
it is

Why

is

leather put in case before

used?

58

PREPARING AN INSOLE FOR SEWED SHOE
The
insole
is

A

the

foundation of the shoe.
for
it,

When

selecting leather
in

much

care
is

must be taken
light, firm

order to get material that

and

flexible.
is

Light, because no
it

surplus leather

wanted; firm, because

holds the whole shoe together,

and

flexible,

because the foot must have
as possible

as little resistance

when
it

a

person

is

walking.
to the last

The

insole

is first

moulded

and
at

fastened to

with
it

as

many

nails as are neces-

sary to hold

properly in place.
the ball, one
at

Two

the toe, two

at

the shank and

one

at

the heel.

(Some shoemakers
at

use one

at the toe,

one
the

the

ball,

one

at

the

shank

and one

at

heel.)

Trim

the sole well in

shape by the outline of the bottom of the
last.

The width

of the

shank

will

be deter-

mined by the best judgment of the workman. Under the ball on the inside is always a place
where much care must be taken.
It
is

here
insole

where one

is

most

likely to leave the

59

y^ •.«

»

»,»-'

'

'.

.1

Cv^Vo^V- V^^

,>,...,/,. r

/

^

.

^

/

',

^^

Qwctj-v- %\\o\>ydj^r-

60

HOW TO
too wide.

REPAIR SHOES

In order to get this particular

place right, the sole will have to be

trimmed

under
of the

just

a

little;

trim with the point
knife.

square-point
if

This particular
little, will,

place,

not trimmed under just a

after the

shoe

is

finished, stand out

from un-

der the ball of the foot too much.

By

trim-

ming

it

under, the foot

is

thrown directly
This

over the inside bottom of the shoe.
particular point
is

explained more clearly in
to

the next book,

How

Bottom

a

Welted
1-4

Shoe by Hand.

The

bar on the average shoe
is

is

inch

wide; the shoulder
shank, where
it

the same except in the

is

made
the
it

gradually wider in
point might be
leaves

order that the stitches
hidden.

at this

When

shoulder

the
it

shank and

ball line

begins to widen until
it

reaches the middle of the shank, then
gins to blend back to
its

be-

1-4 inch width, end-

ing just 1-8 inch beyond the heel line.

See

diagrams

for

cutting the

bar and

shoulder.

After making the line for shoulabove,
61

der

as instructed

make

a

horizontal

Cuv CD^

y—

Q.D'\-

OUT

I'ieuel

./^~

J

.'•-

SI

\^v

62

HOW TO
cut in line
half

REPAIR SHOES
thickness
of
a

the

the

sole;

make next
taken out.
lip-knife

a slanting cut so that

V

can be
the

This

V

will allow

the

lip of

to

run freely along the bar

when

taking out the shoulder.
is

After the shoulder

cut out,

make

line for

your bar 1-4 inch

back.

Make

cut half the thickness of the sole;

make second

cut to take out
to

V

and cut out

long enough bevel

allow the inseaming-

awl to pass through the bar easily and
out
flat

come

on the shoulder.

After the bar and

shoulder are cut, punch the holes with the

inseaming-awl 1-4 inch apart
gin
at

all

around.
holes
a

Belittle

the tip line to slant the

toward the center

(of toe) so that there

will

be plenty of room between the stitches
point,

at this

and allow the holes on the outside

of

the bar to be 1-4 inch apart.

63

PATCHING

A

SHOE

AT THE

TIP

Often the desire to
hastily causes the

mend the place broken workman to lose sight of
his

the fact that the

wearer wants
it.

shoe to

look neat

when he wears

^V.

Patching
tip
is

a

shoe which
if

is

broken

just at the

quite easily done

the

right steps are

taken.

The same

process

is

used generally

when

putting on cement patches.
64

Before putting

a$

HOW TO

REPAIR SHOES

in the stretchers to tighten the place (in this

case) rip the tip loose so that

one end of the
in

patch can be put under

as

shown
as

Diagram
in

No.

3.
it

Fit the patch, cutting

shown

Dia-

gram No.
and
let
it

1.

In this case, put on the patch
after

set,

which take out
is

the

stretcher and push the part that

left to

go

under the

tip in its place.

See dotted lines
tip

showing patch stuck under

in

Diagram
again

No.

3.
is

After this

done sew down
to

tip

and

fasten patch to the sole.

Another way
first,

put on

cut the patch as

same patch shown in Diagram
this

is:

1.

Skive the edges.

Second,

rip
as

the tip loose
in

and push the piece under

shown

Diaat tip.

gram
place.

3.

Third, sew the patch
put
in

down

Fourth,

the

stretcher

and tighten
patch and

Lay patch back down over the upper
lift

and rub crayon over it. Fifth, Apply cement. skive shoe.

66

HALFSOLING
Shoemakers

A TURNED
dread

SHOE
to

generally

attempt
of

halfsoling turned sole shoes.

Many

them

know how
their

but do not care to concentrate
details of fitting
it

minds on the few small
soles.

on the
do
it

Others could do

and would
being
dis-

easily

if it

were not

for their

couraged by some other workman.
ing turned sole shoes
calls

Repair-

for accuracy
at

and
right

doing the right
time.

thing always

the

Leather that
be firm and
case.

is

used for turned shoes should
It

flexible.

should be well in
started

The work
is

should be
to

when
and

there

ample time

sew on both

soles

turn the shoe back to
it

its

right shape and put

on

a last before stopping.
1

Diagram No.

shows the shoe with holes
it is

in old soles before

repaired.

