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# Answers to selected exercises for chapter 1

1.1

Apply cos(α + β) = cos α cos β − sin α sin β, then f1 (t) + f2 (t) = A1 cos ωt cos φ1 − A1 sin ωt sin φ1 + A2 cos ωt cos φ2 − A2 sin ωt sin φ2 = (A1 cos φ1 + A2 cos φ2 ) cos ωt − (A1 sin φ1 + A2 sin φ2 ) sin ωt = C1 cos ωt − C2 sin ωt, where C1 = A1 cos φ1 + A2 cos φ2 and C2 = A1 sin φ1 + A2 sin φ2 . Put A = p 2 2 C1 + C2 and take φ such that cos φ = C1 /A and sin φ = C2 /A (this is possible since (C1 /A)2 +(C2 /A)2 = 1). Now f1 (t)+f2 (t) = A(cos ωt cos φ− sin ωt sin φ) = A cos(ωt + φ).

1.2

Put c1 = A1 eiφ1 and c2 = A2 eiφ2 , then f1 (t) + f2 (t) = (c1 + c2 )eiωt . Let c = c1 + c2 , then f1 (t) + f2 (t) = ceiωt . The signal f1 (t) + f2 (t) is again a time-harmonic signal with amplitude | c | and initial phase arg c. The power P is given by Z π/ω Z ω A2 ω π/ω P = A2 cos2 (ωt + φ0 ) dt = (1 + cos(2ωt + 2φ0 )) dt 2π −π/ω 4π −π/ω A2 . = 2 The energy-content is E = The power P is given by P =

3 1X | cos(nπ/2) |2 = 1 . 2 4 n=0

1.5

1.6 1.7

R∞

0

e−2t dt = 1 . 2

1.8 1.9

The energy-content is E = sum 1/(1 − e−2 ).

P∞

n=0

e−2n , which is a geometric series with

a If u(t) is real, then the integral, and so y(t), is also real. b Since ˛Z ˛ Z ˛ ˛ ˛ u(τ ) dτ ˛ ≤ | u(τ ) | dτ, ˛ ˛ it follows from the boundedness of u(t), so | u(τ ) | ≤ K for some constant K, that y(t) is also bounded. c The linearity follows immediately from the linearity of integration. The time-invariance follows from the substitution ξ = τ − t0 in the integral Rt u(τ − t0 ) dτ representing the response to u(t − t0 ). t−1 Rt d Calculating t−1 cos(ωτ ) dτ gives the following response: (sin(ωt) − sin(ωt − ω))/ω = 2 sin(ω/2) cos(ωt − ω/2)/ω. Rt e Calculating t−1 sin(ωτ ) dτ gives the following response: (− cos(ωt) + cos(ωt − ω))/ω = 2 sin(ω/2) sin(ωt − ω/2)/ω. f From the response to cos(ωt) in d it follows that the amplitude response is | 2 sin(ω/2)/ω |. g From the response to cos(ωt) in d it follows that the phase response is −ω/2 if 2 sin(ω/2)/ω ≥ 0 and −ω/2 + π if 2 sin(ω/2)/ω < 0. From

1

2

Answers to selected exercises for chapter 1

phase and amplitude response the frequency response follows: H(ω) = 2 sin(ω/2)e−iω/2 /ω. 1.11 a The frequency response of the cascade system is H1 (ω)H2 (ω), since the reponse to eiωt is ﬁrst H1 (ω)eiωt and then H1 (ω)H2 (ω)eiωt . b The amplitude response is | H1 (ω)H2 (ω) | = A1 (ω)A2 (ω). c The phase response is arg(H1 (ω)H2 (ω)) = Φ1 (ω) + Φ2 (ω). ˛ ˛ √ a The amplitude response is | 1 + i | ˛ e−2iω ˛ = 2. b The input u[n] = 1 has frequency ω = 0, initial phase 0 and amplitude 1. Since eiωn → H(eiω )eiωn , the response is H(e0 )1 = 1 + i for all n. c Since u[n] = (eiωn + e−iωn )/2 we can use eiωn → H(eiω )eiωn to obtain that y[n] = (H(eiω )eiωn + H(e−iω )e−iωn )/2, so y[n] = (1 + i) cos(ω(n − 2)). d Since u[n] = (1 + cos 4ωn)/2, we can use the same method as in b and c to obtain y[n] = (1 + i)(1 + cos(4ω(n − 2)))/2. a The power is the integral of f 2 (t) over [−π/ | ω | , π/ | ω |], times | ω | /2π. Now cos2 (ωt + φ0 ) integrated over [−π/ | ω | , π/ | ω |] equals π/ | ω | and cos(ωt) cos(ωt + φ0 ) integrated over [−π/ | ω | , π/ | ω |] is (π/ | ω |) cos φ0 . Hence, the power equals (A2 + 2AB cos(φ0 ) + B 2 )/2. R1 b The energy-content is 0 sin2 (πt) dt = 1/2. The power is the integral of | f (t) |2 over [−π/ | ω | , π/ | ω |], times | ω | /2π, which in this case equals | c |2 . a The amplitude response is | H(ω) | = 1/(1 + ω 2 ). The phase response is arg H(ω) = ω. b The input has frequency ω = 1, so it follows from eiωt → H(ω)eiωt that the response is H(1)ieit = iei(t+1) /2. a The signal is not periodic since sin(2N ) = 0 for all integer N . iω b The frequency response H(eiω ) equals A(eiω )eiΦe , hence, we obtain iω iω 2 that H(e ) = e /(1 + ω ). The response to u[n] = (e2in − e−2in )/2i is then y[n] = (e2i(n+1) − e−2i(n+1) )/(10i), so y[n] = (sin(2n + 2))/5. The amplitude is thus 1/5 and the initial phase 2 − π/2. a If u(t) = 0 for t < 0, then the integral occurring in y(t) is equal to 0 for t < 0. For t0 ≥ 0 the expression u(t − t0 ) is also causal. Hence, the system is causal for t0 ≥ 0. b It follows from the boundedness of u(t), so | u(τ ) | ≤ K for some constant K, that y(t) is also bounded (use the triangle inequality and the inequality from exercise 1.9b). Hence, the system is stable. c If u(t) is real, then the integral is real and so y(t) is real. Hence, the system is real. d The response is Z t y(t) = sin(π(t − t0 )) + sin(πτ ) dτ = sin(π(t − t0 )) − 2(cos πt)/π.

t−1

1.12

1.13

1.14 1.16

1.17

1.18

1.19

a If u[n] = 0 for n < 0, then y[n] is also equal to 0 for n < 0 whenever n0 ≥ 0. Hence, the system is causal for n0 ≥ 0. b It follows from the boundedness of u[n], so | u[n] | ≤ K for some constant K and all n, that y[n] is also bounded (use the triangle inequality): ˛ ˛ n n n ˛ X ˛ X X ˛ ˛ u[l] ˛ ≤ K + | u[l] | ≤ K + K, | y[n] | ≤ | u[n − n0 ] | + ˛ ˛ ˛

l=n−2 l=n−2 l=n−2

Answers to selected exercises for chapter 1

3

which equals 4K. Hence, the system is stable. c If u[n] is real, then u[n − n0 ] is real and also the sum in the expression for y[n] is real, hence, y[n] is real. This means that the system is real. d The response to u[n] = cos πn = (−1)n is y[n] = (−1)n−n0 +

n X l=n−2

(−1)l = (−1)n−n0 + (−1)n (1 − 1 + 1)

= (−1)n (1 + (−1)n0 ).

Answers to selected exercises for chapter 2

2.1

p √ a The absolute values follow from x2 + y 2 and are given by 2, 2, 3, 2 respectively. The arguments follow from standard angles and are given by 3π/4, π/2, π, 4π/3 respectively. √ √ b Calculating modulus and argument gives 2 + 2i = 2 2eπi/4 , − 3 + i = 5πi/6 3πi/2 2e and −3i = 3e . In the proof of theorem 2.1 it was shown that | Re z | ≤ | z |, which implies that − | z | ≤ ± | Re z | ≤ | z |. Hence, | z ± w |2 = (z ± w)(z ± w) = zz ± zw ± wz + ww = | z |2 ± 2Re(zw) + | w |2 ≥ | z |2 − 2 | z | | w | + | w |2 = (| z | − | w |)2 . This shows that | z ± w |2 ≥ (| z | − | w |)2 . √ We have | z1 | = 4 2, | z2 | = 4 and arg z1 = 7π/4, arg z2 = 2π/3. Hence, √ | z1 /z2 | = |√1 | / | z2 | = 2 and arg(z1 /z2 ) = arg(z1 ) − arg(z2 ) = 13π/12, z 2 3 2 3 so z1 /z2 = 2e13πi/12 . Similarly we obtain z1 z2 = 2048e3πi/2 and z1 /z2 = 1 3πi/2 e . 2 The solutions are given in a separate ﬁgure on the website. a The four solutions ±1 ± i are obtained by using the standard technique to solve this binomial equation (as in example 2.3). √ b As part a; we now obtain the six solutions 6 2(cos(π/9 + kπ/3) + i sin(π/9 + kπ/3)) where k = 0, 1 . . . , 5. c By completing the square as in example 2.4 we obtain the two solutions −1/5 ± 7i/5. Write z 5 − z 4 + z − 1 as (z − 1)(z 4 + 1) and then solve z 4 = −1 to ﬁnd √ the roots 2(±1 ± i)/2. Combining linear factors with complex conjugate √ √ roots we obtain z 5 − z 4 + z − 1 = (z − 1)(z 2 + 2z + 1)(z 2 − 2z + 1). Since 2i = 2eπi/2 the solutions are z = ln 2 + i(π/2 + 2kπ), where k ∈ Z.

1 Split F (z) as A/(z − 2 ) + B/(z − 2) and multiply by the denominator of F (z) to obtain the values A = −1/3 and B = 4/3 (as in example 2.6).

2.2

2.4

2.5 2.6

2.7

2.8 2.9 2.11

a Split F (z) as A/(z + 1) + B/(z + 1)2 + C/(z + 3) and multiply by the denominator of F (z) to obtain the values C = 9/4, B = 1/2 and, by comparing the coeﬃcient of z 2 , A = −5/4 (as in example 2.8). Trying the ﬁrst few integers we ﬁnd the zero z = 1 of the denominator. A long division gives as denominator (z − 1)(z 2 − 2z + 5). We then split F (z) as A/(z − 1) + (Bz + C)/(z 2 − 2z + 5). Multiplying by the denominator of F (z) and comparing the coeﬃcients of z 0 = 1, z and z 2 we obtain that A = 2, B = 0 and C = −1. a Using the chain rule we obtain f (t) = −i(1 + it)−2 .

2.12

2.13 2.14 2.15

Use integration by parts twice and the fact that a primitive of eiω0 t is 3 eiω0 t /iω0 . The given integral then equals 4π(1 − πi)/ω0 , since e2πi = 1. ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ it ˛ Since ˛ 1/(2 − eit ) ˛ = 1/ ˛ 2 − eit ˛ and ˛ 2 − eit ˛ ≥ 2 − ˛ e ˛ = 1, the result ˛R ˛ R ˛ 1 ˛ 1 follows from ˛ 0 u(t) dt ˛ ≤ 0 | u(t) | dt. 1

26 2. b Calculate f (z) by termwise diﬀerentiation of the series and multiply this by z. then we have to calculate 0 (e2it + 1)/2 dt. lim ˛ n→∞ ˛ n+2 (1 + i)2n z n ˛ n→∞ n+2 This is less than 1 if | z | < 1/2. Hence. so the radius of convergence is 1/2. if | z | < 2/2. proceed as in part a: ˛ ˛ ˛ 2n+1 + 1 3n + n ˛ 2 + 1/2n 1 + n/3n 2 ˛ = lim = .16 √ P a Use that | an | = 1/ n6 + 1 ≤ 1/n3 and the fact that ∞ 1/n3 conn=1 verges (example 2.17). P∞ b Use that | an | ≤ 1/n2˛ and the˛ fact that n=1 1/n2 converges. P b Since (n + in )/n2 = (1/n) + (in /n2 ) and the series ∞ 1/n diverges.17 2.25 2. that is. .2 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 2 2. It then follows that zf (z) + f (z) = ∞ X n=0 2. n→∞ ˛ (n + 1)! ˛ n→∞ n + 1 b The series is convergent.29 2.19 Determine the radius of convergence as follows: ˛ n+1 2n+2 2 ˛ ˛ 2 ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ 1 + 1/n2 z n +1 ˛ ˛ ˛ = lim 2 ˛ z 2 ˛ lim ˛ = 2 ˛ z2 ˛ . z 2 and z 3 leads to the values A = 0. a Use the ratio test to conclude that the series is convergent: ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ n! 1 ˛ = lim lim ˛ = 0. so 0 is a simple zero and ±2i are two zeroes of multiplicity 2. n=1 this series is divergent. ˛ ˛ P The series ∞ cn (z 2 )n converges for all z with ˛ z 2 ˛ < R. a Determine the radius of convergence as follows: ˛ ˛ ˛ (1 + i)2n+2 z n+1 ˛ ˛ ˛ n+1 ˛ = lim | z | n + 1 ˛ (1 + i)2 ˛ = 2 | z | . The equation z 2 = −2i has solutions −1 + i and 1 − i and z 2 = 0 has solution 0 (with multiplicity 2). so it has radius n=0 √ of convergence R. This is a geometric series with ratio z −i and so it converges for | z − i | < 1. c Use that | an | = 1/ ˛ nen eni ˛ = 1/(nen ) ≤ 1/en and the fact that P∞ n n=1 1/e converges since it is a geometric series with ratio 1/e.23 2. z 1 . 2 + 1 2n z 2n ˛ n→∞ (n + 1) n→∞ 1 + 2/n + 2/n2 ˛ ˛ √ This is less than 1 if ˛ z 2 ˛ < 1/2. so 1/(2 − z(1 − i)). c One has P (z) = z(z 4 + 8z 2 + 16) = z(z 2 + 4)2 = z(z − 2i)2 (z + 2i)2 . which is π. B = 1. b First solving w2 = −1 leads to z 2 = 0 or z 2 = −2i.20 2. This is a geometric series with ratio 2iz and so it has sum 1/(1 − 2iz). Split F (z) as (Az + B)/(z 2 − 4z + 5) + (Cz + D)/(z 2 − 4z + 5)2 and multiply by the denominator of F (z). R 2π Replace cos t by (eit + e−it )/2. This is less than 1 and so the series converges. lim ˛ n+1 ˛3 n +1 ˛ n 1 + 1/2n n→∞ 3 + (n + 1)/3 n→∞ +n+1 2 3 2. the sum is (1/(1 − i))(1/(1 − (z − i))). the radius √ of convergence is 2/2. √ a Using the ratio test we obtain as limit 5/3.27 2.30 (1 + i)2n z n = ∞ X n=0 (2iz)n . Comparing the coeﬃcient of z 0 . C = −2 and D = 2.

a b c 3 2 4 5 d e f 3 2 1 + 2i 1 0 3 –2 2 g 1 2 21 2 3 .

4) and use the fact that all the integrals in the resulting expression are zero.10) we obtain the Fourier series. which equals T /2. except for R T /2 the integral −T /2 sin(mω0 t) sin(nω0 t) dt with m = n. so Z T /2 Z T Z T g(t)dt g(t)dt + g(t)dt = 0 T /2 0 Z T Z T /2 Z 0 Z T /2 g(t − T )dt + g(t)dt = g(τ )dτ + g(t)dt = T /2 0 −T /2 0 Z T /2 = g(t)dt. 2 0 This integral can be evaluated immediately and leads to cn = ´ inπ − 1 ` (−1)n e−1 − 1 .Answers to selected exercises for chapter 3 3. 2 π (2k + 1)2 k=0 3. −T /2 Multiplying by 2/T gives an . one obtains bn . For c0 this becomes: 3 .2) we obtain c0 = π .9 The Fourier coeﬃcients are calculated by splitting the integrals into a real and an imaginary part. 2 cn = (−1)n − 1 n2 π Substituting these values of cn in (3. 3. 2 m=1 Now substitute this for f (t) in the right-hand side of (3.2 these integrals can be calculated using integration by parts for n = 0.2 A trigonometric polynomial can be written as f (t) = k X a0 + (am cos(mω0 t) + bm sin(mω0 t)). 3.7 From the description of the function we obtain that Z 1 1 −(1+inπ)t cn = e dt. 3. π) we obtain Z 0 Z π 1 1 cn = (−t)e−int dt + te−int dt. Calculating c0 separately (again as in example 3. Hence.4 The function g(t) = f (t) cos(nω0 t) has period T . One can also write this as a Fourier cosine series: ∞ π 4 X cos((2k + 1)t) − . 2(n2 π 2 + 1) The Fourier series follows from (3.6 From a sketch of the periodic function with period 2π given by f (t) = | t | for t ∈ (−π.10) by substituting cn . 2π −π 2π 0 As in example 3.

Note that f (t) can be obtained from the sawtooth z(t) by multiplying the shifted version z(t − T /2) by the factor T /2 and then adding T /2. f (t) = T z(t − T ) + T . This results in three ﬁgures that are given separately on the website.6. 2 −1 2 −1 The second integral can be calculated using integration by parts. 4 3.9. Now use the Fourier coeﬃcients of z(t) (table 1 2 2 2 e. cn = 2 n2 π 2 for n odd. 3. Adding the results and simplifying somewhat we obtain the Fourier coeﬃcients (and thus the Fourier series): cn = 3.11 cn = b As in a.19 Shifts over a period T (use the shift property and the fact that e−2πin = 1 for all n). We calculate the coeﬃcients bn as follows (the an are 0): Z Z 1 2 1 −2 (−2 sin(nπt/4)) dt + t sin(nπt/4) dt bn = 4 −4 4 −2 . 2 cn = iT 2πn for all n = 0. the Fourier series is 1 (!).g. c0 = 1 . This is no surprise.15) it follows that c0 = 3. To calculate the ﬁrst integral we apply integration by parts twice. 3 For n = 0 we have that Z Z 1 1 2 −inπt i 1 −inπt cn = t e dt + te dt.14) it follows that sin(nπ/4) nπ for n = 0. since the function is 1 for all t. arg cn = −π if cn < 0. We have that f (t) = 2p2. but now a = T and we obtain c0 = 1. a By substituting a = T /4 in (3.15 3. Hence. 2 cn = 0 for n = 0 even.10 (−1)n (2 − nπ) .) and the properties from table 2 to obtain that c0 = T .g.4 (t) − q1.4 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 3 c0 = 1 2 Z 1 t2 dt + −1 i 2 Z 1 t dt = −1 1 . cn = 0 for n = 0.12 By substituting a = T /2 in (3. 3.14 1 . n2 π 2 From the values of the coeﬃcients cn calculated earlier in exercises 3. 3.17 3. that is. cn = (2nπ sin(nπ/2) − 4 sin2 (nπ/4))/(n2 π 2 ) for n = 0. one can immediately obtain the amplitude spectrum | cn | and the phase spectrum arg cn (note e. In order to determine the Fourier sine series we extend the function to an odd function of period 8.4 (t) and so the Fourier coeﬃcients follow by linearity from table 1: c0 = 3/4.7 and 3. arg cn = π/2 if cn = iy with y > 0 and arg cn = −π/2 if cn = iy with y < 0). that arg cn = π if cn > 0.

If f is real and the cn are real. the second integral can be calculated by integration by parts. As above one can calculate the coeﬃcients bn (the an are 0). Combining the results one then obtains that an = 32((−1)n − 1) 32((−1)n + 1) 64(−1)n − = . The result is a0 = 3.13) shows that an = 0. then (3. The second integral can be calculated by an integration by parts and one then obtains that 8 4 bn = 2 2 sin(nπ/2) − cos(nπ). on the other hand. 2 0 3 while for n ≥ 1 we have Z Z 1 0 2 1 4 2 an = (x + 4x) cos(nπx/4) dx + (x − 4x) cos(nπx/4) dx 4 −4 4 0 Z 4 Z 4 1 = x2 cos(nπx/4) dx − 2 x cos(nπx/4) dx.25 .Answers to selected exercises for chapter 3 5 + 1 4 Z 2 4 2 sin(nπt/4) dt. f is real and the cn are purely imaginary. The Fourier series then contains sine functions only and is thus odd. Since sin(ω0 t) = (eiω0 t − e−iω0 t )/2i we have Z T /2 Z T /2 1 1 cn = ei(1−n)ω0 t dt − e−i(1+n)ω0 t dt.24 64((−1)n − 1) n3 π 3 for all n ≥ 1. A function whose Fourier coeﬃcients bn are all 0 has a Fourier series containing cosine functions only. n π nπ which gives the Fourier sine series. We calculate the coeﬃcients an and a0 as follows (the bn are 0): Z 1 4 2 16 a0 = (x − 4x) dx = − . 2 0 0 The ﬁrst integral can be calculated by applying integration by parts twice. If. 2iT 0 2iT 0 3. 2 π2 2 π2 n n n2 π 2 which also gives the Fourier cosine series. One can write this series as − ∞ 8 16 X 1 + 2 cos(nπx/2).13) that bn = 0. then it follows from (3. 3. As above one can calculate the coeﬃcients an and a0 (the bn are 0). In order to determine the Fourier cosine series we extend the function to an even function of period 8. Hence. The result is bn = 3.21 an = 8 (cos(nπ/2) − 1) n2 π 2 for all n = 0. For the Fourier cosine series we extend the function to an even function of period 8. 3 π n=1 n2 For the Fourier sine series we extend the function to an odd function of period 8. the Fourier series will be even.

3. The odd extension has period 2a and the coeﬃcients bn are given by (the an are 0): Z Z 1 a/2 2bt 1 −a/2 −2bt − 2b) sin(nπt/a) dt + sin(nπt/a) dt bn = ( a −a a a −a/2 a Z a 1 −2bt + ( + 2b) sin(nπt/a) dt a a/2 a 8b = 2 2 sin(nπ/2). The second integral equals T /2 for n = −1 while for n = −1 it equals i((−1)n+1 − 1)/((1 + n)ω0 ). the Fourier series follows immediately from this. n2 π 2 which gives the Fourier cosine series. The Fourier coeﬃcients are thus c1 = 1/(4i). n π where we used integration by parts. We can thus calculate the coeﬃcients an and a0 as follows (the bn are 0): Z Z 2 a/2 2 0 a0 = 2bt/a dt − 2bt/a dt = b. c−1 = −1/(4i) and ((−1)n +1)/(2(1−n2 )π) for n = 1.6 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 3 The ﬁrst integral equals T /2 for n = 1 while for n = 1 it equals i((−1)n + 1)/((1 − n)ω0 ). It can also be determined using the result of exercise 3. a 0 a −a/2 while for n ≥ 0 we obtain from an integration by parts that Z Z 2 a/2 2 0 an = (2bt/a) cos(2nπt/a) dt − (2bt/a) cos(2nπt/a) dt a 0 a −a/2 n 2b((−1) − 1) = . .27 b The even extension has period 2a. −1.6 by applying a multiplication and a scaling. but it has period a as well.

a π/2 b π –4 –2 0 2 4 n –4 –2 0 2 4 n .

a 1 2 b π 2 –4 –2 0 2 4 n –4 –2 0 2 4 n – π 2 .

a 1 2 b π –4 –2 0 2 4 n –4 –2 0 2 4 n .

1. while f (t+) = 0 for t = ±a/2 and t = −T /2 and f (t−) = 0 for t = ±a/2 and t = T /2. 4. cn = −i nπ odd n. The periodic triangle function is treated analogously. 4.11) follows: ∞ X (−1)k π = . change from n to −n in the latter): ∞ 1 2 X sin(2k + 1)t + .Answers to selected exercises for chapter 4 4.2 4. Existence of the Fourier coeﬃcients has already been shown in section 3. One can write the series with sines only (split the sum in two pieces: one from n = 1 to ∞ and another from n = −1 to −∞. At these points f (t+) and f (t−) exist.4. Since sin((2k + 1)π/2) = (−1)k . so ∞ n=−∞ | cn | n=1 converges. a If we sketch the function.4. Using the shift property we obtain c0 = 1 . this agrees with the fundamental theorem.8) (for part b).2 and use that sin(nω0 T /2) = sin(nπ) = 0 for all n. T /2]. b For the periodic block function we have ∞ X n=−∞ | cn |2 ≤ ∞ a2 8 X 1 + 2 2 2 T T ω0 n=1 n2 P P 2 1 since sin2 (nω0 a/2) ≤ 1. Hence f is piecewise continuous and so the periodic block function is piecewise smooth. so the series converges to f (π/2) = 1. Also f (t) = 0 for t = ±a/2. formula (4.7 Rπ a We have that c0 = (2π)−1 0 t dt = π/4.11) (for part a) and (3. 2π 0 2n 2n2 π The Fourier series follows by substituting these cn : „ « ∞ X (−1)n i (−1)n − 1 π 1 + + eint . while the Fourier coeﬃcients for n = 0 follow from an integration by parts: Z π (−1)n i (−1)n − 1 1 cn = te−int dt = + .6 The Fourier series follows by substituting the cn . Take t = T /2 in the Fourier series of the sawtooth from example 4.4 This follows immediately from (3. Since (f (t+) + f (t−))/2 = 0. 2k + 1 4 k=0 4. then we see that it is a shifted block function. 2 π 2k + 1 k=0 b The function is piecewise smooth and it thus satisﬁes the conditions of the fundamental theorem. 2 cn = 0 even n = 0. At t = π/2 the function f is continuous. except at t = ±a/2. The periodic triangle function is treated analogously.1 a The periodic block function from section 3. 4 2 n n2 π n=−∞. The series ∞ n2 converges.n=0 12 .1 is a continuous function on [−T /2.

