The Nature of Management Control Systems
A detector 2. A communication network
. An effector 4.Basic Concepts
Elements of a control system consists of: 1. An assessor 3.
. An assessor is a device that determines the significance of what is actually happening by comparing it with some standards or expectations of what should happen. 3. 2.1. An effector (feedback) is a device that alters behavior if the assessor indicates the need to do so. A detector or sensor is a device that measure what is actually happening in the process being controlled. 4. A communications network consist of devices that transmit information between the detector and the assessor and between the assessor and the effector.
Example: You are driving a car
Detectors= Your eyes Assessor= Your brain Effector= Your foot Communication network= Your nerves system
your nerves (communication network) form the communication system that transmits information from eyes (detectors) to brain (assessor) and brain (assessor) to foot (effector). Your brain (assessor) directs your foot (effector) to ease up the accelerator if actual speed (90 km/hour) is faster than the standard speed (80 km/hour). Your eyes (detectors) measure actual speed by observing the speedometer.
. And. press down the accelerator if the actual speed (70 km/hour) is slower than standard speed (80 km/hour). Your brain (assessor) compares actual speed with desired speed (standard: the highest speed is 80 km/hour) to detect a deviation from standard.
. Task control is the process of ensuring that specified tasks are carried out effectively and efficiently. 2004): is the process by which managers influence other members of organization to implement the organization¶s strategies.Boundaries of Management Control
Strategy formulation is the process of deciding on the goals of the organization and the strategies for attaining these goals. Management control (Anthony and Govindarajan.
predetermined procedures Integrated. more external and predictive. more accurate Difficult Top management and 7 line managers
Nature of information
Communication of information Involved people
. more internal and historical.Distinctions between strategy formulation and management control:
Characteristics System design Strategy Formulation Unsystematic. less accurate Simple Top management and staffs Control Management Rhythmic. Strategic decision may be made any time Tailored-made to faced problems.
Distinctions between strategy formulation and management control:
Characteristics Number of involved people Mental activity Discipline Time horizon End products Strategy Formulation Few people Creative and analytic Economics Tend to long-term Goals. strategies Control Management Many people Administrative and persuasive Social psychology Tend to short-term Strategy implementation
more non-financial data Supervisor or none Follow direction or none Tasks are carried out effectively and efficiently
Involved people Management Mental activity End products Administrative and persuasive Strategy implementation
. many financial data Task Control Individual task or transaction Tailored-made to individual task.Distinctions between management and task controls:
Characteristics Focus of activity Nature of information Control Management The whole of operation Integrated.
physics Daily Engineered costs
Discipline Time horizon Type of cost
. monthly.Distinctions between management and task controls:
Characteristics Mental activity Control Management Administrative and persuasive Social psychology Weekly. annually Discretionary costs Task Control Follow direction or none Economics.
Examples of decisions in planning and control function:
Strategy Management Formulation Control Enter a new business Expand a plant Change debt to equity ratio Add direct mail selling Decide magnitude and direction of research Acquire an unrelated business Issue new debt Determine advertising budget Control of research organization Introduce new product or brand within product line Task Control Schedule production Manage cash flows Book TV commercials Run individual research project Coordinate order entry