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Chapters 5 8 Resources

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Table of Contents
To the Teacher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv

Chapters 5-8 Resources


Reproducible Student Pages
Student Lab Safety Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi Chapter 5 Electrons in Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 6 The Periodic Table and Periodic Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Chapter 7 Ionic Compounds and Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Chapter 8 Covalent Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
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Teacher Guide and Answers


Chapter 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Chapter 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Chapter 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Chapter 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

iii

To the Teacher
This booklet contains resource materials to help you teach more effectively. You will find the following in the chapters:

Reproducible Pages
Hands-on Activities
MiniLab and ChemLab Worksheets: Each activity in this book is an expanded version of each lab that appears in the Student Edition of Glencoe Chemistry: Matter and Change. All materials lists, procedures, and questions are repeated so that students can read and complete a lab in most cases without having a textbook on the lab table. All lab questions are reprinted with lines on which students can write their answers. In addition, for student safety, all appropriate safety symbols and caution statements have been reproduced on these expanded pages. Answer pages for each MiniLab and ChemLab are included in the Teacher Guide and Answers section at the back of this book.

Transparency Activities
Teaching Transparency Masters and Worksheets: These transparencies relate to major concepts that will benefit from an extra visual learning aid. Most of the transparencies contain art or photos that extend the concepts put forth in the textbook. Others contain art or photos directly from the Student Edition. There are 73 Teaching Transparencies, provided here as black-and-white masters accompanied by worksheets that review the concepts presented in the transparencies. Answers to worksheet questions are provided in the Teacher Guide and Answers section at the back of this book. Math Skills Transparency Masters and Worksheets: These transparencies relate to mathematical concepts that will benefit from an extra visual learning aid. Most of the transparencies contain art or photos directly from the Student Edition, or extend concepts put forth in the textbook. There are 42 Math Skills Transparencies, provided here as black-and-white masters accompanied by worksheets that review the concepts presented in the transparencies. Answers to worksheet questions are provided in the Teacher Guide and Answers section at the back of this book.
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Intervention and Assessment


Study Guide: These pages help students understand, organize, and compare the main chemistry concepts in the textbook. The questions and activities also help build strong study and reading skills. There are six study guide pages for each chapter. Students will find these pages easy to follow because the section titles match those in the textbook. Italicized sentences in the study guide direct students to the related topics in the text.

The Study Guide exercises employ a variety of formats including multiple-choice, matching, true/false, labeling, completion, and short answer questions. The clear, easyto-follow exercises and the self-pacing format are geared to build your students confidence in understanding chemistry. Answers or possible responses to all questions are provided in the Teacher Guide and Answers section at the back of this book.
iv

To the Teacher

continued

Chapter Assessment: Each chapter assessment includes several sections that assess students understandings at different levels.

The Reviewing Vocabulary section tests students knowledge of the chapters vocabulary. A variety of formats are used, including matching, true/false, completion, and comparison of terms. The Understanding Main Ideas section consists of two parts: Part A tests recall and basic understanding of facts presented in the chapter, while Part B is designed to be more challenging and requires deeper comprehension of concepts than does Part A. Students may be asked to explain chemical processes and relationships or to make comparisons and generalizations. The Thinking Critically section requires students to use several different higher-order learning skills, such as interpreting data and discovering relationships in graphs and tables, as well as applying their understanding of concepts to solve problems, compare and contrast situations, and to make inferences or predictions. The Applying Scientific Methods section puts students into the role of researcher. They may be asked to read about an experiment, simulation, or model and then apply their understanding of chapter concepts and scientific methods to analyze and explain the procedure and results. Many of the questions in this section are open-ended, giving students the opportunity to demonstrate both reasoning and creative problem-solving skills. Answers or possible responses to all questions are provided in the Teacher Guide and Answers section at the back of this book.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

STP Recording Sheet: Recording Sheets allow students to use the Standardized Test Practice questions in the Student Edition as a practice for standardized tests. STP Recording Sheets give them the opportunity to use bubble answer grids and numbers grids for recording answers. Answers for the STP Recording Sheets can be found in the Teacher Wraparound Edition on Standardized Test Practice pages. Teacher Guide and Answers: Answers or possible answers for questions in this booklet can be found in the Teacher Guide and Answers section. Materials, teaching strategies, and content background, along with chapter references, are also provided where appropriate.

Teacher Approval Initials Date of Approval

Lab Safety Form


Name: Date: Lab type (circle one) : Launch Lab MiniLab ChemLab Lab Title: Read carefully the entire lab and then answer the following questions. Your teacher must initial this form before you begin the lab. 1. What is the purpose of the investigation?

3. Is this a design-your-own procedure? Circle:

Yes

No

4. Describe the safety procedures and additional warnings that you must follow as you perform this investigation.

5. Are there any steps in the procedure or lab safety symbols that you do not understand? Explain.

vi

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Will you be working with a partner or on a team?

Table of Contents

Reproducible Pages

Chapter 5 Electrons in Atoms


MiniLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ChemLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Teaching Transparency Masters and Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Math Skills Transparency Masters and Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Chapter Assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 STP Recording Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

mini LAB 5

Identify Compounds
How do flame colors vary for different elements? Materials Bunsen burner; cotton swabs (6); crystals of lithium chloride, sodium chloride,
potassium chloride, calcium chloride, strontium chloride, unknown solution

Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Dip one of six cotton swabs into the lithium chloride solution. Put the swab into the flame of a Bunsen burner. Observe the color of the flame, and record it in your data table. 3. Repeat Step 2 for each of the metallic chloride solutions (sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, and strontium chloride). Record the color of each flame in your data table. 4. Compare your results to the flame tests shown in the Elements Handbook. 5. Repeat Step 2 using a sample of unknown solution obtained from your teacher. Record the color of the flame produced. 6. Dispose of the used cotton swabs as directed by your teacher.
Flame Test Results
Compound Lithium chloride Sodium chloride Potassium chloride Calcium chloride Strontium chloride Unknown Flame color

1. Suggest a reason why each compound produced a flame of a different color, even though they each contain chlorine.

2. Explain how an elements flame test might be related to its atomic emission spectrum.

3. Infer the identity of the unknown crystals. Explain your reasoning.

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Analysis

Name

Date

Class

CHEMLAB

Analyze Line Spectra

mission spectra are produced when excited atoms return to a more stable state by emitting radiation of specific wavelengths. When white light passes through a sample, atoms in the sample absorb specific wavelengths. This produces dark lines in the continuous spectrum of white light and is called an absorption spectrum.

Problem
What absorption and emission spectra do various substances produce?

Objectives
Observe emission spectra of several gases. Observe the absorption spectra of various solutions. Analyze patterns of absorption and emission spectra.

Materials
ring stand with clamp 40-W tubular lightbulb light socket with grounded power cord 275-mL polystyrene culture flask Flinn C-Spectra or similar diffraction grating

food coloring (red, green, blue, and yellow) set of colored pencils spectrum tubes (hydrogen, neon, and sodium) spectrumtube power supplies (3)

Safety Precautions
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Always wear safety goggles and a lab apron. Use care around the spectrum tube power supplies. Spectrum tubes will get hot when used.

Pre-Lab
Read the entire CHEMLAB. 2. Explain how electrons in an elements atoms produce an emission spectrum.
1. 3.

Distinguish among a continuous spectrum, an emission spectrum, and an absorption spectrum.

4.

Use the data table on the next page.

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

Name

Date

Class

CHEMLAB
Procedure
1. 2.

5
viewed will be a continuous spectrum of the white lightbulb. The bottom spectrum will be the absorption spectrum of the red solution. Use colored pencils to make a drawing in the data table of the absorption spectra you observed. 8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 using the green, blue, and yellow colored solutions. 9. Cleanup and Disposal Turn off the light socket and spectrum tube power supplies.Wait several minutes to allow the incandescent lightbulb and the spectrum tubes to cool. Follow your teachers instructions on how to dispose of the liquids and how to store the lightbulb and spectrum tubes.

3.

4.

5. 6.

7.

Read and complete the lab safety form. Use a Flinn C-Spectra or similar diffraction grating to view an incandescent lightbulb. What do you observe? Draw the observed spectrum using colored pencils. Use the Flinn C-Spectra to view the emission spectra from tubes of gaseous hydrogen, neon, and sodium. Use colored pencils to make drawings in the data table of the spectra observed. Fill a 275-mL culture flask with about 100-mL water. Add 2 or 3 drops of red food coloring to the water. Shake the solution. Repeat step 4 for the green, blue, and yellow food coloring. Set up the 40-W lightbulb so that it is near eye level. Place the flask with red food coloring about 8 cm from the lightbulb. You should be able to see light from the bulb above the solution and light from the bulb projecting through the solution. With the room lights darkened, view the light using the Flinn C-Spectra. The top spectrum

Drawings of Emission Spectra


Hydrogen

Neon

Mercury

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

CHEMLAB

5
Drawings of Absorption Spectra

Red Green Blue Yellow

Analyze and Conclude


1.

Think Critically How can the single electron in a hydrogen atom produce all of the lines found in its emission spectrum?

2.

Predict How can you predict the absorption spectrum of a solution by looking at its color?

3.

Apply How can spectra be used to identify the presence of specific elements in a substance?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4.

Error Analysis Name a potential source of error in this experiment. Choose one of the elements you observed, and research its absorption spectrum. Compare your findings with the results of your experiment.

Inquiry Extension
Hypothesize What would happen if you mixed more than one color of food coloring with water and repeated the experiment? Design an experiment to test your hypothesis.

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

Name

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

Visible light

Wavelengths ( ) in meters 3 3 Infrared Microwaves TV, FM


8

3 10 Ultraviolet 3 10 3 10 3 10 3 10

10

4 2 4 6 8 10

10

10

12

3 Gamma rays

10

14

Radio

X rays

Date

AM 10 Energy increases
10

10 10 10 Frequency ( ) in hertz

10

12

10

14

10

16

10

18

10

20

10

22

Class

Electromagnetic Spectrum

15

Teaching Transparency Masters

Use with Chapter 5, Section 5.1

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

15
Use with Chapter 5, Section 5.1

The Electromagnetic Spectrum


est wavelength?

1. What kinds of waves have the longest wavelength? What kinds of waves have the short-

2. Which waves have the lowest frequency?

3. Which has a higher frequency: microwaves or X rays?

4. Which waves can be seen by the eye?

5. Sequence the different segments of the visible spectrum in order from shortest wave-

length to longest wavelength.

6. Sequence the following types of waves from lowest frequency to highest frequency:

ultraviolet rays, infrared rays, gamma rays, radio waves, and green light.
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7. Compare the wavelengths and frequencies of each kind of wave. What is the relationship

between frequency and wavelength?

8. What is the wavelength of a radio station emitting its signal at 95.5 MHz? Estimate your

answer to the nearest power of ten.

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

16
Use with Chapter 5, Section 5.2

Atomic Orbitals

z z x x y y

1s orbital

2s orbital

x y

x y

x y

px

py p orbitals

pz

z z y z y z y x z y x y

dxy

dxz

dyz d orbitals

dx 2

y2

dz2

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

Teaching Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

16
Use with Chapter 5, Section 5.2

Atomic Orbitals
1. What is the shape of an s orbital?

2. What is the relationship between the size of an s orbital and the principal energy level in

which it is found?

3. What is the shape of a p orbital? How many p orbitals are there in a sublevel?

4. How many electrons can each orbital hold?

5. Look at the diagrams of the p orbitals. What do x, y, and z refer to?

6. How many d orbitals are there in a given sublevel? How many total electrons can the
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

d orbitals in a sublevel hold?

7. Which d orbitals have the same shape?

8. What point in each diagram represents an atoms nucleus?

9. How likely is it that an electron occupying a p or a d orbital would be found very near an

atoms nucleus? What part of the diagram supports your conclusion?

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

17
Use with Chapter 5, Section 5.3

Orbital Filling Sequence and Energy Levels

5f

6d

5d

4f 4d

3d

5d 4f 6s 5p 4d 5s

3p

6d

4p

7s

2p 2s

4s

3s

10

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

Teaching Transparency Masters

1s

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3p

7p

6p

5p

4p

2p

7s

6s

5s

4s

3s

6p

7p

Orbital filling sequence

Increasing Energy

3d

5f

2s

1s

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

17
Use with Chapter 5, Section 5.3

Orbital Filling Sequence and Energy Levels


1. What does each small box in the diagram represent?

2. How many electrons can each orbital hold?

3. How many electrons can the d sublevel hold?

4. Which is associated with more energy: a 2s or a 2p orbital?

5. Which is associated with more energy: a 2s or a 3s orbital?

6. According to the aufbau principle, which orbital should fill first, a 4s or a 3d orbital?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. Which orbital has the least amount of energy?

8. What is the likelihood that an atom contains a 1s orbital?

9. Sequence the following orbitals in the order that they should fill up according to the

aufbau principle: 4d, 4p, 4f, 5s, 6s, 5p, 3d, 4s.

10. Write a general rule to describe the filling of orbitals in an atom.

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

11

Name

Date

Class

MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY MASTER

5
Use with Chapter 5, Section 5.1

Interpreting Waves

amplitude

amplitude

Waves A and B are both electromagnetic waves. c for all electromagnetic waves.

12

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

Math Skills Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

5
Use with Chapter 5, Section 5.1

Interpreting Waves
1. Look at the two waves shown. What is the speed of each wave?

2. Look at the two waves shown. Which wave has a higher frequency? Which wave has a

longer wavelength?

3. Assume that wave A has a wavelength of 699 nm. Calculate the frequency of the wave.

Show your work.

4. Assume that wave B has a wavelength of 415 nm. Calculate the frequency of the wave.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Show your work.

5. Compare your calculations in question 4 with your answer to question 3. Do your calcu-

lations support your answer in question 2?

6. If wave A has a frequency of 4.60

1014 s 1, what is its wavelength in nanometers?

Show your work.

Math Skills Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

13

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Electrons in Atoms
Section 5.1

Light and Quantized Energy

In your textbook, read about the wave nature of light.

Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
amplitude light energy wave frequency wavelength hertz speed

Electromagnetic radiation is a kind of (1)


(2)

that behaves like a(n) is one type of

as it travels through space. (3)

electromagnetic radiation. Other examples include X rays, radio waves, and microwaves. All waves can be characterized by their wavelength, amplitude, frequency, and
(4)

. The shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave is . The height of a wave from the origin to a crest or from the . (7) is the number of
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

called a(n) (5) origin to a trough is the (6)

waves that pass a given point in one second. The SI unit for frequency is the
(8)

, which is equivalent to one wave per second.

Use the figure to answer the following questions.


A D B
Origin

9. Which letter(s) represent one wavelength?

10. Which letter(s) represent the amplitude? 11. If twice the length of A passes a stationary point every second, what is the frequency of

the wave?

14

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

Study Guide

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 5.1 continued


In your textbook, read about the particle nature of light.

Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
12. A(n)

is the minimum amount of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom.


b. electron c. quantum d. Plancks constant

a. valence electron

13. According to Plancks theory, for a given frequency, , matter can emit or absorb energy

only in
a. units of hertz. b. whole-number multiples of h . c. entire wavelengths. d. multiples of

1 h , 1 h , and so on. 2 4 14. The is the phenomenon in which electrons are emitted from a metals surface when light of a certain frequency shines on it.
a. quantum b. Planck concept c. photon effect d. photoelectric effect

15. Which equation would you use to calculate the energy of a photon? a. Ephoton b. Ephoton

h h

Plancks constant

c. Ephoton d. c

1 h 2

In your textbook, read about atomic emission spectra.

For each statement below, write true or false.


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

16. Like the visible spectrum, an atomic emission spectrum is a continuous

range of colors.
17. Each element has a unique atomic emission spectrum. 18. A flame test can be used to identify the presence of certain elements in

a compound.
19. The fact that only certain colors appear in an elements atomic emission

spectrum indicates that only certain frequencies of light are emitted.


20. Atomic emission spectra can be explained by the wave model of light. 21. The neon atoms in a neon sign emit their characteristic color of light as

they absorb energy.


22. When an atom emits light, photons having certain specific energies are

being emitted.

Study Guide

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

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Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 5.2

Quantum Theory and the Atom

In your textbook, read about the Bohr model of the atom.

Use each of the terms below to complete the statements.


atomic emission spectrum higher electron energy levels frequencies lower ground state

1. The lowest allowable energy state of an atom is called its 2. Bohrs model of the atom predicted the

. of the lines in

hydrogens atomic emission spectrum.


3. According to Bohrs atomic model, the smaller an electrons orbit, the

the atoms energy level.


4. According to Bohrs atomic model, the larger an electrons orbit, the

the atoms energy level.


5. Bohr proposed that when energy is added to a hydrogen atom, its

moves to a higher-energy orbit.


6. According to Bohrs atomic model, the hydrogen atom emits a photon corresponding to
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

the difference between the orbits it transitions between.


7. Bohrs atomic model failed to explain the

associated with the two

of elements

other than hydrogen.


In your textbook, read about the quantum mechanical model of the atom.

Answer the following questions.


8. If you looked closely, could you see the wavelength of a fast-moving car? Explain

your answer.

9. Using de Broglies equation,

h m which would have the larger wavelength, a slow-moving proton or a fast-moving golf ball? Explain your answer.

16

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

Study Guide

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 5.2 continued


In your textbook, read about the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B. Column A
10. The modern model of the atom that treats electrons

Column B
a. Heisenberg uncertainty

as waves
11. States that it is impossible to know both the velocity

principle
b. Schrdinger wave equation c. quantum mechanical model

and the position of a particle at the same time


12. A three-dimensional region around the nucleus

of the atom
d. atomic orbital

representing the probability of finding an electron


13. Originally applied to the hydrogen atom, it led to the

quantum mechanical model of the atom Answer the following question.


14. How do the Bohr model and the quantum mechanical model of the atom differ in how

they describe electrons?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

In your textbook, read about hydrogens atomic orbitals.

In the space at the left, write the term in parentheses that correctly completes the statement.
15. Atomic orbitals (do, do not) have an exactly defined size. 16. Each orbital may contain at most (two, four) electrons. 17. All s orbitals are (spherically shaped, dumbbell shaped). 18. A principal energy has (n, n2) energy sublevels. 19. The maximum number of (electrons, orbitals) related to each

principal energy level equals 2n2.


20. There are (three, five) equal energy p orbitals. 21. Hydrogens principal energy level 2 consists of (2s and 3s, 2s and

2p) orbitals.
22. Hydrogens principal energy level 3 consists of (nine, three)

orbitals.

Study Guide

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

17

Name

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Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 5.3

Electron Configuration

In your textbook, read about ground-state electron configurations.

Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
Aufbau principle lowest electron configuration Pauli exclusion principle ground-state electron configuration spins Hunds rule stable

The arrangement of electrons in an atom is called the atoms


(1)

. Electrons in an atom tend to assume the arrangement possible energy. This arrangement arrangement and is called the .

that gives the atom the (2) of electrons is the most (3) atoms (4)

Three rules define how electrons can be arranged in an atoms orbitals. The
(5)

states that each electron occupies the lowest energy states that a maximum of two

orbital available. The (6)

electrons may occupy a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposite
(7)

. (8)

states that single


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins occupy the same orbitals.

Complete the following table.


Element Atomic Number 1s 2s Orbitals 2px 2py 2pz 1s2 7 Electron Configuration

9. Helium 10. 11. Neon

)( )( )( )( )(

18

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

Study Guide

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 5.3 continued Answer the following questions.


12. What is germaniums atomic number? How many electrons does germanium have?

13. What is noble-gas notation, and why is it used to write electron configurations?

14. Write the ground-state electron configuration of a germanium atom, using noble-gas

notation.