8) to write the right-hand side of (4. fn = (sin na)/nπ for n = 0 and f0 = a/π and gn = (sin nb)/nπ for n = 0 and g0 = b/π. π3 (2k + 1)3 k=0 4. Hence. b The function f is the sum of g and h with period 2 deﬁned for −1 < t ≤ 1 by g(t) = t and h(t) = t2 for −1 < t ≤ 0 and h(t) = −t2 for 0 < t ≤ 1. they decrease as 1/n3 .10) follows. For even n we have (−1)n − 1 = 0 while for odd n this will equal −2. Since f (t) = 2 for −1 < t < 0 and f (t) = −2 for 0 < t < 1 we see that f is discontinuous. P 1 Use (3.13 .4. 8 (2k − 1)2 k=1 ∞ 4. so from (4. and ﬁnally split the sum into a sum from n = 1 to ∞ and a sum from n = −1 to −∞. a The Fourier coeﬃcients are (see table 1 or section 3.6.14) as a2 /4 + 2 ∞ (a2 + b2 ). the fundamental theorem for odd functions to obtain f (t) = ∞ 8 X sin(2k + 1)πt .4. If 2 we substitute t = π into the Fourier series. then (4.13) and calculate the R a/2 integral (1/π) −a/2 1 dt (note that a ≤ b).10 4. Since g is a sawtooth.10) results: X π2 1 = . Calculating the deﬁning limits for f from below and from above at t = 0 we see that f (0) = 1 and since f (0+) = 1 = f (0−) it follows that f is continuous at t = 0.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 4 13 b From the fundamental theorem it follows that the series will converge to 1 (f (π+) + f (π−)) = π/2 at t = π (note that at π there is a jump). We have that f (t) = 2t+1 for −1 < t < 0 and f (t) = −2t+1 for 0 < t < 1. 1] and its Fourier coeﬃcients have been determined in the ﬁrst example of section 3. b Use that sin2 (nπ/2) = 1 for n odd and 0 for n even. the Fourier coeﬃcients are cn = (−1)n i/πn (see section 3. 0 n n=1 n a The Fourier coeﬃcients of f and g are (see table 1 or section 3.g.1).12 Now substitute t = 1/2 and use that f (1/2) = 1/4 and sin((2k + 1)π/2) = (−1)n to obtain the required result. Substitute into Parseval (4. Take all constants together and then again (as in exercise 4. By linearity one obtains the Fourier coeﬃcients of f . The function h is the odd extension of −t2 on (0. take π to the other side of the 4 =-sign.2 and use that sin2 (nπ/2) = 1 for n odd and 0 for n even): cn = 2/n2 π 2 for n odd. c Use e. The required result then follows. Similarly it follows that f is continuous at t = 1. In terms of the an and bn they become an = 0 and bn = 4(1 − (−1)n )/π 3 n3 .3). it then follows that (calculate the integral occurring in this formula): ∞ 1 1 8 X 1 = + 2 3 4 π (2k − 1)4 k=1 4.14).7) split the sum into a sum from n = 1 to ∞ and a sum from n = −1 to −∞. respectively. then it follows that ∞ X (−1)n − 1 π =2 (−1)n 2 n2 π n=1 (the terms with (−1)n i/n cancel each other). 0 for n = 0 even and c0 = 1/2. then multiply by 2. so (4. From Parseval for f = g.4.9 a From f (0+) = 0 = f (0−) and f (1−) = 0 = f ((−1)+) it follows that f is continuous.

where cn are the Fourier coeﬃcients of f . then it follows that limn→±∞ n2 cn = 0. a The Fourier coeﬃcients have been determined in exercise 3.19 4. so cn = (an − ibn )/2 and c−n = (an + ibn )/2 (n ∈ N).10. Now apply the Riemann-Lebesgue lemma to cn . the other two can be taken together and lead to the desired result. Since f is piecewise smooth. n=1 90 Rb Rb Ra Since a f (t) dt = −T /2 f (t) dt − −T /2 f (t) dt. we obtain the following Fourier series: 4. Two of the inﬁnite sums cancel out (the ones representing h0 in theorem 4.8).25: c1 = 1/(4i).9 twice. c−1 = −1/(4i) and ((−1)n + 1)/(2(1 − n2 )π) for n = 1.14 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 4 (again we split the sum in a part from n = 1 to ∞ and from n = −1 to −∞). + 4 16 k 96 16 96 k=1 4.9).20 This again follows as in exercise 4.16 4. 2n + 1 b Since Z t cos(2n + 1)t 1 sin(2n + 1)τ dτ = − − .8). a 4 π The Fourier series is given by ∞ X n=0 4.10) we see that the constant in this series equals −π/2.22 . as in the proof of theorem 4. n4 (2k)4 (2k + 1)4 n=1 k=1 k=0 it follows from part a that S= ∞ 1 π4 π4 1 X 1 = S+ . −1. Rt c The series in part b represents the function −π f (τ ) dτ (theorem 4. we can apply theorem 4. Since f is continuous.17 sin(2n + 1)t . 2n + 1 2n + 1 −π the integrated series becomes − ∞ ∞ 4X 1 4 X cos(2n + 1)t − .16).15 by using (3. But cn = inω0 cn by theorem 2 4. 4.10. b Since S= ∞ ∞ ∞ X 1 X 1 X 1 = + . d Subtracting π from the Fourier series of | t | in exercise 3.16 from (3. It then follows that cn = inω0 cn .9 or better still. π n=0 (2n + 1)2 π n=0 (2n + 1)2 From (4. we can apply integration by parts. f is piecewise continuous and so the Fourier coeﬃcients cn of f exist.6 we obtain a Fourier series for g(t) which is in accordance with the result from part b. Take all constants together and multiply by π 2 /8. then the required result follows. This follows from exercise 4. Calculating this integral we obtain the function g(t) with period 2π given for −π < t ≤ π by g(t) = | t | − π. exercise 4. Taking positive and negative n in the series together.15 P 4 1 Solving for S we obtain ∞ n4 = π . so cn = −n2 ω0 cn .

. . .30 .29 Use table 1 to obtain the Fourier coeﬃcients and then apply Parseval.141 . bn = 2 t sin nt dt + sin nt dt = 2 2 sin(nπ/2) − π 0 π π/2 n π nπ Since sin(nπ/2) = 0 if n even and (−1)k if n = 2k + 1.. a From the deﬁnition of Si(x) it follows that Si (x) = sin x/x. b The value at the ﬁrst maximum is Si(π). d We can integrate the series since theorem 4.10 we may thus diﬀerentiate f by diﬀerentiating its Fourier series for t = nπ: f (t) = ∞ 1 4X k cos t − sin 2kt. the Fourier series converges to f (t) for all t ∈ R: 4. that is. The bn can be found using an integration by parts: Z π/2 Z 2(−1)n 4 2 π 4 . For x > 0 we thus have Si (x) = 0 for x = kπ with k ∈ N. According to theorem 4.%. For t = (2k+1)π it converges to (f (t+)+f (t−))/2 = 0.26 Write down the expression for Si(−x) and change from the variable t to −t. 2 for t = 0. (4. If we put g(t) = −π f (τ ) dτ .570 .. so the overshoot is 8.852 . which is 2t/π for 0 ≤ | t | < π/2. while it equals −1/2 for t = π. Calculating the integral in Parseval’s identity will then give the ﬁrst result. Note that theorem 4. . Since Si(π) = 1. then it follows that Si(−x) = −Si(−x). the overshoot is 0. 2 4. the Fourier series is − ∞ ∞ 4 X (−1)n 2 X (−1)n sin nt + 2 sin(2n + 1)t.281 . a The Fourier series has been determined in the last example of section 3. c We cannot diﬀerentiate the series. 2 π 1 − 4k2 k=1 At t = nπ the diﬀerentiated series converges to (f (t+) + f (t−))/2. So Si (x) = 0 if sin x/x = 0. . . then g is even. . .9 can be applied (note that Rt c0 = 0). π n=1 n π n=0 (2n + 1)2 4.. and π/2 = 1. 1 for π/2 ≤ t < π and −1 for −π < t ≤ −π/2. 2 π π 1 − 4k2 k=1 b The derivative f exists for all t = nπ (n ∈ Z) and is piecewise smooth. A candidate for the ﬁrst maximum is thus x = π.95 . a The function f is continuous for t = (2k + 1)π (k ∈ Z) and it then converges to f (t).Answers to selected exercises for chapter 4 15 ∞ 1 1 2X 1 sin t + + cos 2kt. Hence.6. − 1 for t = π. .13). the resulting series is divergent because limn→∞ (−1)n cos nt = 0.28 Substituting t = 0 and t = π it is easy to verify the fundamental theorem for these values. . 4. Since f is continuous (and piecewise smooth).10 doesn’t apply since f is not continuous.25 4. The jump of f at x = 0 is π = 3. cos t for 0 < t < π. periodic with period 2π and given by (t2 /π)−(3π/4) for 0 ≤ t < π/2 and by t−π for π/2 ≤ t ≤ π. so about 9%. choosing a = π/2 gives the second result. the diﬀerentiated series is a periodic function with period 2π which is given by 0 for 1 −π < t < 0. b Since f is odd we have an = 0 for all n. it follows that Si(x) indeed has its ﬁrst maximum at x = π. Since sin x/x > 0 for 0 < x < π and sin x/x < 0 for π < x < 2π. which equals 1/2 for t = 0.

Hence. Since 1 ≤ t + 1 ≤ 2.31 a Since f1 is odd it follows that Z 1 T /2 (f1 ∗ f2 )(−t) = − f1 (t + τ )f2 (τ ) dτ. and so close to τ = 1 the function f (t − τ ) is given by t − τ . Only at t = 0 we have that f ∗ f is not diﬀerentiable. the result follows. while for 0 < t < 1 we have (f ∗ f ) (t) = −t + 1. It is also periodic with period 2. and so we indeed obtain (4. since f (0) = 0 and cos 2nt = 1 for all n. then it follows that (f1 ∗ f2 )(−t) = (f1 ∗ f2 )(t).10. π π n=1 4n2 − 1 b First substitute t = 0 in the Fourier series. part a implies that f ∗ f is even. the ﬁrst result follows. But t − τ ≥ 1 precisely when τ ≤ t − 1. Next substitute t = π/2 in the Fourier series. the function f (t − τ ) is given by t − τ − 2 close to τ = −1. (f ∗ f )(t) = 2 −1 2 t−1 It is now straightforward to calculate the convolution product. b The convolution product equals Z 1 1 (f ∗ f )(t) = τ f (t − τ ) dτ. T −T /2 Now change the variable from τ to −τ and use that f2 is odd.13). The result is (f ∗ f )(t) = −t2 /2 + t − 1/3. Since −1 ≤ τ ≤ 1 and 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 we see that t − 1 ≤ t − τ ≤ t + 1. or the alternative form given in exercise 4.3 or table 1 we obtain the Fourier coeﬃcients cn of the sawtooth f and applying the convolution theorem gives the Fourier coeﬃcients of (f ∗ f )(t). we have to split the integral precisely at the point where t − τ gets larger than 1. the second result follows. (f ∗ f ) (t) is continuous at t = 1. c One should recognize the squares of the Fourier coeﬃcients here. 2 e For −1 < t < 0 we have (f ∗ f ) (t) = −t − 1. because precisely then the function changes from t − τ to t − τ − 2. 2 −1 Since f is odd. 1].14). This leads to Z π ∞ 1 4 1 X 16 sin2 t dt = 2 + . At t = 0 the diﬀerentiated series converges to ((f ∗ f ) (0+) + (f ∗ f ) (0−))/2 = (1 − 1)/2 = 0. since f (π/2) = 1 and cos 2nt = (−1)n for all n. First note that f is given by f (t) = t − 2 for 1 < t ≤ 2.16 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 4 f (t) = ∞ 2 4X 1 − cos 2nt. since f is odd and real-valued we can write R1 (f ∗ f )(0) = 1 −1 | f (τ ) |2 dτ . so it is suﬃcient to calculate (f ∗ f )(t) for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. From 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 it follows that −1 ≤ t − 1 ≤ 0. Hence we have to apply Parseval’s identity (4. Since f ∗ f is given by −t2 /2 + t − 1/3 for 0 < t < 2.4. except at t = 0. So theorem 4. f The zeroth Fourier coeﬃcient of f ∗ f is given by . c From section 3.10 implies that the diﬀerentiated series represents the function (f ∗ f ) (t) on [−1. 4. 0 n d Take t = 0 in part c. and so we have to split the integral at t − 1: Z Z 1 1 1 t−1 τ (t − τ − 2) dτ + τ (t − τ ) dτ. 2 2π −π π 2π n=1 (4n2 − 1)2 Rπ Since −π sin2 t dt = π. namely c2 = 0 and c2 = −1/π 2 n2 (n = 0).

Answers to selected exercises for chapter 4 17 1 2 Z 1 Z (f ∗ f )(t) dt = 0 1 (−t2 /2 + t − 1/3) dt = 0. we can apply theorem 4. The function represented by the Rt integrated series is given by the (periodic) function −1 (f ∗ f )(τ ) dτ .9. −1 This is in agreement with the result in part c since c2 = 0. Since this 0 coeﬃcient is 0. −1 0 . since f is even and for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 it equals Z 0 Z t (−τ 2 /2 − τ − 1/3) dτ + (−τ 2 /2 + τ − 1/3) dτ = −t(t − 1)(t − 2)/6. It is also odd.

Note that u has period π and that the integral to be calculated is thus the zeroth Fourier coeﬃcient of y. It thus follows that the Fourier coeﬃcients unequal to 0 are given by u−4 = u4 = 1/4. 12 + 8i 4 4 2 12 − 8i 4 It is a good exercise to write this with real terms only: y(t) = 5.4 5. we only need to consider the Fourier coeﬃcients of y with | n | ≤ 3.5 H(ω) = Since H(ω) = 0 for ω = ±1.6 45 30 1 cos 4t + sin 4t + . 104 104 8 We have that 1 H(ω) = . so the system cannot be described by a diﬀerential equation (5. u−1 = −1/2i. y2k+1 = (−1)k . Fundamental solutions of the homogeneous equations are of the form˛ x(t) ˛= tl est .1 For a stable LTC-system the real parts of the zeroes of the characteristic polynomial are negative. Since H(ω) = 1/(iω + 1) and yn = H(nω0 )un = H(n)un it then follows that y0 = 5. it follows that y0 = −u0 = − π 0 u(t) dt = 2 −π.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 5 5. From Parseval it then P 2 follows that P = 3 n=−3 | yn | with yn as calculated in exercise 5. (1 + (2k + 1)i)(2k + 1)π a The frequency response is not a rational function. The Fourier coeﬃcients of u are u0 = 1 . 2 −ω 2 + ω0 18 . This 1 20 sum is equal to P = 4 + 9π2 . so use table 1 and the fact that sin(nπ/2) = (−1)k for n = 2k+1 odd and 0 for n even). b Since H(nω0 ) = H(n) = 0 for | n | ≥ 4 (because 4 > π). 2 y2k = 0. Any homogeneous solution is a linear combination of the fundamental solutions. u2k+1 = (−1)k (2k + 1)π 5. where s is such a zero and l ≥ 0 some integer. Since y0 = H(0ω0 )u0 = H(0)u0 R and H(0) = π 1 −1 (see example 5. Since ˛ tl est ˛ = | t |l e(Re s)t and Re s < 0 we have that limt→∞ x(t) = 0.2π . the frequencies blocked by the system are ω = ±1. 2 u2k = 0. −ω 2 + 4 + 2iω 5. b Write u(t) = e−4it /4 − e−it /2i + 1/2 + eit /2i + e4it /4.2 (u = pπ. Since yn = H(nω0 )un = H(n)un and H(1) = H(−1) = 0 we thus obtain that y(t) = y−4 e−4it + y−1 e−it + y0 + y1 eit + y4 e4it 15 1 1 1 15 1 = · e−4it + · + · e4it .4) the frequency response is given by −ω 2 + 1 .3 1 .2. u1 = 1/2i and u0 = 1/2. a According to (5.3).6 for H(ω)).

13). ut = kuxx ux (0. Since Tn (t) remains as in the textbook (for other parameters).12) and (5. So we must have es1 L + e−s1 L = 0. with initial condition (5. The function X(x) should satisfy X (x) − cX(x) = 0 for 0 < x < L. The result is: An = (4L/n2 π 2 ) sin(nπ/2) (which is 0 for n even). implying that e2s1 L = −1. u(L. 0) = ∞ X n=0 An cos((2n + 1)πx/2L) = 7 cos(5πx/2L).15). −n2 +ω0 n For the thin rod the heat equation (5. .8) holds on (0. Substituting t = 0 (and using the remaining initial condition) leads to u(x. For c = 0 the characteristic equation s2 − c = 0 has two distinct roots ±s1 . t > 0.7 1 2u . . Superposition gives u(x. 5. This leads to the fundamental solutions (5. 2. u2k+1 = 2 . 0) = 7 cos(5πx/2L) b Separation of variables leads to (5.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 5 19 Since | ω0 | is not an integer. 2 π n=0 (2n + 1)2 5. For c = 0 we obtain the trivial solution. We thus obtain the (formal) solution u(x. L 0 L L/2 which can be calculated using an integration by parts.9 a The heat equation and initial conditions are as follows: for 0 < x < L. The general solution is then X(x) = αes1 x + βe−s1 x .2π (t) the Fourier coeﬃcients of u follow immediately from table 1: u0 = π . t) = 0 u(x.). we have thus found the fundamental solutions un (x. The initial condition leads to a Fourier series with coeﬃcients Z Z 2 L/2 2 L An = x sin(nπx/L) dx + (L − x) sin(nπx/L) dx. 2 u2k = 0(k = 0). X (0) = 0 and X(L) = 0. This gives us eigenfunctions Xn (x) = cos((2n + 1)πx/2L) (n = 0. t) = e−(2n+1) 2 π 2 kt/4L2 cos((2n + 1)πx/2L). for t ≥ 0. so β = α. 3. There is thus a uniquely determined periodic solution y corresponding to u. t) = 0. (2k + 1)2 π 2 the line spectrum of y Since yn = H(nω0 )un = H(n)un = follows. so X (x) = s1 αes1 x − s1 βe−s1 x . for 0 ≤ x ≤ L.16) is build. . there are no homogeneous solutions having period 2π. The ﬁrst boundary condition X (0) = 0 gives s1 (α − β) = 0. from which the superposition (5. Next we obtain from the second boundary condition X(L) = 0 the equation α(es1 L + e−s1 L ) = 0. For α = 0 we get the trivial solution. t) = ∞ X n=0 An e−(2n+1) 2 π 2 kt/4L2 cos((2n + 1)πx/2L). L).9). From this it follows that s1 = i(2n + 1)π/2L. Since u(t) = πqπ. while u does have period 2π. . 1. t) = ∞ 4L X (−1)n −(2n+1)2 π2 kt/L2 e sin((2n + 1)πx/L).

20 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 5 Since the right-hand side consists of one harmonic only.12 The equations are given by (5.05 sin(4πx/L) for 0 ≤ x ≤ L. The non-trivial solution are Tn (t) = cos(nat) (n = 0. . so β = α. ut = kuxx u(0.(5.2 of the textbook and lead to the solution u(x.17) . implying that e2s1 π = 1. For T (t) we get the equation T (t) + n2 a2 T (t) = 0. it follows that A4 = 0. 5. . t) = 0 u(x.) and we have thus found the fundamental solutions un (x. Superposition gives u(x. ux (L. For c = 0 the characteristic equation s2 − c = 0 has two distinct roots ±s1 . The boundary condition X (0) = 0 gives s1 (α − β) = 0. t) = 0. 1.). 0) = f (x) b Going through the steps one obtains the same fundamental solutions as in exercise 5. for t ≥ 0. t > 0. since f (x) is not given explicitly. . Substituting t = 0 (and using the remaining initial condition) gives u(x. so u(x. so c = 0 is an eigenvalue with eigenfunction X(x) = 1. t) = 2 2 7e−25π kt/4L cos(5πx/2L). Substituting t = 0 (and using the remaining initial condition) leads to u(x.05 sin(4πx/L).11 a The equations are for 0 < x < L.05 and An = 0 for all n = 4. t) = ∞ X n=1 An cos(nπat/L) sin(nπx/L).05 cos(4πat/L) sin(4πx/L).19).9. for 0 ≤ x ≤ L. where we only need to substitute the given initial condition in (5. 2. so X (x) = s1 αes1 x − s1 βe−s1 x . . 3. . it follows that A2 = 7 and An = 0 for all n = 2. For c = 0 we obtain the constant solution. . So we must have es1 π − e−s1 π = 0. t) = 0. From the boundary condition X (π) = 0 we obtain s1 α(es1 π − e−s1 π ) = 0. The coeﬃcients An cannot be determined explicitly here. t) = ∞ X n=0 An cos(nat) cos(nx). The solution is thus u(x. 0) = 0 we obtain T (0) = 0. X (0) = X (π) = 0. From the initial condition ut (x. 5. This gives us eigenfunctions Xn (x) = cos(nx) (n = 0.2. 1. 0) = ∞ X n=1 An sin(nπx/L) = 0. 0) = 0. 0) = ∞ X n=0 An cos(nx) = kx for 0 < x < π. 3. Since the right-hand side consists of one harmonic only. The general solution is then X(x) = αes1 x + βe−s1 x . 2. t) = cos(nat) cos(nx). 5. For α = 0 we get the trivial solution. From this it follows that s1 = ni.20). The solution is thus u(x. .15 Separation of variables leads to X (x) − cX(x) = 0 for 0 < x < π. All steps to be taken are the same as in section 5.

b Since we can write sin ω0 t = (eiω0 t − e−iω0 t )/2i. which is 0 since H(2πn) = 0 for The response is n=−∞ H(2πn)un e all n.10). An = 4u0 /nπ for n odd. t) = ∞ kπ 4k X 1 − cos((2n + 1)at) cos((2n + 1)x). These are easy te determine (either by hand or using tables 1 and 2): An = 0 for n even. π n=1 n . which is ((1 − e−2iω0 )2 eiω0 t − (1 − e2iω0 )2 e−iω0 t )/2i. where now the An are the Fourier coeﬃcients of the function u0 on [0. This gives u(x. t) = ∞ 2 2 2 4u0 X 1 e−(2n+1) π kt/L sin((2n + 1)πx/L). then it follows For the rod we have equations (5. L]. which gives the (formal) solution u(x. From Parseval and the relation yn = H(nω0 )un we obtain that the power is given by Z 2π/3 ∞ ∞ X X 3 P = | y(t) |2 dt = | yn |2 = | H(nω0 )un |2 . 5. 5.18 Now use that only u3 = u−3 = that P = 1/50.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 5 21 Rπ Rπ We have A0 = (2/π) 0 kx dx = kπ and An = (2/π) 0 kx cos(nx) dx for n = 0.19 and that all other un are 0. The solution is thus u(x. 2 π n=0 (2n + 1)2 5. The An are R L/2 given by (2/L) 0 a sin(nπx/L) dx = 2a(1 − cos(nπ/2))/nπ.10).16). 2π 0 n=−∞ n=−∞ We have that H(ω) = 1 + iω . c A signal with period 1 has Fourier series of the form ∞ n=−∞ un e P∞ 2πint .(5. But see part b! b Since here the input has period 2π/3. The solution is thus given by (5. t) = ∞ 2 2 2 2a X 1 (1 − cos(nπ/2))e−n π kt/L sin(nπx/L).20 a As in the previous exercise the solution is given by (5. we do have a unique response. 4 − ω 2 + iω(4 − ω 2 ) 1 2 5. The zeroes on the imaginary axis correspond to periodic eigenfrequencies with period π and so the response to a periodic signal is not always uniquely determined. 2 π n=0 (2n + 1) Substituting x = L/2 in the x-derivative and using the fact that cos((2n + 1)π/2) = 0 for all n leads to ux (L/2. where we have to take f (x) = u0 in (5.16).8) . the response is equal to (H(ω0 )eiω0 t − H(−ω0 )e−iω0 t )/2i. which can be calculated by an integration by parts: An = 0 for n even (n = 0) and An = −4k/n2 π for n odd. a The characteristic equation is s3 + s2 + 4s + 4 = (s2 + 4)(s + 1) = 0 and has zeroes s = −1 and s = ±2i. P 2πint .16 a From H(−ω) = H(ω) and yn = H(nω0 )un follows that the response y(t) to a real signal u(t) is real: since u−n = un we also have y−n = yn . This can be rewritten as sin ω0 t − 2 sin(ω0 (t − 2)) + sin(ω0 (t − 4)). t) = 0.

using only the contibution from the terms n = 1. 2. k = 0.15 and a = 100.0000308t = 36 (terms of the series tend to 0 very rapidly. 600). t) from part a then gives the temperature distribution.4. substitute x = 20 in u(x. L = 40. a = 100.005. which is approximately 5 hours. t) from part a. We then obtain 18509 seconds. 600) ≈ 36. 3.662e−0. t) ≈ 63. so we have to calculate u(20. so two terms suﬃce). On the boundary between the rods we have x = 20. . and now use only the ﬁrst two terms of the series to obtain the equation u(20. Substituting t = 600 in u(x. c Take k = 0. 4 we obtain u(20.22 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 5 b The two rods together form one rod and so part a can be applied with L = 40.

17) and table 3 for the spectrum of e−7| t | . which is the Fourier integral for t = 0. F (ω) = 2i b Using Taylor or De l’Hˆpital it follows that limω→0 F (ω) = 0 = F (0).2 R∞ We have to calculate (the improper integral) −∞ e−iωt dt.3 if we write a = α + iβ and use that e−(a+iω)R = e−αR e−i(β+ω)R . 6. obtain the spectrum of p2π (t) from table 3 and apply part a (and use the fact that sin(πω ± π) = − sin(ωπ)).7 From the linearity and table 3 it follows that F (ω) = 6. F (0) = 0. which can be calculated for ω = 0 using an integration by parts. b The imaginary part of G(ω) is −ω/(a2 + ω 2 ) and applying the substituR 1 tion rule gives ω/(a2 + ω 2 ) dω = 2 ln(a2 + ω 2 ). The result is: G(ω) = 2(cos ω − 1) 2 sin ω + . but we now have to determine limB→∞ e−iωB .1 6. De l’Hˆpital’s rule). ω2 − 1 23 . 6. then F (ω) = 7 7 + . so this improper integral.3. 2 4+ω aω 2 Use (6.g.g.). Since limω→0 sin ω/ω = 1 and 1 limω→0 (cos ω − 1)/ω 2 = − 2 (use e.4 Changing R from the variable t to −t in the second integral we obtain that 1 G(ω) = 2 0 t cos ωt dt. ω ω2 R1 For ω = 0 we have that G(0) = 2 0 t dt = 1.5 a Calculating the integral we have that cos(aω/2) − 1 ω for ω = 0.9 a From the shift property in the frequency domain (and linearity) it follows that the spectrum of f (t) sin at is F (ω − a)/2i − F (ω + a)/2i. c We have lima→0 g(t) = lima→0 (t)e−at = (t). This limit does not exist.8 sin2 (aω/2) 12 + 8i . R∞ a We have to calculate G(ω) = 0 e−(a+iω)t dt. b Write f (t) = p2π (t) sin t.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 6 6. If we let R → ∞ then this tends to 0 since α > 0. we obtain that o limω→0 G(ω) = G(0). 49 + (ω − π)2 49 + (ω + π)2 6. so G is continuous. Proceed as in eaxample 6. which can be done precisely as in section 6. while for ω = 0 we have that lima→0 G(ω) = −i/ω. o so F is continuous. then F (ω) = 2i sin(πω) . does not exits (limA→∞ ln(a2 + A2 ) does not exist e. 0 −1 6. To calculate the spectrum we split the integral at t = 0: Z 1 Z 0 G(ω) = te−iωt dt − te−iωt dt.1.

Use the fact that limx→∞ xa e−x = 0 for all a ∈ R and change to the variable 2 x = at2 in tk /eat (separate the cases t ≥ 0 and t < 0). is not bounded. hence. 6.2) and the modulation theorem 6. which can be calculated using an integration by parts.20 6.21 6. The result is indeed equal to the formula given in example 6. then we indeed obtain the same result as in part a. b We have F (−ω) = F (ω) (by part a) and since | F (ω) | = (F (ω)F (ω))1/2 .2) and exercise 6.16 −2iω . then the result follows: (a+iω)−2 . a From the diﬀerentiation rule (and diﬀerentiating the Fourier transform √ √ 2 of the Gauss function. 1 + ω2 6.14 R a/2 The spectrum is given by −a/2 te−iωt dt.3 (or exercise 6.3. Since f and g belong to S. Then part a follows and. (a + iω)2 + b2 Similarly it follows from section 6.17 6. Use table 3 for (t)e−at and then apply the diﬀerentiation rule in the frequency domain. Two examples are the constant function f (t) = 0 (k arbitrary).3 (or exercise 6. tn (f (t)g(t))(m) will be a sum of terms belonging to S. b If we divide the Fourier transform of −f (t) by 2a. Using exercise 6.17.9a that (F (t)e−at sin bt)(ω) = 6. Calculate the spectrum in a direct way using exactly the same techniques as in example 6.19 6.3 (or use (6. (Diﬀerentiate (a+iω)−1 just as one would diﬀerentiate a real function. and so the result follows.10 Use section 6.3. and thus F (ω) is real.20) and twice an integration by parts): F (ω) = 6. part b also follows since we have a ﬁnite sum of these terms. The function t3 (1 + t2 )−1 e.18 6. of course) it follows that −iω πe−ω /4a /(2a a) is the spectrum of tf (t).17a we obtain the √ 2 function te−t /2 with k = −i 2π.22 .3.g. 6. it follows that | F (ω) | = | F (−ω) |. then it follows that F (ω) = ∞ −2i 0 f (t) sin ωt dt. then (F (t)e−at cos bt)(ω) = a + iω . and the √ 2 Gauss function e−t /2 with k = 2π. Apply the product rule repeatedly to get an expression in terms of the derivatives of f and g (this involves the binomial coeﬃcients and is sometimes called Leibniz rule).3.12 Write Z F (ω) = 0 ∞ b .13 a We have F (−ω) = F (ω) and F (ω) is even.) The function e−a| t | is not diﬀerentiable at t = 0. and write the result as one fraction. (a + iω)2 + b2 0 f (t)e−iωt dt + Z f (t)e−iωt dt −∞ and R change from t to −t in the second integral. so F (ω) = F (ω).24 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 6 6.

