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39519075 Transformer Protection

39519075 Transformer Protection

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Published by Sanjoli Jain

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Published by: Sanjoli Jain on Jan 30, 2012
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they have to be cleared quickly ` If not they develop into major faults which may be very serious for the transformer For protection ` Small rating transformers use fuses ` But large rating transformers always need some type of automatic protective relaying equipment ` .Transformers are static devices without any rotating part and are totally enclosed. ` Chances of faults occurring on transformers are much rare as compared to generators ` If fault occurs.

Overheating ` 2.The various possible transformer faults are. Over fluxing . ` 1. Open circuits ` 4. Winding faults ` 3. External faults ` 5.

sounding the alarm are used ` The thermocouples or resistance temperature indicators are also provided near the winding. ` When the bridge balance gets disturbed for more than the permissible duration circuit breaker trips.They are due to ` Sustained overloads and short circuits ` Failure of cooling system Protection ` The thermal overload relays and temperature relays. . ` These are connected in a bridge circuits.

The overheating or mechanical shocks deteriorates the winding insulation. neutral current relays or leakage to frame protection system is used. If the winding insulation-is weak. the restricted earth fault protection system. there is a possibility of ` Phase to phase faults ` Earth faults ` Inter turn faults Persistent fault would have a possibility of oil-fire.The winding faults are called internal faults. . PROTECTION ` Differential protection ` Overcurrent protection is also used as a backup protection ` For earth fault protection.

Open circuits are much harmless compared to other faults. Transformers can be manually disconnected from the system during such faults. .` ` ` The open circuit in one of the three phases is causes the undesirable heating of the transformer.

` . ` If faults persists the transformer gets subjected to thermal and mechanical stresses which can damage the transformer. ` These are not detected by the differential protection.Through faults are the external faults which occur outside the protected zone. zero sequence protection and negative sequence protection are used to give protection ` The setting of the overcurrent protection not only protects transformer but also covers the station busbar and portion of a transmission line. PROTECTION ` The overcurrent relays with undervoltage blocking.

` . V/f ` Transformers are designed to work with certain value of flux density in the core. PROTECTION ` V/f relay called volts/hertz relay is provided to give the protection against overfluxing operation. if full excitation is applied before generator reaches its synchronous speed then due to high V/f the overfluxing of core may occur.The flux density in the transformer core is proportional to the ratio of the voltage to frequency i. In the generator transformer unit.e.

Other faults ` ` ` ` Tap changer faults High voltage surges due to lightning Switching surges Incipient faults .

` ` ` Also called as percentage differential protection It is based on circulating current principle It protects against phase to phase and phase to ground faults .

secondaries on primary side must be connected in delta while the C. secondaries .` ` ` The primary of the power transformer is star connected while the secondary is delta connected.T. secondaries on delta side must be connected in star The restraining coils are connected across the C. secondary windings while the operating coils are connected between the tapping points on the restraining coils and the star point of C.T. To compensate for the phase difference.T. the C.T.

` ` ` ` ` It compares the currents at entering and leaving end The vector difference(I1 ±I2)/2 passes through the operating coil The average current (I1+I2)/2passes through the restraining coil The two currents at the two ends are equal so balance is maintained No current flows through the operating coil and the relay is inoperative .

With an internal fault in power transformer windings. the balance in the C.T.s get disturbed.T. This causes the relay operation which trips the main circuit breakers on both the sides of the power transformer .` ` ` ` During normal operating conditions the C. secondaries carry equal currents which are inphase. The operating coils of differential relay carry currents proportional to the difference of current between the two sides of a power transformer.

T senses due to which current passes through the sensitivity earth fault relay This operates the relay .` ` ` ` ` This method is to provide earth fault protection The frame of the switch gear is grounded When there is a fault the fault leaks from the frame and passes through the earth connection provided The primary of the C.

` ` ` It is a gas operated relay used for the protection of oil immersed transformers When faults occur decomposition of oil occurs Gas accumulates at the top hence decreasing the oil level .

` ` ` ` Oil reduction makes the hollow floats to tilt And close the contacts of the mercury switch attached to it Hence completing the alarm circuit to sound an alarm The transformer could hence be disconnected to test the gas sample .

.1sec and average time of 0.2 sec.Advantages ` ` Buchholz relay gives the fault indication at a very early stage It is the simplest transformer protection Limitations ` ` ` Only used for oil immersed transformers Only faults below oil level are detected The relay is slow having minimum operating time of 0.

` ` ` ` ` ` Local overheating Bad and loose electrical contacts Winding earth faults Short circuited laminations Winding short circuited Loss of oil and reduction of oil level .

` ` ` Even though faults in the transformers are very rare different types of possible faults were seen Different protection relays and devices were shown Advantages and limitations were seen .

howstuffworks.H.´a new concept on protection based on distance relaying schemes´ .Mcpherson ³field experiencetransformer protection´.com .Gubina .2004´use of local information for protection". AIEE Trans.` ` ` ` H. www.H.Branes and R.Haque.Verbic and F. international power engineering conference G.C.72 part 3 M.IEEE transaction on power delivery19.

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