In your textbook, read about valence electrons.

Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
15. The electrons in an atoms outermost orbitals are called a. electron dots.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

b. quantum electrons.

c. valence electrons.

d. noble-gas electrons.

16. In an electron-dot structure, the elements symbol represents the a. nucleus of the noble gas closest to the atom in the periodic table. b. atoms nucleus and inner-level electrons. c. atoms valence electrons. d. electrons of the noble gas closest to the atom in the periodic table. 17. How many valence electrons does a chlorine atom have if its electron configuration

is [Ne]3s23p5?
a. 3 b. 21 c. 5 d. 7 18. Given borons electron configuration of [He]2s22p1, which of the following represents its

electron-dot structure?
a. Be b. B c. B d. Be 19. Given berylliums electron configuration of 1s22s2, which of the following represents its

electron-dot structure?
a. Be b. B c. B d. Be

20. Which electrons are represented by the dots in an electron-dot structure? a. valence electrons b. inner-level electrons c. only s electrons d. both a and c

Study Guide

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

19

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Electrons in Atoms
Reviewing Vocabulary
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B. Column A
1. The set of frequencies of the electromagnetic waves

Column B
a. wavelength b. photoelectric effect c. photon d. quantum e. atomic orbital f.

emitted by the atoms of an element


2. The minimum amount of energy that can be lost or gained

by an atom
3. A form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it

travels through space


4. A three-dimensional region around the nucleus of an atom

that describes an electrons probable location


5. The shortest distance between equivalent points on a

atomic emission spectrum number

continuous wave
6. The lowest allowable energy state of an atom 7. A particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that

g. principal quantum h. ground state i.

8. The emission of electrons from a metals surface when

light of a certain frequency shines on it


9. A figure indicating the relative sizes and energies of atomic orbitals

Describe how each pair is related.


10. frequency, amplitude

11. valence electron, electron-dot structure

12. principal energy levels, energy sublevels

20

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

Chapter Assessment

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carries a quantum of energy

electromagnetic radiation

Name

Date

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CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)


Match the equation in Column A with its description in Column B. Column A
1. E 2. c 3. 4.

Column B
a. Relates the wavelength, frequency, and

speed of an electromagnetic wave h /m E Ehigher-energy orbit Elower-energy orbit


b. Describes the energy change of an

electron undergoing an orbit transition


c. Energy relationship developed by Planck d. de Broglies equation

Complete the table.


Principal Quantum Number, n Types of Orbitals Number of Orbitals Related to Principal Energy Level

5. 6. 7. 8.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3 4

Write the orbital diagram and complete electron configuration for each atom.
9. nitrogen

10. fluorine

11. sodium

Chapter Assessment

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

21

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)


Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Use the following figure to answer questions 1 and 2.
D E C B A

1. According to Bohrs atomic model, which letter(s) in the figure represents a place where

an electron cannot be?


a. A b. B, C and E c. A and D d. D

2. According to the quantum mechanical model of the atom, point E in the figure

represents a
a. point where an electron cannot be. b. position where an electron probably is. c. position where an electron must be. d. point beyond which no electron can go.

3. What can you conclude from the figure on the right? a. Hunds rule has been violated. b. The Pauli exclusion principle has been violated. c. The Aufbau principle has been violated. d. This is a valid orbital diagram. 4. What can you conclude from the figure on the right? a. Hunds rule has been violated. b. The Pauli exclusion principle has been violated. c. The Aufbau principle has been violated. d. This is a valid orbital diagram.
1s

)( ) ) )(
2s
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2p

)) )( )(
1s 2s 2p

5. Which of the following can you conclude based on the de Broglie equation? a. Waves behave like particles. b. Most particles are electrons. c. All matter has an associated wavelength. d. All matter behaves like particles.

6. Which of the following best describes the Heisenberg uncertainty principle? a. Light behaves like a particle and like a wave. b. The shorter the wavelength, the higher the frequency. c. It is impossible to know both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time. d. You can measure an object without disturbing it.

22

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

Chapter Assessment

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Thinking Critically
Answer the following questions.
1. A radio station has a frequency of 103.7 MHz. (1 MHz

106 s 1) What is the wavelength of the radiation emitted by the station? Indicate where this wavelength falls on the electromagnetic spectrum shown below.
Electromagnetic Spectrum

105

106

107

108 Radio

109

1010

1011
Microwave

1012

1013

1014

1015

1016
Ultraviolet

1017

1018

1019

(Hz)

AM radio

FM radio VHF-TV

Infrared

UHF-TV

Visible

X rays

104

103

102

101

101

102

103

104

105 106

107

108

109

1010 1011

rays

(m)

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Look at the electromagnetic spectrum again. Are the microwaves used to cook food

higher or lower in frequency than radio waves? Are microwaves longer or shorter in wavelength than radio waves?

3. Write the orbital diagram of aluminum.

4. Write the complete electron configuration and the noble-gas notation for aluminum.

5. Write the noble-gas notation for iodine. 6. Identify each atom. a. 1s22s22p1 b. [Ar]4s1

7. Write electron-dot structures for the following atoms. a. neon b. hydrogen


Chapter Assessment

c. carbon d. sulfur
Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

23

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Applying Scientific Methods


A chemist isolated four samples, A, B, C, and D. She obtained the following atomic emission spectra of the samples.
A B C D
400 500 600 Nanometers 700

1. Examine each samples atomic emission spectra. Assume that each sample represents a

single element. What can you conclude by looking at the spectra? Do the samples represent the same element or different elements?

3. Would the atomic emission spectrum for each sample change if you repeated the proce-

dure? Explain your answer

4. What does each line in an atomic emission spectrum represent?

24

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

Chapter Assessment

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Which part of the electromagnetic spectrum do the atomic emission spectra show?

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Applying Scientific Methods, continued


5. You find the following atomic emission spectrum for hydrogen in your textbook.

Compare this spectrum to the spectra of the samples that the chemist obtained. What can you conclude? Explain your answer.

400

500 600 Nanometers

700

6. Which, if any, of the atomic emission spectra can the Bohr model explain? Explain your

answer.

7. According to Bohrs model, how many times were photons emitted from the excited

atoms in each sample to produce its atomic emission spectrum?


A B
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

C D 8. The difference between successive energy levels becomes smaller as n becomes larger.

Explain how hydrogens emission spectrum demonstrates this statement.

9. Assume that instead of measuring the photons emitted by each sample, the chemist meas-

ured the photons absorbed by each sample. What would the absorption spectra look like? Explain your answer.

Chapter Assessment

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

25

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 5

Assessment
Multiple Choice

Student Recording Sheet

Standardized Test Practice


Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
1. 2. 3. Short Answer 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Answer each question with complete sentences.


11.

12. 13. 14. SAT Subject Test: Chemistry 15. 16. 17. 18.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

19.

26

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

Table of Contents

Reproducible Pages

Chapter 6 The Periodic Table and Periodic Law


MiniLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 ChemLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Teaching Transparency Masters and Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Math Skills Transparency Masters and Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Chapter Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 STP Recording Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

27

Name

Date

Class

mini LAB 6

Organize Elements
Can you find the pattern? Materials Index cards, pencil Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Make a set of element cards based on the information in the chart at right. 3. Organize the cards by increasing mass, and start placing them into a 4 3 grid. 4. Place each card based on its properties, and leave gaps when necessary.
Symbol
Ad Ax Bp Cx Lq Pd Qa Rx Tu Xn

Mass (g)
52.9 108.7 69.3 112.0 98.7 83.4 68.2 106.9 64.1 45.0

State
solid/liquid ductile solid gas brittle solid ductile solid brittle solid ductile solid liquid brittle solid gas

Color
orange light blue red light green blue green dark blue yellow hunter crimson

Analysis
1. Make a table listing the placement of each element. 2. Describe the period (across) and group (down) trends for the color in your new table.

3. Describe the period and group trends for the mass in your new table. Explain your placement of any elements that do not fit the trends.

4. Predict the placement of a newly found element, Ph, that is a fuchsia gas. What would be an expected range for the mass of Ph?

5. Predict the properties for the element that would fill the last remaining gap in the table.

28

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

CHEMLAB

Investigate Descriptive Chemistry


ou can observe several of the representative elements, classify them, and compare their properties. The observation of the properties of elements is called descriptive chemistry.

Problem
What is the pattern of properties of the representative elements?

Objectives
Observe properties of various elements. Classify elements as metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. Examine general trends within the periodic table.

Materials
stoppered test tubes containing small samples of elements plastic dishes containing samples of elements conductivity apparatus 1.0M HCl test tubes (6) test-tube rack 10-mL graduated cylinder spatula small hammer glass marking pencil

Safety Precautions
Wear safety goggles and a lab apron at all times. Do not handle elements with bare hands. Brittle samples might shatter into sharp pieces. 1.0M HCl is harmful to eyes and clothing. Never test chemicals by tasting. Follow any additional safety precautions provided by your teacher.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Pre-Lab
Read the entire CHEMLAB. 2. Use the data table on the next page to record the observations you make during the lab. 3. Examine the periodic table. What is the physical state of most metals? Nonmetals? Metalloids?
1. 4.

Look up the definitions of the terms luster, malleability, and electrical conductivity. To what elements do they apply?

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

29

Name

Date

Class

CHEMLAB
Procedure
1. 2.

6
each test tube. Observe each tube for at least 1 minute. The formation of bubbles is evidence of a reaction between the acid and the element. Record your observations. 7. Cleanup and Disposal Dispose of all materials as instructed by your teacher.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Read and complete the lab safety form. Observe and record the appearance (physical state, color, luster, texture, and so on) of the element sample in each test tube without removing the stoppers. Remove a small sample of each of the elements contained in a plastic dish and place it on a hard surface. Gently tap each element sample with a small hammer. If the element is malleable, it will flatten. If it is brittle, it will shatter. Record your observations. Use the conductivity tester to determine which elements conduct electricity. Clean the electrodes with water, and dry them before testing each element. Label each test tube with the symbol for one of the elements in the plastic dishes. Using a graduated cylinder, add 5 mL of water to each test tube. Use a spatula to put a small amount of each element into the corresponding test tubes. Using a graduated cylinder, add 5 mL of 1.0M HCl to

Observation of Elements
Classification Metals Properties malleable good conductor of electricity lustrous silver or white in color many react with acids solids, liquids, or gases do not conduct electricity do not react with acids likely brittle if solid

Nonmetals

Metalloids

combine properties of metals and nonmetals

1.

Interpret Data Using the table above and your observations, list the element samples that display the general characteristics of metals.

2.

Interpret Data Using the table above and your observations, list the element samples that display the general characteristics of nonmetals.

3.

Interpret Data Using the table above and your observations, list the element samples that display the general characteristics of metalloids.

30

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Analyze and Conclude

Name

Date

Class

CHEMLAB
4.

Model Construct a periodic table, and label the representative elements by group (1 through 17). Using your results and the periodic table presented in this chapter, record the identities of elements observed during the lab in the periodic table you have constructed.

5.

Infer Describe any trends among the elements you observed in the lab.

Inquiry Extension
Investigate Were there any element samples that did not fit into one of the three categories? What additional investigations could you conduct to learn even more about these elements characteristics?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

31

32
Gas Hydrogen Metal Metalloid
Helium

Name

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS


18
1 Solid Nonmetal Synthetic Recently observed
4.003 Boron Carbon Nitrogen 7 8 9 10 Oxygen Fluorine Neon 6 5

1
Liquid State of matter

Hydrogen

Element Atomic number Symbol 1.008

1 13
He

2 14 15 16 17

H
2

1.008

Atomic mass

Lithium

Beryllium

2
B C
12.011 Silicon 14 15 16 17 Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine 14.007 15.999 18.998

Li N O F
10.811 Aluminum

Be

Ne
20.180 Argon 18

6.941

9.012

Sodium

Magnesium

3 4
Al
26.982 Vanadium 23 24 25 26 27 29 30 31 33 32 28 34 Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Nickel Selenium 28.086 30.974 32.066

11

12

Na

Mg

3
Si P S

8 9
Cl

10

11

12

13

Ar
39.948

22.990

24.305

35.453 Bromine 35

The Periodic Table


Krypton 36

Potassium 22

Calcium

Scandium

Titanium

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6


Ti
50.942 Niobium
Molybdenum

4
V
51.996 Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 44 Palladium 43 Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony 54.938 55.847 58.933 58.693 63.546 65.39 69.723 72.61 74.922

19

20

21

Ca

Sc

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga Ge As

Se
78.96 Tellurium 52

Br
79.904 Iodine 53

Kr
83.80 Xenon 54

39.098

40.078

44.956

47.867

Rubidium 40 42 41

Strontium

Yttrium

Zirconium

5
Zr Ru
101.07 Osmium 76 77 78 79 80 81 Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead 82 102.906 106.42 107.868 112.411 114.82 118.710

37

38

39

Rb Rh
92.906 Tantalum 73 74 75 Tungsten Rhenium 95.94 (98)

Sr

Nb

Mo

Tc

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb
121.757 Bismuth 83

Te
127.60 Polonium 84

I
126.904 Astatine 85

Xe
131.290 Radon 86

85.468

87.62

88.906

91.224

Cesium 72

Barium

Lanthanum

Hafnium

6
Hf
180.948 Dubnium
Bohrium

55

56

57

Cs Ta
183.84 186.207 Hassium 108 Ununbium 190.23 192.217 Seaborgium 106 107 195.08 196.967 200.59 204.383

Ba

La

W Re Os Ir

Pt

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb
207.2

Bi
208.980

Po
208.982 Ununhexium Ununquadium Ununpentium 114 115

At
209.987

Rn
222.018

132.905

137.327

138.905

178.49

Date

Francium 104 105

Radium

Actinium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium 111 109 110

Rutherfordium

7
Rf Db Sg
(266) (264) (277) (268) (281) (272) (285) (262)

87

88

89

Fr
(261)

Ra

Ac

Bh

Hs Mt

Ds

Rg

* Uub
112

Ununtrium 113

* Uut

* Uuq
(284)

* Uup

* Uuh
(289)

116

Ununoctium 118

* Uuo
(288)
(291)

(223)

(226)

(227)

(294)

The number in parentheses is the mass number of the longest lived isotope for that element.

*
Europium 63 64 Gadolinium Terbium 65 Dysprosium 66 Holmium 67 Erbium 68 Thulium 69 Ytterbium 70 Lutetium 71

Cerium 58 59 61 60 62

Praseodymium Neodymium

Promethium

Samarium

Lanthanide series
Ce
140.908 144.242 Uranium 92 93 94 95 Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium 96 (145) 151.965 Protactinium 91 150.36 157.25

Pr Nd Pm Eu

Sm

Gd

Tb
158.925 Berkelium 97

Dy
162.50 Californium 98

Ho
164.930 Einsteinium 99

Er
167.259 Fermium 100

Tm
168.934
Mendelevium

Yb
173.04 Nobelium 101 102

Lu
174.967 Lawrencium 103

140.115

Thorium 90

Actinide series
Th U
238.029 (237) (244) (243)

Class

Pa Np Pu Am
231.036

Cm
(247)

Bk
(247)

Cf
(251)

Es
(252)

Fm
(257)

Md
(258)

No
(259)

Lr
(262)

232.038

18

Use with Chapter 6, Section 6.1

Teaching Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

18
Use with Chapter 6, Section 6.1

The Periodic Table


1. How many elements are listed in the periodic table? 2. What is the atomic number of selenium? 3. What is the symbol for palladium? 4. What is the atomic mass of strontium?

5. How are elements that are gases at room temperature designated in the periodic table?

6. How many columns of elements does the periodic table contain? 7. What is another name for a column of elements?

8. How many rows of elements does the periodic table contain? 9. What is another name for a row of elements? 10. Which period contains the least number of elements? 11. What element is found in period 4, group 7?
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

12. How are metals designated in the periodic table?

13. How are metalloids designated in the periodic table?

14. How are nonmetals designated in the periodic table?

15. What is the name of the group 1 elements (excluding hydrogen)? 16. What is the name of the group 2 elements? 17. What is the name of the group 17 elements? 18. What is the name of the group 18 elements? 19. What can be said about the electron configurations of all the elements in a group?

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

33

34
s2 2 He p1 5 B d block 22 Ti 23 V 41 Nb 73 Ta 105 Db f block 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 Lu 106 Sg 107 Bh 108 Hs 109 Mt 110 Uun 111 Uuu 112 Uub 74 W 75 Re 76 Os 77 Ir 78 Pt 79 Au 80 Hg 81 Tl 82 Pb 83 Bi 42 Mo 43 Tc 44 Ru 45 Rh 46 Pd 47 Ag 48 Cd 49 In 50 Sn 51 Sb 52 Te 84 Po 24 Cr 25 Mn 26 Fe 27 Co 28 Ni 29 Cu 30 Zn 31 Ga 32 Ge 33 As 34 Se 40 Zr 72 Hf 104 Rf 35 Br 53 I 85 At 13 Al 14 Si 15 P 16 S 17 Cl 18 Ar 36 Kr 54 Xe 86 Rn 6 C 7 N 8 O 9 F 10 Ne p2 p block p3 p4 p5 p6

Name

s block s1

1 H

s2

3 Li

4 Be

The s-, p-, d-, and f-Block Elements

11 Na

12 Mg

19

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

20 Ca

21 Sc

37

Rb

38 Sr

39 Y

55

Cs

56 Ba

57 La

87

Date

Fr

88 Ra

89 Ac

Ce
90 91 92 93 94 95 96

Pr Pa U Np Pu Am

Nd

Pm

Sm

Eu

Gd Cm

Tb
97

Dy
98

Ho
99

Er
100

Tm
101

Yb
102

Th

Bk

Cf

Es

Fm

Md

No

103 Lr
Class

19

Use with Chapter 6, Section 6.2

Teaching Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

19
Use with Chapter 6, Section 6.2

The s-, p-, d-, and f-Block Elements


1. What are the four sections, or blocks, of the periodic table? 2. What does each block represent?

3. What do elements in the s-block have in common?

4. What is the valence electron configuration of each element in group 1? 5. What is the valence electron configuration of each element in group 2? 6. Why does the s-block span two groups of elements?

7. Why does the p-block span six groups of elements?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

8. Why are there no p-block elements in period 1?

9. What is the ending of the electron configuration of each element in group 4? 10. What is the electron configuration of neon? 11. In what period does the first d-energy sublevel appear? 12. Why does the d-block span ten groups of elements?

13. What is the ending of the electron configuration of each element in group 3? 14. What is the electron configuration of titanium? 15. In what period does the first f-energy sublevel appear? 16. Determine the group, period, and block for the element having the electron configuration

[Xe]4f145d106s26p3.
a. group b. period c. block
Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

35

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

20
Use with Chapter 6, Section 6.3

Atomic and Ionic Radii

Chemical symbol Charge

K 1

138

Ionic radius Relative size

1 Li 76 2 1 Na 102 3 1 K 4 1 Rb 152 5 1 Cs 167 6 1 2 2 138 2 2

2 Be 31 B 3

13 20 C 4 Si 4

14 15

15 N 146 3

16 O 140 2 S 184 2 Se 198 2 Te 221 2 1

17 F 133 1 Cl 181 1
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Mg 72

Al 54 3 Ga 62 3 n Transition metals 3 Tl 3 95 81

41

P 212 3 As 222 3 Sb 62 5 Bi 5 74

Period

Ca 100

Ge 53 4 Sn 71 4 Pb 84 4

Br 195 1 220

Sr 118

Ba 135 2

Radii are given in picometers (1

10

12

m)

36

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

Teaching Transparency Masters

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

20
Use with Chapter 6, Section 6.3

Atomic and Ionic Radii


1. Which groups and periods of elements are shown in the table of atomic radii?

2. In what unit is atomic radius measured? Express this unit in scientific notation.

3. What are the values of the smallest and largest atomic radii shown? What elements have

these atomic radii?