25 6. Calculating this and taking the results together we obtain 4/(1 + ω 2 )2 . then it follows that ( ∗ )(t) = (t)t. Furthermore we have for τ < t that − | t − τ | = τ − t and for t ≤ τ < 0 that − | t − τ | = t − τ . Hence. 6. we have Z 1/2 (p1 ∗ p3 )(t) = p3 (t − τ ) dτ. 0 t −∞ A straightforward calculation of these integrals gives (1 − t)et . c Since (1 + | t |)e−| t | = e−| t | + | t | e−| t | and the spectrum of e−| t | is 2(1 + ω 2 )−1 . −1/2 6. Z ∞ Z 0 Z t (e−| v | ∗ e−| v | )(t) = et−2τ dτ + et dτ + e2τ −t dτ. Then − | t − τ | = τ −t for τ < 0. b Use the result from section 6. For t ≥ 0 it equals 0 f (τ )g(t − τ ) dτ . R∞ From the causality of f it follows that (f ∗ g)(t) = 0 f (τ )g(t − τ ) dτ . But f (t) = tg(t) with g(t) the function from exercise 6. then F5 (ω) = G(ω/4)/4. Then − | t − τ | = t−τ for τ > 0. whose spectrum we’ve already determined: G(ω) = −2iω(1 + ω 2 )−1 . in agreement with part b. Since (F tg(t))(0) = 0. 0 t −∞ A straightforward calculation of these integrals gives (1 + t)e−t .28 a From the diﬀerentiation rule in the frequency domain we obtain that √ 2 the spectrum of tg(t) is iG (ω) = −iω 2πe−ω /2 . (If t ≤ 0.3. a We use the deﬁnition of convolution and then split the integral at τ = 0: Z ∞ Z 0 (e−| v | ∗ e−| v | )(t) = e−τ e−| t−τ | dτ + eτ e−| t−τ | dτ. Hence. b Apply the diﬀerentiation rule in the frequency domain with n = 2.29 . e Use the scaling property from table 4 with c = 4. For Rt t < 0 this is 0. c Since f3 (t) = f2 (t − 1). Now treat the cases t > 0 and t ≤ 0 separately. 1 1 b Since p1 (τ ) = 0 for | τ | > 2 and 1 for | τ | < 2 .23 6.9 it follows that F4 (ω) = (− 2πe−(ω−4) /2 + √ 2 2πe−(ω+4) /2 )/2i. then √ 2 F2 (ω) = 2π(1 − ω 2 )e−ω /2 . the function ( ∗ )(t) is not absolutely integrable. if t > 0 then (t − τ ) = 0 for Rt τ > t and the integral 0 1 dτ = t remains. √ 2 d From part a and exercise 6. we only need to determine the spectrum of f (t) = | t | e−| t | .Answers to selected exercises for chapter 6 25 6.14. 0 −∞ First we take t ≥ 0. then t − τ < 0 for τ > 0 and so (t − τ ) = 0. √ 2 we may apply the integration rule to obtain that F1 (ω) = − 2πe−ω /2 .) Since (t)t is not absolutely integrable. it follows from the shift property that F3 (ω) = e−iω F2 (ω). Z t Z ∞ Z 0 (e−| v | ∗ e−| v | )(t) = e−t dτ + et−2τ dτ + e2τ −t dτ. Furthermore we have for τ > t that − | t − τ | = t − τ and for 0 ≤ τ < t that − | t − τ | = τ − t.26 R∞ We have that ( ∗ )(t) = 0 (t − τ ) dτ .8 (diﬀerentiation rule in the frequency domain): the spectrum of f (t) is −G (ω)/i. Apply theorem 6. Next we take t < 0.3 and the convolution theorem to obtain the spectrum (2(1 + ω 2 )−1 )2 = 4/(1 + ω 2 )2 .

if −2 ≤ t < −1. and so we have to separate the cases as indicated in the textbook: if t > 2. R t+3/2 then (p1 ∗ p3 )(t) = −1/2 1 dτ = 2 + t. if −1 ≤ t ≤ 1.26 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 6 Here p3 (t − τ ) = 0 only if t − 3/2 ≤ τ ≤ t + 3/2. then (p1 ∗ p3 )(t) = −1/2 1 dτ = 1. then also R 1/2 (p1 ∗ p3 )(t) = 0. Moreover. . if R 1/2 1 < t ≤ 2. then (p1 ∗ p3 )(t) = 0. if t < −2. we have that −1/2 ≤ τ ≤ 1/2. ﬁnally. then the spectrum of T (t) follows: 4 sin(ω/2) sin(3ω/2)/ω 2 . c Apply the convolution theorem to T (t) = (p1 ∗p3 )(t). then (p1 ∗ p3 )(t) = t−3/2 1 dτ = 2 − t.

so it R∞ is integrable over e.4 7.8 a In exercise 6. The integral in the right-hand side is convergent. A] of these parts gives limA→∞ 2 arctan A = π for the real part and limA→∞ (ln(1 + A2 ) − ln(1 + (−A)2 )) = 0 for the imaginary part. We now show that the improper integral of F (ω) exists. b Apply the fundamental theorem. f (t) = π 0 1 − ω2 7.g.2 7. The limit of A → ∞ of the integrals over [−A. As an example we have from exercise 6. F (ω) is continuous on R according to theorem 6.10.2 that limω→±∞ 1/(a + iω) = 0. 2]. the integrals 2 F (ω) dω and R −2 F (ω) dω both exist. then Z 1 ∞ cos(π − t)ω − cos(π + t)ω dω.3 7. The R∞ Rπ function f (t) is absolutely integrable since −∞ | f (t) | dt = −π | sin t | dt < ∞. This exercise used the odd extension to R.2 to 6.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 7 7. then Z ∞ 2i sin(πω) iωt 1 f (t) = e dω 2π −∞ ω 2 − 1 for all t ∈ R (f is continuous). [−2. a In exercise 6.6 7. Moreover. Secondly.9b it was shown that F (ω) = 2i sin(πω)/(ω 2 − 1).15b it was shown that Fs (ω) = (1 − cos aω)/ω. A→∞ 0 A→∞ 0 u v 2 Split 1/(a+iω) into the real part 1/(1+ω 2 ) and the imaginary part −ω/(1+ ω 2 ). π 0 ω 27 . So f (t) is odd and using (7.12) we thus obtain Z 2 ∞ 1 − cos aω 1 sin ωt dω = (f (t+) + f (t−)).5 it follows immediately that the limits for ω → ±∞ are indeed 0: they are all fractions with a bounded numerator and a denominator that tends to ±∞. then it follows by ﬁrst changing from the variable Au to v and then applying (7. Use table 3 with a = 2A and substitute ω = s − t. f (t) is piecewise smooth. First. Take C > 0.1 From the spectra calculated in exerices 6. For the former integral this can be shown as −∞ follows (the other integral can be treated similarly): ˛Z ∞ ˛ Z ∞ ˛ ˛ 2 ˛ F (ω) dω ˛ ≤ dω ˛ ˛ ω2 − 1 2 2 since | 2i sin(πω) | ≤ 2 (and ω 2 − 1 > 0 for ω > 2).3) that Z C Z AC sin Au sin v π lim du = lim dv = . Now use that F (ω) is an odd function and that 2 sin πω sin ωt = cos(π − t)ω − cos(π + t)ω. so all conditions of the fundamental theorem are satisﬁed. π 0 ω 2 Since f (t) is continuous for t > 0 and t = a we have for these values that Z 2 ∞ 1 − cos aω f (t) = sin ωt dω.

17 7. this is an important exercise: it teaches to recognize useful properties for the inverse transform.16 7. (We can apply duality since the Fourier integral exists as improper integral.5b). piecewise smooth. We now prove the converse. then G(ω) = 0 and so we get the statement: if F (ω) = 0 on R. the result follows: πe−iω e−| ω | . As in a we complete√the square and note that 1/(3 + (t − 2)2 ) √ has spectrum F (ω) = πe−2iω e− 3| ω | / 3.28 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 7 b At t = a the function is discontinuous. so duality cannot be applied. the result is now (F (ω − 4) − F (ω + 4))/2i. then one can apply a shift in time: f (t) = 1/(1 + (t − 1)2 ).4 with spectra F (ω) and G(ω) and assume that F (ω) = G(ω) on R.14 7. a Complete the square.2). Because of the linearity of the Fourier transform. F (ω) ≤ 1/ω 2 for ω ≥ 1). Hence f (t) = g(t) at all points where f (t) and g(t) are continuous. b Apply a shift in the frequency domain to the spectrum πp2a (ω) of sin(at)/t. and absolutely integrable and since its Fourier integral exists as improper integral. so f (t) = 2 cos(ω0 t) sin(at)/(πt). b Here we have a shift from t to t − 3.4. at ω = ±a/2 we should take the value π/2. then the result is 3πe−iω q6 (ω). From duality it then follows that the spectrum of sin(at/2)/t is πpa (ω) at the points where pa (t) is continuous. The spectrum of pa (t) is 2 sin(aω/2)/ω (table 3).11 7.9 (a variant of the modulation theorem). c As in part b it follows that f (t) = 3e9it /(π(t2 + 9)). but (F − G)(ω) = F (ω) − G(ω) = 0. (F −G)(ω) is the spectrum of (f − g)(t). now divide by 2π. Hence.15 7. then it follows that f (t) = (eiω0 t + e−iω0 t ) sin(at)/(πt). (We can apply duality since qa is continuous. From the convolution theorem it follows that F (Pa ∗ Pb )(ω) = (F Pa )(ω) · 7. a We immediately use table 3 to obtain that 1/(4 + ω 2 ) is the spectrum of f (t) = e−2| t | /4. For example: π/ae−t /4a ↔ 2πe−aω . The sine function is easy to deal with using exercise 6. The function 1/(a + iω) is not integrable on R (see exercise 6. 2 2 7. Since the spectrum of 1/(1 + t2 ) is πe−| ω | . From duality it then follows that the spectrum of sin2 (at/2)/t2 is (aπ/2)qa (ω).g. This is an important exercise: it teaches to recognize useful properties. from the spectrum of sin 2πt/t the 1 result follows: πe−3iω p4π (ω) with value 2 at ω = ±2π. this latter fact follows immediately if we use that F (ω) is even and continuous and that e. this is exercise 7. which is indeed theorem 7. so we have convergence to 1 (f (a+) + f (a−)) = 1 .10 If we take g(t) = 0 in theorem 7. These results follow immediately from duality (and calculating the right p 2 2 constants). multiplied by a sine function. d We use that 3πq6 (ω) is the spectrum of sin2 (3t)/t2 and apply a shift in time from t to t − 1. The spectrum of qa (t) is F (ω) = 4 sin2 (aω/2)/(aω 2 ) (see table 3).19 . From our assumption it now follows that (f − g)(t) = 0 at all points where (f − g)(t) is continuous.4. c We now have 1/(t2 − 4t + 7).12 7. then f (t) = 0 at all points where f (t) is continuous. Take f (t) and g(t) as in theorem 7. Again.

Answers to selected exercises for chapter 7 29 (F Pb )(ω) = e−(a+b)| ω | .24 R∞ −∞ sin4 x/x4 dx = 2π/3. this result is not correct at t = 0.9)) at t = 0 and use that the integrand is even. where it was shown that f (t) = (1 + | t |)e−| t | /4). Writing x instead of ω.26a. the fundamental R∞ R∞ theorem and the fact that the spectrum is odd to change from −∞ to 0 . R∞ b We apply Parseval (formula (7.22) with T = 1 (in example 7. which is 0.22 −a| t | Use and g(t) = e−b| t | and calculate R ∞ Parseval (7. By the convolution theorem we then know that the spectrum of f (t) = (e−| v | /2∗e−| v | /2)(t) is 1/(1 + ω 2 )2 . But also (F Pa+b )(ω) = e−(a+b)| ω | .14 (G(ω) = −2iω/(1+ω 2 )).21 a Use the result of exercise 6. π 0 (1 + ω 2 )2 4 which is indeed the case a = b = 1 from exercise 7.23) with T = 1 that ∞ X n=−∞ 2 7. We then obtain Z 1 ∞ 1 1 dω = f (0) = . The Gauss function f (t) = e−at belongs to S and so we can apply Poisson’s p 2 summation formula. hence −∞ sin4 x/x4 dx = (π/2)(q2 ∗ q2 )(0).22. and since F is one-to-one (theorem 7. Now apply the fundamental theorem (formula (7. n=−∞ Replacing a by πx the result follows. From table 3 we know that e−| t | /2 ↔ 1/(1 + ω 2 ).23 a Since sin4 t/t4 is the square of sin2 t/t2 and (F sin2 t/t2 )(ω) = πq2 (ω) (table 3). 7. it follows from the convolution theorem in the frequency domain that (F sin4 t/t4 )(ω) = (π/2)(q2 ∗ q2 )(ω). 7. R∞ b The integral −∞ sin4 t/t4 dt is the Fourier transform of sin4 x/x4 calR∞ culated at ω = 0. 7. Here one should take the average of the jump. 7. Since F (ω) = π/ae−ω /4a (see table 3). It then follows that (use x instead of ω) Z ∞ x sin xt π dt = e−t . 1 + x2 2 0 Since g is not continuous at t = 0. the result follows. it follows from (7. where we also used table 3.27∗ Take f (t) = a/(a2 +t2 ). Using that q2 is an even function we obtain that Z ∞ Z 2 (q2 ∗ q2 )(0) = q2 (t)q2 (−t) dt = 2 (1 − t/2)2 dt.19)) and calculate −∞ | g(t) |2 dt = R0 R ∞ −2t R∞ e2t dt + 0 e dt.4) it then follows that Pa+b = Pa ∗ Pb .8 the conditions were veriﬁed) to obtain . Calculating this convolution product at t = 0 gives f (0) = 1/4 (or use exercise 6. then F (ω) = πe−a| ω | (see table 3). −∞ 0 This integral equals 4/3 and so 7.26 ∗ e−an = 2 ∞ X −π2 n2 /a p π/a e . The spectra of f and g are −∞ 2a/(a2 + ω 2 ) and 2b/(b2 + ω 2 ) (table 3). In −∞ | G(ω) |2 dω we can use the −∞ fact that the integrand is even. we can then use (7.18)R with f (t) = e ∞ −(a+b)t f (t)g(t) dt = 2 0 e dt = 2/(a + b). which is 1.

it follows that ∞ a X 1 1 − e−4πa .19) to f and use that 0 sin2 t dt = π/2. 7. 7. b We now determine g explicitly by calculating the convolution product (use the deﬁnition of p2a ): Z t+a Z a (p2a (v) ∗ e−| v | )(t) = e−| t−τ | dτ = e−| u | du −a t−a . 2π 0 1 − ω2 which leads to the required result. then writing the result with a common denominator. Here we have also split a sum in terms with n = 0.30 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 7 ∞ X n=−∞ a =π a2 + (t + n)2 1+ ∞ X n=1 e −2πn(a+it) + ∞ X n=1 ! e −2πn(a−it) . π d Apply Parseval’s identity (7. = 2 + (t + n)2 −4πa − e−2πa (e2πit + e−2πit ) π n=−∞ a 1+e Multiplying numerator and denominator by e2πa the result follows. We then obtain Z ∞ 1 1 + e−iωπ iωt f (t) = e dω. Then Z ∞ iωt 1 e + e−iωt + eiω(t−π) + e−iω(t−π) f (t) = dω. the result follows.16). so we do not have to calculate F (ω) at the exceptional points ω = ±1. 2π −∞ 2 Since˛ F (ω) can be rewritten as 2e−iωπ/2 cos(ωπ/2)/(1 − ω 2 ) and we have ˛ ˛ ˛ that ˛ e−iωπ/2 ˛ = 1. 2π −∞ 1 − ω 2 Split the integral at t = 0 and change from ω to −ω in the integral over (−∞.28 a To determine the spectrum we write sin t = (eit − e−it )/2 and calculate the integral deﬁning F (ω) in a direct way: „Z π « Z π 1 i(1−ω)t −i(1+ω)t F (ω) = e dt − e dt . 0]. Note that | r | < 1 since a > 0. This integrand being even. From the convolution theorem it then follows that p2a (v)∗e−| v | ↔ 4f (ω) = G(ω).10 we know that F (ω) is continuous.9). c Take t = π/2 in part b and use that f (π/2) = 1. b Apply the fundamental theorem. then it follows that Z ∞ 1 π | F (ω) |2 dω = .29 a We know from table 3 that p2a (t) ↔ 2 sin aω/ω and e−| t | ↔ 2/(ω 2 + 1). 2i 0 0 Writing the result with a common denominator and using the fact that eπi = e−πi = −1 gives F (ω) = (1 + e−iωπ )/(1 − ω 2 ). and then changed from n to −n in the sum with n < −1. and ﬁnally multiplying everything out and simplifying. Using the formula for the sum of an inﬁnite geometric series (example 2. thenRthe result follows. it follows that | F (ω) |2 = 4 cos2 (ωπ/2)/(1 − ω 2 )2 . From theorem 6. The sums in the righthand side are geometric series with ratio r = e−2π(a+it) and r = e−2π(a−it) respectively. so (7. noting that f (t) is continuous on R. n > 1 and n < −1.

. e du + (p2a (v) ∗ e )(t) = t−a 0 If t > a. then t − a ≤ 0 ≤ t + a and so Z t+a Z 0 u −| v | e−u du = 2 − 2e−a cosh t. So g(t) is a piecewise smooth function which moreover is continuous. if t < −a. We can now apply the duality rule (theorem 7. g(t) is certainly absolutely integrable since e−| t | is absolutely integrable over | t | > a. Now if −a ≤ t ≤ a. the Fourier integral exists as improper Riemann integral since G(ω) is even absolutely integrable: ˛ ˛ | G(ω) | ≤ 4/ ˛ ω(1 + ω 2 ) ˛. In the same way it follows that g(t) is continuous at t = −a. Finally. Also. (p2a (v) ∗ e−| v | )(t) = t−a Finally. then t + a < 0 and so Z t+a eu du = 2et sinh a. then t − a > 0 and so Z t+a e−u du = 2e−t sinh a. (p2a (v) ∗ e−| v | )(t) = t−a c The function g from part b is continuous at t = a since limt↓a g(t) = 2e−a sinh a = e−a (ea − e−a ) = 1 − e−2a and g(a) = limt↑a g(t) = 2 − 2e−a cosh a = 2 − e−a (ea + e−a ) = 1 − e−2a . Since f (−t) = f (t) we thus see that F (ω) = π − πe−a cosh ω for | ω | ≤ a and F (ω) = πe−| ω | sinh a for | ω | > a.5) and it then follows that G(−t) ↔ 2πg(ω). so f (−t) ↔ πg(ω)/2.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 7 31 where we changed to the variable u = t − τ .

−∞ 8.4 for a proof). cφ = (cφ)(a) = c δ(t − a).2 and by changing from ω to a − t we then obtain Z ∞ δ(a − t)f (t) dt = f (a). φ2 . φ1 + δ(t − a). Using (8. φ . φ2 . φ2 ∈ S we have Z ∞ Z 1. it follows that 1 is a mapping from S to C. φ1 + φ2 = (φ1 + φ2 )(t) dt = −∞ ∞ Z φ1 (t) dt + ∞ φ2 (t) dt.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 8 8. which by (8. hence a distribution. it follows from (8.5 For φ ∈ S there exists a constant M > 0 such that (e. φ1 + 1.11). −∞ −∞ and for φ1 . φ = −∞ φ(t) dt ∈ C for all φ ∈ S.3) is reasonable to expect (see section 8. 8. while for t = 0 we have R∞ that lima↓0 Pa (t) = ∞. we see that Pa (t) ﬁts the description of the delta function.1) gives « Z ∞ „ 1 2 sin aω lim f (t − ω) dω = f (t) 2π a→∞ ω −∞ for any absolutely integrable and piecewise smooth function f (t) on R that is continuous at t. −∞ −∞ so 1.3) this can symbolically be written as (take t = a) Z ∞ δ(ω)f (a − ω) dω = f (a) −∞ 8.10) that δ(t − a) is a mapping from S to C. φ . For c ∈ C and φ ∈ S we have that δ(t − a).1 b For t = 0 we have that lima↓0 Pa (t) = 0. φ1 + φ2 = 1. and for φ1 .g. So δ(t − a) is a linear mapping from S to C. ˛Z ∞ ˛ Z ∞ Z ∞ ˛ ˛ 1 ˛ | φ(t) | dt ≤ M dt < ∞ φ(t) dt ˛ ≤ ˛ ˛ 1 + t2 0 0 0 32 . b Taking the limit inside the integral in (8. a Since φ(a) ∈ C for all φ ∈ S.) (1+t2 ) | φ(t) | ≤ M for all t ∈ R. hence a distribution. This proves that 1 is a linear mapping from S to C. R∞ Since 1. c From table 3 it follows that Pa (t) ↔ e−a| ω | and lima↓0 e−a| ω | = 1. The linearity of this mapping follows from the linearity of integration: for c ∈ C and φ ∈ S we have that Z ∞ Z ∞ 1. Hence. Combining this with part b shows that it is reasonable to expect that the spectrum of δ(t) is 1. cφ = (cφ)(t) dt = c φ(t) dt = c 1. φ1 + φ2 = (φ1 + φ2 )(a) = δ(t − a).4 Using δ(a − t) = δ(t − a). this indeed leads to (8. φ2 ∈ S we have δ(t − a). Since −∞ Pa (t) dt = 1.

the other two from exercise 8. 1] we have Z 1 1 | t |−1/2 dt = 2 t−1/2 dt = [4t1/2 ]1 = 4. ˛Z ∞ ˛ Z ∞ Z ∞ ˛ ˛ 1 ˛ | tφ(t) | dt ≤ M | t | φ(t) dt ˛ ≤ dt < ∞. To do so.14 8. | t |−1/2 is not integrable over R. 8. Hence. 0 0 −1/2 −1 √ R∞ hence.10 a For φ ∈ S there exists a constant M > 0 such that (e.4 (linearity of integration). 1]. see e.3. Since 0 t−1/2 dt = 2 limR→∞ R does not exist. Hence.15 . ˛Z ˛ Z Z ∞ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ | t |−1/2 φ(t) dt ˛ ≤ | φ(t) | dt ≤ | φ(t) | dt.17) it follows that the complex number −φ(3) (0) is assigned.12 a From the linearity for distributions itRfollows immediately that the com√ ∞ plex number 2φ(0) + i 3φ (0) + (1 + i) 0 ((φ(t) − φ(−t))dt is assigned. 8.1. we split the integral in an integral over [−1. ˛ ˛ 2 −∞ 1 + t −∞ −∞ So | t | . a First apply example 8. From part a we then get ˛Z 1 ˛ Z 1 Z 1 ˛ ˛ ˛ | t |−1/2 φ(t) dt ˛ ≤ | t |−1/2 | φ(t) | dt ≤ M1 | t |−1/2 dt < ∞. 8. ˛Z ∞ ˛ Z ∞ Z ∞ ˛ ˛ 1 ˛ dt < ∞.15 it thus follows that f (t) deﬁnes a distribution as well. and ﬁnally integration by parts.g. t and t2 are distributions. φ exists and one can now show that | t |−1/2 is indeed a distribution (linearity of integration. The integral 0 φ(t) dt thus 0 exists and one can now show that is indeed a distribution precisely as in exercise 8. The ﬁrst one is known from example 8. ˛ ˛ | t |≥1 ˛ | t |≥1 −∞ In example 8. 1] and over | t | ≥ 1. exercise 8. tφ(t) dt ˛ ≤ | tφ(t) | dt ≤ M ˛ ˛ 1 + t2 −∞ −∞ −∞ As in exercise 8. φ exists and one can now show that | t | is indeed a distribution precisely as in exercise 8. This shows has D −1/2 that | t | .9 a Z For the integral over [−1. R∞ In example 8.10. a From (8.1 itE been shown that the latter integral exists.3 this shows that t deﬁnes a distribution. b This number −φ(3) (0) is meaningfull for all functions that are 3 times continuously diﬀerentiable.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 8 33 8.4 it was already motivated why the integral −∞ | t | φ(t) dt exists: there exists a constant M > 0 such that (e.4.g.) t2 ) | tφ(t) | ≤ M for all t ∈ R. then deﬁnition 8.) (1 + t2 ) | tφ(t) | ≤ M for all t ∈ R.g. | t | is integrable over [−1.4). Hence.7 R∞ (the latter integral equals [arctan]∞ = π/2). From deﬁnition 8.4 (linearity of integration). R∞ b We ﬁrst show that −∞ | t |−1/2 φ(t) dt exists for φ ∈ S. then (1 + −1/2 8. ˛ ˛ −1 −1 −1 For the second integral we use that | t | ≤ 1 for | t | ≥ 1. b This deﬁnes a distribution if 1. For the ﬁrst integral we note that | φ(t) | ≤ M1 for some constant M1 > 0.

while for t < 0 the derivative is 0 and for t > 0 the derivative is − sin t. α↓0 | t |≥α α↓0 | t |≥α t Since φ ∈ S is certainly integrable over R. φ = lim dt = lim φ(t) dt.23 a The deﬁnition becomes: f (t)δ (t).18)). then p(t)δ(t − a).26 Let T be an even distribution. so t2 δ (t) = 0. φ = p(a)δ(t − a). c If f (t) = t. b The function (t) sin t has no jump at t = 0. it follows from the linearity of diﬀerentiation that (sgn t) = 2 (t) = 2δ(t). c Since | t | = sgn t it follows from part a that | t | = (sgn t) = 2δ(t). φ .5. if f (t) = t2 then f (0) = 0 and f (0) = 0. Hence. φ = f (0)δ (t) − f (0)δ(t). b Since sgn t = 2 (t) − 1 (verify this). Hence.6 and then the deﬁnition of pv(1/t) from example 8. so according to the jump formula the derivative is Tf + 2δ(t − 1).6 and the deﬁnition of δ(t − a) in (8. b According to part a we have f (t)δ (t). The function from example 8. φ . φ = δ (t).12b.5 to obtain Z Z tφ(t) t · pv(1/t). At t = 1 the jump is 2. where we also applied δ (t) to f φ. The product f φ of two continuously diﬀerentiable functions is continuously diﬀerentiable. We denote this derivative as the distribution Tf .18 8. φ = (pφ)(a) = p(a)φ(a) = p(a) δ(t − a). φ + f (0) δ (t). Now use deﬁnition 8. a The function pa has a jump of magnitude 1 at t = −a/2 and of magnitude −1 at t = a/2.17 8. so this deﬁnition is correct and it gives a mapping from S to C. then T (−t) = T (t) (deﬁniton 8. b The function is diﬀerentiable outside t = 1 and the ordinary derivative is 1 for t < 1 and 2t − 2 for t > 1.10 has a jump of magnitude 1 at t = 0. Outside t = 0 the ordinary derivative is 0.8). φ = Z 0 ∞ (φ (−t) − φ (t)) dt = [φ(t)]0 − [φ(t)]∞ = 2φ(0). so tδ (t) = −δ(t). From the jump formula it follows that the derivative as distribution is given by a (t)eat + δ(t). Subsequently apply deﬁnition 8. (sgn t) = 2δ(t). so f (t)δ (t) is a distribution. so it follows from the jump formula that pa (t) = δ(t + a/2) − δ(t − a/2). φ . a This is entirely analagous to exercises 8. then f (0) = 0 and f (0) = 1. for t < 0 the ordinary derivative is 0 and for t > 0 the ordinary derivative is cos t.10). so 8. Here we used that 1 = 0 and that (t) = δ(t) (see (8.9 is continuously diﬀerentiable outside t = 0.34 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 8 ˙ ¸ (sgn t) . −∞ 0 hence.10 and 8.16 Since the function | t | from example 8.22 8. φ = −(f φ) (0). f φ . 8.19 8. Now apply the product rule for diﬀerentiation and write the result as −f (0) δ(t). so it follows from the jump formula that ( (t) sin t) = (t) cos t. it follows from the jump formula that | t | = sgn t (at t = 0 there is no jump and outside t = 0 this equality holds for the ordinary derivatives).25 . so f (t) − af (t) = δ(t) as distributions. 8. then p(t)δ(t − a). 8. the limit exists and it will be R∞ equal to −∞ φ(t) dt. t · pv(1/t) = 1. First apply deﬁnition 8. which shows that p(t)δ(t − a) = p(a)δ(t − a). The linearity follows immediately from the linearity of δ (t). the jump formula implies that ( (t) cos t) = δ(t) − (t) sin t.