If

the shoe
either

has a cap, notches should be
side of the old sole

made on

and the places marked on
to get
it

the

new

sole to

show how

(the cap)

straight

when

lasting the upper.
67

Rip the old

HOW TO
sole

REPAIR SHOES
as far

from the upper

back

in the

shank

as the

new

sole

is

to

come; cut the threads
yet.

towards the old sole to avoid cutting the upper.

Do
new

not cut off old soles
sole

Cut
in

the

(which

is

to

be put on)
Place

rough shape (Diagram
part in

2);

have the shank

the shape desired.

new

sole

on old

sole

and fasten
sole,

it

temporarily to old
3.

sole as in

Diagram No.

Trim new
it

sole

the shape of old

leaving

about one-

sixteenth of an inch larger so that there will

be something to work on

when

finishing

up the edge.

Diagram No. 3 shows new
68

HOW TO
sole fastened to old.

REPAIR SHOES

Make

guide lines across

the shank end of

new

sole,

extending them

equal distance on the old soles.

Make
sole.

a line

on old

sole at

bottom
just

of

new
to

These

lines will

show

where

place the

new
cut.

sole after the bar

and channel have been

Diagram No.
old sole cut off.

4.

shows the shoe with the
old sole
is

The

cut off oval

shaped or
as

left

longer

in the

center of the lap

shown
just

in

is left

Diagram 4. The lap at the sides long enough to allow one stitch to
bar of the old sole.

be made

in the

CUTTING THE BAR

AND CHANNEL
new
sole

Mark
shoulder.

the line around

for

the

Make
is, if

allowance for the one-sixallowed

teenth inch which was
sole, that

on the new
is

the shoulder on the old sole

three-sixteenths of an inch

wide;

make

the

new sole one-fourth of an inch wide. Do not make shoulder on new sole wider unless the new sole is wider than
shoulder of the
the old sole.

To

cut the shoulder see lesson on prepara69

HOW TO
tion of an insole

REPAIR SHOES
61.

on page

On

the turn sole
is

after cutting the shoulder the

V
a

not cut out

behind the bar; instead, make
turn
it

channel and

back

so that

it

can be rubbed

down
as

over the stitches.
in the

Do

not punch the holes

new

soles;

these will be

made
will

you

sew; the old holes in the

upper

guide

you.

In some cases

it is

best not to use old

holes; the desire to

do an honest job and
that
part.

conditions will

govern

Under
be

normal conditions the

stitches

should

about one-fourth of an inch long.
70

HOW TO
SKIVING

REPAIR SHOES
SOLE
the

AND FASTENING ON NEW
cut on

After the bar has been
sole, skive the old sole

new

not cut out the
across old sole at

down to a feather; do mark which was made the shank. The close lines
that

on lap

in

Diagram No. 4 show

the

lap

is

skived thin.
its

Next, place the new sole on

old sole in

proper place, using the guide

lines to help;

mark

the outline of the lap of

old sole on the inside of the

gram No. gram No.

6 shows old sole
7

new sole. on new sole.

DiaDiaof

shows new
71

sole with outline

HOW TO
lap of old sole

REPAIR SHOES

on

it.

The new
is

sole

is

then

skived from the lines to the shank.

Skive as
left

much from new
on old

sole as there

material

sole so that a
to leave the

neat joint will be made.

Be sure
at

new
the

sole thick
nails

enough
to

the joint to hold
it

which are

fasten

on.

After this place the
sole

new

sole

back on the old
fasten
it

(by guide lines) and
three nails.

at

the shank with
9.

See

Diagram No.
bar of

Fasten the bar of old sole to

new

sole

where they

join with a short

tack from the inside.

LASTING

AND SEWING
upper on the wrong

Pull the sole through the bottom of upper
that
side.
at toe
is

loose and turn the

Pull the center of upper over the sole

and fasten with tack.
pull the

Diagram No.
at

10.
tip

Next
lines

upper over
it.

side

or

at

and fasten
portions

Pull

it

over next between
it.

the tip line and the joint and fasten

The

of

upper which are not
stitches

fas-

tened must be evenly distributed while sewing.

Begin sewing about two
the upper
is

below where
back
to-

ripped; bend the sole
72

HOW TO
wards the heel
to

REPAIR SHOES
tighten the

upper.

Be
not
get

very careful in crossing the
pull stitch at this point tight

joint.

Do
to

enough

upper out

of shape.

The bar determines
awl must
the bar

the

shape of the shoe, therefore the upper must
lay close to
it.

The

come

out

di-

rectly in the angle of

and shoulder.

After the shoe
sole

is

sewed
It
it

fasten the lap of old

down with
No.

the short flat-head tack.
10.
is

See
aside

Diagram
to dry,

then turned and

straightened.
after

Put

on

a last

and

set

which the edges are prepared

and

set

up.
73

LIST Of
1 1
1

TOOLS NECESSARY TO HAVE
Hammer
-

French Heavy
Plain

$ .50
.30
.15 .15 .25

1
1

Square-Point Knife -----Lip Knife Eight-inch Rasp ------.

Hammer No.

-

-

-

-

.

1 1

Pair of Nippers

.25
.25 .25

Welt-Knife
Prier

1
1
1 1
1

Rhan-File --------Heel ------Bone -----Sharpener
Scratch
Buffer

.10

.10

.10
.15 .10 .10

Knife

1
1

Half Dozen Plain

Awl Handles

-

-

Pegging Awl Handle

$2.75

The

prices of these tools

addition of a set of good edge-irons

the above

list

will

make

a

change but h'ttle. With the and heel-burnishers, good kit for a shoemaker who
start

works

as a

journeyman.

To

a business,

lasts

and

jacks are necessary.

74

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