4. What happens to atomic radii within a period as the atomic number increases?

5. Cite any exceptions to the generalization you stated in your answer to question 4.

6. What accounts for the trend in atomic radii within a period?


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. What happens to atomic radii within a group as the atomic number increases?

8. Cite any exceptions to the generalization you stated in your answer to question 7.

9. What accounts for the trend in atomic radii within a group?

10. In the table of ionic radii, how is the charge of the ions of elements in groups 1 and 2

related to the group number of the elements?

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

37

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

21
Use with Chapter 6, Section 6.3

First Ionization and Successive Ionization Energies


Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Period 5

First Ionization Energy of Elements in Periods 15

2500
First ionization energy (kJ/mol)

He Ne

2000

1500
H

Ar Kr Xe

1000

500

Li

Na

Rb

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Atomic number

Successive Ionization Energies for the Period 2 Elements


Element Li Be B C N O F Ne Valence electrons 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Ionization energy (kJ/mol)*
1st 520 900 800 1090 1400 1310 1680 2080 2nd 7300 1760 2430 2350 2860 3390 3370 3950 14,850 3660 4620 4580 5300 6050 6120 25,020 6220 7480 7470 8410 9370 37,830 9440 10,980 11,020 12,180 53,270 13,330 15,160 15,240 71,330 17,870 20,000 92,040 23,070 115,380 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th

* mol is an abbreviation for mole, a quantity of matter.

38

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

Teaching Transparency Masters

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

21
Use with Chapter 6, Section 6.3

First Ionization and Successive Ionization Energies


1. What is meant by first ionization energy?

2. Which element has the smallest first ionization energy? The largest? What are their values?

3. What generally happens to the first ionization energy of the elements within a period as

the atomic number of the elements increases?

4. What accounts for the general trend in the first ionization energy of the elements within a period?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. What happens to the values of the successive ionization energies of an element?

6. Based on the graph, rank the group 2 elements in periods 15 in decreasing order of first

ionization energy.

7. How is a jump in ionization energy related to the valence electrons of the element?

8. What generally happens to the first ionization energy of the elements within a group as

the atomic number of the elements increases?

9. What accounts for the general trend in the first ionization energy of the elements within a group?

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

39

Name

Date

Class

MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY MASTER

6
Use with Chapter 6, Section 6.2

Using the Periodic Table

40

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

Math Skills Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

6
Use with Chapter 6, Section 6.2

Using the Periodic Table


1. Identify the number of valence electrons in each of the following elements. a. Ne b. K c. B d. Mg e. O f. Cl g. P h. Si

2. Identify the energy level of the valence electrons in each of the following elements. a. Br b. N c. Ra d. H e. Ar f. I
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Use the periodic table to write the electron configurations (using noble gas notation) for

each of the following elements.


a. Li b. F c. As d. Sr e. Bi 4. Determine the group, period, and block of the elements having the following electron

configurations.
a. 1s2 b. [Ne]3s23p1 c. [Ar]4s1 d. [Kr]5s24d1 e. [Xe]6s24f145d106p4
Math Skills Transparency Worksheets Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

41

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

The Periodic Table and Periodic Law


Section 6.1

Development of the Modern Periodic Table

In your textbook, reads about the history of the periodic tables development.

Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
octaves elements protons atomic mass properties periodic law atomic number Henry Moseley Dmitri Mendeleev nine eight accepted

The table below was developed by John Newlands and is based on a relationship called the law of (1) repeated every (2) element (3) . According to this law, the properties of the elements elements. Thus, for example, element two and have similar properties. The law of octaves did not work .
6 N 13 P 7 O
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

for all the known elements and was not generally (4)
1 H 8 F 2 Li 9 Na 3 G 10 Mg 4 Bo 11 Al 5 C 12 Si

14 S

The first periodic table is mostly credited to (5) elements were arranged according to increasing (6) result of this table was that the existence and properties of undiscovered
(7)

. In his table, the . One important

could be predicted. The element in the modern periodic table are arranged according to increasing

(8)

, as a result of the work of (9)

. This in the nucleus of an atom of

arrangement is based on number of (10) the element. The modern form of the periodic table results in the
(11)

, which states that when elements are arranged according to

increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their chemical and physical
(12)

42

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

Study Guide

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 6.1 continued


In your textbook, read about the modern periodic table.

Use the information in the box on the left taken from the periodic table to complete the table on the right.
7 N Nitrogen 14.007 [He]2s22p3 Atomic Mass Atomic Number Electron Configuration Chemical Name Chemical Symbol

13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B. Column A
18. A column on the periodic table 19. A row on the periodic table 20. Elements in groups 1, 2, and 13 to 18 21. Elements that are shiny and conduct electricity 22. Elements in groups 3 to 12
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Column B
a. metals b. group c. period d. representative elements e. transition elements

In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the italicized word or phrase to make it true.
23. There are two main classifications of elements. 24. More than three-fourths of the elements in the periodic table are

nonmetals.
25. Group 1 elements (except for hydrogen) are known as the alkali

metals.
26. Group 13 elements are the alkaline earth metals. 27. Group 17 elements are highly reactive nonmetals known as

halogens.
28. Group 18 elements are very unreactive elements known as

transition metals.
29. Metalloids have properties of both metals and inner transition

metals.

Study Guide

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

43

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 6.2

Classification of the Elements

In your textbook, read about organizing the elements by electron configuration.

Use the periodic table on pages 178179 in your textbook to match each element in Column A with the element in Column B that has the most similar chemical properties. Column A
1. arsenic (As) 2. bromine (Br) 3. cadmium (Cd) 4. gallium (Ga) 5. germanium (Ge) 6. iridium (Ir) 7. magnesium (Mg) 8. neon (Ne) 9. nickel (Ni) 10. osmium (Os) 11. sodium (Na) 12. tellurium (Te) 13. tungsten (W) 14. yttrium (Y) 15. zirconium (Zr)

Column B
a. boron (B) b. cesium (Cs) c. chromium (Cr) d. cobalt (Co) e. hafnium (Hf) f.

iodine (I)

g. iron (Fe) h. nitrogen (N) i. j.

platinum (Pt) scandium (Sc)


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

k. silicon (Si) l.

strontium (Sr)

m. sulfur (S) n. zinc (Z) o. xenon (Xe)

Answer the following questions.


16. Why do sodium and potassium, which belong to the same group in the periodic table,

have similar chemical properties?

17. How is the energy level of an elements valence electrons related to its period on the

periodic table? Give an example.

44

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

Study Guide

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 6.2 continued


In your textbook, read about s-, p-, d-, and f-block elements.

Use the periodic table on pages 178179 in your textbook and the periodic table below to answer the following questions.
s2 s block s1 1 H 3 Li 11 Na 19 s2 4 Be 12 Mg 20 Ca 38 Sr 56 Ba 88 Ra 21 Sc 39 Y 57 22 Ti 40 Zr 72 Hf 104 Rf 23 V 41 Nb 73 Ta 105 Db 24 Cr 42 Mo 74 W 106 Sg d block 25 Mn 43 Tc 75 Re 107 Bh 26 Fe 44 Ru 76 Os 108 Hs 27 Co 45 Rh 77 Ir 109 Mt 28 Ni 46 Pd 78 Pt 110 Uun 29 Cu 47 Ag 79 Au 111 Uuv 30 Zn 48 Cd 80 Hg 112 Uub p1 5 B 13 Al 31 Ga 49 In 81 Tl p2 6 C 14 Si 32 Ge 50 Sn 82 Pb p block p3 p4 7 N 15 P 33 As 51 Sb 83 Bi 8 O 16 S 34 Se 52 Te 84 Po p5 9 F 17 Cl 35 Br 53 I 85 At 2 He p6 10 Ne 18 Ar 36 Kr 54 Xe 86 Rn

K
37

Rb
55

Cs
87

La
89

Fr

Ac

f block 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 Lu 103 Lr

Ce
90

Pr
91

Nd
92

Pm
93

Sm
94

Eu
95

Gd
96

Tb
97

Dy
98

Ho
99

Er
100

Tm
101

Yb
102

Th
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Pa

Np

Pu

Am

Cm

Bk

Cf

Es

Fm

Md

No

18. Into how many blocks is the periodic table divided? 19. What groups of elements does the s-block contain? 20. Why does the s-block portion of the periodic table span two groups?

21. What groups of elements does the p-block contain? 22. Why are members of group 18 virtually unreactive?

23. How many d-block elements are there? 24. What groups of elements does the d-block contain? 25. Why does the f-block portion of the periodic table span 14 groups?

26. What is the electron configuration of the element in period 3, group 16?

Study Guide

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

45

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 6.3

Periodic Trends

In your textbook, read about atomic radius and ionic radius.

Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. Atomic radii cannot be measured directly because the electron cloud surrounding the

nucleus does not have a clearly defined


a. charge. b. mass. c. outer edge. d. probability.

2. Which diagram best represents the group and period trends in atomic radii in the periodic

table?
a.
Generally increase
Generally increase

c.
Generally increase

Generally decrease

b.
Generally decrease

Generally increase

d.
Generally decrease

Generally decrease

3. The general trend in the radius of an atom moving down a group is partially accounted

for by the
a. decrease in the mass of the nucleus. b. fewer number of filled orbitals. 4. A(n) c. increase in the charge of the nucleus. d. shielding of the outer electrons by inner electrons.

is an atom, or bonded group of atoms, that has a positive or negative


b. ion c. isotope d. molecule

charge.
a. halogen

5. An atom becomes negatively charged by a. gaining an electron. b. gaining a proton. c. losing an electron. d. losing a neutron.

6. Which diagram best represents the relationship between the diameter of a sodium atom

and the diameter of a positive sodium ion?


a. b. c.

Na

Na

Na

Na

Na

Na

46

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

Study Guide

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 6.3 continued


In your textbook, read about ionization energy and electronegativity.

Answer the following questions.


7. What is ionization energy?

8. Explain why an atom with a high ionization-energy value is not likely to form a positive

ion.

9. What is the period trend in the first ionization energies? Why?

10. What is the group trend in the first ionization energies? Why?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

11. State the octet rule.

12. What does the electronegativity of an element indicate?

13. What are the period and group trends in electronegativities?

Study Guide

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

47

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

The Periodic Table and Periodic Law


Reviewing Vocabulary
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B. Column A
1. Statement that when the elements are arranged by

Column B
a. alkali metals b. alkaline earth

increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their chemical and physical properties
2. Groups 1 and 2, 13 through 18

metals
c. electronegativity 3. Groups 3 through 12 d. halogens 4. Group 1 elements (except for hydrogen) e. period 5. Group 2 elements f. 6. A column in the periodic table g. ionization energy 7. A row in the periodic table h. noble gases 8. Group 17 elements i. 9. Group 18 elements 10. Atom or bonded group of atoms that has a positive or j.

ion

octet rule
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

periodic law elements

negative charge
11. Energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous

k. representative

atom
12. Statement that atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons

l.

transition elements

m. group

to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons


13. Indication of an atoms ability to attract electrons in a

chemical bond Write a sentence that uses each group of terms.


14. transition metals, inner transition metals

15. metal, nonmetal, metalloid

48

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

Chapter Assessment

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)


Briefly describe the contribution of each of the following to the development of the periodic table.
1. John Newlands:

2. Henry Moseley:

3. Dmitri Mendeleev:

Match each of the following terms with a number or chemical symbol from the periodic table below.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Be Si 1 2 3 Ni

6 Th

4. alkali metals 5. alkaline earth metals 6. a d-block element 7. an f-block element 8. halogens 9. inner transition metals
Chapter Assessment

10. a metalloid element 11. noble gases 12. a p-block element that is not a metalloid 13. an s-block element 14. transition metals

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

49

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)


Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Use the periodic table in your textbook.
1. Elements in the same group have the same a. atomic radius. b. energy level of outer electrons. c. nuclear charge. d. number of valence electrons.

2. Most of the elements in groups 16 through 18 are classified as a. alkali metals. b. inner transition metals. c. nonmetals. d. alkaline earth metals.

3. Which energy level of the period 4 transition elements is being filled with electrons? a. third b. fourth c. fifth d. sixth

4. Identify the period and group of the element that has the electron configuration

[Ne]3s23p3.
a. period 2, group 2 b. period 3, group 1 c. period 3, group 13 d. period 3, group 15

5. Which of the following classifications describes the element with the electron

configuration [Ar]4s23d104p5?
a. stable metal b. stable nonmetal c. unstable nonmetal d. unstable metal
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. What is the electron configuration of the element in group 14 and period 4 of the

periodic table?
a. [Ne]3s23p4 b. [Ar]4s2 c. [Ar]4s23d104p2 d. [Kr]5s24d2

7. What is the trend in atomic radii as you move from left-to-right across a period? a. generally decreases b. generally increases c. remains the same d. varies randomly

8. The trend in the atomic radii as you move down the group 1 elements is partially due to a. decreased distance of outer electrons. b. increased nuclear charge. c. increased number of electrons in outer energy level. d. shielding by inner electrons. 9. In which of the following pair is the second particle listed larger than the first? a. K, Ga b. Pb, C c. Br, Br d. Li, Li

10. How many electrons does an atom generally need in its outer level to be the most stable? a. 4 b. 8 c. 10 d. 12

11. Which of the following electron configurations represents the most chemically stable

atom?
a. [He]2s22p3 b. [Ne]3s23p5 c. [Ne]3s23p64s23d5 d. [Ne]3s23p6

50

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

Chapter Assessment

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Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Thinking Critically
The graph below shows the atomic radii of the elements in the first four periods of the periodic table, as well as the major ionic radii of the representative elements. The charge of each ion is indicated above the plotted point representing its radius. Use the graph and the periodic table in your textbook to answer the following questions.
Period 1

250 200

Period 2 Period 3
3

Period 4

Radius (pm)

150 100 50 0 0

3 2 1

1 1 2 3

Atomic radius 1
1 2

Ionic radius
4

3 4

representative element transition element representative ion

10

15 20 25 Atomic number

30

35

1. Describe the relationship between atomic radii and atomic number for the representative

elements in the first four periods.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. How can you account for the trend you described in your answer to question 1?

3. Describe the relationship between the atomic radii and the atomic numbers of the transi-

tion elements in period 4.

4. Explain why the two elements in the first period do not have ionic radii listed.

5. Predict whether the arsenic ion shown in the graph has a positive or negative charge.

(Arsenic has an atomic number of 33.) Explain your prediction.

Chapter Assessment

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

51

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Applying Scientific Methods


At the beginning of the nineteenth century, chemists were searching for numerical relationships among the elements. From these relationships, they hoped that some fundamental chemical principle might be revealed. One such chemist was the German, Johann Wolfgang Dbereiner. In 1817, Dbereiner noted that if the three alkaline earth metals Ca, Sr, and Ba were arranged in increasing atomic mass, the atomic mass of the middle element was close to the average of the other two atomic masses, as shown below.
Calcium (Ca) Strontium (Sr) Barium (Ba)

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

Atomic mass (u)

In 1829, Dbereiner discovered that the halogensCl, Br, and Ialso followed a similar pattern, as shown below. He named these three-member groups of elements with similar chemical and physical properties triads.
Chlorine (Cl) Bromine (Br) Iodine (I)

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

Atomic mass (u)

1. Six of the eight elements in the table below make up two of Dbereiners triads. Plot the
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

atomic mass of each element on the number line below the table. From the sequence of the atomic masses and your knowledge of elements with similar chemical and physical properties, identify the three elements in each of the two triads. Explain your choices.
Element Lithium (Li) Carbon (C) Sodium (Na) Sulfur (S) Potassium (K) Selenium (Se) Tellurium (Te) Gold (Au) Mass (amu) 7 12 23 32 39 79 128 197

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200

Atomic mass (amu)

52

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

Chapter Assessment

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Applying Scientific Methods, continued


2. Recall that atomic mass is a quantitative physical property of an element. So are density,

melting point, and boiling point. Use the table below to sequence the values of the densities, melting points, and boiling points of the following triadsCa, Sr, and Ba; and Cl, Br, and I. Then determine whether each property shows a trend similar to that of the atomic masses of the elements in the triads. Explain your reasoning.
Element Barium (Ba) Bromine (Br) Calcium (Ca) Chlorine (Cl) Iodine (I) Strontium (Sr) Density (g/mL) 3.62 3.11 1.55 0.003 214 4.93 2.6 Melting Point (C) 726.9 7.25 841.5 101 113.6 776.9 Boiling Point (C) 1845 59.35 1500.5 34 184.5 1412

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. If silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), and tin (Sn) are classified as a triad similar to those of

Dbereiner, predict values that will complete the following table. Record the values in the table.
Element Silicon (Si) Germanium (Ge) Tin (Sn) 119 Atomic Mass (amu) 28 5.3 7.3 Density (g/mL) Melting Point (C) 1411 945

Chapter Assessment

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

53

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Assessment
Multiple Choice

Student Recording Sheet

Standardized Test Practice


Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
1. 2. 3. Short Answer 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Answer each question with complete sentences.


11. 12. 13.

Extended Response

Answer each question with complete sentences.


14.

15.

SAT Subject Test: Chemistry 16. 17. 18. 19.

54

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 6

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Table of Contents

Reproducible Pages

Chapter 7 Ionic Compounds and Metals


MiniLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 ChemLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Teaching Transparency Masters and Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Math Skills Transparency Masters and Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Chapter Assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 STP Recording Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

55

Name

Date

Class

mini LAB 7

Observe Properties
How do the properties of steel change when it is subjected to different types of heat treatment? For many centuries, people have treated metals with heat to change
their properties. The final properties of the metal depend on the temperature to which the metal is heated and the rate at which it cools.

Materials laboratory burner, forceps (2), hairpins (3), 250-mL beaker, cold water Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Examine a property of spring steel by trying to bend open one of three hairpins. Record your observations. 3. Next hold each end of the hairpin with a pair of forceps. Place the curved central loop portion of the hairpin in the top of the blue flame from a laboratory burner. When the metal turns red, pull the hairpin open to form a straight piece of metal. Allow it to cool as you record your observations. Repeat Step 3 for the remaining two hairpins. WARNING: Do not touch the hot metal. Do not hold your hand above the flame of the laboratory burner. 4. To make softened steel, use a pair of forceps to hold all three hairpins vertically in the flame of the laboratory burner until the hairpins glow red all over. Slowly raise the three hairpins straight up and out of the flame so they cool slowly. Slow cooling results in the formation of large crystals. 5. After cooling, bend each of the three hairpins into the shape of the letter J. Record how the metal feels as you bend it. 6. To harden the steel, use tongs to hold two of the bent hairpins in the flame until they are glowing red all over. Quickly plunge the hot metals into a 250-mL beaker containing approximately 200 mL of cold water. Quick-cooling causes the crystal size to be small. 7. Attempt to straighten one of the bends. Record your observations. 8. To temper the steel, use tongs to hold the remaining hardened metal bend above the flame for a brief period of time. Slowly move the metal back and forth just above the flame until the gray metal turns to an iridescent blue-gray color. Do not allow the metal to become hot enough to glow red. Slowly cool the metal and then try to unbend it using the end of your finger. Record your observations.

Analysis
1. Analyze your results, and identify the two types of steel that appear to have their properties combined in tempered steel.

2. Hypothesize how the different observed properties relate to crystal size.

3. State a use for spring steel that takes advantage of its unique properties.

4. Infer the advantages and disadvantages of using softened steel for body panels on automobiles.

5. Apply What is the major disadvantage of hardened steel? Do you think hardened steel would be wear-resistant and retain a sharpened edge? Explain your reasoning.