30 a Since δ (t) can be deﬁned for all twice continuously diﬀerentiable functions. 8. exercise 8. Next we use the chain rule twice to obtain that ψ (0) = a−2 φ (0). φ(t) (φ ∈ S). 8.17) for k = 2) we obtain f (t)δ (t). φ(t) = | a |−1 a−2 δ . φ(a−1 t) . φ . which equals f (0)δ(t) − 2f (0)δ (t) + f (0)δ (t). φ(t) = | t | . Next apply b to f (t) = t3 and use that f (0) = f (0) = f (0) = 0. and according to (8. the product f (t)δ (t) can also be deﬁned for all twice continuously diﬀerentiable functions f (t) by f (t)δ (t). 8.26.21): outside t = 0 the function f is continuously diﬀerentiable with derivative f (t) = 2t for t > 0 and f (t) = 2 for t < 0. Hence δ (at). φ(−t) for all φ ∈ S. exercises 8. a Applying (8. (f (t)φ(t)) . then the right-hand side equals | a |−1 ψ (0).3 it follows that sgn t. φ(t) = δ (t).g. φ(t) = − sgn t. b Apply the jump formula (8. .18a we have seen that such integrals are well-deﬁned for φ ∈ S. Similarly for pv(1/t) (change from t to −t in the integrals deﬁning pv(1/t)). This is because it follows from the product rule that the product f (t)φ(t) is again twice continuously diﬀerentiable. φ(t) = | a |−1 δ (t). This shows that sgn t is odd according to exercise 8. hence (8. φ(−t) for all φ ∈ S. φ(−t) for all φ ∈ S (change from t to −t in the integral deﬁning | t |).Answers to selected exercises for chapter 8 35 T (t). f (t)φ(t) . This shows that | t | is even according to exercise 8. then t2 δ (t) = 2δ(t).4. This gives a mapping from S to C and the linearity of this mapping follows precisely as in e. where we used deﬁnition 8.g. Now put ψ(t) = φ(a−1 t). The second derivative of f considered as distribution is the same as the second derivative of f outside t = 0. Since (f (t)φ(t)) = f (t)φ(t) + 2f (t)φ (t) + f (t)φ (t) we thus obtain that f (t)δ (t). Hence. Note that f again deﬁnes a distribution Tf . b From the deﬁnition of | t | in example 8. φ(t) = δ(t).27 a From the deﬁnition of sgn t in example 8. At t = 0 the function f has a jump f (0+) − f (0−) = 0 − 2 = −2.26. c Apply part b to the function f (t) = t2 and use that f (0) = f (0) = 0 and f (0) = 2. At t = 0 the function has no jump.12b and 8.7 we have that ˙ ¸ ˙ ¸ δ (at). Similarly for odd T . Let Tf be the distribution deﬁned by f . φ(t) = f (0)φ(0) + 2f (0)φ (0) + f (0)φ (0).21) implies that Tf = Tf . φ = 2tφ(t) dt + t2 φ(t) dt −∞ 0 8. φ(t) = T (t).7.12) to f (t) gives Z 0 Z ∞ Tf .10. minus the distribution 2δ(t) at t = 0.29 and in e. then it follows that t3 δ (t) = 0.21) (applied to Tf and using that Tf = Tf and so Tf = Tf ) we have that Tf = Tf = Tf + (f (0+) − f (0−))δ(t) = Tf − 2δ(t). d According to deﬁnition 8. This proves the identity.4 it follows that | t | . f indeed deﬁnes a distribution Tf .3 or 8. c Again we have that the function f is continuously diﬀerentiable outside t = 0 and f (t) = 2 for t > 0 and f (t) = 0 for t < 0. b From part b and the deﬁnition of the second derivative of a distribution (formula (8.

we have that T. cφ = T. From deﬁnition 9.1 (or table 5) we obtain the result e−5it /2π.7.26). φ1 + φ2 follows similarly. b See example 9. Φ ∈ C as well. Now again ˙ ¸ apply deﬁnition 8.2: 2 cos 2t. φ(t) . 9.1 and the action of δ it follows that Fδ . φ(−t) for all φ ∈ S (see exercise 8. so sin at = (eiat − e−iat )/2i. From linearity and table 5 it then follows that sin at ↔ −πi(δ(ω − a) − δ(ω + a)). But U. so U. F φ(−t) and from table 4 we know that (F φ(−t))(ω) = Φ(−ω) if Φ is the spectrum of φ. we will only give the necessary steps for FT. −∞ −∞ 9. φ . it follows that (t) has spectrum πδ(ω) − ipv(1/ω).1 and 8.4 9. Φ(−ω) = T. where we again used deﬁnition 9. c First write the sine function as combination of exponentials. Note that 2 cos ω = eiω + e−iω and that the spectrum of δ(t − a) is e−iaω (table 5). φ = T (at). From these observations it follows that U. So F T is a mapping from S to C. cΦ = c T. cφ . FT. Similarly for odd T . φ = T. From the diﬀerentiation rule in the frequency domain (table 4) with k = 2 we see that Φ (ω) = F ((−it)2 φ(t))(ω). F (cφ) = T. a From example 9. From table 4 we see that Φ(a−1 ω) = | a | (F φ(at))(ω). so it follows that FT (at). a Let φ ∈ S have spectrum Φ.12 it follows that the spectrum Φ belongs to S.7 9. It is obvious that (t) = (1 + sgn t)/2 by looking at the cases t > 0 and t < 0. Φ = c FT. φ(t) = U. which proves T (at) ↔ | a |−1 U (a−1 ω). Φ = ˙ ¸ | a |−1 T.3 a Use table 5 to obtain that δ(t − 4) ↔ e−4iω . d First determine the spectrum of pv(1/t) and 4 cos 2t = 2e2it + 2e−2it using table 5 and then (again) apply linearity to obtain the spectrum 4π(δ(ω − 2) + δ(ω + 2)) + 2πsgn ω. We have to show that U (−ω) = U (ω). φ = −ω . b Again use table 5 to obtain that e3it ↔ 2πδ(ω − 3).9 a Subsequently apply deﬁnitions 9.7: FT (at). and so FT. φ = T. φ = δ . Φ ∈ C. 9. Φ(a−1 ω) (φ ∈ S having spectrum Φ). Since 2πδ(ω) is the spectrum of 1 and −2ipv(1/ω) is the spectrum of (t). Parts b and c can be proven using similar steps. Φ(ω) . which shows that U is even. F φ(at) = U. Hence the answer is iπ −1 pv(1/t) + δ(t − 1) + δ(t + 1).1 Let φ ∈ S. ˙ 2 36 . φ = F (−t2 φ(t))(0) = − t2 φ(t) dt = − ω 2 φ(ω) dω. Φ(ω) = U. then FT (at). proving the required result. φ(at) . φ(−t) = T. The linearity of F T follows from the linearity of T and F .1 in the ﬁnal step. φ . Φ = δ. Φ = Φ (0). Let T be an even distribution with spectrum U . since the rule for FT. Since T is even.5 9.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 9 9. From theorem 6. c The spectrum of pv(1/t) is −πisgn ω (table 5). φ(−t) = T. we then have that T. and hence δ ↔ −ω 2 is proven as follows: Z ∞ Z ∞ ˙ ¸ F δ . φ = | a |−1 U (a−1 ω).8 ¸ so Fδ . Since T is a distribution. φ for all φ ∈ S.

So we have to show that for ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ any m. 4 c Apply reciprocity to (t).12) we then obtain that −itδ (t) ↔ (iω) = i. φ = eiat T. which 9. n ∈ Z+ . From the product rule for diﬀerentiation it follows that (eiat φ(t))(m) is a sum of terms of the form ceiat φ(k) (t) (k ∈ Z+ ). the result is: 1 iπ −1 pv(1/t) + 1 δ(t).30b: tδ (t) = −2δ (t). F (φ(ω + a))(t) = U. b Use table 5 for (t) and apply a shift in the frequency domain. 2 2 d Apply the scaling property (table 6) to 1 ↔ 2πδ(ω) to obtain 1 ↔ 6πδ(3ω). δ(4t + 3) ↔ 4−1 e3iω/4 . 1 b Write sin t as a combination of exponentials and apply a shift to 2 isgn t. But since ˛ ˛ ˛ iat ˛ ˛ e ˛ = 1 this means that we have to show that ˛ tn φ(k) (t) ˛ < M for some ˛ ˛ M > 0 and all k.11 From table 5 it follows that δ (t) ↔ iω. n ∈ Z+ there exists an M > 0 such that ˛ tn (eiat φ(t))(m) ˛ < M . where we used deﬁnition 9. eiat Φ (φ ∈ S having spectrum Φ). Φ = T. Similarly we get tδ (t) ↔ −2iω using (9. φ = T.) 9. Next we apply a shift in the frequency domain (table 6). According to the shift property in the frequency domain (table 4) we have that eiat Φ(t) = F (φ(ω+a))(t) (note that for convenience we’ve interchanged the ˙ ¸ role of the variables ω and t). So we indeed have eiat T ↔ U (ω − a). Using (9. φ . e First note that (t)sgn t = (t) and the spectrum of this is known. then it follows that eiat (t) ↔ πδ(ω − a) − ipv(1/(ω − a)). φ(ω + a) = U (ω − a). From part a it then follows that δ(4t+3) ↔ 4−1 U (ω/4) with U (ω) = e3iω . then we obtain (πδ(−t) − ipv(−1/t))/2π ↔ (ω). hence. so the result is 2π 2 δ (3) (ω) + πδ(ω) − ipv(1/ω). so 3i ↔ 6iπδ(ω) and (apply a shift) δ (t − 4) ↔ e−4iω iω.16 9.1 ˙ and the deﬁnition of eiat T (see exercise 9. (This can also be solved by considering δ(4t + 3) as the distribution δ(4t) shifted over −3/4. d Use that 1 ↔ 2πδ(ω) and δ (t) ↔ iω (table 5).g. According to the shift rule in the time domain (see table 6) it follows from δ(t) ↔ 1 that δ(t+3) ↔ e3iω . 9.12 9.23c gives: tδ (t) = −δ(t) and since δ(t) ↔ 1 we indeed get tδ (t) ↔ −1 again. then we obtain the result 1 (sgn(t + 3) − sgn(t − 3)).2 in the last step. From iωT = 1 we may not conclude that T = 1/(iω) since there exist distributions S = 0 such that ωS = 0 (e. furthermore we have that t3 ↔ 2πi3 δ (3) (ω) (table 5).17 . δ(ω)). then we can use a shift in the frequency domain (as in part b) to obtain that (t) cos at ↔ 1 (πδ(ω − a) − ipv(1/(ω − 2 a)) + πδ(ω + a) − ipv(1/(ω + a))). the sum of these gives the answer.15 From deﬁnition¸9. The main point is that one has to show that eiat φ(t) ∈ S whenever φ ∈ S.12) or using exercise 8. 1 a Use table 5 for the sign function and apply a shift: 2 ieit sgn t. which indeed holds precisely because φ ∈ S. Hence. c We have (t) ↔ πδ(ω) − ipv(1/ω) and if we now write the cosine as a combination of exponentials. so tδ (t) ↔ −1. Now δ(−t) = δ(t) and pv(−1/t) = −pv(1/t). F eiat T. Hence. Exercise 8.6. The linearity follows as in deﬁnition 8. then it follows that (t − 1) ↔ e−iω (πδ(ω) − ipv(1/ω)).13 9.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 9 37 b We have that δ(4t+3) is the distribution δ(t+3) scaled by 4. It is now suﬃcient to show ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ that ˛ tn eiat φ(k) (t) ˛ < M for some M > 0 and all k. n ∈ Z+ .13) it follows ˙ iat ¸ ˙ ¸ that F e T. a Use table 5 for (t) and apply a shift in the time domain.

19 9. According to deﬁnition 9. δ(t − a). a In exercise 9. so δ ∗ | t | = | t | = sgn t (by example 8. c From table 5 we have (t) ↔ πδ(ω)−ipv(1/ω). Hence.38 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 9 results in e2it/3 ↔ 6πδ(3ω − 2).16c. Since 1 ↔ 2πδ(ω) and e(2k+1)it ↔ 2πδ(ω − (2k + 1)) we obtain the following result: π 2 δ(ω) − 4 ∞ X k=−∞ 9. e From exercise 9. The convolution theorem leads to the obvious e−ibω e−iaω = e−i(a+b)ω . the function τ → δ(t − a). 9. a Use table 5: δ(t − 3) ↔ e−3iω . b From the diﬀerentiation rule in the time domain and table 5 it follows as in exercise 9. Applying a shift in the frequency domain leads to −eit δ (t) ↔ (ω − 1)2 .9).2). so T (t) ∗ δ(t − a) exists and T (t) ∗ δ(t − a).20 ∗ We know that δ ∗ T = T . This proves that T (t)∗δ(t−a) = T (t−a). f This is a convergent Fourier series and so we can determine the spectrum term-by-term.3 we have that T (t) ∗ δ(t − a). b Apply the diﬀerentiation rule in the time domain (with n = 2) to δ(t) ↔ 1. d Apply the diﬀerentiation rule in the time domain to the result obtained in exercise 9. then we obtain that (δ (3) (t + 1) − δ (3) (t − 1))/2 ↔ ω 3 sin ω. Finally apply the diﬀerentiation rule in the time domain to obtain the result: (δ(7t − 1)) ↔ iωe−iω/7 7. From linearity it then follows that (3−1 e2it/3 − t2 )/2π ↔ δ(3ω − 2) + δ (ω).20 with T (t) = δ(t − b). 9. φ(t + τ ) . c From table 5 we obtain that δ(t + 1 )/4 ↔ eiω/2 /4.26 . 2 d From table 5 (and linearity) we obtain that (δ(t + 1) − δ(t − 1))/2i ↔ (eiω −e−iω )/2i.25b that δ (t) ↔ iω and δ (t) ↔ −ω 2 . 9. then we obtain t2 (t) ↔ −πδ (ω) + ipv(1/ω) .25b it was shown that −δ(t) ↔ ω 2 .24 (2k + 1)−2 δ(ω − (2k + 1)). iπ −1 sin t ↔ δ(ω − 1) − δ(ω + 1).21 ∗ Use exercise 9. φ(t + τ ) belongs to S. φ(t + τ ) = φ(a + τ ). φ = T (τ ). so −δ (t) + 2iδ (t) + δ(t) ↔ ω 2 − 2ω + 1. φ(τ ) (the last step uses deﬁnition 9. φ = T (τ ). Since δ(t − a). Using the diﬀerentiation rule in the frequency domain (table 6) we obtain from 1/2π ↔ δ(ω) that (−it)2 /2π ↔ δ (ω). φ(a + τ ) = T (τ − a). which is sin ω. 9. Now apply diﬀerentiation in the time domain (with n = 3). Apply the diﬀerentiation rule in the time domain (with n = 2). b Since δ(t + 4) ↔ e4iω (as in part a) and cos t = (eit + e−it )/2 we apply a shift in the frequency domain: cos tδ(t + 4) ↔ (e4i(ω−1) + e4i(ω+1) )/2. e Since δ(t) ↔ 1 it follows from ﬁrst the scaling property and then a shift in the time domain that δ(7(t − 1/7)) ↔ e−iω/7 7. then −δ (t) ↔ ω 2 .25 a From table 5 we know that eit ↔ 2πδ(ω − 1) and similarly for e−it . then it follows that (2 (t) cos t) ↔ iω(πδ(ω − 1) + πδ(ω + 1) − ipv(1/(ω − 1)) − ipv(1/(ω + 1))).4c and a shift in the frequency domain it follows that e4it (δ(t + 1) + δ(t − 1))/2 ↔ cos(ω − 4).

30b with f (t) = eit we indeed obtain that eit δ (t) = δ (t) − 2iδ (t) − δ(t). . 9.15c it was shown that | t | = 2δ.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 9 39 c Since (ω − 1)2 = ω 2 − 2ω + 1. the results in part a and b should be the same. In exercise 8. which equals T ∗ δ (t) by (9. Using exercise 8.27 a From exercise 9.25b it follows that δ (t) ↔ −ω 2 . This also follows by applying the diﬀerentiation rule in the time domain to T .21). Now let V be the spectrum of | t |. Since δ ↔ −ω 2 and δ ↔ 1 it then follows as in part a from the convolution theorem that ω 2 V = −2. The convolution theorem then implies that T ∗ δ (t) ↔ −ω 2 U where U is the spectrum of T . so we indeed get δ ∗ | t | = 2δ. b As noted in part a we have that δ ∗ | t | = | t | .

since a(t) has a jump at t = 0 of magnitude 1 and we can diﬀerentiate in ordinary sense outside t = 0. a The impulse response is h1 ∗ h2 . Writing the cosine as a combination of exponentials we obtain from the shift rule that 1 h(t) = 2 (e−| t+1 | + e−| t−1 | ). So the output of the second system is again bounded. On the other hand. which is H(ω) = qωc (ω). First note that 2 e−| t | ↔ 1/(ω 2 + 1)..8 10.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 10 10. 2 We can express p2 (t) as p2 (t) = (t + 1) − (t − 1).6 10. so h(t) is causal. 40 10. This means that the cascade system itself is stable: the response to a bounded input is bounded. b We substitute u(t) = (t).1. On the other hand. a The spectrum of h is H(ω) = 1+1/(1+iω)2 since δ ↔ 1 and te−t (t) ↔ 1/(1 + iω)2 . which results in h(t) = δ(t) − (t)e−3t (2 sin 2t + 3 cos 2t). a We need to determine the inverse Fourier transform of the function 1 H(ω) = cos ω/(ω 2 + 1). then y(t) is also real. a We need to determine the inverse Fourier transform of the function from ﬁgure 10.g. b If the input for the ﬁrst system is bounded. This result can be written for all t as a(t) = (t − 1) + 1 (t)(1 − e−2t ). then it follows from the integral for y(t) = (u ∗ h)(t) that if u(t) is real.1 the system is then causal and real. both are smaller than 0 e−3t dt).9 . then the integral will be 0 for t < 0 and so y(t) is causal as well.1 a When the system is causal. while for t < 0 the integral is 0 and so a(t) = (t − 1). then the response to the real signal δ(t) is again real. if h(t) is real. so h(t) is real. This is h(t) = 2 sin2 (ωc t/2)/(πωc t2 ). a We diﬀerentiate a(t) in distribution sense. so h(t) is causal and real and according to exercise 10. This output is then used as input for the second system. b We use theorem 10.3 10. b It now suﬃces to use the time-invariance of the system: the reponse to δ(t) is h(t). this is indeed the case and hence the system is stable. then Rt it follows that y(t) = (u ∗ h)(t) = −∞ h(t − τ )u(τ ) dτ and if we now have a causal input u. proving that the system is causal.3. which is again stable.7 10. then the response to the causal signal δ(t) is again causal. Since a(t) is (by deﬁnition) the response to (t) and we have a linear system. so the response to δ(t − 1) is h(t − 1). if h(t) is causal. then it follows for t ≥ 0 that a(t) = (t − Rt 1 1) + 0 e−2(t−τ ) dτ = (t − 1) + 2 (1 − e−2t ). b Since eiωt → H(ω)eiωt it follows that the response is given by eiωt (1 + 1/(1 + iω)2 ). then the output is bounded since the system is stable.2 10. proving that the system is real. a If we substitute u(t) = δ(t) then it follows that h(t) = δ(t−1)+ (t)e−2t . the response to p2 (t) = (t + 1) − (t − 1) is a(t + 1) − a(t − 1). which implies that we may ignore the delta com−3t ponent and only have to R ˛ that (t)e˛ (2 sin 2t + 3 cos 2t) is absolutely show ˛ R∞˛ ∞˛ integrable. b When the system is real. Since both 0 R e−3t sin 2t ˛ dt and 0 ˛ e−3t cos 2t ˛ dt exist ∞ (e.5 10.

However H(±ω0 ) = 0. 2 ω 2 − i 2ω0 ω − ω0 b Write the cosine as a combination of exponentials. Write the cosine as a combination of exponentials.6) to determine the spectrum of the response y(t). This means that the system function is now 1/H(ω). c Note that we cannot use the method from part b. Hence. so it is an all-pass system and from Parseval it then follows that the energy-content of the input is equal to the energycontent of the output (if necessary. From table 5 we obtain that (t) ↔ pv(1/iω) + πδ(ω).7). then it follows from the shift rule that the spectrum of u(t) = cos(ω0 t) (t) is given by U (ω) = pv(1/(2i(ω − ω0 )) + pv(1/(2i(ω + ω0 )) + (π/2)δ(ω − ω0 ) + (π/2)δ(ω + ω0 ). But the response to eint is H(n)eint and H(n) = 0 for n > 1 and n < −1. Instead we use (10. h(t) = δ(t) + 3 (−t)e − 3 (t)e−2t . 2 10. no. so 2iω + α 2+α =2− iω + 1 + α iω + 1 + α . Hence. 10. so with input and output interchanged. 2iω + α 2 2iω + α where we also used a long division. To determine Y (ω) = H(ω)U (ω) we use that H(ω)δ(ω ± ω0 ) = H(±ω0 )δ(ω ± ω0 ) = 0.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 10 41 b The function u has a Fourier series with terms cn eint (note that ω0 = 1). These can easily be calculated 1 from the deﬁning integrals: c0 = 2 and c−1 = c1 = −1/π. 5) it follows for iω−1 = t t −1 1 2 4 that − (−t)e ↔ iω−1 . no. 10. c1 and c−1 . just above example 10. i(−ω)+1 b The impulse reponse h(t) is not causal. (s − 1)(s + 2) 3s−1 3s+2 3 iω − 1 3 iω + 2 Now δ(t) ↔ 1 and (t)e−2t ↔ 1/(iω + 2) (table 3. so the system is not causal. A long division results in 1 − 2s/(s − 1)(s + 2) and a partial fraction expansion then gives (s + 1)(s − 2) 2 1 4 1 2 1 4 1 =1− − =1− − . The inverse Fourier √ √ √ transform of this equals e−ω0 t/ 2 (cos(ω0 t/ 2) − sin(ω0 t/ 2)) (t). 2 b We have to interpret the diﬀerential equation ‘the other way around’. Y (ω) = ω/i(ω 2 − i 2ω0 ω − ω0 ). Hence.11 a Put s = iω and apply partial fraction expansion to the system function (s + 1)(s − 2)/(s − 1)(s + 2). writing √ 2 everything with a common denominator. see the textbook. so y(t) = 0 for all t. Put s = iω and apply partial fraction expansion √ obtain that 2Y (ω) = to √ (1 + i)/(s + ω0 (1 − i)/ 2) + (1 − i)/(s + ω0 (1 + i)/ 2). then it follows from eiωt → H(ω)eiωt that y(t) = (H(ω0 )eiω0 t + H(−ω0 )e−iω0 t )/2. So we only have to determine c0 . the 2 response follows: y(t) = H(0)c0 +H(1)c1 eit +H(−1)c−1 e−it = 1 − 3π cos t. c The modulus of H(ω) is 1. Using the tables it then follows that h(t) = 1 (δ(t) + (1 + α/2) (t)e−tα/2 ).13 a From the diﬀerential equation we immediately obtain the frequency response: H(ω) = 2 ω 2 − ω0 √ . 7) and from time 1 reversal (scaling with a = −1 from table 4.14 a From the diﬀerential equation we immediately obtain the frequency response: H(ω) = 1 + α/2 1 iω + 1 + α = + .

7 and a shift in the time domain gives H(ω) = (1 − e−(1+iω) )/(1 + iω).16 We use separation of variables. e−i cx if c > 0. y) of the form Z ∞ u(x.42 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 10 where we also used a long division. so the system is stable. 10. 1 + ω2 2 −∞ 1 −| t | e 2 The (formal) solution is thus given by Z ∞ Z ∞ 1 u(x. For −1 < t < 0 it equals 1 − e−(t+1) . so we substitute u(x. and this implies that both X(x) and Y (y) have to be bounded functions. no. −∞ If we substitute y = 0 in this integral representation. 10. By superposition we now try a solution u(x. y) = e−| s |y F (s)eisx ds. Using the tables it then follows that h1 (t) = 2δ(t) − (2 + α) (t)e−t(1+α) . for 0 ≤ t < 1 it equals 1 − e−1 . and for 1 ≤ t < 2 it equals e−(t−1) − e−1 . In order to satisfy the linear homogeneous condition as well. But e cy is not bounded for y > 0 so Y (y) = e− cy for c ≥ 0. 1 + x2 −∞ Since ↔ 1/(1 + ω 2 ) this means that Z 1 1 ∞ −| t | −iωt = e e dt. c Note that the spectrum of (h ∗ h1 )(t) is the function H(ω) · (1/H(ω)). e− cy if c > 0. where s ∈ R. This gives for some arbitrary constant c (the separation constant) that X + cX = 0. so the system is causal. which equals Z 1 Z t+1 y(t) = h(t − τ ) dτ = h(τ ) dτ. Applying table 3. Solving the diﬀerential equations we obtain from the boundedness condition that √ √ X(x) = √ if c = 0 and ei cx . −1 t−1 This is 0 for t < −1 or for t > 2. y) = X(x)Y (y) into uyy + uxx = 0. b The impulse response is causal. Since δ(t) ↔ 1. can be described by X(x)Y (y) = eisx e−| s |y . Similarly Y (y) = 1 if c = 0 and 1 √ √ √ e cy .18 We substitute u(t) = δ(t). 0) = = F (s)eisx ds. . −∞ 0 10. y) = 2 e−| s |(1+y) eisx ds = e−| s |(1+y) cos(sx) ds. We put c = s2 . which is δ(t) − e−t (t). d The response y(t) to the block function p2 (t) is equal to the convolution of h(t) with p2 (t). it follows that (h ∗ h1 )(t) = δ(t). then it follows that the class of functions satisfying the diﬀerential equation and being bounded. which is 1. then we obtain that Z ∞ 1 u(x. X(x)Y (y) has to be bounded. t−1 −t −∞ a so h(t) = ( (t) − (t − 1))e . c It is straightforward to verify that the impulse response is absolutely integrable. Y − cY = 0.then Z t Z ∞ h(t) = e−(t−τ ) δ(τ ) dτ = ( (τ + 1 − t) − (τ − t))e−(t−τ ) δ(τ ) dτ.19 a The impulse response is the derivative in the sense of distributions of a(t) = e−t (t).

2Y +cY = 0.22 Applying partial fraction expansion (use s = iω) we obtain H(ω) = 1 1 + . b First write (iω − 1 − i)/(iω + 1 − i) as 1 − 2/(iω + 1 − i) and then use the inverse Fourier transform (the tables) to obtain δ(t) − 2e−(1−i)t (t) ↔ 1 − 2/(iω + 1 − i). can be described by X(x)Y (y) = eisx e−s 2 y/2 . which gives as repsonse the function y(t) = (e−t sin t) (t). so Y (ω) = 1/(−ω 2 + 2iω + 2). y) = X(x)Y (y) into uxx − 2uy = 0. hence the system is stable.√ obtain from the we √ boundedness condition that X(x) = 1 if c = 0 and ei cx .g. The inverse Fourier transform follows from table 3: h(t) = 2 sin2 (ωc t/2)/(πωc t2 ). 10. y) of the form Z ∞ 2 u(x. Here X(x) and Y (y) have to be bounded functions. e−i cx if c > 0. From the shift property in the time domain we obtain h(t) = δ(t − t0 ) − 2e−(1−i)(t−t0 ) (t − t0 ). For c ≥ 0 we obtain for Y (y) the solution e−cy/2 .Answers to selected exercises for chapter 10 43 b The frequency response is H(ω) = iω/(1 + iω). (Apply e. The response is the inverse Fourier transform of Y (ω): y(t) = (1 − t)e−t (t). Applying partial fraction expansion we obtain Y (ω) = 1 1 − . then y(t) = H(0)+H(1)eit +H(−1)e−it . c Ignoring˛ the delta function it is easy to verify that h(t) is absolutely ˛ ˛ ˛ integrable (˛ ei(t−t0 ) ˛ = 1).) c We have Y (ω) = H(ω)U (ω) (using obvious notations). the diﬀerentiation rule to h(t) = a (t). 10. where s ∈ R. which equals −i−e−it0 eit +(4i−3)eit0 e−it /5. 2i(iω + 1 − i) 2i(iω + 1 + i) 10. d Write u(t) = 1 + eit + e−it and use that eiωt → H(ω)eiωt .23 The response is the inverse Fourier transform of Y (ω). 2(iω + 1 − i) 2(iω + 1 + i) The inverse Fourier transform is then h(t) = (e−t cos t) (t). −∞ . y) = e−s y/2 F (s)eisx ds. Integrating this over (−∞. This gives for some arbitrary constant c (the separation constant) that X +cX = 0. −ω 2 + 2iω + 2 10.21 a The frequency response H(ω) is the triangle function qωc (ω). so Y (ω) = iω/(1 + iω)2 = 1/(1 + iω) − 1/(1 + iω)2 . b Since a (t) = h(t) and h(t) ≥ 0.24 We use separation of variables. ˛ ˛ a Since | iω − 1 − i | = | iω + 1 − i | and ˛ e−iωt0 ˛ = 1 we have | H(ω) | = 1 and so L is an all-pass system. The frequency response follows immediately from the diﬀerential equation: H(ω) = 1 + iω . It then follows that the class of functions satisfying the diﬀerential equation and being bounded. t] gives the step response a(t) = 1 (1 + e−t (sin t − cos t)) (t). so we substitute u(x. 2 b We have Y (ω) = H(ω)U (ω) (using obvious notations). By superposition we now try a solution u(x. Solving the diﬀerential equations. the function a(t) is a monotone increasing function. We put c = s2 with s ∈ R.

−∞ 1 Since te (t) ↔ 1/(1+iω)2 this means that F (s) = 2π(1+is)2 . y) = e−s y/2 eisx ds 2π −∞ (1 + is)2 Z ∞ (1 − s2 ) cos sx + 2s sin sx −s2 y/2 1 = e ds. The (formal) solution is thus given by Z ∞ 2 1 1 u(x. then we obtain that Z ∞ u(x. 0) = xe−x (x) = F (s)eisx ds.44 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 10 If we substitute y = 0 in this integral representation. 2π −∞ (1 + s2 )2 −t .

4 with z = x and w = iy it follows that sin(x + iy) = sin x cos(iy) + cos x sin(iy). w→z w − z w→z w−z 11.6 11. write z = x + iy. a From deﬁnition 11. b The derivative is 1 − 1/z 2 . so sin2 z +cos2 z = 1. it is analytic on C \ {0}.5 11. y) = 2xy 45 . But the denominator is 0 for z = 1. The real and imaginary part are u(x. so the real part is sin x cosh y and the imaginary part is cos x sinh y. The proofs can be copied from the real case. then sin(x + iy) = sin x cosh y + i cos x sinh y. In part d the domain is C \ {−3} and the range is C \ {0}. −i. √ √ √ The step wz = w z cannot be applied for non-real numbers (so e. d The real part is (3y − 2x − 6)/((x + 3)2 + y 2 ) and the imaginary part is (2y + 3x + 9)/((x + 3)2 + y 2 ).g. Solving this equation one √ obtains that it is analytic on C \ {−1.3 and expand the squares.7.8 11.2 In parts a. 1 ± 1 i 3}. b Write z = x + iy. So g(z) is continuous on G = C \ {1. c The real part is x − 4 and the imaginary part is −y − 1. (x + 3 + iy)(x + 3 − iy) (x + 3)2 + y 2 11.3 Apply deﬁnition 11. from exercise 11. this is a straightforward matter. a If we write z = x + iy. z = −1). Similarly it follows by substitution that 2 sin z cos z = sin 2z. To see this.11 a The derivative is 4(z − 1)3 . then z + 3 = x + 3 + iy and so f (z) = 3y − 2x − 6 + i(2y + 3x + 9) (3i − 2)(x + 3 − iy) = . This rational function is continuous for all z ∈ C for which the denominator is unequal to 0. the function is not diﬀerentiable when z 3 = −1.9 lim f (w) − f (z) w2 − z 2 = lim = lim (w + z) = 2z. c The derivative is ((z 3 + 1)(2z − 3) − 3z 2 (z 2 − 3z + 2))/(z 3 + 1)2 .12 11.1 11. the function is analytic on C. so the real part is x and the imaginary part is −y. 2 2 d The derivative is 2zez . since the function is not diﬀerentiable at z = 0. The proof can be copied from the real case. z = −i or z = 2i. the function is diﬀerentiable on C. Now apply part a. for w = −1. 2 11.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 11 11. b Expanding z 3 = (x + iy)3 we see that the real part is x3 − 3xy 2 and that the imaginary part is 3x2 y − y 3 . The same applies to exercise 11. b and c the domain is C and the range is C as well. then z = x − iy.14∗ Using deﬁnition 11. so it is analytic on C. 2i}.3 it follows that sin(iy) = (e−y − ey )/2i = i sinh y and cos(iy) = (e−y + ey )/2 = cosh y.13 11. y) = x2 − y 2 and v(x.3 and the chain rule it follows that (cos z) = (ieiz − ie−iz )/2 = (−eiz + e−iz )/2i = − sin z. this is a straightforward matter: w→z 11. several of the exponentials cancel and only 1/2+1/2 remains.

From the quotient rule it follows that the derivative is given by (2z 3 − 3z 2 − 1)/(z − 1)2 . then cos 2i = (e−2 + e2 )/2 > 3.4).46 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 11 (example 11. the Cauchy-Riemann equations are satisﬁed on the whole of R2 . which equals ∂v/∂y. But cos iy = cosh y and sin iy = i sinh y (see exercise 11. So ∂u/∂x = 2x.g. 11. The derivative is given by ez (z 2 − 2z + 3)/(z 2 + 3)2 (use the quotient rule). √ √ b This function is analytic when z 4 = −16. expand the exponentials in the resulting expression for cos z cos w − sin z sin w. z = 2i. so on C \ {±i 3}. b Use deﬁnition 11. and ∂u/∂y = −2y which equals −∂v/∂x.5a). take e.5 that cos z = (eiz + e−iz )/2 is also analytic on C. d Since ez is analytic on C. √ c This function is analytic when z 2 = −3. it follows from theorem 11. d This function is analytic on C since both ez and sin w are analytic on C. then cos(x + iy) = cos x cos iy − sin x sin iy.17 .16 a This is not true. a This function is analytic on C \ {1}. c Write z = x + iy and use part b. which gives the real and imaginary parts. Hence. 11.3. so cos(x + iy) = cos x cosh y − i sin x sinh y. The 3 4 11 derivative is given by −40z /(z + 16) . The derivative is given by ez cos ez (use the chain rule). so on C \ {± 2 ± i 2}.

2 12.3 12. e.g.2 it follows that 1/(s − 2 − 3i) is the Laplace transform and that σa = σc = 2.5 a From examples 12. it follows that the limit exists precisely for σ > 0.2 it follows that f (t) = e7t (that is. It then follows that Z 1 2 ∞ −st F (s) = − lim R2 e−sR + te dt. which is 1/s2 (example 12.7 it follows that e−4s /s is the Laplace transform and that σa = σc = 0. ˛ ˛ b Since limR→∞ e−σR = 0 only for σ > 0.10 (write cos t as obtain the Laplace transform „ « 1 1 1 + 2 s−i s+i + 1 e−it ). One can use the method of example 12.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 12 12. then apply 47 . example 12. The lower limit 0 leads to 1/(s − a). Hence. while the upper limit results in the limit limR→∞ e(a−s)R (note that 1/(a−s) does not inﬂuence the outcome of this limit). (t)). This shows that F (s) = s2 . c From exercise 12. example 12.6 12.8 it follows that 1/(s + 2) is the Laplace transform and that σa = σc = −2.8 a Using the method of example 12.9 and apply an integration by parts for s = 0. s R→∞ s 0 The remaining integral is the Laplace transform of t for Re s > 0.2 and 12. the Laplace transform equals 1/(s−a) for Re s > Re a. b The function equals 1 for 0 ≤ t < b and is 0 elsewhere. (t)t2 /2). Write s = σ + iω.1 it follows that f (t) = 1 (that is.9).4 12. while it equals b for s = 0.9 Follow the hint. a b c d From From From From example 12.1 a The complex number e−iωR lies on the unit circle for all R and so the limit R → ∞ does not exist. we 2 and this is equal to s/(s2 + 1) (for Re s > 0). exercise 12. write cos(at + b) = cos at cos b − sin at sin b. Since limR→∞ R2 e−σR = 0 for σ > 0. c Using the same method as in parts a and b it follows that the Laplace transform of cosh at = (eat + e−at )/2 is given by „ « 1 1 s 1 + = 2 . and ˛ e−iωR ˛ = 1. so if σ > α.4 it follows that f (t) = t2 /2 (that is. b As in part a we now obtain the Laplace transform s/(s2 + a2 ). The integrand equals e(a−s)t and a primitive of this is given by e(a−s)t /(a − s). 2 s−a s+a s − a2 12.7 it follows that f (t) = (t − 3). b From example 12. (t)e7t ). 1 it e 2 12. it follows as before that limR→∞ R2 e−sR = 0 for Re s > 0. a = α + iβ and use that limR→∞ e(α−σ)R = 0 only if α−σ < 0. 3 12. It is easy to calculate the Laplace transform using the deﬁnition and an integration by parts and it is given by (1 − e−bs )/s for all (!) s = 0.

Using part a and table 7 (and linearity of course). lines 8 and 9 the answers are given. 12. f 2e−3 /(s − 1)3 . The function equals cos t for 0 ≤ t < 2π and is 0 elsewhere since cos(t − 2π) = cos t. Adding these results leads to s(1 − e−2πs )/(s2 + 1). which gives as Laplace transform 2e−s /s2 . A shift in the time-domain shows that se−2πs /(s2 + 1) is the Laplace transform of (t − 2π) cos(t − 2π). which gives as Laplace transform e−2s /s2 . use a shift in the s-domain. use a shift in the s-domain. use a shift in the time-domain. In order to apply a shift in the time-domain we write f (t) = (t − 1)(t − 1) + (t − 1). and then. For all these exercises one ﬁrst needs to recognize the basic form of the function. 12. From table 7 and a shift in the time-domain the Laplace transform e−s /s2 follows. (20/s3 ) − (5/s2 ) + ((8i − 3)/s) 4/(s2 + 16) s/(s2 − 25) (1/s2 ) + (1/s) − (s/(s2 + 1)) (1/(s − 2)) + (1/(s + 3)) (1/2s) − (s/2(s2 + 4)) (cos 2 − s sin 2)/(s2 + 1) 1/(s − ln 3) (use that 3t = et ln 3 ). then G(s) = (s2 −2s+4)/(4(s+1)(s−2)). b 2e−s /s3 . (t − 1)(2t − 2) = 2 (t − 1)(t − 1) and so we can apply a shift in the time-domain.15 12. The same applies to (t − 2)(t − 2). use a shift in the time-domain. 3 − 2t for 1 ≤ t < 2 and 1 − t for t ≥ 2.10 In a b c d e f g h all these exercises we have to use linearity and/or table 7. a The function is 0 for 0 ≤ t < 1 and t − 1 for t ≥ 1. then apply table 7. in combination with a shift in the time. c The function equals 0 for 0 ≤ t < 1 and t for t ≥ 1 (so there is a jump at t = 1 of magnitude 1).or s-domain. The Laplace transform of cos t is s/(s2 + 1).12 12.18 12. Also. a 2e3t b 3 sin t c 4 cos 2t d (sinh 2t)/2 e (t − 2)(t − 2). d (s − b)/((s − b)2 + a2 ). if necessary. 12. use a shift in the s-domain.48 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 12 linearity and the fact that we know the transforms of cos at and sin at. use a shift in the s-domain. Add these three results.17 12. Write f (t) = (t)t − (t − 1)t.17c and table 7 that the Laplace transform is given by (1 − (1 + s)e−s )/s2 .or s-domain. a 1/(s − 2)2 . using table 7. b The Laplace transform of 1 equals 1/s. From table 7 (and linearity) the Laplace transform follows: (1/s2 ) − (1/s).g. the Laplace transform follows: (e−s /s2 ) + (e−s /s). b The function equals t − 1 for t ≥ 0. c 5/((s + 3)2 + 25).11 a The function is 1 for 0 ≤ t < 1. combine it with properties like a shift in the time.19 . then it follows from exercise 12. e se−3s /(s2 − 1). f (t − 3) cos(t − 3). use a shift in the time-domain. Apply the scaling property to f (t).16 12. For this exercise one again ﬁrst has to recognize the basic form of the Laplace transform. In table 7. use a shift in the time-domain. e.

Answers to selected exercises for chapter 12 49 g (et sin 4t)/4. ds2 s2 + a2 (s2 + a2 )3 b Using the diﬀerentiation rule in the s-domain and table 7 for the Laplace transform of sinh 3t one obtains that (Lt sinh 3t)(s) = − and (Lt2 sinh 3t)(s) = 18(s2 + 3) 3 d2 . 4 12. use a shift in the s-domain.g. Theorem 12. in order to do so we ﬁrst have to write F (s) as 3 s+1 1 − . dsn s − a (s − a)n+1 12.21 Apply De l’Hˆpital’s rule repeatedly (n times) to the limit t → ∞ of tn /eαt o and use that limt→∞ e−αt = 0 for any α > 0. a Use the diﬀerentiation rule in the s-domain and table 7 for the Laplace transform of cos at.g. Hence f (t) = 0 sinh aτ dτ = (cosh at − 1)/a. from table 7) that (Ltn )(s) = n!/sn+1 and using the shift rule in the s-domain we then obtain that F (s) = n!/(s − a)n+1 .27 dn 1 n! = .25 a We know (e. b We know (e. = ds2 s2 − 9 (s2 − 9)3 3 6s d = 2 ds s2 − 9 (s − 9)2 12. j e2t cos 2t. 1 k 4 (t − 1) cos(3(t − 1)/2). writing it as (s − 2)2 + 4). use a shift in the s-domain (ﬁrst complete the square in the denominator.28 . use a shift in the s-domain. (Ltn )(s) = n!/sn+1 . from table 7) that (Leat )(s) = 1/(s − a) and using the diﬀerentiation rule in the s-domain we then obtain that F (s) = (−1)n 12. (s + 1)2 + 1 (s + 1)2 + 1 which can be obtained by noting that 3s + 2 = 3(s + 1) − 1. that is. dsn s hence. According to (12.23 The causal function sinh at is continuous on R. 12. use a shift in the s-domain. Then f has Laplace transform 2s(s2 − 3a2 ) d2 s = . so it follows from the integration rule (table 8) that „ Z t « 1 L sinh aτ dτ (s) = F (s) s 0 Rt with F (s) = (L sinh at)(s) = a/(s2 − a2 ).13) we then have for n ∈ N (and Re s > 0) that dn 1 = (−1)n (Ltn )(s). use a shift in the time-domain (ﬁrst write the function F (s) as 1 e−s s/(s2 + (9/4)). h e−t (3 cos t − sin t).3 implies that the Laplace transform of tn exists for Re s > 0 (it is easy to show that tn = (t)tn is of exponential order for α > 0 arbitrary). We know that (L1)(s) = 1/s. i −3e3t t2 . (−1)n n!/sn+1 = (−1)n (Ltn )(s).

50 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 12 Finally apply linearity. (One can also use the Laplace transforms of sin 2t and cos 2t and a shift in the s-domain. (s2 − 9)3 (s − 9)2 s −9 a The function equals 2 (t)t for t < 1 and since t = 2t − t it follows that f (t) = 2 (t)t − (t − 1)t = 2 (t)t − (t − 1)(t − 1) − (t − 1). f (t) = 2 (t) − (t − 1) for t = 0. s s2 This is not correct since we cannot apply the diﬀerentiation rule in the present situation: f has a jump at t = 1 and so it isn’t diﬀerentiable on R. then we obtain that F (s) = s2 − 2s + 2 . d Note that f (t) = e2it e−t = e(−1+2i)t and applying table 7 we thus obtain that F (s) = 1/(s + 1 − 2i). − 2 − 2 s s s c The function is not diﬀerentiable at t = 0 and t = 1. Now apply the diﬀerentiation rule in the s-domain. c We can apply the integration rule here (t3 f (t) is continuous on R). Rt Hence the Laplace transform of 0 τ 3 f (τ ) dτ is given by G(s)/s with G(s) = 3 (Lt f (t))(s). table 7 and the shift rule in the time domain it follows that F (s) = 2 e−s e−s . b First apply the scaling property and then the shift rule in the s-domain. d According to the diﬀerentiation rule in the time domain one should have (Lf )(s) = s(Lf )(s). then (Le−2t f (3t))(s) = e−(s+2)/3 /(s + 2). we have that (Lf )(s) = (2/s) − (e−s /s).31 a From the shift rule in the s-domain it follows that (Leibt f (t))(s) = F (s− ib) and since sin at = (eiat − e−iat )/2i it follows that (Lf (t) sin at)(s) = (F (s − ia) − F (s + ia))/2i. 12.30 18(s2 + 3) 18s 6 − 2 + 2 . so 2 − e−s (s + 1) 2 − e−s =s . Apart from these two points the derivative equals 0 for t < 0. Applying a shift in the timedomain we obtain that (L (t − 2) sin(t − 2))(s) = e−2s /(s2 + 1). Finally we note that et+3 = e3 et and so we apply a shift in the s-domain: . Since the Laplace transform does not depend on the value at these points. s3 c From (L (t − 4))(s) = e−4s /s and the shift property in the s-domain (table 8) it follows that F (s) = e−4(s−2) /(s − 2). then one obtains that F (s) = 12. 2 for 0 < t < 1 and 1 for t > 1. We also have that (L (t − 2))(s) = e−2s /s so (for Re s > 1) F (s) = 3e−2 s + e−2s (s − 1) . s ds3 12. 1.) e The Laplace transform of sin t is 1/(s2 +1). b From part a. then it Rt follows that the Laplace transform of 0 τ 3 f (τ ) dτ is given by − 1 d3 F (s). s(s − 1) b Apply linearity (and table 7) to (t − 1)2 = t2 − 2t + 1.32 a Since 3et−2 = 3e−2 et it follows that (L3et−2 )(s) = 3e−2 /(s − 1) (see table 7). Hence.

e The denominator equals (s+4)2 and if we now use that s+3 = (s+4)−1. . (s − ln 3)2 + 4 g One can write f (t) as the following combination of shifted unit step functions: f (t) = (t) − (t − 1) + (t − 2). f Apply a shift in the time domain to (Lt2 e2t )(s) = 2/(s − 2)3 (table 7). d The denominator equals (s − 2)2 + 16 and if we now use that 3s − 2 = 3(s − 2) + 4.33 1 − e−s + e−2s − e−3s . b Since F (s) = 1/s + 3/s4 we obtain from table 7 that f (t) = 1 + t3 /2. Hence f (t) = te−t + 2 sinh 2t + sin t + (t − π) sin(t − π). then it follows that F (s) = 3 s−2 4 + . (s − 1)2 + 1 f The Laplace transform of cos 2t is s/(s2 + 4). From a shift in the time domain it then follows that f (t) = (t − 1)(1 − cos 3(t − 1))/9. (s − 2)2 + 16 (s − 2)2 + 16 From table 7 and a shift in the s-domain we then obtain that f (t) = 3e2t cos 4t + e2t sin 4t. c Since (Lte−t )(s) = 1/(s + 1)2 and (L sinh 2t)(s) = 2/(s2 − 4) (table 7) it follows that te−t + 1 sinh 2t has Laplace transform 1/(s + 1)2 + 1/(s2 − 4). 1 then we obtain that f (t) = 2 (t − 4)e2t−8 (t − 4)2 . Since 3t = et ln 3 we apply a shift in the s-domain: F (s) = s − ln 3 . From table 7 we then obtain that F (s) = 12. so (L(1 − cos 3t))(s) = 9/(s(s2 + 9)). then it follows that 1 1 F (s) = − . 2 Furthermore we have that (L sin t)(s) = 1/(s2 + 1) (table 7) and from a shift in the time-domain it then follows that (L (t − π) sin(t − π))(s) = 1 e−πs /(s2 + 1). s a Since (L1)(s) = 1/s and (L (t − 1))(s) = e−s /s (table 7) it follows that f (t) = 1 − (t − 1). But the integral equals (1 − cos 3t)/3. s+4 (s + 4)2 From table 7 and a shift in the s-domain we then obtain that f (t) = e−4t (1 − t).Answers to selected exercises for chapter 12 51 F (s) = e3 e−2(s−1) . 2 g Applying the integration rule to (L sin 3t)(s) = 3/(sR + 9) (the causal t function sin t is continuous on R) we obtain that (L 0 sin 3τ dτ )(s) = 2 3/(s(s + 9)).

This is not possible. we may apply the ﬁnal value theorem and we indeed have f (∞) = 0 = lims→0 sF (s). If a = b. Applying the diﬀerentiation rule in the s-domain it follows that (Lt sin t)(s) = 2s/(s2 + 1)2 and so F (s) = (2/s) + (2s/(s2 + 1)2 ).11 . Since f (∞) exists. contradicting theorem theorem 13. a Consider this as the product of the Laplace transforms of t and e−t . a From table 7 we obtain that F (s) = s/(s2 − 9).2 to g(t) we obtain that lims→∞ sF (s) = lims→∞ G(s) = 0 and for f we indeed have that f (0+) = f (0) = 0. 2). Next we can verify the convolution theorem. Using the convolution theorem we obtain s2 /(s2 +1)2 as the Laplace 2 transform. b The convolution theorem implies that g(t) = eav ∗ ebv . We indeed have f (0+) = 2 = lims→∞ sF (s). we need to calculate this convolution. If a = b.5 13. we may apply the ﬁnal value theorem and we indeed have f (∞) = 0 = lims→0 (1 − e−s ). to determine g(t) explicitly. we may apply the ﬁnal value theorem and we indeed have f (∞) = 0 = lims→0 sF (s). We indeed have f (0+) = 1 = lims→∞ sF (s). b Similarly we now obtain e−2t ∗ cos 2t.2 13.4 13. then g(t) = teat . which agrees with the result obtained from the convolution theorem.9 13. If a = b then G(s) = (1/(s − a) − 1/(s − b))/(a − b) (table 7.5 implies that 52 13. b From table 7 we obtain that (L sin 2t)(s) = 2/(s2 + 4). 1 d 16 sinh 4t ∗ sinh 4t. Since f (∞) exists. If a = b then g(t) = (eat − ebt )/(a − b). On the other hand we obtain from the Laplace transforms of cos t and sin t and the diﬀerentiation rule in the s-domain the Laplace transform (s2 − 1)/(2(s2 + 1)2 ) + (1/(2(s2 + 1)). For the functions cos t and sinh t the value f (∞) does not exist and so the ﬁnal value theorem cannot be applied. Write G(s) = (Lg)(s). c sinh t ∗ cosh t. c From the integration rule (table 8) we obtain that F (s) = (Lg)(s)/s and so sF (s) = G(s) with G(s) the Laplace transform of g(t). The convolution then equals 1 t cos t + 2 1 sin t. b Theorem 13. no. Applying theorem 13. since lims→∞ sn does not exist. then G(s) = 1/(s − a)2 (table 7.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 13 13. From the deﬁnition Rt it follows that g(t) = ebt 0 eτ (a−b) dτ .2. b From table 7 we obtain that (L sin t)(s) = 1/(s2 + 1) and (L1)(s) = 1/s. a For a periodic function f (∞) will in general not exist and so the ﬁnal value theorem cannot be applied.6 13. 10). Since f (∞) exists.8 13. which gives t ∗ e−t as result.1 The integral deﬁning the convolution can be calculated by using the formula for the product of two cosines. no. a From table 7 we obtain that F (s) = 1/(s + 3). which equals 1/(s − a)(s − b). Applying the shift property in the s-domain we obtain that F (s) = 2/((s + 1)2 + 4). a Table 7 gives f (t) = eat . c From table 7 we obtain that F (s) = (1/s) − (e−s /s).

Since (e−st )(n) = (−s)n e−st .21) together with (13. s s s 1 − 2e−as + e−2as . we then obtain from the deﬁnition of the shifted delta function that (Lδ (n) (t − a))(s) = sn e−as . write the denominator as s(eas/2 + e−as/2 )(eas/2 − e−as/2 ).19 This follows immediately from table 9.18 13.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 13 53 sF (s) = s 1 − e−sT Z 0 T f (t)e−st dt. If Φ(s) is the Laplace transform of φ(t). for t < 2a we then have φ(t) = (t) − 2 (t − a). Taking the limit s → 0 gives (note that the integral is over a bounded interRT RT val) lims→0 0 f (t)e−st dt = 0 f (t) dt. Consult tables 7 and 9 for this exercise and use linearity. e−st = (−1)n δ(t − a). no 2 and (9. for all t we have φ(t) = (t) − 2 (t − a) + (t − 2a).4 we have sF (s) = 1/(1 + e−s ) and so lims→0 sF (s) = 1 . 2 R2 The function has period 2 and so the integral is 1 0 f (t) dt = 1 . we obtain from a shift in the time-domain that (L(t − 2) (t − 2))(s) = e−2s /s2 . .2) and the deﬁnition of distribution derivative. c In example 13. 13.13 b Let φ(t) denote the restriction of f (t) to one period. (e−st )(n) .7) it follows that (e−zT ) (0) = lims→0 (e−sT − 1)/s and since (e−zT ) = −T e−zT we thus obtain that s→0 lim s 1 = . 1 − e−sT T RT 1 which shows that lims→0 sF (s) = T 0 f (t) dt.9). a 1 + (1/(s2 + 1)) = (s2 + 2)/(s2 + 1). Also (L (t − 1))(s) = e−s /s and so Φ(s) = e−2s 2e−s 1 − 2 − . ﬁnally.12 a For t < a we have φ(t) = (t). then φ(t) = t (t) − (t − 2) (t − 2) − 2 (t − 1).5 (or table 8) that F (s) = b Multiply numerator and denominator by eas . and for part d the convolution theorem. and use the deﬁnitions of the hyperbolic sine and cosine functions.7) (or deﬁnition 13. 2 s s s 1 2e−s 1 1 − = 2 − . s2 s(1 − e−2s ) s s sinh s Theorem 13. 13. then it follows from table 7 that Φ(s) = 1 2e−as e−2as − + . then it follows that F (s) = tanh(as/2)/s. From the deﬁnition of derivative (deﬁnition 11. then it follows that D E D E (Lδ (n) (t − a))(s) = δ (n) (t − a). s(1 − e−2as ) Since f has period 2a we then obtain from theorem 13.16 Apply (13. 13. which 2 2 veriﬁes the result of part b for f . b s + 3s2 . Since (Lt)(s) = 1/s2 .5 (or table 8) then implies that F (s) = 13.

a δ (t) + 3δ(t) − δ(t − 2). With y = s2 we obtain 3 from table 7 the inverse Laplace transform f (t) = (5 sinh 2t − 4 sinh t)/6.22 Hence. which gives 3 (1/(y − 4)) − 2 (1/(y − 1)). d δ(t) − sin t (ﬁrst write s2 /(s2 + 1) as 1 − 1/(s2 + 1)). 13. b δ (t) − 4δ (t) + 4δ(t) + e2t (ﬁrst write (s − 2)2 as s2 − 4s + 4). f Since s2 − 1 = (s − 1)(s + 1) one could solve this using partial fraction expansions.54 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 13 c 1/s + e−2s + 2is2 e−4s . This is an important exercise: it shows how to use partial fraction expansions. it is easier to note that d s 1 2 =− 2 − 2 ds s2 − 1 s −1 (s − 1)2 and so 1 1 d s 1 1 =− − . From table 7 it then follows that f (t) = 3e−3t − 2e−2t . Since the degree of the numerator is greater than the degree of the denominator we ﬁrst perform a long division: s6 + s2 − 1 2s2 − 1 = s2 + 1 + 2 2 . g Since the degree of the numerator equals the degree of the denominator we ﬁrst perform a long division: s3 + 4 s2 − 4s + 8 =1+ 2 . a Factorise the denominator as (s + 2)(s + 3) and apply partial fraction expansion to obtain 3/(s + 3) − 2/(s + 2). h The factor e−2s can be dealt with afterwards by applying a shift in the time-domain.20 Consult tables 7 and 9 for this exercise. (s2 − 1)2 2 ds s2 − 1 2 s2 − 1 We have (L sinh t)(s) = 1/(s2 − 1) and (L cosh t)(s) = s/(s2 − 1) and the diﬀerentiation rule in the s-domain then implies that (Lt cosh t)(s) = − d s . s2 (s2 − 1) s (s − 1) . c (t − 2) sin(t − 2) + δ (3) (t − 2) (apply a shift in the time-domain to the Laplace transform of sin t). and use mainly linearity. 3 c Apply partial fraction expansion to obtain − 4 (1/(s + 3)) + 2 (1/(s + 3 1 2)) + 12 (1/(s − 1)). (s2 + 4)(s − 1) (s + 4)(s − 1) Applying a partial fraction expansion to the second term leads to 1/(s−1)− 4/(s2 +4). From table 7 it then follows that f (t) = −3e−3t /4 + 2e−2t /3 + et /12. However. but now in the opposite direction. ds s2 − 1 13. f (t) = (t cosh t − sinh t)/2. d s3 e−as . From table 7 it then follows that f (t) = −e−t + 2et − 4te−t . From tables 7 and 9 it then follows that f (t) = δ(t)+et −2 sin 2t. d First put y = s2 and then apply partial fraction expansion in the vari5 able y. e A partial fraction expansion leads to −1/(s + 1) + 2/(s − 1) − 4/(s + 1)2 . b Completing the square in the denominator gives (s + 3)2 + 1 and from table 7 it then follows that f (t) = e−3t sin t.