56

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

CHEMLAB

Synthesize an Ionic Compound

lements combine to form compounds. If energy is released as the compound is formed, the resulting product is more stable than the reacting elements. In this investigation, you will react elements to form two compounds. You will test the compounds to determine several of their properties. Ionic compounds have properties that are different from those of other compounds. You will decide if the products you formed are ionic compounds.

Problem
Can the physical properties of a compound indicate that they have ionic bonds?

Objectives
Observe evidence of a chemical reaction. Acquire and analyze information that will enable you to decide if a compound has an ionic bond. Classify the products as ionic or not ionic.

Materials
magnesium ribbon (25 cm) crucible ring stand and ring clay triangle Bunsen burner stirring rod crucible tongs centigram balance 100-mL beaker distilled water conductivity tester

Safety Precautions
Always wear safety glasses and a lab apron. Do not look directly at the burning magnesium. The intensity of the light can damage your eyes. Avoid handling heated materials until they have cooled.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Pre-Lab
1.

Read the entire CHEMLAB. Identify the variable. List any conditions that must be kept constant.

b. Write the electron configuration of the

magnesium ion.

c. The magnesium ion has an electron

configuration like that of which noble gas?


2.

Write the electron configuration of the magnesium atom.


a. Based on this configuration, will magnesium

3.

Repeat question 2 for oxygen and nitrogen.

lose or gain electrons to become a magnesium ion?

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

57

Name

Date

Class

CHEMLAB
4.

7
the mass of the clean, dry crucible. 5. Roll 25 cm of magnesium ribbon into a loose ball. Place it in the crucible. Measure the mass of the magnesium and crucible together. 6. Place the crucible on the triangle, and heat it with a hot flame (flame tip should be near the crucible). 7. Turn off the burner as soon as the magnesium ignites and begins to burn with a bright white light. Allow it to cool, and measure the mass of the magnesium product and the crucible. 8. Place the dry, solid product in the beaker. 9. Add 10 mL of distilled water to the beaker, and stir. Check the mixture with a conductivity tester. 10. Cleanup and Disposal Dispose of the product as directed by your teacher. Wash out the crucible with water. Return all lab equipment to its proper place.
4. Measure

Use the data table in the next column. 5. In your data table, which mass values will be measured directly? Which mass values will be calculated?

6.

Explain what must be done to calculate each mass value that is not measured directly.

Mass Data
Material(s) Empty crucible Mass (g)

Procedure
Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Record all measurements in your data table. 3. Position the ring on the ring stand about 7 cm above the top of the Bunsen burner. Place the clay triangle on the ring.
1.

Magnesium ribbon Crucible and magnesium products after heating Magnesium products

Analyze and Conclude


1.

Analyze Data Calculate the mass of the ribbon and the product. Record these masses in your table.

2.

Classify the forms of energy released. What can you conclude about the stability of products?

58

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Crucible and Mg ribbon before heating

Name

Date

Class

CHEMLAB
3.

Infer Does the magnesium react with the air?

4.

Predict the ionic formulas for the two binary products formed, and write their names.

5.

Analyze and Conclude The product of the magnesium-oxygen reaction is white, whereas the product of the magnesium-nitrogen reaction is yellow. Which compound makes up most of the product?

6.

Analyze and Conclude Did the magnesium compounds conduct a current when in solution? Do these results verify that the compounds are ionic?

7.

Error Analysis If the results show that the magnesium lost mass instead of gaining mass, cite possible sources of the error.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Inquiry Extension
Design an Experiment If the magnesium compounds conduct a current in solution, can you affect how well they conduct electricity? If they did not conduct a current, could they? Design an experiment to find out.

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

59

60

Name

20 electrons (20 )

18 electrons (18 )

Formation of Ions

+
Energy 2e Two electrons 20 protons (20 ) Ca ion (Ca
2

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

+
)

20 protons (20 )

Ca atom 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 8 electrons (8 )

10 electrons (10 )

Date

+
2e Two electrons 8 protons (8 )

+
O ion (O2 )

Energy 8 protons (8 )
Class

O atom 1s2 2s2 2p4

22

Teaching Transparency Masters

Use with Chapter 7, Section 7.1

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

22
Use with Chapter 7, Section 7.1

Formation of Ions
1. What are the names of the two elements shown?

2. Are the elements shown on the left sides of the two equations neutral? How can you tell?

3. What is the name for the energy needed to remove electrons from an atom, such as the

Ca atom shown?

4. What kind of charge does the Ca atom take on as a result of the reaction? What is the

name for an ion with that kind of charge?

5. What kind of charge does the O atom take on as a result of the reaction? What is the

name for an ion with that kind of charge?

6. Is the outer electron configuration of the Ca atom before the reaction a very stable one?

How can you tell?


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. Is the outer electron configuration of the O atom before the reaction a very stable one?

How can you tell?

8. Is the outer electron configuration of the Ca ion after the reaction a very stable one? How

can you tell?

9. Is the outer electron configuration of the O ion after the reaction a very stable one? How

can you tell?

10. What is the electron configuration of the Ca ion? What neutral atom has the same config-

uration, and in what chemical family is it located in the periodic table?

11. What is the electron configuration of the O ion? What neutral atom has the same config-

uration, and in what chemical family is it located in the periodic table?

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

61

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

23
Use with Chapter 7, Section 7.2

Ionic Bonds
Cl
2

Mg

Cl

Mg

Mg

62

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

Teaching Transparency Masters

Mg

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Cl

Cl

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

23
Use with Chapter 7, Section 7.2

Ionic Bonds
1. How many valence electrons does a neutral magnesium (Mg) atom have?

2. What is the charge on a magnesium ion? What does magnesium have to do to form such

an ion, and why does it tend to do so?

3. How many valence electrons does a single neutral chlorine (Cl) atom have? 4. What is the charge on a chloride ion? What does chlorine have to do to form such an ion,

and why does it tend to do so?

5. How many magnesium atoms and how many chlorine atoms react to form one formula

unit of magnesium chloride? Why? What is the formula of magnesium chloride?

6. What kind of compound is magnesium chloride? What happens to electrons during the
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

formation of the compound? What holds the atoms together in the compound?

7. What is the formula of the ionic compound formed by magnesium and sulfur (S) atoms?

Explain why, in terms of electron transfer, stability, and overall charge.

8. What is the formula of the ionic compound formed by magnesium and phosphorus (P)

atoms? Explain why, in terms of electron transfer, stability, and overall charge.

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

63

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

24
Use with Chapter 7, Section 7.3

Formulas for Ionic Compounds

3s 3p 3s 3p 3s 3p 3s 3p 3s 3p 3s 3p

Si

Cl

Ar

64

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

Periodic Table Row 3

Teaching Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Mg

Al

3s 3p 3s 3p

Na

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

24
Use with Chapter 7, Section 7.3

Formulas for Ionic Compounds


atom tend to do in bonding with another atom to form an ionic compound? Why?

1. How many valence electrons are there in an atom of sodium (Na)? What would a sodium

2. How many valence electrons are there in an atom of phosphorus (P)? What would a phos-

phorus atom tend to do in bonding with another atom to form an ionic compound? Why?

3. What would be the formula and name of the ionic compound formed when sodium reacts

with phosphorus? What are the oxidation numbers of each of the ions present?

4. How many valence electrons are in an atom of sulfur (S)? What would a sulfur atom tend

to do in bonding with another atom to form an ionic compound? Why?

5. What would be the formula and name of the ionic compound formed when sodium reacts
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

with sulfur? What are the oxidation numbers of each of the ions present?

6. How many valence electrons are in an atom of aluminum (Al)? What would an alu-

minum atom tend to do in bonding with another atom to form an ionic compound? Why?

7. How many valence electrons are in an atom of chlorine (Cl)? What would a chlorine

atom tend to do in bonding with another atom to form an ionic compound? Why?

8. What would be the formula and name of the ionic compound formed when aluminum

reacts with chlorine? What are the oxidation numbers of each of the ions present?

9. What would be the formula and name of the ionic compound formed when aluminum

reacts with sulfur? What are the oxidation numbers of each of the ions present?

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

65

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TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

25
Use with Chapter 7, Section 7.4

Metallic Bonding

Group 2 Metal Atoms

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

66

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

Group 1 Metal Atoms

Teaching Transparency Masters

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25
Use with Chapter 7, Section 7.4

Metallic Bonding
1. What is a regular, repeating three-dimensional arrangement of atoms called?

2. Do the separate electrons that are shown belong exclusively to a single atom? What word

is used to describe such electrons?

3. Are the electrons shown the only ones actually present? Explain.

4. Why are the central atoms shown as positively charged?

5. How does the number of separate electrons shown for the group 1 metal atoms compare

to the number of atoms? Explain why in terms of valence electrons.

6. How does the number of separate electrons shown for the group 2 metal atoms compare
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

to the number of atoms?

7. What holds the metal atoms together in such an arrangement?

8. What term is used to describe this model of metallic bonding? 9. How well do metals tend to conduct electricity? How does the model of metallic bonding

account for that property?

10. Do metals tend to be brittle, or are they malleable and ductile? How does the model of

metallic bonding account for that property?

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

67

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MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY MASTER

7
Use with Chapter 7, Section 7.1

Calculating Numbers of Electrons and Predicting Ionic Change


18

10 Ne 9 F 8 O 7 N

17

Groups 15 16

14

15 P

16 S

17 Cl

18 Ar

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

11 Na

Periods

3 Li

Math Skills Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

13

Groups 1 2

12 Mg

4 Be

13 Al

5 B

14 Si

6 C

Name

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Class

MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

7
Use with Chapter 7, Section 7.1

Calculating Numbers of Electrons and Predicting Ionic Change


1. What happens to a neutral atom if it loses one electron? Why?

2. What happens to a neutral atom if it gains two electrons? Why?

3. Write a simple word equation that shows how you can figure out the charge of an ion,

given its numbers of electrons and protons.

4. What is the electron configuration of each of the following, given its position in the

periodic table? In each case, also tell what charge the atom is likely to take on if it bonds, and explain why. Write the electron configuration of the ion that is formed.
a. beryllium (Be)

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

b. fluorine (F)

c. argon (Ar)

d. sulfur (S)

e. sodium (Na)

f. nitrogen (N)

Math Skills Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

69

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MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY MASTER

8
Use with Chapter 7, Section 7.3

Determining Numbers of Ions

Common Polyatomic Ions Ion NH4 NO2 NO3 HSO4 OH CN MnO4 HCO3 ClO ClO2 ClO3 ClO4 BrO3 IO3 Name ammonium nitrite nitrate hydrogen sulfate hydroxide cyanide permanganate hydrogen carbonate hypochlorite chlorite chlorate perchlorate bromate iodate Ion IO4 C2H3O2 H2PO4 CO32 SO32 SO42 S2O32 O22 CrO42 Cr2O72 HPO42 PO43 AsO43 Name periodate acetate dihydrogen phosphate carbonate sulfite sulfate thiosulfate peroxide chromate dichromate hydrogen phosphate phosphate arsenate
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Math Skills Transparency Masters

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MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

8
Use with Chapter 7, Section 7.3

Determining Numbers of Ions


and total negative charge in an ionic compound.

1. Write a simple word equation that illustrates what must be true of total positive charge

2. How many potassium ions (group 1) would be related to balance the charge of each of

the following in a compound?


a. one cyanide ion b. one sulfite ion c. one arsenate ion 3. How many iodate ions would be needed to balance the charge of each of the following in

a compound?
a. one Fe3 ion b. one lithium ion (group 1) c. one barium ion (group 2) 4. What is the formula of the ionic compound formed by each of the following in

combination? Demonstrate that each result is correct by figuring out total positive charge and total negative charge.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

a. ammonium ions and sulfate ions

b. sodium ions (group 1) and phosphate ions

c. magnesium ions (group 2) and hydrogen sulfate ions

d. aluminum ions (group 13) and carbonate ions

e. ammonium ions and arsenate ions

f. calcium ions (group 2) and acetate ions

g. ammonium ions and nitrite ions

Math Skills Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

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CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Ionic Compounds and Metals


Section 7.1

Ion Formation

In your textbook, read about chemical bonds and formation of ions.

Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
chemical bond nucleus electrons octet energy level ions noble gases valence

pseudo-noble gas formations

The force that holds two atoms together is called a(n) (1) Such an attachment may form by the attraction of the positively charged
(2) (3)

of one atom for the negatively charged of another atom, or by the attraction of charged atoms, . The attractions may also involve electrons, which are the electrons in the outermost . The (7) are a family of elements that

which are called (4)


(5) (6)

have very little tendency to react. Most of these elements have a set of eight outermost electrons, which is called a stable (8) . The relatively stable electron
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

structures developed by loss of electrons in certain elements of groups 3, 4, 13, and 14 are called (9) .

For each statement below, write true or false.


10. A positively charged ion is called an anion. 11. Elements in group 1 lose their one valence electron, forming an ion with a

charge.

12. Elements tend to react so that they acquire the electron structure of a

halogen.
13. A sodium atom tends to lose one electron when it reacts. 14. The electron structure of a zinc ion (Zn2 ) is an example of a pseudo-

noble gas formation.


15. A Cl ion is an example of a cation. 16. The ending -ide is used to designate an anion. 17. Nonmetals form a stable outer electron configuration by losing electrons

and becoming anions.


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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7 Study Guide

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Section 7.2

Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds

In your textbook, read about forming ionic bonds and the characteristics of ionic compounds.

Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. An ionic bond is a. attraction of an atom for its electrons. b. attraction of atoms for electrons they share. c. a force that holds together atoms that are oppositely charged. d. the movement of electrons from one atom to another. 2. The formula unit of an ionic compound shows the a. total number of each kind of ion in a sample. b. simplest ratio of the ions. c. numbers of atoms within each molecule. d. number of nearest neighboring ions surrounding each kind of ion. 3. The overall charge of a formula unit for an ionic compound a. is always zero. b. is always negative.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

c. is always positive. d. may have any value.

4. How many chloride (Cl ) ions are present in a formula unit of magnesium chloride,

given that the charge on a Mg ion is 2 ?


a. one-half b. one c. two d. four

5. Ionic bonds generally occur between a. metals. b. nonmetals. 6. Salts are examples of a. nonionic compounds. b. metals. c. nonmetals. d. ionic compounds. c. a metal and a nonmetal. d. noble gases.

7. A three-dimensional arrangement of particles in an ionic solid is called a(n) a. crystal lattice. b. sea of electrons. c. formula unit. d. electrolyte.

8. In a crystal lattice of an ionic compound, a. ions of a given charge are clustered together, far from ions of the opposite charge. b. ions are surrounded by ions of the opposite charge. c. a sea of electrons surrounds the ions. d. neutral molecules are present.

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Section 7.2 continued


9. What is the relationship between lattice energy and the strength of the attractive force

holding ions in place?


a. The more positive the lattice energy is, the greater the force. b. The more negative the lattice energy is, the greater the force. c. The closer the lattice energy is to zero, the greater the force. d. There is no relationship between the two quantities. 10. The formation of a stable ionic compound from ions a. is always exothermic. b. may be either exothermic or endothermic. c. is always endothermic. d. neither absorbs nor releases energy.

11. In electron transfer involving a metallic atom and a nonmetallic atom during ion forma-

tion, which of the following is correct?


a. The metallic atom gains electrons from the nonmetallic atom. b. The nonmetallic atom gains electrons from the metallic atom. c. Both atoms gain electrons. d. Neither atom gains electrons.

Underline the word that correctly describes each property in ionic compounds.
12. Melting point 13. Boiling point 14. Hardness 15. Brittleness 16. Electrical conductivity in the solid state 17. Electrical conductivity in the liquid state 18. Electrical conductivity when dissolved in water

Low Low Hard Flexible Good Good Good

High
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

High Soft Brittle Poor Poor Poor

For each statement below, write true or false.


19. The crystal lattice of ionic compounds affects their melting and boiling

points.
20. The lattice energy is the energy required to separate the ions of an ionic

compound.
21. The energy of an ionic compound is higher than that of the separate

elements that formed it.


22. Large ions tend to produce a more negative value for lattice energy than

smaller ions do.


23. Ions that have larger charges tend to produce a more negative lattice

energy than ions with smaller charges do.


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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7 Study Guide

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STUDY GUIDE

Section 7.3

Names and Formulas for Ionic Compounds

In your textbook, read about communicating what is in a compound and naming ions and ionic compounds.

Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
anion lower right oxyanion -ate monatomic polyatomic cation one subscript electrons oxidation number zero -ite

A one-atom ion is called a(n) (1) equal to the atoms (2)

ion. The charge of such an ion is , which is the number of (3)

transferred to or from the atom to form the ion. In ionic compounds, the sum of the charges of all the ions equals (4)
(5)

. Ions made up of more than one atom are called ions. If such an ion is negatively charged and includes one or more . If two such ions can be formed that

oxygen atoms, it is called a(n) (6)

contain different numbers of oxygen atoms, the name for the ion with more oxygen atoms ends with the suffix (7) ends with (8)
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

. The name for the ion with fewer oxygen atoms .

In the chemical formula for any ionic compound, the chemical symbol for the
(9) (10)

is written first, followed by the chemical symbol for the . A(n) (11) is a small number used to

represent the number of ions of a given element in a chemical formula. Such numbers are written to the (12) of the symbol for the element. If no number .

appears, the assumption is that the number equals (13)

For each formula in Column A, write the letter of the matching name in Column B. Column A
14. ClO2 15. ClO4 16. ClO 17. Cl 18. ClO3

Column B
a. chlorate b. hypochlorite c. chloride d. perchlorate e. chlorite

Study Guide

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Section 7.3 continued For each of the following chemical formulas, write the correct name of the ionic compound represented. You may refer to the periodic table on pages 156157 and Table 8.7 for help.
19. NaI 20. CaCl2 21. K2S 22. MgO 23. LiHSO4 24. NH4Br 25. Ca3N2 26. Cs3P 27. KBrO3 28. Mg(ClO)2 29. Li2O2 30. Be3(PO4)2 31. (NH4)2CO3 32. NaBrO3 33. Fe2O3 34. Fe(IO3)2
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

For each of the following ionic compounds, write the correct formula for the compound. You may refer to the periodic table on pages 156157 and Table 8.7 for help.
35. beryllium nitride 36. nickel(II) chloride 37. potassium chlorite 38. copper(I) oxide 39. magnesium sulfite 40. ammonium sulfide 41. calcium iodate 42. iron(III) perchlorate 43. sodium nitride

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

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CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 7.4

Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals

In your textbook, read about metallic bonds.

Use the diagram of metallic bonding to answer the following questions.


1. What is the name of the model of metallic bonding that is illustrated?

2. Why are the electrons in a metallic solid described as delocalized?

3. Which electrons from the metal make up the delocalized electrons?

4. Are the metal atoms that are shown cations or anions? How can you tell?

5. How do the metallic ions differ from the ions that exist in ionic solids?

6. Explain what holds the metal atoms together in the solid.


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

In your textbook, read about the properties of metals.