Since f (0+) = 0. so F (s) = (1 − e−2s )/s2 . 4 13. which gives F (s) = 2 2 1 1 + .25 a The function f is piecesewise smooth and f (∞) = 2. This agrees with part a. Caculating this integral 4 1 gives f (t) = 4 t sin 2t. If we write φ(t) as φ(t) = (t)t2 − (t−1)(t−1)2 − (t−1)− 2 (t − 1)(t − 1). also in agreement with part a.26 and from table 7 and a shift in the s-domain it then follows that f (t) = 1 − e−t cos 2t. so f (t) = 1 t sin 2t. then it follows from table 7 and a shift in the time-domain (to get the Laplace transforms of (t − 1)(t − 1)2 and (t − 1)(t − 1)) that Φ(s) = − 2e−s 2 2e−s e−s − 2 + 3 − 3 .27 a For 0 ≤ t < 1 we have f (t) = (t)t2 . which leads to (1/s2 ) + (1/(s2 − 1)). we use partial fraction expansion for y/(y − 1)(y + 4). We now determine the inverse Laplace transform of F (s) using partial fraction expansion. 13. We now determine the inverse Laplace transform of F (s). applying De l’Hˆpital’s rule we obtain that lims→∞ sF (s) = o lims→∞ (1 − e−2s )/s = lims→∞ 2e−2s = 0. then (L (t − 2)(t − 2))(s) = e−2s /s2 . Hence. c Applying the diﬀerentiation rule in the time-domain to (L sin 2t)(s) = 2/(s2 + 4). b Let φ(t) = ( (t) − (t − 1))t2 for all t. a Note that lims→0 sF (s) = 1. lims→0 sF (s) = lims→0 (1 − e−2s )/s. s s s s . which is −2. b Apply a shift in the time-domain to (Lt)(s) = 1/s2 . 13. and so lims→0 sF (s) = 2. for 0 ≤ t < 2 we then have f (t) = (t)t2 − (t − 1)t2 . Since F (s) is a function of y = s2 .Answers to selected exercises for chapter 13 55 To the rational part we apply partial fraction expansion (again we ﬁrst put y = s2 ). b Note that lims→0 sF (s) = 0. so the ﬁnal value theorem implies that lims→0 sF (s) = 2. Rt b The deﬁnition of convolution gives f (t) = 1 0 cos 2τ sin(2t−2τ ) dτ and 2 using the trigonometricRformula 2 cos a sin b = sin(a+b)−sin(a−b) this can t be written as f (t) = 1 0 (sin 2t − sin(4τ − 2t)) dτ . We have F (s) = s+1 1 − s (s + 1)2 + 4 13. Finally. Since f (∞) does not exits. But according to deﬁnition 11.5 (or table 8) that F (s) = Φ(s)/(1−e−2s ). which veriﬁes the ﬁnal value theorem. 2 s2 + 4 s2 + 4 F (s) = From table 7 and the convolution theorem (or table 8) it then follows that 1 (g ∗ h)(t) = (cos 2v ∗ 2 sin 2v)(t). the inital value theorem implies that lims→∞ sF (s) = 0. then it follows from theorem 13. a shift in the time-domain and table 9 it then follows that f (t) = δ (t − 2) + δ(t − 2) + (t − 2)(t − 2 + sinh(t − 2)). We see that f (∞) = 1 = lims→0 sF (s). 5 s2 − 1 5 s2 + 4 From table 7 we then obtain that f (t) = (sinh t + 2 sinh 2t)/5. From table 7. we obtain that (Lt sin 2t)(s) = 4s/(s2 + 4)2 .7 this limit equals −(e−2z ) (0). and let Φ(s) be the Laplace transform of φ(t). the ﬁnal value theorem cannot be applied.24 a First write F (s) as 1 s 2 .

. Since G(s) is a function of y = s2 . Next we determine the inverse Laplace transform h(t) of H(s).28 a A partial fraction expansion of G(s) = 1/s(s + 1) gives G(s) = (1/s) − (1/(s + 1)). s s s−1 (s − 1)2 From table 7 we then obtain that f (t) = 2 + t − 2et + 2tet . From table 7 and the shift property in the time-domain it then follows that h(t) = δ (t − π) − 4δ(t − π) − (t − π) (2 − 16(t − π) + 2 cos 2(t − π)) and then f (t) = g(t) + h(t). which gives G(s) = (1/4s2 ) − (1/4(s2 + 4)) and so (by table 7) g(t) = (2t − sin 2t)/8. b A partial fraction expansion gives F (s) = 2 1 2 2 + 2 − + . we ﬁrst perform a long division: s5 − 4s4 − 8s + 64 4s3 − 16s2 + 8s − 64 =s−4− . s2 (s2 + 4) s s s +4 Hence. we apply a partial fraction expansion to 1/y(y + 4). Combining this with a shift in the time-domain we obtain that f (t) = 1 − e−t − (t − 3)(1 − e−t+3 ).56 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 13 which then also gives F (s) = Φ(s)/(1 − e−2s ). 13. s2 (s2 + 4) We ﬁrst determine the inverse Laplace transform g(t) of G(s). H(s) = se−πs − 4e−πs − e−πs „ 16 2s 2 − 2 + 2 s s s +4 « . s2 (s2 + 4) s2 (s2 + 4) Partial fraction expansion of the rational function gives 4s3 − 16s2 + 8s − 64 2 16 2s = − 2 + 2 . which has inverse Laplace transform g(t) = 1 − e−t . c Write F (s) = G(s) + H(s) where G(s) = 1 s2 (s2 + 4) and H(s) = e−πs s5 − 4s4 − 8s + 64 . Since the degree of the numerator is larger than the degree of the denominator.

it follows that Y (s) = 1/(s + 1)2 and so (inverse Laplace transform) y(t) = te−t . so y (t) = 2 (t−1)(4e2t−2 − et−1 ) + 2δ(t − 1). so the system is not stable. 0 0 Here e−τ and eτ cancel each other and the integral that remains can be calculated by an integration by parts. we can substitute s = iω into H(s) to obtain the frequency response 1 + 1/(iω + 1)2 . The derivative at t = 0 can be obtained from the deﬁnition of the derivative (and e. A partial fraction expansion (in the variable y = s2 ) results in 4/(s2 + 4) − 4/(s2 + 16) and from table 7 it then follows that y(t) = 2 sin 2t − sin 4t. Thus. Since δ ∗ u = u we only need to calculate te−t ∗ u.g. b Partial fraction expansion of H(s) shows that H(s) = (1/3(s − 4)) − (1/3(s − 1)) and from table 7 we then obtain that h(t) = (e4t − et )/3. so H(s) = Y (s)/U (s). Now h has a jump 1 at t = 0. b Since h has no jump at t = 0 we have that h (t) = 2e2t − et (in the sense of distributions). Since y has no jump at t = 0 and y also has no jump at t = 0.2 Again use the important formula Y (s) = H(s)U (s).5 . Next we determine y(t) using the Laplace transform: Y (s) = H(s)U (s) and since U (s) = 1/((s+1)2 +1) (table 7 and a shift in the s-domain). The inverse Laplace transform gives h(t) = δ(t) − δ (t) + 4 cos 2t. From tables 7 (for te−t ) and 9 (for δ) it follows immediately that H(s) = 1 + 1/(s + 1)2 . using De l’Hˆpital’s rule) and we o indeed obtain that y (0) = 0. So in ordinary sense y(t) does indeed satisfy the diﬀerential equation.4 14. so h (t) = 4e2t − et + δ(t). Hence.and right-hand side gives (note the condition of initial rest) Y (s) = 48/((s2 + 4)(s2 + 16)). Since 57 14. We now diﬀerentiate in distribution sense. t] gives the step response a(t) = (e4t − 4et + 3)/12. that is Z t Z t u(τ )h(t − τ ) dτ = e−τ sin τ e−(t−τ ) (t − τ ) dτ. c We ﬁrst determine the response y(t) by calculating the convolution product y(t) = (h ∗ u)(t). c Integrating the impulse response over [0.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 14 14. a Using (14. b Using that H(s) exists for Re s > −1. we indeed have that h − 3h + 2h = δ(t). which is in agreement with the fact that the system is not stable. This gives te−t − sin te−t and so y(t) = u(t) + te−t − sin te−t = te−t . a It is clear that y(0) = 0. c Similar as in part b: there is no jump at t = 1 and so y (t) = 2 (t − 1)(2e2t−2 −et−1 ).1 a We have to determine the Laplace transform H(s) of h(t).21) will give the same result (outside t = 0 the derivative can be taken in ordinary sense). Taking Laplace transforms of the left. In this case U (s) = 1/s2 and Y (s) = 1/s2 − s/(s2 + 4). d Either calculate the convolution product (h ∗ u)(t) or use Laplace transforms. so H(s) = 1 − s3 /(s2 + 4) = 1 − s + 4s/(s2 + 4) (divide s3 by s2 + 4). Now y has a jump 2 at t = 1. in general the latter is preferable and we will apply it here. this function is not absolutely integrable. the jump formula (8. y − 3y + 2y = 2δ(t − 1).9) we obtain that H(s) = 1/(s2 − 5s + 4) = 1/((s − 1)(s − 4)) and its zeroes do not satisfy Re s < 0. For t > 0 it is straightforward to check that y − y = 2t. 14.3 14.

b Let Q and V be the Laplace transforms of q and v. 3(s − 1) 2(s − 2) 6(s − 4) From table 7 we then obtain that y(t) = (e4t + 2et − 3e2t )/6. Since this zero lies in Re s < 0 (because R/L > 0). Let Y (s) be the Laplace transform of y(t). Y (s) = (s − 1)(s2 3 3s − 11 3s2 − 14s + 14 + 2 = . t] gives the step response a(t) = (1 − e−Rt/L )/R. where p = aE/(R(a2 + 1/R2 C 2 )). The inverse transform of this is y(t) = (t − a)(1 − e−(t−a)R/L )/R (use a shift in the time-domain). it is much simpler here to use time-invariance: the response to (t − a) is a(t − a) = (t − a)(1 − e−R(t−a)/L )/R.12 Partial fraction expansion gives Y (s) = 31 3 19 − + .10 14. 12(s + 1) 8(s − 1) 24(s − 5) From table 7 we obtain the inverse Laplace transform y(t) = (62e−t − 9et + 19e5t )/24. the system is stable. d Use time-invariance (and linearity): Eδ(t − 3) has as response Eh(t − 3) = E (t − 3)e−(t−3)/RC /R (h(t) follows from part a).9)) and so H(s) has only one zero s = −1/RC. Let Y (s) be the Laplace transform of y(t). c As in part b it now follows that Q(s) = aE/(R(s + 1/RC)(s2 + a2 )). The inverse transform of this is q(t) = EC(1 − e−t/RC ) and since i(t) = q (t) it follows that i(t) = Ee−t/RC /R. hence. a From the diﬀerential equation we get H(s) = 1/(L(s + R/L)) (use (14. the system is stable. c Let V be the Laplace transform of v. e Use time-invariance (and linearity): 3δ(t − 1) has response 3h(t − 1) = (t − 1)(e4t−4 − et−1 ). then we obtain from the differential equation and the initial conditions y(0) = 3 and y (0) = 1 (and tables 7 and 8) that (s2 Y − 3s − 1) − 4(sY − 3) − 5Y = 3/(s − 1). and partial fraction expansion results in Q(s) = p(1/(s + 1/RC) − s/(s2 + a2 ) + 1/(RC(s2 + a2 ))). Since y(0) = 0 and y (0) = 1 it follows that s2 Y (s) − 1 + Y (s) = 1/s2 . The inverse transform gives h(t) = e−Rt/L /L. − 4s − 5) s − 4s − 5 (s − 1)(s2 − 4s − 5) 14. .7 a From the diﬀerential equation we get H(s) = 1/(R(s + 1/RC)) (use (14. b Integrating the impulse response over [0. The inverse Laplace transform of Y (s) is y(t) = t. However. Partial fraction expansion results in Y (s) = (e−as /R)(1/s − 1/(s + R/L)). 14. so (s2 + 1)Y (s) = 1 + 1/s2 = (s2 + 1)/s2 and thus Y (s) = 1/s2 . then it follows that Y (s) = V (s)H(s) = e−as /(Ls(s + R/L)). The inverse transform of this is q(t) = p(e−t/RC − cos at + (1/aRC) sin at).9)) and so H(s) has only one zero s = −R/L. Solving for Y gives (s2 − 4s − 5)Y (s) + 11 − 3s = 3/(s − 1). then we obtain from the diﬀerential equation (and tables 7 and 8) that (s2 Y (s)−sy(0)−y (0))+Y (s) = 1/s2 .8 14.58 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 14 Y (s) = U (s)H(s) = 1/((s − 1)(s − 4)(s − 2)) we use partial fraction expansion: 1 1 1 Y (s) = − + . Since this zero lies in Re s < 0 (because RC > 0). then Q(s) = V (s)H(s) = E/(Rs(s+1/RC)) and partial fraction expansion gives Q(s) = EC(1/s − 1/(s + 1/RC)).

y(t) = sinh t. From table 7 we know that (L cos 2t)(s) = s/(s2 + 4) and (L sin 2t)(s) = 2/(s2 + 4). (s + 1)2 + 4 (s + 1)2 + 4 s(s2 + 2s + 5) Using table 7 and a shift in the s-domain it is easy to get the inverse Laplace transform of the ﬁrst two terms since (Le−t cos 2t)(s) = (s+1)/((s+1)2 +4) and (Le−t sin 2t)(s) = 2/((s + 1)2 + 4). From the diﬀerential equation and the initial conditions we obtain that s2 Y − s + Y = (1 − e−2s )/s2 . − 2 + 2 s (s + 1) s +1 s2 s +1 s +1 From tables 7 and 8 we obtain the inverse Laplace transform y(t) = t − sin t + cos t − (t − 2)(t − 2 − sin(t − 2)). One similarly obtains −s2 X + X = −2s2 2 +s+ 2 s2 + 4 s +4 and so X(s) = 2/(s2 + 4) − s/(s2 − 1). We can ﬁnd Y (s) by multiplying the second equation by −s and adding it to the ﬁrst equation. Applying the Laplace transform to the system and substituting the initial conditions . X + sY = 2/(s2 + 4). s(s2 + 2s + 5) 5s 5(s2 + 2s + 5) We write the second term as (s + 1)/5(s2 + 2s + 5) + 1/5(s2 + 2s + 5) and taking everything together now we get Y (s) = 9(s + 1) 2 1 1 + − + e−2s . 14. 14.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 14 59 14. 5s 5((s + 1)2 + 4) 5((s + 1)2 + 4) (s + 1)2 + 4 From our previous remarks and a shift in the time-domain it then follows that y(t) = (2 + 18e−t cos 2t − e−t sin 2t)/10 + (t − 2)e−(t−2) sin 2(t − 2). hence (apply partial fraction expansion in s2 to the ﬁrst term).17 Let X(s) and Y (s) be the Laplace transforms of x(t) and y(t).16 Let X(s) and Y (s) be the Laplace transforms of x(t) and y(t). From the diﬀerential equation and the initial conditions we obtain that (s2 Y − 2s + 2) + 2(sY − 2) + 5Y = 2e−2s + 1/s. The inverse Laplace transform gives the solution x(t) = sin 2t − cosh t. and thus (s2 + 2s + 5)Y (s) = 2s + 2 + 2e−2s + 1/s. so (shift in time-domain) U (s) = (1 − e−2s )/s2 . Next we solve this system of two linear equations in the unknowns X = X(s) and Y = Y (s). 14. Applying the Laplace transform to the system and substituting the initial conditions x(0) = −1 and y(0) = 0 we obtain the algebraic system sX + Y = −1 + 2s/(s2 + 4).14 From tables 7 and 9 we know that the Laplace transforms of 1 and δ(t − 2) are given by 1/s and e−2s .13 Note that u(t) = t − (t − 2)(t − 2). „ « 1 − e−2s 1 s 1 s Y (s) = 2 2 + 2 = (1 − e−2s ) . Y (s) = 2(s + 1) 2e−2s 1 + + . For the third term we use partial fraction expansion: (s + 2) 1 1 = − . we then obtain Y − s2 Y = 2s 2s −1− 2 = −1 s2 + 4 s +4 and so Y (s) = 1/(s2 − 1). Hence.

The inverse Laplace transform gives the solution x(t) = 2 sin t. y(t) = 1 − 2 cos t. s) is the Laplace transform of u(x.20 Apply Laplace transform with respect to t to the partial diﬀerential equation and substitute the initial conditions u(x. (s + 1)(s − 1)2 (s + 1)(s − 1)2 s−1 One similarly obtains Y (s) = Four terms in X and Y need a partial fraction expansion. We can ﬁnd X by multiplying the ﬁrst equation by s. Hence. where U (x. then it follows as in example 14. y(t) = (3e−t − 7et − 5tet + 2 cos t + 5 sin t)/2. 0) = 0.18 As in exercise 14.60 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 14 x(0) = 0. x (0) = 2. (s − 1)2 (s + 1) (s + 1)(s − 1)2 s−1 2 − 4s 5s − 2 1 − 2 − . 14. It then follows that a(4π 2 + s2 /4) = s/2 and so the general solution follows: . 14. Since sY = X − 1 this gives Y = 1 1 2 1 1 s X− = − = −2 2 . and adding it to the second equation multiplied by 2s + 1. where A and B can still be functions of s. A particular solution can be found using the ’classical method’. Next we solve this system of two linear equations in the unknowns X = X(s) and Y = Y (s). 2(s + 1) 2(s − 1) 2(s − 1)2 s +1 2(s2 + 1) The inverse Laplace transform gives the solution x(t) = (−e−t +2et +5tet + cos t − 2 sin t)/2. s) − (2 sin 2πx)s = 4Uxx . after some simpliﬁcation. t).16 that s2 U (x. X − sY = 1. so by trying U (x. this gives (s2 + 1)X = 2 and thus X(s) = 2/(s2 + 1). 4 2 The general solution of the homogeneous equation is U (x.16 we obtain the algebraic system (2s + 1)Y + (5s − 2)X = 3 + 2/(s + 1). −sY + (1 − 2s)X = −1 + 1/(s2 + 1). 2(s + 1) s−1 2(s − 1)2 2(s2 + 1) s +1 3 7 5 s 5 − − + 2 + . which leads to X(s) = − Y (s) = 1 5 s 1 1 + + + − 2 . X(s) = 2s 2s + 1 1 + 2 + . y(0) = −1 and y (0) = 0 we obtain the algebraic system 2 s X + sY = 1. s) = Aesx/2 + Be−sx/2 . s) = a sin 2πx. 0) = 2 sin 2πx and ut (x. s s s(s2 + 1) s s s +1 where we also applied partial fraction expansion to 2/(s(s2 + 1)). we then obtain. we have obtained the ordinary diﬀerential equation U − s2 1 U = − s sin 2πx. We can ﬁnd X(s) by adding these two equations.

24 a sinh 2t − 2 sin t + 1 − e−t . This leads to A = B = 0 and so U (x. s) = 1 cos(x/2). t) = u(1. s2 (s2 − 4) s (s + 1) s (s + 1) A partial fraction expansion of these terms leads to Y (s) = 2 1 1 1 − 2 + − .Answers to selected exercises for chapter 14 61 U (x. 4s + 25 To determine A and B. s) = 0. Hence. s) = 2s sin 2πx. s) = Aex √ s+6 + Be−x √ s+6 + 4 cos(x/2). s) = 0 we obtain that A + B = 0 and using U (1. it follows that Y (s) = 2e−s H(s). A = B = 0 and so U (x. one obtains the ordinary diﬀerential equation U − (s + 6)U = − cos(x/2). s) = U (1. where A and B can still be functions of s. From the diﬀerential equation it immediately follows that . s) = Aex √ s+6 √ + Be−x s+6 . 14.23 a The impulse response is the derivative (in distribution sense if necessary) of the step response. s) = 0 we obtain that A(es/2 − e−s/2 ) = 0. 14. Using U (0. s) = a cos(x/2). for example. t) = 2 cos 4πt sin 2πx. The transfer function is the Laplace transform of h(t) and from table 7 we obtain that H(s) = 2 1 4 + 2 − . c Since (Lt)(s) = 1/s2 it follows that Y (s) = 4 2 1 + 2 2 − 2 . it follows that h(t) = a (t) = 2 sinh 2t + 2 sin t − e−t . From part a and the shift rule in the time domain it follows that y(t) = 2 (t − 1)(2 sinh(2t − 2) + 2 sin(t − 1) − e−t+1 ). A particular solution can be found by trying U (x. t) = e−25t/4 cos(x/2). s2 − 4 s +1 s s+1 1 2 The inverse Laplace transform gives y(t) = 14. s) = Aesx/2 + Be−sx/2 + 2s sin 2πx. Since the step response has no jump at t = 0.20. where Y (s) = (Ly)(s). From the conditions u(0. s) = 0. s + 25/4 The inverse Laplace transform gives the solution u(x. s2 + (4π)2 To determine A and B. we translate the remaining boundary conditions to the s-domain by Laplace transforming them. s2 − 4 s +1 s+1 b Since (Lδ(t − 1))(s) = e−s . s) = 0 and U (0. t) = 0 it follows that U (0. One can also use the time-invariance of the system. The general solution of the homogeneous equation is U (x. we translate the remaining boundary conditions to the s-domain by Laplace transforming them.22 As in exercise 4. which results in U (π. s2 + (4π)2 The inverse Laplace transform gives the solution u(x. The general solution then follows: U (x.

s−1 (s + 2)(s − 1)(s2 + 1) For the second term we use a partial fraction expansion. 2 L(a2 + ω0 ) ω0 d Note that ω0 = a. Taking the Laplace transform gives U (s) = (Lu)(s) = (1 + e−πs )s/(s2 + 1). which eventually leads to ` ´ 1 Y (s) = + 1 + e−πs s−1 „ « 2 1 3s 1 · + − + . Since s2 +s−2 = (s−1)(s+2) we thus obtain. 2 L s2 + ω0 where ω0 = (LC)−1/2 . From table 7 we obtain: h(t) = (sin ω0 t)/(Lω0 ). Applying the Laplace transform to the diﬀerential equation and substituting the initial conditions gives (s2 +s−2)Y −s−2 = U (s). q(t) = (t sin ω0 t)/(Lω0 ). Since V (s) = s/(s2 + a2 ) it follows as in part c that „ « s 1 s s 1 = − 2 Q(s) = . 2 L (s + a)(s2 + ω0 ) A partial fraction expansion gives L · Q(s) = 1 1 1 s a 1 − 2 .25 a One can write u(t) = cos t + (t − π) cos(t − π). 2 L (s2 + ω0 )2 2 Since (L sin ω0 t)(s) = ω0 /(s2 + ω0 ).62 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 14 H(s) = 1 1 . 2 2 2 L (s2 + a2 )(s2 + ω0 ) L(ω0 − a2 ) s2 + a2 s + ω0 where we also applied a partial fraction expansion. 15(s + 2) 6(s − 1) 10(s2 + 1) 10(s2 + 1) . where v(t) = e−at (a > 0). This keeps increasing (in an oscillating way) as t increases. Then Q(s) = V (s)H(s) = 1 1 . b The system is not stable since h(t) is not absolutely integrable (or: since the poles iω0 and −iω0 do not lie in the half-plane Re s < 0). it follows from the diﬀerentiation rule in the s-domain that (Lt sin ω0 t)(s) = − d ω0 2sω0 = 2 . + 2 2 2 2 2 2 a2 + ω0 s + a a + ω0 s2 + ω0 a + ω0 s2 + ω0 The inverse Laplace transform gives „ « 1 a q(t) = e−at + sin ω0 t − cos ω0 t . c Let Q and V be the Laplace transforms of q and v. The inverse Laplace transform gives q(t) = e 1 (cos at − cos ω0 t) . after a little simplifying. 2 L(ω0 − a2 ) 2 Since V (s) = 2(L cos ω0 t)(s) = 2s/(s2 + ω0 ) it follows as in part c that Q(s) = 1 2s . that Y (s) = ` ´ s 1 + 1 + e−πs . 14. 2 2 ds s2 + ω0 (s + ω0 )2 Hence.

b We have (Lδ(t−2))(s) = e−2s and (Lδ (t−3))(s) = se−3s (table 9). 2(R + sL)I2 − (R + sL)I1 = 0. L (s2 + 4)(s + 4R/L) After a partial fraction expansion we obtain from the inverse Laplace transform the solution „ « L 2R i1 (t) = i2 (t) = e−4Rt/L − cos 2t + sin 2t . Applying the Laplace transform to the system of diﬀerential equations and substituting the initial conditions gives 2RI2 + (3R + sL)I1 = E/s. Substituting this into the ﬁrst equation we obtain I2 = E 1 . i1 (t) = 2i2 (t) = 4R b Since (L sin 2t)(s) = 2/(s2 + 4) we obtain as in part a that I2 = 1 1 . then it follows that s2 U (x.27 Apply the Laplace transform with respect to t to the partial diﬀerential equation and substitute the initial conditions u(x. Applying the Laplace transform to the diﬀerential equation and substituting the initial conditions gives as in part a: Y (s) = 1 3e−2s + 6se−3s + . 2L s(s + 4R/L) After a partial fraction expansion we obtain from the inverse Laplace transform the solution ” E “ 1 − e−4Rt/L . U (x.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 14 63 From table 7 and a shift in the time domain it follows by the inverse Laplace transform that y(t) = et + g(t)/30 + (t − π)g(t − π)/30 with g(t) = 4e−2t + 5et − 9 cos t + 3 sin t. 14. s) − 2 sin πx = 4Uxx . where I1 and I2 are the Laplace transforms of i1 and i2 . 8R2 + 2L2 L 14.26 a From table 7 we know that (LE)(s) = E/s. Hence. s) satisﬁes the ordinary diﬀerential equation U − 1 s2 U = − sin πx. s) is the Laplace transform of u(x. 4 2 . s−1 (s + 2)(s − 1) Partial fraction expansion leads to „ „ « « 1 1 1 1 2 −2s −3s Y (s) = +e − + 2e + . From the second equation we get I1 = 2I2 . 0) = 2 sin πx. s−1 s−1 s+2 s−1 s+2 From a shift in the time domain it follows by the inverse Laplace transform that y(t) = et + (t − 2)(et−2 − e−2t+4 ) + 2 (t − 3)(et−3 + 2e−2t+6 ). where U (x. 0) = 0 and ut (x. t).

s + 4π 2 The inverse Laplace transform gives u(x. we translate the remaining boundary conditions to the s-domain by Laplace transforming them. t) = u(2. t) = 0 it follows that U (0. s) = Aesx/2 + Be−sx/2 . s) = U (2.64 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 14 The general solution of the homogeneous equation is U (x. A particular solution can be found by trying U (x. From the conditions u(0. where A and B can still be functions of s. It then follows that a(π 2 + s2 /4) = 1/2 and so the general solution follows: U (x. s) = Aesx/2 + Be−sx/2 + 2 sin πx. s) = a sin πx. s2 + 4π 2 To determine A and B. Using U (0. s) = 2 sin πx. s) = 0. s) = 0 we obtain that A(es −e−s ) = 0. . t) = π −1 sin 2πt sin πx as solution. Hence A = B = 0 and so 2 U (x. s) = 0 we obtain that A+B = 0 and using U (2.

Since [k] = 0 for k < 0 and [k] = 1 for k ≥ 0 we can write the sum in the given right-hand side as ∞ X k=0 15. This product is then also equal to 0 for | ω | > ω0 . 15. for n < −1 we have f [n] = 0 − 0 = 0. Then the spectrum F (ω) = π(eiφ0 δ(ω − ω0 ) + e−iφ0 δ(ω + ω0 ). δ(ω − ω0 − kωs )pωs (ω) ∞ X k=−∞ + πe−iφ0 δ(ω + ω0 − kωs )pωs (ω). f [n] = −(δ[n + 1] + δ[n] + δ[n − 1] + δ[n − 2] + δ[n − 3]).1 For n ≥ 4 we have f [n] = 1 − 1 = 0. From theorem 15.11 We write f (t) = (ei(φ0 +ω0 t) + e−i(φ0 +ω0 t) )/2. where ω0 = 2. Hence. Hence. π/2] it follows that F (ω) = 0 outside [−3π/2. Since f [n] has period 5 we obtain that f [n] = δ5 [n] + δ5 [n − 2] + δ5 [n − 3]. Fr (ω) = πeiφ0 ∞ X k=−∞ ∞ X k=−∞ F (ω − kωs )pωs (ω). and for −1 ≤ n < 4 we have f [n] = 0 − 1 = −1.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 15 15. 15. The Nyquist frequency is thus equal to 3π and the sampling frequency should satisfy 2π/T > 3π.2 15. From table 3 we know that p(t) = sin(ωs t/2)/(πt) ↔ pωs (ω) and applying the shift rule we then obtain that f (t) = p(t + 2) + p(t − 2). We have P (ω) = ∞ X n=−∞ 15. hence T < 2/3.10 We have to determine the Nyquist frequency of the convolution. In the proof of the sampling theorem we see that the spectrum Fr (ω) of the reconstructed signal fr (t) equals Fr (ω) = Hence.9 cn einω0 ω = eiω0 ω + e−iω0 ω . then z 12 = 1. Write z = eiπ/6 .4 δ[n − k] = ∞ X k=−∞ [k]δ[n − k].3 15.1 it then follows that the sum equals [n]. Using Fourier series one can determine P (ω) explicitly as follows. 3π/2]. According to the convolution theorem the spectrum of the convolution is equal to the product of the spectra. so f [n] = z n has period 12.7 Let Φ(ω) be the spectrum of φ(t). −∞ −π ω−π Since pπ (ω) is 0 outside [−π/2. then Φ(ω) = 0 for | ω | > ω0 for some ω0 . 15. hence the convolution is also band-limited. By deﬁnition of convolution we have Z ∞ Z π Z ω+π F (ω) = pπ (ω − u)p2π (u) du = pπ (ω − u) du = pπ (u) du. 65 . F (ω) = (eiω0 ω + e−iω0 ω )pωs (ω).

1 Fr (ω) = πeiφ0 δ(ω + 1 ω0 ) + πe−iφ0 δ(ω − 2 ω0 ). πt πt 2 sin2 (πt/2) . fr (t) = f (t). c From T = 8/3 it follows that ωs = 3π/4. From the sampling theorem it then follows that u(t) = 1 1 X sin(π(t − nT )) . This is greater than the Nyquist frequency of the input and so the sampling condition is satisﬁed. 2 2 y(t) = 15. Hence. also Y (ω) = 0 outside [−π/2. Since ω0 = 2ωs /3 we have pωs (kωs ± ω0 ) = pωs ((k ± 2 )ωs ). We have Fr (ω) = 2pωs (ω) − pα (ω) with α = ωs /3 = π/4. b From T = 2 it follows that ωs = π. 2 15. Hence. Hence. The sampling condition is not satisﬁed. 2 Applying the inverse Fourier transform leads to the reconstructed signal fr (t) = cos(φ0 − 1 ω0 t). π n=−1 t − nT To determine y(t) it suﬃces to know the response to the signal (sin πt)/t since the system is linear and time-invariant. it is easy to see that in this case Fs (ω) = 1 for all ω and so Fs (ω) = pπ (ω) = F (ω). so fr (t) = f (t). Hence. which is easy because nπ π f [n] = f ( + 2π) = f ((n + 4) ) = f [n + 4].15 . c For T = 1 the sampling frequency equals 2π. 2 sin2 (π(t − 1)/2) 2 sin2 (π(t + 1)/2) 2 sin2 (πt/2) + + .66 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 15 Since f (t)δ(t − t0 ) = f (t0 )δ(t − t0 ) we thus have Fr (ω) = πeiφ0 ∞ X k=−∞ δ(ω − ω0 − kωs )pωs (ω0 + kωs ) ∞ X k=−∞ + πe−iφ0 δ(ω + ω0 − kωs )pωs (kωs − ω0 ). The Nyquist frequency of u(t) is π. π/2]. 2 t2 2 (t − 1)2 π π π 2 (t + 1)2 P a We know that f [n] = 3 f [k]δ4 [n − k] holds for all periodic discretek=0 time signals with period 4. then the spectrum Y (ω) of the output y(t) is given by Y (ω) = U (ω)H(ω). π 2 t2 The impulse response follows from table 3: h(t) = b Let u(t) be an input with spectrum U (ω). The sampling condition is satisﬁed. so U (ω) = 0 outside [−π/2. Again. The response to (sin πt)/(πt) is thus the inverse Fourier transform of qπ (ω). This means 3 that only the terms k = −1 and k = 1 contribute to the sum. Using table 3 fr (t) follows: fr (t) = 15. Although the sampling condition is not satisﬁed. The spectrum of (sin πt)/(πt) is p2π (ω) and the spectrum of the corresponding output is then given by p2π (ω)qπ (ω) = qπ (ω).13 a 2 sin(3πt/8) sin(πt/8) − . we only have to show that the sampling has period 4. π/2]. which is 2 sin2 (πt/2)/(π 2 t2 ) (table 3).12 a From T = 4/3 it follows that ωs = 3π/2.

This implies that cn = 0 for | n | ≥ 2. −π/2. c0 + ic1 − ic−1 = 1 and c0 − ic1 + ic−1 = 1. This is a line spectrum with lines at kω0 . c0 = 1. shift in the time domain.16 a The Nyquist frequency is 2π. Next substitute the values t = 0. 2π −∞ 2π −π 2 −∞ . 15. d According to Parseval’s identity we have Z ∞ Z ∞ Z π 1 1 1 E= | f (t) |2 dt = | F (ω) |2 dω = cos2 ω dω = . no 2 and table 4. The sampling frequency is 2π/T = 3π. π and use the given sampling from part b. the spectrum is 0 outside [−3/2. twice) f (t) = c Z sin π(t + 1) sin π(t − 1) t sin πt + = . Hence. 3/2]. The signal can thus be reconstructed completely from the sampling.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 15 67 b The sampling frequency is 2π/T = 4 > 3. Since eiω0 t ↔ 2πδ(ω − ω0 ) we can write the spectrum as F (ω) = 2π ∞ X k=−∞ ck δ(ω − kω0 ). The periodic signal is band-limited with Nyquist frequency 3. d From part c follows that f (t) = c0 +c1 eit +c−1 e−it . Then we obtain the three equations c0 + c1 + c−1 = 0. so the sampling condition is satisﬁed. f (t) dt = T π −∞ t − nT −∞ n=−∞ ∞ R∞ P The integral in the right-hand side is π. b We know that (use table 3. 2π(t + 1) 2π(t − 1) π(1 − t2 ) Using the sampling theorem we obtain that Z ∞ X 1 ∞ sin π(t − nT )/T f [n] dt. Hence. The signal can thus be reconstructed completely from the sampling. where ω0 = c Let f (t) = k=−∞ ck e 2π/T = 1. so the sampling condition is satisﬁed. so −∞ f (t) dt = T ∞ n=−∞ f [n]. P∞ ikω0 t be the Fourier series of f . π/2.

Answers to selected exercises for chapter 16 16. 16. then “ ” f [n] = F [0] + F [1]eπin/2 + F [2]eπin + F [3]e3πin/2 /4 = (1 + (−i)n ) /4. Using the DFT we then ﬁnd a better approximation of the Fourier coeﬃcients. 16. period 4 as well.7 16. The 2-point DFT F2 [k] is given by 1 − (−1)k (see 16. F [2] = −2.1). = −1 we have f [n](−1)nk = f [0] + (−1)k f [1].3 The Fourier coeﬃcients are given by Z 1 1 T /2 −ikω0 t (1 − e−ikω0 T /2 ). (In exercise 16.) Apply the inverse 4-point DFT to F [k].5 It is better to deﬁne the function value at the jumps as the average value of the left-hand and right-hand limit. N N 2 When N is odd then F [0] N −1 1 1 1 = = − = c0 − . 16. The value F [0] follows immediately from the formula for F [k]: F [0] = N −1 X n=0 f [n] = N −1 X n=0 f (nT /N ). Next apply the inverse DFT: “ ” f [n] = 2 + 2ieπin/2 − 2eπin − 2ie3πin/2 /4 16. hence.1 The formula for the 2-point DFT is F [k] = Since e F [k] = 1 X n=0 −πi 1 X n=0 f [n]e−2πink/2 . F [1] = 2i.4 we do have c0 = F [0]/N for all N . F [3] = −2i.2 The signal f [n] = (−1)n has period 2 and. Since F [k] = | F [k] | ei arg(F [k]) we obtain from the given amplitude spectrum and phase spectrum that F [k] = 2eπik/2 and so F [0] = 2. N 2N 2 2N 2N Hence.8 68 . e dt = ck = T 0 ikω0 T Since ω0 T = 2π we obtain ck = (1 − (−1)k )/2πik for k = 0 and c0 = 1/2. we do not have c0 = F [0]/N for all N . When N is even then F [0] 1 1 = (f (0) + f (T /N ) + · · · + f (T /2)) = = c0 . The 4-point DFT F4 [k] is by deﬁnition given by F4 [k] = 3 X n=0 f [n]e−2πink/4 = 1 − e−πik/2 + e−πik − e−3πik/2 = 1 − (−i)k + (−1)k − ik = (1 + (−1)k )(1 − ik ).

which gives F [3] = F [−1] = F [1] = −i. f [1] = 0. Use the convolution theorem: ﬁrst determine the functions f1 and f2 with f1 ↔ cos(2πk/N ) = (e2πik/N + e−2πik/N )/2 and f2 ↔ sin(4πk/N ) = (e4πik/N − e−4πik/N )/2i and then calculate f [n] = (f1 ∗ f2 )[n]. so F [k] = 0. | f [N − 1] |2 = 1/16. | f [1] |2 = 1/16. Applying the inverse DFT leads to f [n] = (1 + in+1 + (−i)n+1 )/4. From table 11 we have that δN [n] ↔ 1 and so (table 12. Hence. When k is even and not a multiple of N then 2F [k] = N δN [k] = 0. we the obtain that F [k] + e2πiN k/2N F [k] = N δN [k].12 16. shift in the ndomain) δN [n − l] ↔ e−2πilk/N .2 it then follows that f [n] = (f1 ∗ f2 )[n] = (f2 [n + 1] + f2 [n − 1])/2.2. b Since f [n] = f (2πn/N ) we obtain from part a that f [n]+f [n+N/2] = 1. which equals (δN [n + 3] + δN [n + 1] − δN [n − 1] − δN [n − 3])/4i. shift in the n-domain).14 The signal is real.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 16 69 and hence. Note that g[3] = g[−2] = c−2 = 1 and g[4] = g[−1] = c−1 = 2. f [2] = 0. hence (1 + eπik )F [k] = N δN [k]. N n=0 16. π a Since f (t + π) = 1 − t/π for 0 < t ≤ π and f (t + π) = f (t − π) = t/π − 1 for π ≤ t ≤ 2π we obtain that f (t) + f (t + π) = 1 for all t. c Apply the N -point DFT to f [n] + f [n + N/2] = 1. This means that „ « 1 1 3 1 1 + + = . Since cos2 (πk/N ) = (1 + cos(2πk/N ))/2 = (2 + eπik/N + e−πik/N )/4 it follows that f [n] = (2δN [n] + δN [n − 1] + δN [n + 1])/4. f [3] = 2. When k is a multiple of N then δN [k] = 1. 16. The power equals N −1 1 X | f [n] |2 . G[k] = g[0] + g[1]e−2πik/5 + g[2]e−4πik/5 + g[3]e−6πik/5 + g[4]e−8πik/5 = 1 + 2e−2πik/5 + e−4πik/5 + e−6πik/5 + 2e−8πik/5 = 1 + 4 cos(2πk/5) + 2 cos(4πk/5). f [n] = 2δ4 [n − 3]. Since δN [n − m] ↔ e−2πimk/N (table 11 and table 12.16 Now | f [n] |2 = (4δN [n] + δN [n − 1] + δN [n + 1])/16 since δN [n]δN [n + 1] = δN [n]δN [n − 1] = δN [n − 1]δN [n + 1] = 0.18 a We calculate G[k] from the expression for the 5-point DFT. f (2πm/5ω0 ) . 2π] the periodic function f is given by ( t for 0 ≤ t ≤ π. Also note that δN [n + 1] = δN [n − (N − 1)] and hence. b Since the Fourier coeﬃcients of f are known. while all other values are 0. that is. | f [0] |2 = 1/4. π |t − π| f (t) = 1 − = π 2 − t for π ≤ t ≤ 2π. F [k] = N/2. Since 1 ↔ N δN [k] (table 11).13 16. then one obtains that (f ∗f )[n] = f [n]+f [n−1] = δN [n]+2δN [n−1]+δN [n−2]. f [0] = 0. From the convolution theorem and theorem 15. Hence. so F [−k] = F [k]. Apply the deﬁnition of the cyclical convolution and use theorem 15. we can express f as a Fourier series: f (t) = c0 + c1 eiω0 t + c−1 e−iω0 t + c2 e2iω0 t + c−2 e−2iω0 t . P = N 4 16 16 8N 16. we have f1 [n] = (δN [n − 1] + δN [n + 1])/2 and f2 [n] = (δN [n + 2] − δN [n − 2])/2i.10 On [0. hence. 16. using the shift rule in the n-domain.

which implies that c0 = F [0]/5. | g[n] |2 = 2 N n=0 N 2 2 k=0 16. f [n] = (1 + 2e2πin/5 + 2e8πin/5 + e4πin/5 + e6πin/5 )/5. Hence. This means that f (t) is equal to the Fourier series c0 + c1 eiω0 t + c−1 e−iω0 t + c2 e2iω0 t + c−2 e−2iω0 t . 16. Hence. c First write g[n] as complex exponentials and then determine the N point DFT using table 11 and the shift rule in the k-domain: G[k] = N (δN [k − 2] + δN [k + 2]). then (f ∗ g)[n] = N −1 X l=0 f [l]g[n − l] = g[n + 1] − g[n] + g[n − 1]. Since F [k] has period 5 and ck = 0 for | k | > 2 we do not have ck = F [k]/5 for | k | > 2. But this is precisely the expression for the inverse DFT.19 a From table 11 we have that δN [n] ↔ 1 and so (table 12. c−2 = F [3]/5 = F [−2]/5. c The function f is band-limited with band-width 10π/T .14) and theorem 15. 2 Finally apply (16. Substituting t = nT /5 (and rearranging) we obtain that f [n] = c0 + c1 e2πin/5 + c2 e4πin/5 + c−2 e6πin/5 + c−1 e8πin/5 . c1 = F [1]/5. c−1 = F [4]/5 = F [−1]/5. T 0 n=−∞ P2 P 2 2 Since ck = 0 for | k | ≥ 3 we obtain that ∞ n=−2 | g[n] | = n=−∞ | cn | = P4 2 n=0 | g[n] | . c2 = F [2]/5. Hence ck = F [k]/5 for | k | ≤ 2. c First use Parseval for Fourier series: Z T ∞ X 1 | f (t) |2 dt = | cn |2 . the sampling f [n] is real and even since f [−n] = f (−nT /5) = f (nT /5) = f [n]. The Fourier coeﬃcients ck of f contribute to the frequencies kω0 = 2πk/T . shift in the n-domain) f [n] ↔ e2πik/N − 1 + e−2πik/N = 2 cos(2πk/N ) − 1.70 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 16 = g[0] + g[1]e2πim/5 + g[2]e4πim/5 + g[3]e6πim/5 + g[4]e8πim/5 = G[−m].20 a Since f (t) is real and even. which equals (1 + 4 cos(2πn/5) + 2 cos(4πn/5))/5.2. . b Apply the inverse DFT. b Calculate the convolution using (16. where the values of F [3] and F [4] are calculated using the fact that F has period 5 and is even.19) to calculate the power: «2 N −1 N −1 „ 1 1 X 1 X N | δN [k − 2] + δN [k + 2] | = . Applying Parseval for the DFT one obtains the result. these are 0 for | k | ≥ 3.

F [2] = 3. f [N − 2] Mf = . F [0] = 5.4 Take N1 = 2 and N2 = 2. 1 −1 −µν Multiplying this by the twiddle factors w4 with w4 = eπi/2 = i gives „ « 4 0 Ct = . Hence.1 we can write the formula for the inverse DFT in matrix form: 01 1 1 1 1 1 0 F [0] 1 0 f [0] 1 2 3 w w4 C B F [1] C B f [1] C B1 w w 1B CB C B C B 1 w2 w4 w w3 C B F [2] C = B f [2] C . F [3] = −i. The matrix Mf now looks as follows: „ « „ « f [0] f [2] 2 2 Mf = = . . 17. F [1] = i. f [0] + f [1]w−2 + · · · + f [4]w−8 = F [2].. This gives the matrix C: 71 . f [0] + f [1] + · · · + f [4] = F [0]. 3 −i Hence. Using that w−5 = 1 we then obtain a system that is equal to the system arising from the matrix representation. 17. f [1] f [3] 0 1 The 2-point DFT of the rows of this matrix gives „ « 4 0 C= . 1 i Now calculate the 2-point DFT of the columns of this matrix to get the 4-point DFT: „ « 5 i MF = .. f [0] + f [1]w−3 + · · · + f [4]w−12 = F [3]. while the N/2point DFT of the second row follows from table 11.2 As in exercise 17. 5@ A @ A 3 4 2 A@ F [3] f [3] 1 w w w w 4 3 2 1 w w w w F [4] f [4] The matrix in the left-hand side is thus the inverse of the matrix in exercise 17. .Answers to selected exercises for chapter 17 17. 1 1 . Note that f [3] = f [−1].1 −k We can write (17. 1 The N/2-point DFT of the ﬁrst row of this matrix is A[k].6 The matrix Mf looks as follows: „ « f [0] f [2] .1. f [0] + f [1]w−1 + · · · + f [4]w−4 = F [1]. f [0] + f [1]w−4 + · · · + f [4]w−16 = F [4].2) for N = 5 as follows: F [k] = f [0] + f [1]w5 + · · · + −4k 2πi/5 f [4]w5 where w5 = e = w. 17.

F [N/2 − 1] = . 2N − 1. 17. . then it follows that FT ((2k + 1)π/T ) ≈ N −1 T X −πin/N e f [n]e−2πin/N . −ν F [2N + ν] = A1 [ν] − w4N B1 [ν]. the required N -point DFT of f [n]: „ « A[0] + N/2 A[1] . Applying the trapezium rule to RT RT f (t)e−iωt dt and to 0 f (t)eiωt dt leads to (T /N )F [k] and (T /N )F [−k] 0 respectively.. where F [k] denotes the N -point DFT of f [n].7 Let A1 [k] be the 2N -point DFT of f [2n] and B1 [k] the 2N -point DFT of f [2n + 1]. . Multiplying this by the twiddle factors will not change this matrix because of the zeroes in the second row of C and hence Ct = C. Apply the trapezium rule to the integral and substitute ω = (2k + 1)π/T . N − 1. where ν = 0.. −ν A1 [N + ν] = A[ν] − w2N C[ν]. 1. The 2N -point DFT of f [2n] follows analogously from the N -point DFT of f [4n] and f [4n + 1]: −ν A1 [ν] = A[ν] + w2N C[ν]. N − 1. −3ν −ν −ν F [3N + ν] = A[ν] − w2N C[ν] − w4N B[ν] + w4N D[ν]. . . hence. .8 RT Since f (t) is causal we have FT (ω) = 0 f (t)e−iωt dt. A[N/2 − 1] « F [0] F [1] . where ν = 0. . .72 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 17 „ C= A[0] N/2 A[1] 0 . . 17. where ν = 0. 1. . . N − 1. . where ν = 0.14)): −ν F [ν] = A1 [ν] + w4N B1 [ν]. . Also. . −ν −ν −3ν F [2N + ν] = A[ν] + w2N C[ν] − w4N B[ν] − w4N D[ν]. . the 2N -point DFT of f [2n + 1] follows from the N -point DFT of f [4n + 1] and f [4n + 3]: −ν B1 [ν] = B[ν] + w2N D[ν].. . . −ν B1 [N + ν] = B[ν] − w2N D[ν]. A[N/2 − 1] MF = „ A[0] − N/2 A[1] . . . . . . Adding this gives F( T 2πk ) ≈ (F [k] + F [−k]) T N for | k | < N/2. 1.9 Let F (ω) be the Fourier transform of f (t). A[N/2 − 1] 0 « . . N n=0 This shows that the spectrum at the frequencies ω = (2k + 1)π/T can be approximated by the N -point DFT of e−πin/N f [n]. −3ν −ν −ν F [N + ν] = A[ν] − w2N C[ν] + w4N B[ν] − w4N D[ν]. Now calculate the 2-point DFT of the columns of Ct = C to get the matrix MF and. 1. F [N/2] F [N/2 + 1] . . . . . Then we have for the 4N -point DFT of f [n] (see (17.. F [N − 1] 17. Combining these results leads to the 4N -point DFT of f [n]: −3ν −ν −ν F [ν] = A[ν] + w2N C[ν] + w4N B[ν] + w4N D[ν].

f [2] f [5] . B[N2 − 1] A . . C[N − 1] −νµ Multiplying this by the twiddle factors w3N gives the matrix Ct. F [3N − 1] −k −2k Since the 3-point DFT of g[n] is given by G[k] = g[0] + g[1]w3 + g[2]w3 we conclude that 17. . f [3N − 1] The N -point DFT of the rows of this matrix are given by A[k]. . . . . C[0] C[1] . . . F [N2 − 1] MF = @ F [N2 ] F [N2 + 1] . . The matrix C is then given by 1 0 A[0] A[1] . . f [N − 3] Mf = @ f [1] f [4] . Let Mf be the 3 × N -matrix given by 0 1 f [0] f [3] . . . .Answers to selected exercises for chapter 17 73 This means that we can eﬃciently approximate the spectrum of f at the frequencies 2πk/T with | k | < N/2 by using an N -point DFT. . . A[N2 − 1] C = @ B[0] B[1] . Take N1 = 3 and N2 = 3 and consider the N1 × N2 -matrix 0 1 f [0] f [3] . f [N − 2] A . A[N − 1] C = @ B[0] B[1] . . . . . . f [3N − 2] A . f [2] f [5] . F [2N2 − 1] A . . . F [N − 1] .15 −(ν+N µ) m−1 B[ν] + w3N −2(ν+N µ) C[ν]. . .13 17. . −k k k 2k Then F [k] = P (w3 ) = P (w ) = f [0]+f [1]w +f [2]w = f [0]+wk (f [1]+ wk f [2]). F [2N − 1] A . F [2N2 ] F [2N2 + 1] . . Applying the inverse transform gives the cross-correlation ρ12 = δN [n] + 2δN [n + 1] + δN [n + 2]. C[N2 − 1] Multiplying this by the twiddle factors and then applying the 3-point DFT of the columns gives the matrix MF containing the N -point DFT of f [n]: 0 1 F [0] F [1] . f [3n + 1] and f [3n + 2] be given by A[k]. Since f1 [n] = δN [n] + δN [n − 1] ↔ F1 [k] = 1 + e−2πik/N and f2 [n] = δN [n] + δN [n + 1] ↔ F2 [k] = 1 + e2πik/N we obtain the DFT of the cross-correlation as follows: ρ12 ↔ F1 [k]F2 [k] = (1 + e2πik/N )2 = 1 + 2e2πik/N + e4πik/N . . f [N − 1] Let the N2 -point DFT of the rows f [3n]. then the matrix C is given by 0 1 A[0] A[1] . F [2N ] F [2N + 1] . 17. B[k] and C[k] respectively. B[k] and C[k]. . . . B[N − 1] A . . √ Let P (z) = f [0] + f [1]z + f [2]z 2 and w3 = e2πi/3 = (−1 + i 3)/2 = 1/w. .14 F [µN + ν] = A[ν] + w3N 17. The 3-point DFT of the columns of Ct will give us the matrix MF : 0 1 F [0] F [1] . . C[0] C[1] . f [3N − 3] Mf = @ f [1] f [4] . F [N − 1] MF = @ F [N ] F [N + 1] . .11 First we determine the DFT’s of the signals using table 11. . .

and (multiples of 3) + 2. then the number of elementary operations to calculate h[n] will (approximately) equal 2N (2 log N )+2N (2 log N )+(2N +1)+2N (2 log N ) = 6N (2 log N ) + 2N + 1. Then h[n] = 2N X l=0 fp [l]gp [n − l] = (fp ∗ gp )[n] for n = 0. and of f [3n + 2] can be determined by repeatedly splitting this into (multiples of 3). 17. . Now let fp [n] and gp [n] be two periodic signals with period 2N + 1 and such that fp [n] = f [n] and gp [n] = g[n] for n = 0. it suﬃces to calculate h[n] for n = 0. F [2] = P (−1). 2N . . 1.16 To calculate the 3-point DFT we need 6 additions and 4 multiplications. hence. Then we have h[n] = 2N X 1 Fp [k]Gp [k]e2πink/(2N +1) 2N + 1 k=0 for n = 0. . If we assume that calculating a 2N -point DFT using the FFT requires 2N (2 log N ) elementary operations. . Since g[n] is causal and g[n] = 0 for n > N l=0 we have that h[n] = 0 for n < 0 or n > 2N . A direct calculation would require in the order N 2 operations. 2N . F [1] = f [0] − if [1] − f [2] + if [3] = f [0] − f [2]. . . . 2N . . (multiples of 3) + 1. . This gives F [0] = f [0] + f [1] + f [2] + f [3] = f [0] + 2f [1] + f [2]. The N2 -point DFT of f [3n]. Now let fp [n] ↔ Fp [k] and gp [n] ↔ Gp [k]. Although these are really 2N + 1-point DFT’s. . 1. which for large N is much less eﬃcient. . hence F [3] = F [1]. P Let h[n] = N f [l]g[n − l]. hence 10 elementary operations. Then F [k] is also even. we continue for convenience our argument with 2N . . Hence. F [0] = P (1). F [1] = P (−i).74 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 17 17. F [3] = P (i). . . . We thus only have to determine 3-point DFT’s. Now f [n] is even and so f [3] = f [−1] = f [1]. 2N . and F [2] = f [0] − f [1] + f [2] − f [3] = f [0] − 2f [1] + f [2]. Then F [k] = P (wk ). 1.17 Let P (z) = f [0] + f [1]z + f [2]z 2 + f [3]z 3 and w = e−2πi/4 = −i. . . 1. of f [3n + 1].

for | z | < 2. hence. c From parts a and b it follows immediately that the region of convergence is the ring 1 < | z | < 2. The causal part can be written as ∞ X „„ 1 «n „ 1 «n « + . If f [n] = 0 for n ≥ 1 then the z-transform converges for all z ∈ C. P Since | cos(πn/2) | ≤ 1 for all n and since ∞ | z |−n converges for | z | > 1. From [n] ↔ z/(z − 1) we obtain from time reversal that [−n] ↔ (1/z)/((1/z) − 1) = 1/(1 − z) for | z | > 1. 18. b We rewrite f [n] in order to apply a shift in the n-domain: f [n] = 2(n + 2) [−(n + 2)] − 4 [−(n + 2)]. the z-transform converges for | 2z | > 1 and | 3z | > 1.3 a A direct calculation of F (z) gives + “ z ”n ” 3 . It also follows from [−n] ↔ 1/(1 − z) and the diﬀerentiation rule that n [−n] ↔ −z/(1 − z)2 and applying the shift rule we then obtain that 2(n + 2) [−(n + 2)] ↔ −2z 3 /(1 − z)2 . 18. n=0 cos(πn/2) diverges since limn→∞ cos(πn/2) = 0. for | z | > 1/2. that is. Moreover. The region of convergence is thus given by 0 < | z | < ∞.2 The anti-causal part converges for all z. n=0 P∞ the z-transform also converges for | z | > 1. while the causal part converges for all z = 0. 18. Since [n] ↔ z/(z − 1) for | z | > 1.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 18 18.4 a We rewrite f [n] in order to apply a shift in the n-domain: f [n] = 2(n − 2) [n − 2] + 4 [n − 2]. 2z 3z n=0 Hence. then F (z) = ∞ X n=−∞ f [n]z −n = −1 X n=−N f [n]z −n + N X n=0 f [n]z −n . ∞ X ““ z ”n n=0 2 This series converges for | z/2 | < 1 and | z/3 | < 1. we obtain from the shift rule that 4 [n − 2] ↔ 4z −1 /(z − 1). We conclude that the z-transform converges for | z | > 1. b The z-transform is given by F (z) = ∞ X n=0 cos(πn/2)z −n . From the shift rule it follows that 4 [−(n + 2)] ↔ 4z 2 /(1 − z). The anti-causal part converges for all z. Combining these results gives 75 .1 When f [n] = 0 for | n | > N for some N > 0. It also follows from [n] ↔ z/(z − 1) and the diﬀerentiation rule that n [n] ↔ z/(z − 1)2 and applying the shift rule we then obtain that (n − 2) [n − 2] ↔ z −1 /(z − 1)2 . Combining these results gives the z-transform F (z) of f [n]: F (z) = 4z −1 4z − 2 2z −1 + = (z − 1)2 z−1 z(z − 1)2 for | z | > 1.