For each property, write yes if the property is characteristic of most metals, or no if it is not. If the property is a characteristic of metals, explain how metallic bonding accounts for the property.
7. Malleable

8. Brittle 9. Lustrous 10. High melting point 11. Low boiling point 12. Ductile

13. Poor conduction of heat 14. Good conduction of electricity


Study Guide Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

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CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Ionic Compounds and Metals


Reviewing Vocabulary
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B. Column A
1. Electrons that are free to move in metals 2. For a monatomic ion, is equal to the charge 3. The force that holds two atoms together 4. A charged particle containing more than one atom 5. A positively charged ion 6. A negatively charged ion 7. An ionic compound whose aqueous solution conducts

Column B
a. alloy b. anion c. cation d. chemical bond e. delocalized electrons f.

electrolyte

g. electron sea model h. formula unit i. j.

electricity
8. The name for most ionic compounds other than oxides 9. Represents the way electrons exist in metals 10. A charged particle containing only one atom 11. The energy needed to separate the ions of an ionic

interstitial alloy ionic bond


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

k. lattice energy l.

compound
12. The electrostatic force that holds oppositely charged

metallic bond

m. monatomic ion n. oxidation number o. oxyanion p. polyatomic ion q. salts

particles together
13. A mixture of elements that has metallic properties 14. A mixture formed when small atoms fill holes in a

metallic crystal
15. A polyatomic ion composed of an element bonded to at

least one oxygen atom


16. Shows the simplest ratio of ions in an ionic compound 17. The attraction of a metallic cation for delocalized

electrons

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

Chapter Assessment

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)


In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the italicized term to make it true.
1. The overall charge of a formula unit for a compound is never zero. 2. In a crystal lattice, each positive ion is surrounded by negative ions. 3. Delocalized valence electrons are typical of ionic compounds. 4. A sulfate ion contains fewer oxygen atoms than a sulfite ion does. 5. Metals tend to be malleable and ductile and to have relatively high

melting points.
6. The more negative the lattice energy is, the stronger is the force of

attraction between the ions of an ionic compound.


7. In naming ionic compounds, the cation is named first. 8. When a metal reacts with a nonmetal, the metal tends to gain electrons. 9. In naming a monatomic anion, the suffix -ide is used. 10. The prefix per- is used in naming the anion with the most oxygen atoms.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Circle the letter of the word or phrase that best completes the statement or answers the question.
11. What is the electron configuration for the noble gases other than helium? a. ns2np6 b. ns2 c. ns2np3 d. ns2np2

12. How many outermost d electrons are there in an ion that has achieved a pseudo-noble gas

configuration?
a. none b. five c. eight d. ten

13. The anion that has the formula ClO is called the a. chloride ion. b. chlorate ion. c. hypochlorite ion. d. perchlorate ion.

14. Where does a subscript that indicates the number of atoms appear, relative to a chemical

symbol in a formula?
a. to the upper left b. to the lower left c. to the upper right d. to the lower right 15. What is the formula of calcium phosphate, which is made up of the ions Ca2 and PO43 ? a. Ca3PO4 b. Ca6PO4 c. Ca3(PO4)2 d. Ca2(PO4)3

16. Which of the following is an example of an interstitial alloy? a. brass b. 14-carat gold c. carbon steel d. sterling silver

Chapter Assessment

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

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CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)


The diagram on the right represents a lithium atom (group 1 of the periodic table) and a fluorine atom (group 17). Use the diagram to answer the questions that follow.

3 electrons

9 electrons

Li

3 protons

9 protons

1. What is the electron configuration of the neutral lithium atom? 2. What is the electron configuration of the neutral fluorine atom? 3. What happens to the lithium atom when it reacts with the fluorine atom? What is the

electron configuration of the lithium after the change?

4. In terms of the electron arrangement, why is this change favorable for the lithium atom?

5. What happens to the fluorine atom when it reacts with the lithium atom? What is the

electron configuration of the fluorine after the change?

6. In terms of the electron arrangement, why is this change favorable for the fluorine atom?

7. What kind of compound is formed in the reaction? 8. What always happens to one or more electrons during a reaction that forms such a compound?

9. What are the formula and name of the product in this reaction? 10. What holds the atoms together in the compound?

11. What is the name for the overall three-dimensional solid structure that samples of such

compounds form? How are the particles generally arranged in such a structure?

12. How do the physical properties of such compounds differ from those typical of metals?

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

Chapter Assessment

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Thinking Critically
Lattice energy (kJ/mol)

Answer the following questions, which refer to the graph on the right. The graph shows the lattice energies of the halide compounds of the group 1 metals sodium (atomic number 11) and potassium (atomic number 19).
1. How does lattice energy relate to the attraction

1000 900 800 700 600 F Cl Halides Br I


Increasing atomic number and size
diu m Po tas siu m So

between ions and the stability of an ionic compound?

2. What is the relationship between the lattice energy of the halides of sodium and the atomic

number and size of the halides? What is the relationship for the halides of potassium?

3. How does the plot of lattice energy for the potassium halides compare with that for the

sodium halides? What does this suggest about lattice energy and ionic size?
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Given what you know about lattice energy and the stability of a crystal, how would you

expect the melting point of NaBr to compare with that of NaI? How would you expect the melting point of NaBr to compare with that of KBr? Explain your answer.

5. What effect on lattice energy would you expect the amount of charge on an ion to have?

Explain.

Chapter Assessment

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CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Applying Scientific Methods


Four students (A, B, C, and D) are given separate solid samples of the same unknown pure substance. They are asked to determine whether the substance is a metallic element, a nonmetallic element, or an ionic compound. In order to find out, they independently carry out experiments to determine some of the properties of the substance. Student A observes the substance to determine its luster. Student B tests the solids ability to conduct electricity. Student C determines whether the solid is malleable and ductile. Student D determines its melting point and tests the melted liquids ability to conduct electricity. The students do not communicate their separate findings to one another. The results of their experiments are shown in the table below. Use the information to answer the questions that follow.
Student A B C D D Luster Ability of solid to conduct electricity Malleability and ductility Melting point Ability of melted liquid to conduct electricity Property Studied Nonlustrous Nonconducting Nonmalleable and nonductile (brittle) Approximately 800C Good Result

1. On the basis of his results, Student A concludes that the solid is a nonmetallic element

rather than a metallic element or an ionic compound. Comment on the soundness of his conclusion, given only what he has determined about luster.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. On the basis of her results, Student B also concludes that the unknown is a nonmetallic

element. Evaluate her conclusion.

3. On the basis of his results, Student C concludes that the unknown is a metallic element.

Evaluate his conclusion.

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

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CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Applying Scientific Methods, continued


4. On the basis of her results, Student D states that she cannot conclude anything about

whether the unknown is a metallic element, nonmetallic element, or ionic solid. Evaluate her comment.

5. Suppose that Student B and Student C shared their results with each another. Should they

then be able to come to a definite conclusion as to the nature of the unknown? Explain.

6. Suppose that Student B and Student D shared their results with each other. Should they

then be able to come to a definite conclusion as to the nature of the unknown? Explain.

7. Would a test of a water solution of the unknown might also have been useful in deterCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

mining the nature of the unknown? Explain.

8. What do the individual students problems in coming to definite conclusions illustrate

about scientific methods?

Chapter Assessment

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CHAPTER 7

Assessment
Multiple Choice

Student Recording Sheet

Standardized Test Practice


Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
1. 2. 3. Short Answer 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Answer each question with complete sentences.


10. 11. 12. Extended Response

Answer each question with complete sentences.


13.

SAT Subject Test: Chemistry 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

14.

Table of Contents

Reproducible Pages

Chapter 8 Covalent Bonding


MiniLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 ChemLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Teaching Transparency Masters and Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Math Skills Transparency Masters and Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

96

Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Chapter Assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 STP Recording Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

85

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mini LAB 8

Compare Melting Points


How can you determine the relationship between bond type and melting point? The properties of a compound depend on whether the bonds in the compound
are ionic or covalent.

Materials permanent marker, disposable 9-inch aluminum pie pan, hot plate, sugar
crystals, salt crystals, paraffin

Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Create a data table for the experiment. 3. Using a permanent marker, draw three lines on the inside bottom of a disposable, 9inch aluminum pie pan to create three, equal wedges. Label the wedges, A, B, and C. 4. Set the pie pan on a hot plate. WARNING: Hot plate and metal pie pan will burn skinhandle with care. 5. Obtain samples of the following from your teacher and deposit them onto the labeled wedges as follows: sugar crystals (C12H22O11), A; salt crystals (NaCl) B; paraffin (C23H48), C. 6. Predict the order in which the compounds will melt. 7. Turn the temperature knob on the hot plate to the highest setting. You will heat the compounds for 5 min. Assign someone to time the heating of the compounds. 8. Observe the compounds during the 5-min period. Record which compounds melt and the order in which they melt. 9. After 5 min, turn off the hot plate and remove the pie pan using a hot mitt or tongs. 10. Allow the pie pan to cool, and then place it in the proper waste container.

Analysis
1. State Which solid melted first? Which solid did not melt?

2. Apply Based on your observations and data, describe the melting point of each solid as low, medium, high, or very high.

3. Infer Which compounds are bonded with ionic bonds? Which are bonded with covalent bonds?

4. Summarize how the type of bonding affects the melting points of compounds.

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

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Name

Date

Class

CHEMLAB

Model Molecular Shapes

ovalent bonding occurs when atoms share valence electrons. In the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory, the way in which valence electrons of bonding atoms are positioned, is the basis for predicting a molecules shape. This method of visualizing shape is also based on the molecules Lewis structure.

Problem
How do the Lewis structure and the positions of valence electrons affect the shape of the covalent compound?

Objectives
Predict the shape of molecular compounds Construct molecular models Evaluate the strength of covalent bonds Identify resonance structures Distinguish polar and nonpolar molecules

Materials
molecular-model kit

Pre-Lab
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Read the entire CHEMLAB. 2. Review the VSEPR model. What do the initials VSEPR stand for? What is the basis for the predictions of molecular shape made by the VSEPR model?
1.

do you need to determine whether or not a molecule is polar?

4.

What is a resonance structure? If a molecule has resonance structures, what can you infer about the types of bonds in that molecule?

3.

How do you determine whether or not a bond is a polar covalent bond? What additional information

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

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CHEMLAB
Procedure
1. 2. 3.

8
Obtain two nitrogen atoms and three connectors and assemble a nitrogen (N2) molecule. Observe that your model represents a triple-bonded diatomic nitrogen molecule. 8. Recognize that these diatomic molecules are linear in shape because they have only two atoms. 9. Draw the Lewis structure of water (H2O) and construct its molecule. 10.Classify the shape of the H2O molecule using information in Table 8.6. 11. Repeat steps 9 and 10 for PH3, CF4, CO2, SO3, HCN, and CO molecules.
7.

4. 5. 6.

Read and complete the lab safety form. Create a table to record your data. Note the color used to represent each of these atoms in the molecular modele kit: H, O, P, C, F, S, and N. Draw the Lewis structures of the H2, O2, and N2 molecules. Obtain two hydrogen atoms and one connector and assemble a hydrogen (H2) molecule. Obtain two oxygen atoms and two connectors and assemble an oxygen (O2) molecule. Observe that your model represents a double-bonded diatomic oxygen molecule.

Analyze and Conclude


1.

Think Critically Based on the molecular models you built and observed in this lab, rank single, double, and triple bonds in order of increasing flexibility and increasing strength.

2.

Observe and Infer Explain why H2O and CO2 molecules have different shapes.

3.

Analyze and Conclude One of the molecules from this lab undergoes resonance. Identify the molecule that has three resonance structures, draw the structures, and explain why resonance occurs.

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

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Name

Date

Class

CHEMLAB
4.

Recognize Cause and Effect Use the electronegativity difference to determine the polarity of the molecules in Steps 9-11. Based on their calculated bond polarities and the models constructed in this lab, determine the molecular polarity of each structure.

Inquiry Extension
Model Use a molecular model kit to build the two resonance structures of ozone (O3). Then, use Lewis structures to explain how you can convert between the two resonance structures by interchanging a lone pair for a covalent bond.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

89

90

Name

Lewis Structures

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

Formula

Step 1

Step Step 2 3

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

N2H4

H N N H 14 HH

Unnecessary (octets H N N H H N N H complete) H H H H

Date

SiO2

O Si O

O Si O
Class

26

Use with Chapter 8, Section 8.3

Teaching Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

26
Use with Chapter 8, Section 8.3

Lewis Structures

1. Step 1 in drawing the Lewis structure for a molecule is to decide which atoms of the

molecule are most likely the terminal ones. In the transparency, why are the hydrogen (H) atoms in hydrazine (N2H4) shown as the terminal atoms?

2. Step 2 in drawing a Lewis structure involves determining the total number of valence

electrons in the atoms in the molecule. Explain why the total number of valence electrons in N2H4 is 14.

3. Step 3 in drawing a Lewis structure requires finding the number of bonding pairs. What

must be done to the result of step 2 to find the number of bonding pairs? Verify that this is so in the case of N2H4 in the transparency.

4. In step 4 in the transparency, one bonding pair has been placed between each pair of

bonded atoms in N2H4. How many such bonding pairs are shown in step 4, and what symbol is used to represent them?
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. Step 5 requires subtraction of the number of bonding pairs used in step 4 from the

number of bonding pairs determined in step 3. Verify that the result is 2 for N2H4. Lone pairs are then placed around each terminal atom to achieve a full outer level, and any remaining pairs are assigned to the central atom(s). Explain the drawing that has resulted for N2H4.

6. In step 6, if any central atom drawn in step 5 does not have an octet, lone pairs from the

terminal atoms must be converted to double or triple bonds involving the central atom. Why was this extra step unnecessary in the case of N2H4?

7. What number should be placed in the blank for step 2 for the silicon dioxide (SiO2) molecule?

8. What number should be placed in the blank for step 3 for SiO2?

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

91

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

27
Use with Chapter 8, Section 8.4

VSEPR Model and Molecular Shape


F H H F O H H O H H H N H H

H B

92

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

Teaching Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

N H H

H H C H H

H C H H H

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

27
Use with Chapter 8, Section 8.4

VSEPR Model and Molecular Shape


1. The shapes of the molecules shown have been determined by means of the VSEPR

model. What is the basic assumption of this model?

2. How many lone pairs and how many shared pairs of electrons surround the boron (B)

atom in the borane (BH3) molecule shown?

3. What is the shape of the BH3 molecule? Explain why.

4. How many lone pairs and how many shared pairs of electrons surround the carbon (C)

atom in the methane (CH4) molecule shown? What is the shape of the molecule?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. How many lone pairs and how many shared pairs of electrons surround the nitrogen (N)

atom in the ammonia (NH3) molecule shown? What is the shape of the molecule?

6. How many lone pairs and how many shared pairs of electrons surround the oxygen (O)

atom in the water (H2O) molecule shown? What is the shape of the molecule?

7. How many lone pairs and how many shared pairs of electrons surround the fluorine (F)

atom in the hydrogen fluoride (HF) molecule shown? What is the shape of the molecule?

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

93

94

Name

Electronegativities
Group Group Group Group Group 3 4 5 6 7

Group Group 1 2

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

Electronegativity and Polarity

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

Li Period 0.98 2 Be 1.57 F 3.98 Cl 3.16 Br 2.96 I 2.66 At 2.2 B 2.04 C 2.55 N 3.04 O 3.44

Date Class

28

Use with Chapter 8, Section 8.5

Teaching Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

28
Use with Chapter 8, Section 8.5

Electronegativity and Polarity


1. What is electronegativity?

2. The electronegativities of the elements of period 2 and of group 17 of the periodic table are

shown. What trends in electronegativity do you see across the period? Down the group?

3. When there is an electronegativity difference between two covalently bonded atoms,

what is true of the bond between them? Toward which of the atoms are the shared electrons more attracted?

4. What kind of bond exists between a carbon (C) atom and a chlorine (Cl) atom? (Assume

that a bond is nonpolar covalent if the electronegativity difference is 0, polar covalent if the difference is greater than 0 but not more than 1.70, and ionic if the difference is more than 1.70.)

5. Given your answer to question 4 and your knowledge of molecular shapes, is a carbon

tetrachloride (CCl4) molecule polar or nonpolar? Explain.


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. What kind of bond exists between a nitrogen (N) atom and a fluorine (F) atom? Is a

nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) molecule polar or nonpolar? Explain.

7. What kind of bond exists between a beryllium (Be) atom and a bromine (Br) atom? Is a

beryllium bromide (BeBr2) molecule polar or nonpolar? Explain.

8. What kind of bond exists between a beryllium (Be) atom and a fluorine (F) atom?

9. What kind of bond exists between a boron (B) atom and an iodine (I) atom? Is a boron

triiodide (BI3) molecule polar or nonpolar? Explain.

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

95

96

Name

Number of Atoms Prefix Prefix hexaheptaoctanonadecamonoditritetrapenta6 7 8 9 10


(never for first element in the formula)

Determining the Names of Binary Compounds and Their Numbers of Atoms

MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY MASTER

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

Number of Atoms

1 2 3 4 5

N N F O F Si C S F F O N

O O F F F F

Date

(a) (b)

(c)

(e)
Class

(d)

Use with Chapter 8, Section 8.2

Math Skills Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

9
Use with Chapter 8, Section 8.2

Determining the Names of Binary Compounds and Their Numbers of Atoms

1. The table shows the prefixes used in naming binary compounds. Notice that each prefix

corresponds to a certain number of atoms. These prefixes are also used in naming many geometric figures with which you probably are familiar. For example, a triangle has three sides. The prefix tri- signifies three. How many sides does a pentagon have? A hexagon? An octagon?

2. Look at the drawings of molecules (labeled ae) below the table. For each molecule, tell

how many atoms of each kind are present. Then write the name of the compound, using the prefixes in the table. In each case, the central atom is named first.
a. b. c. d. e.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. For each compound listed below, tell how many of each kind of atom are present in a

molecule of the compound and the total number of atoms per molecule. Then name the compound.
a. P4O10

b. S2O7

c. Si3H8

4. What is the formula for each compound listed below? a. tetrasulfur dinitride b. dichlorine monoxide

Math Skills Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

97

Percent ionic character

98

Name

Period 3 Element 0.93 1.31 1.61 1.90 2.19 2.58 3.16

Na

Mg

Al

Si

Cl

Electronegativity

MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY MASTER

Determining Electronegativity Difference and Percent Ionic Character

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

100

75

Ionic Polar covalent

50

Date

25

Covalent
1.0 2.0 3.0

0
Class

Electronegativity difference

10

Use with Chapter 8, Section 8.5

Math Skills Transparency Masters

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Name

Date

Class

MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

10
Use with Chapter 8, Section 8.5

Determining Electronegativity Difference and Percent Ionic Character


the electronegativity differences for the following pairs of bonded period-3 atoms.
a. Na and Cl b. Mg and S c. Al and P d. Si and Cl e. Si and S

1. The electronegativities of the period-3 elements are listed on the transparency. Calculate

2. An electronegativity difference greater than 1.70 generally corresponds to a bond that is

considered ionic. For which of the bonded-atoms combinations from question 1 would the bonds be considered ionic according to this rule?

3. Bonds are rarely completely covalent or completely ionic. Rather, they have a percent

ionic character. The graph illustrates that fact. What two variables are plotted on the graph, and what is the overall relationship between the variables?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Use the graph to find the approximate percent ionic character for the five pairs of bonded

atoms listed in question 1.


a. Na and Cl b. Mg and S c. Al and P 5. Given what you know about percentages in general, what must be the relationship d. Si and Cl e. Si and S

between the percent ionic character and the percent covalent character for a given bond?

6. Calculate the percent covalent character for the five pairs of bonded atoms listed in

question 1.
a. Na and Cl b. Mg and S c. Al and P d. Si and Cl e. Si and S

Math Skills Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

99

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Covalent Bonding
Section 8.1

The Covalent Bond

In your textbook, read about the nature of covalent bonds.

Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
covalent bond molecule sigma bond exothermic pi bond

When sharing of electrons occurs, the attachment between atoms that results is called a(n) (1) energy is released, and the process is (2) . When such an attachment is formed, bond dissociation . When two or more

atoms bond by means of electron sharing, the resulting particle is called a(n)
(3)

. If the electrons shared are centered between the two atoms, the . If the sharing involves the overlap of .

attachment is called a(n) (4) parallel orbitals, the attachment is called a(n) (5)

In your textbook, read about single and multiple bonds and bond strength.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
6. In what form do elements such as hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen normally occur? a. as single atoms b. as molecules containing two atoms c. as molecules containing three atoms d. as molecules containing four atoms

7. How many electrons are shared in a double covalent bond? a. none b. one c. two d. four

8. Bond length is the distance between a. two molecules of the same substance. b. the electrons in two attached atoms. c. the nuclei of two attached atoms. d. the orbitals of two attached atoms.

9. Which of the following relationships relating to bond length is generally correct? a. the shorter the bond, the stronger the bond b. the shorter the bond, the weaker the bond c. the shorter the bond, the fewer the electrons in it d. the shorter the bond, the lower the bond dissociation energy

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

Study Guide

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 8.2

Naming Molecules

In your textbook, read about how binary compounds and acids are named from their formulas.

For each statement below, write true or false.


1. Binary molecular compounds are generally composed of a metal and a

nonmetal.
2. The second element in the formula of a binary compound is named using

the suffix -ite.


3. The prefix tetra- indicates three atoms. 4. The prefix hexa- indicates six atoms. 5. In naming the first element in a formula, the prefix mono- is not used. 6. For binary acids, the hydrogen part of the compound is named using the

prefix hydro-.
7. An oxyacid contains only two elements. 8. If the name of the anion of an oxyacid ends in -ate, the acid name

contains the suffix -ous.


In your textbook, read about naming molecular compounds and oxyacids.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B. Column A
9. CO 10. CO2 11. H2CO3 12. NH3 13. N2O4 14. HNO2 15. HNO3 16. HBr 17. HBrO3

Column B
a. hydrobromic acid b. dinitrogen tetroxide c. carbon monoxide d. nitrous acid e. ammonia f.

nitric acid

g. carbonic acid h. bromic acid i.

carbon dioxide

Study Guide

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

101

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 8.3

Molecular Structures

In your textbook, read about Lewis structures.

For each statement below, write true or false.


1. A structural formula shows the arrangement of the atoms in a molecule. 2. The central atom in a molecule is the one with the highest electron

affinity.
3. In molecules, hydrogen is always a terminal atom. 4. The number of bonding pairs in a molecule is equal to the number of

electrons.
5. To find the total number of electrons available for bonding in a positive

ion, you should add the ion charge to the total number of valence electrons of the atoms present.
6. The electrons in a coordinate covalent bond are donated by both the

bonded atoms.
7. Resonance occurs when more than one valid Lewis structure can be

written for a molecule.


8. Nitrate is an example of an ion that forms resonance structures.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

9. The carbon dioxide molecule contains two double bonds. 10. All electrons in an atom are available for bonding. 11. In the sulfate ion (SO42 ), 32 electrons are available for bonding. 12. When carbon and oxygen bond, the molecule contains ten pairs of

bonding electrons.
In your textbook, read about resonance structures and exceptions to the octet rule.

For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B. Column A
13. Odd number of valence electrons 14. Fewer than 8 electrons around an atom 15. More than 8 electrons around central atom 16. More than one valid Lewis structure

Column B
a. O3 b. BF3 c. NO d. SF6

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Study Guide

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 8.4

Molecular Shape

In your textbook, read about the VSEPR model.

Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
1. The VSEPR model is used mainly to a. determine molecular shape. b. write resonance structures. 2. The bond angle is the angle between a. the sigma and pi bonds in a double bond. b. the nucleus and the bonding electrons. 3. The VSEPR model is based on the idea that a. there is always an octet of electrons around an atom in a molecule. b. electrons are attracted to the nucleus. c. molecules repel one another. d. shared and unshared electron pairs repel each other as much as possible. 4. The shape of a molecule whose central atom has four pairs of bonding electrons is a. tetrahedral. b. trigonal planar. c. trigonal pyramidal. d. linear. c. two terminal atoms and the central atom. d. the orbitals of a bonding atom. c. determine ionic charge. d. measure intermolecular distances.

5. The shape of a molecule that has two covalent single bonds and no lone pairs on the
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

central atom is
a. tetrahedral. b. trigonal planar. c. trigonal pyramidal. d. linear.

6. The shape of a molecule that has three single covalent bonds and one lone pair on the

central atom is
a. tetrahedral. b. trigonal planar. c. trigonal pyramidal. d. linear.

In your textbook, read about hybridization.

Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
carbon hybridization sp3 identical methane

The formation of new orbitals from a combination or rearrangement of valence electrons is called (7)
(8)

. The orbitals that are produced in this way are to one another. An example of an element that commonly . When this atom combines its three

undergoes such formation is (9)

p orbitals and its one s orbital, the orbitals that result are called (10) orbitals. An example of a molecule that has this type of orbital is (11) .

Study Guide

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

103

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 8.5

Electronegativity and Polarity

In your textbook, read about electronegativity.

Use the table of electronegativities below to answer the following questions.


1 H 2.20 3 Li 0.98 11 Na 0.93 19 K 0.82 37 Rb 0.82 55 Cs 0.79 87 Fr 0.7

Electronegativities of Some Elements


4 Be 1.57 12 Mg 1.31 20 Ca 1.00 38 Sr 0.95 56 Ba 0.89 88 Ra 0.9

Metal Metalloid Nonmetal


21 Sc 1.36 39 Y 1.22 57 La 1.10 89 Ac 1.1 22 Ti 1.54 40 Zr 1.33 72 Hf 1.3 23 V 1.63 41 Nb 1.6 73 Ta 1.5 24 Cr 1.66 42 Mo 2.16 74 W 1.7 25 Mn 1.55 43 Tc 2.10 75 Re 1.9 26 Fe 1.83 44 Ru 2.2 76 Os 2.2 27 Co 1.88 45 Rh 2.28 77 Ir 2.2 28 Ni 1.91 46 Pd 2.20 78 Pt 2.2 29 Cu 1.90 47 Ag 1.93 79 Au 2.4 30 Zn 1.65 48 Cd 1.69 80 Hg 1.9

5 B 2.04 13 Al 1.61 31 Ga 1.81 49 In 1.78 81 Tl 1.8

6 C 2.55 14 Si 1.90 32 Ge 2.01 50 Sn 1.96 82 Pb 1.8

7 N 3.04 15 P 2.19 33 As 2.18 51 Sb 2.05 83 Bi 1.9

8 O 3.44 16 S 2.58 34 Se 2.55 52 Te 2.1 84 Po 2.0

9 F 3.98 17 Cl 3.16 35 Br 2.96 53 I 2.66 85 At 2.2

1. What is the meaning of the term electronegativity?

name and group number of the chemical family that has the highest overall electronegativities?

3. Which element has the lowest electronegativity? What is the numerical value? What are the

name and group number of the chemical family that has the lowest overall electronegativities?

4. What general trend in electronegativity do you note going down a group? Across a period?

5. How are the electronegativity values used to determine the type of bond that exists

between two atoms?

In your textbook, read about the properties of covalent compounds.

For each statement below, write true or false.


6. Ionic compounds are usually soluble in polar substances. 7. In a covalent molecular compound, the attraction between molecules tends

to be strong.
104
Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8 Study Guide

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2. Which element has the highest electronegativity? What is the numerical value? What are the

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

8
continued

STUDY GUIDE

Section 8.5

In your textbook, read about bond polarity.

Using the table of electronegativities on the preceding page, circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
8. Unequal sharing of electrons between two bonded atoms always indicates a. a nonpolar covalent bond. b. an ionic bond. c. a polar covalent bond. d. a polar molecule.

9. When electronegativities of two bonded atoms differ greatly, the bond is a. polar covalent. b. coordinate covalent. c. polar covalent. d. ionic.

10. What is the electronegativity difference that usually is the dividing line between covalent

and ionic bonds?


a. 1.0 11. The symbol b. 1.7 c. 2.7 d. 4.0

is placed next to which of the following?


c. a positive ion d. the nucleus

a. the less electronegative atom in a polar covalent bond b. the more electronegative atom in a polar covalent bond 12. A nonpolar covalent bond is one in which a. electrons are transferred. b. electrons are shared unequally.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

c. electrons are shared equally. d. both electrons are provided by the same atom.

13. Molecules containing only polar covalent bonds a. are always polar. b. may or may not be polar. c. are always ionic. d. are always nonpolar.

14. What factor other than electronegativity determines whether a molecule as a whole is

polar or not?
a. temperature b. its geometry c. its physical state d. its mass

15. Which of the following correctly describes the compound water, H2O? a. ionic c. polar overall, with nonpolar covalent bonds b. nonpolar overall, with polar covalent bonds d. polar overall, with polar covalent bonds

16. Which of the following correctly describes the compound carbon tetrachloride, CCl4? a. ionic c. polar overall, with nonpolar covalent bonds b. nonpolar overall, with polar covalent bonds 17. A molecule of ammonia, NH3, is a. nonpolar because it is linear. b. polar because it is linear. c. nonpolar because there is no electronegativity difference. d. polar because there is an electronegativity difference and the molecule is trigonal pyramidal.
Study Guide Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

d. polar overall, with polar covalent bonds

105

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Covalent Bonding
Reviewing Vocabulary
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B. Column A
1. The tendency of an atom in a compound to attract

Column B
a. structural formula b. molecule c. VSEPR model d. coordinate covalent bond e. hybridization f.

electrons
2. A kind of bond in which there is unequal sharing of

electrons
3. Any bond in which there is electron sharing 4. The particle formed when two or more atoms bond

covalently
5. Reactions that occur when more energy is released

oxyacid

forming new bonds than is required to break bonds in the initial reactants
6. A kind of bond in which electrons are shared in an area

g. electronegativity h. sigma bond i. j.

polar covalent pi bond


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

centered between the two atoms


7. A kind of bond formed by overlap of parallel orbitals 8. Any acidic compound that contains oxygen 9. A model that shows how the atoms are arranged in a

k. covalent bond l.

resonance

molecule
10. Reactions that occur when more energy is required to

m. endothermic n. exothermic

break existing bonds in reactants than is released when new bonds form in the product molecules
11. A condition that occurs when more than one valid Lewis

structure can be drawn for a molecule


12. A kind of bond in which one of the atoms provides both

electrons for sharing


13. A model used to determine molecular shape 14. The combining of orbitals in an atom to form new,

identical orbitals

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

Chapter Assessment

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Understanding Main Ideas

(Part A)

Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. In the formation of a covalent bond, electrons are a. shared. b. lost. c. gained. d. transferred.

2. Which of the following elements normally exists in the form of diatomic molecules? a. helium b. argon c. iron d. nitrogen

3. Four electrons are shared in a a. single covalent bond. b. double covalent bond. c. triple covalent bond. d. quadruple covalent bond.

4. Which of the following molecules contains only sigma bonds? a. methane b. oxygen c. carbon dioxide d. nitrogen

5. Which of the following molecules contains a triple bond? a. methane b. oxygen c. carbon dioxide d. nitrogen

6. How many pi bonds are there in a triple bond? a. none b. one c. two d. three

7. Which of the following molecules would be expected to have the greatest bond

dissociation energy?
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

a. F2

b. O2

c. N2

d. Cl2

In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the italicized term to make it true.
8. In a chemical name, the prefix used to indicate the presence of

two atoms of a given kind is bi-.


9. The prefix hydro- is used in naming binary acids. 10. The oxyacid suffix for an acid that contains an anion ending

in -ate is -ic.
11. In Lewis structures, hydrogen is always a terminal atom. 12. In the carbon dioxide molecule, the central atom is a carbon atom. 13. In the compound BH3, the boron atom has more than an octet of

electrons.

14. The VSEPR model is based on the idea that in a molecule, nuclei

repel each other as much as possible.

Chapter Assessment

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

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Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Understanding Main Ideas

(Part B)

The diagram below represents different hybridizations of the orbitals of three carbon atoms, labeled X, Y, and Z. Use the diagram to answer the questions that follow.
X sp3 hybrid C sp3 hybrid sp3 hybrid sp2 hybrid C Y p orbital (above and below) sp2 hybrid p orbital (above and below) sp hybrid C Z p orbital (above and below) sp hybrid

sp3 hybrid

sp2 hybrid

1. Write the electron configuration of an unbonded carbon atom (atomic number 6) before

hybridization occurs.

2. Look at carbon atom X in the diagram. What is the symbol for the hybrid orbitals formed

by carbon atom X? How many of them are there in that atom?

3. Does carbon atom X have any unhybridized orbitals? If so, tell how many and write the
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

symbol for them.

4. To how many other atoms would carbon atom X be attached? What types of bonds

single, double, or triplewould they be? State whether each attachment would involve sigma bonds, pi bonds, or both.

5. What would be the shape of the molecule formed by carbon atom X when it bonds in

that way?

6. Suppose that the attachments in that molecule are to atoms of the same kind with an

electronegativity greater than that of carbon. Would each bond be polar or nonpolar? Would the molecule as a whole be polar or nonpolar? Explain.

7. Look at carbon atom Y in the diagram. What is the symbol for the hybrid orbitals formed

by carbon atom Y? How many of them are there in that atom?

108

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

Chapter Assessment

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Thinking Critically
The graph shows the electronegativities of the elements of periods 2 and 3 of the periodic table, except for the noble gases. Use the graph to answer the following questions.
4.0 3.5 O Period 2 C B Be Li Na Mg Al Si Period 3 P S N Cl F

Electronegativity

3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 1 2 13

14 Group number

15

16

17

1. If two atoms of differing electronegativity are bonded covalently to each other, what is

true of the electrons they share? What type of bond results in such a case?

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2. How does the electronegativity of boron (B) compare with that of nitrogen (N)? In terms

of the periodic table, how are these two elements related? Compare aluminum (Al) with phosphorus (P) in the same way.

3. Describe the trend in electronegativity illustrated for period-2 and period-3 elements.

4. How does the electronegativity of boron (B) compare with that of aluminum (Al)? In

terms of the periodic table, how are these two elements related? Compare nitrogen (N) with phosphorus (P) in the same way.

5. Describe the trend in electronegativity within a group of the periodic table, as suggested

by the graph.

Chapter Assessment

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109

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Applying Scientific Methods


A college chemistry student is studying the properties of four unknown compounds, W, X, Y, and Z. She has been informed that one of them is ionic and that the other three are covalent. Of the latter, she has been told that the attractions between the formula units are dispersion forces in one case, hydrogen bonds in another, and covalent (network) bonds in another. She has been asked to determine the type of attractions for each substance. In an attempt to do so, she carries out experiments that reveal information about the substances properties. Use this information to answer the questions that follow.
Property Hardness of solid Melting point (C) Boiling point (C) Solubility in polar solvent Solubility in nonpolar solvent Conductivity of solid Conductivity of liquid Unknown W soft 10 120 very soluble insoluble nonconducting nonconducting Unknown X soft 200 150 insoluble very soluble nonconducting nonconducting Unknown Y brittle 1500 2500 very soluble insoluble nonconducting conducting Unknown Z brittle 3000 4500 insoluble insoluble nonconducting nonconducting

1. On the basis of the results of her hardness test, the student concludes that unknowns W

and X are covalent substances, and that either Y or Z is the ionic substance. Comment on the soundness of her conclusion, given only the hardness information.
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2. The student examines the melting-point data, but claims that it is not useful in determining

the substances types of attractions. How would you reply to that claim?

3. On the basis of the results of the boiling-point and melting-point tests, the student

concludes that W is the hydrogen-bonded substance and that X must therefore be the substance that has the dispersion forces. Is that conclusion valid? Explain.

110

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

Chapter Assessment

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Applying Scientific Methods, continued


4. On the basis of the results of her solubility test, the student concludes that X must be

covalent. Comment, and state any further conclusions that can be derived about the other substances.

5. On the basis of her electrical conductivity test, the student states that there must be some

error because unknown Y acts like a covalent substance when solid but like an ionic substance when melted. Comment on her statement.

6. The student examines the entire set of data but is unable to come to final, definite con-

clusions about the substances types of attractions. Is it possible to do so, given the data? Explain, and state your own conclusions if any.

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7. How do the overall procedure and your reasoning illustrate scientific methods?

Chapter Assessment

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

111

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 8

Assessment
Multiple Choice

Student Recording Sheet

Standardized Test Practice


Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
1. 2. 3. Short Answer 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Answer each question with complete sentences.


11. 12. 13. Extended Response

Answer each question with complete sentences.


14.

15. 16.

17. 18.

19.

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SAT Subject Test: Chemistry

TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

CHAPTER 5
MiniLab 5 Identify Compounds
Analysis 1. The colors are due primarily to electron

other, vacant orbitals as the atom absorbs or emits energy.


2. The color of a solution is due to the color of

light it transmits. The colors not transmitted are absorbed, and these colors comprise the absorption spectrum.
3. The spectrum of each element is unique. Thus,

transitions of the metal atoms. The colors are characteristic of lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium, and strontium.
2. The colors are a composite of each elements

the presence of a unique atomic spectrum indicates the presence of that element.
4. Answers will vary. Inquiry Extension

visible spectrum.
3. Answers will vary depending on the identity of

the unknown sample.


Expected Results:
Flame Test Results
Compound lithium chloride sodium chloride potassium chloride calcium chloride strontium chloride unknown
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Answers will vary.


Expected Results:

Flame color

red yellow violet red-orange bright red


depends on compound

For each colored solution listed below, all colors are visible except as noted. Red solution: blue and green Green solution: red and orange Blue solution: yellow, orange, and some red Yellow solution: blue

Teaching Transparency 15 The Electromagnetic Spectrum


1. Radio waves are the longest waves. Gamma rays

are the shortest waves.


2. Radio waves have the lowest frequency. 3. X rays (1018 s1) have a higher frequency than

ChemLab 5 Analyze Line Spectra


Pre-Lab 2. When electrons drop from higher-energy

microwaves (1011 s1).


4. The waves in the visible portion of the

spectrum can be seen by the eye.


5. violet, blue, green, yellow, orange, red light 6. radio waves, infrared waves, green light,

orbitals to lower-energy orbitals, the atom emits energy in the form of light. Each orbital transition is associated with a characteristic spectral line.
3. A continuous spectrum contains a continuum

ultraviolet waves, gamma rays


7. Frequency and wavelength are inversely

of visible colors from red to violet. An absorption spectrum is a continuous spectrum containing black lines at wavelengths associated with the atoms energy absorptions. An emission spectrum consists of colored lines associated with the atoms energy-level transitions.
Analyze and Conclude 1. At any given time, the electron occupies a

proportional. This means that as wavelength increases, frequency decreases and as frequency increases, wavelength decreases.
8. The wavelength of a radio signal at 95.5 MHz is

about 1 m long, or 10 m.

Teaching Transparency 16 Atomic Orbitals


1. An s orbital is spherical. 2. The size of an s orbital increases with increasing

single orbital. However, it can move into

principal energy level number.

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TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

3. A p orbital is dumbbell shaped. There are three

4. 7.23

p orbitals in a given sublevel.


4. Each orbital can hold two electrons. 5. These letters refer to the three perpendicular

axes; p orbitals are situated along these three axes in space.


6. There are five d orbitals in a given sublevel.

1014 s1 Solution: First, convert 415 nm to meters: (415 nm) (1 meter/109 nm) = 4.15 107 m c = , where c = 3.00 108 m/s = c/ = (3.00 108 m/s)/(4.15 107 m) = 7.23 1014 s1 students calculations. Wave B has a higher frequency than Wave A does.

Therefore, the d orbitals in one sublevel can hold 10 electrons.