10).5 a z(z + 1) 4z + (z − 1)3 (z − 4)2 for | z | > 4. z +4 z z z . calculate this z-transform in a direct way: f [n] = [4 − n] ↔ ∞ X n=−4 zn = z −4 1−z for | z | < 1. The diﬀerentiation rule implies that n4n [n] ↔ 4z/(z−4)2 for | z | > 4.6 it follows that (n2 − n) [n] ↔ 2z/(z − 1)3 and n [n] ↔ z/(z − 1)2 . However. 1 + z −2 1 + z2 A direct calculation of the z-transform of einφ [n] gives (for | z | > 1): einφ z −n = 1 + eiφ z −1 + e2iφ z −2 + · · · = 1 z = . From example 18. calculate this z-transform in a direct way: (−1)n z n = 1 1+z for | z | < 1.g.76 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 18 F (z) = c −2z 3 4z 2 2z 3 − 4z 2 − = . −2 1+z 1 + z2 b A direct calculation of the z-transform gives (for | z | > 1): F (z) = c ∞ X n=0 ∞ X n=0 sin(nπ/2)z −n = z −1 − z −3 + · · · = z −1 z = . for example. f [n] = (−1)n [−n] ↔ d Again we can. in this case it is easy to obtain the z-transform in a direct way by developing F (z) in a series expansion. Adding these results gives n2 [n] ↔ z(z + 1) (z − 1)3 for | z | > 1. Together these results give F (z) = 18. e From example 18. for example. 1 − e−iφ z/2 Hence we get for 1 < | z | < 2: F (z) = 18. z − eiφ 1 − e−iφ z/2 One could apply a partial fraction expansion here (see e. 2 (1 − z) 1−z (1 − z)2 ∞ X n=0 We can. Since the z-transform has to converge for | z | > 2 (there are poles at z = ±2i and f [n] has a ﬁnite switch-on time) we develop F (z) as follows: „ « 1 1 4 16 F (z) = 2 = 2 1 − 2 + 4 + ··· .2 we obtain that 4n [n] ↔ z/(z − 4) for | z | > 4. A direct calculation of the z-transform gives (for | z | > 1): ∞ X n=0 F (z) = cos(nπ/2)z −n = 1 − z −2 + z −4 − · · · = z2 1 = . One can also use [−n] ↔ 1/(1 − z) and apply a shift rule.8 z 1 + . 1 − eiφ /z z − eiφ A direct calculation of the z-transform of 2n einφ [−n] gives (for | z | < 2): 0 X n=−∞ 2n einφ z −n = ∞ X n=0 2−n e−inφ z n = 1 . exercise 18.

we have that (f ∗ g)[n] = 0 for n > M1 + M2 . The z-transform converges for | z | > 1.15) to z/(z + 3) gives (−3)n [−n − 1] ↔ −z for | z | < 3. z + 1/2 while applying (18.14) to z/(z + 1/2) gives z (−1/2)n [n] ↔ for | z | > 1/2. we have that (f ∗ g)[n] = 0 for n < N1 + N2 .. 18. etc. also g[n − M1 + 1] = 0. Applying (18. 1− 4(1 + z 2 /4) 4 4 16 From the series we obtain that f [n] = 0 for n ≥ 1 and f [2n] = (−1)n 22n−2 . f [2n − 1] = 0.13 a The signal is causal and F (z) has poles at z = ±i. which means that | z | = 1 has to belong to the region of convergence. A partial fraction expansion of F (z)/z gives F (z) 1/10 18/5 =1+ − .14) to the expansion of F (z) gives (−1/2)n [n] ↔ z z for | z | > 1/2. also g[n − N1 − 1] = 0.9 As in the previous exercise we obtain the z-transform in a direct way by developing F (z) in a series expansion. f [2n + 1] = 0. (−3)n [n] ↔ for | z | > 3.10 we obtained the partial fraction expansion. Since g[n − N1 ] = 0 for n < N1 + N2 and. for n ≤ 0. z + 1/2 z+3 Combining this gives f [n] = δ[n + 1] + ((−1/2)n [n] − 36(−3)n [n])/10. hence. Since the unit circle | z | = 1 has to belong to the region of convergence (f [n] has to be absolute convergent) we develop F (z) for | z | < 2 as follows: « „ 1 1 z4 z2 F (z) = = + + ··· . z+3 Combining this gives f [n] = δ[n+1]+((−1/2)n [n]+36(−3)n [−n−1])/10. etc.11 In exercise 18. g[n − N1 − 2] = 0.12 A direct application of the deﬁnition of the convolution product gives (f ∗ g)[n] = M1 X l=N1 f [l]g[n − l] = f [N1 ]g[n − N1 ] + f [N1 + 1]g[n − N1 − 1] + · · · + f [M1 − 1]g[n − M1 + 1] + f [M1 ]g[n − M1 ]. This means that the switch-oﬀ time is M1 + M2 . 18. z z + 1/2 z+3 Applying (18. This means that the switch-on time is N1 + N2 . 18. the z-transform has to converge for | z | > 3. g[n − M1 + 2] = 0. 18. hence. Since g[n − M1 ] = 0 for n > M1 + M2 and.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 18 77 From the series we now obtain that f [n] = 0 for n ≤ 0 and that f [2n] = (−1)n−1 22n−2 . Write F (z) as the sum of a geometric series (or use a partial fraction expansion): . the signal f [n] must have a ﬁnite switch-on time. 18.10 The poles are at z = −1/2 and z = −3. for n > 0.. Now the signal f [n] has to be absolutely convergent. hence.

However.22) to determine h[n] gives Z 1 π eiω F (eiω )einω dω. Assuming that | z | = 1 belongs to the region of convergence of the z-transform of f [n] we get ∞ X eiω F (eiω ) = h[n]e−inω .19 Applying (18. f [2n] = 0. b The convolution theorem gives (f ∗ f )[n] ↔ F 2 (z). ˛ 2π −π 2π −π 2 n=−∞ (One can also determine f [n] ﬁrst and then calculate ectly. Hence. Hence. it is easier to do a direct P −l calculation: g[n] = n [l + 2] and hence.20 P∞ n=−∞ | f [n] |2 dir- We have that ρ[n] = (g ∗ f )[n] with g[l] = f [−l]. f [n] = (f ∗ δ)[n].) 18. 18. eiω − 1/2 n=−∞ 18. But G(eiω ) = F (eiω ) (combine table 15. apply the convolution theorem and then a partial fraction expansion. Hence.78 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 18 F (z) = z 1 = z2 + 1 z « „ 1 1 1 − 2 + 4 + ··· .31) gives Z π ˛ Z π ∞ ˛2 X 1 1 1 ˛ ˛ | f [n] |2 = F (eiω ) ˛ dω = cos2 ω dω = . l=−∞ l=0 From this we obtain that h[n] = 0 for n < 0 while for m ≥ 0 we have: h[2m + 1] = f [0]f [2m + 1] + f [1]f [2m] + · · · + f [2m + 1]f [0] = 0. entry 2) imply that the spectrum of ρ[n] is given by G(eiω )F (eiω ). for n ≥ 0. h[n] ↔ zF (z)/(z − 1/2).17 Using (18. The convolution theorem and property (18. Applying the shift rule to 2−n [n] ↔ z/(z − 1/2) for | z | > 1/2 gives 2−(n+2) [n + 2] ↔ z 3 /(z − 1/2) for | z | > 1/2.25) (or table 15. z z From the series we obtain that f [n] = 0 for n < 0 and f [2n + 1] = (−1)n . We 18. Hence.15 Apply the deﬁnition of the convolution product and use that [n − l] = 0 for l > n and [n − l] = 1 for l ≤ n. a The signal f [n] is causal. The region of convergence is the exterior of a circle. h[2m] = f [0]f [2m] + f [1]f [2m − 1] + · · · + f [2m]f [0] = 0 + (−1)0 (−1)m−1 + 0 + · · · + (−1)m−1 (−1)0 + 0 = m(−1)m−1 . entries ˛ ˛2 2 and 5) and hence ρ[n] ↔ F (eiω )F (eiω ) = ˛ F (eiω ) ˛ .22 . which is the l=−∞ 2 −n −n convolution product of f [n] with 2 [n]. Use that f [n] ↔ F (z) and δ[n] ↔ 1 and apply the convolution theorem (assuming that the intersection of the regions of convergence is non-empty) then (f ∗ δ)[n] ↔ F (z) · 1 = F (z). ! ∞ n X X h[n] = (f ∗ f )[n] = f [l]f [n − l] = f [l]f [n − l] [n].14 18. Now 2 [n] ↔ z/(z − 1/2) for | z | > 1/2 and f [n] ↔ F (z). h[n] = π −π 2eiω − 1 18. g[n] = 0 for n < −2 while l=−∞ 2 Pn −l −n−3 g[n] = l=−2 2 = 8(1 − 2 ) for n ≥ −2 (it is a geometric series). F (z) = 4z 3 /(z − 1/2) for | z | > 1/2. b One could write g[n] = (f ∗ )[n]. P l−n Deﬁne a discrete-time signal h[n] by h[n] = n f [l].

entry 5) gives 2n f [n] ↔ F (z/2) for | z | < 4. 1 2iω + e−2iω ) 4 + cos 2ω e + 8e2iω + 1 4 + 2 (e Taking z = eiω we ﬁnd that G(z) = 2z 2 /(z 4 + 8z 2 + 1). so we need to determine G(z).23 a The signal f [n] is absolutely summable. Hence. c If F (eiω ) = F (e−iω ). The inverse transform of this gives f [n] = δ[n + 1] − (−2)n+1 [−n − 1]. The region of convergence is the exterior of the circle | z | = 1/2. Since g[l] = 0 for l < 0 and g[n − l] = 0 for l > n we can write f [n] = ∞ X l=−∞ 18. Thus f [n] l=0 is also causal. b The Fourier transform of f [n] equals F (eiω ) = e2iω /(eiω + 2). (One can also write (i(i/2)n − i(−i/2)n ) = in+1 2−n (1 − (−1)n ). The spectrum of 2n f [n] is thus equal to F (eiω /2) = e2iω /(2eiω + 8). which contains the unit circle | z | = 1. The scaling property (table 14. z z z − i/2 z + i/2 Applying (18.Answers to selected exercises for chapter 18 79 thus obtain that g[n] = (8 − 2−n ) [n + 2]. the signal is indeed real. which gives F (z) = G(z)2 . . The z-transform has one pole at z = −2 and therefore the region of convergence is | z | < 2. The spectrum of f [n] equals F (eiω ) = 1/(eiω (4e2iω + 1)). Since F (eiφ ) = 1/(e−iφ (4e−2iφ + 1)) = F (e−iφ ). we write G(eiω ) = 1/(4 + cos 2ω) as a function of eiω : 1 1 2e2iω = = 4iω .14) to F (z) gives f [n] = δ[n − 1] + (i(i/2)n − i(−i/2)n ) [n]. To do so. c The z-transform of f [n] converges for | z | > 1/2. The poles of F (z) are at ±i/2 and at 0.25 g[l]g[n − l] = (g ∗ g)[n]. showing clearly that it is real. This implies that F (z) = G(z)2 .) P For n < 0 we have that n g[l]g[n − l] = 0 since g[n] is causal. then the signal is real.24 18. since it must contain | z | = 1. the Fourier transform of f [n] equals F (eiω ) = 4e3iω /(eiω − 1/2). Since F (z)/z = 1 − 2/(z + 2) we have F (z) = z − 2z/(z + 2) for | z | < 2. a The signal f [n] is causal. 18. b First apply a partial fraction expansion to F (z)/z (the denominator equals z 2 (2z + i)(2z − i)): F (z) 1 i i = 2 + − . c We have f [n] ↔ F (z) for | z | < 2. This contains the unit circle and so the signal is absolutely summable. which equals 0 for n = 2k and 21−n (−1)k+1 for n = 2k + 1.

Answers to selected exercises for chapter 19

19.2

a

**Substituting δ[n] for u[n] we ﬁnd that
**

n−1 X l=−∞

h[n] =

2l−n δ[l] = 2−n [n − 1].

**Use the deﬁnition of δ[n] and [n] to verify (19.3): y[n] =
**

n−1 X l=−∞

2l−n u[l] =

∞ X l=−∞

2l−n [n − 1 − l]u[l] =

∞ X l=−∞

h[n − l]u[l].

**b As in part a we obtain that h[n] = (δ[n + 1] + δ[n − 1])/2 and
**

∞ 1 X u[l] (δ[n − l + 1] + δ[n − l − 1]) 2 l=−∞ l=−∞ 1 = (u[n + 1] + u[n − 1]) = y[n]. 2 P c We now have h[n] = ∞ 2l−n δ[l] = 2−n [−n] and l=n ∞ X

h[n − l]u[l] =

∞ X l=−∞

h[n − l]u[l] =

∞ X l=−∞

u[l]2l−n [l − n] =

∞ X l=n

u[l]2l−n = y[n].

19.3

a An LTD-system is causal if and only if the impulse response is a causal signal. So this system is causal. The system is stable if and only if P∞ the impulse response is absolutely summable. Since n=−∞ | h[n] | = P∞ −n 2 = 1 < ∞, this system is stable. n=1 b This system is not causal, but it is stable since

∞ X n=−∞

| h[n] | =

∞ X n=−∞

(δ[n + 1] + δ[n − 1])/2 = 1 < ∞. P∞ | h[n] | =

c This system is not causal, and it is not stable since P∞ n n=0 2 = ∞. 19.4

n=−∞

a The step response is the P response to [n] and can be calculated using ∞ (19.3): a[n] = (h ∗ )[n] = l=−∞ (δ[l] − 2δ[l − 1] + δ[l − 2]) [n − l] = [n] − 2 [n − 1] + [n − 2]. b The response to an arbitrary input also follows from (19.3): y[n] = (h ∗ u)[n] = u[n] − 2u[n − 1] + u[n − 2]. Since δ[n] = [n] − [n − 1], it follows from linearity and time-invariance that h[n] = a[n] − a[n − 1]. Now use (19.3) to calculate the response y[n] to u[n] = 4−n [n]: y[n] = (h ∗ u)[n] = =

∞ X l=−∞ ∞ X l=−∞

19.5

a[l]u[n − l] −

∞ X l=−∞

∞ X l=−∞

a[l − 1]u[n − l]

a[l]u[n − l] −

a[l]u[n − 1 − l].

80

Answers to selected exercises for chapter 19

81

**We now calculate the ﬁrst sum; the second one then follows by replacing n by n − 1.
**

∞ X l=−∞

a[l]u[n − l] = = =

∞ ” X “ −l 2 [l] − 3−l [l − 1] u[n − l] l=−∞ ∞ X −l l−n ∞ X l=1 −n n X (4/3)l [n − 1] l=1

2 4

l=0

4

−n

n X l=0

[n − l] − ! [n] − 4

3−l 4l−n [n − l]

2

l

= 4−n (2n+1 − 1) [n] − 3 · 4−n ((4/3)n+1 − (4/3)) [n − 1] = (21−n − 4−n ) [n] − 4(3−n − 4−n ) [n − 1]. Hence, replacing n by n − 1 and then taking terms together in the sum, y[n] = (21−n −4−n ) [n]−4(3−n +2−n −2·4−n ) [n−1]−4(31−n −41−n ) [n−2]. 19.8 The transfer function follows from an [n] ↔ z/(z − a) for | z | > | a |; this is because we can write cos nφ = (einφ + e−inφ )/2, and hence „ « z z 1 + h[n] ↔ 2 z − eiφ /2 z − e−iφ /2 ˛ iφ ˛ for | z | > ˛ e /2 ˛ = 1/2. We thus obtain: H(z) = z(z − cos φ/2) z 2 − cos φz + 1/4

for | z | > 1/2. The poles are at eiφ /2 and e−iφ /2, which is inside the unit circle. Therefore the system is stable. 19.9 a The impulse response h[n] can be determined by a partial fraction expansion of H(z)/z. Since „ « 1/3 H(z) 1 1 = − z 9 z + 1/3 (z + 1/3)2 we have H(z) = 1 9 „ z/3 z − z + 1/3 (z + 1/3)2 « .

The system is stable, so the region of convergence must contain | z | = 1. This region is thus given by | z | > 1/3. Using table 13 we ﬁnd that h[n] = ((−1/3)n + n(−1/3)n ) [n]/9. b Write u[n] = (einπ/2 − e−inπ/2 )/2i and use (19.10): e±inπ/2 has response H(e±iπ/2 )e±inπ/2 , so the response to u[n] is (H(eiπ/2 )einπ/2 − H(e−iπ/2 )e−inπ/2 )/2i, which is of the form (w − w)/2i = Im (w). Hence the response is „ « „ « −1 8 + 6i Im einπ/2 = Im (cos(nπ/2) + i sin(nπ/2)) , −9 + 6i + 1 100 which is (3 cos(nπ/2) + 4 sin(nπ/2))/50. 19.11 a The frequency response can be written as H(eiω ) = 1 + e2iω + e−2iω . P −inω Since H(eiω ) = ∞ it follows that h[0] = 1, h[2] = h[−2] = 1 n=−∞ h[n]e and h[n] = 0 for all other n. Hence, the impulse response is h[n] = δ[n] + δ[n − 2] + δ[n + 2]. The input is u[n] = δ[n − 2]. Since δ[n] → h[n], we have

82

Answers to selected exercises for chapter 19

u[n] → h[n − 2], so the response to u[n] is y[n] = δ[n − 2] + δ[n − 4] + δ[n]. b The impulse response is not causal, so the system is not causal. 19.13 From (19.15) and the fact that H(eiω ) is even we obtain that Z π Z 1 1 ωb h[n] = cos(nω) dω H(eiω ) cos(nω) dω = 2π −π π ωa 1 = (sin nωb − sin nωa ), nπ

1 which can be written as 2(sin 2 n(ωb − ωa ) cos 1 n(ωb + ωa ))/(nπ) for n = 0 2 and Z 1 ωb ωb − ωa h[0] = dω = . π ωa π

19.14

The spectrum Y (eiω ) of y[n] is a periodic function with period 2π. Apply Parseval for periodic functions and substitute Y (eiω ) = H(eiω )U (eiω ) to get the desired result. a Apply the z-transform to the diﬀerence equation, using the shift rule 1 in the n-domain. We then obtain that (1 + 2 z −1 )Y (z) = U (z). Since H(z) = Y (z)/U (z) it follows that H(z) = z 1 = . 1 + z −1 /2 z + 1/2

19.15

From table 13 we get the impulse response h[n] = (−1/2)n [n]. b We could use z-transforms here: from Y (z) = H(z)U (z) we get Y (z) = z 2 /((z + 1/2)(z − 1/2)) (use table 13) and applying a partial fraction expansion to Y (z)/z then leads to y[n] (again use table 13). However, in this case it is easier to follow the direct way: (h ∗ u)[n] =

∞ X l=−∞

(−1/2)l [l](1/2)n−l [n − l].

P Now if n < 0 then this is 0, while if n ≥ 0 then it equals (1/2)n n (−1)l = l=0 n+1 n (1/2) (1 + (−1) ). c The transfer function H(z) has one pole at z = −1/2, which is inside the unit circle, so the system is stable. 19.17 a From the diﬀerence equation we obtain that (1 − z −2 /4)Y (z) = (1 + z −1 )U (z) and hence H(z) = z(z + 1) 1 + z −1 = 2 . 1 − z −2 /4 z − 1/4

A partial fraction expansion of H(z)/z gives −1/2 3/2 H(z) = + . z z + 1/2 z − 1/2 Hence, H(z) = (−z/2)/(z + 1/2) + (3z/2)/(z − 1/2). Using table 13 we ﬁnd that h[n] = ((−1/2)n+1 + 3(1/2)n+1 ) [n]. b The (rational) transfer function H(z) has poles at z = ±1/2, which lie inside the unit circle, so the system is stable. c The z-transform of [n] is z/(z − 1) and therefore the z-transform A(z) of the step response a[n] is given by A(z) = H(z)U (z) = z 2 (z + 1)/((z − 1)(z + 1/2)(z − 1/2)). A partial fraction expansion of A(z)/z gives

Answers to selected exercises for chapter 19

83

A(z) 8/3 3/2 1/6 = − − . z z−1 z − 1/2 z + 1/2 Multiply this by z and use table 13 to obtain a[n] = ((8/3) − 3(1/2)n+1 − (1/3)(−1/2)n+1 ) [n]. d Since u[n] = [n] + [n − 2] and [n] → a[n] we get u[n] → a[n] + a[n − 2]. 19.18 a To ﬁnd the impulse response we ﬁrst apply a partial fraction expansion to H(z)/z, which gives H(z) 1/4 1 1 = − − . z z z + 1/2 (z + 1/2)2 Multiply this by z and use table 13 to obtain that h[n] = δ[n] − ((−1/2)n − (1/2)n(−1/2)n ) [n]. b According to (19.9) we have that z n → H(z)z n . Substituting z = −1 we get the response to the input (−1)n . Since H(−1) = 0, the response is the null-signal. c The (rational) transfer function H(z) has one pole at z = −1/2, which is inside the unit circle, so the system is stable. d The impulse response is real, so the system is real. e Let u[n] →P y[n], then Y (eiω ) = H(eiω )U (eiω ). Furthermore we have −inω that U (eiω ) = ∞ . Comparing this with U (eiω ) = cos 2ω = n=−∞ u[n]e 2iω −2iω (e +e )/2 we may conclude that u[2] = u[−2] = 1/2 and u[n] = 0 for n = ±2, hence, u[n] = (δ[n − 2] + δ[n + 2])/2. By superposition it then follows from δ[n] → h[n] that y[n] = (h[n − 2] + h[n + 2])/2. 19.19 a The response to u[n + N ] is y[n + N ] (time-invariance), but also u[n] = u[n + N ] for n ∈ Z, so y[n] = y[n + N ] for n ∈ Z. b In (16.7) (with f replaced by u) the input u[n] is written as superposition of the signals e2πink/N . Since z n → H(z)z n , we have e2πink/N → H(e2πik/N )e2πink/N . Hence we obtain from (16.7) that y[n] =

N −1 1 X U [k]H(e2πik/N )e2πink/N . N k=0

**On the other hand we have from the inverse DFT for y[n] that y[n] =
**

N −1 1 X Y [k]e2πink/N , N k=0

where Y [k] is the N -point DFT of y[n]. Hence, Y [k] = U [k]H(e2πik/N ). 19.20 a Since H(eiω ) = cos 2ω = (e2iω + e−2iω )/2 we see from deﬁnition (19.11) of the frequency response that h[2] = h[−2] = 1/2 and h[n] = 0 for n = ±2. Hence, h[n] = (δ[n + 2] + δ[n − 2])/2. b Using the inverse DFT we can recover u[n] from the DFT F [k] of u[n]: u[n] =

3 1X F [k]e2πink/4 , 4 k=0

where F [k] is the 4-point DFT of u[n]. We have F [0] = 1, F [1] = −1, F [2] = 0, F [3] = 1 and since e2πink/4 → H(e2πik/4 )e2πink/4 , it follow by superposition that y[n] = (1 + 2i sin(nπ/2))/4. 19.21 a Since δ[n] = [n] − [n − 1] we have for the responses that h[n] = a[n] − a[n − 1] and hence h[n] = n2 (1/2)n [n] − (n − 1)2 (1/2)n−1 [n −

so H(eiω ) = 6(e2iω − 1)/(6e2iω − 5eiω + 1). −1 + z −2 6 − 5z 6z − 5z + 1 A partial fraction expansion of H(z)/z (note that the denominator equals z(2z − 1)(3z − 1)) gives H(z) 6 16 9 =− + − . n (1/2)n [n] ↔ [n] 2 n 3 2 (z/4)/(z − 1/2) and since n = 2 2 + n it then follows that A(z) = z/2 z/2 1 z(z + 1/2) + = . These frequencies correspond to . The frequencies ω = 0 or ω = π may still occur in the input. so the system is causal. (z − 1/2)3 (z − 1/2)2 2 (z − 1/2)3 This means that the transfer function H(z) equals H(z) = 1 (z − 1)(z + 1/2) . which lie inside the unit circle. For the z-transforms we have (use the shift rule in the n-domain) H(z) = A(z) − A(z)/z = A(z)(z − 1)/z. n(1/2)n ` ´ ↔ (z/2)/(z −1/2)2 .22 1 (eiω − 1)(eiω + 1/2) inω e . 2 (eiω − 1/2)3 a From the diﬀerence equation we obtain that (1 − z −1 /2)Y (z) = (z −1 + z −2 )U (z) and hence H(z) = z+1 z −1 + z −2 = 2 . b The frequency response H(eiω ) is obtained from the transfer function H(z) by substituting z = eiω . 2 (z − 1/2)3 b The impulse response is causal. we know that Y (eiω ) = 0 for all frequencies ω.84 Answers to selected exercises for chapter 19 1]. Since y[n] is identically 0. Since H(eiω ) = 0 for e2iω = 1 we have U (eiω ) = 0 for e2iω = 1. c From einω → H(eiω )einω it follows that y[n] = 19. so the system is stable. (z − 1/2)(z − 1) A partial fraction expansion of A(z)/z gives A(z) 2 4 6 = + − . z z z − 1/3 z − 1/2 Multiply this by z and use table 13 to obtain that h[n] = −6δ[n] + (16(1/3)n − 9(1/2)n ) [n]. c From (19.10) we know that Y (eiω ) = H(eiω )U (eiω ).23 a From the diﬀerence equation we obtain that (6 − 5z −1 + z −2 )Y (z) = (6 − 6z −2 )U (z) and hence H(z) = 6(z 2 − 1) 6 − 6z −2 = 2 . b The (rational) transfer function H(z) has poles at z = 0 and z = 1/2. 19. From table 13 it follows that ` ´ (1/2)n [n] ↔ z/(z −1/2). z z z−1 z − 1/2 Multiply this by z and use table 13 to obtain that a[n] = 2δ[n] + (4 − 6(1/2)n ) [n]. 1 − z −1 /2 z − z/2 Since [n] ↔ z/(z − 1) = U (z) we have a[n] ↔ A(z) = H(z)U (z) = z+1 .

We have to P 2 calculate E = ∞ n=−∞ | y[n] | . b If we write U (eiω ) = 1+sin ω+sin 2ω as complex exponentials. 1 − 3i/4. 20/16. hence. where A and B are complex constants. E = 7 8 . 1. . From the expression for u[n] it follows (by linearity and time-invariance) that y[n] = h[n] + i(h[n − 1] + h[n − 2] − h[n + 1] − h[n + 2])/2. u[−1] = u[−2] = −i/2 and so u[n] = δ[n] + i(δ[n − 1] + δ[n − 2] − δ[n + 1] − δ[n + 2])/2. δ[n + 4]. −3i/4. 1 + 3i/4. they are −i/4. Hence. δ[n + 3]. the input consists of a linear combination of 1 and (−1)n . 1/16. Since H(eiω ) = ∞ n=−∞ h[n]e follows that h[n] = δ[n] + δ[n + 1] + δ[n − 1] + δ[n + 2]/2 + δ[n − 2]/2. 1. In this case it is easiest to do this directly (and so not using Parseval). . 3i/4. δ[n − 3]. .Answers to selected exercises for chapter 19 85 the time-harmonic signals ei0n = 1 and eiπn = (−1)n respectively. as in part a. In fact. 25/16. . Their contribution to E is 1/16. 9/16. 20/16. (1/2) + i. i/4. 25/16. 9/16.24 a The frequency response can be written as H(eiω ) =P cos ω+cos 2ω = 1+2 −inω it 1 + eiω + e−iω + e2iω /2 + e−2iω /2. . The coeﬃcients in this combination are not hard to determine. which means that the solution equals u[n] = A + B(−1)n . The sum of these 7 contributions is 126/16. 19. (1/2) − i. Substituting h[n] from part a we get y[n] as a linear combination of δ[n − 4]. u[1] = u[2] = i/2. then it follows that u[0] = 1.