7. dxy, dxz, dyz, and dx2y2 8. The point where the x, y, and z axes intersect

5. Answers to question 3 should be supported by

6. 652 nm

represents the location of an atoms nucleus.


9. Very unlikely; the shapes of the orbitals come to

a point at the intersection of the three axes, making the possibility of an electron being located there very unlikely.

Solution: c = , where c = 3.00 108 m/s = c/ = (3.00 108 m/s)/(4.60 1014 s1) = 6.52 107 m Convert meters to nanometers: (6.52 107 m)(109 nm/1 m) = 652 nm

Teaching Transparency 17 Orbital Filling Sequence and Energy Levels


1. Each box represents an orbital. 2. Each orbital can hold two electrons. 3. A d sublevel can hold 10 electrons. 4. A 2p orbital has more energy than a 2s orbital. 5. A 3s orbital has more energy than a 2s orbital. 6. A 3d orbital has more energy than a 4s orbital,

Study Guide - Chapter 5 Quantum Theory and the Atom


Section 5.1 Light and Quantized Energy 1. energy 2. wave 3. Light 4. speed 5. wavelength 6. amplitude 7. Frequency 8. hertz 9. both A and C 10. B 11. The frequency is 2 waves/s or 2 Hz 12. c 13. b 14. c 15. b 16. false 17. true 18. true 19. true 20. false 21. false 22. true
Chemistry: Matter and Change
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thus, the 4s orbital fills first.


7. The 1s orbital has the least amount of energy. 8. All atoms have 1s orbitals. 9. 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f 10. Answers will vary. An orbital with lower energy

is generally occupied by an electron before an orbital of higher energy is.

Math Skills Transparency 5 Interpreting Waves


1. All electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of

light, c. (c = 3.00 108 m/s)


2. B has a higher frequency. A has a longer

wavelength.
3. 4.29

1014 s1 Solution: First, convert 699 nm to meters: (699 nm) (1 meter/109 nm) = 6.99 107 m c = , where c = 3.00 108 m/s = c/ = (3.00 108 m/s)/(6.99 107 m) = 4.29 1014 s1
Teacher Guide and Answers Fast Files, Chapters 5-8 Resources

114

TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Section 5.2 Quantum Theory and the Atom 1. ground state 2. frequencies 3. lower 4. higher 5. electron 6. energy levels 7. atomic emission spectrum 8. No; the wavelength is far too small to be seen or

7. spins 8. Hunds rule 9. 2 10. Nitrogen; 1s22s22p3 11. 10; 1s22s22p6 12. 32; 32 13. Noble-gas notation uses the bracketed symbol

measured even with the most sensitive scientific instrument.


9. The proton would have the larger wavelength

of the nearest preceding noble-gas atom in the periodic table in the electron configurations of an atom. Using noble-gas notation allows you to represent the complete electron configuration of an atom with many electrons in a shorthand form.
14. [Ar]4s23d104p2 15. c 16. b 17. d 18. b 19. a 20. a

because wavelength increases with decreasing mass and velocity.


10. c 11. a 12. d 13. b 14. The quantum mechanical model treats

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

electrons as waves and does not describe the electrons path around the nucleus. The Bohr model treats electrons as particles traveling in specific circular orbits.
15. do not 16. two 17. spherically shaped 18. n 19. electrons 20. three 21. 2s and 2p 22. nine Section 5.3 Electron Configurations 1. electron configuration 2. lowest 3. stable 4. ground-state electron configuration 5. Aufbau principle 6. Pauli exclusion principle

Chapter Assessment - Chapter 5


Reviewing Vocabulary 1. f 2. d 3. i 4. e 5. a 6. h 7. c 8. b 9. g 10. Frequency is the number of waves that pass a

given point per second. Amplitude is a waves height from the origin to a crest or trough.
11. Valence electrons are electrons in an atoms

outermost orbitals. An electron-dot structure represents an atoms valence electrons using dots.

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TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

12. Principal energy levels are an atoms major

3.

1s 3s

2s 3px

energy levels, ranging in value from 1 to 7. Energy sublevels are contained within principal energy levels, and their number increases as the value of the principal energy level increases.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A) 1. c 2. a 3. d 4. b 5. 1 6. 2; s, p; 4 7. s, p, d 8. s, p, d, f; 16 9.

2px 3py

2py 3pz

2pz

)( )( )( )( )( )( )

4. complete electron configuration:

1s22s22p63s23p1; noble-gas notation: [Ne]3s23p1


5. [Kr]5s24d105p5 6. a. boron

b. potassium
7. a. Ne

b. H c. C d. S 2px 2py 2pz

1s 1s2

2s 2s2 2s 2s2 2s 2s2

)( )(
10.

)
2px 2p5 2px 2p6

)
2p3 2py

)
2pz

Applying Scientific Methods 1. Students should recognize that the atomic

1s 1s2

)( )( )( )(
11.

)
2pz 3s

1s 1s2

2py 3s1

)( )( )( )( )(

emission spectra of samples A and C are identical; hence, those samples are the same element. Students should also recognize that the spectra of samples B and D are different; therefore, samples B and D are different elements. Students should conclude that the four samples represent three different elements.
2. The atomic emission spectra show

Understanding Main Ideas (Part B) 1. c 2. b 3. c 4. b 5. c 6. c Thinking Critically 1.

discontinuous parts of the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum are not visible, although they are involved.
3. The atomic emission spectrum would not

change. Like a fingerprint, the atomic emission spectrum of each element has a characteristic, specific pattern of lines.
4. Each line represents a change in energy of one

= c/ = (3.00 108 m/s)/(103.7 106 s1) = 2.892 m Students should label the electromagnetic spectrum between 101 m and 1 m. in wavelength than radio waves.

of the atoms electrons. Students may also say that each line represents a photon of a specific energy being emitted (or absorbed).
5. Students should conclude that sample B is

hydrogen because the atomic emission spectrum of sample B and that of hydrogen are identical.
6. The Bohr model explains only hydrogens

2. Microwaves are higher in frequency and shorter

atomic emission spectrum (or more correctly the spectra of atoms with only one electron);

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TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

therefore, it can be used to explain the atomic emission spectrum of sample B only.
7. A: 6; each line represents a photon

ChemLab 6 Investigate Descriptive Chemistry


Pre-Lab 3. All naturally occurring metals are solids, except

being emitted B: 4; each line represents a photon being emitted C: 6; each line represents a photon being emitted D: 2; each line represents a photon being emitted
8. By looking at the spectrum, you can see that the

for mercury, which is a liquid at room temperature. All metalloids are solids. Nonmetals are primarily gases and solids, with bromine being the only liquid.
4. Luster: shininess; malleability: capable of

emission lines get closer together as the wavelength becomes shorter. The lines getting closer together demonstrate the difference between successive energy levels.
9. Answers may vary. Dark absorption lines would

being flattened into sheets or formed into shapes; electrical conductivity: capable of transmitting an electric current; they are properties commonly associated with metals.
Analyze and Conclude 1.4. Answers will vary depending on the samples

be seen in the absorption spectra at the same wavelengths where bright emission lines are in the emission spectra. Students should realize that the spectral pattern for each element would not change because the energies would

provided to students.
5. Students might note that the metallic

characteristic increases from right-to-left, and from top-to-bottom.


Inquiry Extension

CHAPTER 6
MiniLab 6 Organize Elements
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Answers will vary.

Analysis 1. Students will have organized the known cards

Teaching Transparency 18 The Periodic Table


1. 117 2. 34
Qa Lq Ax

according to the following grid.


Xn Bp Rx Ad Tu Pd Cx

3. Pd 4. 87.62 amu 5. Their boxes contain a red balloon. 6. 18 7. group or family 8. 7 9. period 10. period 1 11. manganese 12. Their boxes are tinted blue. 13. Their boxes are tinted green.

2. The wavelength decreases across the period and

color becomes lighter down the group.


3. The mass increases across the period and down

the group. Cx does not fit the period trend for mass, but it fits in the third column with other green, brittle solids.
4. Ph would fit in the third period, first column

based on color and stated trends. The mass would be between 99 g and 106 g.
5. The remaining gap would be a yellow-colored

liquid with a mass most likely between 70 g and 82 g.

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TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

14. Their boxes are tinted yellow. 15. alkali metals 16. alkaline earth metals 17. halogens 18. noble gases 19. Their valence electron configurations are

Teaching Transparency 20 Atomic and Ionic Radii


1. groups 1 and 2 and 13 through 17; periods 1

through 6
2. picometer (pm); 1012 m 3. 31 pm and 265 pm; helium and cesium,

identical.

respectively
4. The atomic radius of the elements within a

Teaching Transparency 19 The s-, p-, d-, and f-Block Elements


1. s-, p-, d-, and f-blocks 2. Each block represents the energy sublevel

period generally decreases as the atomic number of the elements increases.


5. Exceptions are antimony (Sb) and

being filled by valence electrons.


3. They have valence electrons only in the

tellurium (Te) in period 5, and bismuth (Bi) and polonium (Po) in period 6.
6. With increasing atomic number, the increased

s orbitals.
4. s1 5. s2 6. The single s orbital can hold a maximum of two

positive charge of the nucleus pulls more strongly on the outermost electrons, pulling them closer to the nucleus. Consequently, the atomic radius decreases.
7. The atomic radius of the elements within a

valence electrons.
7. The three p orbitals can each hold a maximum

group generally increases as the atomic number of the elements increases.


8. There are no exceptions. 9. With increasing atomic number, the increased

of two electrons, thus, the p orbitals can contain a maximum of six valence electrons, which corresponds to the six columns spanned by the p-block.
8. There are no p-block elements in period 1

because the p sublevel does not exist for the first principal energy level.
9. p2 10. [He]2s22p6 11. period 4 12. The five d orbitals can each hold a maximum of

10. The charge of the ion of each element is the

same as the elements group number.

Teaching Transparency 21 First Ionization and Successive Ionization Energies


1. First ionization energy is the energy required to

two electrons, resulting in a total of ten possible valence electrons.


13. d1 14. [Ar]4s23d2 15. period 6 16. a. 15

remove the first electron from a gaseous atom.


2. rubidium; helium; about 400 and 2375 kJ/mol,

respectively
3. The first ionization energy of the elements

b. 6 c. p

within a period generally increases as the atomic number of the elements increases.
4. With increasing atomic number, the increased

positive charge of the nucleus produces an increased hold on the valence electrons. Consequently, the first ionization energy increases.

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pull by the larger positive charge of the nucleus is offset by the outer electrons larger orbitals and by shielding by inner electrons. Consequently, the atomic radius increases.

TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

5. The values of the successive ionization

8. atomic number 9. Henry Moseley 10. protons 11. periodic law 12. properties 13. 14.007 u 14. 7 15. [He]2s22p3 16. Nitrogen 17. N 18. b 19. c 20. d 21. a 22. e 23. three 24. metals 25. true 26. Group 2 27. true 28. noble gases 29. nonmetals Section 6.2 Classification of the Elements 1. h 2. f 3. n 4. a 5. k 6. d 7. l 8. o 9. i 10. g 11. b 12. m 13. c 14. j 15. e

energies increase.
6. beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium 7. The jump occurs after the valence electrons

have been removed.


8. The first ionization energy of the elements

within a group generally decreases as the atomic number of the elements increases.
9. With increasing atomic number, the size of the

atom increases and the valence electrons are father from the nucleus. Consequently, less energy is needed to remove them, and the first ionization energy decreases.

Math Skills Transparency 6 Using the Periodic Table


1. a. 8 b. 1 c. 3 d. 2 e. 6 f. 7 g. 5 h. 4 2. a. fourth energy level

b. second energy level c. seventh energy level d. first energy level e. third energy level f. fifth energy level
3. a. [He]2s1
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

b. [He]2s22p5 c. [Ar]4s23d104p3 d. [Kr]5s2 e. [Xe]6s24f145d106p3


4. a. group 18, period 1, s-block

b. group 13, period 3, p-block c. group 1, period 4, s-block d. group 3, period 5, d-block e. group 16, period 6, p-block

Study Guide - Chapter 6 The Periodic Table and Periodic Law


Section 6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table 1. octaves 2. eight 3. nine 4. accepted 5. Dmitri Mendeleev 6. atomic mass 7. elements

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TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

16. Sodium and potassium have the same number

of valence electrons.
17. The energy level indicates the period.

less energy is required to remove the valence electrons.


11. Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons to

For example, lithiums valence electron is in the second energy level and lithium is found in period 2.
18. four 19. groups 1 and 2 20. The s orbital holds a maximum of two

acquire a full set of eight valence electrons.


12. The electronegativity of an element indicates

its atoms ability to attract electrons in a chemical bond.


13. Electronegativities generally increase as you

electrons.
21. groups 13-18 22. group 18 elements have both their s orbitals

move left-to-right across a period and decrease as you move down a group.

Chapter Assessment - Chapter 6


Reviewing Vocabulary 1. j 2. k 3. l 4. a 5. b 6. m 7. e 8. d 9. h 10. f 11. g 12. i 13. c 14. Answers will vary. 15. Answers will vary. Every element can be
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

and p orbitals completely filled with electrons. This configuration is very stable, thus, the group 18 elements are very unreactive.
23. 40 24. groups 3-8 25. The seven f orbitals hold a maximum of

14 electrons.
26. 1s22s22p63s23p4 Section 6.3 Periodic Trends 1. c 2. c 3. d 4. b 5. a 6. a 7. Ionization energy is the energy required to

remove an electron from a gaseous atom.


8. A high ionization-energy value indicates that

classified as a metal, nonmetal, or metalloid.


Understanding Main Ideas (Part A) 1. Newlands developed the law of octaves,

the atom has a strong hold on its electrons and is not likely to lose an outer electron and form a positive ion.
9. The first ionization energies generally increase

which correctly demonstrated the concept of periodic behavior.


2. Moseley arranged the elements by increasing

as you move left-to-right across a period. The increased nuclear charge of each successive element produces an increased hold on the valence electrons.
10. The first ionization energies generally decrease

atomic number, resulting in the modern periodic table and periodic law.
3. Mendeleev developed the first widely accepted

as you move down a group. Because atomic size increases down a group, the valence electrons are farther from the nucleus and, therefore, less strongly attracted to the nucleus. As a result,

periodic table of elements by arranging the elements by increasing atomic mass into columns with similar properties.
4. 1 5. 2

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TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

6. Ni 7. Th 8. 4 9. 6 10. Si 11. 5 12. O 13. Be 14. 3 Understanding Main Ideas (Part B) 1. d 2. c 3. a 4. d 5. c 6. c 7. a 8. d 9. c 10. b 11. d
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
0

Applying Scientific Methods 1. One triad, in which the atomic mass of the

second element is about the average of the atomic masses of the first and third elements, includes Li, Na, and Kthe alkali metals of group 1, which have common properties. Similarly, the elements S, Se, and Te make up a second triad and have similar properties, as they all are group 16 elements.
Li C Na S K
10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Se
80 90

Te

Au

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200

Atomic mass (amu)

2. Densities of Ca, Sr, and Ba: 1.55 g/mL,

2.6 g/mL, 3.62 g/mL Melting points of Ca, Sr, and Ba: 841.5C, 776.9C, 726.9C Boiling points of Ca, Sr, and Ba: 1500.5C, 1412C, 1845C Densities of Cl, Br, and I: 0.003 214 g/mL, 3.11 g/mL, 4.93 g/mL Melting points of Cl, Br, and I: -101C, 7.25C, 113.6C Boiling points of Cl, Br, and I: -34C, 59.35C, 184.5C In the Cl, Br, and I triad, the density, melting point, and boiling point sequences each show a trend similar to that of the sequence of atomic masses. That is, the value of the middle member of the triad is close to the average of the values of the other two members. In the Ca, Sr, and Ba triad, the density sequence follows a trend similar to that of the atomic mass sequence, however, the melting point sequence is reversed. There is no sequence in the boiling points of the elements in this triad.
3. Silicon: 3.0

Thinking Critically 1. The atomic radii of the elements in groups

1 and 2 and groups 13-17 decrease as the atomic numbers of the elements increase within a period.
2. Increasing the nuclear charge of the nucleus

increases the attractive force on the outer electrons, pulling them closer to the nucleus.
3. The atomic radii of the transition elements in

period 4 decrease, then increase, as the atomic numbers of the elements increase.
4. The two elements in the first period are

Germanium: 74 Tin: 480

hydrogen and helium. Hydrogen atoms form a positive ion, H+, a proton, which has no electron cloud associated with it and, therefore, no radius associated with it. Helium is a noble gas and does not form ions.
5. The arsenic ion has a 3+ charge. The charge is

CHAPTER 7
MiniLab 7 Observe Properties
Analysis 1. spring and hardened steel 2. Possible hypothesis: Soft steel has large crystals;

positive since the radius of the arsenic ion is smaller than the radius of the arsenic atom.

tempered steel has intermediate-sized crystals.

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TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

3. Answers may include pop-up tent, spring toys,

6. yes; Yes, because ionic compounds conduct an

and clips.
4. Smooth curves are possible, but they dent easily. 5. it is brittle and breaks easily; yes Expected Results:

electric current in solution.


7. Possible answers include that some of the

product blew away or that the reaction was incomplete.


Inquiry Extension

The metal can be straightened when heated because the layers of atoms separate and slide over one another easily. The hard steel breaks when students attempt to bend it. The tempered steel is hard and has a springlike feel.

Student experimental designs will vary. However, the basic point students should investigate is that more concentrated ionic solutions are more conductive than less concentrated ones.
Expected Results

Chemlab 7 Synthesize an Ionic Compound


Pre-Lab 1. Variable: mass of Mg; Constant: there must be

an excess of oxygen
2. Mg 1s22s22p63s2

a. lose electrons b. Mg2+1s22s22p6 c. neon


3. O

Sample Data Mass of empty crucible: 7.56 g Mass of crucible + Mg ribbon before heating: 7.85 g Mass of Mg ribbon: 0.29 g Mass of crucible + Mg ribbon after heating: 7.93 g Mass of Mg products: 0.37 g

1s22s22p4, N

1s22s22p3

Teaching Transparency 22 Formation of Ions


1. calcium and oxygen 2. Yes; each contains equal numbers of protons

a. Both will gain electrons. b. O2 1s22s22p6, N3 1s22s22p6 c. Both have the configuration of neon.
5. The mass of the magnesium and the mass of

and electrons.
3. ionization energy 4. positive; cation 5. negative; anion 6. No; it is not a stable octet of electrons. 7. No; it is not a stable octet of electrons. 8. Yes; it is a stable octet of electrons. 9. Yes; it is a stable octet of electrons. 10. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6; argon, a noble gas, has the
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

the magnesium products are calculated. Other mass values are measured directly.
6. The mass of magnesium ribbon is calculated

by subtracting the mass of the crucible from the mass of the crucible and magnesium. The mass of the magnesium products is calculated by subtracting the mass of the crucible from the mass of the crucible and its contents after heating.
Analyze and Conclude 1. Refer to Expected Results. 2. heat and light; It is more stable than the

same configuration.
11. 1s2 2s2 2p6; neon, a noble gas, has the same

configuration.

reacting elements.
3. There is an increase in mass from 0.29 g to

Teaching Transparency 23 Ionic Bonds


1. two 2. 2+; it must lose its two valence electrons.

0.37 g.
4. MgO, magnesium oxide; Mg3N2, magnesium

nitride

5. MgO; The product appears white.

It tends to do so to achieve the stable octet configuration of a noble gas.


3. seven

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TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

4. 1-; it must gain one electron. It tends to do so

to achieve the stable octet configuration of a noble gas.


5. One Mg atom and two Cl atoms react because

8. AlCl3, aluminum chloride; Al3+, +3; Cl, 1 9. Al2S3, aluminum sulfide; Al3+, +3; S2, 2

one 2+ ion and two 1- ions produce the required overall charge of zero. The formula is MgCl2.
6. Ionic; the two valence electrons of the

Teaching Transparency 25 Metallic Bonding


1. a crystal lattice 2. no; delocalized 3. No; they are the valence electrons from the

magnesium atom are transferred, one to each of the chlorine atoms. The attraction of oppositely charged particles (the Mg2+ and the Cl) holds the atoms together, forming an ionic bond.
7. MgS; the Mg atom transfers its two valence

metal atoms.
4. The delocalized negative electrons came from

neutral atoms, thus leaving the atoms with a positive charge.


5. They are equal. Group 1 atoms have only one

electrons to the S atom. In that way, each achieves a stable noble-gas configuration. One Mg ion with a charge of 2 is balanced by one S ion with a charge of 2+, producing a net overall charge of zero.
8. Mg3P2; each Mg atom transfers its two valence

valence electron and thus only one electron that can become delocalized.
6. There are twice as many electrons as group 2

atoms.
7. The delocalized electrons are simultaneously

electrons to the P atoms, each of which must gain three electrons. In that way, each achieves a stable noble-gas configuration. Three Mg ions, each with a charge of 2+, are balanced by two P ions, each with a charge of 3, producing a net overall charge of zero.

attracted to more than one metal cation.


8. electron sea model 9. Metals tend to conduct electricity well.

The models delocalized electrons are not held strongly by individual atoms and are thus able to move easily throughout the metal.
10. Metals are malleable and ductile. The models

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Teaching Transparency 24 Formulas for Ionic Compounds


1. One; it would tend to lose an electron because

the loss would leave it with a stable octet of electrons, like that of a noble gas.
2. Five; it would tend to gain three electrons

delocalized electrons are able to move around the positive metal core atoms and keep the crystal from breaking during hammering or drawing into wire.

because the gain would give it a stable octet of electrons, like that of a noble gas.
3. Na3P, sodium phosphide; Na+, +1; P3, 3 4. Six; it would tend to gain two electrons because

Math Skills Transparency 7 Calculating Numbers of Electrons and Predicting Ionic Change
1. The atom becomes a cation with a charge of

the gain would give it a stable octet of electrons, like that of a noble gas.
5. Na2S, sodium sulfide; Na+, +1; S2, 2 6. Three; it would tend to lose three electrons

1+ because it then has one fewer negatively charged particles than it has protons, which are positively charged.
2. The atom becomes an anion with a charge of 2

because the loss would leave it with a stable octet of electrons, like that of a noble gas.
7. Seven; it would tend to gain one electron

because it then has two more negatively charged particles than it has protons.
3. Charge of ion = Number of protons Number

of electrons.

because the gain would give it a stable octet of electrons, like that of a noble gas.

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TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

4. a. 1s22s2; it is likely to form an ion with a 2+

charge because by losing two valence electrons, it achieves the stable noble-gas configuration 1s2. b. 1s22s22p5; it is likely to form an ion with a 1 charge because by gaining one electron, it achieves the stable noble-gas configuration 1s22s22p6. c. 1s22s22p63s23p6; it is not likely to bond or form ions because it already has a stable noble-gas configuration. d. 1s22s22p63s23p4; it is likely to form an ion with a 2 charge because by gaining two electrons, it achieves the stable noble-gas configuration 1s22s22p63s23p6. e. 1s22s22p63s1; it is likely to form an ion with a 1+ charge because by losing its one valence electron, it achieves the stable noble-gas configuration 1s22s22p6.

Study Guide - Chapter 7 Ionic Compounds and Metals


Section 7.1 Ion Formation 1. chemical bond 2. nucleus 3. electrons 4. ions 5. valence 6. energy level 7. noble gases 8. octet 9. pseudo-noble gas formations 10. false 11. true 12. false 13. true 14. true 15. false 16. true 17. false
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f. 1s22s22p3; it is likely to form an ion with a 3 charge because by gaining three electrons, it achieves the stable noble-gas configuration 1s22s22p6.

Math Skills Transparency 8 Determining Numbers of Ions


1. Total positive charge + Total negative charge =

Section 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds 1. c 2. b 3. a 4. c 5. c 6. d 7. a

Zero
2. a. one

b. two c. three
3. a. three

b. one c. two
4. a. (NH4)2SO4; (2

1+) + (1 2+) + (2 3+) + (3 11) + (1 2+) + (2

2) = 0 1) = 0 2) = 0 3) = 0 1) = 0

8. b 9. b 10. b 11. b 12. high 13. high 14. hard 15. brittle 16. poor

b. Na3PO4; (3 d. Al2(CO3)3; (2

1+) + (1

3) = 0

c. Mg(HSO4)2; (1 e. (NH4)3AsO4; (3 f. Ca(C2H3O2)2; (1 g. NH4NO2; (1

1+) + (1 + 1) = 0

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17. good 18. good 19. true 20. true 21. false 22. false 23. true Section 7.3 Names and Formulas for Ionic Compounds 1. monatomic 2. oxidation number 3. electrons 4. zero 5. polyatomic 6. oxyanion 7. ate 8. ite 9. cation 10. anion 11. subscript 12. lower right
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30. beryllium phosphate 31. ammonium carbonate 32. sodium bromate 33. iron(III) oxide 34. iron(II) iodate 35. Be3N2 36. NiCl2 37. KClO2 38. Cu2O 39. MgSO3 40. (NH4)2S 41. Ca(IO3)2 42. Fe(ClO4)3 43. Na3N Section 7.4 Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals 1. electron sea model 2. They are free to move from one atom to

another.
3. the valence electrons 4. Cations; they are positively charged. 5. The electrons are not completely lost by the

13. one 14. e 15. d 16. b 17. c 18. a 19. sodium iodide 20. calcium chloride 21. potassium sulfide 22. magnesium oxide 23. lithium hydrogen sulfate 24. ammonium bromide 25. calcium nitride 26. cesium phosphide 27. potassium bromate 28. magnesium hypochlorite 29. lithium peroxide

metal atoms, as they are in an ionic solid.


6. They are bonded by the oppositely charged

electron sea that surrounds them.


7. yes; when the metal is hammered, the

delocalized electrons move, keeping the metallic bonds intact.


8. no 9. Yes; the delocalized electrons move, absorb and

release protons.
10. Yes; the metallic bonds are strong. 11. no 12. Yes; when the metal is pulled, the delocalized

electrons move, keeping the metallic bonds intact.


13. no 14. Yes; the delocalized electrons are mobile.

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TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Chapter Assessment - Chapter 7


Reviewing Vocabulary 1. e 2. n 3. d 4. p 5. c 6. b 7. f 8. q 9. g 10. m 11. k 12. j 13. a 14. i 15. o 16. h 17. l Understanding Main Ideas (Part A) 1. always 2. true 3. metals 4. more 5. true 6. true 7. true 8. lose 9. true 10. true 11. a 12. d 13. c 14. d 15. c 16. c

Understanding Main Ideas (Part B) 1. 1s22s1 2. 1s22s22p5 3. The lithium atom loses one electron, to form

an Li+ ion The configuration is 1s2.


4. The lithium has achieved the stable

configuration of a noble gas.


5. The fluorine atom gains one electron, to form

an F ion. The configuration is 1s22s22p6.


6. The fluorine has achieved a stable octet

configuration, like that of a noble gas.


7. ionic 8. There is a transfer of electrons. 9. LiF; lithium fluoride 10. electrostatic forces of attraction between the

oppositely charged ions


11. A crystal lattice; the arrangement is regular and

repeating, with positive ions surrounded by negative ions, and vice versa.
12. Ionic solids tend to be brittle and are not good

conductors of electricity, whereas metals are malleable and ductile and are good conductors.
Thinking Critically 1. The more negative the lattice energy is, the

stronger is the attraction between ions and the more stable is the ionic compound.
2. The lattice energy decreases (becomes less

negative) as atomic number and size increase for the halides of sodium. The same relationship exists for the potassium halides.
3. The lattice energy values are lower for the

halides of potassium than they are for the corresponding halides of sodium. As the ionic size increases, the lattice energy becomes less negative.
4. The melting point of NaBr should be higher

than that of NaI because NaBr has higher lattice energy and therefore more energy would be required to separate the ions. The melting point of NaBr should be higher than that of KBr for the same reason.
5. The lattice energy should be greater (more

negative) for ions of greater charge because the electrostatic force of attraction would be higher.

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TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Applying Scientific Methods 1. His conclusion is questionable. Although it is

4. Ionic compounds have lower melting points

than covalently bonded compounds.


Expected Results:

correct that nonmetallic elements tend to be nonlustrous, so do ionic compounds because both types of substances do not have delocalized electrons.
2. Her conclusion is questionable. Although it is

true that most nonmetallic elements are poor conductors of electricity, so are ionic compounds when in the solid state.
3. His conclusion is almost definitely faulty. Metals

The lone pairs of electrons take up more space than paired electrons. Refer to Figure 9-3 to see Lewis structures for CH4, NH3, and H2O. See Solutions Manual for sketches.

ChemLab 8 Model Molecular Shapes


Pre-Lab 2. Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion; The

tend to be malleable and ductile. On the basis of his results, C should have concluded that the unknown is probably either a nonmetallic element or an ionic compound.
4. A limited conclusion is possible. Nonmetallic

elements tend to be poor conductors of electricity, even when melted, so they can be ruled out. Metals and melted ionic solids both tend to conduct well. The melting point is within the range of that of many metallic elements and ionic solids, so it is not very useful in further narrowing the conclusion.
5. No; neither separate conclusion can rule out

VSEPR model bases its predictions of molecular shape on the arrangement that minimizes the repulsion of shared and unshared electron pairs around a central atom.
3. To determine whether or not a bond is polar,

compare the electronegativities of the atoms involved in the bond. To determine whether or not a molecule is polar, you also need to know the shape of the molecule.
4. A resonance structure occurs when more than

either nonmetals or ionic solids.


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6. Yes; only ionic solids are nonconductors as

solids but good conductors as liquids.


7. A test of conductivity of the solution would

one valid Lewis structure can be written for a molecule. If a molecule has resonance structures, you can infer that the molecule has at least one single bond one double bond.
Analyze and Conclude 1. increasing flexibility: triple, double, single;

have been useful because dissolved ionic solids tend to conduct electricity.
8. Communicating findings and pooling the

increasing strength: single, double, triple


2. The H2O molecule has two bonds and

results of different tests are helpful in allowing proper conclusions to be drawn.

CHAPTER 8
MiniLab 8 Compare Melting Points
Analysis 1. The paraffin melted first. The salt crystals did

two lone pairs around the central atom. The lone pairs take up space around the central atom and repel the bonding electrons, causing the bent shape. The CO2 molecule has two double bonds with no lone pairs. The bonding electrons repel to form the linear shape, which maximizes the distance between electron densities. terminal O atoms. One of the terminal O atoms forms a double bond. Three resonance structures exist, one for each possible location of the double bond.

not melt.
2. paraffin, low; sugar, medium; salt crystals, very

3. The SO3 molecule has a central S and three

high
3. ionic bonds: salt

covalent bonds: paraffin and sugar

4. The following molecules are polar: H2O, PH3,

HCN, and CO. All others are nonpolar.

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TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Inquiry Extension

5. one lone pair; three shared pairs; trigonal

Students should assemble two models, each with a central oxygen atom joined to two terminal oxygen atoms. One terminal atom is joined by a single bond, the other by a double bond. The location of these two bonds determines the two resonance structures. The Lewis structures should show that you can convert between the two resonance structures by swapping the position of a lone pair and a covalent bond.

pyramidal
6. two lone pairs; two shared pairs; bent 7. three lone pairs; one shared pair; linear

Teaching Transparency 28 Electronegativity and Polarity


1. Electronegativity is the tendency of an atom to

attract electrons.
2. Electronegativity increases from left to

Teaching Transparency 26 Lewis Structures


1. A hydrogen atom can form only one bond, so it

right across the period and decreases down the group.


3. The covalent bond is polar; toward the more

cannot be a central atom.


2. Each nitrogen (N) atom has five valence

electronegative atom.
4. 3.16 2.55 = 0.61, polar covalent bond 5. CCl4 is a nonpolar molecule because its

electrons and each hydrogen (H) atom has one valence electron, resulting in a total of (2 5) + (4 1) = 14.
3. The total number of valence electrons from

symmetrical tetrahedral shape results in a balancing of the partial charges resulting from each polar covalent bond.

step 2 must be divided by 2; in the case of N2H4, 14/2 = 7.


4. five; a line 5. 7 5 = 2. Because the H atoms already had a

6. 3.98 3.04 = 0.94, polar covalent bond; NF3 is a

polar molecule because its asymmetrical, trigonal pyramidal shape does not balance its partial charges.

6. The central N atoms already had complete

octets, and the Lewis structure was already correct.


7. 4 + 6 + 6 = 16, the total number of valence

8. 3.98 1.57 = 2.41, ionic bond 9. 2.66 2.04 = 0.62, polar covalent bond;

electrons
8. 16/2 = 8, the number of bonding pairs

BI3 is a nonpolar molecule because its symmetrical, trigonal planar shape balances its partial charges.

Teaching Transparency 27 VSEPR Model and Molecular Shape


1. Pairs of electrons, either shared or unshared,

repel each other as much as possible around a central atom.


2. no lone pairs; three shared pairs 3. The BH3 molecule is trigonal planar. There are

Math Skills Transparency 9 Determining the Names of Binary Compounds and Their Numbers of Atoms
1. five; six; eight 2. a. one nitrogen, three iodine;

nitrogen triiodide b. one carbon, two sulfur; carbon disulfide c. two nitrogen, four oxygen; dinitrogen tetroxide d. one silicon, six fluorine; silicon hexafluoride e. one oxygen, two fluorine; oxygen difluoride

three electron pairs that repel so that they are as far as possible from one another. The shape that maximizes the distance is trigonal planar.

4. no lone pairs; four shared pairs; tetrahedral

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complete outer level of electrons, a lone pair of electrons was positioned next to each N atom.

7. 2.96 1.57 = 1.39, polar covalent bond; BeBr2 is

a nonpolar molecule because its symmetrical, linear shape balances its partial charges.

TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

3. a. P4O10

4. sigma bond 5. pi bond 6. b 7. d 8. c 9. a Section 8.2 Naming Molecules 1. false 2. false 3. false 4. true 5. true 6. true 7. false 8. false 9. c 10. i 11. g 12. e 13. b 14. d 15. f 16. a 17. h Section 8.3 Molecular Structures 1. true 2. false 3. true 4. false 5. false 6. false 7. true 8. true 9. true 10. false 11. true 12. false 13. c

four phosphorus, ten oxygen, a total of 4 + 10 = 14 atoms; tetraphosphorus decoxide

b. S2O7 two sulfur, seven oxygen, a total of 2 + 7 = 9 atoms; disulfur heptoxide c. Si3H8 three silicon, eight hydrogen, a total of 3 + 8 = 11 atoms; trisilicon octahydride
4. a. tetrasulfur dinitride

b. dichlorine monoxide

Math Skills Transparency 10 Determining Electronegativity Difference and Percent Ionic Character
1. a. 3.16 0.93 = 2.23

b. 2.58 1.31 = 1.27 c. 2.19 1.61 = 0.58 d. 3.16 1.90 = 1.26 e. 2.58 1.90 = 0.68
2. Na and Cl only
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3. Percent ionic character and electronegativity

difference; as electronegativity difference increases, percent ionic character increases.


4. a. 70%

b. 32%

c. 10%

d. 32%

e. 12%

5. % ionic character + % covalent character =

100%
6. a. 100% 70% = 30%

b. 100% 32% = 68% c. 100% 10% = 90% d. 100% 32% = 68% e. 100% 12% = 88%

Study Guide - Chapter 8 Covalent Bonding


Section 8.1 The Covalent Bond 1. covalent bond 2. exothermic 3. molecule

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14. b 15. d 16. a Section 8.4 Molecular Shape 1. a 2. c 3. d 4. a 5. d 6. c 7. hybridization 8. identical 9. carbon 10.

Chapter Assessment - Chapter 8


Reviewing Vocabulary 1. g 2. i 3. k 4. b 5. n 6. h 7. j 8. f 9. a 10. m 11. l 12. d 13. c 14. e Understanding Main Ideas (Part A) 1. a 2. d 3. b 5. d 6. c 7. c 8. di9. true 10. true 11. true 12. true 13. less 14. electrons Understanding Main Ideas (Part B) 1. 1s22s22p2 2. sp3; four 3. It has no unhybridized orbitals. 4. four other atoms; four single bonds,
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sp3

11. methane Section 8.5 Electronegativity and Polarity 1. the tendency of an atom to attract electrons 2. fluorine; 3.98; halogens; group 17 3. francium; 0.7; alkali metals; group 1 4. Electronegativity tends to decrease.

Electronegativity tends to increase.


5. The values are subtracted. 6. true 7. false 8. c 9. d 10. b 11. a 12. c 13. b 14. b 15. d 16. b 17. d

4. a

each sigma only


5. tetrahedral

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6. The bonds would be polar, but the molecule as

4. The students conclusion is valid because only

a whole would be nonpolar because of its shape and the fact that the polarities would cancel one another.
7. sp2; three Thinking Critically 1. The electrons are not shared equally, but are

nonpolar covalent substances are highly soluble in nonpolar solvents. The high solubility of W and Y in the polar solvent suggests that one is the ionic substance and the other the hydrogen-bonded (highly polar) one, but more information would be needed to derive further conclusions.
5. The statement is not valid. The two pieces of

more attracted to the more electronegative atom. The bond is polar covalent.
2. N is more electronegative than B. Both are in

period 2, with N to the right of B. P is more electronegative than Al. Both are in period 3, with P to the right of Al.
3. Electronegativity increases from left to right

information together suggest that Y is ionic because ionic substances conduct when in the liquid state, but not when in the solid state.
6. The entire set of data does allow identification

across both periods.


4. B is more electronegative than Al. Both are in

group 13, with B above Al. N is more electronegative than P. Both are in group 15, with N above P.
5. Electronegativity decreases going down a group

in the periodic table.


Applying Scientific Methods 1. The conclusion is sound. Only covalent
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substances are soft, although some covalent substances (network solids) are hard and brittle. Ionic solids also are brittle, so there is no way to tell whether Y or Z is the ionic substance.
2. The claim is not valid. The low melting points

of each substances type of attractions. W must be hydrogen-bonded covalent because of its relatively high boiling point for a covalent molecular compound and its solubility in the polar solvent. The fact that it does not conduct as liquid and that its melting point is not very high allows one to rule out that it is ionic. X must be covalent with inter-molecular dispersion forces because of its very low melting and boiling points, lack of conductivity, and solubility in the nonpolar solvent. Y must be ionic because of its high melting and boiling points coupled with its conductivity as liquid and its solubility in the polar solvent. Z must be the covalent network solid. Its very high melting and boiling points, brittleness, and lack of conductivity support that conclusion.
7. The steps involve those often used in

of W and X strongly suggest that they are covalent molecular substances. The high melting points of Y and Z suggest that one must be ionic, the other covalent network, with Z more likely to be the network solid.
3. The conclusion is valid. Hydrogen-bonded

investigating a problem scientifically. A question was initially posed, experiments planned and carried out, observations made, data analyzed, and conclusions reached on the basis of the data.

substances have relatively high boiling points for molecular substances, and that is true of X. Because Y has very low melting and boiling points, and the remaining unknowns do not, it must be the substance that has the very weak dispersion forces.

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